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Sample records for b1 b2 b6

  1. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum amount with a linear increase in B1 (thiamine HCl), B2 (riboflavin), and B3 (nicotinamide) contents was noticed up to 9 days old ex vitro grown seedlings. However, B5 (pantothenic acid) and B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions ...

  2. Third EU MAT intercomparison on methods for the determination of vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6 in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Schaik, F. van; Finglas, P.M.; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    1996-01-01

    An intercomparison study on the determination of vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 was performed as part of the EU MAT project involving 16 laboratories. Each laboratory was requested to analyse three different food samples (lyophilized pig's liver, mixed vegetables and wholemeal flour, respectively) using

  3. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, U.; Wulff, K.; Schmidt, W.

    1983-01-01

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B 2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B 6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  4. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Presoto,Ana Elisa F; Rios,Magda D. G; Almeida-Muradian,Ligia B. de

    2004-01-01

    Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 ...

  5. Influence of nanosized amorphous silica on assimilation of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Shumakova, A A; Shipelin, V A; Kodentsova, V M; Khotimchenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used as a food additive E551 in many enriched foods and food supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of SiO2 NPs on assimilation and metabolism of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in laboratory rats. Amorphous SiO2 «Orisil-300 ®» was used with the size of the primary NPs 20-60 nm according to the electronic, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experiment was conducted on 8 groups of growing male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 70-80g) number, respectively, 7, 7, 10, 10, 12, 12, 14 and 16 animals. Animals of the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups received through­out the experiment balanced semi-synthetic diet. Animals of the 2nd group received a diet depleted of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 until day 21; animals of the 6th, 7th and 8th groups -the same diet from the 1st to the 21th day, and then, before the closure of the experiment, the diet provided with the indicated B vitamins at 100% of normal level. From day 22 of experiment and until the end at day 29 the animals of the 3rd and 6th groups received deionized water (placebo) through intragastric gavage; rat of the 4th and 7th groups -aqueous suspension of SiO2 dose of 1 mg/kg body weight /day, and the 5th and 8th group -100 mg/kg/day. Urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin, 4-pyridoxilic acid and liver and brain content of vitamins B1 and B2 (after acid and enzyme hydrolysis) were deter­mined by fluorimetric methods. It was found that rats in group 2 lagged in weight gain at day 21 significantly compared to group 1, and developed a marked deficiency of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 according to studied safety parameters. In groups from 6 to 8 at day 29 par­tial recovery was achieved in vitamin status. Administration of SiO2 to animal of groups 4 and 5, with normal consumption of B vitamins, had no significant effect on any param­eters of vitamin status in comparison to group 3. However

  6. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  7. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    In this study different simulated meal-service systems were compared with respect to vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 retention, and cooking yield in pork roasts. Initially the roasts were cooked traditionally or sous vide. No significant differences were observed between cooking methods. Further...... processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  8. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  9. [Effect of vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid and vitamin C on the motor activity of chicken's intestines in chronic experiments and in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagórna-Stasiak, B; Wawrzeńska, M

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 33 chickens of the broiler breed in chronic experiments and in vitro. In the chronic experiments the motility of the jejunum under the influence of vitamins of group B and vitamine C was recorded in 8 chickens. The vitamins were used at concentrations from 10 mg/l to 2.5 x 10(3) mg/l. In the experiments in vitro, the motility of the isolated segment of the jejunum was recorded by the method of Magnus. In this part of experiments the chickens were divided into 3 groups, of which group I (15 chickens) were fed with DKA finischer mixture, group II (5 hens) received, besides the mixture, per os 200 mg of vitamin C for 2 weeks, group III (5 hens) received the mixture and for 2 weeks intraperitoneally 200 mg of vitamin C. The effect of vitamins of group B in vitro was determined in chickens of group I, whereas that of vitamin C in chickens of group I, II and III. At the same time the level of vitamin C in the wall of the jejunum was determined by the method of Roe-Kuenther. It was shown that vitamin B2 and folic acid caused stimulation of intestine motility in the chickens, while vitamin B1, B6 and C decreased the motoric activity. Increased level of vitamin C in the intestinal wall resulted in increased intestine sensitivity. Chicken intestines sensitivity to vitamins was 10 times stronger to vitamins than that of the intestines of rabbits.

  10. Literatuuroverzicht analysemethodes voor vitamine B1 en B2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrink, T.; Hollman, P.

    1982-01-01

    Inventarisatie analysemethodes vitamine B1 en B2. De extraktie van vitamine B1 en B2 dient voor een aantal levensmiddelen nader onderzocht te worden. Het is zinvol een automatische methode voor vitamine B1 en B2 op te starten. HPLC methodes zijn voor de levensmiddelenanalyse nog in een beginstadium.

  11. Properties of L=1 B1 and B2* Mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, P.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Berntzon, L.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chan, K.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clément, C.; Clément, B.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de Jong, P.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Martins, C. De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, J.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hansson, P.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Käfer, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Kasper, P.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kothari, B.; Kozelov, A. V.; Krop, D.; Kryemadhi, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lazoflores, J.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lellouch, J.; Lesne, V.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, L.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, A.; Michaut, M.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.

    2007-10-01

    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B1 and B2* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B+(*)π-. The mass of B1 is measured to be 5720.6±2.4±1.4MeV/c2 and the mass difference ΔM between B2* and B1 is 26.2±3.1±0.9MeV/c2, giving the mass of the B2* as 5746.8±2.4±1.7MeV/c2. The production rate for B1 and B2* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9±1.9±3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson.

  12. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantificação das vitaminas do complexo B (B1, B2) e vitâmeros das vitaminas B3 e B6 em amostras de pólen apícola desidratado provenientes da Região Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Rodrigues de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Entende-se por pólen apícola o resultado da aglutinação do pólen das flores, efetuado pelas abelhas operárias, mediante néctar e substâncias salivares, o qual é recolhido no ingresso da colmeia. A literatura descreve que esse alimento contém proteínas, carboidratos, lipídeos, vitaminas e minerais. De acordo com estudo prévio, amostras de pólen apícola in natura e desidratado, da cidade de Pariquera-Açu (São Paulo), apresentaram teores significativos de vitamina B1(tiamina) e B2 (riboflavina),...

  14. Vitamin B1 and B6 in the malaria parasite: requisite or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrenger

    Full Text Available Vitamins are essential compounds mainly involved in acting as enzyme co-factors or in response to oxidative stress. In the last two years it became apparent that apicomplexan parasites are able to generate B vitamers such as vitamin B1 and B6 de novo. The biosynthesis pathways responsible for vitamin generation are considered as drug targets, since both provide a high degree of selectivity due to their absence in the human host. This report updates the current knowledge about vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites. Owing to the urgent need for novel antimalarials, the significance of the biosynthesis and salvage of these vitamins is critically discussed in terms of parasite survival and their exploitation for drug development.

  15. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  16. Vitamin B1 and B6 method harmonization: comparison of performance between laboratories enrolled in the RCPA Quality Assurance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Kirsten E; Johnson, Lambro A; Woollard, Gerald A; Walmsley, Trevor A; Briscoe, Scott; Jolly, Lisa M; Gill, Janice P; Greaves, Ronda F

    2013-06-01

    The RCPA Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) offers monthly proficiency testing for vitamins A, B1, B6, β-carotene, C and E to laboratories worldwide. A review of the results submitted for the whole blood vitamin B1/B6 sub-program revealed a wide dispersion. Here we describe the results of a methodology survey for vitamins B1 and B6. A questionnaire was sent to thirteen laboratories. Eleven laboratories were returning QAP results for vitamin B1 (thiamine diphosphate) and five were returning results for vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate). All nine respondents provided a clinical service for vitamins B1 and B6. HPLC with fluorescence detection was the most common method principle. For vitamin B1, six respondents used a commercial assay whilst three used in-house methods; whole blood was the matrix for all. For vitamin B6, five respondents used commercial assays and four used in-house assays. The choice of matrix for vitamin B6 varied with three respondents using whole blood and five using plasma for analysis. Sample preparation incorporated protein precipitation and derivatization steps. An internal standard was employed in sample preparation by only one survey respondent. The immediate result of this survey was the incorporation of plasma vitamin B6 into the RCPA QAP vitamin program. The absence of an internal standard in current vitamin B1 and B6 assays is a likely contributor to the wide dispersion of results seen in this program. We recommend kit manufacturers and laboratories investigate the inclusion of internal standards to correct the variability that may occur during processing. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Literatuuronderzoek naar HPLC-methoden voor de bepaling van vitamine B1 en B2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses van vitamine B1 en B2 worden door de afdeling Additieven/Micronutrienten veelvuldig uitgevoerd in zeer diverse produkten. Dit stelt hoge eisen aan de selektiviteit van de gebruikte methoden. Onlangs werd dan ook HPLC geïntroduceerd voor de analyse van vitamine B1 en B2. Op basis van een

  18. Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone JPM; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Øivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB; Skeie, Guri; Muñoz, Xavier; Martínez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and CRC are scarce or inconclusive. Methods Nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including 1365 incident CRC cases and 2319 controls matched for study center, age, and sex. We measured the sum of B2 species riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, and the sum of B6 species pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid as indicators for vitamin B2 and B6 status, as well as vitamin B12 in plasma samples collected at baseline. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks (RRs) for CRC were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, and intakes of fiber, red- and processed meat. Results RRs comparing highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56–0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53–0.87, vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80–1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed ≥ 30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC. Conclusions Higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk. Impact This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with CRC, and is in agreement to previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with CRC. PMID:20813848

  19. Vascular Kinin B1 and B2 Receptors Determine Endothelial Dysfunction through Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dos Santos A. Capettini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available B1- and B2-kinin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that play an important role in the vascular function. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the participation of kinin receptors in the acetylcholine (ACh-induced vascular relaxation, focusing on the protein-protein interaction involving kinin receptors with endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and nNOS. Vascular reactivity, nitric oxide (NO· and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, co-immunoprecipitation were assessed in thoracic aorta from male wild-type (WT, B1- (B1R−/−, B2- (B2R−/− knockout mice. Some vascular reactivity experiments were also performed in a double kinin receptors knockout mice (B1B2R−/−. For pharmacological studies, selective B1- and B2-kinin receptors antagonists, NOS inhibitors and superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic were used. First, we show that B1- and B2-kinin receptors form heteromers with nNOS and eNOS in thoracic aorta. To investigate the functionality of these protein-protein interactions, we took advantage of pharmacological tools and knockout mice. Importantly, our results show that kinin receptors regulate ACh-induced relaxation via nNOS signaling in thoracic aorta with no changes in NO· donor-induced relaxation. Interestingly, B1B2R−/− presented similar level of vascular dysfunction as found in B1R−/− or B2R−/− mice. In accordance, aortic rings from B1R−/− or B2R−/− mice exhibit decreased NO· bioavailability and increased superoxide generation compared to WT mice, suggesting the involvement of excessive ROS generation in the endothelial dysfunction of B1R−/− and B2R−/− mice. Alongside, we show that impaired endothelial vasorelaxation induced by ACh in B1R−/− or B2R−/− mice was rescued by the SOD mimetic compound. Taken together, our findings show that B1- and B2-kinin receptors regulate the endothelium-dependent vasodilation of ACh through nNOS activity and indicate

  20. Literatuuronderzoek naar HPLC-methoden voor de bepaling van vitamine B1 en B2

    OpenAIRE

    Hollman, P.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses van vitamine B1 en B2 worden door de afdeling Additieven/Micronutrienten veelvuldig uitgevoerd in zeer diverse produkten. Dit stelt hoge eisen aan de selektiviteit van de gebruikte methoden. Onlangs werd dan ook HPLC geïntroduceerd voor de analyse van vitamine B1 en B2. Op basis van een literatuuronderzoek werd toen gekozen voor een simultane bepaling van vitamine B1 en B2. Inmiddels is echter gebleken dat de enzymen die gebruikt worden voor de hydrolyse van de fosfaatesters niet mee...

  1. Determining the frequencies of B1, B2, B3 and E alleles of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The allelic frequencies of the B1, B2, B3 and E alleles were 0.927, 0.073, 0.390, and 0.272, respectively. B1 and B2 alleles did not affect milk yield and composition. B3 allele had significant effects on protein, fat, total solid (TS), solid not fat (SNF), casein and lactose percentages, but not on lactose yield. E allele significantly ...

  2. B1 but not B2 bradykinin receptor agonists promote DU145 prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stimulation of G protein-coupled bradykinin receptors (BR), B1R and. B2R, mediate the effects of bradykinin (BK), which include promotion of cell growth, proliferation and. Corresponding author: Naidoo S. Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences,. School of Health Sciences, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine campus,.

  3. Assessment of aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 status of home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins belong to a group of naturally occurring toxins which contaminate foodstuffs under favourable conditions. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produce aflatoxins; the four major aflatoxins which contaminate foodstuffs are B1, B2, G1 and G2. Maize, groundnuts, rice, wheat and other foodstuffs are ...

  4. B1 but not B2 bradykinin receptor agonists promote DU145 prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous pathway involved in angiogenesis and tumourigenesis, both vital for cancer growth and progression. Objectives: To investigate the effect of two bradykinin receptor (B1R and B2R) agonists on growth and motility of prostate tumour (DU145) and ...

  5. Isolation and NMR Characterization of Fumonisin B-2 and a New Fumonisin B-6 from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2010-01-01

    A new fumonisin, fumonisin B-6 (1), has been isolated by cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, together with fumonisin B-2 (2), from,stationary cultures of the fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 326. Analysis of mass spectrometric and NMR data determined that FB6 is a positional isomer...... of FBI and iso-FB1, having hydroxyl functions at C3, C4, and C5. Analysis of the NMR data for FB2 showed very similar chemical shift values when compared to an authentic Fusarium FB2 standard, strongly indicating identical molecules despite that an absolute stereochemical assignment of FB2 from A. niger...

  6. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species...... of Emericella only one species produced aflatoxin. Strains originating from the same geographical source material had different patterns of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin production on different media, indicating that epigenetic factors may be involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production. However, two...... cultures from the same original genet were very similar. Conclusions: Emericella astellata can produce small amounts of sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1 and B-2. Significance and Impact of the Study: Emericella has been used extensively in genetic studies and therefore the isolates producing aflatoxin...

  7. First-principles study of B1 to B2 phase transition in PbS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, P.; Munjal, N.; Sharma, G.; Vyas, V.; Sharma, B. K.

    2012-07-01

    The high pressure structural phase transition in PbS has been studied by means of first-principles total energy calculations which are based on linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method within local density approximation (LDA). In the present study, the exchange scheme of Becke and correlation functional of von-Barth-Hedin (VBH) are employed. It is observed that more stable phase for PbS is NaCl type (B1) and PbS transforms to the CsCl type (B2) structure under high pressure (22.8 GPa). The calculated value of transition pressure (Pt) from B1 to B2 structure is found in good agreement with the earlier experimental and theoretical investigations.

  8. Final characterization report for the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of the characterization data collected from the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Trillium Laboratory. The characterization activities were organized and implemented to evaluate the radiological status and identify any hazardous materials. The data contained in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. This information is intended to be utilized in support of future building decontamination and demolition, to allow for proper disposal of the demolition debris as required by the Washington Administrative Code, WAC 173-303, the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, WHC-EP-0063, and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria, BHI-00139. Based on the historical information and facility inspections, the only hazardous materials sampling and analysis activities necessary were to identify lead paint and asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. Asbestos samples were obtained from the outer boundary of the roof areas to confirm the presence and type of asbestos containing fibers. Lead paint samples were obtained to confirm the presence and quantity of lead paint on the roof trim, doors and vents

  9. Tingiv kõneviis eesti B1- ja B2-taseme kirjalikus õppijakeeles kui keeleoskuse arengu näitaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kirjeldan artiklis tingiva kõneviisi kasutamist eesti keele kui teise keele täiskasvanud õppijate B1- ja B2-taseme kirjalikes eksamitekstides. Artikli aluseks olnud uuring on osa suuremast uuringust, mille eesmärk on luua Euroopa Keeleõppe Raamdokumendi (CEFR 2007 B1- ja B2-keeleoskustaseme funktsionaalsete keelekirjelduste juurde lingvistilised kirjeldused. Selleks on kavas leida mõlemal tasemel tüüpiliselt kasutatavad lingvistilised kategooriad, kirjeldada nende kasutuse sagedust, analüüsida kategooriate keerukust ja täpsust (Housen jt 2012, leida nende seosed suhtlusfunktsioonidega ning tuua välja tasemeid eristavad deskriptorid. Et tingiva kõneviisi kasutussagedus on B2-tasemel võrreldes B1-tasemega palju suurem (Kitsnik 2014, on tingiv kõneviis üks B1- ja B2-taset eristav kategooria, mis vajab detailsemat uurimist. Artiklis kajastatava uuringu tulemused näitavad, et nii B1- kui ka B2-tasemel kasutatakse ainult tingiva kõneviisi isikulise tegumoe olevikuvorme. B1-tasemel esineb tingiv kõneviis koos kaheksa eri verbiga, neist sagedamini kahe verbiga, milleks on tahtma ja saama. B2-tasemel esineb tingiv kõneviis 23 eri verbiga, neist sagedamini kuue verbiga: tahtma, olema, võima, pidama, soovima, soovitama. B2-tasemel kasutatakse tingivat kõneviisi lisaks B1-tasemel esinenud ainsuse esimese ja kolmanda pöörde vormidele ka teistes morfoloogilistes vormides ning lisaks B1-tasemel esinenud konstruktsioonile “verb tingivas kõneviisis + infinitiiv” ka teistes konstruktsioonides (objektiga, öeldistäitega ja liitlause pea- ning kõrvallauses. Suhtlusfunktsioonidest kasutatakse tingivat kõneviisi nii B1- kui ka B2-tasemel peamiselt viisakuse väljendamiseks. Keeleline täpsus suureneb B2-tasemel neis konstruktsioonides, mis on kasutusel ka B1-tasemel.

  10. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... 1Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Al Muhasinah P.O. Box 19099 United Arab Emirates. 2Plant Tissue ... of ex vitro and in vitro germinated seedlings showed significant differences in vitamin contents. Maximum ... is known by various names as gram, Bengal gram, chana, chole ...

  11. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  12. Equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM due to fumonisins B1 and B2 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Giannitti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2007 an outbreak of neurological disease and sudden death in Arabian horses occurred in a farm located in Coronel Rosales County, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The animals were on a pasture of native grasses and supplemented ad libitum with corn kernels and wheat bran. Three horses were observed having acute neurologic signs including blindness, four leg ataxia, hyperexcitability, aimless walking and circling, followed by death in two of them. Four other horses were found dead overnight without a history of neurologic signs. The morbidity, mortality and lethality rates were 11.6%, 10% and 85.7%, respectively. Grossly, the brain showed focal areas of hemorrhage, brown-yellow discoloration and softening of the sub-cortical white matter. The microscopic brain lesions consisted of extensive areas of malacia within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum, characterized by rarefaction of the white matter with cavitations filled with proteinaceous edema, multifocal hemorrhages and mild infiltration by neutrophils, and rare eosinophils. Swollen glial cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, distinct cell borders, intracytoplasmic deeply eosinophilic globules and eccentric, hyperchromatic, occasionally pyknotic nucleus were present throughout the areas of rarefaction hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. The feed supplements contained 12,490µg/kg of fumonisin B1 and 5,251µg/ kg of fumonisin B2. This is the first reported outbreak of ELEM associated with consumption of feed supplements containing high concentrations of fumonisins in Argentina.

  13. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in agricultural products consumed in South Korea: an exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunkyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kuzmina, Nina; Oh, Keum-Soon; Lee, Jong-Ok; Kim, Dong-Sul; Suh, Junghyuck; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Chung, Kee-Hey; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2009-02-01

    To survey fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in agricultural products consumed in South Korea and provide an exposure assessment, ground samples were extracted (80% MeOH), filtered (0.2 microm), and cleaned up. After evaporation, dry residues were reconstituted in 50% MeOH, and a 50-micro1 aliquot of this sample was mixed with 200 micro1 of o-phthaldialdehyde for derivatization. The derivatives were analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a fluorescence detector. For validation of the detection procedure, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection limit, and quantification limit were determined. The validated detection method was then used to survey fumonisins in white rice, brown rice, barley, barley tea, beer, wheat flour, millet, dried corn, corn flour, corn tea, canned corn, popcorn, and breakfast cereal. Retention times for FB1 and FB2 standards were 7 and 18 min, respectively. Linearity (R2 = 0.99995 to 0.99998), accuracy (81.47 to 108.83%), precision (2.35 to 5.77), detection limit (25 ng/g or ng/ml), and quantification limit (37 ng/g or ng/ml) indicated that this procedure is capable of quantifying fumonisins in agricultural products. Only FB1-positive samples (5.12%, three dried corn samples and five corn flour samples) were found at 90.89 to 439.67 ng/g. According the survey results, an estimated daily intake of FB1 and FB2 in Korea was 0.087 ng/kg of body weight per day. These results indicate that continuous monitoring of these mycotoxins is necessary to establish appropriate risk assessment, and the maximum tolerable daily intake of fumonisins in Korea is lower than the 2 microg/kg set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization-World Health Organization Expert Committee.

  14. A Complex Interplay of Vitamin B1 and B6 Metabolism with Cognition, Brain Structure, and Functional Connectivity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jannusch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks. We thus assessed the relation between blood levels of vitamins B1 and B6 and cognitive performance, cortical folding, and functional resting-state connectivity in a large sample of older adults (N > 600; age: 55–85 years, drawn from the population-based 1000BRAINS study. In addition to blood sampling, subjects underwent structural and functional resting-state neuroimaging as well as extensive neuropsychological testing in the domains of executive functions, (working memory, attention, and language. Brain regions showing changes in the local gyrification index as calculated using FreeSurfer in relation to vitamin levels were used for subsequent seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis. For B6, a positive correlation with local cortical folding was found throughout the brain, while only slight changes in functional connectivity were observed. Contrarily, for B1, a negative correlation with cortical folding as well as problem solving and visuo-spatial working memory performance was found, which was accompanied by pronounced increases of interhemispheric and decreases of intrahemispheric functional connectivity. While the effects for B6 expand previous knowledge on beneficial effects of B6 supplementation on brain structure, they also showed that additional effects on cognition might not be recognizable in

  15. Structures of two intermediate phases between the B1 and B2 phases of PbS under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural transitions of PbS were investigated at pressures up to 50 GPa using synchrotron powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD methods in diamond anvil cells. We found two intermediate phases between the B1 phase under atmospheric pressure and the B2 phase at 21.1 GPa, which is different to previous reports. The structures of these two intermediate phases were indexed as B27 and B33, respectively. Their structural parameters were investigated using density functional theory (DFT calculations. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the transition pathway between the B1 and B2 phases in PbS.

  16. Deficiencies in lamin B1 and lamin B2 cause neurodevelopmental defects and distinct nuclear shape abnormalities in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinier, Catherine; Jung, Hea-Jin; Nobumori, Chika; Chang, Sandy; Tu, Yiping; Barnes, Richard H; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G

    2011-12-01

    Neuronal migration is essential for the development of the mammalian brain. Here, we document severe defects in neuronal migration and reduced numbers of neurons in lamin B1-deficient mice. Lamin B1 deficiency resulted in striking abnormalities in the nuclear shape of cortical neurons; many neurons contained a solitary nuclear bleb and exhibited an asymmetric distribution of lamin B2. In contrast, lamin B2 deficiency led to increased numbers of neurons with elongated nuclei. We used conditional alleles for Lmnb1 and Lmnb2 to create forebrain-specific knockout mice. The forebrain-specific Lmnb1- and Lmnb2-knockout models had a small forebrain with disorganized layering of neurons and nuclear shape abnormalities, similar to abnormalities identified in the conventional knockout mice. A more severe phenotype, complete atrophy of the cortex, was observed in forebrain-specific Lmnb1/Lmnb2 double-knockout mice. This study demonstrates that both lamin B1 and lamin B2 are essential for brain development, with lamin B1 being required for the integrity of the nuclear lamina, and lamin B2 being important for resistance to nuclear elongation in neurons.

  17. ErbB2, but not ErbB1, reinitiates proliferation and induces luminal repopulation in epithelial acini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Li, Dongmei; Lelievre, Sophie; Bissell, Mina J; Brugge, Joan S

    2001-08-08

    Both ErbB1 and ErbB2 are overexpressed or amplified in breast tumors. To examine the effects of activating ErbB receptors in a context that mimics polarized epithelial cells in vivo, we activated ErbB1 and ErbB2 homodimers in preformed, growth-arrested mammary acini cultured in three-dimensional basement membrane gels. Activation of ErbB2, but not that of ErbB1, led to a reinitiation of cell proliferation and altered the properties of mammary acinar structures. These altered structures share several properties with early-stage tumors, including a loss of proliferative suppression, an absence of lumen, retention of the basement membrane and a lack of invasive properties. ErbB2 activation also disrupted tight junctions and the cell polarity of polarized epithelia, whereas ErbB1 activation did not have any effect. Our results indicate that ErbB receptors differ in their ability to induce early stages of mammary carcinogenesis in vitro and this three-dimensional model system can reveal biological activities of oncogenes that cannot be examined in vitro in standard transformation assays.

  18. Laminin A, B1, B2, S and M subunits in the postnatal rat liver development and after partial hepatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Engvall, E; Paulsson, M

    1992-01-01

    The expression of laminin subunits (A, B1, B2, S and M) in the perisinusoidal space of the rat liver was studied in early postnatal life, in the adult, and after partial hepatectomy. In the perisinusoidal space of the normal adult rat, laminin was detected with polyclonal antibodies only in small...... streaks of basement membranes extending from the portobiliary tract and to a lesser degree from the central vein. Occasionally, droplets of laminin immunoreactivity were also found along the intervening portions of the perisinusoidal spaces. All morphologically identifiable basement membranes of the rat...... liver (biliary ducts and blood vessels) irrespective of the age of animals exhibited B1, B2 and S immunoreactivity. Laminin A was restricted to the larger blood vessels and could not be detected in the biliary ducts. In the adult rat, immunoreactivity for the A-like M subunit was absent except for some...

  19. The pressure induced B1-B2 phase transition of alkaline halides and alkaline earth chalcogenides. A first principles investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potzel, Oliver; Taubmann, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we considered the pressure induced B1-B2 phase transition of AB compounds. The DFT calculations were carried out for 11 alkaline halides, 11 alkaline earth chalcogenides and the lanthanide pnictide CeP. For both the B1 and the B2 structures of each compound, the energy was calculated as a function of the cell volume. The transition pressure, the bulk moduli and their pressure derivatives were obtained from the corresponding equations of state. The transition path of the Buerger mechanism was described using roots of the transition matrix. We correlated the computed enthalpies of activation to some structure defining properties of the compounds. A fair correlation to Pearsons hardness of the ions was observed. -- Graphical abstract: Pressure induced transition from the B1 structure (left) via the transition state (middle) to the B2 structure (right). Display Omitted Highlights: → Pressure induced phase transitions in AB compounds were considered. → Alkaline halides and alkaline earth chalcogenides were treated. → DFT calculations with periodic boundary conditions were applied. → The transition path was described by roots of the transition matrix. → The enthalpy of activation was calculated for numerous compounds.

  20. Modelling of three-dimensional structures of cytochromes P450 11B1 and 11B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, N V; Lisurek, M; Ivanov, A S; Bernhardt, R

    2001-12-15

    The final steps of the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in the adrenal cortex require the action of two different cytochromes P450--CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. Homology modelling of the three-dimensional structures of these cytochromes was performed based on crystallographic coordinates of two bacterial P450s, CYP102 (P450BM-3) and CYP108 (P450terp). Principal attention was given to the modelling of the active sites and a comparison of the active site structures of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 was performed. It can be demonstrated that key residue contacts within the active site appear to depend on the orientation of the heme. The obtained 3D structures of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were used for investigation of structure-function relationships of these enzymes. Previously obtained results on naturally occurring mutants and on mutants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis are discussed.

  1. Compressibility and structural stability of CeN from experiment and theory. The B1-B2 transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J. Staun [Niels Bohr Institute, Oersted Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jorgensen, J.-E. [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Gerward, L., E-mail: gerward@fysik.dtu.dk [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Vaitheeswaran, G. [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachbowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Kanchana, V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Svane, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-08-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First experimental determination of bulk modulus of CeN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First observation of B1-B2 transformation in CeN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density functional calculations in remarkably good agreement with experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations extended to B2 phase, including B1-B2 transition. - Abstract: The high-pressure structural stability of CeN is investigated by experiment and theory. Experiments are carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation, using a diamond anvil cell, to a maximum pressure of 77 GPa. The experimental results are in remarkably good agreement with ab initio calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The experimental zero pressure bulk modulus is B{sub 0} = 156(3) GPa, the pressure derivative being constrained to B{sub 0} Prime = 4.00. The corresponding calculated data are B{sub 0} = 158.1 GPa and B{sub 0} Prime = 3.3. We report here the first experimental observation of the transformation of CeN from the ambient B1 type crystal structure to the B2 type. The onset of the transition is in the range 65-70 GPa, and the relative volume change at the transition is {Delta}V/V = -10.9(3)%. These data compare well with the calculated transition pressure P{sub tr} = 68 GPa and {Delta}V/V = -10.8%. Experimentally, the transition is found to be rather sluggish.

  2. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mie Kawashima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  3. Uncommon occurrence ratios of aflatoxin B1, B 2, G 1, and G 2 in maize and groundnuts from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Sulyok, Michael; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Van Poucke, Christof; De Saeger, Sarah; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    We report an unusual aflatoxin profile in maize and groundnuts from Malawi, with aflatoxin G1 found routinely at equal or even higher levels than aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ratio in a contaminated sample is generally greater than 50% of total aflatoxin (sum of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2). In Malawi, the aflatoxin occurrence ratios were determined by examining LC-MS/MS and HPLC fluorescence detection (FLD) data of 156 naturally contaminated raw maize and 80 groundnut samples collected in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that natural aflatoxin occurrence ratio differed. In 47% of the samples, the concentration of AFG1 was higher than that of AFB1. The mean concentration percentages of AFB1/AFB2/AFG1/AFG2 in reference to total aflatoxins were found to be 47:5:43:5%, respectively. The AFG1 and AFB1 50/50 trend was observed in maize and groundnuts and was consistent for samples collected in both years. If the AFB1 measurement was used to check compliance of total aflatoxin regulatory limit set at 10, 20, 100, and 200 μg/kg with an assumption that AFB1≥50% of the total aflatoxin content, 8, 13, 24, and 26% false negative rates would have occurred respectively. It is therefore important for legislation to consider total aflatoxins rather than AFB1 alone.

  4. A comparative study of brain arylsulfatases B1 and B2: the difference between the two forms in rates of uptake by multiple sulfatase deficient (MSD) disorder fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureha, Y; Eto, Y

    1983-11-01

    Arylsulfatases B1 and B2 isolated from human brain were introduced into neonatal type MSD fibroblast culture. Arylsulfatase B2 was linearly taken up into MSD fibroblasts with respect to time and the dose of enzyme, whereas arylsulfatase B1 enzyme was practically not taken up into cells. Uptake of arylsulfatase B2 was inhibited in the presence of mannose 6-phosphate. These data suggest that the biological functional difference between arylsulfatases B1 and B2 is due to the presence of a phosphorylated residue acting as a recognition marker on one of the enzymes.

  5. Monitoring of aflatoxin G1, B1, G2, and B2 occurrence in some samples of walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibipour, Reza; Tamandegani, Parisa Rahimi; Farmany, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    This research was conducted to monitor the aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of walnut in the Hamedan province. For this purpose, 40 samples were analyzed. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, yeast, and some different bacteria were isolated from walnuts. Aspergillus is the most frequent genus. Aspergillus flavus was predominantly isolated. HPLC was used for evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of walnut samples. Aflatoxins G1 (AFG1), B1 (AFB1), G2 (AFG2), and B2 (AFB2) were produced by 20 isolates. AFG1 and AFB1 were being predominant at concentration ranges of 1.7-18.2 and 0-8.2 ngg -1 , respectively. Highest levels were found in one sample that was highly contaminated with Aspergillus flavus/Aspergillus parasiticus. Methyl beta cyclodextrin also was performed for detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus isolates. The results showed that only 31.6% (p aflatoxin. A significant difference was shown between shielded and unshielded walnut in aflatoxin contamination. The content of aflatoxin in most of the walnut samples did not reach to maximum tolerable limit for aflatoxin B1 in EU standard (p > 0.05). Thus, systematic and continues monitoring of walnuts is recommended.

  6. Effects of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptor antagonists on overactive urinary bladder syndrome induced by spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Stefânia; Andrade, Edinéia L; Martini, Alessandra C; Bento, Allisson F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Koepp, Janice; Calixto, João B

    2012-12-01

    Kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors have been implicated in physiological and pathological conditions of the urinary bladder. However, their role in overactive urinary bladder (OAB) syndrome following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains elusive. We investigated the role of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors in OAB after SCI in rats. SCI was associated with a marked inflammatory response and functional changes in the urinary bladder. SCI resulted in an up-regulation of B(1) receptor mRNA in the urinary bladder, dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord, as well as in B(1) protein in the urinary bladder and B(1) and B(2) receptor protein in spinal cord. Interestingly, both B(1) and B(2) protein expression were similarly distributed in detrusor muscle and urothelium of animals with SCI. In vitro stimulation of urinary bladder with the selective B(1) or B(2) agonist elicited a higher concentration-response curve in the SCI urinary bladder than in naive or sham urinary bladders. Cystometry revealed that treatment of SCI animals with the B(2) selective antagonist icatibant reduced the amplitude and number of non-voiding contractions (NVCs). The B(1) antagonist des-Arg(9) -[Leu(8) ]-bradykinin reduced the number of NVCs while the non-peptide B(1) antagonist SSR240612 reduced the number of NVCs, the urinary bladder capacity and increased the voiding efficiency and voided volume. Taken together, these data show the important roles of B(1) and B(2) receptors in OAB following SCI in rats and suggest that blockade of these receptors could be a potential therapeutic target for controlling OAB. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Effects of kinin B1 and B2 receptor antagonists on overactive urinary bladder syndrome induced by spinal cord injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Stefânia; Andrade, Edinéia L; Martini, Alessandra C; Bento, Allisson F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Koepp, Janice; Calixto, João B

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Kinin B1 and B2 receptors have been implicated in physiological and pathological conditions of the urinary bladder. However, their role in overactive urinary bladder (OAB) syndrome following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains elusive. Experimental Approach We investigated the role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in OAB after SCI in rats. Key Results SCI was associated with a marked inflammatory response and functional changes in the urinary bladder. SCI resulted in an up-regulation of B1 receptor mRNA in the urinary bladder, dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord, as well as in B1 protein in the urinary bladder and B1 and B2 receptor protein in spinal cord. Interestingly, both B1 and B2 protein expression were similarly distributed in detrusor muscle and urothelium of animals with SCI. In vitro stimulation of urinary bladder with the selective B1 or B2 agonist elicited a higher concentration-response curve in the SCI urinary bladder than in naive or sham urinary bladders. Cystometry revealed that treatment of SCI animals with the B2 selective antagonist icatibant reduced the amplitude and number of non-voiding contractions (NVCs). The B1 antagonist des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin reduced the number of NVCs while the non-peptide B1 antagonist SSR240612 reduced the number of NVCs, the urinary bladder capacity and increased the voiding efficiency and voided volume. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, these data show the important roles of B1 and B2 receptors in OAB following SCI in rats and suggest that blockade of these receptors could be a potential therapeutic target for controlling OAB. PMID:22862305

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn samples after reusable immunoaffinity column clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA F. ABRAMOVIC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the liquid chromatographic determination of fumonisins B1 (FB1 andB2 (FB2 in corn samples with a reused immunoaffinity column (IMA for the clean-up of the samples was investigated. After optimization of the chromatographic determination of FB1 and FB2 derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde- 2-mercaptoethanol, the efficiency of the clean-up of spiked corn extracts with reuse of the IMA columns was studied, both with and without column regeneration. It was found that the IMAcolumn, designated for single-use only, can be used at least five times without regeneration and additional five times after regeneration. Regeneration consists of leaving the phosphate buffer saline solution on the column for one day at 4 ºC. The efficiency of the columns was tested by determining the recovery of FB1 and FB2, as well as the reproducibility of the determinations. The mean recoveries of FB1 and FB2 from corn spiked with FB1 at 1.0 mg/g and with FB2 at 0.5 mg/g (on the basis of 10 measurements were 88.7%(RSD 10.2% and 90.5%(RSD 6.1 %, respectively.

  9. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods.

  10. Removal of fumonisin B1 and B2 from model solutions and red wine using polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; Kreitman, Gal Y; Folch-Cano, Christian; Elias, Ryan J; Laurie, V Felipe

    2017-06-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins found in various foods whose consumption is known to be harmful for human health. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three polymers (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP; a resin of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and triallyl isocyanurate, PVP-DEGMA-TAIC; and poly(acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol-dimethacrylate), PA-EGDMA) to remove fumonisin B 1 (FB1) and fumonisin B 2 (FB2) from model solutions and red wine. Various polymer concentrations (1, 5 and 10mgmL -1 ) and contact times (2, 8 and 24h) were tested, with all polymers exhibiting fumonisin removal capacities (monitored by LC-MS). The impact of all polymers on polyphenol removal was also assessed. PA-EGDMA showed to be the most promising polymer, removing 71% and 95% of FB 1 , and FB 2 , respectively, with only a 22.2% reduction in total phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compressibility and structural stability of CeN from experiment and theory. The B1B2 transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun Olsen, J.; Jørgensen, J.-E.; Gerward, L.

    2012-01-01

    The high-pressure structural stability of CeN is investigated by experiment and theory. Experiments are carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation, using a diamond anvil cell, to a maximum pressure of 77GPa. The experimental results are in remarkably good agreement...... with ab initio calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The experimental zero pressure bulk modulus is B0=156(3)GPa, the pressure derivative being constrained to B0′=4.00. The corresponding calculated data are B0=158.1GPa...... and B0′=3.3. We report here the first experimental observation of the transformation of CeN from the ambient B1 type crystal structure to the B2 type. The onset of the transition is in the range 65–70GPa, and the relative volume change at the transition is ΔV/V=−10.9(3)%. These data compare well...

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  13. The use of regenerated immunoaffinity columns for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1and G2in peanut confection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iha, Maria Helena; Mini, Camila Alessandra; Okada, Isaura Akemi; Briganti, Rita de Cássia; Trucksess, Mary W

    2017-02-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using multitime-regenerated immunoaffinity column (IAC) for aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 in peanut confection. After each use, the IAC was washed immediately with phosphate-buffered saline and stored for >12h prior to reuse. The evaluation procedure consisted of using extracts of naturallycontaminated peanut confection (4 replicates), aflatoxin-free peanut confection (duplicates), and aflatoxin-free peanut confection sample spiked with the 4 aflatoxins (AFT) at 3 levels in 4 replicates. Each day, 18 test extracts were analyzed using 18 designated IACs. After each use, the IACs were regenerated and reused for corresponding test extracts on the following day. This procedure was repeated daily over the course of 9days. Analytical steps included passing the test extracts through the IACs, washing the columns with water, and eluting AFT with methanol. The eluates were diluted with water and were subjected to reversed phase LC separation, post-column photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. After eluting AFT, IACs were immediately regenerated by washing with phosphate buffer solution and storing overnight at 8°C for re-use the following day. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. The numbers of reuse varied for each AF: For AFB 1 AFB 2 , AFG 1 and AFG 2 could be reused for 9, 6, 6 and 0 times, respectively. According to AOAC method performance criteria, recoveries ranging from 70% to 125% are considered acceptable at the spiking levels used in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Plantaricin Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains (IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Arief

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Indonesian lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2 were purified and characterized. Plantaricin W gene had been successfully amplified from all strains. This amplicon showed the expected 200 bp size of plantaricin W gene. This bacteriocins purified from L. plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2 were named plantaricin IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2. Purification by cation exchange chromatography increased the purity (fold and activity of plantaricins. Purity of plantaricin IIA-1A5 was increased by 3.13 fold with specific activity 13.40 AU/mg. Plantaricin IIA-1B1 had 2.98 fold purity with specific activity 5.12 AU/mg, while purity of plantaricin IIA-2B2 was 1.37 fold with specific activity 7.70 AU/mg. All plantaricins could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plantaricins could be digested by trypsin. Stability of plantaricins at 80 oC for 30 min and at 121 oC for 15 min were affected by type of plantaricin and species of pathogenic bacteria. Generally, plantaricin IIA-1A5 was better as antimicrobial agent than plantaricin IIA-1B1 and plantaricin IIA-2B2.

  15. Influence of heating conditions in continuous-flow microwave or tubular heat exchange systems on the vitamin B$_1$ and B$_2$ content of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra , Isabel; Vidal-Valverde , Concepción

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The effect of continuous-flow microwave heating of milk on the stability of vitamins B$_1$ and B$_2$ was determined by ion-pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Results were compared with those obtained using a conventional process having the same heating, holding and cooling phases. When milk was heated in a continuous microwave heating system, at 90 $^\\circ$C without a holding phase, no vitamin B$_1$ and vitamin B$_2$ losses were observed. Howeve...

  16. Vitamins B2 and B6 and Genetic Polymorphisms Related to One-Carbon Metabolism as Risk Factors for Gastric Adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Agudo, Antonio; Sala, Nuria; Capella, Gabriel; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Buechner, Frederike L.; Carneiro, Fatima; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Stenling, Roger; Hallmans, Goeran; Martinez, Carmen; Arrizola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Plebani, Mario; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric

  17. Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.; Vollset, S.E.; Hustad, S.; Midttun, O.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Ueland, P.M.; Jenab, M.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Agudo, A.; Sala, N.; Capella, G.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Carneiro, F.; Berrino, F.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Manjer, J.; Stenling, R.; Hallmans, G.; Martinez, C.; Arrizola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C; Rodriguez, L.; Bingham, S.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Morois, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lund, E.; Plebani, M.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric

  18. B1 Cell IgE Impedes Mast Cell-Mediated Enhancement of Parasite Expulsion through B2 IgE Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebecca K; Damle, Sheela R; Valentine, Yolander A; Zellner, Matthew P; James, Briana N; Lownik, Joseph C; Luker, Andrea J; Davis, Elijah H; DeMeules, Martha M; Khandjian, Laura M; Finkelman, Fred D; Urban, Joseph F; Conrad, Daniel H

    2018-02-13

    Helminth infection is known for generating large amounts of poly-specific IgE. Here we demonstrate that innate-like B1 cells are responsible for this IgE production during infection with the nematode parasites Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. In vitro analysis of B1 cell immunoglobulin class switch recombination to IgE demonstrated a requirement for anti-CD40 and IL-4 that was further enhanced when IL-5 was added or when the B1 source was helminth infected mice. An IL-25-induced upregulation of IgE in B1 cells was also demonstrated. In T cell-reconstituted RAG1 -/- mice, N. brasiliensis clearance was enhanced with the addition of B2 cells in an IgE-dependent manner. This enhanced clearance was impeded by reconstitution with IgE sufficient B1 cells. Mucosal mast cells mediated the B2 cell enhancement of clearance in the absence of B1 cells. The data support B1 cell IgE secretion as a regulatory response exploited by the helminth. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  20. Determination of fumonisins B-1 and B-2 in maize-based baby food products by HPLC with fluorimetric detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girolamo, De A.; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Sizoo, E.; Egmond, van H.P.; Gambacorta, L.; Bouten, K.; Stroka, J.; Visconti, A.; Solfrizzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of fumonisin B-1 (FB1) and B-2 (FB2) in different commercial maize-based products for infants and young children was developed and tested in a limited validation study involving 3 laboratories. The method used extraction at 55 C with an acidic mixture of

  1. Biological Roles of Hydroxysteroid (11-Beta) Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), HSD11B2, and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Sheep Conceptus Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kelsey; Burns, Gregory; Spencer, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    In sheep, the elongating conceptus synthesizes and secretes interferon tau (IFNT) as well as prostaglandins (PGs) and cortisol. The enzymes, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) and HSD11B2 interconvert cortisone and cortisol. In sheep, HSD11B1 is expressed and active in the conceptus trophectoderm as well as in the endometrial luminal epithelia; in contrast, HSD11B2 expression is most abundant in conceptus trophectoderm. Cortisol is a biologically active glucocorticoid and ligand for the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 or GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2 or MR). Expression of MR is not detectable in either the ovine endometrium or conceptus during early pregnancy. In tissues that do not express MR, HSD11B2 protects cells from the growth-inhibiting and/or proapoptotic effects of cortisol, particularly during embryonic development. In study one, an in utero loss-of-function analysis of HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 was conducted in the conceptus trophectoderm using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) that inhibit mRNA translation. Elongating, filamentous conceptuses were recovered on Day 14 from ewes infused with control morpholino or HSD11B2 MAO. In contrast, HSD11B1 MAO resulted in severely growth-retarded conceptuses or conceptus fragments with apoptotic trophectoderm. In study two, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing was used to determine the role of GR in conceptus elongation and development. Elongating, filamentous-type conceptuses (12-14 cm in length) were recovered from ewes gestating control embryos (n = 7/7) and gestating GR-edited embryos (n = 6/7). These results support the idea that the effects of HSD11B1-derived cortisol on conceptus elongation are indirectly mediated by the endometrium and are not directly mediated through GR in the trophectoderm. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. A Common Origin for B-1a and B-2 Lymphocytes in Clonal Pre- Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Brandon K; Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Mandal, Pankaj K; Rossi, Derrick J; Poulos, Michael G; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Yoder, Mervin C; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Bernstein, Irwin D

    2017-06-06

    Recent evidence points to the embryonic emergence of some tissue-resident innate immune cells, such as B-1a lymphocytes, prior to and independently of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, whether the full hematopoietic repertoire of embryonic HSCs initially includes these unique lineages of innate immune cells has been difficult to assess due to lack of clonal assays that identify and assess HSC precursor (pre-HSC) potential. Here, by combining index sorting of single embryonic hemogenic precursors with in vitro HSC maturation and transplantation assays, we analyze emerging pre-HSCs at the single-cell level, revealing their unique stage-specific properties and clonal lineage potential. Remarkably, clonal pre-HSCs detected between E9.5 and E11.5 contribute to the complete B cell repertoire, including B-1a lymphocytes, revealing a previously unappreciated common precursor for all B cell lineages at the pre-HSC stage and a second embryonic origin for B-1a lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Fayed, Ahmed S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  4. The influence of folic acid, vitamins B(2) and B(6) supplementation on feed intake, body and organs weight, and liver fatty acids composition of rats subjected to 3 months moderate protein deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, B; Bertrandt, J; Klos, A; Gralak, M

    2007-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of a 3-month dietary protein restriction - protein provided 9% of energy (20% in control group). In this dietary restriction folic acid, vitamins B(2) and B(6) were delivered in amount three times above the standard level. It was observed that animals fed a protein restricted (PR) diet weighed about 5% less than animals consuming adequate diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. Enrichment of PR diet with vitamin B or folic acid caused tendency to further suppression of weight gain, and in case of vitamin B(6) these differences were statistically significant. However, such body weight (BW) suppression was not observed when all studied vitamins were used together. Significant reductions in relative liver weight (vitamin B(2) addition), the heart (folic acid) and the lungs (vitamin B(6)) were observed. The PR diet, when all vitamins were added together, caused a decrease in weights of the lungs, heart and liver scaled to BW of rats, simultaneously with a significant increase in testis weight. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were higher in animals given PR diet without a significant influence of vitamin supplementation (except vitamin B(6) causing further increase in feed conversion ratio). Hepatic fatty acids composition of rats was not affected by protein restriction, as well as by single vitamin supplementation. However, dietary supplementation of all examined vitamins together caused a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids followed by an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids participation in total fatty acids pool. It seems that enrichment of PR diet with a mixture of folic acid, vitamins B(2) and B(6) resulted in a partial reverse of growth suppression and reduction in testis size in rats.

  5. Kinin-B2 receptor mediated neuroprotection after NMDA excitotoxicity is reversed in the presence of kinin-B1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Antonio H; Alves, Janaina M; Perez, Dinely; Carrasco, Marimeé; Torres-Rivera, Wilmarie; Eterović, Vesna A; Ferchmin, Pedro A; Ulrich, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Kinins, with bradykinin and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin being the most important ones, are pro-inflammatory peptides released after tissue injury including stroke. Although the actions of bradykinin are in general well characterized; it remains controversial whether the effects of bradykinin are beneficial or not. Kinin-B2 receptor activation participates in various physiological processes including hypotension, neurotransmission and neuronal differentiation. The bradykinin metabolite des-Arg(9)-bradykinin as well as Lys-des-Arg(9)-bradykinin activates the kinin-B1 receptor known to be expressed under inflammatory conditions. We have investigated the effects of kinin-B1 and B2 receptor activation on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity measured as decreased capacity to produce synaptically evoked population spikes in the CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. Bradykinin at 10 nM and 1 µM concentrations triggered a neuroprotective cascade via kinin-B2 receptor activation which conferred protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Recovery of population spikes induced by 10 nM bradykinin was completely abolished when the peptide was co-applied with the selective kinin-B2 receptor antagonist HOE-140. Kinin-B2 receptor activation promoted survival of hippocampal neurons via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, while MEK/MAPK signaling was not involved in protection against NMDA-evoked excitotoxic effects. However, 100 nM Lys-des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, a potent kinin-B1 receptor agonist, reversed bradykinin-induced population spike recovery. The inhibition of population spikes recovery was reversed by PD98059, showing that MEK/MAPK was involved in the induction of apoptosis mediated by the B1 receptor. Bradykinin exerted protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity which is reversed in the presence of a kinin-B1 receptor agonist. As bradykinin is converted to the kinin-B1 receptor metabolite des-Arg(9)-bradykinin by carboxypeptidases, present in different areas

  6. Oxidation Resistance, Electrical and Thermal Conductivity, and Spectral Emittance of Fully Dense HfB2 and ZrB2 with SiC, TaSi2, and LaB6 Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    the specimen, and the structure which holds it up, applies an upward force based on the mass of gas which is displaced ( Archimedes principle ). As the...ize the properties of ZrB2- (and HfB2-) based multiphase materials for properties important for aerospace applications . Specifically, as leading edges...6.65 ZTBS2-9 53.17 5.62 27.91 0 13.29 of pressureless sintered and post-HIPed pellets were determined using Archimedes ’ method. All specimens were 100

  7. ErbB2 regulates NHEJ repair pathway by affecting erbB1-triggered IR-induced Akt activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Peter Rodemann, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have already reported that erbBl-PI3K-AKT signaling is an important pathway in regulating radiation sensitivity and DNA double strand break repair of human tumor cells. In the present study using small interfering RNA and pharmacological inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines we investigated the role of Aktl on radiation-induced DNA-PKcs activity and DNA-double strand break (DNA-DSB) repair. Likewise, the function of erbB2 as hetrodimerization partner of erbBl in radiation-induced Akt activity and regulation of DNA-dsb repair through DNA-PKcs was evaluated. In A549 and H460 transfected with AKTl-siRNA radiation-induced phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs the key enzyme regulating NHEJ repair pathway was markedly inhibited. In both cell lines downregulation of Aktl led to a significant enhancement of residual DNA-DSB, i.e. impaired DNA-DSB repair. Interestingly, in cells transfected with DNA-PKcs-siRNA a lack of effect of AKTl-siRNA on enhancement of residual DNA-DSBs was observed. This results indicate that Aktl regulates NHEJ repair in a DNA-PKcs dependent manner

  8. Metabolic engineering of indole glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage plants by expression of Arabidopsis CYP79B2, CYP79B3, and CYP83B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yun-Xiang; Lim, Myung-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2008-04-30

    Indole glucosinolates (IG) play important roles in plant defense, plant-insect interactions, and stress responses in plants. In an attempt to metabolically engineer the IG pathway flux in Chinese cabbage, three important Arabidopsis cDNAs, CYP79B2, CYP79B3, and CYP83B1, were introduced into Chinese cabbage by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of CYP79B3 or CYP83B1 did not affect IG accumulation levels, and overexpression of CYP79B2 or CYP79B3 prevented the transformed callus from being regenerated, displaying the phenotype of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) overproduction. However, when CYP83B1 was overexpressed together with CYP79B2 and/or CYP79B3, the transformed calli were regenerated into whole plants that accumulated higher levels of glucobrassicin, 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin, and 4-methoxy glu-cobrassicin than wild-type controls. This result suggests that the flux in Chinese cabbage is predominantly channeled into IAA biosynthesis so that coordinate expression of the two consecutive enzymes is needed to divert the flux into IG biosynthesis. With regard to IG accumulation, overexpression of all three cDNAs was no better than overexpression of the two cDNAs. The content of neoglucobrassicin remained unchanged in all transgenic plants. Although glucobrassicin was most directly affected by overexpression of the transgenes, elevated levels of the parent IG, glucobrassicin, were not always accompanied by increases in 4-hydroxy and 4-methoxy glucobrassicin. However, one transgenic line producing about 8-fold increased glucobrassicin also accumulated at least 2.5 fold more 4-hydroxy and 4-methoxy glucobrassicin. This implies that a large glucobrassicin pool exceeding some threshold level drives the flux into the side chain modification pathway. Aliphatic glucosinolate content was not affected in any of the transgenic plants.

  9. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and total syntheses of cytotoxic cryptolactones A1, A2, B1, and B2: α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones from a Cryptomyzus sp. aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Mitsuyo; Inai, Makoto; Oguri, Yuki; Kuroda, Eri; Tanaka, Masami; Suzuki, Shinya; Ito, Takuya; Takahashi, Shigeru; Kaku, Hiroto; Tsunoda, Tetsuto

    2014-11-26

    The cryptolactones A1, A2, B1, and B2, which are α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones, were isolated from a Cryptomyzus sp. aphid. The structures were established by 1-D and 2-D NMR spectra and CI-HRMS. Their absolute configurations were determined with the Kusumi-Mosher method, combined with asymmetric total syntheses. The syntheses were accomplished with the Mukaiyama aldol reaction and olefin metathesis, which utilized the second-generation Grubbs catalyst for the key steps. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 0.97-5.3 μM.

  11. Wave-of-advance models of the diffusion of the Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2 in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Sjödin

    Full Text Available Whether or not the spread of agriculture in Europe was accompanied by movements of people is a long-standing question in archeology and anthropology, which has been frequently addressed with the help of population genetic data. Estimates on dates of expansion and geographic origins obtained from genetic data are however sensitive to the calibration of mutation rates and to the mathematical models used to perform inference. For instance, recent data on the Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2 (M269 have either suggested a Neolithic origin for European paternal lineages or a more ancient Paleolithic origin depending on the calibration of Y-STR mutation rates. Here we examine the date of expansion and the geographic origin of hgR1b1b2 considering two current estimates of mutation rates in a total of fourteen realistic wave-of-advance models. We report that a range expansion dating to the Paleolithic is unlikely to explain the observed geographical distribution of microsatellite diversity, and that whether the data is informative with respect to the spread of agriculture in Europe depends on the mutation rate assumption in a critical way.

  12. Rapid analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Wen; Sun, Dai-Li; Ruan, Chun-Qiang; Zhang, He; Liu, Cheng-Lan

    2014-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid method is presented for the analysis of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with LC and fluorescence detection. After extraction of the rice samples with a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid, mycotoxins were rapidly partitioned into a small volume of organic solvent (chloroform) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The three mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by LC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization for aflatoxin B1 and B2. Parameters affecting both extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedures, including the extraction solvent, the type and volume of extractant, the volume of dispersive solvent, the addition of salt, the pH and the extraction time, were optimized. The optimized protocol provided an enrichment factor of approximately 1.25 and with detection of limits (0.06-0.5 μg/kg) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulations for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The mean recovery of three mycotoxins ranged from 82.9-112%, with a RSD less than 7.9% in all cases. The method was successfully applied to measure mycotoxins in commercial rice samples collected from local supermarkets in China. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  14. Use of the Chinchilla model to evaluate the vaccinogenic potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis filamentous hemagglutinin-like proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L Shaffer

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis-host interactions.

  15. Surveillance and control of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 in foodstuffs in the Republic of Cyprus: 1992-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou-Kakouri, E; Aletrari, M; Christou, E; Hadjioannou-Ralli, A; Koliou, A; Akkelidou, D

    1999-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in locally produced and imported foodstuffs (nuts, cereals, oily seeds, pulses, etc.) were monitored and controlled systematically and effectively from 1992-1996. Samples (peanuts, pistachios, etc.) with total AFs above the Cyprus maximum level (ML) of 10 micrograms/kg fluctuated between 0.7 and 6.9%. The results indicate the effectiveness of monitoring, as well as the need for constant surveillance and control, especially at critical control points (sites of import, primary storage, etc.), to prevent unfit products from entering the Cyprus market. The control included sampling, retainment, analysis, and destruction of foodstuff lots with AF levels above MLs. The highest incidence of aflatoxin contamination was observed in peanut butter (56.7%) and the highest level of AF B1 was found in peanuts (700 micrograms/kg). Levels of AF M1 in raw and pasteurized milk analyzed in 1993, 1995, and 1996 were within both the Cyprus ML (0.5 microgram/L) and the lower ML (0.05 microgram/L) of some European countries. Only 12% of samples had detectable levels of AF M1. Analyses were performed by immunochemical methods. When recoveries were lower than 80%, the AF levels were corrected for recovery.

  16. Impact of the vulcanization process on the structural characteristics and IgE recognition of two allergens, Hev b 2 and Hev b 6.02, extracted from latex surgical gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Christian; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2015-06-01

    Latex allergy is a health problem that mainly affects medical environments, causing anaphylactic shocks in extreme cases. Sensitization and reactions to this material is closely linked to the use of latex gloves. The objective of this study was to purify two of the major allergens from latex surgical gloves to study the biochemical and structural changes that could be generated during the product manufacture and to compare their IgE recognition with the non-processed allergens. Glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (β-1,3-glucanase) and Hev b 6.02 (hevein) were purified from glove extracts using affinity (Concanavalin A) and reversed-phase chromatographies, respectively. ELISA experiments were performed with both proteins and sera from allergic patients to assess the IgE recognition, which was heterogeneous. Crystallographic methods were used to obtain the 3D structure of Hev b 6.02 from surgical gloves, which did not show evident modification when compared with the protein from the natural non-processed form. Despite having the same crystallographic structure, the IgE from some patients showed different recognition when the glove and the natural allergen were used in ELISA. Furthermore, using electrophoretic techniques, we identified three forms of Hev b 2: one corresponding to the complete polypeptide chain with posttranslational modifications, and two glycosylated fragments. The mixture of these three forms showed stronger recognition by IgE from latex-allergic patients than the pure non-processed allergen. In conclusion, IgE from subjects sensitized to latex products showed different recognition between the allergens obtained from a natural source and the processed material, even when the structure was maintained. This demonstrates the importance of using processed allergens in further investigations of diagnosis, prevalence, product allergenicity, and therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Possible involvement of CA1 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors in harmaline-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Jamshidi-Mehr, Mehdi; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, effects of the serotonergic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist, CP94253 (5 ng/mouse), 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (0.05 and 0.5 ng/mouse), 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist, α-methyl 5-HT (0.5 ng/mouse) and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cinancerine (0.5 ng/mouse) impaired memory acquisition, but did not affect locomotor activity and tail flick. Furthermore, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold dose of CP94253 (0.05 ng/mouse) or GR127935 (0.005 ng/mouse) reversed impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline (1 mg/kg, i.p.). However, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of subthreshold dose of α-methyl 5-HT (0.005 ng/mouse) or cinancerine (0.005 ng/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) heighten impairment of memory acquisition. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 serotonergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Structural elucidation and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by aqueous extracts of Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha eIram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1 by In Vitro and In Vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05 in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 92.8% and 91.9% respectively. However T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30˚C and incubation period of 72h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  19. Structural Elucidation and Toxicity Assessment of Degraded Products of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aqueous Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e., 92.8 and 91.9% respectively. However, T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  20. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  1. Application of pressurized liquid extraction in the analysis of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) in nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Aliberti, Luigi; Rastrelli, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) were extracted from nuts by using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the PLE extracts were analyzed using HPLC with fluorescence detection using photochemical post-column derivatization without further cleanup procedures. Several extraction parameters such as temperature (25, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C), pressure (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 psi), solvent extraction mixture (acetone, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and methanol), number of cycles (1 and 2), use of dispersing agents and cell size (5 and 11 mL) were investigated for their effects on the extraction performance. The results showed 60 degrees C, 1500 psi, acetonitrile, one cycle and a cell size of 5 mL as most favorable PLE operating conditions. The proposed analytical method provides LODs below the maximum levels established by European Union regulations and the recoveries of the four AFs were between 77 and 93% at spiking levels of 4, 2 and 0.5 microg/kg for AFB(1) and AFG(1) and 1, 0.5 and 0.13 microg/kg for AFB(2) and AFG(2). Validation was carried out using certified reference materials. PLE has been applied for the first time to the analysis of AFs in nuts and offers the possibility for fast simple and accurate quantitative determination of studied mycotoxins.

  2. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  3. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in different types of maize by matrix solid phase dispersion and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Barros; de Castro Gomes Vieira, Carolyne Menezes; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2017-10-15

    This work involved the optimization and validation of a method, according to Directive 2002/657/EC and the Analytical Quality Assurance Manual of Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, Brazil, for simultaneous extraction and determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize. The extraction procedure was based on a matrix solid phase dispersion approach, the optimization of which employed a sequence of different factorial designs. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for determining these analytes using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The optimized method employed only 1g of silica gel for dispersion and elution with 70% ammonium formate aqueous buffer (50mmolL -1 , pH 9), representing a simple, cheap and chemically friendly sample preparation method. Trueness (recoveries: 86-106%), precision (RSD ≤19%), decision limits, detection capabilities and measurement uncertainties were calculated for the validated method. The method scope was expanded to popcorn kernels, white maize kernels and yellow maize grits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 contaminants in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yiping; Zhang Yu; Han Shiyun; Han Zheng; Wu Yongning

    2011-01-01

    The present work developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 residues in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and especially focused on the optimization of extraction, clean-up, UHPLC separation and MS/MS parameters. The method involves addition of fumonisins isotope internal standards, extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and water and clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A single-laboratory method validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels for repeatability and recovery according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines. The LOQ of FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 were 1.50, 1.65 and 0.4 μg kg -1 , respectively, which were lower than the criteria of EU, USA and other countries regarding minimum residue limits of fumonisins in foods including baby foods and feedstuffs. Recoveries of three fumonisins ranged from 80.9% to 97.0% with RSD values of 2.4-11.1%.The advantages of this method include simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, and it fulfills the requirements for food analysis with respect to minimum residue limits of fumonisins in various countries.

  5. In-house validation of a method for determining aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in wheat and wheat by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Machado Trombete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are naturally occurring carcinogenic substances, extremely toxic to humans, which have been identified in wheat and wheat by-products. The use of reliable analytical methods to evaluate and monitor such contaminants is extremely important. This study aimed to in-house validate a methodology to determine aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in wheat grains using pre-column derivatization and quantification by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD. Three methods were evaluated and the most suitable one was the method based on the extraction with chloroform, removal of interfering chemicals by filtration, liquid-liquid partition with hexane-methanol-water and methanol-water-chloroform and pre-column derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid. The method showed a Relative Standard Deviation lower than 15% and recovery values in the 70-110% range, with limits of detection and quantification (0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.2 µg kg-1, respectively below the maximum level of aflatoxins allowed in wheat and wheat by-products by the European Commission (4.0 µg kg-1 and by the Brazilian legislation (5.0 µg kg-1. Using the validated method, aflatoxins were quantified in 20 commercial samples of wheat grains, wheat bran, whole wheat flour and refined wheat flour intended for direct human consumption. Six samples (30% were positive for aflatoxins and all samples presented levels below the maximum limit stipulated by the Brazilian legislation.

  6. Truncated ErbB2 receptor enhances ErbB1 signaling and induces reversible, ERK-independent loss of epithelial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, M; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Jäättelä, M

    2001-01-01

    Shedding of the extracellular domain of the ErbB2 tyrosine kinase receptor and expression of the remaining NH(2)-terminally truncated ErbB2 correlates with lymph node metastases and adverse outcome in human breast cancer. To study the possible signaling from such a truncated receptor, MCF-7 human...... breast cancer cells expressing NH(2)-terminally truncated ErbB2 (DeltaNErbB2) were compared with cells overexpressing wild-type ErbB2. Expression of DeltaNErbB2 in MCF-7 cells resulted in sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, extensive loss of the epithelial morphology......, appearance of vesicles and long protrusions as well as pronounced scattering of the cells. Similar alterations were observed upon ErbB2 overexpression but at much lower levels. Employing cell clones with inducible expression of DeltaNErbB2, it was revealed that the morphological changes were fully reversible...

  7. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and vitamin B2 intake, genetic polymorphisms of related enzymes, and risk of colorectal cancer in a hospital-based case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Ishihara, Junko; Natsukawa, Syusuke; Shaura, Kozo; Koizumi, Yoichi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yoshimura, Kimio; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of nutrient intake involved in the one-carbon pathway of folate for DNA methylation and DNA synthesis and the related enzyme genetic polymorphisms with colorectal cancer. Cases were 107 patients newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Controls were 224 subjects matched with cases by sex, age, and residential area. Nutrient intake was assessed by a self-administered, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Four genetic polymorphisms-MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and ALDH2 Glu487Lys-were determined using blood samples. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and dietary fiber intake. Although folate intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, this association was attenuated after further controlling for dietary fiber intake. Neither vitamin B6, vitamin B12, nor vitamin B2, nor any genetic polymorphism was significantly associated with colorectal cancer. MTRR polymorphism interacted with the association of folate (P for interaction = 0.04) or vitamin (P for interaction = 0.02) with colorectal cancer, although the other polymorphisms did not interact with any nutrient intake. In conclusion, the study did not support the existing hypothesis of gene-nutrient interaction in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  8. Fumonisin B1 and B2 occurrence in dried fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) under Meander Valley's climatic conditions and relationship with fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoglu, I; Aksoy, U; Pehlivan, R

    2011-11-01

    Fusarium is the agent causing endosepsis (internal rot) in fig fruits and it is widespread in fig orchards in the Aegean region. This research was conducted to determine the natural occurrence of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)) on dried fig fruits of Sarilop (syn. Calimyrna) variety which are mainly grown in the Big and Small Meander Basins in the Aegean region, representing 60% of world dried fig production. A total of 262 samples belonging to two quality classes, Class A and Class cull, were collected from 12 different locations during the two crop years in 2004 and 2005. The fumonisin detection method is based on extraction with methanol-acetonitrile-water, derivatization with o-phthaldehyde and quantification by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The mean concentrations of FB(1) and FB(2) in fumonisin-positive samples were 0.080 ± 0.047 µg g(-1) and 0.055 ± 0.031 µg g(-1) and ranged from LOD to 0.332 µg g(-1) and from LOD to 0.198 µg g(-1), respectively. The incidence of fumonisins significantly differed between the two crop years. This difference can be attributed to the alteration in the rainfall regime from mid-May to mid-August (7.2 mm in 2004, 90.9 mm in 2005) and number of humid wind currents from a westerly direction (183 in 2004, 492 in 2005) from the end of July and mid-August that may have triggered a higher incidence of Fusarium spp. and thus fumonisin production.

  9. Peritoneal B-1b and B-2 B-cells confer long-term protection from pneumococcal serotype 3 infection after vaccination with Prevnar-13 and are defective in sickle cell disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Christina; Szczepanek, Steven M

    2017-06-16

    Long-term immunity after inoculation with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar-13) is impaired in sickle cell disease (SCD) mice. We sought to determine which B-cell subsets are defective in SCD mice after vaccination with Prevnar-13, yet confer long-term immunity in wild-type (WT) mice. We vaccinated WT and SCD mice three times at three week intervals with Prevnar-13. Fourteen weeks later, 5∗10 4 cells of isolated peritoneal B-1a, B-1b, and B-2 cells were harvested and intraperitoneally transferred to Rag -/- recipients. A week later recipients were intraperitoneally challenged with 10 3 CFU of Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotype 3). Recipient mice that received either B-1b or B-2 B-cells from WT mice survived challenge, whereas mice that received B-1a cells died. Recipient mice that received B-1a, B-1b, or B-2 cells from SCD mice died after challenge. Both B-1b and B-2 cells appear to confer long-term immunity after Prevnar-13 vaccination, yet neither subset functions properly in SCD mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of azole fungicides as a tool to control growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1and B2production in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Eva M; Gómez, José Vicente; Gimeno-Adelantado, José Vicente; Romera, David; Mateo-Castro, Rufino; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a highly aflatoxin (AF)-producing species infecting maize and other crops. It is dominant in tropical regions, but it is also considered an emerging problem associated with climate change in Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of azole fungicides (prochloraz, tebuconazole and a 2:1 (w/w) mixture of prochloraz plus tebuconazole) to control the growth of A. flavus and AF production in yeast-extract-sucrose (YES) agar and in maize kernels under different water activities (a w ) and temperatures. Aflatoxins B 1 and B 2 were determined by LC with fluorescence detection and post-column derivatisation of AFB 1 . In YES medium and maize grains inoculated with conidia of A. flavus, the growth rate (GR) of the fungus and AFB 1 and AFB 2 production were significantly influenced by temperature and treatment. In YES medium and maize kernels, optimal temperatures for GR and AF production were 37 and 25°C, respectively. In maize kernels, spore germination was not detected at the combination 37ºC/0.95 a w ; however, under these conditions germination was found in YES medium. All fungicides were more effective at 0.99 than 0.95 a w , and at 37 than 25ºC. Fungicides effectiveness was prochloraz > prochloraz plus tebuconazole (2:1) > tebuconazole. AFs were not detected in cultures containing the highest fungicide doses, and only very low AF levels were found in cultures containing 0.1 mg l - 1 prochloraz or 5.0 mg l - 1 tebuconazole. Azoles proved to be highly efficient in reducing A. flavus growth and AF production, although stimulation of AF production was found under particular conditions and low-dosage treatments. Maize kernels were a more favourable substrate for AF biosynthesis than YES medium. This paper is the first comparative study on the effects of different azole formulations against A. flavus and AF production in a semi-synthetic medium and in maize grain under different environmental conditions.

  11. Application of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes supporting cuprous oxide and silver oxide composite catalyst on copper substrate for simultaneous detection of vitamin B2, vitamin B6and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangjan, Apinya; Chaiyasith, Suwan; Taweeporngitgul, Wipawee; Keawtep, Jeerunda

    2017-07-01

    A new electrochemical sensor was fabricated from chemically functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes and electrochemically deposited cuprous oxide and silver oxide composite over the nanotubes on copper substrate. The structural, functional, morphological, electrical properties and elemental composition of the composite were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The developed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical catalytic activity toward oxidation of vitamin B 2 (VB 2 ), ascorbic acid (AA) and vitamin B 6 (VB 6 ). Compared to the performance of simple copper substrate, that of the modified electrode was greatly superior. This can be attributed to its robust structure, excellent conductivity and large surface area. With a simple electrode that relies on linear diffusion at the surface, an electrochemical analytical method may have a selectivity problem, i.e., various species present in the target medium may oxidize or reduce at potentials not very different from each other. The conducting porous layer of our modified electrode alters this diffusion characteristic to one of approximately 'thin layer' that facilitates better discrimination between species. In this work, differential pulse voltammetry was used for simultaneous determination of VB 2 , AA and VB 6 . The linear ranges were 0.05-1752.65μM, 0.05-1628.54μM and 0.02-1056.12μM, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 0.014μM, 0.011μM and 0.008μM, respectively. In addition to its high performance, this inexpensive sensor is perfectly stable for simultaneous determination of these species in real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Divergent evolution of cis-acting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor elements that differentially control the tandemly duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes, fabp1b.1 and fabp1b.2, in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprairie, Robert B; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Wright, Jonathan M

    2016-06-01

    Gene duplication is thought to facilitate increasing complexity in the evolution of life. The fate of most duplicated genes is nonfunctionalization: functional decay resulting from the accumulation of mutations. According to the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model, duplicated genes are retained by subfunctionalization, where the functions of the ancestral gene are sub-divided between duplicate genes, or by neofunctionalization, where one of the duplicates acquires a new function. Here, we report the differential regulation of the zebrafish tandemly duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes, fabp1b.1 and fabp1b.2, by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). fabp1b.1 mRNA levels were induced in tissue explants of liver, but not intestine, by PPAR agonists. fabp1b.1 promoter activity was induced to a greater extent by rosiglitazone (PPARγ-selective agonist) compared to WY 14,643 (PPARα-selective agonist) in HEK293A cells. Mutation of a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) at -1232 bp in the fabp1b.1 promoter reduced PPAR-dependent activation. fabp1b.2 promoter activity was not affected by PPAR agonists. Differential regulation of the duplicated fabp1b promoters may be the result of PPRE loss in fabp1b.2 during a meiotic crossing-over event. Retention of PPAR inducibility in fabp1b.1 and not fabp1b.2 suggests unique regulation and function of the fabp1b duplicates.

  13. Effects of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormones rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2 on the osmo-ionic regulation of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Díaz, Fernando; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2018-03-26

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline organism that copes with salinity fluctuations in the environment; therefore, its osmotic and ionic regulation abilities are vital. Osmoregulation may be controlled by the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a neuropeptide mainly expressed in the eyestalks. In L. vannamei, CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 are CHH isoforms isolated from the eyestalks whose expression is influenced by environmental salinity. It has been suggested that they are involved in the response to salinity stress. To clarify this, we investigated the effect of the recombinant peptides, rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2, on the osmo-ionic regulation of shrimp acutely exposed to different salinity conditions (8, 26 and 45‰). Both rCHHs promoted differential effects on the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and the ionoregulatory capacity (IC) for hemolymph Na + and Cl - during iso-osmotic (26‰) and hyper-osmotic (45‰) transfers. These changes were linked to the changes observed in Na + /K + ATPase and carbonic anhydrase gene expression in gills, especially under high salinity conditions, suggesting that the hormones may regulate the expression of these genes. Glucose and protein levels measured during acute salinity transfer suggest their roles as sources of metabolic energy for osmotic regulation or as organic osmolytes. These results taken together suggest that both the CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 peptides are important regulators of the physiological response of L. vannamei to acute salinity fluctuations.

  14. Investigation of Non-Covalent Interactions of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 with Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are widely spread mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus species. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and drinks causes serious health risks for people worldwide. It is well-known that the reactive epoxide metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 forms covalent adducts with serum albumin. However, non-covalent interactions of aflatoxins with human serum albumin (HSA are poorly characterized. Thus, in this study the complex formation of aflatoxins was examined with HSA applying spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Our results demonstrate that aflatoxins form stable complexes with HSA as reflected by binding constants between 2.1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104 dm3/mol. A binding free energy value of −26.90 kJ mol−1 suggests a spontaneous binding process between AFB1 and HSA at room-temperature, while the positive entropy change of 55.1 JK−1 mol−1 indicates a partial decomposition of the solvation shells of the interacting molecules. Modeling studies and investigations with site markers suggest that Sudlow’s Site I of subdomain IIA is the high affinity binding site of aflatoxins on HSA. Interaction of AFB1 with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumins was also investigated. Similar stabilities of the examined AFB1-albumin complexes were observed suggesting the low species differences of the albumin-binding of aflatoxins.

  15. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  16. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-10-14

    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  17. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit Vitamin B6 source References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, ...

  18. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is naturally present in many foods. The body needs vitamin B6 for more than 100 enzyme reactions involved ... immune function . How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin B6 you need depends on your age. Average ...

  19. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods.

  20. Broad-spectrum immunoaffinity cleanup for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, M2in Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its pharmaceutical preparations by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shujuan; Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Shao, Bing; Zhu, Kui; Sun, Yuanze; Yao, Kai; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Chunlin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Haiyang

    2017-11-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 , M 1 and M 2 (AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 , AFM 1 and AFM 2 ) in Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its pharmaceutical preparations. A rapid and reliable immunoaffinity column containing a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody for six aflatoxins was used for sample cleanup. Under the optimized conditions, the home-made immunoaffinity column capacity were about 315, 319, 292, 102, 444 and 369ng/mL gel for AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 , AFM 1 and AFM 2 , respectively. Recoveries for all tested aflatoxins ranged from 79.28% to 103.42% with relative standard deviation less than 8%. The limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.008-0.045μg/kg. Among 31 real samples analyzed, one sample was contaminated with AFB 1 , AFB 2 and AFM 1 at levels of 0.483, 0.068 and 0.104μg/kg, respectively. The established method is simple, accurate, and can be effectively used to determine the aflatoxins in Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cómo preparar la prueba de expresión oral de los diplomas B1 y B2 del DELE. Consejos y actividades prácticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Giménez Folqués

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Diploma de Español como Lengua Extranjera (DELE, uno de los bloques que más preocupación causa tanto a profesores como a alumnos es el de expresión oral, por la escasez de materiales con los que se cuentan. Pocos son los recursos que se ofrecen en forma de manuales o en páginas web, como sí sucede en el ámbito del E/LE. En este artículo, mostraremos a los profesores de DELE, en los niveles B1 y B2, actividades prácticas que pueden poner en uso con sus estudiantes para preparar la prueba de expresión oral. Estas actividades tienen un perfil dinámico, interactivo y actual. Además, se mostrarán diferentes ámbitos temáticos en las actividades para cubrirlas expectativas de los estudiantes.

  2. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory standards...

  3. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-HR-MS Method for the Determination of Fumonisin B1 and Its Hydrolysed Metabolites and Fumonisin B2 in Broiler Chicken Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrid De Baere

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of Fumonisin B1 (FB1, its partially hydrolysed metabolites pHFB1a+b and hydrolysed metabolite HFB1, and Fumonisin B2 (FB2 in broiler chicken plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS was developed. The sample preparation was rapid, straightforward and consisted of a deproteinization and phospholipid removal step using an Oasis® OstroTM 96-well plate. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity HSS-T3 column, using 0.3% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate in water, and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The MS/MS instrument was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and the two multiple reaction monitoring transitions were monitored for each component for quantification and identification, respectively. The method was validated in-house: matrix-matched calibration graphs were prepared and good linearity (r ≥ 0.99 was achieved over the concentration ranges tested (1–500 ng/mL for FB1 and FB2; 0.86–860 ng/mL for pHFB1a; 0.72–1430 ng/mL for pHFB1b and 2.5–2500 ng/mL for HFB1. Limits of quantification (LOQ and detection (LOD in plasma ranged between 0.72 to 2.5 ng/mL and 0.03 to 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. The results for the within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell within the specified ranges. Moreover, the method was transferred to an UPLC high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS instrument in order to determine potential metabolites of HFB1, such as N-acyl-HFB1s and phase II metabolites. The method has been successfully applied to investigate the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of HFB1 in broiler chickens.

  4. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  5. Ecotin-Like ISP of L. major Promastigotes Fine-Tunes Macrophage Phagocytosis by Limiting the Pericellular Release of Bradykinin from Surface-Bound Kininogens: A Survival Strategy Based on the Silencing of Proinflammatory G-Protein Coupled Kinin B2 and B1 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Svensjö

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs expressed by Leishmania major enhance intracellular parasitism in macrophages by targeting neutrophil elastase (NE, a serine protease that couples phagocytosis to the prooxidative TLR4/PKR pathway. Here we investigated the functional interplay between ISP-expressing L. major and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. Enzymatic assays showed that NE inhibitor or recombinant ISP-2 inhibited KKS activation in human plasma activated by dextran sulfate. Intravital microscopy in the hamster cheek pouch showed that topically applied L. major promastigotes (WT and Δisp2/3 mutants potently induced plasma leakage through the activation of bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R. Next, using mAbs against kininogen domains, we showed that these BK-precursor proteins are sequestered by L. major promastigotes, being expressed at higher % in the Δisp2/3 mutant population. Strikingly, analysis of the role of kinin pathway in the phagocytic uptake of L. major revealed that antagonists of B2R or B1R reversed the upregulated uptake of Δisp2/3 mutants without inhibiting macrophage internalization of WT L. major. Collectively, our results suggest that L. major ISP-2 fine-tunes macrophage phagocytosis by inhibiting the pericellular release of proinflammatory kinins from surface bound kininogens. Ongoing studies should clarify whether L. major ISP-2 subverts TLR4/PKR-dependent prooxidative responses of macrophages by preventing activation of G-protein coupled B2R/B1R.

  6. Ecotin-like ISP of L. major promastigotes fine-tunes macrophage phagocytosis by limiting the pericellular release of bradykinin from surface-bound kininogens: a survival strategy based on the silencing of proinflammatory G-protein coupled kinin B2 and B1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensjö, Erik; Nogueira de Almeida, Larissa; Vellasco, Lucas; Juliano, Luiz; Scharfstein, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs) expressed by Leishmania major enhance intracellular parasitism in macrophages by targeting neutrophil elastase (NE), a serine protease that couples phagocytosis to the prooxidative TLR4/PKR pathway. Here we investigated the functional interplay between ISP-expressing L. major and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). Enzymatic assays showed that NE inhibitor or recombinant ISP-2 inhibited KKS activation in human plasma activated by dextran sulfate. Intravital microscopy in the hamster cheek pouch showed that topically applied L. major promastigotes (WT and Δisp2/3 mutants) potently induced plasma leakage through the activation of bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R). Next, using mAbs against kininogen domains, we showed that these BK-precursor proteins are sequestered by L. major promastigotes, being expressed at higher % in the Δisp2/3 mutant population. Strikingly, analysis of the role of kinin pathway in the phagocytic uptake of L. major revealed that antagonists of B2R or B1R reversed the upregulated uptake of Δisp2/3 mutants without inhibiting macrophage internalization of WT L. major. Collectively, our results suggest that L. major ISP-2 fine-tunes macrophage phagocytosis by inhibiting the pericellular release of proinflammatory kinins from surface bound kininogens. Ongoing studies should clarify whether L. major ISP-2 subverts TLR4/PKR-dependent prooxidative responses of macrophages by preventing activation of G-protein coupled B2R/B1R.

  7. A propos cahier d'exercices : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire et avancé. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses indications pédagogiques pour aborder et exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques. La méthode " A propos " se compose de : - un manuel de l'élève pour les activités de classe avec la transcription des documents sonores ; - un coffret de 2 cd contenant plus de 50 documents sonores originaux ; - un cahier d'exercices pour le travail individuel de l'étudiant ; - un guide pédagogique proposant de très nombreux documents et activités complémentaires pour le professeur, avec le corrigé des exercices.

  8. SoxB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Evgeniya; Arnone, Maria Ina; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system. This discovery raised several questions about SoxB2 function and regulation in deuterostomes from an evolutionary point of view. Due to the relevant phylogenetic position within deuterostomes, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus represents an advantageous animal model in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Herein, we show a comprehensive study of SoxB2 functions in sea urchins, in particular its expression pattern in a wide range of developmental stages, and its co-localization with other neurogenic markers, as SoxB1 , SoxC and Elav . Moreover, this work provides a detailed description of the phenotype of sea urchin SoxB2 knocked-down embryos, confirming its key function in neurogenesis and revealing, for the first time, its additional roles in oral and aboral ectoderm cilia and skeletal rod morphology. We concluded that SoxB2 in sea urchins has a neurogenic function; however, this gene could have multiple roles in sea urchin embryogenesis, expanding its expression in non-neurogenic cells. We showed that SoxB2 is functionally conserved among deuterostomes and suggested that in S. purpuratus this gene acquired additional functions, being involved in ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

  9. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - What food contains vitamin B1? - What is the disease beriberi? This fast-paced game relies on a keen knowledge of food containing vitamin B1 and good keyboard skills to ...

  10. New borohydride anion B6H7-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.Yu.; Vinitskij, D.M.; Solntsev, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The [Ni(Bipy) 3 ] (B 6 H 7 ) 2 , (Ph 4 P)B 6 H 7 , [Ni(Phen) 3 ](B 6 H 7 ) 2 crystals (where Bipy = bipyridine, Phen = phenathroline, Ph = phenyl) are obtained via the exchange reaction with a subsequent recrystallization from aqua-acetonic and acetonic solutions. The structure is studied of a new borohydride anion B 6 H 7 - possessing a four-valence bond unique for polyhedral borohydride anions. A triangular face of boride skeleton coordinating a hydrogen atom is considerably larger than other faces, and the electron density on this hydrogen atom is evidently much higher than at the end hydride hydrogen atoms. The trend of B 6 H 7 - anion to form statistically disordered structurs testifies to a rather slight effect of the seventh hydrogen atom position on the structure pattern of the ionic crystal lattice

  11. Development of Multiple Heart-Cutting Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole-Orbitrap High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, and Ochratoxin A in Snus, a Smokeless Tobacco Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dawei; Fei, Ting; Liu, Hong; Yao, Heming; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan

    2017-11-15

    The combination of multiple heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography (MHC-LC/LC) and quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for simultaneous determination of the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in snus is presented in this work. A C18 capillary column was used as the first dimension (1D) to isolate the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A from the complex matrices; then, a 2-position/10-port high-pressure valve equipped with two 60 μL loops was employed to transfer the heart-cuts of 1D-LC into a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column for the second dimension (2D) separation. With the better separation of the MHC-LC/LC system, the sensitivity of the method was improved, which is essential for the trace mycotoxins analysis. Furthermore, HRMS performed in parallel reaction monitoring mode was employed to eliminate the interferences, and the sample pretreatment procedure was simplified. A new approach utilizing ethyl acetate with 1% formic acid/water solution was adopted to extract aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in snus, which provided parallel recoveries for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A with higher responses in comparison with the QuEChERS method. A dynamic range between 0.2 and 20 μg/kg was achieved with LOQs of 0.05 μg/kg for aflatoxin B 1 , 0.1 μg/kg for aflatoxin B 2 , G 1 , G 2 , and 1.0 μg/kg for ochratoxin A in dry mass of product. The results revealed that the established method exhibited good repeatability and recovery and could be used as a rapid and reliable approach for routine analysis of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in snus.

  12. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2in animal feeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Zhu, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Ning, Jinyan; Yang, Yaling

    2016-10-01

    A novel two-step extraction technique combining ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with magnetic solid-phase extraction was developed for the preconcentration and separation of aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs before high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this work, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hydrophobic pelargonic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent were applied to retrieve the aflatoxins-containing ionic liquid. Notably, the target of magnetic nanoparticles was the ionic liquid rather than the aflatoxins. Because of the rapid mass transfer associated with the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid phase steps, fast extraction could be achieved. The main parameters affecting the extraction recoveries of aflatoxins were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, vortexing at 2500 rpm for 1 min in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid-phase extraction and then desorption by sonication for 2 min with acetonitrile as eluent. The recoveries were 90.3-103.7% with relative standard deviations of 3.2-6.4%. Good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9995. The detection limits were 0.632, 0.087, 0.422 and 0.146 ng/mL for aflatoxins B 1 , B2, G1, and G2, respectively. The results were also compared with the pretreatment method carried out by conventional immunoaffinity columns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Vitamin B6 and immune competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, L C; Meydani, S N

    1993-08-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that vitamin B6 deficiency affects both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Lymphocyte differentiation and maturation are altered by deficiency, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses are reduced, and antibody production may be indirectly impaired. Although repletion of the vitamin restores these functions, megadoses do not produce benefits beyond those observed with moderate supplementation. Additional human studies indicate that vitamin B6 status may influence tumor growth and disease processes. Deficiency of the vitamin has been associated with immunological changes observed in the elderly, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and those with uremia or rheumatoid arthritis. Future research efforts should focus on establishing the mechanism underlying the effects of vitamin B6 on immunity and should attempt to establish safe intake levels that optimize immune response.

  14. Superhard and Superconducting B6C

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Kang; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Cong; Gao, Hao; Chen, Qun; He, Julong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Hui-Tian; Tian, Yongjun; Xing, Dingyu

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure searching and ab initio calculations have been used here to explore low-energy structures of boron carbides under high pressure. Under pressures of 85-110 GPa, a metastable B6C with R-3m symmetry is found to be energetically more stable than the mixture of previous B4C and elemental boron. This B6C is a rhombohedral structure and contains mooncake-like B24 clusters with stuffing of C2 pairs. The mechanical and dynamical stabilities of this structure at ambient pressure are c...

  15. Vitamin B-6 metabolism in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, D J; Reynolds, R D; Andon, M B; Robbins, S T; Fletcher, A B

    1991-01-01

    The response of premature infants to intravenous pyridoxine or pyridoxal was studied by measuring serum and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). In the first study serum PLP was measured in 28 infants periodically through day 28. Infants less than 30 wk gestational age (GA) had no serum PLP response to the administration of pyridoxine. Infants greater than or equal to 30 wk GA had significantly greater concentrations of PLP by day 3. In the second study there was a negligible response of serum PLP in nine infants less than or equal to 28 wk GA to supplementation of pyridoxine or pyridoxal. However, erythrocyte PLP and whole-blood total vitamin B-6 concentrations increased in both groups, indicating the presence of a substantial amount of the vitamin in the circulation of the infants. Whereas the functional significance of these observations is not known, it appears that in premature infants, serum PLP may not be an appropriate indicator of vitamin B-6 status.

  16. Cyp8b1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaggia, Enrico; Jensen, Kristian K; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xu, Yimeng; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Chan, Robin B; Wang, Liangsu; Haeusler, Rebecca A

    2017-08-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives that regulate lipid metabolism, through their dual abilities to promote lipid absorption and activate BA receptors. However, different BA species have varying abilities to perform these functions. Eliminating 12α-hydroxy BAs in mice via Cyp8b1 knockout causes low body weight and improved glucose tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine mechanisms of low body weight in Cyp8b1 -/- mice. We challenged Cyp8b1 -/- mice with a Western-type diet and assessed body weight and composition. We measured energy expenditure, fecal calories, and lipid absorption and performed lipidomic studies on feces and intestine. We investigated the requirement for dietary fat in the phenotype using a fat-free diet. Cyp8b1 -/- mice were resistant to Western diet-induced body weight gain, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. These changes were associated with increased fecal calories, due to malabsorption of hydrolyzed dietary triglycerides. This was reversed by treating the mice with taurocholic acid, the major 12α-hydroxylated BA species. The improvements in body weight and steatosis were normalized by feeding mice a fat-free diet. The effects of BA composition on intestinal lipid handling are important for whole body energy homeostasis. Thus modulating BA composition is a potential tool for obesity or diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. CYP7B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, P; Svenstrup, K; Danielsen, E R

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids......, electrophysiology, brain MRI and MR spectroscopy. RESULTS: One patient had saccadic pursuit eye movements in addition to a pure HSP phenotype. Motor evoked potential (MEP) examinations revealed prolonged central conduction time. MRI of the brain showed white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in one patient. MRS showed...

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  19. aflatoxina b1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valdivia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de probar que la suplementación dietética de ácido elágico (AE o N-Acetilcisteína (NAC en pollos de engorda, atenúa los efectos de una intoxicación aguda por la aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, se intoxicaron con AFB1 pura, tres grupos de diez pollos cada uno (3.0 mb/kg pc, IP. Otros tres grupos recibieron solamente el vehículo (aceite de maíz 2.0 ml/kg pc, IP. Cuatro días antes se administró un alimento testigo, o bien, la misma dieta adicionada con AE (2.5 g/kg o NAC (200 mg/kg pc/6 h. A las 24 horas de la administración de AFB1, se cuantificaron las concentraciones hepáticas de glutatión (GSH, de actividad enzimática específica de la transferasa de glutatión (GST, alanina aminotransferasa, aspartato aminotransferasa y de proteínas hepáticas totales. Los resultados mostraron que NAC atenúa el impacto negativo de la AFB1 sobre el crecimiento corporal y al igual que AE, incrementa la GST y revierte parcialmente los efectos de AFB1 sobre GSH, lo cual sugiere que ambas sustancias pudieran conferir un efecto protector de las aves

  20. B1 Aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    , engineering and architectural basis which will support the appropriate use of aerogels in windows, solar collectors and passive solar applications, with the aim of saving or producing thermal energy for use in buildings".This objective is in very good agreement with the general scope of task 18 but where Task...... of aerogel as a material for window applications3. Construction of an aerogel DGU and measurement of key performance parameters. The goal for the aerogel DGU was to reach a Total Solar Energy Transmittance above 0.75 and a U-value below 0.5 W/m²K. These are values that can not be simultaneously reached......The report summarizes the work that has been carried out within the project "B1 AEROGELS" as a part of the IEA SH&CP Task 18 "Advanced Glazing and Associated Materials For Solar And Building Applications".By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very...

  1. Methadone N-Demethylation by the Common CYP2B6 Allelic Variant CYP2B6.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel, Sarah; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The long-acting opioid methadone displays considerable unexplained interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Methadone metabolism clinically occurs primarily by N-demethylation to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), catalyzed predominantly by CYP2B6. Retrospective studies suggest that the common allele variant CYP2B6*6 may influence methadone plasma concentrations. The catalytic activity of CYP2B6.6, encoded by CYP2B6*6, is highly substrate-dependent. This investigation compared methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 with that by wild-type CYP2B6.1. Methadone enantiomer and racemate N-demethylation by recombinant-expressed CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 was determined. At substrate concentrations (0.25–2 µM) approximating plasma concentrations occurring clinically, rates of methadone enantiomer N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6, incubated individually or as the racemate, were one-third to one-fourth those by CYP2B6.1. For methadone individual enantiomers and metabolism by CYP2B6.6 compared with CYP2B6.1, Vmax was diminished, Ks was greater and the in vitro intrinsic clearance was diminished 5- to 6-fold. The intrinsic clearance for R- and S-EDDP formation from racemic methadone was diminished approximately 6-fold and 3-fold for R- and S-methadone, respectively. Both CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 showed similar stereoselectivity (S>R-methadone). Human liver microsomes with diminished CYP2B6 content due to a CYP2B6*6 allele had lower rates of methadone N-demethylation. Results show that methadone N-demethylation catalyzed by CYP2B6.6, the CYP2B6 variant encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, is catalytically deficient compared with wild-type CYP2B6.1. Diminished methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 may provide a mechanistic explanation for clinical observations of altered methadone disposition in individuals carrying the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism. PMID:23298862

  2. (SELAX strain) B2 amplicon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Restriction enzyme digests of the clones suggested that the cloned portion of the B2 amplicon was 16 kb. Key words: B2 gene, A2B2 esterase, insecticide resistance. INTRODUCTION. Organophosphate resistance in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes has been shown to be correlated with the presence of ...

  3. Dietary protein as a factor affecting vitamin B6 requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M; Shibuya, M; Akazawa, T; Muya, H; Murakami, Y

    1998-02-01

    Rats were fed 20 or 70% casein diets with varying amounts of vitamin B6 (B6), and the B6 content and B6-dependent enzymatic activity in their tissues were examined to determine the minimum requirement of B6 for animals subjected to different levels of dietary protein (i.e., 20%: 0, 1.45, 2.90, 5.80 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet; 70%: 0, 2.90, 5.80, 8.70 mg PN/kg diet). B6 requirements for the rats were almost met in the 1.45 mg PN/kg 20% casein diet and the 2.90 mg PN/kg 70% casein diet when judged from the hepatic B6 content. However, almost twice the PN was required in both 20 and 70% casein diets when judged from PLP-enzymatic activity. The content of B6 vitamers in plasma appeared to be most sensitive to B6 status, though the satisfactory level is not known. It was confirmed that, in any case tested, a high-protein diet increased the requirement of B6.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Bognár, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.; Bognar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macacar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macacar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  6. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  7. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  8. Discovery of the magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lupi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Landstreet, J.; Grunhut, J.; Oksala, M.; Wade, G.; MiMeS Collaboration, [Unknown; Hoffman, J.L.; Bjorkman, J.; Whitney, B.

    2012-01-01

    In our search for new magnetic massive stars we use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of UV stellar wind lines occurring in a velocity range symmetric around zero. Our aim is to obtain follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic

  9. The magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Wade, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star σ Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained.

  10. 10522 ASSESSMENT OF AFLATOXINS B1, B2, G1 AND G2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-13

    Apr 13, 2013 ... occurs when high concentrations of aflatoxins are consumed. Symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis include vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice, liver damage and ..... Pitt JI Application of the food safety objective concept to the problem of aflatoxins in peanuts. Mitt. Lebensm. Hyg, 2004; 95: 52-58. 19.

  11. Determining the frequencies of B1, B2, B3 and E alleles of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-06-04

    Jun 4, 2016 ... AN, and AF) in Alpine, Saanen and Toggenburg goats (Vázquez-Flores et al., 2012). Despite the number of studies that determined the frequency of CSN1S1 alleles, investigations into the effects of the CSN1S1 gene on milk yield and composition are limited. Furthermore, there is no published information ...

  12. B1-B2 phase transition mechanism and pathway of PbS under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adebayo A.; Yao, Yansun

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies at finite Pressure-Temperature (P-T) conditions and a theoretical study at 0 K of the phase transition in lead sulphide (PbS) have been inconclusive. Many studies that have been done to understand structural transformation in PbS can broadly be classified into two main ideological streams—one with Pnma and another with Cmcm orthorhombic intermediate phase. To foster better understanding of this phenomenon, we present the result of the first-principles study of phase transition in PbS at finite temperature. We employed the particle swarm-intelligence optimization algorithm for the 0 K structure search and first-principles metadynamics simulations to study the phase transition pathway of PbS from the ambient pressure, 0 K Fm-3m structure to the high-pressure Pm-3m phase under experimentally achievable P-T conditions. Significantly, our calculation shows that both streams are achievable under specific P-T conditions. We further uncover new tetragonal and monoclinic structures of PbS with space group P21/c and I41/amd, respectively. We propose the P21/c and I41/amd as a precursor phase to the Pnma and Cmcm phases, respectively. We investigated the stability of the new structures and found them to be dynamically stable at their stability pressure range. Electronic structure calculations reveal that both P21/c and I41/amd phases are semiconducting with direct and indirect bandgap energies of 0.69(5) eV and 0.97(3) eV, respectively. In general, both P21/c and I41/amd phases were found to be energetically competitive with their respective orthorhombic successors.

  13. The mechanism of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to remove fumonisins B1 and B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Junwen; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bolin

    2016-11-01

    Two Lactobacillus strains, L. plantarum B7 and L. pentosus X8, exhibited high efficiency in removing fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) from aqueous medium. 52.9% FB1 and 85.2% FB2 were bound by L. plantarum B7, and 58.0% FB1 and 86.5% FB2 by L. pentosus X8, respectively. Temperature, incubation time, and pH affected the binding ability of two strains. Cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. The various components of cell wall were determined for their ability to absorb FBS. The results revealed that the intact peptidoglycans exhibited the greatest capacity in binding FBs. Especially the better structural integrity of the peptidoglycans the more FBs was bound. Thus, the absorption of two bacterial cells to FBs is proposed to be a physical process, and peptidoglycans should be the main binding site. Additionally, Caco-2 cell lines were used to evaluate the ability of the two strains to reduce the damage of FBs in vitro. Caco-2 cell's death was reduced after the cell lines were subjected to both viable and non-viable L. pentosus X8, respectively. The two Lactobacillus strains might be used as a biological detoxification for the removal of FBs from diet and feed in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A propos livre de l'élève : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de Français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques

  15. Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated epilepsy of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Shakirullah Shakir, Niaz Ali, Zia Udin, Haleema Nazish , Muhammad Nabi. Institute of Basic Medical Science, Khyber Medical University. Abstract. Objectives: The study focused on the plasma levels of vitamin B6 and ...

  16. Vitamin B6 is essential for serine de novo biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Rúben J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970590; Pras-Raves, Mia L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970345; Gerrits, Johan; van der Ham, Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810533; Willemsen, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993833; Prinsen, Hubertus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250628228; Burgering, Boudewijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081474547; Jans, Judith J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256345732; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556

    2017-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B6, plays an essential role in brain metabolism as a cofactor in numerous enzyme reactions. PLP deficiency in brain, either genetic or acquired, results in severe drug-resistant seizures that respond to vitamin B6

  17. Cyclin B2 and p53 control proper timing of centrosome separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nam, H.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2014-01-01

    Cyclins B1 and B2 are frequently elevated in human cancers and are associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome; however, whether and how B-type cyclins drive tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that cyclin B1 and B2 transgenic mice are highly prone to tumours, including tumour

  18. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-22

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively. By functional characterization using the 14 variant proteins, 8 variants (V114I, R253C, M435I, V459M, L465P, C475S, R487C, and R487H) showed different rate (>1.5-fold) of testosterone 16β-hydroxylation to wild type. However, the four variants (M435I, L465P, C475S, and R487H) were analyzed in liver microsomes, and the catalytic rates were not substantially different from wild type. Macaque CYP2B6 was polymorphic, and the genotype could partly account for variable enzyme activities of macaque CYP2B6. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Expansion of B-1a cells with germline heavy chain sequence in lupus mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichol E Holodick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC lupus-prone mice carrying the NZB allele of Cdkn2c, encoding for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P18INK4, accumulate B-1a cells due to a higher rate of proliferative self-renewal. However, it is unclear whether this affects primarily early appearing B-1a cells of fetal origin or later appearing B-1a cells that emerge from bone marrow. B-1a cells are the major source of natural autoantibodies, and it has been shown that their protective nature is associated with a germline-like sequence, which is characterized by few N-nucleotide insertions and a repertoire skewed towards rearrangements predominated during fetal life, VH11 and VH12. To determine the nature of B-1a cells expanded in B6.TC mice, we amplified immunoglobulin genes by PCR from single cells in mice. Sequencing showed a significantly higher proportion of B-1a cell antibodies display fewer N-additions in B6.TC mice than in B6 control mice. Following this lower number of N-insertions within the CDR-H3 region, the B6.TC B-1a cells display shorter CDR-H3 length than B6 B-1a cells. The absence of N-additions is a surrogate for fetal origin, as TdT expression starts after birth in mice. Therefore, our results suggest that the B-1a cell population is not only expanded in autoimmune B6.TC mice but also qualitatively different with the majority of cells from fetal origin. Accordingly, our sequencing results also demonstrated overuse of VH11 and VH12 in autoimmune B6.TC mice as compared to B6 controls. These results suggest that the development of lupus autoantibodies in these mice is coupled with skewing of the B-1a cell repertoire and possible retention of protective natural antibodies.

  20. Vitamin B6 prevents cognitive impairment in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Ceretta, Renan A; Dominguini, Diogo; Ferrari, Pâmela; Gubert, Carolina; Jornada, Luciano K; Budni, Josiane; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the relevant cause of bacterial meningitis, with a high-mortality rate and long-term neurological sequelae, affecting up to 50% of survivors. Pneumococcal compounds are pro-inflammatory mediators that induce an innate immune response and tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway. Vitamin B6 acts as a cofactor at the active sites of enzymes that catalyze a great number of reactions involved in the metabolism of tryptophan, preventing the accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of vitamin B6 on memory and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain of adult Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. The animals received either 10 µL of artificial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. The animals were divided into four groups: control, control treated with vitamin B6, meningitis, and meningitis treated with vitamin B6. Ten days after induction, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests: open-field task and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In the open-field task, there was a significant reduction in both crossing and rearing in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group compared with the training session, demonstrating habituation memory. However, the meningitis group showed no difference in motor and exploratory activity between training and test sessions, demonstrating memory impairment. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there was a difference between training and test sessions in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group, demonstrating aversive memory. In the meningitis group, there was no difference between training and test sessions, demonstrating impairment of aversive memory. In the hippocampus, BDNF expression decreased in the meningitis group when compared to the control group; however, adjuvant treatment with vitamin B6 increased BDNF

  1. Erythrocyte vitamin B, and B6 dependent enzymes in adult and newborn Thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Cepa Matos

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de determinar o estado nutricional de cavalos Puro-Sangue Inglês (PSI em relação à riboflavina (vitamina B2 e à piridoxina (vitamina B6, 10 animais adultos e 30 recém-nascidos foram investigados. Foi observado um bom estado nutricional quanto à riboflavina, notando-se moderada deficiência de piridoxina nos animais adultos, mas não nos recém-nascidos. Estes fatos sugerem que os animais adultos devam receber suplementação com piridoxina.

  2. Interaction between vitamin B6 metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas, Maite; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-01-01

    The essential micronutrient vitamin B6 is best known in its enzymatic cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). However, vitamin B6 comprises the amine pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) and the alcohol pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) in addition to PLP, as well as their corresponding non-phosphorylated forms. The different B6 forms (called vitamers) are enzymatically interconverted in a ubiquitous salvage pathway. Recently, we have shown that balancing the ratio of the different B6 vitamers in particular PMP by the PMP/PNP oxidase PDX3 is essential for growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Intriguingly, nitrate to ammonium conversion is impaired in pdx3 mutants, such that the mutants become ammonium-dependent, suggesting an interaction between vitamin B6 and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found a strong up-regulation of genes related to plant defense. Here, we further show that pdx3 mutants display a temperature-sensitive phenotype that is typical of autoimmune mutants and is possibly connected to the impaired nitrogen metabolism.

  3. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Wille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  4. Prebiotic Synthesis of Vitamin B6-type Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sabrina M.; Waddell, Thomas G.

    1999-05-01

    Heating a dilute solution of NH3 and glycoaldehyde gives a large family of pyridines substituted with the same functional groups as occur in the forms of vitamin B6. Thus, vitamin B6-like molecules could have been present on the early Earth and could have been available for catalysis of primitive transamination reactions. Ethanolamine and N-methylethanolamine are also formed as major products. These are choline-like molecules, the latter of which is apparently formed by a prebiotic methylation process.

  5. HPLC analysis of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. OLLILAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the methods for determination of vitamin B6 in foods. To achieve this, the literature review focused on sample treatment and liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin B6 related compounds. In the experimental part, the chosen sample pretreatment and the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method were validated, and used to produce vitamin B6 data on various food items commonly consumed in Finland. The main emphasis of the sample treatment was on the extraction efficiency and the maintenance of the original concentration profile of the vitamers. Several acid extraction procedures were tested for this purpose. Perchloric acid was chosen as the extraction agent. Routine food analysis was then performed using dilute ice-cold perchloric acid extraction followed by an internally standardized ion-paired reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Food samples were hydrolyzed with takadiastase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, phosphorylated and glycosylated vitamers were quantitated before and after the enzymatic digestion. This procedure enabled the extraction of vitamin B6 compounds in their intact forms, and the measurement of free, phosphorylated and glycosylated forms. The maintenance of the concentration profile of the vitamers was verified by using 14C -labeled pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the examination of the extraction procedure. The extraction efficiency and laboratory performance were confirmed by interlaboratory studies. Up-to-date data on vitamin B6 content of about fifty common food items was produced. The data includes the results from meat and poultry, fish and fish product, dairy product, cereal and vegetable, and ready-to-eat food samples. Free and phosphorylated vitamin B6 compounds were measured in all food groups, and the glycosylated vitamer fraction was analyzed in all plant-derived foods. The results obtained in this work showed that vitamin B6 content of nearly all foods of plant

  6. Liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection of B6 vitamers and riboflavin in milk and pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and selective high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection at different programmed wavelengths has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of B 6 vitamers (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine) and Vitamin B 2 in commercial vitaminized milk and in woman milk. The chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed phase octyl column by using a mobile phase consisting of sodium pentanesulfonate in 1% acetic acid-methanol-tetrahydrofuran under gradient elution conditions. The fluorescence intensity of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was enhanced by post-column photochemical conversion, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra by a on-line photoreactor switched OFF and ON under irradiation at 254 nm. In addition, a simple and rapid method in isocratic conditions without the need of photochemical conversion was proposed for the analysis of Vitamin B 6 and Vitamin B 2 in pharmaceuticals. Linearity, precision, recovery, selectivity and sensitivity were found satisfactory for each analysed compound. Quantitation limits ranged from 26 to 240 fmol

  7. ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    The contents and the documentation of the ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries which were released in 1991 and updated in 1993, are summarized. Copies of the data libraries are available on magnetic tape of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree upon request. (author). 1 tab

  8. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities... transaction within the six months prior to the date the price is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative...

  9. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. ... Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. ... We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised ...

  10. Direct and Functional Biomarkers of Vitamin B6 Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Per Magne; Ulvik, Arve; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Midttun, Øivind; Gregory, Jesse F

    2015-01-01

    Measures of B6 status are categorized as direct biomarkers and as functional biomarkers. Direct biomarkers measure B6 vitamers in plasma/serum, urine and erythrocytes, and among these plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is most commonly used. Functional biomarkers include erythrocyte transaminase activities and, more recently, plasma levels of metabolites involved in PLP-dependent reactions, such as the kynurenine pathway, one-carbon metabolism, transsulfuration (cystathionine), and glycine decarboxylation (serine and glycine). Vitamin B6 status is best assessed by using a combination of biomarkers because of the influence of potential confounders, such as inflammation, alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum albumin, renal function, and inorganic phosphate. Ratios between substrate-products pairs have recently been investigated as a strategy to attenuate such influence. These efforts have provided promising new markers such as the PAr index, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid ratio, and the oxoglutarate:glutamate ratio. Targeted metabolic profiling or untargeted metabolomics based on mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites, which are currently evaluated as functional biomarkers, using data reduction statistics.

  11. B1-Metallo-beta-Lactamases: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Maria F.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Fast, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-beta-Lactamases (MBLs) are class B β-lactamases that hydrolyze almost all clinically-available β-lactam antibiotics. MBLs feature the distinctive αβ/βα sandwich fold of the metallo-hydrolase / oxidoreductase superfamily and possess a shallow active-site groove containing one or two divalent zinc ions, flanked by flexible loops. According to sequence identity and zinc ion dependence, MBLs are classified into three subclasses (B1, B2 and B3), of which the B1 subclass enzymes have emerged as the most clinically significant. Differences among the active site architectures, the nature of zinc ligands, and the catalytic mechanisms have limited the development of a common inhibitor. In this review, we will describe the molecular epidemiology and structural studies of the most prominent representatives of class B1 MBLs (NDM-1, IMP-1 and VIM-2) and describe the implications for inhibitor design to counter this growing clinical threat. PMID:26424398

  12. ENDF/B-6 Photon Atomic Interaction Data Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1990-09-01

    The ENDF/B-6 version of the Photo-Atomic Interaction Data Library of the Livermore Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL) contains pair and triplet cross-sections, photoelectric cross-sections, atom form factors, coherent scattering cross-sections and some other data for all the elements from Z=1 to 100. The data library is available on magnetic tape costfree from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The library supersedes the earlier photo-atomic data library by the US Radiation Shielding Information Center RSIC that was included in the data libraries ENDF/B-5 and JEF-1. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Magnetoresistance and magnetization anomalies in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogach, A.V.; Glushkov, V.V.; Demishev, S.V.; Samarin, N.A.; Paderno, Yu.B.; Dukhnenko, A.V.; Shitsevalova, N.Yu.; Sluchanko, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    High precision magnetoresistance (MR) Δρ/ρ(H,T) and magnetization M(H,T) measurements have been carried out for well known and typical strongly correlated electron system-cerium hexaboride. The detailed measurements have been fulfilled on single crystalline samples of CeB 6 over a wide temperature range T>=1.8K in magnetic fields up to 70kOe. It was shown that the MR anomalies in the magnetic heavy fermion compound under investigation can be consistently interpreted in the frameworks of a simple relation between resistivity and magnetization-Δρ/ρ∼M 2 obtained by Yosida [Phys. Rev. 107(1957)396]. A local magnetic susceptibility χ loc (T,H)=(1/H*(d(Δρ/ρ)/dH)) 1/2 was deduced directly from the MR Δρ(H,T) measurements and compared with the experimental data of magnetization M(H,T). The magnetic susceptibility dependences χ loc (T,H) and χ(T,H) obtained in this study for CeB 6 allow us to analyze the complicated H-T magnetic phase diagram of this so-called dense Kondo-system

  14. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  15. 7 CFR 15b.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 15b.1 Section 15b.1 Agriculture Office of the... receiving Federal financial assistance. ...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of handicap in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. The purpose of this... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 8b.1 Section 8b.1 Commerce... HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1...

  17. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by the Department, including but not limited to the individual's education, financial transactions... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a...

  18. Effect of dietary vitamin B6 contents on antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, T; Okada, M; Matsui, A; Hanba, J; Murata, E; Katunuma, N

    2000-01-01

    When mice were placed on diets extreme deficient in vitamin B6, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgE, IgG1, IgG2a) were significantly suppressed, and alanine aminotransferase activity in the liver was also significantly decreased. In the case of pyridoxine excess (6 mg% = about ten times standard amount) in a 70% casein diet, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions were also considerably suppressed. These responses were weaker in a low casein (5%) or normal casein (20%) diet than in a 70% casein diet. The administration of high doses of pyridoxine (6 mg%) resulted in the suppression of hepatic cathepsin B activity. Therefore, we conclude that ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgG1, IgE) were suppressed by pyridoxine excess diet (6 mg%), because hepatic cathepsin B activity was suppressed by the excess pyridoxine in diet.

  19. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  20. The synthesis of tritium-labelled vitamin B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.; Nagorskij, A.I.; Rozenberg, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of pyridoxine (B-6 vitamin) labelled by tritium are obtained due to techniques of liquid-phase and solid-phase heterogeneous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium over palladium catalysts. [ 3 H] molar activity of the vitamin obtained due to liquid-phase exchange constitutes 925-1295 TBq/mole, due to solid-phase one - 1.85-2.96 PBq/mole. 60 % of tritium are localized in 2-CH 3 -group, 25 % - in 4-C 2 HOH-group, 15 % - in 6H in the vitamin specimen obtained due to liquid-phase exchange, while at solid-phase exchange it is localized respectively as 36, 37 and 25 %

  1. Two-orbital model for CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    We describe a two-orbital tight-binding model with bases belonging to the Γ8 quartet. It captures several characteristics of the Fermiology unravelled by the recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopic (ARPES) measurements on cerium hexaboride CeB6 samples cleaved along different high-symmetry crystallographic directions, which includes the ellipsoid-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) with major axes directed along Γ-X. We calculate various multipolar susceptibilities within the model and identify the susceptibility that shows the strongest divergence in the presence of standard onsite Coulomb interactions and discuss its possible implication and relevance with regard to the signature of strong ferromagnetic correlations existent in various phases as shown by the recent experiments.

  2. Protein and vitamin B6 intake are associated with liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography, especially in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Provenzano, Francesco; Colica, Carmela; Torti, Carlo; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2017-09-01

    Although the detrimental effects of several dietary components on the promotion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are well known, no studies have assessed the role of dietary vitamin B6. Moreover, studies on the associations between dietary components or body composition indices and liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography are rare. Our aim was to identify the nutritional factors and anthropometric parameters associated with liver steatosis. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals (35% obese) who underwent a liver steatosis assessment by Controlled Attenuation Parameter measurement and nutritional assessment. Tertiles of vitamin B6 intake were positively associated with hepatic steatosis (B=1.89, P =0.026, confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.80) as well as with triglycerides, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and body mass index . In obese individuals, after multivariable analysis, the Controlled Attenuation Parameter score was still associated with triglycerides, ALT, and total protein intake (B=0.56, P =0.01, CI 0.10-1.02). Participants in tertile I (low intake) had a lower Controlled Attenuation Parameter than those in tertile III ( P =0.01). We found a positive association between hepatic steatosis or Controlled Attenuation Parameter score and vitamin B6/total protein intake, probably related to the high intake of meat. Vitamin B6 might have a pathogenic role related to the increase of hepatic steatosis.

  3. ENDF/B-6 charged-particle sublibraries. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; McLaughlin, P.K.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document summarizes the ENDF/B-6 sublibraries for nuclear reaction data of protons, deuterons and tritons. Presently included are complete (double differential) evaluations for the interaction of protons with H-1 and He-3, and evaluated cross-sections for five fusion reactions between d, t, and He-3 particles. The 1998 and 1999 updates includes complete presentation of the nuclear data for H-1,H-2,He-3,C-12,N-14,O-16,Al-27,P-31,Ca40,Nb-93 and Isotopes of Si, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, W, Pb, needed for transport, damage, heating, radioactivity and shielding applications over the incident proton energy range from 1 to 150 MeV. The data library, which has a size of 40.0 Megabytes, is available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, on floppy diskette, or CD-ROM. The library is available online within NDIS, the Nuclear Data Information System and also from the WWW pages of the Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  4. SOFIA FIFI-LS Observations of Sgr B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean; Cotera, Angela; Kaufman, Michael; Stolovy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Although Sgr B1 is the third most luminous H II region in the Galactic Center, after the region ionized by the central star cluster Sgr A and the very young star-forming region Sgr B2, it has surprisingly not been well studied. Because Sgr B1 is found with Sgr B2 in a common envelope of molecular gas and far-infrared (FIR) emission, it has been assumed that the two sources are physically related, even though the ionized gas of Sgr B1 is much more extended and there are evolved-star indicators of a significantly greater age than Sgr B2. This presents a problem because the current paradigm of Galactic Center gas motions and star formation requires that the entire Sgr B complex must have reasonably similar ages. To clarify the situation, we have mapped Sgr B1 with the FIFI-LS spectrometer on SOFIA in the FIR lines of [O III] 52 and 88 micron, [O I] 146 micron, and [C II] 158 micron. For the most part, we find little correlation of the density-sensitive ratio of the [O III] lines with the radio VLA images or the FIR Herschel PACS images, from which we infer that the structures seen in those images are not due to density enhancements but are due to bubbles of gas and dust seen edge-on. The [C II] 158 micron line correlates much better with the structure seen in the Herschal PACS Blue 60-85 micron image than it does with the Red 130-210 micron image, which is dominated by the massive molecular cloud seen at higher Galactic latitude. Sgr B1 is largely covered by spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Archive, from which we measure mid-infrared lines of [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], and [Ar II]. From the ratios of these lines with the observed FIR lines we find that there are at least six small regions with significantly higher excitation than their surroundings; we infer that these regions contain the stars that excite the gas. Our presentation will describe these results in further detail.

  5. Solvation behavior and sweetness response of carbohydrates, their derivatives and sugar alcohols in thiamine HCl (vitamin B1) and pyridoxine HCl (vitamin B6) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Parampaul K; Sharma, Mousmee; Banipal, Tarlok S

    2017-12-15

    Volumetric properties are important tools to study the solvation behavior of solutes and reveal valuable information about solute-solute/cosolute interactions. Therefore, standard partial molar volumes at infinite dilution have been calculated from density measurements for monosaccharides, their methoxy and deoxy derivatives, disaccharides and sugar alcohols in (0.05, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35)molkg -1 thiamine HCl (aq) and pyridoxine HCl (aq) solutions over temperature range (288.15-318.15)K at pressure, p=0.1MPa. The corresponding transfer volumes, expansibilities and apparent massic volumes have been evaluated to examine the solvation behavior and the basic taste quality of studied solutes. UV-Vis absorption study of these solutes has also been carried out in 1.0×10 -4 molkg -1 thiamine HCl and pyridoxine HCl solutions. Results have been compared with our previously reported studies carried out in l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Stereochemical effects on hydration controlled by dominant conformations of studied solutes have also been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aflatoxin B1 and Tobacco Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massey ED

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential for aflatoxin B1 contamination of tobaccos and its subsequent transfer to smoke has been raised. This paper examines published work relevant to this issue and concludes that aflatoxin B1 is not a contamination issue on tobaccos and, even if present, would decompose in the burning cigarette and would not transfer to smoke.

  7. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects. [43 FR 27174, June 23, 1978, as amended by Order...

  8. The PGE2/IL-10 Axis Determines Susceptibility of B-1 Cell-Derived Phagocytes (B-1CDP to Leishmania major Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica F Arcanjo

    Full Text Available B-1 cells can be differentiated from B-2 cells because they are predominantly located in the peritoneal and pleural cavities and have distinct phenotypic patterns and activation properties. A mononuclear phagocyte derived from B-1 cells (B-1CDP has been described. As the B-1CDP cells migrate to inflammatory/infectious sites and exhibit phagocytic capacity, the microbicidal ability of these cells was investigated using the Leishmania major infection model in vitro. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that B-1CDP cells are more susceptible to infection than peritoneal macrophages, since B-1CDP cells have a higher number of intracellular amastigotes forms and consequently release a larger number of promastigotes. Exacerbated infection by L. major required lipid bodies/PGE2 and IL-10 by B-1CDP cells. Both infection and the production of IL-10 were decreased when PGE2 production was blocked by NSAIDs. The involvement of IL-10 in this mechanism was confirmed, since B-1CDP cells from IL-10 KO mice are more competent to control L. major infection than cells from wild type mice. These findings further characterize the B-1CDP cells as an important mononuclear phagocyte that plays a previously unrecognized role in host responses to L. major infection, most likely via PGE2-driven production of IL-10.

  9. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinneker; R. Sola; V. Lemmen; M. J. Castillo; K. Pietrzik; M. González-Gross

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present...

  10. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 contamination in ground red peppers commercialized in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Mehmet; Arslanğray, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are hepatogenic, teratogenic, imunosuppressive, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites found in feeds, nuts, wine-grapes, spices, and other grain crops. Humans are exposed to AFs via consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AF contamination in powdered red peppers sold in Sanliurfa. A total of 42 samples were randomly collected from retail shops, supermarkets, open bazaars, and apiaries and examined for the occurrence and levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 toxins. AFs were determined by using an HPLC system after pre-separation utilizing immunoaffinity columns. AFs levels were below 2.5 μg/kg in 16 samples, between 2.5 and 10 μg/kg in 13 samples while 13 samples had AFs higher than the tolerable limit (10 μg/kg) according to the regulations of Turkish Food Codex and European Commission. The occurrence of AF fractions during powdered red pepper processing steps was also evaluated. According to the results obtained in this study, it was found that the highest AF accumulations in powdered red peppers start during perspiration and final drying of the products processed on soil contacted surfaces while there was no limit exceeding aflatoxin contamination in the samples produced on concrete surfaces.

  11. SKI - ASAR - B1/B2 As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1995 Barsebaeck 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a so called ASAR-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the so called SKI-ASAR-report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its lifetime, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The second series ASAR was delivered by the Barsebaeck utility to SKI in September 1995, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  12. Radiographic Parameters to Predict Union After Volar Percutaneous Fixation of Herbert Type B1 and B2 Scaphoid Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mostafa; Hegazy, Mohamed; Khaled, Sherif Ahmed; Abdelatif, Nasef Mohamed Nasef; Osman, Walid; Elfar, John C

    2016-02-01

    To study the angle of screw placement in relation to the scaphoid fracture plane and its effect on union after percutaneous fixation of scaphoid waist fractures. Twenty-four consecutive scaphoid waist fractures were retrospectively evaluated for the orientation of screws in relation to the fracture plane using a method in which the sum-of-smaller angles (SSA) in 3 different radiographs were used to correlate with time to fracture union. All but one patient achieved union after percutaneous fixation of the scaphoid. Another patient required revision surgery within the study period for inadequate fixation. A shortened time to union was significantly correlated to larger SSA. SSA may be a reasonable predictor of union after percutaneous fixation of scaphoid waist fracture. It can be reliably calculated using plain radiographs. An SSA of 190° or more correlated with union by 8 weeks postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Degradation kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in filter paper and rough rice by using pulsed light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough rice is susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins, which are highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. To develop aflatoxin degradation technology for rice with the use of pulsed light (PL) treatment, the objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characters of aflat...

  14. Exotic B=2 states in the SU(2) Skyrme model and other recent results in the B=1 sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    Effective theories with surprising phenomenological success immediatly prompt the suspicion that they are intimately connected to a more fundamental theory. In the case of the Skyrme model things have gone the other way round: first there was the finding that the large N c -limit of QCD results in an effective theory of free mesons where baryons emerge as solitons from meson fields. Subsequently the long forgotten Skyrme model was unearthed by Witten as a possible candidate for such a theory. Examined in the light of its phenomenological capabilities the Skyrme model lead to the surprising success it enjoys till now. (orig./BBOE)

  15. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  16. Methadone pharmacogenetics: CYP2B6 polymorphisms determine plasma concentrations, clearance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Regina, Karen J.; Blood, Jane; Friedel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability in methadone disposition remains unexplained, and methadone accidental overdose in pain therapy is a significant public health problem. Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the principle determinant of clinical methadone elimination. The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic, with several variant alleles. CYP2B6.6, the protein encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, deficiently catalyzes methadone metabolism in vitro. This investigation determined the influence of CYP2B6*6, and other allelic variants encountered, on methadone concentrations, clearance, and metabolism. Methods Healthy volunteers in genotype cohorts CYP2B6*1/*1 (n=21), CYP2B6*1/*6 (n=20), and CYP2B6*6/*6 (n=17), and also CYP2B6*1/*4 (n=1), CYP2B6*4/*6 (n=3), CYP2B6*5/*5 (n=2) subjects received single doses of intravenous and oral methadone. Plasma and urine methadone and metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Results Average S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 35 and 45% lower in CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2B6*1/*1, and R-methadone apparent oral clearance was 25 and 30% lower. R- and S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 3- and 4-fold greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Intravenous and oral R- and S-methadone metabolism was significantly lower in CYP2B6*6 carriers compared with CYP2B6*1 homozygotes, and greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Methadone metabolism and clearance were lower in African-Americans due to the CYP2B6*6 genetic polymorphism. Conclusions CYP2B6 polymorphisms influence methadone plasma concentrations, due to altered methadone metabolism and thus clearance. Genetic influence is greater for oral than intravenous, and S- than R-methadone. CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics explains, in part, interindividual variability in methadone elimination. CYP2B6 genetic effects on methadone metabolism and clearance may identify subjects at risk for methadone toxicity and drug interactions. PMID:26389554

  17. Observation of B Meson decays to b1pi and b1K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Tico, J Garra; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Vazquez, W Panduro; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F

    2007-12-14

    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b1 meson and a charged pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 382x10(6) BB[over ] pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 10(-6), B(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=6.7+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B+-->b1(0)K+)=9.1+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=10.9+/-1.2+/-0.9, and B(B0-->b1(-)K+)=7.4+/-1.0+/-1.0, with the assumption that B(b1-->omega pi)=1. We also measure charge and flavor asymmetries A(ch)(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=0.05+/-0.16+/-0.02, Ach(B+-->b1(0)K+)=-0.46+/-0.20+/-0.02, A(ch)(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.05+/-0.10+/-0.02, C(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.22+/-0.23+/-0.05, DeltaC(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-1.04+/-0.23+/-0.08, and A(ch)(B0-->b1(-)K+)=-0.07+/-0.12+/-0.02. The first error quoted is statistical, and the second systematic.

  18. Arc-melting preparation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, E.D.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for preparing single crystals of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) by arc melting a rod of compacted LaB 6 powder is discussed. The method is especially suitable for preparing single-crystal LaB 6 cathodes for use in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). 1 figure, 1 table

  19. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338879250; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for

  20. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and A. radiobacter K84 to Tomato Root Tips

    OpenAIRE

    Penalver, R.; Serra, M. T.; Duran-Vila, N.; Lopez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and the avirulent Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 attached to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips, but the binding of strain B6 to root tips was greater than the binding of strain K84. Strain K84 was not able to block the attachment of A. tumefaciens B6 to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips.

  1. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio study of the doubly antiaromatic B(6) (2-) dianion in the LiB(6) (-) cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2005-02-01

    A metal-boron mixed cluster LiB(6) (-) was produced and characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. A number of electronic transitions were observed and used to compare with theoretical calculations. An extensive search for the global minimum of LiB(6) (-) was carried out via an ab initio genetic algorithm technique. The pyramidal C(2v) ((1)A(1)) molecule was found to be the most stable at all levels of theory. The nearest low-lying isomer was found to be a triplet C(2) ((3)B) structure, 9.2 kcal/mol higher in energy. Comparison of calculated detachment transitions from LiB(6) (-) and the experimental photoelectron spectra confirmed the C(2v) pyramidal global minimum structure. Natural population calculation revealed that LiB(6) (-) is a charge-transfer complex, Li(+)B(6) (2-), in which Li(+) and B(6) (2-) interact in a primarily ionic manner. Analyses of the molecular orbitals and chemical bonding of B(6) (2-) showed that the planar cluster is twofold (pi- and sigma-) antiaromatic, which can be viewed as the fusion of two aromatic B(3) (-) units.

  3. EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0220 Project Title: EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction Principal Investigator Name: Mark...Pain and Addiction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0220 5c. PROGRAM...SUBJECT TERMS Chronic neuropathic pain, opioid addiction , synaptic plasticity, EphB1 receptor, ephrin-B2, NMDA receptor, drug discovery 16. SECURITY

  4. Aflatoxin B1 in common Egyptian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, M I; Popendorf, W; Ibrahim, M S; el Sharkawy, S; el Kashory, E S

    1996-01-01

    Samples of common Egyptian foods (17 nuts and seeds, 10 spices, 31 herbs and medicinal plants, 12 dried vegetables, and 28 cereal grains) were collected from markets in Cairo and Giza. A portion of each sample was extracted with chloroform, and the concentrated extract was cleaned by passing through a silica gel column. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was in nuts and seeds (82%), followed by spices (40%), herbs and medicinal plants (29%), dried vegetables (25%), and cereal grains (21%). The highest mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in herb and medicinal plants (49 ppb), followed by cereals (36 ppb), spices (25 ppb), nuts and seeds (24 ppb), and dried vegetables (20 ppb). Among nuts and seeds, the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was highest (100%) in watermelon seeds, inshell peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The lowest prevalence and concentrations were in hommos (garbanzo beans). The highest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were detected in foods that had no potential for field contamination but required drying during processing and storage, such as pomegranate peel, watermelon seeds, and molokhia.

  5. Role of polymorphic human CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H-J; Yasar, U; Lundgren, S; Griskevicius, L; Terelius, Y; Hassan, M; Rane, A

    2003-01-01

    The role of polymorphic CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide (CPA) bioactivation was investigated in human liver microsomes. A total of 67 human liver specimens were first genotyped with respect to the CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 variant alleles. CYP2B6 apoprotein levels in 55 liver microsomal preparations were assessed by immunoblotting. 4-Hydroxy-CPA and hydroxy-bupropion were quantified by using HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. 7-Ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin O-deethylase activity was measured fluorometrically. The frequencies of CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 mutant alleles were 9.0 and 16.4%, respectively. CYP2B6 protein expression was detected in 80% of the samples, with a large variation (0.003-2.234, arbitrary units). There was a high correlation between CYP2B6 apoprotein content and CPA 4-hydroxylation (n=55, r=0.81, P<0.0001). When based on the CYP2B6 apoprotein levels, the *6 carriers had significantly higher CPA 4-hydroxylation (P<0.05). CPA 4-hydroxylation also correlated significantly with other CYP2B6-specific reactions (n=20, P<0.0001). V(max) and K(m) for CPA 4-hydroxylation in recombinant CYP2B6 enzyme were 338 nmol/min/nmol enzyme and 1.4 mM, respectively. CYP2B6 showed much higher in vitro intrinsic clearance than previously observed in recombinant CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 variants in yeast expression system. Our results demonstrate that the polymorphic CYP2B6 is a major enzyme in the bioactivation of CPA. Moreover, we identified a strong impact of CYP2B6*6 on CPA 4-hydroxylation.

  6. Depletion of the xynB2 gene upregulates β-xylosidase expression in C. crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is able to express several enzymes involved in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomasses. Five genes, xynB1-5, that encode β-xylosidases are present in the genome of this bacterium. In this study, the xynB2 gene, which encodes β-xylosidase II (CCNA_02442), was cloned under the control of the PxylX promoter to generate the O-xynB2 strain, which overexpresses the enzyme in the presence of xylose. In addition, a null mutant strain, Δ-xynB2, was created by two homologous recombination events where the chromosomal xynB2 gene was replaced by a copy that was disrupted by the spectinomycin-resistant cassette. We demonstrated that C. crescentus cells lacking β-xylosidase II upregulates the xynB genes inducing β-xylosidase activity. Transcriptional analysis revealed that xynB1 (RT-PCR analysis) and xynB2 (lacZ transcription fusion) gene expression was induced in the Δ-xynB2 cells, and high β-xylosidase activity was observed in the presence of different agro-industrial residues in the null mutant strain, a characteristic that can be explored and applied in biotechnological processes. In contrast, overexpression of the xynB2 gene caused downregulation of the expression and activity of the β-xylosidase. For example, the β-xylosidase activity that was obtained in the presence of sugarcane bagasse was 7-fold and 16-fold higher than the activity measured in the C. crescentus parental and O-xynB2 cells, respectively. Our results suggest that β-xylosidase II may have a role in controlling the expression of the xynB1 and xynB2 genes in C. crescentus.

  7. 26 CFR 1.475(b)-1 - Scope of exemptions from mark-to-market requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance contract (see sections 72, 817, and 7702). (2) Relationships—(i) General rule. The relationships... the meaning of section 475(b)(1)(B)) if it is not held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers... or trust, to which the taxpayer has a relationship specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section; or...

  8. A Model of B2B Exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Fath; Miklos Sarvary

    2001-01-01

    B2B exchanges are revolutionizing the way businesses will buy and sell a variety of intermediary products and services. It is estimated that most of the roughly $7 trillion worth of business transactions are likely to go through these new institutions within the next decade. This paper tries to understand the economics governing the transactions within B2B exchanges and analyze their likely evolution over time. In doing so, we start by providing the rigorous definitions to a number of critica...

  9. Dietary intake of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6 and the vitamin B-6 nutritional status of unsupplemented lactating women and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Reynolds, R D; Moser-Veillon, P B; Howard, M P

    1989-11-01

    The mean dietary intakes of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6, determined from analysis of 3-d diet composites collected from 30 lactating women, were 8.63 +/- 4.04 and 1.33 +/- 0.85 mumol/d (mean +/- SD), respectively. A comparison of linear regression models that either included or excluded dietary glycosylated vitamin B-6 content indicates that the intake of glycosylated vitamin B-6 had little, if any, effect upon maternal plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration and maternal urinary excretion of total vitamin B-6 and 4-pyridoxic acid. On the basis of guidelines from the literature for evaluating biochemical indices of vitamin B-6 nutriture, the women appeared to be consuming adequate amounts of the vitamin. The mean breast-milk concentrations of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6 were 733 and 18 nmol/L, respectively. Infant plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration was 54 +/- 44 nmol/L (mean +/- SD) and all infants had lengths and weights appropriate for age.

  10. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua; Jing, Pu

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF- γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN- γ . Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  11. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjun Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF-γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN-γ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  12. Kinin B1 receptors contributes to acute pain following minor surgery in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Jaime S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins play an important role in regulation of pain and hyperalgesia after tissue injury and inflammation by activating two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, the kinin B1 and B2 receptors. It is generally accepted that the B2 receptor is constitutively expressed, whereas the B1 receptor is induced in response to inflammation. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of kinin receptors on the onset of acute inflammation and inflammatory pain in humans. The present study investigated the changes in gene expression of kinin receptors and the levels of their endogenous ligands at an early time point following tissue injury and their relation to clinical pain, as well as the effect of COX-inhibition on their expression levels. Results Tissue injury resulted in a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors at 3 hours post-surgery, the onset of acute inflammatory pain. Interestingly, the up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors was positively correlated to pain intensity only after ketorolac treatment, signifying an interaction between prostaglandins and kinins in the inflammatory pain process. Further, the gene expression of both B1 and B2 receptors were correlated. Following tissue injury, B1 ligands des-Arg9-BK and des-Arg10-KD were significantly lower at the third hour compared to the first 2 hours in both the placebo and the ketorolac treatment groups but did not differ significantly between groups. Tissue injury also resulted in the down-regulation of TRPV1 gene expression at 3 hours post-surgery with no significant effect by ketorolac treatment. Interestingly, the change in gene expression of TRPV1 was correlated to the change in gene expression of B1 receptor but not B2 receptor. Conclusions These results provide evidence at the transcriptional level in a clinical model of tissue injury that up-regulation of kinin receptors are involved in the development of the

  13. Electronic, thermodynamics and mechanical properties of LaB6 from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Medukh, N. R.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Gorb, Leonid

    2018-02-01

    Up to date, the electronic structure properties of amorphous lanthanum hexaboride, a-LaB6, were not yet investigated, and the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of crystalline lanthanum hexaboride (c-LaB6) were studied incompletely. The goal of this work was to fill these gaps in the study of lanthanum hexaborides. The electronic and phonon structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of both crystalline and amorphous lanthanum hexaborides (c-LaB6, a-LaB6, respectively) were investigated within the density functional theory. An amorphyzation of c-LaB6 gives rise to the metal - semiconductor transition. The thermal conductivity decreases on going from c-LaB6 to a-LaB6. The elastic moduli, hardness, ideal tensile and shear strengths of a-LaB6 are significantly lower compared to those of the crystalline counterpart, despite the formation of the icosahedron-like boron network in the amorphous phase. For c-LaB6, the stable boron octahedrons are preserved after the failure under tensile and shear strains. The peculiarity in the temperature dependence of heat capacity, Cp(T), at 50 K is explained by the availability of a sharp peak at 100 cm-1 in the phonon density of states of c-LaB6. An analysis of the Fermi surface indicates that this peak is not related to the shape of the Fermi surface, and is caused by the vibration of lanthanum atoms. In the phonon spectrum of a-LaB6, the peak at 100 cm-1 is significantly broader than in the spectrum of c-LaB6, for which reason the anomaly in the Cp(T) dependence of a-LaB6 does not appear. The calculated characteristics are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  14. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and rabbit antisera in B2 microglobulin (B2m) radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.

    1981-01-01

    Human B2m is a globular protein devoid of carbohydrates and is composed of 100 aminoacids with an intrachain disulfide bridge in position 25-81. Its aminoacid sequence and three dimensional structure shows a partial homology with the constant domains of immunoglobulins. B2m has been detected at the surface of nearly all cell types with the exception of erythrocytes and trophoblastic cells and also in all biological fluids. On the cell surface B2m is found non-covalently associated with HLA molecules, and in serum and urine only a small part of the B2m is associated with HLA heavy chain, the remaining is found as free B2m. The aim of this paper is firstly to try to demonstrate the presence of two types of epitopes one of them specific of free B2m and secondly to compare monoclonal antibodies with rabbit antisera for B2m radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  15. A search for cyanopolyynes in L1157-B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Lefloch, B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Jaber, A. A.; Podio, L.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Bachiller, R.

    2018-04-01

    We present here a systematic search for cyanopolyynes in the shock region L1157-B1 and its associated protostar L1157-mm in the framework of the Large Program`Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM' (ASAI), dedicated to chemical surveys of solar-type star-forming regions with the IRAM 30-m telescope. Observations of the millimeter windows between 72 and 272 GHz permitted the detection of HC3N and its 13C isotopologues, and HC5N (for the first time in a protostellar shock region). In the shock, the analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with L1157-B1 and L1157-B2. Molecular abundances and excitation conditions were obtained from the analysis of the Spectral Line Energy Distributions under the assumption of Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium or using a radiative transfer code in the Large Velocity Gradient approximation. Towards L1157 mm, the HC3N emission arises from the cold envelope (T_rot=10K) and a higher-excitation region (Trot = 31K) of smaller extent around the protostar. We did not find any evidence of 13C or D fractionation enrichment towards L1157-B1. We obtain a relative abundance ratio HC3N/HC5N of 3.3 in the shocked gas. We find an increase by a factor of 30 of the HC3N abundance between the envelope of L1157-mm and the shock region itself. Altogether, these results are consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of HC3N was produced by means of gas phase reactions in the passage of the shock. This scenario is supported by the predictions of a parametric shock code coupled with the chemical model UCL_CHEM.

  16. Evolutionary implication of B-1 lineage cells from innate to adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lv-yun; Shao, Tong; Nie, Li; Zhu, Ling-yun; Xiang, Li-xin; Shao, Jian-zhong

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm that B cells mainly play a central role in adaptive immunity may have to be reevaluated because B-1 lineage cells have been found to exhibit innate-like functions, such as phagocytic and bactericidal activities. Therefore, the evolutionary connection of B-1 lineage cells between innate and adaptive immunities have received much attention. In this review, we summarized various innate-like characteristics of B-1 lineage cells, such as natural antibody production, antigen-presenting function in primary adaptive immunity, and T cell-independent immune responses. These characteristics seem highly conserved between fish B cells and mammalian B-1 cells during vertebrate evolution. We proposed an evolutionary outline of B cells by comparing biological features, including morphology, phenotype, ontogeny, and functional activity between B-1 lineage cells and macrophages or B-2 cells. The B-1 lineage may be a transitional cell type between phagocytic cells (e.g., macrophages) and B-2 cells that functionally connects innate and adaptive immunities. Our discussion would contribute to the understanding on the origination of B cells specialized in adaptive immunity from innate immunity. The results might provide further insight into the evolution of the immune system as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B6 conjugate analogues for antiviral chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesel, Andreas J.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B 6 conjugate analogues from a vitamin B 6 coenzyme analogue and putative HIV-1 trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein Tat antagonist (Z)-5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxylidenerhodanine (B6PR) monosodium salt hemiheptadecahydrate [(Z)-B6PRNa8.5H 2 O] is discussed here. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is coupled to B6PR by a modified Stork enamine acylation. It results in a product library of more than eight compounds, each with at least one intact all-trans or 13-cis vitamin A double bond system. This yellow oily concentrate mixture was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS), UV/VIS-spectrophotometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR). The chemical structures of six components of the concentrate mixture could be established by combination of these analytical methods. The two main components are 65% 2 ' C,3O-(all-trans-retinylidyne)B6PT (B6RA) and 25% 2 ' C-(all-trans-retinoyl)B6PT, chemically derived from (5RS)-5-(5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (B6PT). This new retinoid selection could be of further interest in antiviral applications, especially treating conditions caused by RNA viruses like HIV

  18. Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Hedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters. CYP2B6 has been demonstrated to play a role in the metabolism of 2%–10% of clinically used drugs including widely used antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, anesthetics propofol and ketamine, synthetic opioids pethidine and methadone, and the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, among others. Significant inter-individual variability in the expression and function of the human CYP2B6 gene exists and can result in altered clinical outcomes in patients receiving treatment with CYP2B6-substrate drugs. These variances arise from a number of sources including genetic polymorphism, and xenobiotic intervention. In this review, we will provide an overview of the key players in CYP2B6 expression and function and highlight recent advances made in assessing clinical ramifications of important CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions.

  19. Anemia attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency in post-pancreaticoduodenectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hajime; Fujiwara, Noriko; Ishizaki, Yoichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A, iron, zinc, and selenium have been known to occur as a consequence of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), but vitamin B6 deficiency has not been previously reported. We report two post-PD patients who developed anemias attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency. Oral supplementations of vitamin B6 significantly improved anemias in both cases. Micronutrients including vitamin B6 should be monitored in post-PD patients, and supplementations should be carried out when necessary. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exchange and crystal field effects in the ESR spectra of Eu2+ in LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J. G. S.; Urbano, R. R.; Venegas, P. A.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Rettori, C.; Fisk, Z.; Oseroff, S. B.

    2007-09-01

    Electron spin resonance of Eu2+ ( 4f7 , S=7/2 ) in a La hexaboride (LaB6) single crystal shows a single anisotropic Dysonian resonance. From the observed negative g shift of the resonance, it is inferred that the Eu2+ ions are covalent exchange coupled to the B2p -like host conduction electrons. From the anisotropy of the spectra (linewidth and field for resonance), we found that the S ground state of Eu2+ ions experience a cubic crystal field of a negative fourth order crystal field parameter (CFP), b4=-11.5(2.0)Oe , in agreement with the negative fourth order CFP, A4 , found for the non- S ground state R hexaborides. These results support covalency as the dominant contribution to the fourth order CFP for the whole R hexaboride family.

  1. On the influence of ionizing irradiation on the vitamin B6 metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler-Klosa, G.

    1981-01-01

    In 50 female patients suffering from an endometrium carcinoma in stage I to IV, the vitamin B 6 level was determined by the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and its activation coefficients at different instants before and during radiation therapy were calculated. Simultaneously the haemoglobin content of the blood and the behaviour of the leukocytes and thrombocytes was investigated under the high voltage irradiation. To 49 patients 300 mg pyridoxin were administered perorally every day during the irradiation treatment which lasted several weeks. It resulted that in endometrium carcinomas the vitamin B 6 levels in the blood are decreased, and in proceeded stages more often vitamin B 6 deficits are observed. Even after daily administrations of vitamin B 6 the values of the activation coefficients of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase only slowly return to normal. Thus apparently relatively high pyridoxin doses seem to be necessary in order to remove the irradiation-induced vitamin B 6 disorder. After daily oral administration of 300 mg pyridoxin in no case a biochemical vitamin B 6 deficit under radiation therapy was observed. The leukocytes show under radiotherapy the expected decrease. Leukopenia requiring the discontinuation of interruption of the radiation treatment did not occur during vitamin B 6 administration. A careful control of the thrombocytes is also under vitamin B 6 administration necessary, but fatal thrombocytoponia could not be observed. With reference to the haemoglobin content in most cases a decrease was found, which apparently can not be prevented by the application of vitamin B 6 . An influence on the vitamin B 6 level by the patient's age could not be found. Finally it has to be indicated that by determining the activation coefficient of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, indirectly the vitamin B 6 deficiency can be detected without any serious disturbance for the patient. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Electronic structure of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  3. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron isotope effect [2] has been observed in MgB2 re- vealing that the pairing mechanism leading to superconductivity is of phononic origin. The electronic band structure combined with strong coupling superconductivity theory can therefore be expected to give a good quantitative description of this compound. Motivated.

  4. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the. FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, c/a ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent ...

  5. Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Björn; Myte, Robin; Schneede, Jörn; Hallmans, Göran; Häggström, Jenny; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings. Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk. Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study ( n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine:XA (HK:XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status. Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK:XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK:XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with y of follow-up between sampling and diagnosis. Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the 'metal line' of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  7. Nutritionally relevant supplementation of vitamin B6 in lactating women: effect on plasma prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Howard, M P; Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D

    1985-11-01

    Pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 administered to lactating women have been reported to suppress plasma prolactin. As a result, some physicians have recommended restriction of vitamin B6 intake for lactating women. In the present investigation, 20 lactating women were given supplemental doses of vitamin B6, 0.5 to 4.0 mg/d, beginning 24 hours after delivery. Plasma prolactin, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations were determined during the first 9 months postpartum. Women receiving the supplement of 4.0 mg compared with 0.5 mg of vitamin B6 per day had significantly higher plasma pyridoxal phosphate (P less than .01) and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations (P less than .05) beginning at 1 month postpartum and continuing through the duration of the study. Plasma prolactin concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. The percentage of all women, regardless of treatment, in whom lactation persisted at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months were 100%, 100%, 100%, 90%, 80%, and 65%, respectively. All women who ceased to lactate during the study reported doing so by choice. Nutritionally relevant doses of vitamin B6 elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations of lactating women without reducing plasma prolactin concentration or halting lactation.

  8. Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on an antibody production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, S; Inagaki, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency on an antibody production in BALB/c mice, the production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody against dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) were measured by the methods of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The mice fed on on a B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks were immunized intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA absorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel. The contents of anti DNP-IgE antibodies in sera of B6 deficient mice significantly increased compared to that of control mice fed on a diet containing B6. In addition, Interleukin-4, which was known to induce IgE production in allergic reactions from splenocytes of B6 deficient mice, was approximately four-fold higher than that in control mice. According to the recovery test to the B6 deficient mice, that is feeding the control diet for 21 days, all values in terms of the body, thymus, and spleen weight, total serum protein, IgG, and anti DNP-IgE content, regained almost the same levels as those of control. These results suggest that B6 deficiency in mice would have relation to the stimulation of specific IgE antibody production against DNP-OVA.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  10. Ordering and Fluctuation of Quantum Multipoles in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of multipolar fluctuations on the quadrupolar phase transition in CeB 6 is investigated theoretically. It is shown that the fluctuations become strong and field-dependent, reflecting the competition of coupled multipolar interactions. Some unusual phenomena around the transition in CeB 6 are shown to be reasonably explained within the RKKY model. (author)

  11. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  12. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Mooney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content varies in tubers of different genotypes. The results demonstrate that potato is an excellent resource for this vitamin and that strong natural variation in vitamin B6 content among the tested cultivars indicates high potential to fortify vitamin B6 nutrition in potato-based foods.

  13. Effects of maternal dietary restriction in vitamin B-6 on neocortex development in rats: B-6 vitamer concentrations, volume and cell estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, S M; Kirksey, A

    1987-06-01

    Influence of the time of maternal restriction in dietary vitamin B-6 on vitamer concentrations and morphological development of neocortex was examined. Rats were fed ad libitum a vitamin B-6-free diet supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine X hydrochloride (PN X HCl)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control diet (7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg) during lactation or were supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. During postweaning offspring received the maternal diets fed during lactation. Neocortices of offspring were examined at 30 d of age by liquid chromatography and light microscopy. Vitamin restriction during gestation and 30 d postnatal was the only vitamin B-6-restricted treatment of the three administered that altered B-6 vitamer levels in neocortex; all vitamers were depressed equally. Brain weight and volume of neocortex were not changed significantly by the maternal restrictions imposed. However, each restriction adversely affected neurogenesis and neuron longevity of the neocortex and when expressed as percent reduction from control, neuron longevity was affected more severely than neurogenesis.

  14. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  15. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  16. Tensor-polarized structure function b1 in the standard convolution description of the deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, W.; Dong, Yu-Bing; Kumano, S.; Sargsian, M.

    2017-04-01

    Tensor-polarized structure functions of a spin-1 hadron are additional observables, which do not exist for the spin-1 /2 nucleon. They could probe novel aspects of the internal hadron structure. Twist-2 tensor-polarized structure functions are b1 and b2, and they are related by the Callan-Gross-like relation in the Bjorken scaling limit. In this work, we theoretically calculate b1 in the standard convolution description for the deuteron. Two different theoretical models, a basic convolution description and a virtual nucleon approximation, are used for calculating b1, and their results are compared with the HERMES measurement. We found large differences between our theoretical results and the data. Although there is still room to improve by considering higher-twist effects and in the experimental extraction of b1 from the spin asymmetry Az z, there is a possibility that the large differences require physics beyond the standard deuteron model for their interpretation. Future b1 studies could shed light on a new field of hadron physics. In particular, detailed experimental studies of b1 will start soon at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. In addition, there are possibilities to investigate tensor-polarized parton distribution functions and b1 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a future electron-ion collider. Therefore, further theoretical studies are needed for understanding the tensor structure of the spin-1 deuteron, including a new mechanism to explain the large differences between the current data and our theoretical results.

  17. Participação de linfócitos B-1 na criptococose experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Eliver Eid Bou Ghosn

    2004-01-01

    A criptococose é uma infecção fúngica causada pela levedura encapsulada Cryptococcus neoformans que acomete freqüentemente o meningoencéfalo de pacientes imunocomprometidos. No Brasil, cerca de 6% dos pacientes com AIDS desenvolvem a criptococose. A construção da resposta imune na criptococose envolve fagócitos e linfócitos T e B presentes no granuloma. Atualmente, são descritos três subtipos de linfócitos B: linfócitos B-1 a, B-1 b e B-2, o último conhecido como linfócito B \\"convencional\\"....

  18. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6 on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6, diabetes (D, and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6. Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0.01 and D + Vit B6 (P < 0.05 groups. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde levels were reduced in the C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were higher in the D group (P < 0.05. GSH-Px and SOD activities were increased in C + Vit B6 group while these parameters decreased in the D + Vit B6 group. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were decreased in the D group while they were increased in C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. The results of present study suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation might be a promising adjunctive agent for improving oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and for preventing diabetic complications including atherogenesis.

  19. Reaction of LaB6 with MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordan'yan, S.S.; Gardagina, E.N.; Barabanova, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation results of interaction in LaB 6 -MoSi 2 system within wide concentration and temperature ranges are presented. LaB 6 and MoSi 2 powders were preliminary squeezed out in vacuum at 1470 K. Presence of LaB 6 and MoSi 2 initial phases only is determined using X-ray pahse analysis of sintered and melted specimens of all compositions. Traces of MoB (probably, due to quick crystallization after melting and partial evaporation of silicon from the melt) are detected in some alloys exposed to melting

  20. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B 6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Sutton; Chen, Liyuan; K?hn, Christina; Navarre, Roy; Knowles, N. Richard; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content v...

  1. Local symmetry breaking in Eu1-xLaxB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Yang, In-Sang; Seo, C.W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, J.Y.; Cho, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    We report inelastic light (Raman) scattering study of Eu 1-x La x B 6 (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.3). As La is doped, the T 2g mode becomes broad and asymmetric, the E g mode splits into doublet, and the A 1g mode shifts to higher frequencies, while the undoped EuB 6 show sharp three phonon peaks, T 2g , E g , and A 1g modes. There are around six possible phonon peaks in the Raman spectra of La-doped EuB 6 . These additional peaks are explained by symmetry lowering of boron octahedra due to tilting/rotating

  2. [Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málaga, Germán; Gayoso, Oscar; Lazo, María de Los Angeles; Torres, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  3. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  4. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request number-sign M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal

  5. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel.

  6. The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, antibodies, and natural killer cells, and phagocytosis by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, C; Miller, L T; Kerkvliet, N I

    1984-05-01

    The effect of vitamin B6 on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic antibody production, and macrophage phagocytosis was assessed in 5-week-old female C57B1/6 mice. Mice were fed 20% casein diets with pyridoxine (PN) added at 7, 1, 0.1, or 0 mg/kg diet, which represents 700, 100, 10, and 0% of requirement, respectively. Compared to mice fed 7 or 1 mg PN diet, animals fed 0 or 0.1 mg PN diet showed significantly reduced primary splenic and peritoneal T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). Animals fed 0 mg PN diet also showed significantly depressed secondary T CMC of splenic and peritoneal lymphocytes against P815 tumor cells. Complement-dependent antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against P815 cells, phagocytosis of SRBC by macrophages, and native and interferon-induced NK cell activities against YAC cells were not affected by the level of vitamin B6 intake. The percentage of macrophages present in the peritoneal exudate cells was increased in animals fed the 0 mg PN diet. The immune responses were not enhanced or altered by the excess intake of vitamin B6 (7 mg PN). It appears that vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient for maintenance of normal T-cell function in vivo.

  7. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor attenuates melanoma tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that does not respond well to standard therapeutic approaches, such as radio- and chemotherapies. Furthermore, acquiring the ability to metastasize in melanoma and many other tumor types is directly related to incurable disease. The B1 kinin receptor participates in a variety of cancer-related pathophysiological events, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether this G protein-coupled receptor plays a role in tumor progression. We used a murine melanoma cell line that expresses the kinin B1 receptor and does not express the kinin B2 receptor to investigate the precise contribution of activation of the B1 receptor in tumor progression and correlated events using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor in the absence of B2 receptor inhibits cell migration in vitro and decreases tumor formation in vivo. Moreover, tumors formed from cells stimulated with B1-specific agonist showed several features of decreased aggressiveness, such as smaller size and infiltration of inflammatory cells within the tumor area, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the host anti-tumor immune response, lower number of cells undergoing mitosis, a poorer vascular network, no signs of invasion of surrounding tissues or metastasis and increased animal survival. Our findings reveal that activation of the kinin B1 receptor has a host protective role during murine melanoma tumor progression, suggesting that the B1 receptor could be a new anti-tumor GPCR and provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.

  8. EphrinB1 expression is dysregulated and promotes oncogenic signaling in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Nicole; Yuan, Liangping; Zhang, Hongying; Liu, Jingbo; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Rushing, Elisabeth; Schniederjan, Matthew; MacDonald, Tobey J

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptors and ephrin ligands are master regulators of oncogenic signaling required for proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Yet, Eph/ephrin expression and activity in medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, remains poorly defined. We hypothesized that Eph/ephrins are differentially expressed by sonic hedgehog (SHH) and non-SHH MB and that specific members contribute to the aggressive phenotype. Affymetrix gene expression profiling of 29 childhood MB, separated into SHH (N = 11) and non-SHH (N = 18), was performed followed by protein validation of selected Eph/ephrins in another 60 MB and two MB cell lines (DAOY, D556). Functional assays were performed using MB cells overexpressing or deleted for selected ephrins. We found EPHB4 and EFNA4 almost exclusively expressed by SHH MB, whereas EPHA2, EPHA8, EFNA1 and EFNA3 are predominantly expressed by non-SHH MB. The remaining family members, except EFNB1, are ubiquitously expressed by over 70-90 % MB, irrespective of subgroup. EFNB1 is the only member differentially expressed by 28 % of SHH and non-SHH MB. Corresponding protein expression for EphB/ephrinB1 and B2 was validated in MB. Only ephrinB2 was also detected in fetal cerebellum, indicating that EphB/ephrinB1 expression is MB-specific. EphrinB1 immunopositivity localizes to tumor cells within MB with the highest proliferative index. EphrinB1 overexpression promotes EphB activation, alters F-actin distribution and morphology, decreases adhesion, and significantly promotes proliferation. Either silencing or overexpression of ephrinB1 impairs migration. These results indicate that EphrinB1 is uniquely dysregulated in MB and promotes oncogenic responses in MB cells, implicating ephrinB1 as a potential target.

  9. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  10. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua; Jing, Pu

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immun...

  11. B11 NMR in the layered diborides OsB2 and RuB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, B. J.; Zong, X.; Singh, Y.; Niazi, A.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    B11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed on B11 enriched OsB2 and RuB2 polycrystalline powder samples in an external field of 4.7T and in the temperature range, 4.2KB2 and RuB2 , respectively. The experimental results indicate that a p character dominates the conduction electron wave function at the B site with a negligibly small s character in both compounds.

  12. Doping-induced redistribution of magnetic spectral weight in the substituted hexaborides Ce1 -xLaxB6 and Ce1 -xNdxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. E.; Portnichenko, P. Y.; Dukhnenko, A. Â. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Filipov, V. B.; Qiu, Y.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Ollivier, J.; Inosov, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the doping-induced changes in the electronic structure of CeB6 on a series of substituted Ce1 -xRxB6 samples (R =La , Nd) using diffuse neutron scattering. We observe a redistribution of magnetic spectral weight across the Brillouin zone, which we associate with the changes in the Fermi-surface nesting properties related to the modified charge carrier concentration. In particular, a strong diffuse peak at the corner of the Brillouin zone (R point), which coincides with the propagation vector of the elusive antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) order in CeB6, is rapidly suppressed by both La and Nd doping, like the AFQ order itself. The corresponding spectral weight is transferred to the X (00 1/2 ) point, ultimately stabilizing a long-range AFM order at this wave vector at the Nd-rich side of the phase diagram. At an intermediate Nd concentration, a broad diffuse peak with multiple local maxima of intensity is observed around the X point, evidencing itinerant frustration that gives rise to multiple ordered phases for which Ce1 -xNdxB6 is known. On the La-rich side of the phase diagram, however, dilution of the magnetic moments prevents the formation of a similar (00 1/2 ) -type order despite the presence of nesting. Our results demonstrate how diffuse neutron scattering can be used to probe the nesting vectors in complex f -electron systems directly, without reference to the single-particle band structure, and emphasize the role of Fermi surface geometry in stabilizing magnetic order in rare-earth hexaborides.

  13. Role of cytochrome P4502B6 in methadone metabolism and clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Stubbert, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    Methadone N-demethylation in vitro is catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, but clinical disposition is often attributed to CYP3A4. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYP2B6 is a prominent CYP isoform responsible for clinical methadone N-demethylation and clearance, using the in vivo mechanism-based CYP2B6 inhibitor ticlopidine, given orally for 4 days. A preliminary clinical investigation with the CYP3A4/5 substrate probe alfentanil established that ticlopidine did not inhibit intestinal or hepatic CYP3A4/5. Subjects received intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) racemic methadone before and after ticlopidine. Ticlopidine significantly and stereoselectively (S>R) inhibited methadone N-demethylation, decreasing plasma metabolite/methadone area under the curve ratios and metabolite formation clearances. Ticlopidine also significantly increased the dose-adjusted plasma area under the curve for R- and S-methadone by 20% and 60%, respectively, after both intravenous and oral dosing. CYP2B6 inhibition reduces methadone N-demethylation and clearance, and alters methadone concentrations, demonstrating a predominant role for CYP2B6 in clinical methadone disposition. PMID:23361846

  14. Band dispersion of MgB2, graphite and diamond from resonant inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A V; Kurmaev, E Z; Leitch, S; Moewes, A; Kortus, J; Finkelstein, L D; Skorikov, N A; Xiao, C; Hirose, A

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative band mapping for MgB 2 , graphite and diamond are realized using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements. RIXS shows distinct dispersive features when the excitation energy is tuned near B 1s and C 1s thresholds, which are assigned to the calculated energy bands using k → -momentum conservation. The agreement between experiment and theory suggests that electron-electron interactions are not important for MgB 2 , which behaves like a conventional metal and is well described by band theory

  15. Lattice Thermal Conductivity from Atomistic Simulations: ZrB2 and HfB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  16. Cellular Barcoding Links B-1a B Cell Potential to a Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell State at the Single-Cell Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Trine A; Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Elin; Zriwil, Alya

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a functional switch in neonatal mice hallmarked by a decrease in self-renewing divisions and entry into quiescence. Here, we investigated whether the developmental attenuation of B-1a cell output is a consequence of a shift in stem cell state during ontogeny....... Using cellular barcoding for in vivo single-cell fate analyses, we found that fetal liver definitive HSCs gave rise to both B-1a and B-2 cells. Whereas B-1a potential diminished in all HSCs with time, B-2 output was maintained. B-1a and B-2 plasticity could be reinitiated in a subset of adult HSCs...... by ectopic expression of the RNA binding protein LIN28B, a key regulator of fetal hematopoiesis, and this coincided with the clonal reversal to fetal-like elevated self-renewal and repopulation potential. These results anchor the attenuation of B-1a cell output to fetal HSC behavior and demonstrate...

  17. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Ersilia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  18. Structure-function relationships of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcription factor WhiB1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Smith

    Full Text Available Members of the WhiB-like (Wbl protein family possess iron-sulfur clusters and are implicated in the regulation of developmental processes in Actinomycetes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses seven Wbl proteins. The [4Fe-4S] cluster of M. tuberculosis WhiB1 is relatively insensitive to O(2 but very sensitive to nitric oxide (NO. Nitric oxide nitrosylates the WhiB1 iron-sulfur cluster and promotes DNA-binding; the apo-forms of WhiB1 also bind DNA. However, the molecular requirements for iron-sulfur cluster acquisition and for DNA-binding by WhiB1 are poorly characterized.WhiB1 variants were created by site-directed mutagenesis and the abilities of the corresponding proteins to acquire an iron-sulfur cluster and/or bind to whiB1 promoter DNA were assessed. All four Cys residues (Cys9, 37, 40, and 46 in the N-terminal region of WhiB1 were required for incorporation of a [4Fe-4S] cluster, whereas a possible alternative cluster ligand Asp13 (by analogy with M. smegmatis WhiB2 was not. The C-terminal region of WhiB1 is predicted to house the DNA-binding domain of the protein consisting of a predicted β-turn ((58GVWGG(62 followed by two amino acid motifs ((72KRRN(75 and (78TKAR(81 that are conserved in WhiB1 proteins. Gly residues (Gly58, 61 and 62 in the β-turn and positively-charged residues (Lys72, Arg73, Arg74, Lys79 and Arg81 in the downstream conserved regions were required for binding of WhiB1 DNA.Site-directed mutagenesis of M. tuberculosis whiB1 and characterization of the corresponding proteins has been used to explore structure-function relationships of the NO-responsive transcription factor WhiB1. This showed that all four conserved Cys residues in the N-terminal region are required for incorporation of iron-sulfur clusters but not for DNA-binding. Analysis of variants with amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region revealed the crucial roles played by a predicted β-turn and two conserved positively-charged motifs in facilitating

  19. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-04-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  20. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  1. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  2. Effects of prolonged oral administration of fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, C R; Corrêa, B; Xavier, J G; Direito, G M; Orsi, R B; Matarazzo, S V

    2001-01-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were evaluated on male Wistar rats. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages and submitted to the following treatments: 1-0 microg AFB1 + 0 mg FB1/100g bw.; 2-72 microg AFB1+ 0 mg FB1/100 g bw; 3-0 microg AFB1 + 0.5 mg FB1 g bw; 4-0 microg AFB1 + 1.5 mg FB1/100 g bw; 5-72 microg AFB1 + 0.5 mg FB1/100g bw; 6-72 microgAFB1 + 1.5 mg FB1/100g bw. On day 21, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation. The results showed that treated animals presented differences in body weight and absolute/relative weights of liver and kidney as well as altered hepatic function and cholesterol blood levels. Rats fed with the greatest doses of AFB1 and FB1 gained less weight (2.79 g/day) at the end of the experimental period; their blood concentrations of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were above control levels (130.35 micro/l and 471.00 micro/l, respectively). Blood cholesterol increased in the groups treated with the highest dose of FB1 or FB1 associated with AFB1. Histopathology revealed the occurrence of apoptosis in the liver of rats exposed to FB1. The association of aflatoxin B1 with fumonisin B1 at higher dose probably potentiated the effects of the higher dose of fumonisin B1 acting singly.

  3. B-1a transitional cells are phenotypically distinct and are lacking in mice deficient in IκBNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gabriel K.; Àdori, Monika; Khoenkhoen, Sharesta; Dosenovic, Pia; Beutler, Bruce; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.

    2014-01-01

    B-1 cells mediate early protection against infection by responding to T cell-independent (TI) antigens found on the surface of various pathogens. Mice with impaired expression of the atypical IκB protein IκBNS have markedly reduced frequencies of B-1 cells. We used a mouse strain with dysfunctional IκBNS derived from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen, named bumble, to investigate the point in the development of B-1 cells where IκBNS is required. The presence of wild-type (wt) peritoneal cells in mixed wt/bumble chimeras did not rescue the development of bumble B-1 cells, but wt peritoneal cells transferred to bumble mice restored natural IgM levels and response to TI antigens. The bumble and wt mice displayed similar levels of fetal liver B-1 progenitors and splenic neonatal transitional B (TrB) cells, both of which were previously shown to give rise to B-1 cells. Interestingly, we found that a subset of wt neonatal TrB cells expressed common B-1a markers (TrB-1a) and that this cell population was absent in the bumble neonatal spleen. Sorted TrB-1a (CD93+IgM+CD5+) cells exclusively generated B-1a cells when adoptively transferred, whereas sorted CD93+IgM+CD5− cells gave rise to B-2 cells and, to a lesser extent, B-1b and B-1a cells. This study identifies a phenotypically distinct splenic population of TrB-1a cells and establishes that the development of B-1a cells is blocked before this stage in the absence of IκBNS. PMID:25228759

  4. ONLINE ACQUISITIONS IN B2B MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the present paper, we propose to review some of the main aspects documented by the academic research so far with regard to the online purchasing behaviour in the B2B online environment (more specifically, in the case of the small and medium-sized companies. Preliminary conclusions reveal that, at least in the case studies, the dominant feature is that the geographic delimitation creates a potential obstacle when it comes to applying a general principle governing the small and medium-sized enterprises. Despite this, we consider that some theoretical elements can be acknowledged, elements from which future research can start to develop theories and hypothesis aimed at better explaining the phenomenon. Furthermore, the fact that the studies are rarely involving the same sector, makes it impossible to generalise the process.

  5. [Clinical characteristics and prognosis analysis of vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiao; Yang, Zhixian; Wu, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Yuehua; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis in a cohort of children with vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms. Ten patients were diagnosed as vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms in Peking University First Hospital between January 2012 and May 2015.The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment process, video-electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), epilepsy related genes and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 10 patients, 5 were male, and 5 were female. Eight of them were normal at birth, and the other 2 patients had intracranial hemorrhage or anoxia.The age of epilepsy onset was from 3.5 to 8.0 months.All patients presented spasms primarily.Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) showed hypsarrhythmia at seizures onset. MRI showed normal in 8 patients, and subarachnoid hemorrhage or multiple encephalomalacia foci after hemorrhage respectively in the other 2 patients. The results of blood biochemical, cerebrospinal fluid examination and urinary metabolic screening were negative. Epilepsy related genes including ALDH7A1 gene analysis showed wild type in all patients. Two patients were classified as symptomatic and eight might be idiopathic or cryptogenic. The initial dose of vitamin B6 was 10.0 mg/(kg·d). The interval between seizures onset and taking vitamin B6 was 0 to 4.0 months. Seizures disappeared completely within a week after administration of vitamin B6 in 9 patients and in 1.5 months in one patient.Of the 8 patients whose seizures were controlled completely during the follow-up period, 7 patients' EEG recovered within 1.5 to 4.0 months and then continued to be normal. The EEG of the rest of a patient returned to normal, but showed abnormal discharges after stopping taking vitamin B6. Two patients' EEG continued abnormal and seizures recurred due to vitamin B6 withdrawal. At the last follow-up, seizures were controlled in all patients. Drug treatment in one case had stopped. Vitamin B6 was used in 9

  6. Direct observation of surface-state thermal oscillations in SmB6 oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Brian; Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2018-01-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo insulator that exhibits a sharp increase in resistance following an activated behavior that levels off and saturates below 4 K. This behavior can be explained by the proposal of SmB6 representing a new state of matter, a topological Kondo insulator, in which a Kondo gap is developed, and topologically protected surface conduction dominates low-temperature transport. Exploiting its nonlinear dynamics, a tunable SmB6 oscillator device was recently demonstrated, where a small dc current generates large oscillating voltages at frequencies from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz. This behavior was explained by a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. However, a crucial aspect of this model, the predicted temperature oscillation in the surface state, has not been experimentally observed to date. This is largely due to the technical difficulty of detecting an oscillating temperature of the very thin surface state. Here we report direct measurements of the time-dependent surface-state temperature in SmB6 with a RuO2 microthermometer. Our results agree quantitatively with the theoretically simulated temperature waveform, and hence support the validity of the oscillator model, which will provide accurate theoretical guidance for developing future SmB6 oscillators at higher frequencies.

  7. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  8. Autoclave growth, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Li, Qidong; Liu, Huatao; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2017-12-01

    High-quality single crystalline gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanowires have been successfully prepared at very low temperatures of 200-240 °C by a high pressure solid state (HPSS) method in an autoclave with a new chemical reaction route, where Gd, H3BO3, Mg and I2 were used as raw materials. The crystal structure, morphology, valence, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, XPS, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. HRTEM images and SAED patterns reveal that the GdB6 nanowires are single crystalline with a preferred growth direction along [001]. The XPS spectrum suggests that the valence of Gd ion in GdB6 is trivalent. The effective magnetic momentum per Gd3+ in GdB6 is about 6.26 μB. The optical properties exhibit weak absorption in the visible light range, but relatively strong absorbance in the NIR and UV range. Low work function and high NIR absorption can make GdB6 nanowires a potential solar radiation shielding material for solar cells or other NIR blocking applications.

  9. CD25+ B-1a Cells Express Aicda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kaku

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available B-1a cells are innate-like B-lymphocytes producing natural antibodies. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, a product of the Aicda gene, plays a central role in class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in B cells. Although a role for Aicda in B-1a cells has been suggested on the basis of experiments with knock out (KO mice, whether B-1a cells express Aicda, and if so, which B-1a cell subpopulation expresses Aicda, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that B-1 cells express Aicda, but at a level below that expressed by germinal center (GC B cells. We previously reported that B-1a cells can be subdivided based on CD25 expression. We show here that B-1a cell Aicda expression is concentrated in the CD25+ B-1a cell subpopulation. These results suggest the possibility that previous studies of memory B cells identified on the basis of Aicda expression may have inadvertently included an unknown number of CD25+ B-1a cells. Although B-1a cells develop normally in the absence of Aicda, a competitive reconstitution assay reveals enhanced vigor for AID KO B-1a cell bone marrow (BM progenitors, as compared with wild-type BM B-1 cell progenitors. These results suggest that AID inhibits the development of B-1a cells from BM B-1 cell progenitors in a competitive environment.

  10. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ping Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  11. Radiative decay of 4d94f/sup n+1/ excited states in LaB6 and CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, K.; Nisawa, A.; Tsutsumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    The N/sub 4,5/ emission spectra of LaB 6 and CeB 6 were measured to investigate the radiative decay of the 4d 9 4f/sup n+1/ excited states, where n is the number of 4f electrons in the ground state. These spectra show an intense and broad emission peak above the N/sub 4,5/ threshold in addition to sharp peaks below the threshold. The energy positions of these emission peaks are compared with those of the peaks in the absorption spectra and the existing results of resonant photoemission. The comparison shows that the fine structure below the threshold coincides in energy with the multiplet structures in the absorption spectrum, and that the intense emission peak is located in the energy region where the electron-emission peak due to the direct recombination of the 4f electron with the 4d hole has been observed in resonant photoemission. The peaks observed in the energy region below and above the N/sub 4,5/ threshold are attributed to the radiative decay of the 4d 9 4f/sup n+1/ excited states

  12. Supplementing vitamin B6 to a low vitamin B6 diet exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in DMBA-treated hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Xu, Yonghui; Monttinen, Elise Saiz; Kato, Norihisa

    2008-06-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-treated hairless mice exposed to UVB radiation were used to examine the effect of graded levels of vitamin B(6) [1, 7 or 35 mg pyridoxine (PN) HCl/kg] on skin tumorigenesis for 18 wk. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 35 mg PN HCl/kg diet significantly elevated the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors, while there was no difference in skin tumorigenesis between the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets. Skin levels of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls) were unaffected by dietary treatment. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets significantly elevated serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) without affecting the skin level of PLP. The results suggest that dietary supplemental vitamin B(6) exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in hairless mice without affecting oxidative stress in the skin.

  13. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-10-01

    The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20-30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0-4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4-8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8-12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12-16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals.

  14. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Design: We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. Results: The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20–30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0–4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4–8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8–12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12–16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Conclusion: Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals. PMID:22875713

  15. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B-6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes....... We identified 1 patient with an epilepsy phenotype resembling Dravet syndrome and likely pathogenic mutations in ALDH7A1. Presenting features were highly atypical of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, including febrile seizures, response to anticonvulsive drugs, and periods of seizure freedom without...... pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B-6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes....

  16. Controlled indole-3-acetaldoxime production through ethanol-induced expression of CYP79B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Fuller, Victoria L; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Nafisi, Majse; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2009-05-01

    Indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) is a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism. IAOx serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates (I-GLSs), camalexin and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The cytochrome P450s CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 catalyze the conversion of tryptophan to IAOx. CYP83B1 channels IAOx into I-GLS biosynthesis, CYP71A13 channels IAOx into camalexin biosynthesis, whereas the IAOx-metabolizing enzyme in IAA biosynthesis is not known. In this report, we demonstrate controlled production of I-GLSs by introducing an ethanol (EtOH)-inducible CYP79B2 construct into double (cyp79b2 cyp79b3) or triple (cyp79b2 cyp79b3 cyp83b1) mutant lines. We show EtOH-dependent induction of camalexin and identify a number of candidate IAA homeostasis- or defense-related genes by clustered microarray analysis. The transgenic mutant lines are thus promising tools for elucidating the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism.

  17. Catechol pyrazolinones as trypanocidals: fragment-based design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of nanomolar inhibitors of trypanosomal phosphodiesterase b1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orrling, K.M.; Jansen, C.J.W.; Vu, X.L.; Balmer, V.; Bregy, P.; Shanmugham, A.; England, P.; Bailey, D.; Cos, P.; Maes, L.; Adams, E.; van den Bogaart, E.; Chatelain, E.; Ioset, J.R.; van de Stolpe, A.; Zorg, S.; Veerman, J.; Seebeck, T.; Sterk, G.J.; de Esch, I.J.P.; Leurs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomal phosphodiesterases B1 and B2 (TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2) play an important role in the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative parasite of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as African sleeping sickness. We used homology modeling and docking studies to guide fragment

  18. Cognitive and cerebrovascular improvements following kinin B1 receptor blockade in Alzheimer’s disease mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the inducible kinin B1 receptor (B1R) contributes to pathogenic neuroinflammation induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. The present study aims at identifying the cellular distribution and potentially detrimental role of B1R on cognitive and cerebrovascular functions in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind, line J20) were treated with a selective and brain penetrant B1R antagonist (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg/day for 5 or 10 weeks) or vehicle. The impact of B1R blockade was measured on i) spatial learning and memory performance in the Morris water maze, ii) cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to sensory stimulation using laser Doppler flowmetry, and iii) reactivity of isolated cerebral arteries using online videomicroscopy. Aβ burden was quantified by ELISA and immunostaining, while other AD landmarks were measured by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results B1R protein levels were increased in APP mouse hippocampus and, prominently, in reactive astrocytes surrounding Aβ plaques. In APP mice, B1R antagonism with SSR240612 improved spatial learning, memory and normalized protein levels of the memory-related early gene Egr-1 in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. B1R antagonism restored sensory-evoked CBF responses, endothelium-dependent dilations, and normalized cerebrovascular protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and B2R. In addition, SSR240612 reduced (approximately 50%) microglial, but not astroglial, activation, brain levels of soluble Aβ1-42, diffuse and dense-core Aβ plaques, and it increased protein levels of the Aβ brain efflux transporter lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 in cerebral microvessels. Conclusion These findings show a selective upregulation of astroglial B1R in the APP mouse brain, and the capacity of the B1R antagonist to abrogate amyloidosis, cerebrovascular and

  19. Behavioral Differences Between C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 Hybrid Mice: Relation to Control of Ethanol Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Ozburn, A. R.; Harris, R. A.; Blednov, Y. A.

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 (B6 × FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 × NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 × NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 × FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and we...

  20. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons referred to... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the relationships...

  1. Cellular consequences of ATP8B1 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene cause a spectrum of familial intrahepatic cholestasis syndromes which we collectively refer to as ATP8B1 deficiency. Patients with ATP8B1 deficiency present with intrahepatic cholestasis (impairment of bile flow) as primary complication. These patients may also present

  2. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b...

  3. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  4. Compound list: aflatoxin B1 [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aflatoxin B1 AFB1 00165 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aflatoxin..._B1.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aflatoxin_B1.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  5. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalto, Danyel Bueno; Matte, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (B6) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and...

  6. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  7. Magnetic field dependence of the correlation gap in SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J. C.; Aronson, M. C.; Lacerda, A.; Canfield, P. C.; Fisk, Z.

    1994-06-01

    We have used magnetoresistance measurements to probe the effect of large magnetic fields on the stability of the electronic gap Delta in SmB6. Although the Zeeman splitting in a 18 Telsa field is comparable to the ambient pressure Delta, and even exceeds Delta at 56 kbar, Delta is in both cases almost completely unaffected by the magnetic field.

  8. Preparation, characterization, and use of monoclonal antibodies to vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceps-Madore, D; Cidlowski, J A; Kittler, J M; Thanassi, J W

    1983-02-25

    Monoclonal antibodies exhibiting various specificities for B6 vitamer forms have been prepared. The antigen preparation employed was a partially purified mixture of human placental proteins that had been derivatized by reaction with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and sodium borohydride. Spleen cells obtained from mice immunized with the phosphopyridoxyl protein preparation were fused with the mouse myeloma cell line designated X63-Ag8.653. The resulting hybridomas were screened for production of antibodies to the haptenic phosphopyridoxyl group using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clones producing such antibodies were isolated by limiting dilution methods. The monoclonal antibodies obtained in this fashion have been characterized with respect to their ability to interact with various forms of vitamin B6. In addition, these antibodies have been shown to be useful in the detection of cellular pyridoxal phosphate binding components using immunoblot techniques. Monoclonal antibodies to vitamin B6 derivatives are potentially powerful tools in the assessment of vitamin B6 nutritional status and in the study of the roles of pyridoxal phosphate binding components in relation to growth, differentiation, carcinogenesis, and steroid hormone action.

  9. Pierce-type electron gun with a large concave LaB6 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tumoru; Ohba, Kunio; Matoba, Masaru; Katase, Akira

    1981-01-01

    A Pierce-type electron gun with a concave cathode of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) 30 mm in diameter is described. At an accelerating voltage of 3 kV and a cathode temperature of 1340 0 C, a focussed electron beam of DC 300 mA was obtained. (author)

  10. 42 CFR 52b.6 - What is the rate of federal financial participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the rate of federal financial participation... GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.6 What is the rate of federal financial participation? (a) Unless otherwise specified by statute, the rate of federal financial participation in a...

  11. Loss of the EPH receptor B6 contributes to colorectal cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Bazzocco, Sarah; Rodrigues, Paulo; Mazzolini, Rocco; Andretta, Elena; Dopeso, Higinio; Fernández, Yolanda; del Llano, Edgar; Bilic, Josipa; Suárez-López, Lucía; Macaya, Irati; Cartón-García, Fernando; Nieto, Rocio; Jimenez-Flores, Lizbeth M.; de Marcondes, Priscila Guimarães; Nuñez, Yaiza; Afonso, Elsa; Cacci, Karina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Landolfi, Stefania; Abasolo, Ibane; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Arango, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Although deregulation of EPHB signaling has been shown to be an important step in colorectal tumorigenesis, the role of EPHB6 in this process has not been investigated. We found here that manipulation of EPHB6 levels in colon cancer cell lines has no effect on their motility and growth on a solid substrate, soft agar or in a xenograft mouse model. We then used an EphB6 knockout mouse model to show that EphB6 inactivation does not efficiently initiate tumorigenesis in the intestinal tract. In addition, when intestinal tumors are initiated genetically or pharmacologically in EphB6+/+ and EphB6−/− mice, no differences were observed in animal survival, tumor multiplicity, size or histology, and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells or tumor cells. However, reintroduction of EPHB6 into colon cancer cells significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis after tail-vein injection in immunodeficient mice, while EPHB6 knockdown in EPHB6-expressing cells increased their metastatic spread. Consistently, although EPHB6 protein expression in a series of 130 primary colorectal tumors was not associated with patient survival, EPHB6 expression was significantly lower in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumors. Our results indicate that the loss of EPHB6 contributes to the metastatic process of colorectal cancer. PMID:28262839

  12. Vitamin B6 status of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemane Berhane

    alterations, and superimposed fetal metabolism and its needs. Vitamin B6 has been recognized as an essential micronutrient involved in normal fetal development, and positive pregnancy outcomes. It is essential for homocysteine metabolism. Its deficiency may lead to hyperhomocysteinaemia (2), which is an established.

  13. Coexistence of metallic and insulating channels in compressed YbB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jianjun; Tang, Lingyun; Chen, Fei; Chen, Xianhui; Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2018-03-01

    It remains controversial whether compressed YbB6 material is a topological insulator or a Kondo topological insulator. We performed high-pressure transport, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Raman-scattering measurements on YbB6 samples in search for its topological Kondo phase. Both high-pressure powder XRD and Raman measurements show no trace of structural phase transitions in YbB6 up to 50 GPa. The nonmagnetic Yb2 + gradually change to magnetic Yb3 + above 18 GPa concomitantly with the increase in resistivity. However, the transition to the insulating state occurs only around 30 GPa, accompanied by the increase in the shear stress, and anomalies in the pressure dependence of the Raman T2 g mode and in the B atomic position. The resistivity at high pressures can be described by a model taking into account coexisting insulating and metallic channels with the activation energy for the insulating channel about 30 meV. We argue that YbB6 may become a topological Kondo insulator at high pressures above 35 GPa.

  14. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng

    1995-11-01

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of K eff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  15. 32 CFR 806b.6 - Systems of records operated by a contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems of records operated by a contractor... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.6 Systems of records operated by a contractor. Contractors who are required to operate or maintain a Privacy Act system of records by contract...

  16. Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermond, P

    1982-01-01

    Studies carried out in different countries during the last 15 years have provided evidence that supplementation with (or excess of) estro-progestational hormones may be accompanied by an increased urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites, as happens in pyridoxine deficiency. Further methods of assessment of vitamin B6 in humans have confirmed an impaired status in women using hormonal contraception. Disturbances in the metabolism of tryptophan have been shown to be responsible for such symptoms as depression, anxiety, decrease of libido and impairment of glucose tolerance occurring in some of the OCA users. Administration of 40 mg of vitamin B6 daily not only restores normal biochemical values but also relieves the clinical symptoms in those vitamin B6 deficient women taking OCA's. Further studies are justified to clarify whether vitamin B6 supplementation may contribute to improving depression also in other situations with hyperoestrogenism (pregnancy, puerperium, estro-progestational treatments, etc.), as well as correcting metabolic impairments, such as a minor alteration of glucose tolerance.

  17. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng

    1995-01-01

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of K eff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testings of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (4 tabs., 2 figs.)

  18. Prognostic Value of a CYP2B6 Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazhary, Nevin M; Shafik, Roxan E; Shafik, Hanan E; Kamel, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study aimed to detect a CYP2B6 polymorphism in de novo cases of acute myeloid leukemia patients and identify any role in disease progression and outcome. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 82 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia cases and the CYP2B6 G15631T gene polymorphism was assayed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The frequency of the GG genotype (wild type) was 48 (58.5%) and that of the mutant type T allele was 34 (41.9%). GT genotype heterozygous variants were found in 28 (34%), and TT genotype homozygous variants in 6 (7.3%) cases. We found no significant association between the CYP2B6 G15631T polymorphism and complete response (CR) (p-value=0.768), FAB classification (p-value=0.51), cytogenetic analysis (p-value=0.673), and overall survival (p-value=0.325). Also, there were no significant links with early toxic death (p-value=0.92) or progression- free survival (PFS) (p-value=0.245). Our results suggest that the CYP2B6 polymorphism has no role in disease progression, therapeutic outcome, patient free survival, early toxic death and overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

  19. Interplay between surface and bulk states in the Topological Kondo Insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sangram; Hatnean, Monica Ciomaga; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Bid, Aveek

    Kondo insulator SmB6 is predicted to have topologically protected conducting surface states(TSS). We have studied electrical transport through surface states(SS) at ultra-low temperatures in single crystals of SmB6 using local-nonlocal transport scheme and found a large nonlocal signal at temperatures lower than bulk Kondo gap scale. Using resistance fluctuation spectroscopy, we probed the local and nonlocal transport channels and showed that at low temperatures, transport in this system takes place only through SS. The measured noise in this temperature range arises due to Universal Conductance Fluctuations whose statistics was found to be consistent with theoretical predictions for that of 2D systems in the Symplectic symmetry class. We studied the temperature dependence of noise and found that, unlike the topological insulators of the dichalcogenide family, the noise in surface and bulk conduction channels in SmB6 are uncorrelated - at sufficiently low temperatures, the bulk has no discernible contribution to electrical transport in SmB6 making it an ideal platform for probing the physics of TSS. Nanomission, Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Indian Institute of Scienc and EPSRC, UK, Grant EP/L014963/1.

  20. Differential vulnerability of 3 rapidly conducting somatosensory pathways in the dog with vitamin B6 neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeppi, U; Krinke, G

    1985-09-01

    In anesthetized dogs with chronically implanted cortical electrodes somatic sensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) were produced by electrical stimulation at neural, muscular or cutaneous sites of the contralateral hind leg. Stimulation of the tibial nerve at the calcaneus or of the short flexor muscles of the hind paw caused SEPs having characteristics following activation of rapidly conducting afferents from muscle spindles. Stimulation of the glabrous skin of the central pad resulted in SEPs arriving after a more protracted latency evidently related to activation of afferents from Merkel cells, Krause and Pacinian corpuscles known to be located at these sites. Stimulation of the hairy skin from the dorsal surface of the hindpaw produced a further type of SEP presumably resulting from activation of afferents from receptors of tylotrich hair follicles. Vitamin B6-induced neuropathy involves the selective degeneration of the largest neurons in the spinal ganglia and of associated long peripheral and central neurites performing rapid impulse transmission. In the course of vitamin B6 neuropathy the relatively slow impulse transmission following stimulation of the central pad was more severely impaired than the faster one after activation of afferents from muscle spindles or receptors from hair follicles. This allows us to conclude that in the dog afferents from the glabrous skin of the central pad conduct centrally via the dorsal columns, susceptible to vitamin B6 intoxication, while muscle and hair receptor afferents ascend in the dorsal spinocerebellar and spinocervical tract, respectively, which are vitamin B6 resistant.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody B6.2 in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.F.; Zalutsky, M.R.; Kaplan, W.; Noska, M.; Thor, A.; Colcher, D.; Kufe, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen patients with metastatic breast carcinoma were given injections of 50-1593 micrograms of 131 I-monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.2 immunoglobulin G and F(ab')2 for pharmacokinetic evaluation and radioimmunoimaging. Blood clearance of the 131 I-MAb-B6.2 was biphasic. The mean half-times (t 1/2 alpha, t 1/2 beta) for the immunoglobulin G were 3.5 +/- 1.7 and 20.9 +/- 11.0 h, respectively. The t 1/2 alpha for the F(ab')2 was 1.7 +/- 1.3 h, and the t 1/2 beta was 31.0 +/- 5.7 h. The percentage of protein bound 131 I for the immunoglobulin G and for the F(ab')2 at 72 h was 73.7 +/- 11.4% and 58.2 +/- 14.5%, respectively. In vitro reactivity of MAb B6.2 with granulocytes isolated from normal subjects and patients was demonstrated by cytofluorometric and radioimmunoassays. MAb B6.2 was shown to bind with normal cross-reacting antigen, a cell surface antigen known to be expressed on normal human granulocytes. Reactivity with normal cross-reacting antigen on granulocytes is consistent with the skeletal images obtained during immunoscintigraphy of all 13 patients. A specific tumor image was observed in one patient. No toxicity was encountered. In spite of extensive preclinical data suggesting that 131 I-MAb B6.2 would be a useful agent for radioimmunoimaging, the clinical utility of this reagent is probably limited because of the reactivity with granulocytes

  2. Production of adipic acid by the native-occurring pathway in Thermobifida fusca B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y; Mao, Y

    2015-10-01

    To identify the native-occurring adipate pathway in a previously engineered Thermobifida fusca B6 strain and optimize the adipic acid production of this strain on glucose and corncob. The native-occurring adipate pathway in T. fusca B6 was identified to be the reverse adipate degradation pathway, including five steps: β-ketothiolase (Tfu_0875), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Tfu_2399), 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Tfu_0067), 5-Carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA reductase (Tfu_1647) and succinyl-CoA synthetase (Tfu_2576, Tfu_2577). The cell lysates of T. fusca wild-type strain with the addition of the Tfu_1647 protein produced trace adipic acid, while no adipic acid was produced in the absence of this protein. The above results prove that the low expression of Tfu_1647 in the wild-type strain was the reason why it did not produce any adipic acid. We then demonstrated that in T. fusca B6, the maximal titre of adipic acid on 50 g l(-1) glucose was 2·23 g l(-1) with 0·045 g g(-1) -glucose yield and 0·22 g l(-1) adipic acid was produced from 19·38 g l(-1) milled corncob. The reverse adipate degradation pathway was found to be responsible for the adipate synthesis in T. fusca B6 and Tfu_1647 was the regulatory node on this pathway. Thermobifida fusca B6 was the first reported micro-organism using its native-occurring pathway to accumulate adipic acid. It had the highest reported yield and titre of adipic acid so far. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, R B; Oliveira, C A F; Dilkin, P; Xavier, J G; Direito, G M; Corrêa, B

    2007-12-15

    The effects of prolonged oral administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) were studied in male New Zealand rabbits by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. Twenty-four animals were randomly divided into the following four experimental groups: (A) 0 mg FB(1)+0 microg AFB(1)/(kg body weight(bw)day) (control); (B) 0 mg FB(1)+30 microg AFB(1)/(kg bw day); (C) 1.5 mg FB(1)/(kg bw day)+30 microg AFB(1)/(kg bw day); (D) 1.5 mg FB(1)/(kg bw day)+0 microg AFB(1). Animals from group B and principally from group C presented clinical signs of intoxication. Rabbits from group C presented a lower body weight gain than controls. Differences were observed between intoxicated rabbits and controls with respect to absolute and relative liver and kidney weight, hepatic function, serum urea and creatinine levels and Sa/So ratio. The most frequent hepatic and renal injuries were vacuolar degeneration of the liver and kidney as shown by the histopathological and serum biochemical results. Combined administration of AFB(1) and FB(1) resulted in synergistic toxic effects both in the liver and in the kidney, but hepatic injuries were more marked.

  4. Expression and Initial Characterization of Human ALDH3B1

    OpenAIRE

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Orlicky, David J.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2007-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are critical enzymes in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. The human genome contains nineteen putatively functional ALDH genes; ALDH3B1 belongs to the ALDH3 family. While recent studies have linked the ALDH3B1 locus to schizophrenia, nothing was known, until now, about the properties and significance of the ALDH3B1 protein. The aim of this study was to characterize the ALDH3B1 protein. Human ALDH3B1 was baculovirus-expressed and found to be c...

  5. Prolactin rescues and primes autoreactive B cells directly and indirectly through dendritic cells in B6.Sle3 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Saha, S; Peeva, E

    2013-01-01

    The lupus susceptibility interval Sle3/5 confers responsiveness to prolactin in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and hyperprolactinaemia induces a lupus-like phenotype in B6.Sel3/5 mice. In this study, the immunostimulatory effects of prolactin in B6 mice containing the Sle3 portion of the Sel3/5 interval (B6.Sle3 mice) were dissected. Because of the Sle3 interval's involvement in activation of myeloid cells, the effect of dendritic cells (DCs) from prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice on the phenotype of B6 mice was also evaluated. B cells from prolactin-treated B6 and B6.Sle3 mice and from B6 recipients of prolactin-modulated DCs from B6.Sle3 mice were tested for DNA-reactivity and resistance to B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules on lymphocytes and myeloid cells was also evaluated. In prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice, transitional type 2 B cells increased while type 1 B cells decreased as a consequence of prolactin-induced resistance to BCR-mediated apoptosis leading to the survival of DNA-reactive B cells. Follicular B cells from prolactin-treated mice expressed increased levels of CD40, B7·2 and IAb, and DCs and monocytes had higher levels of CD44 and B7·2 than placebo-treated mice. Adoptive transfer of DCs from prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice to B6 recipients demonstrated the intrinsic ability of prolactin-modulated DCs to induce a development of lupus-like characteristics in B6 mice. Based on these results, prolactin accelerates the breakdown of immune tolerance in B6.Sle3 mice by promoting the survival, maturation and activation of autoreactive B cells, DCs and macrophages. PMID:23574327

  6. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  7. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  8. An Investigation of B-2 Pilot Force Reserve Component Augmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathers, Russell

    2001-01-01

    ... to enter the major airline industry Due to the resulting limited number of B-2 instructor pilots the Air Force contracted for civilian B-2 academic instructors who are not as qualified to instruct...

  9. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB6 thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Singh, Anil K.; Phase, Deodatta M.; Late, Dattatray J.; Sinha, Sucharita; More, Mahendra A.

    2016-10-01

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB6 on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ~10-8 mbar. The GdB6/W and GdB6/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ~1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm2 at an applied field of ~6.0 and 7.0 V/µm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim ( F- N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor ( β) estimated using the slopes of the F- N plots indicate that the PLD GdB6 coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ~1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB6/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB6/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB6 films on W and Re substrates.

  10. Structure and Oxidation of Pyrrole Adducts Formed between Aflatoxin B2aand Biological Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-06-19

    Aflatoxin B 2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B 2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions, and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting accurate mass was used to generate a novel proposed chemical structure of the adduct in which the dialdehyde forms a pyrrole ring with primary amines rather than the previously proposed Schiff base interaction. The pyrrole structure was confirmed using 1 H, 13 C, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation NMR and tandem mass spectrometry. Reaction kinetics show that the reaction is overall second order and that the rate increases as pH increases. Additionally, this study shows for the first time that aflatoxin B 2a dialdehyde forms adducts with phosphatidylethanolamines and does so through pyrrole ring formation, which makes it the first aflatoxin-lipid adduct to be structurally identified. Furthermore, oxidation of the pyrrole adduct produced a product that was 16 m/z heavier. When the aflatoxin B 2a -lysine (ε) adduct was oxidized, it gave a product with an accurate mass, mass fragmentation pattern, and 1 H NMR spectrum that match aflatoxin B 1 -lysine, which suggest the transformation of the pyrrole ring to a pyrrolin-2-one ring. These data give new insight into the fate and chemical properties of biological adducts formed from aflatoxin B 2a as well as possible interferences with known aflatoxin B 1 exposure biomarkers.

  11. B1 -sensitivity analysis of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Mathieu; Stikov, Nikola; Pike, G Bruce

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) fitted parameters to B 1 inaccuracies, focusing on the difference between two categories of T 1 mapping techniques: B 1 -independent and B 1 -dependent. The B 1 -sensitivity of qMT was investigated and compared using two T 1 measurement methods: inversion recovery (IR) (B 1 -independent) and variable flip angle (VFA), B 1 -dependent). The study was separated into four stages: 1) numerical simulations, 2) sensitivity analysis of the Z-spectra, 3) healthy subjects at 3T, and 4) comparison using three different B 1 imaging techniques. For typical B 1 variations in the brain at 3T (±30%), the simulations resulted in errors of the pool-size ratio (F) ranging from -3% to 7% for VFA, and -40% to > 100% for IR, agreeing with the Z-spectra sensitivity analysis. In healthy subjects, pooled whole-brain Pearson correlation coefficients for F (comparing measured double angle and nominal flip angle B 1 maps) were ρ = 0.97/0.81 for VFA/IR. This work describes the B 1 -sensitivity characteristics of qMT, demonstrating that it varies substantially on the B 1 -dependency of the T 1 mapping method. Particularly, the pool-size ratio is more robust against B 1 inaccuracies if VFA T 1 mapping is used, so much so that B 1 mapping could be omitted without substantially biasing F. Magn Reson Med 79:276-285, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Thermal field emission observation of single-crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Harada, K.; Shimizu, R.

    1990-01-01

    TFE (thermal field emission) properties of LaB 6 left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 310 right-angle single crystals were investigated by emission pattern observation. It was found that field evaporation with the tip temperature held at ∼1500 degree C is very useful to get a clean pattern of fourfold symmetry. Each of four bright spots in the clean pattern was presumed to correspond to left-angle 310 right-angle emission. It is proposed, as the most appropriate operating condition, to use the left-angle 310 right-angle LaB 6 tip at a temperature ∼1000 degree C in vacuum of 10 -9 Torr region, promising a new TF emitter of high brightness and stability for practical use

  13. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  14. TRUST IN B2B E-MARKETPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN KOT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  15. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, Jinmin; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    Business-to-Business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support

  16. Vitamin B6 Is Required for Full Motility and Virulence in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubman, Alexandra; Phillips, Alexandra; Thibonnier, Marie; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria; Johnson, Chad; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Radcliff, Fiona J.; Ecobichon, Chantal; Labigne, Agnès; de Reuse, Hilde; Mendz, George L.; Ferrero, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of how Helicobacter pylori causes disease, the factors that allow this pathogen to persist in the stomach have not yet been fully characterized. To identify new virulence factors in H. pylori, we generated low-infectivity variants of a mouse-colonizing H. pylori strain using the classical technique of in vitro attenuation. The resulting variants and their highly infectious progenitor bacteria were then analyzed by global gene expression profiling. The gene expression levels of five open reading frames (ORFs) were significantly reduced in low-infectivity variants, with the most significant changes observed for ORFs HP1583 and HP1582. These ORFs were annotated as encoding homologs of the Escherichia coli vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes PdxA and PdxJ. Functional complementation studies with E. coli confirmed H. pylori PdxA and PdxJ to be bona fide homologs of vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes. Importantly, H. pylori PdxA was required for optimal growth in vitro and was shown to be essential for chronic colonization in mice. In addition to having a well-known metabolic role, vitamin B6 is necessary for the synthesis of glycosylated flagella and for flagellum-based motility in H. pylori. Thus, for the first time, we identify vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes as novel virulence factors in bacteria. Interestingly, pdxA and pdxJ orthologs are present in a number of human pathogens, but not in mammalian cells. We therefore propose that PdxA/J enzymes may represent ideal candidates for therapeutic targets against bacterial pathogens. PMID:21151756

  17. Confirmation of mutations in PROSC as a novel cause of vitamin B 6 -dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecko, Barbara; Zweier, Markus; Begemann, Anaïs; Mathis, Deborah; Schmitt, Bernhard; Striano, Pasquale; Baethmann, Martina; Vari, Maria Stella; Beccaria, Francesca; Zara, Federico; Crowther, Lisa M; Joset, Pascal; Sticht, Heinrich; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Rauch, Anita

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsies are a heterogenous group of treatable disorders due to mutations in several genes ( ALDH7A1, PNPO, ALPL or ALDH4A1 ). In neonatal seizures, defects in ALDH7A1 and PNPO explain a major fraction of cases. Very recently biallelic mutations in PROSC were shown to be a novel cause in five families. We identified four further unrelated patients harbouring a total of six different mutations, including four novel disease mutations. Vitamin B 6 plasma profiles on pyridoxine did not enable the differentiation of patients with PROSC mutations. All four patients were normocephalic and had normal cranial imaging. Pyridoxine monotherapy allowed complete seizure control in one, while two patients had occasional febrile or afebrile seizures and one needed additional valproate therapy for photosensitive seizures. Two patients underwent a controlled pyridoxine withdrawal with signs of encephalopathy within a couple of days. Three had favourable outcome with normal intellectual properties at age 12.5, 15.5 and 30 years, respectively, while one child had marked developmental delay at age 27 months. The clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype in patients with PROSC mutations was indistinguishable from ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiency. We therefore confirm PROSC as a novel gene for vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsy and delineate a non-specific plasma vitamin B 6 profile under pyridoxine treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Differential amplification of satellite PaB6 in chromosomally hypervariable Prospero autumnale complex (Hyacinthaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emadzade, K.; Jang, T.S.; Macas, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš; Novák, Petr; Parker, J.; Weiß-Schneeweiss, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 8 (2014), s. 1597-1608 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Hyacinthaceae * PaB6 * pericentric satellite DNA * next-generation sequencing * Prospero autumnale Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BFU-R) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis B6, a Rhizobacterium That Can Control Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Han; Guo, Rong-Jun; Li, Shi-Dong

    2018-03-22

    The draft genome of Bacillus velezensis strain B6, a rhizobacterium with good biocontrol performance isolated from soil in China, was sequenced. The assembly comprises 32 scaffolds with a total size of 3.88 Mb. Gene clusters coding either ribosomally encoded bacteriocins or nonribosomally encoded antimicrobial polyketides and lipopeptides in the genome may contribute to plant disease control. Copyright © 2018 Gao et al.

  20. Inverse and normal magnetocaloric effects in LaFe12B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect were studied for LaFe 12 B 6 itinerant-electron system, which presents an antiferromagnetic ground state below 36 K. For certain magnetic fields values, LaFe 12 B 6 exhibits a sequence of two successive magnetic transitions: an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) transition at low temperature followed by a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition, leading to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects, respectively. At finite temperatures, both antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic states can be transformed into a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced metamagnetic transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. Moreover, we reveal that, at low temperatures, the magnetization displays abrupt jumps across the first-order AFM-FM transition, giving rise to an unusual and unique staircase-like behavior. LaFe 12 B 6 exhibits both normal magnetocaloric effect around the Curie temperature and large inverse magnetocaloric effect around the AFM-FM transition temperature; for μ 0 ΔH = 7 T, ΔS M is found to be −6.8 and 19 J kg −1  K −1 around 38 and 8 K, respectively.

  1. Two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulating SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang

    There has been renewed interest in Samarium Hexaboride, which is a strongly correlated heavy Fermion material. Hybridization between itinerant electrons and localized orbitals lead to an opening of charge gap at low temperature. However, the resistivity of SmB6 does not diverge at low temperature. Former studies suggested that this residual conductance is contributed by various origins. Recent theoretical developments suggest that the particular symmetry of energy bands of SmB6 may host a topologically non-trivial surface state, i.e., a topological Kondo insulator. To probe the Fermiology of the possible metallic surface state, we use sensitive torque magnetometry to detect the de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) effect due to Landau level quantization on flux-grown crystals, down to He-3 temperature and up to 45 Tesla. Our angular and temperature dependent data suggest two-dimensional Fermi Surfaces lie in both crystalline (001) and (101) surface planes of SmB6.

  2. The triple synergy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate, magnesium, and vitamin B6: Molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the triple effect of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS, organic magnesium salt (magnesium lactate, and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine.Material and methods. A systematic analysis of the molecular mechanisms of the triple synergic action of EMHPS, magnesium, and vitamin B6 was carried out. For chemoinformational analysis, the investigators developed a new mathematical method based on the combinatorial theory of solvability, which allows one to obtain quantitative estimates of the affinity constants of proteome proteins.Results. The pharmacological effects of the EMHPS molecule characterized by nootropic and antioxidant properties are shown to work in synergy with magnesium and vitamin B6. A systematic analysis of synergy interactions indicated 46 biological roles, in which the synergy of EMHPS, magnesium, and pyridoxine could be manifested. The main goals of this synergy are to protect neurons from damage, by combating excitotoxicity in the cells and to neutralize excess homocysteine (to reduce the risk of ischemic and thrombotic stroke, myocardial infarction, and coronary heart disease; to improve cognitive functions and neuromuscular transmission, to reduce anxiety, by activating acetylcholine, GABA, and dopamine receptors; to normalize lipid and glucose metabolism, by lowering hyperglycemia and improving the processing of fats.

  3. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  4. Supplementation with vitamin B6 reduces side effects in Cambodian women using oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Var, Chivorn; Keller, Sheryl; Tung, Rathavy; Freeland, Dylan; Bazzano, Alessandra N

    2014-08-26

    Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo). The intervention participants (n = 577) reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434). Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  5. Tell-Tale SNPs: The Role of CYP2B6 in Methadone Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Taha; Sabet, Samie; Primerano, Donald A; Richards-Waugh, Lauren L; Rankin, Gary O

    2017-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 2B6 plays a significant role in the stereo-selective metabolism of (S)-methadone to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, an inactive methadone metabolite. Elevated (S)-methadone can cause cardiotoxicity by prolonging the QT interval of the heart's electrical cycle. Large inter-individual variability of methadone pharmacokinetics causes discordance in the relationship between dose, plasma concentrations and side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the CYP2B6 gene contributes to a poor metabolizer phenotype for methadone in these fatal cases. The genetic analysis was conducted on 125 Caucasian methadone-only fatalities obtained from the West Virginia and Kentucky Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner. The frequency of eight exonic and intronic SNPs (rs2279344, rs3211371, rs3745274, rs4803419, rs8192709, rs8192719, rs12721655 and rs35979566) was determined. The frequencies of SNPs rs3745274 (*9, c516G > T, Q172H), and rs8192719 (21563 C > T) were enhanced in the methadone-only group. Higher blood methadone concentrations were observed in individuals who were genotyped homozygous for SNP rs3211371 (*5, c1459C > T, R487C). These results indicate that these three CYP2B6 SNPs are associated with methadone fatalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. High Pressure Study of Electrical Resistivity of CeB6 to 136 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzani, Neda; Lim, Jinhyuk; Schilling, James; Fabbris, Gilberto; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1960's the dense Kondo compound cerium hexaboride (CeB6) has attracted a great deal of interest. To investigate whether this material might evolve into a topological insulator under sufficient pressure, we have carried out four-point electrical resistivity measurements on CeB6 over the temperature range 1.3 K to 295 K in a diamond anvil cell to 136 GPa. Although a transition into an insulating phase is not observed, the evolution of the initial dense Kondo state under such extreme pressures is of considerable interest. As reported in earlier studies to 13 GPa, the temperature of the resistivity maximum near 3 K initially increases with pressure. We observe that between 33 and 53 GPa the resistivity maximum disappears and by 83 GPa CeB6 appears to have settled into a Fermi liquid state. The marked changes observed under pressure suggest that a change in valence and/or a structural transition may have occurred. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements are being carried out to investigate possible changes in crystal structure under extreme pressures. Work at Washington Univ. supported by NSF DMR-1104742 and Carnegie/DOE/NNSA DE-FC52-08NA28554.

  7. RIN4 recruits the exocyst subunit EXO70B1 to the plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabol, P.; Kulich, I.; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2017), s. 3253-3265 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14886S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : oligomeric golgi-complex * powdery mildew fungus * pseudomonas-syringae * cell polarity * arabidopsis * protein * plants * resistance * expression * transport * Autophagy * exo70b1 * exo70b2 * exocyst * plant immunity * rin4 * secretion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  8. B1 was the ancestor B chromosome variant in the western Mediterranean area in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J; López-León, M D; Ruíz-Estévez, M; Gómez, R; Petitpierre, E; Rufas, J S; Massa, B; Kamel Ben Halima, M; Camacho, J P M

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and a satellite DNA (satDNA), on the B chromosomes found in 17 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis ploransplorans sampled around the western Mediterranean region, including the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Sicily, and Tunisia. Based on the amount of these repetitive DNAs, 4 types of B variants were found: B1, showing an equal or higher amount of rDNA than satDNA, and 3 other variants, B2, B24 and B5, bearing a higher amount of satDNA than rDNA. The variants B1 and B2 varied in size among populations: B1 was about half the size of the X chromosome in Balearic Islands, but two-thirds of the X in Iberian populations at Alicante, Murcia and Albacete provinces. Likewise, B2 was about one-third the size of the X chromosome in populations from the Granada province but half the size of the X in the populations collected at Málaga province. The widespread geographical distribution of the B1 variant makes it the best candidate for being the ancestor B chromosome in the whole western Mediterranean region. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 29 CFR 2530.200b-1 - Computation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation periods. 2530.200b-1 Section 2530.200b-1 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-1 Computation periods. (a) General. Under sections 202, 203 and 204 of the Act and... specified period—in general, a twelve-consecutive-month period—referred to herein as a “computation period...

  10. MAN1B1 deficiency: an unexpected CDG-II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Rymen

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD. However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency.

  11. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiB2 powder from TiO2, B2O3 and Mg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B2O3–Mg mixtures. Thermody- namic evaluations of this system and its relevant subsystems revealed that TiB2–MgO composite powder can be eas- ily produced by a SHS reaction. However, experimental results of a TiO2 : B2O3 : 5Mg ...

  12. Antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors in a schizophrenia model established with neonatal hippocampal lesioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Iwakura, Yuriko; Shibuya, Masako; Zheng, Yingjun; Eda, Takeyoshi; Kato, Taisuke; Takasu, Yohei; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Hyper-signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB) is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Various quinazoline inhibitors targeting ErbB1 or ErbB2 - 4 have been developed as anti-cancer agents and might be useful for antipsychotic treatment. In the present study, we used an animal model of schizophrenia established by neonatal hippocampal lesioning and evaluated the neurobehavioral consequences of ErbB1-inhibitor treatment. Subchronic administration of the ErbB1 inhibitor ZD1839 to the cerebroventricle of rats receiving neonatal hippocampal lesioning ameliorated deficits in prepulse inhibition as well as those in the latent inhibition of tone-dependent fear learning. There were no apparent adverse effects on basal learning scores or locomotor activity, however. The administration of other ErbB1 inhibitors, PD153035 and OSI-774, similarly attenuated the prepulse inhibition impairment of this animal model. In parallel, there were decreases in ErbB1 phosphorylation in animals treated with ErbB1 inhibitors. These results indicate an antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors. ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases may be novel therapeutic targets for schizophrenia or its related psychotic symptoms.

  13. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 is generally found in feed and food stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has been proven to be at least partly resistant to food processing methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility of contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food ...

  14. Fumonisin B 1 Reduction in Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated how fermentation can promote fumonisin B1 reduction in maize-based porridges. Four starter culture of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum) were used, porridge samples was spiked with fumonisins B1 and allowed ...

  15. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Shirakawa, Jun; Hou, Lifei; Goodman, Jessica; Karampelias, Christos; Qiang, Guifeng; Boucher, Jeremie; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; De Jesus, Dario F.; Kahraman, Sevim; Bhatt, Shweta; Smith, Richard D.; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Gong, Yanping; Goldfine, Allison B.; Liew, Chong Wee; Doria, Alessandro; Andersson, Olov; Qian, Wei-Jun; Remold-O’Donnell, Eileen; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance is a common feature in diabetes. We recently reported that liver-derived factors participate in this compensatory response in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a model of significant islet hyperplasia. Here we show that serpinB1 is a liver-derived secretory protein that controls β-cell proliferation. SerpinB1 is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice. SerpinB1 and small molecule compounds that partially mimic serpinB1 activity enhanced proliferation of zebrafish, mouse and human β-cells. We report that serpinB1-induced β-cell replication requires protease inhibition activity and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated β-cell replication in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1-treatment of islets modulated signaling proteins in growth and survival pathways such as MAPK, PKA and GSK3. Together, these data implicate SerpinB1 as a protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β-cell mass in patients with diabetes.

  16. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section..., and Airfield Lighting System, spare and repair parts, support equipment, personnel training and...

  17. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of..., support equipment, personnel training and training equipment, Quality Assurance Team, tools and test...

  18. 77 FR 40026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... test equipment, repair and return support, training equipment and personnel training, U.S. Government...

  19. 77 FR 65185 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section...-9X-2 Captive Air Training Missiles, 2 AIM- 9X-2 NATM Special Air Training Missiles, 2 CATM-9X-2 Block...

  20. 77 FR 53180 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. ] This is published to fulfill the requirements of...; support equipment; spare and repair parts; repair and return; personnel training and training equipment; U...

  1. 77 FR 49434 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section..., support equipment, tools and test equipment, technical data and publications, personnel training and...

  2. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section..., repair and return support, training equipment and personnel training, U.S. Government and contractor...

  3. SoxB2 in sea urchin development: implications in neurogenesis, ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Anishchenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system. This discovery raised several questions about SoxB2 function and regulation in deuterostomes from an evolutionary point of view. Results Due to the relevant phylogenetic position within deuterostomes, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus represents an advantageous animal model in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Herein, we show a comprehensive study of SoxB2 functions in sea urchins, in particular its expression pattern in a wide range of developmental stages, and its co-localization with other neurogenic markers, as SoxB1, SoxC and Elav. Moreover, this work provides a detailed description of the phenotype of sea urchin SoxB2 knocked-down embryos, confirming its key function in neurogenesis and revealing, for the first time, its additional roles in oral and aboral ectoderm cilia and skeletal rod morphology. Conclusions We concluded that SoxB2 in sea urchins has a neurogenic function; however, this gene could have multiple roles in sea urchin embryogenesis, expanding its expression in non-neurogenic cells. We showed that SoxB2 is functionally conserved among deuterostomes and suggested that in S. purpuratus this gene acquired additional functions, being involved in ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

  4. Thermal properties of some cerium compounds, particularly CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.

    1986-09-01

    Using measurements of specific heat between 0.3 to 250K in the absence of a magnetic field, and from 2 to 250K for magnetic fields between 0 and 8T, it is shown that the γ 8 quadruplet is the fundamental level of the Ce 3+ ion, the γ 8-7 separation energy being of the order of 500K. Detailed analysis suggests a lifting of degeneracy of the multiplet γ 8 in the paramagnetic phase, according to usual processes. Specific heat results obtained at very low temperatures reveal the importance of a significant gap in the spin wave energy spectra. Measurements under a strong magnetic field, around the two magnetic phase transitions of CeB6 show a spectacular reinforcement of the specific heat anomaly at a temperature of the order of T Q . Thermal conductivity of CEB6 is also studied in relation to the possible existence of a Jahn-Teller effect, likely to affect heat transfer by phonons. The problem of the different components of thermal transport prompts the analysis of the Weidemann-Franz law in the Kondo net, and also the study of the thermal conductivity of the compounds CeCu6, CeA12, the alloys Ce 0 . 7 5La 0 . 25 B 6 , Ce x La 1-x Cu 6 , and the fluctuating valence system SmB 6 . In all these bodies, an important contribution of phonons to electron transfer is shown. In the dense incoherent Kondo phase, it is not possible to envisage differences from the Weidemann-Franz law greater than those observed for highly diluted Kondo alloys [fr

  5. Homocysteine and cysteine loads in patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine synthase deficiency: effects of vitamin B-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Longhi, R C; Sternowsky, H J; Sturman, J A; Gaull, G E

    1977-08-15

    The metabolic response of patients with homocystinuria due to cystabhionine synthase deficiency to oral loads of homocysteine indicates: that even severely affected patients with homocystinuria have pools of cystine in their tissues; that control of sulfur amino acid metabolism favors increased concentrations of methionine rather than homocystine in the plasma; and that even patients who apparently are not B-6-responsive respond differently to the loads of homocysteine when challenged during B-6-treatment compared with their response before B-6 treatment. Loading tests with homocysteine indicate that B-6 treatment be of some benefit even in individuals who do not have an obvious biochemical response to such therapy.

  6. Ferromagnetism and superstructure in Ca1-xLaxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin; Gor'kov

    2000-03-06

    We critically investigate the model of a doped excitonic insulator, which has recently been invoked to explain some experimental properties of the ferromagnetic state in Ca1-xLaxB6. We demonstrate that the ground state of this model is intrinsically unstable towards the appearance of a superstructure. In addition, the model would lead to a phase separation of doped carriers into electron-enriched and neutral domains, which may be prevented by Coulomb forces only. Recent experiments indicate that a superstructure may indeed show up in this material.

  7. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  8. Method of preparing radioligand (2,3-3H)aflatoxin-B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, K.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium gas is used to act on non-radioactive aflatoxin-B 1 . Synthesis takes place in the presence of a Pt ar Pd catalyst in organic solvent at neutral pH and a temperature of 20 to 30 degC. The obtained product is cleaned chromatographically. Using 50% tritium gas it is possible to obtain a preparation of high specific activity of at least 103.6x10 10 s -1 .mmol -1 which is used for the radioimmunoassay of aflatoxins. An example is given of the preparation of (2,3- 3 H) aflatoxin-B 2 . (E.S.)

  9. Ethnomathematics: The use of multiple linier regression Y = b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + e in traditional house construction Saka Roras in Songan Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmayasa, J. B.; Wahyudin; Mulyana, T.

    2018-01-01

    Ethnomathematics may be the connecting bridge between culture and technology and arts. Therefore, the exploration of mathematics values that intersects with cultural anthropology should be significantly conducted. One case containing such issue is the construction of Traditional House of Saka Roras in Bali. Thus, this research aimed to explore the mathematic concept adopted in the construction of such traditional Bale (house) located in Songan Village, Kintamani, Bali. Specifically, this research also aimed to investigate the selection of linear regression coefficient for the saka (pillar) in the Bale. This research applied Embedded Mix-Method Design. Meanwhile, the data collection was conducted by interview, observation and measurement of pillars of 32 Bale Saka Roras. The result of this research revealed that the connection between the width and height of pillars was stated in the formula Y = 26,3 + 18,2X, where X acted as stimulus variable. The coefficient value amounted to 18.2 showed that most preceding architects in Songan Village were more likely to use 19 as the coefficient towards the pillar width than the other coefficients such as 17, 20 and 21 as mentioned in book/palm-leaf manuscript entitled Kosala-Kosali. The last but not least, the researchers also figured out that the pillar width depended on the length of the house-owner candidate’s index finger.

  10. Effect of sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation on contents of vitamins A, B1 and B2 in cereal-based mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnukova, J.; Hanis, T.

    1984-01-01

    The diets were irradiated with doses of 25 kGy (diet I) an and 50 kGy (diet II) and stored for 79 days at room temperature with free access of air. In one month intervals the contents of the said vitamins were determined, this also for non-sterilized diets. No significant deviation was found in diet I and in the non-sterilized diet. In diet II the content of vitamin A and thiamine dropped mildly. As compared to autoclaving the decline is smaller. (E.F.)

  11. 76 FR 70046 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... are intended to prevent separation of the bearing ball from its outer race, rubbing of the body of the... movement. This action may be performed by an owner/operator (pilot) holding at least a private pilot... 4. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of...

  12. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    homogenate and in an assay of electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum. The results from the two tissues did, however, not correlate very well, and in order to further investigate these discrepancies, we have pharmacologically characterized these enantiomers on recombinant wild type and mutant...

  13. 75 FR 22508 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D, and D1; AS 355E...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... an untimely squib firing that would cut the hoist cable. A short circuit in the hoist motor brush power supply wiring resulting in an uncommanded squib firing, which cuts the hoist cable, constitutes an...-2251. Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor...

  14. 75 FR 79988 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... inspection of the alignment and torque of the Aircraft Parts Corporation (APC) (currently UNISON) starter... ] Belleville springs (cup springs) and the self-locking nut, and aligning the shaft damping system of the APC...

  15. Effectiveness of pulsed light treatment for degradation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in rough rice and rice bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins primarily accumulate in the hull and bran layers of rough rice making these by-products of rice milling unsuitable for animal feed or human consumption. Contaminated rough rice is also a potential source of aflatoxin exposure to workers handling the grain during post-harvest storage and p...

  16. 75 FR 63050 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, D, AS355E...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... information (MCAI) AD issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which is the Technical Agent for... the non-modified cross- member may cause it to crack. A crack can reduce the yaw control travel. This... is the Technical Agent for the Member States of the European Community, has issued Emergency AD No...

  17. Thermophysical Properties of ZrB2-Based Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, James W.; Hilmas, Gregory E.; Fahrenholtz, William G.; Buchheit, Andrew A; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Porter, Wallace D; Wang, Hsin

    2008-01-01

    Thermophysical properties were investigated for ZrB2 and ZrB2-30vol% SiC ceramics. Thermal conductivities were calculated from measured thermal diffusivities, heat capacities, and thermal expansions. The thermal conductivity of ZrB2 increased from 58.7 W/m K at room temperature to 62.0 W/m K at 1675 K, whereas the thermal conductivity of ZrB2-SiC decreased from 62.0 W/m K to 56 W/m K over the same temperature range. Electron and phonon contributions to thermal conductivity were determined using electrical resistivity measurements and were used, along with grain size models, to explain the observed trends. The results are compared to previously reported thermal conductivities for ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC

  18. Cloning and expression of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoform B2 (rCHH-B2) and its effects on the metabolism and osmoregulation of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Díaz, Fernando; Aguilar, Manuel B; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides ubiquitous in crustaceans. In Litopenaeus vannamei, CHH-B2 is a CHH eyestalk isoform whose expression has been shown to vary with enviromental conditions, suggesting its relevance for ecophysiological performance of shrimp, controlling processes related to metabolism and osmo-ionic regulation. To study the involvement of CHH-B2 in these processes, we cloned and expressed a recombinant version with a free C-terminal glycine (rCHH-B2-Gly) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The rCHH-B2-Gly peptide secreted to the culture medium was purified by RP-HPLC and used for in vivo glucose, triglyceride, and osmoregulation dose-response analyses with juvenile shrimp. The peptide was also amidated at the C-terminus using an α-amidating enzyme to produce rCHH-B2-amide. The shrimp showed a dose-dependent effect of rCHH-B2-Gly to hemolymph glucose and triglyceride levels, inducing maximal increases by injecting 500 and 1000pmol of hormone, respectively. Additionally, 10pmol of hormone was sufficient to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp at 35‰. These findings suggest that CHH-B2 has regulatory roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and a potential involvement in osmoregulation of L. vannamei. Injection of 100pmol of rCHH-B2-amide increased glucose and triglyceride levels by 15 and 28%, respectively in comparison with rCHH-B2-Gly, suggesting an important role for the C-terminal amidation. Additionally, an in silico structural analysis done with the CHH-B1 and rCHH-B2-Gly peptides suggests that the C-terminal region may be relevant for the activity of the L. vannamei isoforms and explain the functional divergence from other crustacean CHH/CHH-like peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Absolute non-linear optical coefficients measurements of CsLiB 6O 10 single crystals by second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifi, A.; Klein, R. S.; Maillard, A.; Kugel, G. E.; Péter, A.; Polgár, K.

    2003-10-01

    We present absolute measurements of the effective non-linear optical coefficients deff of cesium lithium borate crystals (CsLiB 6O 10, CLBO) by second harmonic generation using a continuous Nd-YAG laser source. The experiments were carried out at room temperature, on crystals cut perpendicular to type I or type II phase matching directions, with two different crystal lengths along the propagation direction. The d36 and d14 non-linear coefficients involved in deff developments are deduced and are shown to be equal as it is predicted by the Kleinman symmetry. Two different compositions prepared by the Czochralski technique from melt with compositions of 1:1:6 and 1:1:5.5 molar ratios of Cs 2O, Li 2O and B 2O 3 are comparatively studied.

  20. Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Joel; Taiminen, Heini

    2016-01-01

    The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstra...

  1. Covalent functionalization of octagraphene with magnetic octahedral B6- and non-planar C6- clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigo-Anota, E.; Cárdenas-Jirón, G.; Salazar Villanueva, M.; Bautista Hernández, A.; Castro, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between the magnetic boron octahedral (B6-) and non-planar (C6-) carbon clusters with semimetal nano-sheet of octa-graphene (C64H24) in the gas phase is studied by means of DFT calculations. These results reveal that non-planar-1 (anion) carbon cluster exhibits structural stability, low chemical reactivity, magnetic (1.0 magneton bohr) and semiconductor behavior. On the other hand, there is chemisorption phenomena when the stable B6- and C6- clusters are absorbed on octa-graphene nanosheets. Such absorption generates high polarity and the low-reactivity remains as on the individual pristine cases. Electronic charge transference occurs from the clusters toward the nanosheets, producing a reduction of the work function for the complexes and also induces a magnetic behavior on the functionalized sheets. The quantum descriptors obtained for these systems reveal that they are feasible candidates for the design of molecular circuits, magnetic devices, and nano-vehicles for drug delivery.

  2. Pyridoxal phosphate concentrations determined postmortem as an indication of antemortem vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Reynolds, R D

    1987-03-01

    In anticipation of studies relating vitamin B-6 status determined at autopsy to known pathologic causes of death, the postmortem stability of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the plasma, skeletal muscle, and liver of pigs was assessed. Concentrations of plasma K, Mg, Na, and Ca also were examined for postmortem stability using the pig as an experimental model. At 1 hr after death, the mean plasma PLP concentration was essentially unchanged from that observed prior to death. Thereafter, plasma PLP concentration increased with increasing postmortem time interval and was 2.3 times greater than initial by 6 hr postmortem and 7.6 times greater than initial by 12 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Skeletal muscle and liver PLP content were 35% lower than initial by 6 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Plasma K and Mg were significantly higher by 1 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01) while plasma Na concentration was significantly lower by 1 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Plasma Ca concentration was not significantly different at any measured time point. Knowledge of the postmortem time interval appears to be required in order to evaluate the antemortem vitamin B-6 status using pyridoxal phosphate values derived from autopsy samples.

  3. Electron dynamics in CaB6 induced by one- and two-color femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.L.; Wang, F.; Hong, X.H.; Su, W.Y.; Chen, Q.H.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    We simulate nonlinear electron dynamics in CaB 6 crystal within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) under one-color femtosecond laser fields (400 nm, 800 nm) and two-color cases (400 nm+800 nm) with different relative phases of ϕ=0, ϕ=π/4, ϕ=π/2. The time-dependent Kohn–Sham equation (TDKS) is solved in real-time and real-space evolution scheme. We investigate the energy absorption and the electron excitation of CaB 6 crystal in detail. Besides, the electron density distributions and occupations are shown after each external field ends. Computational results indicate that for one-color case, the excitation behaviors are distinct due to the different frequencies; for two-color laser, we adjust the phase and obtain the asymmetric field, which causes the change of the dynamics response comparing with the symmetric field. At the end of laser, the electron occupation is broadly distributed in the energy range of 2.4–42.4 eV, which means a high excitation rate in the narrow-gap semiconductor under intense laser field. The occurrence of the breakdown is also checked for each case in the Letter.

  4. Regioselective Synthesis of Procyanidin B6, A 4-6-Condensed (+-Catechin Dimer, by Intramolecular Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Higashino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric flavonoids, are found in many edible plants and exhibit interesting biological activities. Herein, we report a new, simple method for the stereoselective synthesis of procyanidin B6, a (+-catechin-(4-6-(+-catechin dimer, by Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensation. The 5-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS group of 5,7,3′4′-tetra-O-TBDMS-(+-catechin was regioselectively removed using trifluoroacetic acid, leading to the “regio-controlled” synthesis of procyanidin B6. The 5-hydroxyl group of the 7,3′,4′-tri-O-TBDMS-(+-catechin nucleophile and the 3-hydroxyl group of 5,7,3′,4′-tetra-O-benzylated-(+-catechin electrophile were connected with an azelaic acid. The subsequent SnCl4-catalyzed intramolecular condensation proceeded smoothly to give the 4-6-condensed catechin dimer. This is the first report on the complete regioselective synthesis of a 4-6-connected oligomer without modifying the 8-position.

  5. Unconventional Fermi surface associated with novel quasiparticles in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Suchitra

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid has endured for decades. We present evidence for the realisation of such a state in the Kondo Insulator SmB6, which is an extreme example of Fermi liquid breakdown. Experimental results are presented from complementary techniques including quantum oscillations, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and oscillatory entropy down to low temperatures. An experimental comparison is made with alternative theoretical models that associate novel quasiparticles with the unconventional Fermi surface we uncover in SmB6. A new paradigm for the realisation of a Fermi surface in the absence of conventional quasiparticles is proposed in the vicinity of a Kondo insulator transition. This work was performed in collaboration with M. Hartstein, W. H. Toews, Y.-T. Hsu, B. Zeng, X. Chen, M. Ciomaga Hatnean, Q. R. Zhang, S. Nakamura, A. S. Padgett, G. Rodway-Gant, J. Berk, M. K. Kingston, G. H. Zhang, M. K. Chan, S. Yamashita, T. Sakakibara, Y. Takano, J. -H. Park, L. Balicas, N. Harrison, N. Shitsevalova, G. Balakrishnan, G. G. Lonzarich, R. W. Hill, and M. Sutherland.

  6. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB_{6} Microcrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2016-04-22

    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB_{6}, 100  μm in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB_{6} is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk.

  7. RKKY interaction between Ce ions in CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Ce ions in (Ce x La 1-x )B 6 have a Γ 8 ground multiplet, which is fourfold degenerate and has orbital and spin content. The interaction between Ce ions is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) type, which competes with the Kondo screening. The conduction states of the compound are described by three approximately ellipsoidal pockets centered at the X points of the cubic lattice. The RKKY interaction is calculated considering the interference of the three pockets. The interaction strength strongly depends on the relative position of the ions, as well as on the relative orientation of the line joining two ions to the cubic crystalline field axis. The sixteen states of a pair of Ce ions are split by the RKKY interaction into a singlet, a triplet, and a twelvefold degenerate level. The ground state is always either a singlet or a triplet, depending on the sign of the interaction. Using the exact Bethe ansatz solution of a model for a pair of interacting impurities with Γ 8 ground multiplet, we calculate the occupation of the levels, the magnetic-field susceptibility, the specific-heat γ coefficient, and the Wilson ratio for the ground state as a function of the ratio of the RKKY coupling strength to the Kondo temperature along the main crystallographic directions. As a consequence of the RKKY splitting a pair of impurities always has a quadrupolar moment. The implication of the interactions on the quadrupolar order of CeB 6 is also discussed

  8. Lattice strain accompanying the colossal magnetoresistance effect in EuB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Das, Pintu; de Souza, Mariano; Schnelle, Frank; Lang, Michael; Müller, Jens; von Molnár, Stephan; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-08-08

    The coupling of magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice in the ferromagnetic semimetal EuB(6), which exhibits a complex ferromagnetic order and a colossal magnetoresistance effect, is studied by high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments. EuB(6) may be viewed as a model system, where pure magnetism-tuned transport and the response of the crystal lattice can be studied in a comparatively simple environment, i.e., not influenced by strong crystal-electric field effects and Jahn-Teller distortions. We find a very large lattice response, quantified by (i) the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, (ii) the spontaneous strain when entering the ferromagnetic region, and (iii) the magnetostriction in the paramagnetic temperature regime. Our analysis reveals that a significant part of the lattice effects originates in the magnetically driven delocalization of charge carriers, consistent with the scenario of percolating magnetic polarons. A strong effect of the formation and dynamics of local magnetic clusters on the lattice parameters is suggested to be a general feature of colossal magnetoresistance materials.

  9. Genetic variability of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing-Ying; Guo, Li-Ping; Lee, Shui-Shan; Dong, Qing-Ming; Tan, Yi; Yao, Hong; Li, Li-Hua; Lin, Che-Kit; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the genotype and allelic frequencies of Cytochrome P450 2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations. METHODS: DNA was obtained from blood samples from Han Chinese from Hong Kong and three minority groups, the Wa, Bulang and Lahu from Yunnan in southern China. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 507 subjects from southern China were studied. Results showed there is a high prevalence of 516G > T (34.5%) in ethnic Chinese compared to literature reports on other Asian populations and Caucasians. The frequency of the 516TT genotype is higher in the Han majority (23.1%) than in three other ethnic minority groups (i.e., 7.4%, 9.1% and 15.8%) in southern China. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to document the spectrum of CYP2B6 allelic variants and genotypes in a southern Chinese population. The 516G > T allele is associated with a defective metabolism of efavirenz (EFV), which therefore may predispose to drug toxicity. Treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and heroin addiction may need to be optimized in different populations because of the marked variability of the key metabolizing enzyme. PMID:17465455

  10. Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB6. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyan, Adham

    2013-01-01

    The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB 6 as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB 6 and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at T MI and T C . Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

  11. Kondo hybridisation and the origin of metallic states at the (001) surface of SmB6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zwartsenberg, B.; Huang, Y.K.; Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, F.X.; Bao, L.H.; Tegus, O.; Varykhalov, A.; de Visser, A.; Golden, M.

    2013-01-01

    SmB6, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB6 would be placed at the

  12. Valence, magnetism and conduction in the intermediate valence compounds: the case SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, J.

    2006-09-01

    In some rare earth based compounds, the 4f level is situated so close to the Fermi level that the valence of the compound can become intermediate between two integer values. The so called 'intermediate valence' compound of Samarium hexaboride (SmB 6 ) is one typical example of the exciting physics which can result from this quantum equilibrium between two valence configurations. The first configuration (Sm 2+ ) corresponds to an insulating and non magnetic state whereas the second one (Sm 3+ ) would theoretically give a magnetic and metallic ground state. This dissertation deals with the influence of pressure on this equilibrium. Specific heat measurements under pressure evidenced a new long range magnetic ordering for pressures higher than p c ∼ 10 GPa. On another hand, transport measurements measured for the first time in good conditions of hydrostatics found a reliable and reproducible critical pressure for the insulator to metal transition equal to p c . The phase diagram of SmB 6 is now well known and the observation for the first time of a magnetic anomaly in the high pressure resistivity curves certifies that the onset of the magnetic phase really coincide with the closure of the gap. This change at the critical pressure p c is discussed in a general frame taking into account the Kondo lattice temperature as a key parameter for the renormalization of the wavefunction from one integer configuration to the other whereas the valence itself is still intermediate. This general idea seems to be valid also for other systems studied in this dissertation like SmS or TmSe and could even be valid for more general cases (Ytterbium, Cerium). In the same time, resistivity measurements under uniaxial stress were undertaken. The result is a strong anisotropy effect observed on the pressure dependence of the residual resistivity in the compound SmB 6 . The comparison with the transport under hydrostatic conditions enables us to consider a new idea for the nature of the gap

  13. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya eSuidasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a co-factor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP-dependent. Thus, we examined the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the muscle carnosine content of rats. Male and female rats were fed a diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg for 6 weeks. Carnosine in skeletal muscles was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. In the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+70% and +61%, respectively than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group, whereas that in the soleus muscle of male rats was significantly higher only in the 7 mg group (+43% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. In both muscles of female rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+32% ~ +226% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. We also found that compared to the 1 mg group, β-alanine concentrations in the 7 and 35 mg groups were markedly elevated in gastrocnemius muscles of male (+153% and +148%, respectively, P<0.05 and female (+381% and +437%, respectively, P<0.05 rats. Noteworthy, the concentrations of ornithine in the 7 and 35 mg groups were decreased in gastrocnemius muscles of male rats (−46% and −54%, respectively, P<0.05, which strongly inversely correlated with β-alanine concentration (r=−0.84, P<0.01. In humans, 19% lower muscle carnosine content was found in soleus muscle of women of the lower plasma PLP tertile, but this was not observed in gastrocnemius muscle

  14. Bispecific antibody to ErbB2 overcomes trastuzumab resistance through comprehensive blockade of ErbB2 heterodimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bohua; Meng, Yanchun; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Xunmin; Tong, Qing; Tan, Wenlong; Hu, Shi; Li, Hui; Chen, Yang; Song, Jinjing; Zhang, Ge; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Dapeng; Hou, Sheng; Qian, Weizhu; Guo, Yajun

    2013-11-01

    The anti-ErbB2 antibody trastuzumab has shown significant clinical benefits in metastatic breast cancer. However, resistance to trastuzumab is common. Heterodimerization between ErbB2 and other ErbBs may redundantly trigger cell proliferation signals and confer trastuzumab resistance. Here, we developed a bispecific anti-ErbB2 antibody using trastuzumab and pertuzumab, another ErbB2-specific humanized antibody that binds to a distinct epitope from trastuzumab. This bispecific antibody, denoted as TPL, retained the full binding activities of both parental antibodies and exhibited pharmacokinetic properties similar to those of a conventional immunoglobulin G molecule. Unexpectedly, TPL showed superior ErbB2 heterodimerization-blocking activity over the combination of both parental monoclonal antibodies, possibly through steric hindrance and/or inducing ErbB2 conformational change. Further data indicated that TPL potently abrogated ErbB2 signaling in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell lines. In addition, we showed that TPL was far more effective than trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in inhibiting the growth of trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, TPL treatment eradicated established trastuzumab-resistant tumors in tumor-bearing nude mice. Our results suggest that trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors remain dependent on ErbB2 signaling and that comprehensive blockade of ErbB2 heterodimerization may be an effective therapeutic avenue. The unique potential of TPL to overcome trastuzumab resistance warrants its consideration as a promising treatment in the clinic.

  15. The Value Creation of B2B2C E-Business Mode based on SaaS

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhao; Shouting Guo

    2012-01-01

    Due to the disadvantage of enterprise information construction in B2B and B2C business models, companies cannot keep up with immediate information in developing customer service, inventory management, and customer web front-end experience. Based on the SaaS information service concept, this paper solves business problems in information technology for introducing the integrated B2B2C E-business mode. To achieve participants’ utility optimization, the business processes based on value chain h...

  16. B2B or Not to Be: Does B2B E-Commerce Increase Labour Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Bertschek, Irene; Fryges, Helmut; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    We implement an endogeneous switching-regression model for labour productivity and firms' decision to use business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. Our approach allows B2B usage to affect any parameter of the labour productivity equation and to properly take account of strategic complementarities between the input factors and B2B usage. Empirical evidence from 1,394 German firms shows that firms using B2B e-commerce have a significantly higher output elasticity with respect to ICT-investment and...

  17. Influence of TiB2 particles on machinability and machining parameter optimization of TiB2/Al MMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong JIANG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ formed TiB2 particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites (TiB2/Al MMCs have some extraordinary properties which make them be a promising material for high performance aero-engine blade. Due to the influence of TiB2 particles, the machinability is still a problem which restricts the application of TiB2/Al MMCs. In order to meet the industrial requirements, the influence of TiB2 particles on the machinability of TiB2/Al MMCs was investigated experimentally. Moreover, the optimal machining conditions for this kind of MMCs were investigated in this study. The major conclusions are: (1 the machining force of TiB2/Al MMCs is bigger than that of non-reinforced alloy and mainly controlled by feed rate; (2 the residual stress of TiB2/Al MMCs is compressive while that of non-reinforced alloy is nearly neutral; (3 the surface roughness of TiB2/Al MMCs is smaller than that of non-reinforced alloy under the same cutting speed, but reverse result was observed when the feed rate increased; (4 a multi-objective optimization model for surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR was established, and a set of optimal parameter combinations of the machining was obtained. The results show a great difference from SiC particle reinforced MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control of machining process of this material.

  18. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1 Wages. (a) Applicable law and... restaurant or hotel employees, or to seamen or other employees aboard vessels, since generally these items...

  19. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun eShen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters delivered via scavenger receptor, class B type 1 (SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. ACTH stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatment can modulate SR-B1 function including its transcription, its post transcriptional stability, its phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as its interaction with other protein partners; all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-cholesterol ester uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  1. 76 FR 55651 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology. Dated: September 2, 2011. Aaron Siegel... Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Norway... be Sold: None. [[Page 55653

  2. Preparation and characterization of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristics recorded under an applied magnetic field revealed the existence of vortex glass tran- sition. The surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that MgB2 is sensitive to atmospheric degradation. Keywords. MgB2 superconductor; vortex glass transition; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    ZrB 2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B 4 C. Since ZrB 2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB 2 , significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB 2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB 2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB 2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13–23 GPa and 1.8–2.8 MPa m 0.5 , respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study. - Highlights: • A ZrB 2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density was prepared by sintering ZrB 2 powder. • We have evaluated mechanical and thermal properties such as Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and thermal conductivity. • The relationships between these properties were carefully examined.

  4. On a generalization of B1( ) on C∗ -algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Let Ж be a complex and separable Hilbert space and let 多 (Ж ) be the set of bounded linear operators on Ж . Let be a open connected subset of complex plane C. A class of Cowen–Douglas operator with index one: B1( ) is defined as follows [6]: B1( ) =: {T ∈ 多 (Ж ): (i). ⊂ σ (T ) =: {λ ∈ C : T − λI is not invertible ...

  5. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

    2011-09-01

    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions. © Society for Mathematical Biology 2011

  6. ENDF/B-6 charged-particle sub-libraries. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; McLaughlin, P.K.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes the ENDF/B-6 sublibraries for nuclear reaction data of protons, deuterons and tritons. Presently included are complete (double differential) evaluations for the interaction of protons with H-1 and He-3, and evaluated cross-sections for five fusion reactions between d, t, and He-3 particles. The 1998 update includes complete presentation of the nuclear data for C-12 and O-16 needed for transport, damage, heating, radioactivity and shielding applications over the incident proton energy range from 1 to 150 MeV. The data library, which has a size of 1.60 Megabytes, is available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, on floppy diskette, or CD-ROM. The library is available online within NDIS, the Nuclear Data Information System and also from the WWW pages of the Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  7. Pumping experiment of water on B and LaB6 films with electron beam evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takahiro; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Akaishi, Kenya; Kubota, Yusuke; Motojima, Osamu; Mushiaki, Motoi; Funato, Yasuyuki.

    1992-10-01

    Pumping characteristics of water vapor on boron and lanthanum hexaboride films formed with an electron beam evaporator have been investigated in high vacuum of a pressure region between 10 -4 and 10 -3 Pa. Measured initial maximum pumping speeds of water for fresh B and LaB 6 films on substrates with a deposition amount from 2.3 x 10 21 to 6.7 x 10 21 molecules·m -2 are 3.2 ∼ 4.9 m 3 ·s -1 ·m -2 , and maximum saturation amounts of adsorbed water on these films are 2.9 x 10 20 ∼ 1.3 x 10 21 H 2 O molecules·m -2 . (author)

  8. Luminosity effects in the ultraviolet spectrum of B5-B6 stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, A.B.; Silversmith, E.

    1976-01-01

    Copernicus U2 spectral tracings of the ultraviolet spectra of eta CMa (B5 Ia) and zeta Dra (B6 III) have been compared, and four regions: 1330 to 1340 A, 1340 to 1350 A, 1390 to 1396 A, and 1398 to 1405 A: are found to contain differences due to luminosity effects. The observed profiles are interpreted using synthetic spectra predicted with LTE theory. These effects are found: (1) the C ii 1335 blend is shortward-displaced in eta CMa, (2) the P iii and Si iv resonance lines strengthen significantly in the supergiant, and (3) lines of multiplet UV7 of Si ii are strengthened by non-LTE effects in the supergiant

  9. Fibonacci Sequences Quasiperiodic A5B6C7 Ferroelectric Based Photonic Crystal: FDTD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simsek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an investigation of the optical properties and band structures for the conventional and Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs based on some A5B6C7 ferroelectrics (SbSBr and BiTeCl. Here, we use one dimensional SbSBr and BiTeCl based layers in air background. We have theoretically calculated the photonic band structure and transmission spectra of SbSBr and BiTeCl based PC superlattices. The position of minima in the transmission spectrum correlates with the gaps obtained in the calculation. The intensity of the transmission depths is more intense in the case of higher refractive index contrast between the layers. In our simulation, we employed the finite-difference time domain  technique and the plane wave expansion method, which implies the solution of Maxwell equations with centered finite-difference expressions for the space and time derivatives.

  10. Superconductivity in the intermetallic borocarbides YPd2B2C, YPt2B2C and LaPt2B2C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durajski, A. P.; Paliwoda, M. K.; Szczȩśniak, R.

    2016-11-01

    We report a detailed study of the thermodynamic properties of the conventional phonon-mediated superconductors YPd2B2C, YPt2B2C and LaPt2B2C. Our calculations conducted within the framework of the Migdal-Eliashberg formalism show that the experimental values of the critical temperature cannot be properly reproduced using commonly accepted value of Coulomb pseudopotential. Moreover, we proved that the values of universal ratios of conventional superconductivity appearing in the Bardeen-Copper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory are inconsistent with our results obtained from the investigated borocarbides. The observed differences are connected with the strong/medium-coupling and retardation effects existing in the studied systems.

  11. Possible Roles of B1 Cells and Environmental Estrogens (Endocrine Disruptors in the Development of Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Ishikawa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases as well as type-I allergic diseases have markedly increased in the past 30 years. Environmental estrogens or endocrine disruptors are possibly involved in the etiology of the increase in autoimmune diseases as one of environmental factors. In aged BWF1 mice, a murine model for SLE, B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC/CXCL13 is ectopically and highly expressed in target organs such as the thymus and kidney. B1 cells, a specialized cell population that are distinguished from conventional B cells (B2 cells by their origin, cell surface phenotype, unique tissue distribution, self-reactivity, etc., preferentially migrate towards BLC. Aberrant B1 cell trafficking to the target organs may result in activation of autoreactive CD4 T cells, autoantibody production, and impaired mucosal immunity in the gut during the development of SLE. Interestingly, B1 cells show a higher sensitivity to environmental estrogens than conventional B (B2 cells to produce autoantibodies. Thus, B1 cell can be a useful target for evaluating the pathological significance of environmental estrogens in the development of autoimmune diseases.

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiB2 powder from TiO2, B2O3 and Mg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental results revealed thata pure TiB 2 compound could be obtained by leaching the unwanted by-products in an HCl acid solution. Scanning electron microscopic observations and Scherrer calculations showed that the produced TiB 2 contains sub-micron (150–200 nm) particles, where each particle consists of a ...

  13. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  14. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé eVanderschuren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  15. Magnetic and Moessbauer studies on GdCo3B2 and DyCo3B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.K.; Umarji, A.M.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1984-10-01

    Magnetization and Moessbauer studies have been carried out on GdCo 3 B 2 and DyCo 3 B 2 . These compounds are magnetically ordered with Curie temperatures of 56 0 and 21 0 K respectively. The Co atoms are either nonmagnetic or carry a small moment in these compounds. The saturation moment of DyCo 3 B 2 at 5 0 K is smaller than the Dy 3+ free-ion value. From 161 Dy Moessbauer studies, the measured hyperfine magnetic field at the Dy site is also observed to be smaller than the free-ion value. 155 Gd Moessbauer measurements in GdCo 3 B 2 reveal the presence of large crystalline electric fields at the rare earth site. This causes the moment and the hyperfine field at the Dy site in DyCo 3 B 2 to be reduced from its free-ion value

  16. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (superconductor and engineering current density and AC losses. Hyper Tech also fabricated MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  17. Glaucoma and Cytochrome P4501B1 Gene Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Tanwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental anomalies of the ocular anterior chamber angle may lead to an incomplete development of the structures that form the conventional aqueous outflow pathway. Thus, disorders that present with such dysfunction tend to be associated with glaucoma. Among them, Axenfeld-Rieger (ARS malformation is a rare clinical entity with an estimated prevalence of one in every 200,000 individuals. The changes in eye morphogenesis in ARS are highly penetrant and are associated with 50% risk of development of glaucoma. Mutations in the cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1 gene have been reported to be associated with primary congenital glaucoma and other forms of glaucoma and mutations in pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2 gene have been identified in ARS in various studies. This case was negative for PITX2 mutations and compound heterozygote for CYP1B1 mutations. Clinical manifestations of this patient include bilateral elevated intraocular pressure (>40 mmHg with increased corneal diameter (>14 mm and corneal opacity. Patient also had iridocorneal adhesions, anteriorly displaced Schwalbe line, anterior insertion of iris, broad nasal bridge and protruding umbilicus. This is the first study from north India reporting CYP1B1 mutations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome with bilateral buphthalmos and early onset glaucoma. Result of this study supports the role of CYP1B1 as a causative gene in ASD disorders and its role in oculogenesis.

  18. Computer Modeling of Basic Physico-Chemical Processes for DSEC Composites of System LaB6-MeB2(MeTi, Zr, Hf) at Macro-, Meso- and Microstructure Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    single crystals of borides of rare earth metals is performed by a few labs of the world - Japan, USA, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, and the methods of...software is developed on the base of experience gained in numerical multifractal analysis of images of structures of metals and alloys during a number...of experiment on blackening of separate white squares of carpet (one per image) were obtained. The program calculated all images; fractal dimension

  19. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuejiao [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  20. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  1. The role of TiB2 in strengthening TiB2 reinforced aluminium casting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Kang, H; Zhao, Y; Zheng, Y; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    With an aim of developing high quality in situ TiB 2 reinforced aluminium foundry alloy based composites, the conventional direct synthesis method was modified into a two-step route. In step one we optimized the halide salt route to fabricate in situ TiB 2 particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites and in step two we investigated the effects of the Al-5wt.% TiB 2 composite, as a “master composite”, on strengthening the practical foundry alloys. The in situ formed TiB 2 particles play two roles while strengthening the composites: (1) The grain refinement effect that improves the quality of the alloy matrix; and (2) The interactions between the hard particulates and the matrix add extra increment to the material strength. In different alloy systems, TiB 2 may play distinct roles in these two aspects (figure 1). Further analysis of the strengthening mechanisms shows that particle agglomeration behaviour during solidification is responsible for the latter one. The present work details the role of TiB 2 in strengthening TiB 2 reinforced aluminium casting composites. (paper)

  2. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting tapes using electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. D.; Wang, S. F.; Zhou, Y. B.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Cui, D. F.; Lu, H. B.; He, M.; Dai, S. Y.; Yang, G. Z.

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting MgB2/Ta tapes with a critical temperature of 34 K have been prepared successfully by ex situ annealing of electrophoresis-grown boron in the presence of Mg vapour at 920 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the MgB2/Ta tapes, and well-formed MgB2 crystals with sizes up to 2 μm were observed. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed randomly orientated growth of MgB2 phase in the tapes. Estimates using hysteresis loops and the Bean model give a value of 6.8 × 105 A cm-2 for the critical current density.

  3. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamel, Magdi N

    2008-01-01

    A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that of an electronic marketplace that would bring suppliers together with major buyers of goods and services for the purpose of conducting "frictionless commerce...

  4. Scope of Internal Marketing in B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Niharika

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have focused on "internal marketing" from services marketing perspective. There is, therefore, a great dearth of in-depth research on its application to other business types. This research attempts to find the scope of internal marketing in B2B companies. The purpose of this research is to closely examine the elements, their linkage, tools and applications of Internal marketing when applied to B2B settings. Internal marketing, the application of marketing managem...

  5. Internal lipid architecture of the hetero-oligomeric cytochrome b6f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S Saif; Cramer, William A

    2014-07-08

    The role of lipids in the assembly, structure, and function of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes is poorly understood. The dimeric photosynthetic cytochrome b6f complex, a 16-mer of eight distinct subunits and 26 transmembrane helices, catalyzes transmembrane proton-coupled electron transfer for energy storage. Using a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the dimeric complex, we identified 23 distinct lipid-binding sites per monomer. Annular lipids are proposed to provide a connection for super-complex formation with the photosystem-I reaction center and the LHCII kinase enzyme for transmembrane signaling. Internal lipids mediate crosslinking to stabilize the domain-swapped iron-sulfur protein subunit, dielectric heterogeneity within intermonomer and intramonomer electron transfer pathways, and dimer stabilization through lipid-mediated intermonomer interactions. This study provides a complete structure analysis of lipid-mediated functions in a multi-subunit membrane protein complex and reveals lipid sites at positions essential for assembly and function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. RIA determination of aflatoxin B1 in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludovsky, R.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility was tested of the application of a commercial RIA kit in determining aflatoxin B 1 in foodstuffs. Stability, sensitivity, specificity and the effect of interfering materials were studied. Alternative methods were tested of sample preparation and a technique was proposed usable for food analysis. The kit was found to be mainly suitable for screening and for the determination of aflatoxin B 1 in concentrations exceedings 1 μg/kg. Lipids were found to cause a systematic positive error and should thus be removed by extraction prior to analysis. (author). 10 tabs., 15 refs

  7. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.

  8. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Cytochrome P450 2B6 by Methadone through Destruction of Prosthetic Heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunugama, Hemali T.; Zhang, Haoming

    2012-01-01

    Methadone is a μ-opioid receptor agonist widely used in the treatment of narcotic addiction and chronic pain conditions. Methadone is metabolized predominantly in the liver by cytochromes P450 to its pharmacologically inactive primary metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine. Initial in vitro data suggested that CYP3A4 is the major isoform responsible for the in vivo clearance of methadone in humans. However, recent clinical data have indicated that CYP2B6 is actually the major isoform responsible for methadone metabolism and clearance in vivo. In this study, methadone was shown to act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2B6. Methadone inactivates CYP2B6 in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manner with a KI = 10.0 μM and kinact = 0.027 min−1. The loss of CYP2B6 activity in the presence of methadone and NADPH occurred with concomitant loss of the reduced CO spectrum of the P450. Moreover, there was good correlation between the loss of CYP2B6 activity and the loss of the CO-binding spectrum. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the native heme of the inactivated CYP2B6 demonstrated that approximately 75% loss of heme was accompanied by comparable inactivation of CYP2B6. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis did not reveal the formation of a protein adduct during the inactivation. The evidence strongly suggests that destruction of prosthetic heme is the underlying mechanism leading to the inactivation of CYP2B6 by methadone. PMID:22685215

  9. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6 and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyel Bueno Dalto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 (B6 has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and its seleno counterpart between transsulfuration and one-carbon metabolism, especially under oxidative stress conditions. This is particularly important in reproduction because ovarian metabolism may generate an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS during the peri-estrus period, which may impair ovulatory functions and early embryo development. Later in gestation, placentation raises embryo oxygen tension and may induce a higher expression of ROS markers and eventually embryo losses. Interestingly, the metabolic accumulation of ROS up-regulates the flow of one-carbon units to transsulfuration and down-regulates remethylation. However, in embryos, the transsulfuration pathway is not functional, making the understanding of the interplay between these two pathways particularly crucial. In this review, the importance of the maternal metabolic status of B6 for the flow of one-carbon units towards both maternal and embryonic GPX systems is discussed. Additionally, B6 effects on GPX activity and gene expression in dams, as well as embryo development, are presented in a pig model under different oxidative stress conditions.

  10. Determination of vitamin B6 bioavailability in animal tissues using intrinsic and extrinsic labeling in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ink, S.L.; Gregory, J.F. III; Sartain, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in liver and muscle was examined by radioisotopic enrichment of these tissues. Rats were fed a single gelled test meal containing rat liver or muscle intrinsically enriched by vascular perfusion with [ 3 H]vitamin B 6 or a gelled test meal containing [ 3 H]pyridoxine (PN). Diets were extrinsically enriched with [ 14 C]PN to permit a direct comparison of enrichment methods. Absorption and metabolism were examined by analysis of tissues and excreta 24 h after the test meal had been consumed. The bioavailability of [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers in the raw tissues was equivalent to that of [ 3 H]PN in controls. Thermal processing of the tissues (121 0 C, 45 min) induced destruction of 25-30% of the [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers and weakly reduced (≤10%) the utilization of the remaining[ 3 H]B 6 vitamers. The presence of monosodium glutamate (MSG) during thermal processing did not alter the results. The utilization of [ 14 C]PN was unaffected by diet composition. These data demonstrate the high bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in animal-derived foods and support the use of isotopic enrichment methods as an alternative to conventional bioassay procedures

  11. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4 o C) or frozen (-20 o C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooling procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4 o C or -20 o C. Irradiation at 4 o C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20 o C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction. (author)

  12. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-07-01

    The effects of irradiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4°C) or frozen (-20°C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooking procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4°C or -20°C. Irradiation at 4°C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20°C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction.

  13. On a generalization of B1( ) on C∗ -algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 124, No. 2, May 2014, pp. 243–253. c Indian Academy of Sciences. On a generalization of B1( ) on C∗. -algebras. KUI JI. Department of Mathematics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, ...... [4] Clark D N and Misra G, The curvature function and similarity of operators, International.

  14. Inhibiting Aspergillus flavus growth and degrading aflatoxin B1 by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... al., 2009). They have been detected in many food and oilseed commodities from many parts of the world and are presently considered as one of the most dangerous contaminants of food and feed. ..... Teniola OD, Addo PA, Brost IM, Farber P, Jany KD, Alberts JF (2005). Degradation of aflatoxin B1 by ...

  15. Inhibiting Aspergillus flavus growth and degrading aflatoxin B1 by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, which has a negative effect on animal production and economic profits. In order to inhibit A. flavus growth and degrade aflatoxin, the optimal proportion of beneficial microbes such as Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia anomala were selected.

  16. 26 CFR 31.3231(b)-1 - Who are employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3231(b)-1... operations consisting of the mining of coal, the preparation of coal, the handling (other than movement by...

  17. Aflatoxin B 1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) producing potential of different strains of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from 1,200 stored rice grains collected from 43 locations in 20 rice growing states in India was investigated. Eighty-five strains of A. flavus were isolated from the discolored rice grains and tested for their AFB1 producing potential on ...

  18. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Straight line method. 1.167(b)-1 Section 1.167(b... Straight line method. (a) In general. Under the straight line method the cost or other basis of the... may be reduced to a percentage or fraction. The straight line method may be used in determining a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.411(b)-1 - Accrued benefit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.411(b)-1 Accrued... participant in the J Corporation's plan on January 1, 1980. As of December 31, 1990, B's compensation history... pension benefit plans, for time participation deemed to begin. (2) Special rules—(i) A plan shall not be...

  20. 26 CFR 1.643(b)-1 - Definition of income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(b)-1 Definition of income. For purposes... amount of income of an estate or trust for the taxable year determined under the terms of the governing... adjustments between income and principal to fulfill the trustee's duty of impartiality between the income and...

  1. APRIL promotes B-1 cell-associated neoplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planelles, Lourdes; Carvalho-Pinto, Carla E.; Hardenberg, Gijs; Smaniotto, Salette; Savino, Wilson; Gómez-Caro, Ruth; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor; de Jong, Joan; Eldering, Eric; Martínez-A, Carlos; Medema, Jan Paul; Hahne, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A tumor-supporting role for the TNF-like ligand APRIL has been suggested. Here we describe that 9- to 12-month-old APRIL transgenic mice develop lymphoid tumors that originate from expansion of the peritoneal B-1 B cell population. Aging APRIL transgenic mice develop progressive hyperplasia in

  2. 76 FR 72682 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... aircraft Australia already received or is under contract to purchase. The proposed sale of this equipment... Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Australia (ii) Total Estimated Value: Major Defense Equipment $ 225 million. Other $ 75 million. TOTAL $ 300...

  3. Osmotic stress upregulates the transcription of thiamine (vitamin B1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syamimi Mimi

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... Thiamine or vitamin B1 comprises a pyrimidine moiety and a thiazole moiety. Thiamine pyrophosphate. (TPP), the active form of thiamine, acts as a cofactor for various major enzymes, for example, transketolase (TK), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). It is.

  4. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene. Promoter and Using Sequencing Analaysis. For The Identification of Conserved Regulatory. Elements By Bioinformatic Tools. Kobra Nalbandi1, Bahram Baghban Kohnehrouz2*, Khalil Alami Saeed1 and Ashraf. Gholizadeh3. 1Ramin Agricultural ...

  5. 76 FR 68432 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... participant in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and in early 1995 assumed the co... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by improving the security of a...

  6. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Murray, Daw S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic Green-Kubo simulations are performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of the ultra high temperature ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 for a range of temperatures. Recently developed interatomic potentials are used for these simulations. Heat current correlation functions show rapid oscillations which can be identified with mixed metal-Boron optical phonon modes. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

  7. Pseudopotential approach to superconductivity in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.S.; Bhargava, Nidhi; Jain, Ritu; Goyal, Varsha; Sharma, Ritu; Sharma, Smita

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity in MgB 2 has been re-examined in BCS-Eliashberg framework by employing Mc-Millan's T c -equation and form factors of MgB 2 computed from the form factors of component metals (Model-I). The empty core model pseudopotential due to Ashcroft and random phase approximation form of dielectric screening due to Gellmann and Brueckner are used in the present work. An excellent agreement between the present values and other theoretically computed values of T c and with the relevant experimental data for MgB 2 confirms the validity of the present approach. The explicit dependence of λ and T c on the isotopic masses of Mg and B, as revealed from the present work, confirms the role of lattice vibrations in the superconducting behaviour of MgB 2 and the high value of T c in it may be attributed to the phonon mediated e-e interaction coupled with higher values of phonon frequencies due to light mass of B atoms. It has also been observed that the pseudo-atom model (Model-II) with appropriate choice of the potential parameter r c successfully explains high value of T c and isotope effect in MgB 2 , confirming the prominent role played by electron-phonon interaction in the high-T c superconductivity observed in MgB 2 . The isotope effect exponent α-values obtained from the two models are in complete agreement with each other and the present value α = 0.46 is also much closer to the BCS value of 0.5. Interaction strength N 0 V values obtained from the two models are also in perfect agreement with each other and the present value N 0 V = 0.48 suggests that MgB 2 is a strong coupling superconductor. (author)

  8. Terrestrial chemical spill information system through remote sensing, GIS, and V.B. 6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Jeba S., Angel; Srinikethan, G.; Natesan, Usha

    2009-01-01

    India has made remarkable progress in creating a modern and diversified industrial base, since its independence. Most of the refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer industries are located in the coastal zone and catered by 12 major ports along the 7500 km length of Indian coastline. Since, transportation of crude oil and POL products from ports to refineries are mostly by pipelines, rail/ road, besides some quantity by barge/ ships along the coast, there will be chances of oil spill/leakage. Managing these events before and during their occurrence is imperative to the protection of people and natural resources. The present study was carried out with a view to develop Terrestrial Chemical Spill Information System [TCSIS], using Remote Sensing [RS], GIS and VB 6.0., for the Mangalore coastal zone industrial area of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, along West Coast of India. The study area lies between 74°45'00'' to 74°52'30''E longitude and 12°52'30'' to 13°00'00''N latitude. The database of TCSIS consists of both conventional data and RS data, and analysed using ERDAS Imagine 9.0 and ArcGIS 8.3 software. Different thematic maps prepared include LU/LC map, drainage map, road and pipeline network map, slope map, Digital Elevation Model, relative risk maps and pipeline route for the transportation of hazardous chemicals from port to refinery. The TCSIS module developed using RS, GIS and V.B.6.0, characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, natural resources, and incorporates these into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk and aids in planning, preventing and responding to a terrestrial chemical spill.

  9. New examples of ternary rare-earth metal boride carbides containing finite boron carbon chains: The crystal and electronic structure of RE15B6C20 (RE=Pr, Nd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhetskyy, Volodymyr; Mattausch, Hansjürgen; Simon, Arndt; Hiebl, Kurt; Ben Yahia, Mouna; Gautier, Régis; Halet, Jean-François

    2008-08-01

    The ternary rare-earth metal boride carbides RE15B6C20 (RE=Pr, Nd) were synthesized by co-melting the elements. They exist above 1270 K. Their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both crystallize in the space group P1¯, Z=1, a=8.3431(8) Å, b=9.2492(9) Å, c=8.3581(8) Å, α=84.72(1)°, β=89.68(1)°, γ =84.23(1)° (R1=0.041 (wR2=0.10) for 3291 reflections with Io>2σ(Io)) for Pr15B6C20, and a=8.284(1) Å, b=9.228(1) Å, c=8.309(1) Å, α=84.74(1)°, β=89.68(1)°, γ=84.17(2)° (R1=0.033 (wR2=0.049) for 2970 reflections with Io>2σ(Io)) for Nd15B6C20. Their structure consists of a three-dimensional framework of rare-earth metal atoms resulting from the stacking of slightly corrugated and distorted square nets, leading to cavities filled with unprecedented B2C4 finite chains, disordered C3 entities and isolated carbon atoms, respectively. Structural and theoretical analyses suggest the ionic formulation (RE3+)15([B2C4]6-)3([C3]4-)2(C4-)2·11ē. Accordingly, density functional theory calculations indicate that the compounds are metallic. Both structural arguments as well as energy calculations on different boron vs. carbon distributions in the B2C4 chains support the presence of a CBCCBC unit. Pr15B6C18 exhibits antiferromagnetic order at TN=7.9 K, followed by a meta-magnetic transition above a critical external field B>0.03 T. On the other hand, Nd15B6C18 is a ferromagnet below TC≈40 K.

  10. Study of MgB2 Films on Niobium Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chenggang; Yao, Dan; Li, Fen; Zhang, Kaicheng; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2006-03-01

    We have successfully fabricated polycrystalline MgB2 films on metal niobium by using the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique. TC (onset) of these samples ranged from 38.5 K to 39.4 K, with δT, 0.1 K ˜ 0.3 K. The observed TC was the highest among all the MgB2 films over metal substrates reported to date. Thicknesses of the films were about 1.0 μm. XRD indicated that lattice constants approached the values of the bulk. The film surface was visible with hexagonal plate-shaped MgB2 crystallites but not dense enough, shown by SEM observation. A line scanning spectra of EDX on the cutting cross section exhibited that there was an oxygen-rich region at the interface. Also, the diffusion of the Mg atoms deeply into the film has resulted in the tenacity and adherence of the film to the substrate. TEM investigation proved the existence of this buffer layer, ˜100 nm. Estimated using magnetic hysteresis loops and Bean model, JC was above 2.30 x 10^4 A/cm^2 at 10 K in zero field. The synthesis of MgB2/Nb films with thickness above one micron, showing certain tenacity, is an important and significant step towards the application of the 2^nd generation MgB2 superconductor wires or tapes.

  11. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Matthias; Xia, Jingjing; Friedel, Roland H; Offermanns, Stefan; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Plexins serve as receptors for semaphorins and play important roles in the developing nervous system. Plexin-B2 controls decisive developmental programs in the neural tube and cerebellum. However, whether Plexin-B2 also regulates biological functions in adult nonneuronal tissues is unknown. Here we show by two methodologically independent approaches that Plexin-B2 is expressed in discrete cell types of several nonneuronal tissues in the adult mouse. In the vasculature, Plexin-B2 is selectively expressed in functionally specialized endothelial cells. In endocrine organs, Plexin-B2 localizes to the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and to both cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. Plexin-B2 expression is also detected in certain types of immune and epithelial cells. In addition, we report on a systematic comparison of the expression patterns of Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C, which show complementarity or overlap in some but not all tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 and its family member Plexin-B1 display largely nonredundant expression patterns. This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  13. Studies on the intestinal absorption of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Moriwaki, Chiaki

    1978-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of vitamin B 2 was studied by in situ mesenteric perfusion system. Free form riboflavin (FR), FMN and FAD (1 mg each) were injected into the ligated jejunum of rat which was infused Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution from the superior mesenteric artery. Perfusate was recovered from the mesenteric vein and the recoveries of the total riboflavin during 120 min after the administration of these 3 types vitamin B 2 were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.8%, respectively. Furthermore, riboflavin and its esters were detected in the perfusates from 14 C-FR and 14 C-FAD given rats. There was a considerable amount of labeled substance which was not vitamin B 2 derivatives in the radiopaperchromatogram of the perfusate of 14 C-FR dosed rats, and it is suggested that a portion of riboflavin is decomposed in the process of absorption. (auth.)

  14. Preparation and characterisation of Ru doped MgB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Holte, Olfert Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Samples with Mg1−xRuxB2 nominal stoichiometry were prepared by sintering at 800°C. The critical transition temperature decreases up to a substitution level of x≈0.015. A maximum solubility limit slightly in excess of 1at.% Ru for Mg is confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements. From...... and beyond this limit, an unidentified phase appears in the X-ray diffraction patterns. Interestingly, the lattice parameters of the MgB2 phase are constant up to x=0.015, but start to decrease for higher Ru contents. This feature could be related to the fact that a Mg–Ru impurity phase results in a Mg......-deficient (Mg,Ru)B2 matrix....

  15. ORM-Based Semantics of B2B Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely neglected by present implementations of standard EDI- or XML-messaging and by B2B webservice implementations. In this paper a precise model is given of the negotiation process. The requirements of a potential Buyer and the offer of a potential Seller are matched and, if the negotiation is successful, a contract is concluded. The negotiation process model is represented in ORM, extended with dynamic constraints. Our model may be implemented in the databases of the trading partners and in message- or service definitions.

  16. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The competitiveness of businesses is increasingly dependent on their electronic networks with customers, suppliers, and partners. While the strategic and operational impact of external integration and IOS adoption has been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the organizational......). The reference model comprises technical, organizational, and institutional levels to reflect the multiple facets of B2B integration. In this paper we investigate the current state of electronic collaboration in global supply chains focussing on the technical view. Using an in-depth case analysis we identify...... and technical design of electronic relationships. The objective of our longitudinal research project is the development of a framework for understanding and explaining B2B integration. Drawing on existing literature and empirical cases we present a reference model (a classification scheme for B2B Integration...

  17. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  18. ANTI-HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN B1 (ANTI-RA33 ANTIBODIES IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP autoantibodies (AAbs are encountered in many autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs. The potential diagnostic value of the RA33 AAb complex consisting of RNP A2 and alternative domains of the splicing proteins RNP B1 and RNP B2 is now of interest to rheumatologists. Subjects and methods. The authors studied the frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in 300 patients with systemic ARDs, including those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, and Sjö gren's syndrome (SS and in 53 people without ARDs, who constituted a control group. Serum anti-RNP B1 AAbs were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Results and discussion. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in patients with ARDs was much higher than that in the control group: 170/300 (56.6% and 8/53 (13% patients, respectively. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs were detected in 78.5% (113/144 of the patients with RA; 40.3% (23/57 of those with AS, in 67.5% (27/40 of those with SSc, in 36.4% (16/44 of those with SLE, and in 13.3% (2/15 of those with SS. The diagnostic sensitivity of the marker for RA was 78.5%, its diagnostic specificity was 84.9%; the likelihood ratio of positive and negative results was 5.24 and 0.24, respectively. In the patients with RA, the level of anti-RNP B1 AAbs significantly correlated with that of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while in those with SSc the detection of anti-RNP B1 AAbs was related to the rigidity of the vascular wall and the presence of hypertension. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs among the RA patients seronegative for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies was 15.4%. Conclusion. Anti-RNP B1 AAs are a useful laboratory marker (with the upper limit of the normal range being 3.3 U/ml, but are of limited value in the diagnosis of RA. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs may be regarded as an additional diagnostic marker for RA.

  19. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women, which includes a group of psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of combined use of calcium and vitamin B6 on premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled was carried out on 76 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated to two groups. (38 people in each group. Student in intervention groups received calcium tablet (500mg and vitamin B6 (40 mg and student in intervention groups received only vitamin B6 twice a day for two consecutive months. The symptoms were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI and daily symptom records (DSR questionnaires. Analyses were carried out by test-retest method, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Independent t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS software ver.13. Results: The result showed that although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, but this reduction was more significant in the combined calcium and vitamin B6 group. Conclusion: According to the result, using of combination of calcium and vitamin B6 leads to better controlling of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Therefore it is recommended for women who suffer from these syndromes.

  20. Human cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variability in Botswana: a case of haplotype diversity and convergent phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Tawe, Leabaneng

    2018-03-14

    Identification of inter-individual variability for drug metabolism through cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) enzyme is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses to malaria and HIV. This study evaluates the distribution of CYP2B6 alleles, haplotypes and inferred metabolic phenotypes among subjects with different ethnicity in Botswana. A total of 570 subjects were analyzed for CYP2B6 polymorphisms at position 516 G > T (rs3745274), 785 A > G (rs2279343) and 983 T > C (rs28399499). Samples were collected in three districts of Botswana where the population belongs to Bantu (Serowe/Palapye and Chobe) and San-related (Ghanzi) ethnicity. The three districts showed different haplotype composition according to the ethnic background but similar metabolic inferred phenotypes, with 59.12%, 34.56%, 2.10% and 4.21% of the subjects having, respectively, an extensive, intermediate, slow and rapid metabolic profile. The results hint at the possibility of a convergent adaptation of detoxifying metabolic phenotypes despite a different haplotype structure due to the different genetic background. The main implication is that, while there is substantial homogeneity of metabolic inferred phenotypes among the country, the response to drugs metabolized via CYP2B6 could be individually associated to an increased risk of treatment failure and toxicity. These are important facts since Botswana is facing malaria elimination and a very high HIV prevalence.

  1. CobB1 deacetylase activity in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, Karel; Felsberg, Jürgen; Kudrnáčová, E.; Bezoušková, Silvia; Šetinová, Dita; Stodůlková, Eva; Zídková, J.; Zídek, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2012), s. 179-187 ISSN 0829-8211 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110805; GA ČR GA303/09/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sirtuin * NAD(+)dependent deacetylation activity CobB1 * Streptomyces coeliocolor Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.915, year: 2012

  2. 118-B-1 burial ground excavation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This treatability investigation focused on the feasibility of excavating, analytical screening, and handling waste materials from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground located in the 100 B/C Area of the Hanford Site. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground consists of approximately 24 trenches on a 7-acre parcel. Solid low-level radioactive wastes and other debris and trash associated with reactor operations were disposed in 28 burial grounds in the 100 Area between 1944 and 1973. The majority of waste generated from routine reactor operations was placed in seven primary burial grounds, including 118-B-1. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground was selected as the location to perform this treatability test based on the availability of historical data for this site, and because it was thought to be representative of other primary-use burial grounds in the 100 Area. Geophysical surveys were conducted over the burial ground to map the concentrations of waste and aid in the selection of test pit excavation locations. The test plan developed for this study integrated the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER), a US Department of Energy (DOE) initiative based on both the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach. This treatability test is the first one at the Hanford Site to use the SAFER approach. The purpose of this study was (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision, which would identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. The results of the treatability test can be used to determine the feasibility of performing excavation, analytical screening, and handling of burial ground materials from similar burial grounds

  3. Biochemical characterization of the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutor J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of the A isoenzyme of ß-hexosaminidase (Hex produced by different mutations of the gene that codes for the alpha subunit (Tay-Sachs disease has two variants with enzymological differences: the B variant consists of the absence of Hex A isoenzyme and the B1 variant produces an inactive Hex A isoenzyme for the hydrolysis of the GM2 ganglioside and synthetic substrates with negative charge. In contrast to the early childhood form of the B variant, the B1 variant appears at a later clinical stage (3 to 7 years of age with neurodegenerative symptoms leading to the death of the patient in the second decade of life. The most frequent mutation responsible for the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant is R178H, which has a widespread geographic and ethnic distribution. The highest incidence has been described in Portugal, which has been suggested as the point of origin of this mutation. Biochemical characterization of this lysosomal disease is carried out using negatively charged synthetic alpha subunit-specific sulfated substrates, since Hex A isoenzyme heat-inactivation assays are not applicable. However, the determination of the apparent activation energy of Hex using the neutral substrate 3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide, may offer a valid alternative. The presence of an alpha subunit in the alphaß heterodimer Hex A means that its activation energy (41.8 kJ/mol is significantly lower than that of the ßß homodimer Hex B (75.1 kJ/mol; however, as mutation inactivates the alpha subunit, the Hex A of the B1 variant presents an activation energy that is similar to that of the Hex B isoenzyme.

  4. Manipulation of EphB2 regulatory motifs and SH2 binding sites switches MAPK signaling and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiefei; Elowe, Sabine; Nash, Piers; Pawson, Tony

    2003-02-21

    Signaling by the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is complex, because they can interact with a variety of intracellular targets, and can potentially induce distinct responses in different cell types. In NG108 neuronal cells, activated EphB2 recruits p120RasGAP, in a fashion that is associated with down-regulation of the Ras-Erk mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway and neurite retraction. To pursue the role of the Ras-MAPK pathway in EphB2-mediated growth cone collapse, and to explore the biochemical and biological functions of Eph receptors, we sought to re-engineer the signaling properties of EphB2 by manipulating its regulatory motifs and SH2 binding sites. An EphB2 mutant that retained juxtamembrane (JM) RasGAP binding sites but incorporated a Grb2 binding motif at an alternate RasGAP binding site within the kinase domain had little effect on basal Erk MAPK activation. In contrast, elimination of all RasGAP binding sites, accompanied by the addition of a Grb2 binding site within the kinase domain, led to an increase in phospho-Erk levels in NG108 cells following ephrin-B1 stimulation. Functional assays indicated a correlation between neurite retraction and the ability of the EphB2 mutants to down-regulate Ras-Erk MAPK signaling. These data suggest that EphB2 can be designed to repress, stabilize, or activate the Ras-Erk MAPK pathway by the manipulation of RasGAP and Grb2 SH2 domain binding sites and support the notion that Erk MAPK regulation plays a significant role in axon guidance. The behavior of EphB2 variants with mutations in the JM region and kinase domains suggests an intricate pattern of regulation and target recognition by Eph receptors.

  5. A simple and efficient method to prepare pure dimers and monomers of the cytochrome b6f complex from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, María A; Lorente, Patricia; Zazubovich, Valter; Picorel, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Using a single size-exclusion chromatography we were able to isolate highly pure dimers and monomers of the Cyt b 6 f complex from spinach from a bulk preparation of that protein complex obtained with a standard procedure. At higher protein/detergent ratio during the chromatography most of the Cyt b 6 f complex remained as dimers. In contrast, at lower protein/detergent ratio (around 15 times lower), most dimers became monomerized. As a bonus, this chromatography also allowed the elimination of potential Chl a contaminant to the Cyt b 6 f preparations. SDS-PAGE protein analysis with 18% (w/v) acrylamide revealed the loss of the ISP subunit in our monomeric preparation. However, it fully retained the content of Chl a, a prerequisite to perform any spectroscopic study involving this unique pigment.

  6. Evaluation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes for use in a high frequency backward wave oscillator tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. W.; Davis, P. R.; Schwind, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of thermionic emission and evaporation studies of single crystal LaB6 cathodes are given. A comparison between the (100), (210) and (310) crystal planes shows the (310) and (210) planes to possess a work function approx 0.2 eV lower than (100). This translates into a significant increase in current density, J, at a specified temperature. Comparison with a state-of-the-art impregnated dispenser cathode shows that LaB6 (310) is a superior cathode in nearly all respects except operating temperature at j 10 A/sq cm. The 1600 K thermionic and room temperature retarding potential work functions for LaB6 (310) are 2.42 and 2.50 respectively.

  7. Abnormal Expressions of Age, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 Receptor in Colonic Wall Contributed to STZ-Induced Diabetic Colon Remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    glycation end product (AGE) and AGE receptor (RAGE) were up-regulated in the diabetic colon wall (2). However, it lacks data in relation to the association between AGE, RAGE, transforming growth factor- b1 (TGF-b1) and TGFb1 receptor expressions with colon morphological and biomechanical remodeling...... glucose level was measured. The parameters of morphometric and biomechanical properties of colonic segments were obtained from diabetic (DM) and normal (Con) rats. The expressions of AGE, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 receptor were detected in different layers of the colon by immunohistochemistry. In order...... to determine the expressions of AGE, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 receptor in association with other parameters, and to see interrelation among AGE, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 receptor expressions, the multiple linear regression analysis was done. Results: The expressions of AGE, RAGE, TGF-b1 and TGF- b1 receptor...

  8. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  9. Dosimetry of 99mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab' for use in staging ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, E.; Smith, S.V.; Schmidt, P.F.; Di Bartolo, N.M.; Prabakaran, K.; Femandes, V.; Donaghy, T.; Clingan, P.; Bundesen, P.; Hillyard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic utility of 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' for staging ovarian cancer in a phase 11 trial is under way. The dose due to 99 mTc- DD-3B6/22 Fab'' was used to estimate the dose for the analogous 188 Re compound for therapy of ovarian cancer. The new agent, 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' (600 mBq) was found to clear rapidly from the blood via the renal system. A ''kidney'' phantom was used to calibrate renal activity. The dose to selected organs was estimated using the MlRDose 2 adult female model. In most cases the kidney uptake accounted for 30% of activity administered. Urine activity was measured directly and the dose calculated assuming a mean volume of 300 mL. All remaining activity was assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the body. Results show the dose to kidneys, bladder wall and whole body were 4.5-9.1; 1.2-6.3; 0.2-0.3 cGy, respectively. The biological distribution of the 188 Re-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' was assumed to be similar to that of 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab''. The activity/time data was adjusted for the relative t 1/2 of 99 mTc and 188 Re. The calculated kidney dose due to 188 Re was approx. 800 cGy. As kidney damage from acute radiation nephritis is thought to occur at doses >1000 cGy, this study indicates that provided uptake at tumor site is adequate 188 Re-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' may have a role in therapy of ovarian cancer

  10. Clinical Significance of EphB4 and EphB6 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Poulaki, Elpida; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Troungos, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2016-04-01

    Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignant tumors, being associated with tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions. EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 127 patients with benign (n = 71) and malignant (n = 56) thyroid lesions. Enhanced EphB4 and EphB6 expression was more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0508 and p = 0.0006, respectively). EphB4 and EphB6 expression also provided a distinct discrimination between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0302 and p = 0.0013, respectively). In malignant thyroid lesions, enhanced EphB4 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366). Enhanced EphB6 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366), the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0023), the presence of capsular (p = 0.0038), lymphatic (p = 0.0053) and vascular invasion (p = 0.0018) and increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.0038). The present study supported evidence that EphB4 and mainly EphB6 may participate in the malignant thyroid transformation, reinforcing their utility as useful biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets in this type of neoplasia.

  11. Origen y desarrollo de linfocitos B1: Una población celular involucrada en defensa y autoinmunidad Origin and development of B1 lymphocytes: A cell population involved in defence and auto-immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Merino

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Las células B1, responsables de la producción de IgM sérica en ausencia de aparente estimulación antigénica, son linfocitos B maduros con ubicación anatómica y características fenotípicas y funcionales particulares.Los linfocitos B1 se ubican mayoritariamente en cavidad peritoneal y pleural, presentan características de células activadas y son de mayor tamaño y complejidad citoplasmática que las células B convencionales. Mientras que estos últimos deben diferenciarse a células plasmáticas para poder secretar inmunoglobulinas, los linfocitos B1 liberan espontáneamente anticuerpos al medio extracelular operando bajo un programa de diferenciación particular. Los anticuerpos producidos por los linfocitos B1 tendrían un rol protector, ya que están implicados en la remoción de células envejecidas y apoptóticas, en mecanismos de inmunomodulación y en resistencia a infecciones, sin embargo su participación en procesos autoinmunes también ha sido sugerida. Muchos estudios han aportado información sobre el origen, desarrollo y diferenciación de los linfocitos B1, los cuales son analizados en esta revisión.B1 lymphocytes are an anatomically, phenotypically, and functionally distinct subset of B cells producing the bulk of natural serum IgM in the absence of any apparent stimulation by specific antigens. These cells are a dominant population of B cells in peritoneal and pleural cavities and they have characteristics of activated cells and higher cell size and cytoplasmic complexity than conventional B cells. B1 cells spontaneously secrete antibodies and operate under a differentiation program that is unique and differs from the paradigm associated with Ig-secreting B-2 cells. The antibodies produced by B1 cells may participate in a variety of physiological activities since they are involve in immune regulation, clearance of senescent and apoptotic cells and resistance to infection. However, it has been suggested that they are

  12. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the MnB2 compounds. Polarized spin and spin–orbit coupling are included in calculations ...

  13. Intelligent Information Integration in B2B Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Omelayenko, Borys; Ding, Ying; Klein, Michel; Flett, Alan; Schulten, Ellen; Botquin, Guy; Brown, Mike; Dabiri, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Internet and web technology penetrates many aspects of our daily life. Its importance as a medium for business transactions will grow exponentially during the next few years. In terms of the involved market volume, the B2B area will hereby be the most interesting area. Also, it will be the place,

  14. Superconducting state in (W, Ta)5SiB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, M.; Kawashima, K.; Akimitsu, J.

    We characterize the superconducting state in a boro-silicide (W, Ta)5SiB2, with Tc of 6.5 K by means of magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. As x increased, the transition temperature Tc abruptly enhances from 5.8 to 6.5 K. The magnetization versus magnetic field (M-H) curve indicated that (W, Ta)5SiB2 was a conventional type-II superconductor. The estimated lower critical field Hc1(0) and upper critical field Hc2(T) are about 121 Oe and 14.7 kOe, respectively. The penetration depth λ(0) and coherence length ξ(0) are calculated to be approximately 369 and 14.9 nm, respectively, using Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations. Specific heat data shows the superconductivity in W4.5Ta0.5SiB2 belongs to a week-coupling BCS superconductor. Finally, we discuss the increasing of Tc in of (W, Ta)5SiB2 system.

  15. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, c/a ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent.

  16. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave ...

  17. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band (9–. 10 GHz) spectrometer. Both polycrystalline pellet and single-grain MgB2, having nearly the same Tc (∼ 39 K) and same size (3×2×1 mm3), were used in the present investigations. Low field modulated microwave absorption signals ...

  18. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the MnB2 compounds. Polarized spin and spin–orbit coupling are included in calculations within ...

  19. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  20. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The

  1. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  2. Insulator layer formation in MgB2 SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakage, H.; Tsujimoto, K.; Wang, Z.; Tonouchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of current-voltage characteristics on thin film deposition conditions was investigated using MgB 2 /AlN/NbN SIS junctions. By increasing the substrate temperature in AlN insulator deposition, the current density decreased and the normal resistance increased. The results indicated that an additional insulator layer between the MgB 2 and AlN formed, either before or during the AlN deposition. The thickness of the additional insulator layer was increased with an increase in the AlN deposition temperature. From the dependence of current density on the thickness of AlN in low temperature depositions, the thickness of the additional insulator layer was estimated to be 1-1.5 nm when the AlN insulator was deposited from 0.14 to 0.7 nm. Moreover, with the current density of MgB 2 /AlN/MgB 2 SIS junctions, further insulator layer formation was confirmed

  3. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2 ... University, Rabat, Morocco; Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France; Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat, Morocco; Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat, Morocco ...

  4. Development of New B2B Venture Corporate Brand Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmälä, Minna; Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.

    2017-01-01

    The development and role of brand identity in new B2B ventures is not well explored despite the challenge for such organisations in establishing reputational legitimacy. Previous research defines corporate brand identity as stable and endogenous to the organisation based either on the reputational...

  5. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...

  6. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: n0100b-2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: n0100b-2. Bond precision:.

  7. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.

    1989-01-01

    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from...

  8. Laser cladding of aluminium using TiB2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Modification of Aluminium surface by injecting, dispersing and melting TiB2 powder with the help of a laser beam promises to enhance tribological properties of Aluminium. The present work consists of making single lines and various overlapping lines...

  9. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities), and intangible assets (such as patents, copyrights, and trademarks) will be considered....4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the foundation's...

  10. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. ... Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India; Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India ...

  11. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaghini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol persist in liver and muscle (Kuiper-Goodman et al., 1987 and may be transmitted to egg yolk (Dailey et al., 1990. Various treatments and dietary strategies have been tried to reduce mycotoxin levels in contaminated commodities...

  12. Cellular localization of kinin B1 receptor in the spinal cord of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a fluorescent [Nα-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-bradykinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudreau Pierrette

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. This study aims at defining the cellular localization of B1R in thoracic spinal cord of type 1 diabetic rats by confocal microscopy with the use of a fluorescent agonist, [Nα-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-BK (BdABK and selective antibodies. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg, i.p.. Four days post-STZ treatment, B1R expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and autoradiography. The B1R selectivity of BdABK was determined by assessing its ability to displace B1R [125I]-HPP-desArg10-Hoe140 and B2R [125I]-HPP-Hoe 140 radioligands. The in vivo activity of BdABK was also evaluated on thermal hyperalgesia. Results B1R was increased by 18-fold (mRNA and 2.7-fold (binding sites in the thoracic spinal cord of STZ-treated rats when compared to control. BdABK failed to displace the B2R radioligand but displaced the B1R radioligand (IC50 = 5.3 nM. In comparison, IC50 values of B1R selective antagonist R-715 and B1R agonist des-Arg9-BK were 4.3 nM and 19 nM, respectively. Intraperitoneal BdABK and des-Arg9-BK elicited dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in STZ-treated rats but not in control rats. The B1R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with immunomarkers of microglia, astrocytes and sensory C fibers in the spinal cord of STZ-treated rats. Conclusion The induction and up-regulation of B1R in glial and sensory cells of the spinal cord in STZ-diabetic rats reinforce the idea that kinin B1R is an important target for drug development in pain processes.

  13. Compare the Difference of B-cell Epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 Proteins Selected through Bioinformatic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mengting; Zhang, Fengbo; Zhu, Yuejie; Zhao, Xiao; Ding, Jianbing

    2018-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, as a zoonosis, seriously endangers humans and animals, so early diagnosis of this disease is particularly important. Therefore, this study is to predict B-cell epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 proteins by bioinformatics software. B-cell epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 proteins are predicted using DNAStar and IEDB software. The results suggest that there are two potential B-cell epitopes in EgAgB1, which located in the 8-15 and 31-37 amino acid residue segments. And two potential B-cell epitopes in EgAgB2, located in the 20∼27 and 47∼53 amino acid residue segments. This study predicted the B-cell epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 proteins, which laid the foundation for the early diagnosis of Cystic echinococcosis.

  14. Behavioral Differences Between C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 Hybrid Mice: Relation to Control of Ethanol Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Blednov, Y. A.

    2011-01-01

    C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 (B6 × FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 × NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 × NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 × FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and were less sensitive to ethanol- induced loss of righting reflex than B6 × NZB. Both hybrids demonstrated ethanol-induced place preference and a low ethanol withdrawal severity. We found that these hybrids differ in their sensitivity to the aversive and sedative, but not rewarding, effects of ethanol. Results of elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, and locomotor tests reveal B6 × FVB mice are less anxious and more active than B6 × NZB mice. Results obtained offer insights about factors that determine SAP and RAP in these new genetic models of alcohol consumption. PMID:20364436

  15. Behavioral differences between C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ F1 hybrid mice: relation to control of ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, A R; Harris, R A; Blednov, Y A

    2010-07-01

    C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ F1 (B6 x FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 x NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 x NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 x FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and were less sensitive to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex than B6 x NZB. Both hybrids demonstrated ethanol-induced place preference and a low ethanol withdrawal severity. We found that these hybrids differ in their sensitivity to the aversive and sedative, but not rewarding, effects of ethanol. Results of elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, and locomotor tests reveal B6 x FVB mice are less anxious and more active than B6 x NZB mice. Results obtained offer insights about factors that determine SAP and RAP in these new genetic models of alcohol consumption.

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri promotes Helicobacter hepaticus-associated typhlocolitis in gnotobiotic B6.129P2-IL-10tm1Cgn (IL-10−/−) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whary, Mark T; Taylor, Nancy S; Feng, Yan; Ge, Zhongming; Muthupalani, Suresh; Versalovic, James; Fox, James G

    2011-01-01

    To model inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed infection with Helicobacter hepaticus 3B1 (ATCC 51449) and a potential probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC PTA-6475) in gnotobiotic B6.129P2-IL-10tm1Cgn (IL-10−/−) mice. No typhlocolitis developed in germ-free controls (n = 21) or in L. reuteri (n = 8) or H. hepaticus (n = 18) mono-associated mice for 20 weeks post-infection. As positive controls, three specific pathogen-free IL-10−/− mice dosed with H. hepaticus developed severe typhlocolitis within 11 weeks. Because L. reuteri PTA-6475 has anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, it was unexpected to observe significant typhlocolitis (P L. reuteri followed in 1 week by H. hepaticus (n = 16). The H. hepaticus colonization was not affected through 20 weeks post-infection but L. reuteri colonization was lower in co-infected compared with L. reuteri mono-associated mice at 8–11 weeks post-infection (P L. reuteri. Although the effects other microbiota may have on H. hepaticus virulence properties remain speculative, further investigations using this gnotobiotic model are now possible. PMID:21426337

  17. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    (4)GPa). No pressure-induced phase transformations are observed in any of the above borides up to about 20GPa. A continuous temperature-driven orthorhombic distortion is observed for HoB4 below 285K. Values of the thermal expansion coefficient are reported for ScB2 and HoB4 at 293, 200 and 100K...

  18. Efficiency of PBN to Trap 3-CAR in B6C3F1 Mouse Liver Slices: An EPR Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steel-Goodwin, Linda

    1995-01-01

    ...) in the soil and ground water. TCE causes liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice. As part of the process to develop an environmental health effects criteria for base clean up a study of the effects of TCE induced free radicals in liver slices had been performed...

  19. Adsorption and possible dissociation of glucose by the [BN fullerene-B6]- magnetic nanocomposite. In silico studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anota, E. Chigo; Villanueva, M. Salazar; Shakerzadeh, E.; Castro, M.

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption, activation and possible dissociation of the glucose molecule on the magnetic [BN fullerene-B6]- system is performed by means of density functional theory calculations. Three models of magnetic nanocomposites were inspected: i) pristine BN fullerene, BN fullerene functionalized with a magnetic B6 cluster which generates two structures: ii) pyramidal (P) and iii) triangular (T). Chemical interactions of glucose appear for all these cases; however, for the BNF:B6(T)—glucose system, the interaction generates an effect of dissociation on glucose, due to the magnetic effects, since it has high spin multiplicity. The latter nanocomposite shows electronic behavior like-conductor and like-semi-conductor for the P and T geometries, respectively. Intrinsic magnetism associated to values of 1.0 magneton bohr (µB) for the pyramidal and 5.0 µB for the triangular structure, high polarity, and low-chemical reactivity are found for these systems. These interesting properties make these functionalized fullerenes a good option for being used as nano-vehicles for drug delivery. These quantum descriptors remain invariant when the [BN]-fullerene and [BNF:B6 (P) or (T)]- nanocomposites are interacting with the glucose molecule. According to the determined adsorption energy, chemisorption regimes occur in both the phases: gas and aqueous medium.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  1. 26 CFR 1.7872-16 - Loans to an exchange facilitator under § 1.468B-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-16 Loans to....468B-6(b). (b) Treatment as demand loans. For purposes of section 7872, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, an exchange facilitator loan is a demand loan. (c) Treatment as compensation...

  2. Effect of diurnal variation, CYP2B6 genotype and age on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienczak, A.; Cook, A.; Wiesner, L.; Mulenga, V.; Kityo, C.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Walker, A.S.; Owen, A.; Gibb, D.M.; Burger, D.M.; McIlleron, H.; Denti, P.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of CYP2B6 polymorphisms, diurnal variation and demographic factors on nevirapine pharmacokinetics in African children. METHODS: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling conducted in NONMEM 7.3 described nevirapine plasma concentration-time data from 414 children

  3. 29 CFR 2550.408b-6 - Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408b-6 Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution. (a) In... service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or...

  4. In situ synthesis and strengthening of powder metallurgy high speed steel in addition of LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijun; Yu, Linping; Li, Zhi; He, Yuehui; Zhang, Qiankun; Zhang, Huibin; Jiang, Yao; Lin, Nan

    2017-11-01

    A novel technology which was characterized by the vacuum solid state sintering was developed for powder metallurgy high speed steels production. During sintering, both the WC and Mo2C reacted with Fe and transformed to W and Mo rich M6C carbides which were the common hard phases in high speed steels. Also, a high number of W, Mo and Fe were dissolved in VC, forming the MC carbides. The densification of the material mainly relied on the solubility effect during the M6C and MC carbides formation. By alloying with a 0.1 wt% of LaB6 to the steel, the bending strength and the fracture toughness were improved from 3290 MPa and 25.6 MPam1/2 to 4018 MPa and 29.4 MPam1/2, respectively. The TEM analysis demonstrated three types of reaction products by the LaB6 addition: the amorphous phase, the core-shell structure and the La2O3 phase. The impurity elements such as the Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and O were absorbed following the LaB6 addition. Moreover, the deoxidization effect caused by the LaB6 addition promoted the sintering at a high-temperature period which contributed to the bending strength and fracture toughness improvement.

  5. Investigation of suppression of lactation with vit B6 after induced abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lin; Zhu Chuanrong; Fu Wen; Xue Gaiqing; Xin Yu; Zhang Weijie; Sun Lijing; Chen Aiqun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the action of suppressing lactation with Vit B 6 after induced abortion in second trimester of pregnancy and its clinical application. Methods: 60 Subjects in the second trimester of pregnancy were induced abortion with intra-amniotic injection of 100 mg rivanol. 30 subjects were not given any drug after the procedure (serving as controls) and the another 30 subjects started Vit B 6 2h after operation. With a dose of 60 mg tid x 5 days P.o. Serum levels of PRL, E 2 , P Were determines with RIA before and on the 4 th day post-abortion. Presence or absence of lactation after abortion was observed by squeezing the breast in all subjects. Results: In both groups the post-operative serum levels of the three tested hormones were significantly lower than those before operation. The decrease of PRL was especially marked in the Vit B 6 group (P 6 group (6.66%, 2/30); while it was present in 9 controls (30%, 9/30). Conclusion: Starting Vit B 6 treatment with in 2h after terminal of pregnancy would very effectively suppress milk secretion (93.3%) and could satisfactorily replace the conventional stilbestrol treatment. Marked decrease in serum PRL level (42.85%) reflected a solid laboratory evidence

  6. Different levels of testicular organization during gonadal differentiation in B6.Y(Tir) mice manifesting sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, Nivia Rocio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2012-09-01

    B6.Y(Tir) (mice with Y chromosome from a strain in Tirano, Italy, and autosomes and X-chromosomes from the B6 strain) mice provide an excellent model for analysing sex development that occurs during gonadal differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to sex reversal are unclear. Our aim has been to establish which molecular events participate in this sex reversal. The pattern of gene expression related to testicular [Sry (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome), Sox9 (Sry-related high-mobility group box gene 9) and Mis (Müllerian-inhibiting substance)] and ovarian [Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV (murine-mammary-tumour virus) integration site family, member 4), Rspo1 (cysteine-rich secretory protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat) and Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8)] differentiation was analysed by applying immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR), focusing on XY gonads from the B6.Y(Tir) mouse, but also analysing the normal strains CD-1 and C57BL/6J (B6). The expression of genes related to the process of sexual differentiation was altered in the case of the B6.Y(Tir) strain, both at the transcript and protein level, inducing differentiation of ovaries and ovotestes, but not the formation of the testes, which were normal. Our results indicate that the expression of testicular genes is inhibited at various levels, permitting the expression of ovarian genes such as Wnt4, Stra8 and Rspo1. However, their activity was not clear when the data were averaged. Correlation analysis indicated that an ovary differentiation pathway is activated when the testicular differentiation pathway is inhibited. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Preparation and characterisation of Os doped MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Namazkar, S.; Alexiou, A.; Holte, O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Polycrystalline samples with Mg1-xOsxB2.04 nominal stoichiometry were made by reacting elemental powders at 800 °C under argon atmosphere. Based on XRD diffraction patterns, EDS analysis and magnetisation measurements, it is found that Os can replace up to about 1 at.% Mg in the MgB2 lattice. Beyond this doping level, unreacted Os and Mg-rich Mg-Os impurity phases are formed. The a-axis parameter contracts upon doping while the superconducting transition temperature decreases at a rate of 2.1 K/at.% Os substitution. At 10 K, Os doping induces an improvement of the normalised critical current density under applied magnetic fields in excess of 0.5 T, indicating a modest enhancement of flux pinning in this range.

  8. Investigation of pinning in MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.; Reissner, M.; Steiner, W.; Bauer, E.; Giovannini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The pinning behaviour of bulk MgB 2 superconductors is peculiar in many respects. Pinning seems to be stronger than in classical high T C materials and there seems to be no weak link problem in these compounds, giving hope to produce bulk samples and wires with current densities appropriate for technical applications. But, although many studies concerning the pinning behaviour in this compound appeared in recent years, the results are still contradictory. In the present work we present results of an investigation of the pinning behaviour by magnetic relaxation measurements of three MgB 2 samples: a pure one, a sample with 8 at% Al substitution and a sample with 10 wt% of SiC admixture. A comparison of different analyses methods is given. (author)

  9. Structured Crowdsourcing: A B2B Innovation Roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Engell, Toke; Jensen, Nik Grewy

    Crowdsourcing is an increasingly popular source of both ideas and funding. Crowdsourcing in a B2B context is less well understood and, as such, much of our discussion will highlight business-to-business crowdsourcing. More generally discussion will address crowdsourcing relative to innovation...... from crowd-sourcing efforts. The roadmap emphasizes on early stages in the overall innovation management activity that is related to development and specification of the task to be crowdsourced, the identification of the crowd, the creation of the environment to connect the crowdsourcer, the task...... and the crowd, motivation of the crowd, and actual activities in reaching the crowd. Managing the input from the crowd is regarded as a later stage in the overall innovation management but also as a focal point in the arguments for improving B2B crowdsourcing. In crowd selection processes this paper aims...

  10. Rapid Immunoenzyme Assay of Aflatoxin B1 Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr E. Urusov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main limitations of microplate-based enzyme immunoassays are the prolonged incubations necessary to facilitate heterogeneous interactions, the complex matrix and poorly soluble antigens, and the significant sample dilutions often required because of the presence of organic extractants. This study presents the use of antibody immobilization on the surface of magnetic particles to overcome these limitations in the detection of the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1. Features of the proposed system are a high degree of nanoparticle dispersion and methodologically simple immobilization of the antibodies by adsorption. Reactions between the immobilized antibodies with native and labeled antigens are conducted in solution, thereby reducing the interaction period to 5 min without impairing the analytical outcome. Adsorption of immunoglobulins on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles increases their stability in aqueous-organic media, thus minimizing the degree of sample dilution required. Testing barley and maize extracts demonstrated a limit of aflatoxin B1 detection equal to 20 pg/mL and total assay duration of 20 min. Using this method, only the 3-fold dilution of the initial methanol/water (60/40 extraction mixture in the microplate wells is necessary. The proposed pseudo-homogeneous approach could be applied toward immunodetection of a wide range of compounds.

  11. Synthesis of Polyclonal Antibodies against Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyogo Prio Wicaksono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal antibodies of aflatoxin B1 were successfully produced from New Zealand White female rabbits after immunization by the hapten of aflatoxin B1-carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AFB1-CMO conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the antigen. The hapten was synthesized using the carbodiimide method with CMO as a linker. Absorption peaks at 362, 264, and 218 nm were observed as a result of characterization with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while IR spectroscopy showed peaks at 3448 cm-1 and 1642 cm-1 attributable to the hydroxyl and nitrile groups, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed fragmentation at the m/z of 386, 368.2, and 310, which confirms that the hapten of AFB1-CMO was successfully synthesized. The hapten was then conjugated with BSA to serve as an antigen of AFB1 when it was injected into the rabbits. The specificity of the antigen towards its antibody and the confirmation of hapten-BSA conjugation were characterized using the dot blot immunoassay, which showed a BSA concentration of 1.74 mg/mL. Two weeks after the primary immunization by its antigen, agar gel precipitation testing showed that the rabbit blood serum had positive results for polyclonal antibodiest against AFB1 with the highest concentration of antibodiest of 2.19 mg/mL.

  12. DELF B1 200 activités

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Anatole

    2006-01-01

    L'ouvrage est organisé par compétences de réception et de production. Chaque partie propose d'abord une présentation de l'épreuve correspondante, puis les activités de préparation suivies d'épreuves-types et d'une auto-évaluation. Dans le cadre d'une approche actionnelle, les activités fournissent les outils nécessaires à la préparation des examens. Elles donnent des exemples concrets répondant aux attentes des candidats comme à celle des examinateurs. LeNouveau DELF B1 propose des activités précises en vue d'atteindre les compétences nécessaires aux épreuves (oral, écrit, réception, production); sa simplicité et sa pédagogie en font une méthode complète. Dans la tradition de la collection Nouvel Entraînez-vous, cet ouvrage est pratique, didactique et se prête à une utilisation en autonomie ou en classe.Le niveau B1 dit " avancé " évalue un niveau de compétence où l'apprenant peut se considérer comme étant indépendant. Arrivé à ce stade, il est apte de comprendre l'inform...

  13. Superconducting and Normal State Properties of OsB2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Zong, X.; Suh, B. J.; Vannette, M. W.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    OsB2 is a layered superhard metallic material that was found to superconduct below Tc= 2.1 K.^1 We report the first detailed measurements of the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities χ, electrical resistivity, heat capacity Cp, penetration depth, and ^11B NMR on OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal state properties. The results confirm that OsB2 is a bulk superconductor below Tc= 2.1 K@. Its properties can be described by a close to weak-coupling s-wave BCS model with an electron-phonon coupling constant λ= 0.4--0.5, δ(0)/(kBTc) 1.9, a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ of order 5 or less, and a small zero-temperature critical magnetic field of roughly 500 Oe. The ^11B NMR measurements in the normal state show a nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T1= 2.1 s at room temperature and a Korringa law with T1T = 610 s.K at lower T, and a correspondingly small T-independent Knight shift. These results indicate a small s character of the conduction electron wave function at the B site at the Fermi level. Our results will be compared to corresponding data for MgB2.1. J. K. Vandenberg et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 889 (1975).^*Supported by the USDOE under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. Permanent address: Dept. Phys., The Catholic Univ. Korea.

  14. Customer satisfaction in B2B cloud services

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Helinä

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on kirjallisuuskatsauksen kautta esitellä B2B-pilvipalveluiden asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja, ja kuinka näitä seikkoja tulisi ottaa huomioon asiakastyytyväisyyden parantamisessa. Tässä tutkimuksessa verkkopohjaiseen liiketoimintaan liittyvää asiakastyytyväisyyden tutkimusta käytettiin pohjana etsiessä asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja pilvipalveluissa. Tutkimuksessa vertaillaan asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja vertailemalla tyytyväisy...

  15. $1$-string $B_2$-VPG representation of planar graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Biedl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that every planar graph has a 1-string $B_2$-VPG representation—a string representation using paths in a rectangular grid that contain at most two bends. Furthermore, two paths representing vertices $u,v$ intersect precisely once whenever there is an edge between $u$ and $v$. We also show that only a subset of the possible curve shapes is necessary to represent $4$-connected planar graphs.

  16. Mass Customized Technical Textiles in the B2B Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, R.; Barteld, M.; Grafmüller, L.; Mosig, T.; Weiß, M.

    2017-10-01

    Mass Customization is a great opportunity for textile companies for both staying competitive in high-wage countries and offering inexpensive, customized products. Within the area of Technical Textiles, this study focuses on the B2B sector and shows the status quo, potentials and strengths. Both management and technological issues are addressed. For the former, business models and the value co-creation process are dealt with, for the latter, the focus is on modelling.

  17. Investigation of TaC–TaB2 ceramic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.2 Spark plasma sintering. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was utilized to consolidate. TaC–B4C and TaC–TaB2 powders. SPS was carried out in. Argon atmosphere at 1900 to 2100◦C. The heating rate of. 100◦C min−1 was adopted to reach the maximum temper- ature with a hold time of 10 min. SPS was carried out at.

  18. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  19. Selenidation of epitaxial silicene on ZrB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, F. B.; Yamada-Takamura, Y.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; de Jong, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The deposition of elemental Se on epitaxial silicene on ZrB2 thin films was investigated with synchrotron-based core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The deposition of Se at room temperature caused the appearance of Si 2p peaks with chemical shifts of n × 0.51 ± 0.04 eV (n = 1-4), suggesting the formation of SiSe2. This shows that capping the silicene monolayer, without affecting its structural and electronic properties, is not possible with Se. The annealing treatments that followed caused the desorption of Se and Si, resulting in the etching of the Si atoms formerly part of the silicene layer, and the formation of bare ZrB2(0001) surface area. In addition, a ZrB2(0001)-(√7 × 3)R40.9° surface reconstruction was observed, attributed to a Se-termination of the surface of the transition metal diboride thin film.

  20. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsumoto, N. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

  1. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  2. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B2 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-[2- 2 H]ribose at C-2' and from D-[1- 2 H]ribose in the pro-R position at C-1' of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the 1 H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1' of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B 12 showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) [1'- 13 C, 5- 15 N]riboflavin incorporated and 13 C-NMR showed that 13 C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio

  3. Downregulation of NF-ΚB1 enhances the radiosensitivity of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegami, Amanda; Silva, Luiz Felipe Teixeira da; Bellini, Maria Helena [Instituto De Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for ∼80% of all renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and has the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene mutated. The lack of VHL protein leads to a constitutionally active Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway that confers both chemoresistance and radioresistance for renal tumor. HIF pathway is known to interact with the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Increased NF-κB activity is associated with the development and progression of RCC (IKEGAMI A, TEIXEIRA LF. BRAGA MS et al. The American Society for Cell Biology 2016; 26: 3948-3955). Objective: Evaluate the synergistic effect of NF-kB1 knockdown and ionizing radiation in murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line. Methods: The murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line (Renca cells) (ATCC, USA) was cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin/streptomycin. Lentiviral shRNA vector was used to knockdown of NF-KB1 gene in Renca cells, as described previously (1). In the clonogenic cell survival assay, the cells were irradiated by {sup 60}Co source in the range from 0 to 10 Gy, using the GammaCell 220 – Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commision Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). After 10-14 days of culture, cell colonies were fixed and stained with formaldehyde 4% and rhodamine B 2% and counted. To assess cell viability, tetrazolium [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-MTS] was performed within 24 hours after irradiation at a dose of 10Gy. The survival variables α e β were fitted according to the linear quadratic equation (SF=exp[-αD-βD2]); SF=survival fraction, D=dose of irradiation and P value was determined by F test. Multiple comparisons were assessed by One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni´s tests with GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. Results: The Renca-shRNA-NF-kB1 cells were found

  4. The relevance of kalikrein-kinin system via activation of B2receptor in LPS-induced fever in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Denis de Melo; Santos, Danielle R; Rummel, Christoph; Ott, Daniela; Melo, Míriam C C; Roth, Joachim; Calixto, João B; Souza, Glória E P

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the involvement of endogenous kallikrein-kinin system and the bradykinin (BK) B 1 and B 2 receptors on LPS- induced fever and the POA cells involved in this response. Male Wistar rats received either i.v. (1 mg/kg), i.c.v. (20 nmol) or i.h. (2 nmol) injections of icatibant (B 2 receptor antagonist) 30 or 60 min, respectively, before the stimuli. DALBK (B 1 receptor antagonist) was given either 15min before BK (i.c.v.) or 30 min before LPS (i.v.). Captopril (5 mg/kg, sc.,) was given 1 h prior LPS or BK. Concentrations of BK and total kininogenon CSF, plasma and tissue kallikrein were evaluated. Rectal temperatures (rT) were assessed by telethermometry. Ca ++ signaling in POA cells was performed in rat pup brain tissue microcultures. Icatibant reduced LPS fever while, captopril exacerbated that response, an effect abolished by icatibant. Icatibant (i.h.) reduced fever to BK (i.h.) but not that induced by LPS (i.v.). BK increased intracellular calcium concentration in neurons and astrocytes. LPS increased levels of bradykinin, tissue kallikrein and total kininogen. BK (i.c.v.) increased rT and decreased tail skin temperature. Captopril potentiated BK-induced fever an effect abolished by icatibant. DALBK reduced the fever induced by BK. BK (i.c.v.) increased the CSF PGE 2 concentration. Effect abolished by indomethacin (i.p.). LPS activates endogenous kalikrein-kinin system leading to production of BK, which by acting on B 2 -receptors of POA cells causes prostaglandin synthesis that in turn produces fever. Thus, a kinin B 2 -receptor antagonist that enters into the brain could constitute a new and interesting strategy to treat fever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rupatadine effectively prevents the histamine-induced up regulation of histamine H1R and bradykinin B2R receptor gene expression in the rat paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyva, Dimitra; Kalokasidis, Konstantinos; Poulios, Christos; Dedi, Hara; Karkavelas, George; Mirtsou, Vassiliki; Goulas, Antonis

    2014-12-01

    Activation of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) is a well-known hallmark of allergic and inflammatory pathology. Both types of bradykinin receptors (B1R and B2R) are also known to contribute significantly to the latter and some sort of functional interaction between them and H1R has been alluded to in the past. Here we use an experimental model of rat paw oedema formation to examine the effect of exogenously added histamine on the gene expression of H1R and bradykinin receptors B1R and B2R, alone or in combination to rupatadine, a second generation antihistamine agent. Histamine-induced oedema formation was monitored with a plethysmometer. The gene expression of H1R, B1R and B2R was analyzed with both conventional and real-time PCR. Rupatadine fumarate was used in pure form and administered intraperitoneally, prior to histamine injection into the paw. Microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of paw tissue was used to examine effects on tissue architecture. Histamine injection into the paw resulted in significant up regulation of H1R and B2R without inducing significant cellular infiltration, but appears to affect less the expression of B1R. Rupatadine was, under the conditions used in this study, very effective in preventing this effect and in suppressing oedema formation through its antihistamine action. Rupatadine has a suppressing effect on H1R and B2R gene expression which could add to its efficacy towards allergy and allergy-like conditions. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, M. van der; Albersen, M.; Koning, T.J. de; Visser, G.; Middendorp, A.; Bosma, M.; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a sensitive UPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. ► Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. ► We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. ► With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. ► Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L −1 trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D 3 for PL and PM, PN- 13 C 4 for PN, PA-D 2 for PA and PLP-D 3 for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 → 150.1 (PL), 169.1 → 134.1 (PM), 170.1 → 134.1 (PN), 184.1 → 148.1 (PA), 248.1 → 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 → 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 → 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF. Recoveries of the internal standards were between 93% and 96%. Intra- and inter-assay variations were below 20%. Accuracy tests showed deviations from 3% (PN) to 39% (PMP). Limits of quantification were

  7. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: M.vanderHam-3@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: M.Albersen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: T.deKoning@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: G.Visser-4@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: Alfred_Middendorp@waters.com [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: M.Bosma@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: N.Verhoeven@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: M.G.deSain@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  8. Asymmetric Dual-Band Tracking Technique for Optimal Joint Processing of BDS B1I and B1C Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuhan; Cui, Xiaowei; Ma, Tianyi; Zhao, Sihao; Lu, Mingquan

    2017-10-16

    Along with the rapid development of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), satellite navigation signals have become more diversified, complex, and agile in adapting to increasing market demands. Various techniques have been developed for processing multiple navigation signals to achieve better performance in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. This paper focuses on a technique for processing two signals with separate but adjacent center frequencies, such as B1I and B1C signals in the BeiDou global system. The two signals may differ in modulation scheme, power, and initial phase relation and can be processed independently by user receivers; however, the propagation delays of the two signals from a satellite are nearly identical as they are modulated on adjacent frequencies, share the same reference clock, and undergo nearly identical propagation paths to the receiver, resulting in strong coherence between the two signals. Joint processing of these signals can achieve optimal measurement performance due to the increased Gabor bandwidth and power. In this paper, we propose a universal scheme of asymmetric dual-band tracking (ASYM-DBT) to take advantage of the strong coherence, the increased Gabor bandwidth, and power of the two signals in achieving much-reduced thermal noise and more accurate ranging results when compared with the traditional single-band algorithm.

  9. Competition for vitamin B1 (thiamin) structures numerous ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Clifford E; Angert, Esther R

    2017-06-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is a cofactor required for essential biochemical reactions in all living organisms, yet free thiamin is scarce in the environment. The diversity of biochemical pathways involved in the acquisition, degradation, and synthesis of thiamin indicates that organisms have evolved numerous ecological strategies for meeting this nutritional requirement. In this review we synthesize information from multiple disciplines to show how the complex biochemistry of thiamin influences ecological outcomes of interactions between organisms in environments ranging from the open ocean and the Australian outback to the gastrointestinal tract of animals. We highlight population and ecosystem responses to the availability or absence of thiamin. These include widespread mortality of fishes, birds, and mammals, as well as the thiamin-dependent regulation of ocean productivity. Overall, we portray thiamin biochemistry as the foundation for molecularly mediated ecological interactions that influence survival and abundance of a vast array of organisms.

  10. Stability of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A in Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, F. S.; Chang, C. C.; Ashoor, Samy H.; Prentice, N.

    1975-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in brewing was investigated by adding the purified toxins to the raw materials at 1 and 10 μg/g levels during mashing in a conventional micro-brewing process. The results indicate that both toxins are stable to heat and are insensitive to cooker mash treatment. Both mycotoxins were partially removed in the mashing and brewing processes. About 14 to 18% and 27 to 28% of the added toxins were found in the final beers brewed from starting materials containing 1 and 10 μg, respectively, of either toxin per g. The possible route of transmission of mycotoxins into beer is discussed. PMID:1115503

  11. Expression and functional characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 amino acid substitution variants in T-pilus biogenesis, virulence, and transient transformation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chao-Ying; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2-) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir-), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2-/Vir-, ExB2-/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2-/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus-/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency.

  12. Expression and functional characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 amino acid substitution variants in T-pilus biogenesis, virulence, and transient transformation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11. All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2- and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir-, the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2-/Vir-, ExB2-/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2-/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus-/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency.

  13. Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstein, M.; Toews, W. H.; Hsu, Y.-T.; Zeng, B.; Chen, X.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhang, Q. R.; Nakamura, S.; Padgett, A. S.; Rodway-Gant, G.; Berk, J.; Kingston, M. K.; Zhang, G. H.; Chan, M. K.; Yamashita, S.; Sakakibara, T.; Takano, Y.; Park, J.-H.; Balicas, L.; Harrison, N.; Shitsevalova, N.; Balakrishnan, G.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Hill, R. W.; Sutherland, M.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2018-02-01

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a conventional Fermi liquid has thus far yielded very few potential candidates. Among promising materials are spin-frustrated Mott insulators near the insulator-metal transition, where theory predicts a Fermi surface associated with neutral low-energy excitations. Here we reveal another route to experimentally realize a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid by the experimental study of a Kondo insulator SmB6 positioned close to the insulator-metal transition. We present experimental signatures down to low temperatures (thermal conductivity well below the charge gap energy scale. Thus, the weight of evidence indicates that despite an extreme instance of Fermi liquid breakdown in Kondo insulating SmB6, a Fermi surface arises from novel itinerant low-energy excitations that couple to magnetic fields, but not weak DC electric fields.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Cellulomonas sp. Strain B6 Isolated from Subtropical Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Florencia; Murua, Yanina; Ghio, Silvina; Talia, Paola; Rivarola, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulomonas sp. strain B6 was isolated from a subtropical forest soil sample and presented (hemi)cellulose-degrading activity. We report here its draft genome sequence, with an estimated genome size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 75.1%, and 3,443 predicted protein-coding sequences, 92 of which are glycosyl hydrolases involved in polysaccharide degradation. PMID:27563050

  15. Radiation damage in SmS, SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x) and SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, J.; Bordier, G.; de Novion, C.H.; Senateur, J.P.; Jun, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large conductivity increases under 21 K electron or neutron irradiations are observed in SmS and SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x). It is shown that they are related to Sm defects. A possible mechanism is 4f electron delocalization around radiation defects. In SmB 6 , the low temperature resistivity increase desappears under 21 K irradiation. The thermal stability of the defects is also investigated up to room temperature

  16. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Chun; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Li, Xin; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Yu; Li, Xian-Feng; Liu, Ying-Ming; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Li; Li, Tian-Chang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (cTTE) using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for diagnosing right-to-left shunt (RLS) caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) compared to that of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We investigated 125 patients admitted to our neurology department with unexplained cerebral infarction and migraine. All patients underwent cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents, after which they underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver, and TEE examinations were performed. The feasibility, diagnostic sensitivity, and safety of cTTE and TEE for PFO recognition were compared. Evidence of PFO was found in 49 (39.20%) patients with cTTE, more than were detected with TEE (39, 31.20%) (χ 2 =5.0625, P=0.0244). cTTE had a sensitivity of 92.31% and a specificity of 84.88% for diagnosing PFO, showing high concordance with TEE for PFO recognition (κ=0.72). Further, results of a semi-quantitative evaluation of PFO-RLS by cTTE were better than those with TEE (Z=-2.011, P=0.044). No significant adverse reaction was discovered during cTTE examination. cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents has relatively good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing RLS caused by PFO when compared with those for TEE. Using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents to perform cTTE is recommended for detecting and diagnosing the PFO due to its simplicity, non-invasive character, low cost, and high feasibility.

  17. Kondo Hybridization and the Origin of Metallic States at the (001 Surface of SmB_{6}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Frantzeskakis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SmB_{6}, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB_{6} would be placed at the head of a new material class: topological Kondo insulators. Here, for the first time, we show that the k-space characteristics of the Kondo-hybridization process is the key to unraveling the origin of the two types of metallic states experimentally observed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES in the electronic band structure of SmB_{6}(001. One group of these states is essentially of bulk origin and cuts the Fermi level due to the position of the chemical potential 20 meV above the lowest-lying 5d-4f hybridization zone. The other metallic state is more enigmatic, being weak in intensity, but represents a good candidate for a topological surface state. However, before this claim can be substantiated by an unequivocal measurement of its massless dispersion relation, our data raise the bar in terms of the ARPES resolution required, as we show there to be a strong renormalization of the hybridization gaps by a factor 2–3 compared to theory, following from the knowledge of the true position of the chemical potential and a careful comparison with the predictions from recent local-density-approximation (LDA+Gutzwiller calculations. All in all, these key pieces of evidence act as triangulation markers, providing a detailed description of the electronic landscape in SmB_{6} and pointing the way for future, ultrahigh-resolution ARPES experiments to achieve a direct measurement of the Dirac cones in the first topological Kondo insulator.

  18. A GENERIC MODEL FOR THE B2B ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    MARCO AURELIO F ALBERNAZ

    2004-01-01

    O ambiente de Comércio Eletrônico entre empresas apoiado pela Internet, conhecido como B2B, é muito complexo. Para nele operar, é importante a existência de um instrumento que permita visualizar de forma integrada os diversos elementos que interagem entre si nesse ambiente de negócios, facilite a sua compreensão e dê apoio à tomada de decisões e à elaboração de estratégias que agreguem valor às empresas que aí realizam as suas transações. A necessidade desse instrumento deu ...

  19. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery......, service, configuration and customisation of the products in their company as well as to develop an apposite understanding of the key values and characteristics of the client organisation. Based on a design-ethnographical study of real sales practice in lift truck business the paper draws parallels between...

  20. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.