WorldWideScience

Sample records for b1 b2 b3

  1. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 contaminants in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 residues in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and especially focused on the optimization of extraction, clean-up, UHPLC separation and MS/MS parameters. The method involves addition of fumonisins isotope internal standards, extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and water and clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A single-laboratory method validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels for repeatability and recovery according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines. The LOQ of FB1, FB2 and FB3 were 1.50, 1.65 and 0.4 μg kg-1, respectively, which were lower than the criteria of EU, USA and other countries regarding minimum residue limits of fumonisins in foods including baby foods and feedstuffs. Recoveries of three fumonisins ranged from 80.9% to 97.0% with RSD values of 2.4-11.1%.The advantages of this method include simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, and it fulfills the requirements for food analysis with respect to minimum residue limits of fumonisins in various countries.

  2. Fate of the fusarium mycotoxins fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize flour and maize grits during extrusion cooking.

    OpenAIRE

    Scudamore, Keith; Guy, Robin C, E; Kelleher, Brian; MacDonald, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Extrusion technology is used widely to manufacture a range of breakfast cereals and snacks for human consumption and animal feeds. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in cereals and cereal products and fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) in maize are controlled in the European Community by legislation with the objective of minimising consumer exposure to these mycotoxins. Relatively few studies have examined the losses of fusarium mycotoxins during processing. The be...

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation. PMID:27297842

  4. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  5. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. PMID:27506358

  6. Downregulation of kinin B1 receptor function by B2 receptor heterodimerization and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the G protein-coupled kinin receptors B1 (kB1R) and B2 (kB2R) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kB2R is constitutively expressed and rapidly desensitized in response to agonist whereas kB1R expression is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and it is resistant to internalization and desensitization. Here we show that the kB1R heterodimerizes with kB2Rs in co-transfected HEK293 cells and natively expressing endothelial cells, resulting in significant internalization and desensitization of the kB1R response in cells pre-treated with kB2R agonist. However, pre-treatment of cells with kB1R agonist did not affect subsequent kB2R responses. Agonists of other G protein-coupled receptors (thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid) had no effect on a subsequent kB1R response. The loss of kB1R response after pretreatment with kB2R agonist was partially reversed with kB2R mutant Y129S, which blocks kB2R signaling without affecting endocytosis, or T342A, which signals like wild type but is not endocytosed. Co-endocytosis of the kB1R with kB2R was dependent on β-arrestin and clathrin-coated pits but not caveolae. The sorting pathway of kB1R and kB2R after endocytosis differed as recycling of kB1R to the cell surface was much slower than that of kB2R. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, pre-treatment with kB2R agonist inhibited kB1R-mediated increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by kB1R stimulation (to generate nitric oxide) and blocked the profound drop in TER caused by kB1R activation in the presence of pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, kB1R function can be downregulated by kB2R co-endocytosis and signaling, suggesting new approaches to control kB1R signaling in pathological conditions. PMID:25289859

  7. Short syntheses of enantiopure calystegine B-2, B-3, and B-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps.......Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps....

  8. Observation and Properties of L=1 B_1 and B_2* Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pompo, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    Excited B mesons B_1 and B_2* are observed directly for the first time as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B+(*) pi-. The mass of B_1 is measured to be (5720.6 +- 2.4 +- 1.4) MeV/c^2 and the mass difference DeltaM between B_2* and B_1 is (26.2 +- 3.1 +- 0.9) MeV/c^2, giving the mass of the B_2* as (5746.8 +- 2.4 +- 1.7) MeV/c^2. The production rate for B_1 and B_2* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9 +- 1.9 +- 3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson.

  9. Impaired cortical neurogenesis in plexin-B1 and -B2 double deletion mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Nicolas; Chen, Karen; Huang, Yong; Friedel, Roland H; Zou, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian cortical expansion is tightly controlled by fine-tuning of proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in a region-specific manner. How extrinsic cues interface with cell-intrinsic programs to balance proliferative versus neurogenic decisions remains an unsolved question. We examined the function of Semaphorin receptors Plexin-B1 and -B2 in corticogenesis by generating double mutants, whereby Plexin-B2 was conditionally ablated in the developing brain in a Plexin-B1 null mutant background. Absence of both Plexin-Bs resulted in cortical thinning, particularly in the caudomedial cortex. Plexin-B1/B2 double, but not single, mutants exhibited a reduced neural progenitor pool, attributable to decreased proliferation and an altered division mode favoring cell cycle exit. This resulted in deficient production of neurons throughout the neurogenic period, proportionally affecting all cortical laminae. Consistent with the in vivo data, cultured neural progenitors lacking both Plexin-B1 and -B2 displayed decreased proliferative capacity and increased spontaneous differentiation. Our study therefore defines a novel function of Plexin-B1 and -B2 in transmitting extrinsic signals to maintain proliferative and undifferentiated states of neural progenitors. As single mutants displayed no apparent cortical defects, we conclude that Plexin-B1 and -B2 play redundant or compensatory roles during forebrain development to ensure proper neuronal production and neocortical expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 882-899, 2016. PMID:26579598

  10. Human infections caused by Brevibacterium casei, formerly CDC groups B-1 and B-3.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, E; Steigerwalt, A G; Hollis, D G; Weyant, R S; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W; M Daneshvar; J. M. Brown; Brenner, D J

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one clinical strains of CDC coryneform groups B-1 and B-3 were compared biochemically, by analysis of cell wall sugars, amino acids, and cellular fatty acids, and by DNA relatedness to the type strains of Brevibacterium casei, Brevibacterium epidermidis, and Brevibacterium linens. Twenty-two strains were shown to be B. casei, while five other strains formed a phenotypically inseparable genomospecies in the same genus. The remaining isolates were genetically heterogeneous, and most are p...

  11. Theoretical study of B3-to-B1 phase transition in ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Qilong

    2016-10-01

    The pressure-induced phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS using first-principle projector-augmented wave method is studied. To understand the nature and driving force behind the transition, the interesting properties in both phases, including enthalpy, phonon dispersion curves and elastic constants, are systematically investigated. The results show that the calculated transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 GPa to 19.04 GPa, which is in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion accompanied by the movement of Zn and S atoms along the [111] crystallographic axis. The physical driving force of the B3-B1 phase transition is confirmed to be a coupling effect between the mechanical instability of B3 phase under pressure and the softening acoustic phonon mode resulting from the pressure-induced lattice deformation. For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa.

  12. Evidence for the eta_b(2S) and observation of h_b(1P) -> eta_b(1S) gamma and h_b(2P) -> eta_b(1S) gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuk, R; Bondar, A; Pedlar, T K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bay, A; Belous, K; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, I -S; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fast, J E; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kawasaki, T; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Koblitz, S; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; McOnie, S; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Ng, C; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Röhrken, M; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V

    2012-01-01

    We report the first evidence for the eta_b(2S) using the h_b(2P)->eta_b(2S)gamma transition and the first observation of the h_b(1P)->eta_b(1S)gamma and h_b(2P)->eta_b(1S)gamma transitions. The mass and width of the eta_b(1S) and eta_b(2S) are measured to be m_etab(1S)=(9402.4+-1.5+-1.8)MeV/c^2, m_etab(2S)=(9999.0+-3.5 +2.8-1.9)MeV/c^2 and Gamma_etab(1S)=(10.8 +4.0-3.7 +4.5-2.0)MeV. We also update the h_b(1P) and h_b(2P) mass measurements. We use a 133.4/fb data sample collected at energies near the Upsilon(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider.

  13. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  14. Pressure dependent elastic and structural (B3-B1) properties of Ga based monopnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By formulating an effective interionic interaction potential that incorporates the long-range Coulomb, the covalency effects, the charge transfer caused by the deformation of the electron shells of the overlapping ions, the Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended up to the second neighbour ions and the van der Waals (vdW) interaction, the pressure dependent elastic and thermodynamical properties of the III-V semiconductors as GaY (Y = N, P, As) are studied. The estimated values of phase transition pressure of GaY (Y = N, P, As) are in reasonably good agreement with the available data on the phase transition pressures (Pt = 41, 22, 17 GPa). The vast volume discontinuity in pressure-volume phase diagram identifies a structural phase transition from zinc-blende (B3) to rock salt (B1) structure. Later on, the Poisson's ratio ν, the ratio RS/B of S (Voigt averaged shear modulus) over B (bulk modulus), elastic anisotropy parameter, elastic wave velocity, average wave velocity and Debye temperature as functions of pressure is calculated. From Poisson's ratio and the ratio RS/B it is inferred that GaY (Y = N, P, As) is brittle [ductile] in zinc-blende (B3) [Sodium Chloride (B1)] phase. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of ductile (brittle) nature of GaY compounds and still awaits experimental confirmations.

  15. THE VITAMIN B(1) AND B(2) G CONTENT OF LIVER EXTRACT AND BREWERS' YEAST CONCENTRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D K; Rhoads, C P

    1934-02-28

    1. Liver extract powder, No. 343 Lilly, and the same material prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by mouth in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats weighing from 40 to 50 gm., contain sufficient vitamin B(1) to support normal growth, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. Moreover, liver extract in the forms mentioned, administered in the same amounts, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth of similar rate when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 2. Liver extract (Lilly) in the form prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by intraperitoneal injections, in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats under standard experimental conditions, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth. Furthermore, the amount of vitamin B(1) present in liver extract in this form is not as effective in supporting normal growth when given by intraperitoneal injection as it is when given by mouth. 3. Vegex, when administered daily in amounts of 50, 150, and 250 mg. to rats of 40 to 50 gm. in weight contains sufficient vitamin B(1) to maintain normal growth of the rats, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. However, vegex in the same amounts does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to support normal growth of similar rats when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 4. These experiments indicate that the extrinsic, anti-anemic factor of Castle and the thermostable growth-promoting food constituent, commonly known as vitamin B(2) G, are not identical.

  16. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species...... of Emericella only one species produced aflatoxin. Strains originating from the same geographical source material had different patterns of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin production on different media, indicating that epigenetic factors may be involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production. However, two...... cultures from the same original genet were very similar. Conclusions: Emericella astellata can produce small amounts of sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1 and B-2. Significance and Impact of the Study: Emericella has been used extensively in genetic studies and therefore the isolates producing aflatoxin...

  17. Antioxidant/oxidant status and cardiac function in bradykinin B(1)- and B(2)-receptor null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemasure, S; Blaes, N; Richard, C; Couture, R; Bader, M; Dutartre, P; Girolami, J-P; Connat, J-L; Rochette, L

    2013-01-01

    Kinin-vasoactive peptides activate two G-protein-coupled receptors (R), B(1)R (inducible) and B(2)R (constitutive). Their complex role in cardiovascular diseases could be related to differential actions on oxidative stress. This study investigated impacts of B(1)R or B(2)R gene deletion in mice on the cardiac function and plasma antioxidant and oxidant status. Echocardiography-Doppler was performed in B(1)R (B(1)R(-/-)) and B(2)R (B(2)R(-/-)) deficient and wild type (WT) adult male mice. No functional alteration was observed in B(2)R(-/-) hearts. B(1)R(-/-) mice had significantly lowered fractional shortening and increased isovolumetric contraction time. The diastolic E and A waves velocity ratio was similar in all mice groups. Thus B(1)R(-/-) mice provide a model of moderate systolic dysfunction, whereas B(2)R(-/-) mice displayed a normal cardiac phenotype. Plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC) was significantly decreased in both B(1)R(-/-) and B(2)R(-/-) mice whereas the vitamin C levels were decreased in B(2)R(-/-) mice only. Plasma ascorbyl free radical was significantly higher in B(1)R(-/-) compared to WT and B(2)R(-/-) mice. Therefore, the oxidative stress index, ascorbyl free radical to vitamin C ratio, was increased in both B(1)R(-/-) and B(2)R(-/-) mice. Hence, B(1)R and B(2)R deficiency are associated with increased oxidative stress, but there is a differential imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense. The interrelationship between the differential B(1)R and B(2)R roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases remain to be investigated. PMID:24020815

  18. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  19. The pressure-induced transformation B1 to B2 in actinide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase transformation from NaCl structure (B1) to CsCl structure (B2) in actinide compounds has been studied using X-ray powder diffraction in the pressure range up to about 60 GPa. It is shown that the transition is sluggish, has a strong hysteresis and is accompanied with a volume change in the range 8-12%. These features are similar to those of the corresponding transition in the alkali halides and other compounds, indicating a common mechanism for the transformation as concerns the lattice geometry. (orig.)

  20. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2-ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foeto-maternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2-ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1-ErbB2-ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994

  1. Bridging η2 -BO in B2(BO)3(-) and B3(BO)3(-) clusters: boronyl analogs of boranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hua-Jin; Guo, Jin-Chang; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations are combined to probe the structures and chemical bonding of two boron-rich oxide clusters, B(5)O(3)(-) and B(6)O(3)(-), which are shown to be appropriately formulated as B(2)(BO)(3)(-) and B(3)(BO)(3)(-), respectively. The anion clusters are found to each possess a bridging η(2)-BO group, as well as two terminal BO groups and are analogs of B(2)H(3)(-) and B(3)H(3)(-). This finding advances the boronyl chemistry and helps establish the isolobal analogy between boron-rich oxide clusters and boranes. PMID:21954002

  2. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong HU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Mihwa Kwon,2 Yongnam Lee,3 Ji Seok Yoo,3 Dae Hee Shin,3 Im-Sook Song,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea; 3Central R&D Institute, Yungjin Pharm Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-270, Korea Abstract: We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3 and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km =41.5 µM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint =1.11 µL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 µL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 µ

  3. Equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM due to fumonisins B1 and B2 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Giannitti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2007 an outbreak of neurological disease and sudden death in Arabian horses occurred in a farm located in Coronel Rosales County, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The animals were on a pasture of native grasses and supplemented ad libitum with corn kernels and wheat bran. Three horses were observed having acute neurologic signs including blindness, four leg ataxia, hyperexcitability, aimless walking and circling, followed by death in two of them. Four other horses were found dead overnight without a history of neurologic signs. The morbidity, mortality and lethality rates were 11.6%, 10% and 85.7%, respectively. Grossly, the brain showed focal areas of hemorrhage, brown-yellow discoloration and softening of the sub-cortical white matter. The microscopic brain lesions consisted of extensive areas of malacia within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum, characterized by rarefaction of the white matter with cavitations filled with proteinaceous edema, multifocal hemorrhages and mild infiltration by neutrophils, and rare eosinophils. Swollen glial cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, distinct cell borders, intracytoplasmic deeply eosinophilic globules and eccentric, hyperchromatic, occasionally pyknotic nucleus were present throughout the areas of rarefaction hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. The feed supplements contained 12,490µg/kg of fumonisin B1 and 5,251µg/ kg of fumonisin B2. This is the first reported outbreak of ELEM associated with consumption of feed supplements containing high concentrations of fumonisins in Argentina.

  4. Discovery of the magnetic field of the B1/B2V star \\sigma Lupi

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichs, H F; Plaggenborg, B; Marsden, S C; Waite, I A; Landstreet, J; Grunhut, J; Oksala, M; Wade, G

    2011-01-01

    In our search for new magnetic massive stars we use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of UV stellar wind lines occurring in a velocity range symmetric around zero. Our aim is to obtain follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic field in magnetic candidate stars. We quantify UV wind line variability, and analyse its time behaviour. The B1/B2V star sigma Lup emerged as a new magnetic candidate star. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. The stellar wind line variations of sigma Lup are similar to what is known in magnetic B stars, but no periodicity could be determined. We detected a longitudinal magnetic field with varying strength and amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G, which supports an oblique magnetic-rotator configuration. The equivalent width variations of the UV lines, the magnetic and the optical line variations are consistent with the well-known photometric period of 3.02 days, whi...

  5. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin, E-mail: gshen@ciw.edu [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Q{sub eff}) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Q{sub eff} is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Q{sub eff} with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  6. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2016-01-01

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03-13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  7. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed

  8. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in agricultural products consumed in South Korea: an exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunkyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kuzmina, Nina; Oh, Keum-Soon; Lee, Jong-Ok; Kim, Dong-Sul; Suh, Junghyuck; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Chung, Kee-Hey; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2009-02-01

    To survey fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in agricultural products consumed in South Korea and provide an exposure assessment, ground samples were extracted (80% MeOH), filtered (0.2 microm), and cleaned up. After evaporation, dry residues were reconstituted in 50% MeOH, and a 50-micro1 aliquot of this sample was mixed with 200 micro1 of o-phthaldialdehyde for derivatization. The derivatives were analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a fluorescence detector. For validation of the detection procedure, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection limit, and quantification limit were determined. The validated detection method was then used to survey fumonisins in white rice, brown rice, barley, barley tea, beer, wheat flour, millet, dried corn, corn flour, corn tea, canned corn, popcorn, and breakfast cereal. Retention times for FB1 and FB2 standards were 7 and 18 min, respectively. Linearity (R2 = 0.99995 to 0.99998), accuracy (81.47 to 108.83%), precision (2.35 to 5.77), detection limit (25 ng/g or ng/ml), and quantification limit (37 ng/g or ng/ml) indicated that this procedure is capable of quantifying fumonisins in agricultural products. Only FB1-positive samples (5.12%, three dried corn samples and five corn flour samples) were found at 90.89 to 439.67 ng/g. According the survey results, an estimated daily intake of FB1 and FB2 in Korea was 0.087 ng/kg of body weight per day. These results indicate that continuous monitoring of these mycotoxins is necessary to establish appropriate risk assessment, and the maximum tolerable daily intake of fumonisins in Korea is lower than the 2 microg/kg set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization-World Health Organization Expert Committee. PMID:19350995

  9. ErbB2, but not ErbB1, reinitiates proliferation and induces luminal repopulation in epithelial acini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Li, Dongmei; Lelievre, Sophie; Bissell, Mina J; Brugge, Joan S

    2001-08-08

    Both ErbB1 and ErbB2 are overexpressed or amplified in breast tumors. To examine the effects of activating ErbB receptors in a context that mimics polarized epithelial cells in vivo, we activated ErbB1 and ErbB2 homodimers in preformed, growth-arrested mammary acini cultured in three-dimensional basement membrane gels. Activation of ErbB2, but not that of ErbB1, led to a reinitiation of cell proliferation and altered the properties of mammary acinar structures. These altered structures share several properties with early-stage tumors, including a loss of proliferative suppression, an absence of lumen, retention of the basement membrane and a lack of invasive properties. ErbB2 activation also disrupted tight junctions and the cell polarity of polarized epithelia, whereas ErbB1 activation did not have any effect. Our results indicate that ErbB receptors differ in their ability to induce early stages of mammary carcinogenesis in vitro and this three-dimensional model system can reveal biological activities of oncogenes that cannot be examined in vitro in standard transformation assays.

  10. MiR-10 represses HoxB1a and HoxB3a in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost M Woltering

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Hox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior axis. In addition to the protein coding Hox genes, the miR-10, miR-196 and miR-615 families of microRNA genes are conserved within the vertebrate Hox clusters. The members of the miR-10 family are located at positions associated with Hox-4 paralogues. No function is yet known for this microRNA family but the genomic positions of its members suggest a role in anterior-posterior patterning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using sensor constructs, overexpression and morpholino knockdown, we show in Zebrafish that miR-10 targets HoxB1a and HoxB3a and synergizes with HoxB4 in the repression of these target genes. Overexpression of miR-10 also induces specific phenotypes related to the loss of function of these targets. HoxB1a and HoxB3a have a dominant hindbrain expression domain anterior to that of miR-10 but overlap in a weaker expression domain in the spinal cord. In this latter domain, miR-10 knockdown results in upregulation of the target genes. In the case of a HoxB3a splice variant that includes miR-10c within its primary transcript, we show that the microRNA acts in an autoregulatory fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We find that miR-10 acts to repress HoxB1a and HoxB3a within the spinal cord and show that this repression works cooperatively with HoxB4. As with the previously described interactions between miR-196 and HoxA7 and Hox-8 paralogues, the target genes are located in close proximity to the microRNA. We present a model in which we postulate a link between the clustering of Hox genes and post-transcriptional gene regulation. We speculate that the high density of transcription units and enhancers within the Hox clusters places constraints on the precision of the transcriptional control that can be achieved within these clusters and requires the involvement of post-transcriptional gene silencing to define functional domains of genes appropriately.

  11. Fracturas del cuello quirúrgico del húmero (B2-B3). Tratamiento quirúrgico.

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Planelles, Antonio; D'Arrigo, A.; Arenas Miquélez, A.; Garbayo Marturet, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Se presentan 36 casos de fractura de húmero proximal tipos B2 y B3 tratados quirúrgicamente mediante osteosíntesis con clavo proximal (4 casos) o placa bloqueada (29 casos) o utilizando una hemiartroplastia de hombro (3 casos). Los resultados fueron buenos en la mayor parte de los pacientes, con un dolor medio de 11,97/15 en la cotación cifrada de Constant, una fuerza de 13,42/25 puntos y una movilidad de 24,33/40 puntos. Las complicaciones más importantes fueron el conflicto subacromial (10 ...

  12. Vascular kinin B1 and B2 receptor-mediated effects in the rat isolated perfused kidney–differential regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaté, Karim; Develioglu, Leyla; Imbs, Jean-Louis; Michel, Bruno; Helwig, Jean-Jacques; Barthelmebs, Mariette

    1999-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and analogs acting preferentially at kinin B1 or B2 receptors were tested on the rat isolated perfused kidney. Kidneys were perfused in an open circuit with Tyrode's solution. Kidneys preconstricted with prostaglandin F2α were used for the analysis of vasodilator responses.BK induced a concentration-dependent renal relaxation (pD2=8.9±0.4); this vasodilator response was reproduced by a selective B2 receptor agonist, Tyr(Me)8-BK (pD2=9.0±0.1) with a higher maximum effect (Emax=78.9±6.6 and 55.8±4.3% of ACh-induced relaxation respectively, n=6 and 19, P<0.02). Icatibant (10 nM), a selective B2 receptor antagonist, abolished BK-elicited relaxation. Tachyphylaxis of kinin B2 receptors appeared when repeatedly stimulated at 10 min intervals.Des-Arg9-BK, a selective B1 receptor agonist, induced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction at micromolar concentration. Maximum response was enhanced in the presence of lisinopril (1 μM) and inhibited by R 715 (8 μM), a selective B1 receptor antagonist. Des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK behaved as an agonist.A contractile response to des-Arg9-BK occurred after 1 h of perfusion and increased with time by a factor of about three over a 3 h perfusion. This post-isolation sensitization to des-Arg9-BK was abolished by dexamethasone (DEX, 30 mg kg−1 i.p., 3 h before the start of the experiment and 10 μM in perfusate) and actinomycin D (2 μM). Acute exposure to DEX (10 μM) had no effect on sensitized des-Arg9-BK response, in contrast to indomethacin (30 μM) that abolished it. DEX pretreatment however had no effect on BK-induced renal vasodilation.Present results indicate that the main renal vascular response to BK consists of relaxation linked to the activation of kinin B2 receptors which rapidly desensitize. Renal B1 receptors are also present and are time-dependently sensitized during the in vitro perfusion of the rat kidneys. PMID:10588918

  13. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mie Kawashima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  14. Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Potent Dual CYP11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase) and CYP11B1 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Erik L; Ksander, Gary; Monovich, Lauren G; Papillon, Julien P N; Liu, Qian; Miranda, Karl; Morris, Patrick; Rao, Chang; Burgis, Robin; Capparelli, Michael; Hu, Qi-Ying; Singh, Alok; Rigel, Dean F; Jeng, Arco Y; Beil, Michael; Fu, Fumin; Hu, Chii-Whei; LaSala, Daniel

    2013-12-12

    Aldosterone is a key signaling component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and as such has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular pathology such as hypertension and heart failure. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is responsible for the final three steps of aldosterone synthesis and thus is a viable therapeutic target. A series of imidazole derived inhibitors, including clinical candidate 7n, have been identified through design and structure-activity relationship studies both in vitro and in vivo. Compound 7n was also found to be a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which is responsible for cortisol production. Inhibition of CYP11B1 is being evaluated in the clinic for potential treatment of hypercortisol diseases such as Cushing's syndrome. PMID:24900631

  15. Constituents of the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis. Structures of okhotosides B1-B3 and cytotoxic activities of some glycosides from this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Fedorov, Sergey N; Stepanov, Vadim G; Dong, Zigang; Stonik, Valentin A

    2008-03-01

    Three new triterpene oligoglycosides, okhotosides B 1 ( 1), B 2 ( 2), and B 3 ( 3), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis along with the known compounds frondoside A ( 4), frondoside A 1, cucumarioside A 2-5, and koreoside A. The structures of 1- 3 were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data (2D NMR and MS). Compounds 1- 3 were moderately toxic against HeLa tumor cells. Frondoside A ( 4) showed more potent cytotoxicity against THP-1 and HeLa tumor cell lines (with IC 50 values of 4.5 and 2.1 microg/mL, respectively) and decreased both the AP-1-dependent trascriptional activities induced by UVB, EGF, or TPA in JB6-LucAP-1 cells and the EGF-induced NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity in JB6-LucNF-kB cells at doses of about 1 microg/mL. At the same doses, it increased the p53-dependent transcriptional activity in nonactivated JB6-Lucp53 cells and inhibited the colony formation of JB6 P (+) Cl 41 cells activated with EGF (INCC 50 = 0.8 microg/mL). PMID:18288810

  16. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2–ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foeto–maternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2–ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1–ErbB2–ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994

  17. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and their genetic variants influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trdan Lušin Tina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exhibits quite large and unexplained interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study was to determine the role of organic-anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and their genetic variants in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene. Methods To test the role of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters on hepatic uptake of raloxifene and its metabolites an in vitro model of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 was employed. The influence of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 genetic variants on in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was evaluated in 53 osteoporotic postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene. Results Our in vitro results showed that raloxifene and two of the three metabolites, raloxifene-4'-β-glucuronide (M2 and raloxifene-6,4'-diglucuronide (M3, interact with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Higher M3 and total raloxifene serum concentrations in patients correlated with lower serum levels of bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen, indicating a higher antiresorptive effect of raloxifene. Higher concentrations of M2 correlated with higher increase of lumbar spine bone mineral density supporting the raloxifene vertebral fracture specific protection effect. Finally, raloxifene, M3 and total raloxifene serum concentrations were significantly higher in patients with SLCO1B1 c.388A > G polymorphism and *1b haplotype implicating a considerable genetic effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene. Conclusions These findings indicate that SLCO1B1 c.388A > G polymorphism could play an important role in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene.

  18. Isolation of modulators of the liver-specific organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3 from Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Megan; Araya, Juan J; Timmermann, Barbara N; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) are liver-specific transporters that mediate the uptake of a broad range of drugs into hepatocytes, including statins, antibiotics, and many anticancer drugs. Compounds that alter transport by one or both of these OATPs could potentially be used to target drugs to hepatocytes or improve the bioavailability of drugs that are cleared by the liver. In this study, we applied a bioassay-guided isolation approach to identify such compounds from the organic extract of Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae). Fractions of the plant extract were screened for effects on OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport of the model substrates estradiol-17β-glucuronide and estrone-3-sulfate. We isolated three compounds, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and 8-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-α-terpineol, which inhibited estradiol-17β-glucuronide uptake by OATP1B1 but not OATP1B3. In addition, a rare compound, quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, was identified that had distinct effects on each OATP. OATP1B1 was strongly inhibited, as was OATP1B3-mediated transport of estradiol-17β-glucuronide. However, OATP1B3-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate was stimulated 4- to 5-fold. Kinetic analysis of this stimulation revealed that the apparent affinity for estrone-3-sulfate was increased (decreased K(m)), whereas the maximal rate of transport (V(max)) was significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a mechanism through which the hepatic uptake of drug OATP substrates could be stimulated.

  19. Nostocyclopeptide-M1: a potent, nontoxic inhibitor of the hepatocyte drug transporters OATP1B3 and OATP1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfindal, Lars; Myhren, Lene; Kleppe, Rune; Krakstad, Camilla; Selheim, Frode; Jokela, Jouni; Sivonen, Kaarina; Døskeland, Stein O

    2011-04-01

    We have isolated a novel cyanobacterial cyclic peptide (nostocyclopeptide M1; Ncp-M1) that blocks the hepatotoxic action of microcystin (MC) and nodularin (Nod). We show here that Ncp-M1 is nontoxic to primary hepatocytes in long-term culture. Ncp-M1 does not affect any known intracellular targets or pathways involved in MC action, like protein phosphatases, CaM-KII, or ROS-dependent cell death effectors. In support of this conclusion Ncp-M1 had no protective effect when microinjected into cells. Rather, the antitoxin effect was solely due to blocked hepatocyte uptake of MC and Nod. The hepatic uptake of MC and Nod is mainly via the closely related organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, which also mediate hepatic transport of endogenous metabolites and hormones as well as drugs. OATP1B3 is also expressed in some aggressive cancers, where it confers apoptosis resistance. We show that Ncp-M1 inhibits transport through OATP1B3 and OATP1B1 expressed in HEK293 cells. The Ncp-M1 molecule has several nonproteinogenic amino acids and an imino bond, which hamper its synthesis. Moreover, a cyclic all L-amino acid heptapeptide analogue of Ncp-M1 also inhibits the OATP1B1/1B3 transporters, and with higher OATP1B3 preference than Ncp-M1 itself. The nontoxic Ncp-M1 and its synthetic cyclic peptide analogues thus provide new tools to probe the role of OATB1B1/1B3 mediated drug and metabolite transport in liver and cancer cells. They can also serve as scaffolds to design new, exopeptidase resistant OATP1B3-specific modulators.

  20. THE EXPRESSION OF C-erbB-1 AND C-erbB-2 ONCOGENES IN BASAL CELL CARCINOMA AND SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF SKIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝军; 张海涛; 李淑琴; 陈伟; 李润江

    1996-01-01

    The expression of c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes were investigated by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies to c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 protein in 43 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 26 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We found that the expression of c-erbB-1 oncogene in all BCC increased by different degrees and the expression of c-erbB-2 oncogene in BCC was significantly reduced or lost when compared to that in normal epidermal cells.Furthermore,apparent negative and positive relationships were observed respectively between the tumor differentiation and the expression of c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes in SCC.It is suggested that the abnormal expression of c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes in BCC and SCC may play a role in the development of skin tumors.The pattern of the c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes expression in SCC may assist in distinguishing the biological behavior and prognosis of SCC.

  1. Truncated ErbB2 receptor enhances ErbB1 signaling and induces reversible, ERK-independent loss of epithelial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, M; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Jäättelä, M

    2001-01-01

    breast cancer cells expressing NH(2)-terminally truncated ErbB2 (DeltaNErbB2) were compared with cells overexpressing wild-type ErbB2. Expression of DeltaNErbB2 in MCF-7 cells resulted in sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, extensive loss of the epithelial morphology...... and depended on continuous expression of DeltaNErbB2 but not on the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Interestingly, the expression of DeltaNErbB2 resulted also in the increased expression and phosphorylation of ErbB1 as well as in the prolonged ligand-induced activation of the ErbB1 signaling pathway...

  2. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn-based products commercialized in the state of Santa Catarina - Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Corn flour, "canjica" (corn grits, corn flakes and popcorn for human consumption, commercialized in Santa Catarina (n=82, were analyzed in order to detect the presence of fumonisins B1 (FB1 and B2 (FB2. From the samples, 92.68% showed detectable levels of Fumonisins (FBs. Corn flour showed the highest level of contamination (91.5% with average levels of 3.811 and 5.737 mg/g for the home-processed and industrialized products, respectively. The next most contaminated product was popcorn with a average of 2.872 mg/g and an occurrence in 91.6% of the samples. All samples of corn flakes were contaminated with an average of 1.307 mg/g. The product with the lowest levels of FBs was "canjica" with a average contamination of 0.732 mg/g. These results indicated the need of monitoring corn-based products in this state.Farinha de milho, canjica, flocos de milho, milho de pipoca, destinados ao consumo humano e comercializados em Santa Catarina (n=82, foram analisados a fim de determinar a ocorrência de fumonisinas B1 (FB1 e B2 (FB2. Das amostras, 92,68 % apresentaram níveis detectáveis de FBs. A farinha de milho apresentou os maiores níveis de contaminação (91,5% com níveis médios 3,811 e 5,737 mg/g para as de preparo artesanal e industrializadas, respectivamente. O segundo produto mais contaminado foi o milho de pipoca com uma média de contaminação de 2,872 mg/g e ocorrência em 91,6% das amostras. Todas as amostras de flocos de milho apresentaram contaminação com uma média de 1,307 mg/g. O produto com menores níveis de FBs foi a canjica com contaminação média de 0,732 mg/g. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade de monitoramento dos produtos derivados de milho em nosso Estado, ressaltando-se que os níveis mais expressivos foram encontrados em produtos comercializados no Sul e Oeste de SC, regiões agrícolas, marcadamente colonizadas por descendentes de italianos, consumidores habituais de produtos derivados de milho, particularmente a

  3. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices. [Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicking, M.K.L.

    1982-07-01

    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the sample in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample components undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. Additional studies have provided a more thorough understanding of solvent related non-exclusion effects on size exclusion gels. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 ..mu..L of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. The analytical method has also proven useful in the analysis of contaminated corn and peanut meal samples. 42 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Volatile magnesium octahydrotriborate complexes as potential CVD precursors to MgB2. Synthesis and characterization of Mg(B3H8)2 and its etherates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Young; Yang, Yu; Abelson, John R; Girolami, Gregory S

    2007-10-29

    The solid-state reaction of MgBr2 and NaB3H8 at 20 degrees C, followed by sublimation at 80 degrees C and 0.05 Torr, affords Mg(B3H8)2 as a white solid. Similar reactions with MgBr2(Et2O) and MgBr2(Me2O)1.5 afford the crystalline ether adducts Mg(B3H8)2(Et2O)2 and Mg(B3H8)2(Me2O)2, respectively. In contrast, reactions of MgBr2 with NaB3H8, the presence of excess solvent result in the formation of nonvolatile, probably ionic, magnesium compounds of the type [MgLx][B3H8]2. The adducts Mg(B3H8)2(Et2O)2 and Mg(B3H8)2(Me2O)2 are the first crystallographically characterized magnesium complexes of the B3H8- ligand; in both structures, the magnesium center adopts a distorted cis-octahedral geometry with two bidentate B3H8 groups and two Et2O ligands. Owing to their volatility, Mg(B3H8)2(Et2O)2 and Mg(B3H8)2(Me2O)2 are potential precursors for the deposition of MgB2 thin films, although preliminary efforts to employ them as chemical vapor deposition sources produce boron-rich MgBx films instead, with x approximately 7. Finally, the synthesis and structure of Cp2Mg(thf) are described: this mono-thf adduct of Cp2Mg bears two eta5-Cp groups, unlike other Lewis base adducts of Cp2Mg, which contain one eta5-Cp group and one eta1- or eta2-Cp group.

  5. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods.

  6. Compressibility and structural stability of CeN from experiment and theory. The B1B2 transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun Olsen, J.; Jørgensen, J.-E.; Gerward, L.;

    2012-01-01

    The high-pressure structural stability of CeN is investigated by experiment and theory. Experiments are carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation, using a diamond anvil cell, to a maximum pressure of 77GPa. The experimental results are in remarkably good agreement...... with ab initio calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The experimental zero pressure bulk modulus is B0=156(3)GPa, the pressure derivative being constrained to B0′=4.00. The corresponding calculated data are B0=158.1GPa...... and B0′=3.3. We report here the first experimental observation of the transformation of CeN from the ambient B1 type crystal structure to the B2 type. The onset of the transition is in the range 65–70GPa, and the relative volume change at the transition is ΔV/V=−10.9(3)%. These data compare well...

  7. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods. PMID:27467853

  8. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and B2 on hepatic functions of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Bai, F; Zhang, K; Bai, S; Peng, X; Ding, X; Li, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) on serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, and pathological lesions of broilers. In total, 1,200 Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated into 5 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 30 birds per replicate, in a 42-d experiment. The dietary treatments were as follows: control, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contaminated corn groups. Results showed that serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the 75 and 100% contaminated groups were higher than that in the control group on d 21 (P contaminated corn increased (P contaminated corn (P contaminated groups on d 21 (P contaminated corn. In conclusion, diets containing AFB(1) and AFB(2) could induce pathological lesions in the livers, slightly change the serum biochemical parameters, and damage the hepatic antioxidant functions when the inclusion of AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated corn reached or exceeded 50%.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Plantaricin Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains (IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Arief

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Indonesian lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2 were purified and characterized. Plantaricin W gene had been successfully amplified from all strains. This amplicon showed the expected 200 bp size of plantaricin W gene. This bacteriocins purified from L. plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2 were named plantaricin IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2. Purification by cation exchange chromatography increased the purity (fold and activity of plantaricins. Purity of plantaricin IIA-1A5 was increased by 3.13 fold with specific activity 13.40 AU/mg. Plantaricin IIA-1B1 had 2.98 fold purity with specific activity 5.12 AU/mg, while purity of plantaricin IIA-2B2 was 1.37 fold with specific activity 7.70 AU/mg. All plantaricins could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plantaricins could be digested by trypsin. Stability of plantaricins at 80 oC for 30 min and at 121 oC for 15 min were affected by type of plantaricin and species of pathogenic bacteria. Generally, plantaricin IIA-1A5 was better as antimicrobial agent than plantaricin IIA-1B1 and plantaricin IIA-2B2.

  10. Heat Shock Factors HsfB 1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdfl.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukesh Kumar; Wolfgang Busch; Hannah Birke; Birgit Kemmerling; Thorsten N(U)rnberger; Friedrich Sch(o)ffl

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfBl/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdfl.2a/b in mutant plants.The Pdfexpression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdfl.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdfgenes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  11. Simulation of homology models for the extracellular domains (ECD) of ErbB3, ErbB4 and the ErbB2-ErbB3 complex in their active conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Gonzalez, Juan Felipe; Ramos, Javier; Cruz, Victor L; Martínez-Salazar, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are associated with a number of biological processes and are becoming increasingly recognized as important therapeutic targets against cancer. In this work, we provide models based on homology for the extracellular domains (ECD) of ErbB3 and ErbB4 in their active conformations, including a Heregulin ligand, followed by further refinement of the models by molecular dynamics simulations at atomistic scale. We compare the results with a model built for ErbB2 based on crystallographic information and analyze the common features observed among members of the family, namely, the periscope movement of the dimerization arm and the hinge displacement of domain IV. Finally, we refine a model for the interaction of the ECDs corresponding to a ErbB2-ErbB3 heterodimer, which is widely recognized to have a high impact in cancer development.

  12. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  13. Regulation of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 steroidogenic genes by hypoxia-inducible miR-10b in H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Identification of miR-10b as a hypoxia-inducible microRNA in H295R human adrenocortical cells. • Characterization of miR-10b as a negative regulator of the human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes. • Evidence to support that CYP11B1 and and CYP11B2 mRNAs are likely targets of miR-10b. • miR-10b inhibits cortisol and aldosterone production in H295R cells. - Abstract: Although numerous studies have shown that hypoxia affects cortisol and aldosterone production in vivo, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating the steroidogenic genes of these steroid hormones are still poorly known. MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that control diverse biological processes and this study describes the identification and validation of the hypoxia-inducible microRNA, miR-10b, as a negative regulator of the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 steroidogenic genes in H295R human adrenocortical cells. Using the human TaqMan Low Density miRNA Arrays, we determined the miRNA expression patterns in H295R cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and in cells overexpressing the human HIF-1α. Computer analysis using three in silico algorithms predicted that the hypoxia-inducible miR-10b molecule targets CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs. Gene transfection studies of luciferase constructs containing the 3′-untranslated region of CYP11B1 or CYP11B2, combined with miRNA overexpression and knockdown experiments provide compelling evidence that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs are likely targets of miR-10b

  14. Expression of glutathione S-transferase B1, B2, Mu and Pi in breast cancers and their relationship to oestrogen receptor status.

    OpenAIRE

    Howie, A F; Miller, W. R.; Hawkins, R. A.; Hutchinson, A. R.; Beckett, G J

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) B1 and B2 (Alpha), Pi and Mu have been measured by radioimmunoassay in cytosols from 28 oestrogen receptor (ER) rich an 30 ER-poor breast tumours. GST B1, B2 and Pi was detected in all 58 breast tumour cytosols whilst GST Mu was found in only 28. Of the GSTs, Pi was expressed most strongly in all cytosols and the concentration was significantly higher in ER-poor tumour cytosols than in ER-rich tumours (P less than 0.01). As with GST Pi, th...

  15. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Cyclin B1, B2 and Cdc2 Kinase during Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meiotic maturation of oocytes and spermatocytes is controlled by the maturation promotion factor (MPF), a complex of the Cdc2 and cyclin B proteins. To better understand the mechanism of oocyte and spermatocyte maturation in fish, the expression of cyclin B1 (CB1), cyclin B2 (CB2) and Cdc2 kinas...

  16. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.;

    2002-01-01

    In this study different simulated meal-service systems were compared with respect to vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 retention, and cooking yield in pork roasts. Initially the roasts were cooked traditionally or sous vide. No significant differences were observed between cooking methods. Further...... processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  17. Quantification of differential ErbB1 and ErbB2 cell surface expression and spatial nanoclustering through plasmon coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Xinwei; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Reinhard, Björn M

    2012-06-13

    Cell surface receptors play ubiquitous roles in cell signaling and communication and their expression levels are important biomarkers for many diseases. Expression levels are, however, only one factor that determines the physiological activity of a receptor. For some surface receptors, their distribution on the cell surface, especially their clustering, provides additional mechanisms for regulation. To access this spatial information robust assays are required that provide detailed insight into the organization of cell surface receptors on nanometer length scales. In this manuscript, we demonstrate through combination of scattering spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and generalized multiple particle Mie theory (GMT) simulations that the density- and morphology-dependent spectral response of Au nanoparticle (NP) immunolabels bound to the epidermal growth factor receptors ErbB1 and ErbB2 encodes quantitative information of both the cell surface expression and spatial clustering of the two receptors in different unliganded in vitro cancer cell lines (SKBR3, MCF7, A431). A systematic characterization of the collective spectral responses of NPs targeted at ErbB1 and ErbB2 at various NP concentrations indicates differences in the large-scale organization of ErbB1 and ErbB2 in cell lines that overexpress these receptors. Validation experiments in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirm that NPs targeted at ErbB1 on A431 are more strongly clustered than NPs bound to ErbB2 on SKBR3 or MCF7 at overall comparable NP surface densities. This finding is consistent with the existence of larger receptor clusters for ErbB1 than for ErbB2 in the plasma membranes of the respective cells. PMID:22587495

  18. Development of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 assays utilizing homogenates of adrenal glands: Utility of monkey as a surrogate for human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Matthew A; Csengery, Alexander; Schmenk, Jennifer; Frederick, Kosea

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are associated with arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. Aldosterone is produced predominantly in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland by the enzyme aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Treatment of the above indications by decreasing production of aldosterone is thought to be of therapeutic benefit by lessening the deleterious effects of aldosterone mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor and also through so called non-genomic pathways. However, inhibition of the highly similar enzyme, CYP11B1, which is responsible for the production of cortisol, must be avoided in the development of clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors due to the resulting impairment of the cortisol-induced stress response. In efforts to assess the interactions of compounds with the CYP11B enzymes, a variety of cell-based inhibitor screening assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 have been reported. Herein we report details of assays employing both cynomolgus monkey adrenal homogenate (CAH) and human adrenal homogenate (HAH) as sources of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes. Utilizing both CAH and HAH, we have characterized the kinetics of the CYP11B1-mediated conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and the CYP11B2-mediated oxidation of corticosterone to aldosterone. Inhibition assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were subsequently developed. Based on a comparison of human and monkey amino acid sequences, kinetics data, and inhibition values derived from the HAH and CAH assays, evidence is provided in support of using cynomolgus monkey tissue-derived cell homogenates as suitable surrogates for the human enzymes.

  19. Tomato phyE Is Required for Shade Avoidance in the Absence of phyB1 and phyB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager-Lavelle, Amanda; Herrera, Leslie A.; Maloof, Julin N.

    2016-01-01

    The phytochrome (phy) family of red and far-red photoreceptors provides plants with critical information about their surrounding environment and can signal downstream developmental and physiological changes. Neighboring plants compete for limited light resources, and their presence is detected by the phytochrome photoreceptors as a reduced ratio of red: far-red light. One common response to shade is increased elongation of petioles and internodes to compete with their neighbors. While the phytochrome family, phyB in particular, has been well studied in Arabidopsis, information about the other phytochrome family members is limited, especially in sympodial crop plants such as tomato, that have a very different architecture from that of the model plant. To study the tomato phytochrome family we took advantage of several existing mutants and generated an artificial miRNA (amiRNA) line to target SlPHYE, the remaining phytochrome B subfamily member with no currently available mutant line. Here, we characterize internode elongation and shade avoidance phenotypes of the SlPHYE amiRNA line (PHYE amiRNA). In addition, higher order phytochrome subfamily B mutants were generated with the PHYE amiRNA line to investigate the role of SlphyE within the phyB subfamily. We find that the PHYE amiRNA line has no detectable phenotype on its own, however in higher order combinations with SlphyB1 and/or SlphyB2 there are notable defects in shade avoidance. Most notably, we find that the triple mutant combination of SlPHYE amiRNA, SlphyB1, and SlphyB2 has a phenotype that is much stronger than the SlphyB1 SlphyB2 double, showing constitutive shade avoidance and little to no response to shade. This indicates that SlphyE is required for the shade avoidance response in the absence of SlphyB1 and SlphyB2.

  20. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations.

  1. HPLC法测定150种中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的含量%Determination of Aflatoxin G2,G1,B2 and B1 in 150 Chinese Herbs by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧技; 高咏莉; 王淑红

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an HPLC method for the determination of aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 and B1 in 150 Chinese herbs. Method: After extracted by 70% methanol and purified by immunoafinity column, the aflatoxins were determined by fluorescence detection. Result: The calibration curves for aflatoxin G2 and B2 were linear within the range of 0. 15-6.00 ng · ml-1 , and those for aflatoxin G1 and B1 were linear within the range of 0. 5-20.00 ng · ml-1 . The recoveries were within the range of 85. 6% -92. 0% . Conclusion : The method is reliable, accurate and specific, and can be used in the determination of aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 and B1.%目的:建立了HPLC法测定150种中药材中的黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1含量.方法:样品经70% 甲醇提取、免疫亲和色谱柱净化后,用HPLC-柱后衍生-荧光检测器测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2在0.15~6.00 ng·ml-1范围内,黄曲霉毒素G1、B1在0.5~20.00 ng·ml-1范围内线性关系良好.回收率为85.6%~92.0%.结论:本法操作简便,结果准确、重复性好,可用于中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的测定.

  2. Expression of protooncogene c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 in human gliomas%原癌基因c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2在人脑胶质瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄海宁; 章翔; 张志文; 步星耀; 胡佩臻; 王伯沄

    1999-01-01

    目的:探讨原癌基因c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2表达与人脑胶质瘤发生发展的关系. 方法:采用免疫组化SABC法检测52例人脑胶质瘤, 2株人脑胶质瘤细胞系及8例正常人脑组织中c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2蛋白的表达. 结果:c-erbB-1蛋白在Ⅰ~Ⅳ级胶质瘤组织中阳性率分别为50.0%,68.8%,81.8%和92.3%, 低恶性度(Ⅰ~Ⅱ级)胶质瘤(60.7%)和高恶性度(Ⅲ~Ⅳ级)胶质瘤(87.5%)间阳性率差异显著(P<0.05);c-erbB-2蛋白在Ⅰ~Ⅳ级胶质瘤组织中阳性率分别为75.0%,87.5%,90.9%和92.3%,低恶性度胶质瘤(82.1%)和高恶性度胶质瘤(91.7%)间阳性率无显著差别(P>0.05);c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2表达强度均随胶质瘤恶性程度增高而增强,在高恶性度和低恶性度胶质瘤间差异均极显著(P<0.01);c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2在2株人脑胶质瘤细胞系中均有表达,在8例正常人脑组织中均无表达;c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2二者表达密切相关(P<0.05). 结论:c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2在人脑胶质瘤中普遍表达,并随胶质瘤恶性程度增高而表达增强,c-erbB-1和c-erbB-2共表达可能是人脑胶质瘤发生发展过程中的重要事件.

  3. Structural Elucidation and Toxicity Assessment of Degraded Products of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aqueous Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L−1 and AFB2; 50 μg L−1) by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (P Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27064492

  4. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  5. Wave-of-Advance Models of the Diffusion of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup R1b1b2 in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Per Sjödin; Olivier François

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not the spread of agriculture in Europe was accompanied by movements of people is a long-standing question in archeology and anthropology, which has been frequently addressed with the help of population genetic data. Estimates on dates of expansion and geographic origins obtained from genetic data are however sensitive to the calibration of mutation rates and to the mathematical models used to perform inference. For instance, recent data on the Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2 (M269)...

  6. Assessment of fumonisins B1 and B2 levels in commercial maize-based food products by liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection and postcolumn chemical derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Magro, Sonia; Campaniello, Maria; Nardiello, Donatella; Muscarella, Marilena

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of the fumonisins B(1) and B(2) in maize-based food products marketed in Italy was examined. A simply and reliable chromatographic method with fluorimetric detection and postcolumn o-phtalaldehyde derivatization was used for a monitoring of 100 samples (8 flours, 21 corn-meal, 16 snacks, 7 maize samples, 13 gluten-free products, and 35 corn-flakes) bought in local supermarkets during the years 2008 and 2009. The presence of both fumonisins B(1) and B(2), at a concentration higher than 15 μg/kg, was observed in all samples of corn-meal and maize-flour, in 75% of snacks, in 57% of maize samples, in 54% of gluten-free products, and in 29% of corn-flakes. A total of 7 samples including 4 corn-meals, 2 maize-flours, and 1 maize showed a value exceeding the maximum level fixed in the Regulation 1126/2007/EC; no positive sample was observed in corn-flakes, snacks, and gluten-free foods. Fumonisins contamination, on the whole range of maize-based food products analyzed, emphasizes the need of improve agricultural practices, and increase official control and monitoring studies. PMID:21535723

  7. Rapid analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Wen; Sun, Dai-Li; Ruan, Chun-Qiang; Zhang, He; Liu, Cheng-Lan

    2014-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid method is presented for the analysis of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with LC and fluorescence detection. After extraction of the rice samples with a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid, mycotoxins were rapidly partitioned into a small volume of organic solvent (chloroform) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The three mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by LC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization for aflatoxin B1 and B2. Parameters affecting both extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedures, including the extraction solvent, the type and volume of extractant, the volume of dispersive solvent, the addition of salt, the pH and the extraction time, were optimized. The optimized protocol provided an enrichment factor of approximately 1.25 and with detection of limits (0.06-0.5 μg/kg) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulations for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The mean recovery of three mycotoxins ranged from 82.9-112%, with a RSD less than 7.9% in all cases. The method was successfully applied to measure mycotoxins in commercial rice samples collected from local supermarkets in China.

  8. Rapid analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Wen; Sun, Dai-Li; Ruan, Chun-Qiang; Zhang, He; Liu, Cheng-Lan

    2014-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid method is presented for the analysis of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with LC and fluorescence detection. After extraction of the rice samples with a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid, mycotoxins were rapidly partitioned into a small volume of organic solvent (chloroform) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The three mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by LC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization for aflatoxin B1 and B2. Parameters affecting both extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedures, including the extraction solvent, the type and volume of extractant, the volume of dispersive solvent, the addition of salt, the pH and the extraction time, were optimized. The optimized protocol provided an enrichment factor of approximately 1.25 and with detection of limits (0.06-0.5 μg/kg) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulations for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The mean recovery of three mycotoxins ranged from 82.9-112%, with a RSD less than 7.9% in all cases. The method was successfully applied to measure mycotoxins in commercial rice samples collected from local supermarkets in China. PMID:24243826

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the pyrB1 and pyrB2 genes encoding aspartate transcarbamoylase in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, C L; Slocum, R D

    1994-05-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding two different pea (Pisum sativum L.) aspartate transcarbamoylases (ATCases) by complementation of an Escherichia coli delta pyrB mutant. The two cDNAs, designated pyrB1 and pyrB2, encode polypeptides of 386 and 385 amino acid residues, respectively, both of which exhibit typical chloroplast transit peptide sequences. Wheat germ ATCase antibody recognizes a 36.5-kD polypeptide in pea leaf and root tissues that is similar in size to other plant ATCase polypeptides and to the catalytic polypeptides of bacterial ATCases. Northern analyses indicate that the pyrB1 and pyrB2 transcripts are 1.6 kb in size and are differentially expressed in pea tissues. The small transcript size and data from biochemical studies indicate that plant ATCases are simple homotrimers of 36- to 37-kD catalytic subunits, rather than part of a multifunctional enzyme containing glutamine-dependent carbamoylphosphate synthetase and dihydroorotase activities, as is seen in other eukaryotes. In the pea ATCases, the carbamoylphosphate- and aspartate-binding domains are highly homologous to those of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic ATCases and critical active-site residues are completely conserved. The pea ATCases also exhibit a putative pyrimidine-binding site, consistent with the known allosteric regulation of plant ATCases by UMP in vitro. PMID:8029359

  10. B1 B2 structural phase transition and elastic properties of UX (X = S, Se, and Te) compounds at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Kaurav, N.; Kinge, R.; Singh, R. K.

    2007-06-01

    Pressure induced structural phase transformation and mechanical properties of NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in uranium monochalcogenides (UX; X = S, Se, and Te) are presented. An effective interionic interaction potential is constructed, consisting of the long-range Coulomb and the Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended up to the second-neighbour ions and the van der Waals (vdW) interaction. Particular attention is devoted to evaluate the vdW coefficients following the Slater-Kirkwood variational method, as both the ions are polarizable. Our calculated results have revealed reasonably good agreement with the available experimental data on the phase transition pressures (Pt = 81, 21, 13 GPa) and the elastic properties of UX (X = S, Se, and Te). The equation of state curves (plotted between V (P)/V (0) and pressure) for both the NaCl-type (B1) and CsCl-type (B2) structures obtained by us are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated values of the volume collapses (ΔV (P)/V (0)) are also closer to their observed data. The variations of the second- and third-order elastic constants with pressure have followed systematic trends, which are almost identical to those exhibited by the measured and observed data in other compounds of the NaCl-type structure family.

  11. Rapid Determination of Aflatoxin B1B2,G1,G2 in wine with HPLC and Immunoaffinity Column%免疫亲和柱HPLC荧光检测酒中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佐卿; 谢东华; 孙大为; 康继韬; 俞雪钧

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity technology was used for specific method of extracting and purging aflatoxin from samples directly. After evaporating the extract to dryness, the residue were derived and detected by HPLC fluorescence detector. The average recoveries (n=10) are G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5% respectively;the RSD of ten determination are G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77% respectively; in the rang of 25—1250pg the analytical response is linear, the correlation coefficients are G1: r =0.9990 ,B1: r=0.9994,G2: r=0.9995,B2 :r=0.9992 respectively;the limit of determination was 6.25pg .%采用单克隆抗体免疫亲和技术作为直接从样品中分离提纯黄曲霉毒素的特效手段,提取液挥发干后,经衍生用HPLC荧光检测器测定。本法在样品中添加2.5μg /kg黄曲霉毒素时进行10次测定,平均回收率分别为G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5%;2.5μg /kg 10次测定的精密度分别为:G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77%,本方法在25—1250pg 范围内呈线性,相关系数分别为G1: r =0.9990 、 B1: r=0.9994、 G2: r=0.9995、 B2 : r=0.9992。测定的最低检出限为6.25pg。

  12. Determination of Vitamin B1,B2,B6 and B12 in Qingda Vitamin B Capsules by HPLC%庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1B2、B6和B12的HPLC法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉梅; 郭澄

    2008-01-01

    建立HPLC法测定庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1B2、B6和B12的含量.采用C18柱,乙腈-10mmol/L磷酸二氢钾(pH 3.2)为流动相,梯度洗脱,检测波长280nm.维生素B1B2、B6和B12分别在50~150、20~60、20~60和0.5~1.5μg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为101.9%、98.1%、99.6%和99.4%.

  13. A dual role of EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling on migrating striatal and cortical neurons originating in the preoptic area: should I stay or go away ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eRudolph

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development the preoptic area (POA gives rise to two populations of neurons which are generated at the same time, cortical interneurons and striatal cells. POA-derived cortical interneurons take a superficial path and avoid the developing striatum when they migrate to their target region. We found that EphB1, which is expressed in the striatal anlage, prevents cortical interneurons from entering the striatum via ephrin-B3 reverse signaling. In contrast, for striatal neurons which also express ephrin-B3, EphB1 acts as a stop signal. This dual role of EphB1 is due to differences in ephrin-B3 reverse signaling cascades. For striatal neurons, binding of EphB1 to ephrin-B3 reduces endogenously high levels of pSrc and pFAK, which then causes the cells to stop migration. In contrast, in cortical interneurons EphB1-ephrin-B3 reverse signaling leads to phosphorylation of Src and FAK which then mediates repulsion. Consistent with these in vitro findings, in an ephrin-B3 knockout mouse line, we discovered misrouted cortical interneurons in the striatum and an over-migration of striatal neurons in their target region. Thus, EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling has a different impact on two sets of neurons which are generated at the same time and place: it can act as a repulsive cue for migrating neurons or it can terminate neuronal migration, a novel role of the Eph/ephrin system.

  14. 弛豫铁电体Pb(B_1B_2)O_3和钛酸铅固溶体的相稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗豪甦; 许桂生; 徐海清; 齐振一; 仲维卓; 殷之文

    2000-01-01

    弛豫铁电体Pb(B1B2 )O3 和PbTiO3 能够形成具有复合钙钛矿结构的二元固溶体Pb(B1B2 )O3 PbTiO3 。到目前为止 ,已经发现了多种这类二元固溶体单晶 (如PMN PT、PZN PT和PSN PT等 )不仅具有良好的介电性能 ,而且具有良好的压电性能。和普通压电陶瓷PZT相比较 ,弛豫铁电单晶的纵向机电耦合系数k3 3 要大得多 ,可以达到 90 %以上。由于缺少这类二元固溶体单晶的高温相图 ,这类单晶的生长比较困难。我们通过对几种具有复合钙钛矿结构的二元固溶体体系 ,进行差热分析 (DTA)和热重分析 (TG) ,分析了固溶体的相关系和相稳定性。并用粉末X射线衍射谱 (XRD)分析了固溶体的结构 ,以便确定相应的单晶生长方法。研究结果表明 ,A(B1B2 )O3 PbTiO3 二元固溶体体系的结果比较复杂 ,体系中除了具有钙钛结构的铁电相之外 ,还有多种焦绿石相 ,而且不同的弛豫铁电体形成的固溶体其相稳定性的差异较大。其中PMN PT固溶体的相稳定性较高。研究结果表明 ,PMN PT固溶体的液相线和固相线比较接近 ,晶体生长中的分凝现象较小 ,可以看作为同成分熔化的化合物 ,故可...

  15. HPLC法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1B2、B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Compound Vitamin B Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀梅; 祖述春

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法 色谱柱:Wondasil C18色谱柱,流动相为醋酸-醋酸钠缓冲液(pH 4.5)-甲醇(65∶35),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为270 nm.结果 维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6浓度分别在0.6 μg·mL-1~0.75 mg·mL-1、0.3 μg·mL-1~0.62 mg·mL-1、80~415 μg·mL1范围内与峰面积线性关系良好.结论 该方法简便、快速、准确可靠,可用于复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量测定.

  16. Nanosecond ligand migration and functional protein relaxation in ba3 oxidoreductase: Structures of the B0, B1 and B2 intermediate states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Antonis; Soulimane, Tewfik; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2016-09-01

    Nanosecond time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy (nTRS (2) -FTIR) has been applied to literally probe the active site of the carbon monoxide (CO)-bound thermophilic ba3 heme-copper oxidoreductase as it executes its function. The nTRS (2) - snapshots of the photolysed heme a3 Fe-CO/CuB species captured a "transition state" whose side chains prevent the photolysed CO to enter the docking cavity. There are three sets of ba3 photoproduct bands of docked CO with different orientation exhibiting different kinetics. The trajectories of the "docked" CO at 2122, 2129 and 2137cm(-1) is referred to in the literature as B2, B1 and B0 intermediate states, respectively. The present data provided direct evidence for the role of water in controlling ligand orientation in an intracavity protein environment. PMID:27207588

  17. Colloidal gold based immuno chromatographic strip for the simple and sensitive determination of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in corn and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple and fast immuno chromatographic test strip for the simultaneous quantitation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 in corn and rice. The strip contains three pads (sample, conjugate, and absorbing pad) and uses the respective polyclonal antibodies immobilized on gold nanoparticles. Matrix interferences were minimized by application of fugacity theory. Clean-up of samples and pre-treatment of strip pads is not required. The visual detection limit is 0.1 ng mL−1, and the process can be completed within 5 min. Out of 113 natural samples, 16 rice and 27 corn samples (38% in total) were aflatoxin positive and the test results were confirmed by HPLC. The strip shows, however, high cross reactivity to aflatoxins G1, G2, and M1. We consider this strip to possess wide applicability because of its ease of use, sensitivity, stability, and low cost. (author)

  18. 75 FR 79988 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... ] Belleville springs (cup springs) and the self-locking nut, and aligning the shaft damping system of the APC... require disassembling the damping system, replacing the cup springs and self-locking nut, and reassembling... ASBs that one nut (P/N 150SG1071, $36.12) and two springs (P/N 150SG1093, $29.14 each) are required...

  19. 76 FR 28637 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... United States. These ASBs specify disassembly of the damping system, replacing the Belleville springs (cup springs) and the self-locking nut, and aligning the shaft damping system of the APC starter.... That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 21, 2010 (75 FR 79988). That NPRM...

  20. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the entire maximum inspiration and the entire maximum forced expiration. The instrument shall, in... instructed to expire completely, momentarily hold his breath, place the mouthpiece in his mouth and close the.... Inspiration and expiration shall be checked visually for reproducibility. The effort shall be...

  1. 中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1B2,G1,G2测定方法研究%Determination Method of Aflatoxins B1,B2,G1,G2 in Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1B2,G1,G2的高效液相色谱分离-串联三重四级杆质谱分析(HPLC-MS/MS)法。方法中药材样本经70%甲醇溶液提取,并采用免疫亲和柱净化和浓缩后,以HPLC-MS/MS对4个黄曲霉毒素的含量进行测定。结果黄曲霉毒素G2和B2进样量在0.3~30 pg、黄曲霉毒素G1和B1进样量在1~100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系( r﹥0.9990),加样回收率为75.33%~92.29%。结论该法速度快、操作简便、灵敏度高、重复性好,适用于中药材中霉菌毒素的检测。%Objective To establish a HPLC combined with electro spray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS)method for determining aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Chinese medicinal herbs. Methods After extraction by 70% methanol and purification and concentration by immunoaffinity column in the Chinese medicinal herb sample,the contents of aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Results The linear range was 0. 3-30 pg for aflatoxins G2 and B2,1-100 pg for aflatox-ins G1 and B1 ( r ﹥ 0. 999 0 ) . The recovery rate was 75. 33% -92. 29%. Conclusion The method is accurate,simple to operate,highly sensitive,better reproducible and suitable for the aflatoxins determination of Chinese medicinal herbs.

  2. Determination Method of Aflatoxins B1,B2,G1,G2 in Chinese Medicinal Herbs%中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1B2,G1,G2测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a HPLC combined with electro spray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS)method for determining aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Chinese medicinal herbs. Methods After extraction by 70% methanol and purification and concentration by immunoaffinity column in the Chinese medicinal herb sample,the contents of aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Results The linear range was 0. 3-30 pg for aflatoxins G2 and B2,1-100 pg for aflatox-ins G1 and B1 ( r ﹥ 0. 999 0 ) . The recovery rate was 75. 33% -92. 29%. Conclusion The method is accurate,simple to operate,highly sensitive,better reproducible and suitable for the aflatoxins determination of Chinese medicinal herbs.%目的:建立测定中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1B2,G1,G2的高效液相色谱分离-串联三重四级杆质谱分析(HPLC-MS/MS)法。方法中药材样本经70%甲醇溶液提取,并采用免疫亲和柱净化和浓缩后,以HPLC-MS/MS对4个黄曲霉毒素的含量进行测定。结果黄曲霉毒素G2和B2进样量在0.3~30 pg、黄曲霉毒素G1和B1进样量在1~100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系( r﹥0.9990),加样回收率为75.33%~92.29%。结论该法速度快、操作简便、灵敏度高、重复性好,适用于中药材中霉菌毒素的检测。

  3. Development of a microwave-assisted-extraction-based method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 in grains and grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Hong

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as a pretreatment technique for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), G(1), B(2), and G(2) in grains and grain products. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, and time, were identified to be acetonitrile as the extraction solvent at 80 °C with 15 min of MAE. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid and were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. A Sep-Pak cartridge was chosen over Oasis HLB and Bond Elut cartridges. By the use of aflatoxin M(1) as an internal standard, relative recoveries of the aflatoxins ranged from 90.7 to 105.7 % for corn and from 88.1 to 103.4 % for wheat, with relative standard deviations between 2.5 and 8.7 %. A total of 36 samples from local markets were analyzed, and aflatoxin B(1) was found to be the predominant toxin, with concentrations ranging from 0.42 to 3.41 μg/kg. PMID:23314480

  4. HPLC柱后衍生同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的探讨%Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新丽; 张玉黔

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To develop a high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization method for simultaneous determination of Aflatoxins B1 ,B2,G1 ,G2. Methods:The extracted samples were separated by HPLC column, conducted reaction with iodine solution in postcolumn derivatization device, finally detected by fluorescence detector. Results; The method has a limit of detection of 0.03 |xg/kg for aflatoxins B1 ,G2, 0.01 u,g/kg for aflatoxin B2 and 0.05 ug/kg for aflatoxin G,. Conclusion:This method was sensitive, accurate, simple and specific, which can be applied for the determination of aflatoxins B,, B2,G1 ,G2.%目的:建立黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的高效液相色谱柱后衍生检测方法.方法:样品通过高效液相色谱柱分离后,进入柱后衍生装置与碘溶液发生反应,最后进入荧光检测器进行检测.结果:该方法的检出限AFB1、AFG2为0.03 μg/kg、AFB2为0.01 μg/kg、AFG1为0.05 μg/kg.结论:方法灵敏度高,准确度好,操作简单,实用性强,可用于黄曲霉毒素的检测.

  5. Study on the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse%三氯乙烯致敏小鼠肾脏免疫损伤中缓激肽及其受体B1R和B2R的表达水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 张家祥; 李树龙; 查晚生; 王峰; 朱启星

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse and discuss the pathogenesis of Dermatitis Medicamentosa-like of TCE (ODMLT).Methods On the first days,intradermal injection by 50% TCE and the amount of FCA mixture 100μl for initial sensitization;on 4,7,10 days,painted abdominal skin by 100 μl 50% TCE for three sensitization,on 17,19 days,painted on the back skin by 100 μl 30% TCE for initial excitation and the last challenge;24 h before each challenge,PKSI-527+TCE group received intraperitoneal injection by inhibitor PKSI-527 (50 mg/kg);solvent control group treat without TCE and sensitization and excitation reagent the same proportion of olive oil and acetone mixture,blank control group without any treatment.Before killing the mouse,renal weight and body weight were recorded.The renals and plasma were separated at 24 h,48 h,72 h and 7 d after the last challenge and observed pathological of the renals.Expression of B1R and B2R in renal were examined by immunofluorescence technique.Plasma were examined by ELISA for BK.Results The renal pathological examination revealed the apparent damage of TCE sensitized mice which compared to solvent control group showed obvious cellular infiltration,vacuolar degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells.The renal damage of PKSI-527+TCE-sensitized groups which compared to the corresponding point of TCE-sensitized groups showed significantly reduced.The expression of BK in 24 h,48 h and 72 h TCE-sensitized groups were significant higher than solvent control group and related TCE non-sensitized groups (P<0.05) and 72 h point compared to the corresponding point of PKSI-527+TCE group was also increased,,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).The expression levels of B1R and B2R in the kidney in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 7 d TCE-sensitized groups were obviously higher than solvent control group and related TCE non

  6. 类风湿关节炎患者造血干/祖细胞核因子ΚB1、ΚB2基因表达的研究%The expression of NFΚB1 and NFΚB2 genes in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明明; 钱龙; 汪国生; 厉小梅; 李向培

    2011-01-01

    This study aim to investigate the expression levels of NFkB1 and NFkB2 genes in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell( HSC/HPC )derived from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We collected totally clinical date of 24 RA patients and 9 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 50 ml of whole blood were separated by gradient centrifugation and CD34+ cells were purified using an MACS magnetic separation device. Total RNA of CD34+ cell was extracted and transcripted into cDNA. SYBR Green I dye based real-time quantitative PCR method was used to compare the expression of NFkB1 and NFkB2 in patients and controls, then the correlation with clinical data was analyzed. The expression levels of NFkB1 were [2.14 (0.68-7.09)] and [6.57 (1.08-76.71)] in normal controls and RA patients respectively (P = 0.013). NFkB2 mRNA expression was no significant difference between normal controls and RA patients. However, the expression of NFkB1 and NFkB2 mRNA was no significant difference in CD34 + HSC /HPC RA patients with or without methotrexate (MTX) treatment, and were not correlated with DAS28, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), etc. The results suggest that the expression of NFkB1 gene in HSC/HPC of RA patients is higher than that from normal controls, which may be an important defect in CD34+ HSC/HPC RA patients.%检测类风湿关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)患者外周血CD34+造血干细胞/祖细胞(hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell,HSC/HPC)的核因子(nuclear factor ΚB,NFΚB)ΚB1、ΚB2信号分子的基因表达水平,了解NFΚB信号途径分子基因表达的异常与临床指标的关联性.方法收集24例RA患者,9例正常对照组,分别抽取50 ml抗凝外周血,淋巴细胞分离液分离单个核细胞,免疫磁珠分选CD34+ HSC/HPC,Trizol法提取总RNA,逆转录为cDNA,实时荧光定量聚合酶反应方法检测患者组和对照组NFΚB1、NFΚB2 mRNA表达水平的差异,并分析RA患者组甲氨蝶

  7. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in food by UPLC%UPLC同时测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘汾; 李可; 周海涛; 刘奋; 杨梅; 曾胜波; 戴京晶

    2012-01-01

    Objective; A simple and rapid method for determination of aflatoxin B, ,B2 ,G, and G2 content in food by UPLC were developed. Methods; After extraction with MeOH - H2O,the extracts of food homogenization was loaded on the I AC for purification and determined by UPLC. Results; The recoveries of samples were in the range of 75.0% -90.4% ,the RSD was below 5% . The limit of quantification for aflatoxin B, was 0. 2 μg/kg,the limit of quantification for aflatoxin B2 was 0.2 μg/kg, the limit of quantification for aflatoxin G, was 0.4 μg/kg, the limit of quantification for aflatoxin G2 was 0.2 μg/kg. Conclusion; Determination of aflatoxins B, ,B2 ,G,and G2 content in food by immune affinity column was a rapid,simple and exact method.%目的:建立免疫亲和柱超高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1和G2含量的方法.方法:试样经过甲醇-水提取、稀释后经过免疫亲和柱层析净化,应用超高液相色谱法检测.结果:试验结果表明:空白样品分别按照0.2 μg/kg、0.8μg/kg、2.0μg/kg添加黄曲霉毒素混合标准,回收率为75.0%~90.4%,精密度<5%,黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1和G2的检测灵敏度分别为0.2μg/kg,0.2 μg/kg,0.4 μg/kg,0.2 μg/kg.结论:免疫亲和柱净化超高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2含量,是一种简单、快速和准确的方法.

  8. PERBANDINGAN ANALISIS KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI ELUASI GRADIEN DENGAN ISOKRATIK PADA PENENTUAN VITAMIN B1, B2 DAN B6 DALAM SEDIAAN SIRUP MULTIVITAMIN SECARA SIMULTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Kasih Ariani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Vitamin B terutama B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, dan B6 (Piridoksin sering terkandung dalam sirup multivitamin sehingga diperlukan analisis untuk mendeteksi secara simultan dalam campuran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membandingkan analisis vitamin B1, B2, dan B6 dalam sirup multivitamin secara simultan dengan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi eluasi gradien dan isokratik, menggunakan kolom C18, panjang 15 cm, dan dengan pelarut campuran metanol: air : asam asetat glasial (10:90:1. Fase gerak adalah campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dalam asam asetat glasial 0,5% dengan metanol yang dicampur secara gradien. Kondisi optimum metode gradien diperoleh pada laju alir 2,0 mL/menit, panjang gelombang 280 nm dengan waktu retensi 3,441 menit untuk piridoksin; 4,985 menit untuk riboflavin dan 7,393 menit untuk tiamin dengan resolusi 2,272 antara riboflavin dan piridoksin. Hasil uji presisi riboflavin dan piridoksin menggunakan metode isokratik (campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dengan metanol dengan perbandingan 70 : 30 masing-masing dengan RSD adalah 1,377 dan 1,376 sedangkan metode gradien adalah 0,693 dan 0,825. Uji linearitas ketiga vitamin menggunakan dua metode isokratik dan gradien memenuhi persyaratan dengan R2 = 0,999. Kata kunci : Vitamin B, sirup multivitamin, kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to compare the simultaneous analytical results of B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, and B6 (Piridoxin in multivitamin syrup between gradient and isocratic methods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The separation was performed on 15 cm length of C18 column and a mixture of methanol, water and glacial acetate acid with ratio of 10:90:1 was used as solvent. The eluent was a mixture of methanol and 5 mM sodium hexane sulfonate in 0.5% glacial acetate acid and gradually mixed using 2 different pumps. The optimal analytical conditions for gradient method were found to be 2,0 mL/min of flow rate and

  9. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  10. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2), ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in traditional Chinese medicines by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Runsheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wenli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we describe a rapid, simple, and costeffective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS–MS) method for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in 25 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The method is based on single extraction with 84:16 (v/v) acetonitrile–water then analysis of the diluted crude extract without further clean-up. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column, with a mobile phase gradient prepared from aqueous 4 mmol L−1 ammonium acetate–0.1 % formic acid and methanol. Quantification of the analytes was by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive-ionization mode. Special focus was on investigating and reducing matrix effects to improve accuracy. The established method was validated by determination of linearity (r>0.995), sensitivity (limits of quantification 1.6–25.0 ng L−1), apparent recovery (84.8–110.6 %), extraction recovery (83.6–106.1 %), and precision (relative standard deviation ≤9.9 %) for two representative TCMs, Semen Armeniacae Amarae and Radix Pseudostellariae. The applicability of the method to TCMs other than these was further investigated, and 23 other TCMs with acceptable matrix effects (80.2–118.6 %) were screened. The validated method was finally used to assess mycotoxin contamination of 244 samples of 25 TCMs collected from local hospitals and TCM pharmacies. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 5.3 % of the samples. Sterigmatocystin, the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminant, was present in 26.2 % of the samples tested; this has not been reported previously. The results of this work imply greater attention should be devoted to evaluation of the potential hazard caused by sterigmatocystin in TCMs.

  11. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2), ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in traditional Chinese medicines by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Runsheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wenli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we describe a rapid, simple, and costeffective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS–MS) method for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in 25 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The method is based on single extraction with 84:16 (v/v) acetonitrile–water then analysis of the diluted crude extract without further clean-up. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column, with a mobile phase gradient prepared from aqueous 4 mmol L−1 ammonium acetate–0.1 % formic acid and methanol. Quantification of the analytes was by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive-ionization mode. Special focus was on investigating and reducing matrix effects to improve accuracy. The established method was validated by determination of linearity (r>0.995), sensitivity (limits of quantification 1.6–25.0 ng L−1), apparent recovery (84.8–110.6 %), extraction recovery (83.6–106.1 %), and precision (relative standard deviation ≤9.9 %) for two representative TCMs, Semen Armeniacae Amarae and Radix Pseudostellariae. The applicability of the method to TCMs other than these was further investigated, and 23 other TCMs with acceptable matrix effects (80.2–118.6 %) were screened. The validated method was finally used to assess mycotoxin contamination of 244 samples of 25 TCMs collected from local hospitals and TCM pharmacies. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 5.3 % of the samples. Sterigmatocystin, the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminant, was present in 26.2 % of the samples tested; this has not been reported previously. The results of this work imply greater attention should be devoted to evaluation of the potential hazard caused by sterigmatocystin in TCMs. PMID:24658469

  12. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定水产品中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1%Determination of Aflatoxin G2、G1、B2B1 in Aquatic Products with HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫彩娜; 杨曦; 黄智成

    2011-01-01

    The method for determining aflatoxin G2,G1,B2,and B1 by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS) was developed.The samples were extracted by 84% methanol,degreased with hexane and purified with HLB solid-phase extraction column.In addition,with electrospray ionization in positive mode,the samples was monitored with multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) and quantified them with external standard method.For the 4 aflatoxins,it showed good linear regression coeffcient in the standard curve(all0.99),the limits of detection for aflatoxin G1,B1 were 0.5 μg/kg,and the limits of detection for aflatoxin G2,B2 were 0.3 μg/kg.The average recovery was 56%~80%,and the relative standard deviation was 1.58%~14.4%.The method,was sensitive and reliable,and can be applied for the determination of aflatoxins in aquatic products.%建立了用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法(HPLC-MS/MS)测定水产品中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1残留量的方法。84%甲醇水溶液提取水产品中4种黄曲霉毒素,正己烷脱脂,HLB固相萃取柱净化。采用电喷雾电离,正离子扫描,选择多反应检测模式(MRM)监测,外标法定量。该法对4种黄曲霉毒素标准曲线的线性回归系数均在0.99以上,黄曲霉毒素G1、B1方法定量限为0.5μg/kg,G2、B2方法定量限为0.3μg/kg。4种黄曲霉毒素的回收率为56%~80%,相对标准偏差1.58%~14.4%。该法灵敏,结果可靠,可用于水产品中黄曲霉毒素的测定。

  13. Determination of Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, and B1 in Yushangling Capsules by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定愈伤灵胶囊中黄曲霉毒素 G2,G1,B2B1含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正锋; 张毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定愈伤灵胶囊中黄曲霉毒素 G2,G1,B2B1含量的高效液相色谱(HPLC)柱后光化学衍生法。方法样品经70%甲醇提取,免疫亲和柱净化,HPLC 柱后光化学衍生,荧光检测器定量,并用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱(UPLC - MS / MS)法对阳性样品进行确认。结果黄曲霉毒素 G2,G1,B2B1含量线性范围分别是3.54~35.40 pg,7.08~70.80 pg,2.10~21.00 pg,6.24~62.40 pg( r >0.999),回收率均在70%~120%。结论该法简便、灵敏、结果准确,适用于愈伤灵胶囊中黄曲霉毒素的检测。%Objective To establish a method for determination of aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in Yushangling capsules by HPLC. Methods The samples were extracted with 70% methanol and purified with immunoaffinity column, then analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence de-tection. The positive samples were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Results Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 showed a good linear relationship at a range of 3. 54 - 35. 40 pg, 7. 08 - 70. 80 pg, 2. 10 - 21. 00 pg, 6. 24 - 62. 40 pg ( r > 0. 999) . The recoveries were between 70% - 120% . Conclusion The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, which is suitable for determination of four aflatoxins in Yushangling Capsules.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Tobacco by HPLC-FLD Pre-column Derivatization Method%HPLC-FLD柱前衍生法同时测定烟草中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1和G2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康; 李韵; 肖少红

    2015-01-01

    通过溶剂萃取、免疫亲和柱纯化富集、三氟乙酸柱前衍生、高效液相色谱(HPLC)法分离及荧光检测器检测,建立了同时测定烟草及烟草制品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1和G2的免疫亲和检测方法.结果表明:①该方法可在20 min内完成测定,4种目标物能够得到很好的分离,线性关系良好,相关系数r值均大于0.99.②方法的回收率为85%~117%,相对标准偏差为0.2%~9.4%(n=6),其中B1的检出限和定量限分别为0.10和0.34μg/kg.%An immunoaffinity detection method for simultaneously determining the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in tobacco and tobacco products was developed via solvent extraction of sample, purifying and concentrating on immunoaffinity column, pre-column derivatization by trifluoroacetic acid, separation by HPLC, and detection by fluorescence detector. The results showed that: 1) The determination could be completed within 20 minutes, the four target aflatoxins were well separated and exhibited good linear relations with correlation coefficients r > 0.99. 2) The recoveries of the method ranged from 85% to 117%with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.2%-9.4% (n=6), and the limits of detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 were 0.10 and 0.34 μg/kg, respectively.

  15. A Quick Assay for the Quantitation of Fumonisin B1 and B2 in Maize Samples by Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Victor A

    2016-05-01

    A quick and effective extraction of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in corn samples is described. The samples were extracted with an 80% acetonitrile-water solution, followed by a second extraction using an 80% methanol-water solution. The extract was then subjected to an immunoaffinity column for cleanup. Quantitation was then obtained by LC/MS. LC/MS parameters were optimized resulting in a 3 min run time. Corn certified reference materials (CRMs) at three different levels were analyzed. For the lowest level, a corn CRM sample containing 0.6 ppm of FB1 and 0.1 ppm of FB2 was analyzed. For the midlevel, analysis of a corn CRM sample containing 1.2 ppm FB1 and 0.3 ppm FB2 was conducted. A sample containing 3.6 ppm FB1 and 0.8 ppm FB2 was also analyzed. All recoveries were calculated using an external standard curve. Recoveries from all CRM samples ranged from 70 to 110%. Confirmation for both analytes in the sample extracts at each level was accomplished by comparing MS/MS spectra of the samples against those of the standards. This method provides a rapid, specific, robust, and easily controlled assay for the analysis of fumonisin in corn samples. PMID:27297840

  16. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  17. Pathological changes in the immune organs of broiler chickens fed on corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Zhang, Keying; Fang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underlying basis for aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression in the broiler chicken by detecting pathological lesions and apoptosis in thymus, bursa of Fabricius (BF) and spleen. COBB500™ male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to two groups. The control group was fed on a basal corn-based diet while the other group (the AFB group) was fed on a similar diet but the corn was naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Histopathological examination revealed that in the AFB group there was more nuclear debris in the three immune organs and obvious congestion of red pulp in the spleen, when compared with the control group. Ultrastructural examination showed lesions in the lymphocytes and reticulocytes of the three immune organs, the mucosal epithelium of the BF and the plasmocytes of the spleen. Increased apoptotic cells and an impaired membrane system (including nuclear membrane, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum [ER]) could be observed in the three immune organs in birds of the AFB group. In the plasmocytes, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum contained electron-dense matrix. By flow cytometry, the percentages of apoptosis were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the three organs of the AFB group than those of the control group. These observations suggested that the lesions of the immune organs were related to the immunosuppression, and that the apoptosis might be initiated by the mitochondrial pathway and ER chaperone pathway.

  18. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Grío, Sergio José; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Romero-González, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed to determine aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed and pet foods by UHPLC-MS/MS. Because the complexity of the evaluated matrices, the proposed method is based on sonication extraction using an ACN/water mixture (80:20 v/v) followed by a clean-up step utilising C(18) as sorbent. Performance parameters of the method were evaluated, including linearity, trueness, precision and LOQ. Good linearity was found for all mycotoxins, with determination coefficients higher than 0.99 in the range considered, using matrix-matched calibration for quantification purposes. Recoveries ranged from 84 to 113%, with RSD lower than 20%, whereas LOQs were 5 microg/kg for the assayed mycotoxins. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of 19 real samples, detecting aflatoxin G2 in two samples at 13 and 17 microg/kg respectively, whereas the other mycotoxins were detected at trace levels (

  19. Structural Elucidation and Toxicity Assessment of Degraded Products of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aqueous Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e., 92.8 and 91.9% respectively. However, T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  20. Structural elucidation and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by aqueous extracts of Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha eIram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1 by In Vitro and In Vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05 in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 92.8% and 91.9% respectively. However T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30˚C and incubation period of 72h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and antimicrobial studies of diabetic drug models: Complexes of vanadyl(II) sulfate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2010-04-01

    The oxovanadium(II) complexes of the different vitamins like ascorbic acid (vitamin C; Vit. C), riboflavin (vitamin B2; Vit. B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3; Vit. B3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic measurements, thermal studies, XRD and SEM. Conductance measurements indicated that the vanadyl(II) complexes of Vit. B2 and Vit. B3 are 1:2 electrolytes except for [VO(Vit. C) 2(H 2O) 2] complex is non-electrolyte. IR data show that Vit. B2 is bidentate ligand against azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione but Vit. B3 and Vit. C acts as a monodentate ligand through pyridine nitrogen and hydroxo oxygen of furan ring, respectively. Electronic spectral measurements indicated that all VO(II) complexes have a square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic measurements for the new vanadyl(II) complexes are in a good agreement with the proposed formula. Thermal analyses (TG/DSC) of the studied complexes show that the decomposition process takes place in more than two steps. XRD refer that VO(II) complexes have an amorphous behavior. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and its complexes indicate that the vanadyl(II) complexes possess high antibacterial and antifungal activities towards the bacterial species and the fungal species than start ligands.

  2. The tryptophan synthase β-subunit paralogs TrpB1 and TrpB2 in Thermococcus kodakarensis are both involved in tryptophan biosynthesis and indole salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Takayoshi; Sato, Takaaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2014-07-01

    The last two steps of l-tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis are catalyzed by Trp synthase, a heterotetramer composed of TrpA and TrpB. TrpB catalyzes the condensation of indole, synthesized by TrpA, and serine to Trp. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, trpA and trpB (trpB1) are located adjacently in the trpCDEGFB1A operon. Interestingly, several organisms possess a second trpB gene (trpB2) encoding TrpB2, located outside of the trp operon in T. kodakarensis. Until now, the physiological function of trpB2 has not been examined genetically. In the present study, we report the biochemical and physiological analyses of TrpB2 from T. kodakarensis. Kinetic analysis indicated that TrpB2 catalyzed the TrpB reaction but did not interact with TrpA as in the case of TrpB1. When growth phenotypes were examined for gene disruption strains, the double-deletion mutant (ΔtrpB1ΔtrpB2) displayed Trp auxotrophy, whereas individual single mutants (ΔtrpB1 and ΔtrpB2 strains) did not. It has been proposed previously that, in Thermotoga maritima, TrpB2 provides an alternate route to generate Trp from serine and free indole (indole salvage). To accurately examine the capacity of TrpB1 and TrpB2 in Trp synthesis via indole salvage, we constructed ΔtrpEB1 and ΔtrpEB2 strains using strain KUW1 (ΔpyrFΔtrpE) as a host, eliminating the route for endogenous indole synthesis. Indole complemented the Trp auxotrophies of ΔtrpEB1 (ΔpyrFΔtrpEΔtrpB1) and ΔtrpEB2 (ΔpyrFΔtrpEΔtrpB2) to similar levels. The results indicate that TrpB1 and TrpB2 both contribute to Trp biosynthesis in T. kodakarensis and can utilize free indole, and that indole salvage does not necessarily rely on TrpB2 to a greater extent. PMID:24835339

  3. Determination of aflatoxin G2,G1,B2 and B1 in suanzaoren by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization%柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法测定酸枣仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑荣; 毛丹; 王柯; 季申

    2010-01-01

    目的:建立酸枣仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的HPLC测定方法.方法:样品经70%甲醇提取、免疫亲和柱净化后,用高效液相色谱-柱后衍生-荧光检测器进行分析测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2在1.5~60 pg范围内线性关系良好,黄曲霉毒素G1、B1在5~200 pg范围内线性关系良好,r>0.9999.回收率在60%~120%之间.结论:该法快速简便,准确,可用于酸枣仁中黄曲霉毒素的测定.

  4. HPLC-MS/MS determination of aflatoxinG2,G1,B2,B1 in Persicae Semen%HPLC-MS/MS法测定中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 许勇; 毛丹; 郑荣; 王柯; 季申

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、Bl的HPLC-MS/MS测定方法.方法:样品经有机溶剂提取及免疫亲和柱净化后,以高效液相色谱-串联三重四极杆质谱进行分析测定.采用Phenomenex SB -C18(2.0mmx50mm,4μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-10mmol·L-1醋酸铵溶液,梯度洗脱,流速0.5mL·min-1;质谱条件为电喷雾离子源(ESI源),正离子模式检测,扫描方式为多反应监测(MRM),黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的定量分析离子分别为m/z 331.1→313.l、m/z 329.1→243.1、m/z 315.0→287.1、m/z 313.1→241.0.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2进样量在0.375-30pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,黄曲霉毒素G1、1进样量在1.2-1100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,0 999;回收率在88.%-1103.%%之间.结论:本法灵敏、快速、准确,专属性强,可用于中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素的测定.%Objective : To establish an HPLC - MS/MS method for determination of aflatoxin G2 ,G1 , B2 ,B1 in Persicae Semen. Methods :Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol, purified by an immunoaffinity column and then separation was carried on a Kromasil C18 (2. 0 mm ×50 mm ,4 μm) column with a mobile phase of methanol - 10 mmol · L-1 formic ammonate ( by a gradient program) at a rate of 0. 5 mL · min-1. Aflatoxins were analysed by HPLC - triple quadrupole MS with an ESI ion source in MRM mode, the ion combinations of m/z 331. 1→ 313. 1 ,m/z 329. 1→243. 1 , m/z 315. 0→287. 1 , m/z 313. 1→241. 0 were used to qualify aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 , B1 , respectively. Results : Good linear relationships were obtained within the ranges of 0. 375 - 30 pg for aflatoxin G2 and B2 ,and 1. 25 - 100 pg for aflatoxin G1 and B1. The recoveries were between 88. 5 % - 103. 9% . Conclusion : The method is sensitive, rapid , accurate and specific for the determination of aflatoxins in traditional Chinese medicine Persicae Semen.

  5. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  6. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Rastrelli, Luca

    2011-10-21

    The application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for the rapid analysis of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) in maize, rice and wheat products has been evaluated. After extraction of aflatoxins from cereal matrices with a mixture of methanol/water 8:2 (v/v), the analytes were rapidly transferred from the extract to another small volume of organic solvent, chloroform, by DLLME. Aflatoxins were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with florescence detection and photochemical post-column derivatization. Parameters affecting both extraction and DLLME procedures, such as extraction solvent, type and volume of DLLME extractant, volume of water and salt effect, were systematically investigated and optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the whole analytical method provides enrichment factors around 2.5 times and detection limits (0.01-0.17 μg kg(-1)) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulation for aflatoxins in cereals and cereal products intended for direct human consumption. Recoveries (67-92%) and repeatability (RSD<10, n=3), tested in three different cereal matrices, meet the performance criteria required by EC Regulation No. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of retail cereal products with quantitative results comparable to the immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). The main advantages of developed method are the simplicity of operation, the rapidity to achieve a very high sample throughput and low cost. PMID:21636088

  7. [Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in armeniacae semen amarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in Armeniacae Semen Amarum and the application was performance in 11 samples collected from different markets, medical stores and hospitals. The sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile/water and 250 microL extraction was directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system without further purification procedure after being redissolved with methanol. The LC separation was performed on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution program of 4 mmol x L(-1) NH4 Ac-0.1% formic acid solution and menthol as the mobile phase. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for selective determination of the four aflatoxins on a triple quadruple mass spectrometer, which was operated in positive ionization modes. All the four aflatoxins showed a good linear relationship with r > 0.999 0, the average recoveries were between 87.88% and 102.9% and the matrix effect was ranged from 90.71% to 99.30% in low, intermediate and high levels. Furthermore, the higher recovery was obtained by the method reported in this study, comparing to the cleanup procedure with the Mycosep 226 purification column. Eleven samples collected were detected and the contamination levels of the AFB1 were between 1.590-2.340 microg x kg(-1) and the AF (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) was ranged from 2.340 to 3.340 microg x kg(-1). In summary, the developed method was suitable to detect and screen AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 in Armeniacae Semen Amarum. PMID:24490568

  8. Fumonisin B1 and B2 occurrence in dried fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) under Meander Valley's climatic conditions and relationship with fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoglu, I; Aksoy, U; Pehlivan, R

    2011-11-01

    Fusarium is the agent causing endosepsis (internal rot) in fig fruits and it is widespread in fig orchards in the Aegean region. This research was conducted to determine the natural occurrence of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)) on dried fig fruits of Sarilop (syn. Calimyrna) variety which are mainly grown in the Big and Small Meander Basins in the Aegean region, representing 60% of world dried fig production. A total of 262 samples belonging to two quality classes, Class A and Class cull, were collected from 12 different locations during the two crop years in 2004 and 2005. The fumonisin detection method is based on extraction with methanol-acetonitrile-water, derivatization with o-phthaldehyde and quantification by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The mean concentrations of FB(1) and FB(2) in fumonisin-positive samples were 0.080 ± 0.047 µg g(-1) and 0.055 ± 0.031 µg g(-1) and ranged from LOD to 0.332 µg g(-1) and from LOD to 0.198 µg g(-1), respectively. The incidence of fumonisins significantly differed between the two crop years. This difference can be attributed to the alteration in the rainfall regime from mid-May to mid-August (7.2 mm in 2004, 90.9 mm in 2005) and number of humid wind currents from a westerly direction (183 in 2004, 492 in 2005) from the end of July and mid-August that may have triggered a higher incidence of Fusarium spp. and thus fumonisin production.

  9. 75 FR 23574 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, -5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... INFORMATION: The FAA proposed to amend 14 CFR part 39 by superseding AD 2009-01-01, Amendment 39-15779 (73 FR... (74 FR 67834). That action proposed to require continuous monitoring of EGT margin deterioration... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a...

  10. Determination of vitamin B1 and B2 in compound vitamin Busing multiple lincar regression spectrophotometry%多元线性分光光度法测定复合维生素B片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 刘惠军

    2001-01-01

    目的:建立复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2的含量测定方法。方法:采用多波长多元线性回归分光光度法,维生素B1的测定波长为245nm、248nm和251nm,维生素B2的测定波长为258nm、261nm和264nm,溶剂为盐酸液(9→1000)。结果:标准曲线在4.0μg/ml20.0μg/ml范围内呈良好线性关系。平均回收率维生素B1为99.8%,RSD小于2.21%;维生素B2为98.7%,RSD小于1.98%。结论:该法可准确测定复合维生素B中两组分的含量。%objective: To establish the determination of vitamins B1 and B2in compound vitamin B. Methods: The multiple linear regression spectrophotometry was used with wavelength of 245nm, 248nm, 251nm and 258nm, 261nm and 264nm. The solvent was HCL. Results: The calibration curve was linear between 4.0μg/ml to 20.0mg/ml. The relative standard deviations vitamins B1 and B2 were less than 1.1% and 0.7% at the three different concentrations. Their recovery rates was 101.4% and 99.4%. Conclusion: This method is accurate for the determination of vitamins B1 and B2 in the compound vitamin B.

  11. HPLC法测定复合维生素B片维生素B1、维生素B2、烟酰胺的含量及含量均匀度%Determination of Content and Content Uniformity of Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Niacinamide in Compound Vitamin B Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华龙; 刘旺培

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To establish HPLC determination of compound vitamin B,vitamin B1 ,vitamin B2 ,ni-acinamide content and content uniformity.METHODS The chromatographic column:Diamonsil C18 ( 250mm × 4.6mm,5μm),mobile phase:0.005mol· L-1heptane sodium sulfonate solution(including 0.5%glacial acetic acid and 0.5% triethylamine)-methanol (70∶30,V/V);Detection wavelength of 261nm,flow rate of 1.0mL· min -1 , sample quantity:20μL.RESULTS The concentration of vitamin B1 ,vitamin B2 ,and nicotinamide has a good linear relationship in the range of 2.65~66.2μg· mL-1 ,1.19~30.15μg· mL-1 ,7.83~196.2μg· mL-1 respectively, the average recovery were greater than 98%,RSD were less than 1.0%.CONCLUSION This method is simple, accurate,reliable and can be used as the quality control of vitamin B slice method.%目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定复合维生素B片维生素B1、维生素B2、烟酰胺的含量及含量均匀度。方法采用色谱柱:Diamonsil C18(250mm ×4.6mm,5μm),流动相:0.005mol· L -1庚烷磺酸钠溶液(含0.5%冰醋酸和0.05%三乙胺)-甲醇(70∶30,V/V);检测波长为261nm,流速为1.0mL· min -1,进样量:20μL。结果维生素 B1、维生素 B2、烟酰胺浓度分别在2.65~66.2μg· mL -1、1.19~30.15μg· mL-1、7.83~196.2μg· mL -1范围内与峰面积线性关系良好,平均回收率均大于98%,RSD均小于1.0%。结论本方法简单、精确、可靠,可作为合维生素B片的质量控制方法。

  12. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定花生制品中的黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2%Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Peanuts by HPLC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟科; 罗佳玲; 赖毅东

    2011-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱建立了高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定花生制品中4种黄曲霉毒素(B1B2、G1、G2)的方法.结果表明,在ESI正离子模式下,高效液相色谱-串联质谱法的最低检出限为0.2μg/kg,定量限为0.6 μg/kg;标准工作液在0.5~50.0μg/kg的范围内线性良好,相关系数达到0.9990.%Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanuts. The eluted extract was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in positive ion mode using multiple reactions monitoring with a triple-quadruple MS using an electrospray ionization source. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) and the limits of quantification for the target compounds were in the range of 0.2 and 0.6 μg/kg, respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.5~50 μg/kg with the regression coefficient of 0.9990.

  13. 高效液相色谱-串联三重四极杆质谱分析法测定刀豆中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1%HPLC-triple quadrupole MS determination of aflatoxin G2,G1,B2,B1 in Canavalia gladiata(Jacq.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许勇; 王少敏; 郑荣; 毛丹; 王柯; 季申

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立刀豆中黄曲霉毒素G、G、B、B的测定方法.方法:样品经70%甲醇提取、HLB柱净化后,用高效液相色谱-串联质谱进行分析测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G、B在0.75~30 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,黄曲霉毒素G、B在2.5 pg~100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,r>0.999.回收率在66.9%~86.7%之间.结论:本法简便快速、结果准确、重现性好,可用于刀豆中黄曲霉毒素的测定.%Objective:To establish a HPLC - triple quadrupole MS method for determination of aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in Canavalia gladiata( Jacq.).Methods:After being extracted by 70% methanol, purified by HLB column, aflatoxins were analysed by HPLC- triple quadrupole MS.Results:There is a good linear relationship within the range of 0.75 pg ~30 pg for aflatoxin G2 ,B2, and the range of 2.5 pg ~ 100 pg for aflatoxin G1 ,B1.The recovery was between 66.9% ~86.7%.Conclusion:The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, specific and reproducible in the quality Green Beans.

  14. 柱前衍生高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2%The aflatoxin B1 ,B2 ,G1 and G2 in food were decontaminated by high performance liquid chromatograph with a sample was derived before column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 曹忠波

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过采用多功能小柱,利用高效液相色谱仪对食品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2同时进行检测.方法:样品经体积分数为90%的乙腈溶液提取,提取液通过多功能小柱净化、浓缩,三氟乙酸(TFA)柱前衍生,C18色谱柱分离,荧光检测器检测,外标法定量.结果:4种黄曲霉毒素经过衍生后线性良好,对添加黄曲霉毒素的样品进行加标回收,回收率在80.4%~94.5%,精密度<10%.结论:该方法操作简便,线性范围广,效果良好.%Objective:The aflatoy in B1, B2, G1 and G2 in food were decontaminated by a many- sided column and detected simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatograph. Methods: The sample was extracted by acetonitrile solution with a volume fraction 90%, and then the extracted solution was decontaminated and concentrated by column, derived before trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) column, separated by C18 chromatographic column ,detected by fluorescence detector and quantified by external standard method,as seen,the four aflatoxins after derivation had good linearity. Results: The standard recovery rate of food samples with addition of aflatoxins was 80.4% ~ 94.5%, the RSD was below 10%. Conclusion: It shows the method is simple, the linear scope is wide, the result is good.

  15. High-pressure synthesis, long-term stability of single crystals of diboron trioxide, B2O3, and an empirical electronic polarizability of [3]B3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianek, Manfred; Birkenstock, Johannes; Mair, Philipp; Kahlenberg, Volker; Medenbach, Olaf; Shannon, Robert D.; Fischer, Reinhard X.

    2016-07-01

    Single crystals of B2O3 are needed for the precise determination of the refractive indices used to calculate the electronic polarizability α of 3-coordinated boron. The α(B) values in turn are used to predict mean refractive indices of borate minerals. Since the contribution of boron to the total polarizability of a mineral is very low, the synthetic compound B2O3 represents an ideal model system because of its high molar content of boron. Millimeter-sized crystals were synthesized at 1 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The samples were heated above the liquidus (800 °C), subsequently cooled at 15 °C/h to 500 °C and finally quenched. The refractive indices were determined by the immersion method using a microrefractometer spindle stage. The refractive indices n o = 1.653 (3) and n e = 1.632 (3) correspond to a total polarizability for B2O3 of α = 4.877 Å3. These values were used to determine the electronic polarizability of boron of α(B) = 0.16 Å3. Although the surface of the B2O3 crystals was coated with a hydrous film immediately after being exposed to air, its bulk crystallinity is retained for a period of at least 2 months.

  16. Studies of the influence of vitamin B1, B2 and B3 on the interaction between lysionotin and BSA%维生素B1B2B3对石吊兰素与BSA结合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国文; 胡玉婷

    2014-01-01

    在模拟人体生理条件下,联合应用紫外-可见光谱法、荧光光谱法以及圆二色谱(CD)技术,研究了3种B族维生素(VB1、VB2、VB3)分别对石吊兰素与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)结合作用的影响.计算了3种维生素分别存在下石吊兰素-BSA体系的猝灭常数(k)、结合常数(K)、结合位点数(n)和结合距离(r)等参数,探讨了3种维生素对石吊兰素-BSA相互作用可能的影响方式.结果显示:VB1、VB2、VB3的加入使得石吊兰素-BSA体系的k和K增大,n基本不变,r稍有减小,表明VB1、VB2、VB3均能够增加石吊兰素-BSA体系的稳定性.VB1使得BSA-石吊兰素体系的主要作用力类型从以氢键和范德华力为主转变为以疏水作用力为主,而VB2、VB3的存在没有改变BSA-石吊兰素体系的主要作用力.CD分析结果表明:3种B族维生素的加入均能使BSA的α-螺旋含量有所增加.推断VB1、VB2、VB3与BSA的结合导致了BSA分子构象变化是维生素影响BSA-石吊兰素结合的主要方式.

  17. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, A.; Halkjaer, J.; van Gils, C. H.; Buijsse, B.; Verhagen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Ericson, U.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Waaseth, M.; Skeie, G.; Khaw, K. T.; Travis, R.; Ferrari, P.; Sanchez, M. J.; Agudo, A.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Weikert, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Evangelista, A.; Zylis, D.; Tsiotas, K.; Manjer, J.; van Guelpen, B.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Betw

  18. HPLC 法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量%Determination of Nicotinamide, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu Capsules (15) by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟姣; 唐湘伟; 黄莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中的烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法:采用Boston Green ODS C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相:庚烷磺酸钠溶液(取庚烷磺酸钠0.941 g,加冰乙酸10 ml,加水1 000 ml溶解,用NaOH试液调节pH至3.8)-甲醇(70:30);进样量:20 μl;检测波长为280 nm;柱温:30℃;流速1.0 ml·min-1.结果:烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6分别在38.83~349.44,9.88~88.94,4.03~36.25,3.97~35.77 μg·ml-1范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999 6);平均回收率分别为98.7%(RSD=0.89%),98.7%(RSD=1.03%),99.0%(RSD=1.03%),99.8%(RSD=1.49%).结论:该方法准确,灵敏度高,重复性好,可作为多维元素胶囊(15)的质量控制方法之一.%Objective: To develop an HPLC method for the determination of nicotinamide, vitamin B, , vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ). Method: The separation was preformed on a Boston Green ODS C18 column ( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm ) and the mobile phase consisted of sodium heptanesulfonate solution ( containing 0. 941 g sodium heptanesulfonate and 10ml glacial acetic acid in 1000ml water, and adjusting Ph to 3. 80 with NaOH test solution )-methanol ( 70: 30 ). The detection wavelength was set at 280nm. The flow rate was 1.0 ml ? Min-1 , and the column temperature was 30℃. Result: The calibration curve was linear within the range of 38. 83 ~349.44 μg ? Ml-1 for nicotinamide, 9. 88 ~ 88. 94 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B, , 4.03 ~36. 25 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B2 and3.97 -35.77 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B6. The average recovery was 98.7%( RSD =0. 89% ), 98.7%( RSD = 1.03% ), 99.0% ( RSD = 1. 03% ) and 99. 8%( RSD = 1. 49% ), respectively. Conclusion: This method is sensitive and accurate with good reproduc-ibility, and can be used for the quality control of Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ) .

  19. Determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn by high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization method%柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法测定玉米中伏马菌素B1B2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓旭; 肖志勇; 张红艳; 杨丽丽; 马丽艳

    2012-01-01

    建立了邻苯二甲醛(OPA)柱后衍生-高效液相色谱测定玉米中伏马菌素B1B2(FB1和FB2)的方法.采用ZORBAX SB-C18色谱柱,以0.1 mol/L磷酸二氢钠溶液(pH 3.3)-甲醇为流动相,梯度洗脱.流动相流速为0.8mL/min,柱温40℃;衍生剂的流速为0.4 mL/min,衍生温度为室温.实验对衍生剂缓冲液的pH、衍生剂的浓度和流速、激发和发射波长等重要条件进行了优化.结果表明,衍生剂的pH在10.5、OPA的质量浓度为2 g/L、流速为0.4 mL/min、激发波长335 nm、发射波长440 nm时测定效果良好,FB1、FB2在0.2~20 mg/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数大于0.999;FB1和FB2的检出限均为0.02 mg/kg;在0.1~4.0 mg/kg范围内,3个添加水平的平均回收率为82.5% ~89.8%.该方法精确、简单、快速,适合玉米中FB1和FB2的测定.%A high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with post-column derivatization method was developed to detect fumonisin B, ( FB,) and fumonisin B2 ( FB2) in com. Several factors, such as the pH of derivatization buffer, concentration and flow rate of derivatization reagents, excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, which affected the detection of fumonisins were optimized. The separation was performed on a ZORBAX SB C18 column operated at 40 ℃with the gradient elution by two mobile phases of 0. 1 mol/L sodium dihydro-gen phosphate solution (pH 3.3) and methanol at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL/min. The derivatization was performed at ambient temperature. The o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) flow rate was 0. 4 mL/min. The results showed that the optimum conditions were pH 10. 5 of the derivatization reagent, OPA concentration at 2 g/L, and excitation wavelength of 335 nm, emission wavelength of 440 nm. The linear plots of FB, and FB2 were obtained between 0. 2 to 20 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients above 0. 999 for both FB, and FB2. The limits of detection of fumonisins B, and B2 were 0. 02 mg/kg. The mean recoveries at

  20. Elucidation of separate, but collaborative functions of the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 in mitochondrial biogenesis reveals new insight into maternally inherited deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Cotney, Justin; McKay, Sharen E.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is controlled by signaling networks that relay information to and from the organelles. However, key mitochondrial factors that mediate such pathways and how they contribute to human disease are not understood fully. Here we demonstrate that the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 are key downstream effectors of mitochondrial biogenesis that perform unique, yet cooperative functions. The primary function of h-mtTFB2 is mtD...

  1. Validation of a confirmatory analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in foods and feed materials by HPLC with on-line photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Muscarella, Marilena; Iammarino, Marco; Nardiello, Donatella; Lo Magro, Sonia; Palermo, Carmen; Centonze, Diego; Palermo, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A sensitive and selective analytical method for the simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in foodstuffs and materials for feed has been validated. The method is based on high performance liquid chromatography with on-line post-column photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. The chromatographic separation of aflatoxins was accomplished by using a C18 column eluted with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of w...

  2. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: first action 2013.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative study of a method for determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and LC with fluorescence detection, previously published in J. AOAC Int. 95, 1689-1700 (2012), was approved as First Action 2013.05 on March 29, 2013 by the Method-Centric Committee for Aflatoxins in Edible Oils. The method uses methanol for extraction followed by filtration. The extract is applied to an immunoaffinity column with antibodies specific for AFs, which are then eluted from the column with a methanol solution. Determination and quantification occur using RP-LC with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The average recovery of AFs in olive, peanut, and sesame oils in spiked samples (levels between 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg) ranged from 84 to 92%. The recoveries for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 86-93, 89-95, 85-97, and 76-85%, respectively. Within-laboratory RSD (RSDr) values for AFs ranged from 3.4 to 10.2%. RSDr values forAF B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 3.5-10.9, 3.2-9.5, 6.5-14.9, and 4.8-14.2%, respectively. Between-laboratory RSD (RSDR) values for AFs were 6.1-14.5%. RSD, values for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 7.5-15.4, 7.1-14.6, 10.8-18.1, and 7.6-23.7%, respectively. Horwitz ratio values were < or =2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:24282940

  3. Fabrication of a novel nanocomposite based on sol-gel process for hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction of aflatoxins: B1 and B2, in cereals combined with high performane liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Sorayaei, Hoda; Samadi, Fateme; Masrournia, Mahboubeh; Bakherad, Zohreh

    2011-10-15

    The new pre-concentration technique, hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction based on carbon nanotube reinforced sol-gel and liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection was applied to determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2) (AFB(1), AFB(2)) in rice, peanut and wheat samples. This research provides an overview of trends related to synthesis of solid phase microextraction (SPME) sorbnents that improves the assay of aflatoxins as the semi-polar compounds in several real samples. It mainly includes summary and a list of the results for a simple carbon nanotube reinforced sol-gel in-fiber device. This device was used for extraction, pre-concentration and determination of aflatoxins B1, B2 in real samples. In this technique carbon nanotube reinforced sol was prepared by the sol-gel method via the reaction of phenyl trimethoxysilane (PTMS) with a basic catalyst (tris hydroxymethyl aminomethan). The influences of microextraction parameters such as pH, ageing time, carbon nanotube contents, desorption conditions, desorption solvent and agitation speed were investigated. Optimal HPLC conditions were: C(18) reversed phase column for separation, water-acetonitril-methanol (35:10:55) as the mobile phase and maximum wavelength for detection was 370 nm. The method was evaluated statistically and under optimized conditions, the detection limits for the analytes were 0.074 and 0.061 ng/mL for B1 and B2 respectively. Limit of quantification for B1 and B2 was 0.1 ng/mL too (n=7). The precisions were in the range of 2.829-2.976% (n=3), and linear ranges were within 0.1 and 400 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cereals (peanut, wheat, rice) with the relative recoveries from 47.43% to 106.83%. PMID:21925977

  4. Differential c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 mRNA expression in cancer of the pancreas compared with cancer of the papilla of Vater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus L Prenzel; Ute Warnecke-Eberz; Jan Brabender; Stephan E Baldus; Elfriede Bollschweiler; Christian A Gutschow; Uta Drebber; Arnulf H Hoelscher; Paul M Schneider

    2006-01-01

    AIM: We examined quantitative mRNA expression of growth factor receptors (c-erbB-1, c-erbB-2) and the anti-apoptosis gene survivin known to be regulated in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and compared the expression pattern with that in carcinomas of the papilla of Vater.METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptasePCR (QRT-PCR, TaqmanTM) was performed to analyze mRNA expression levels of c-erbB-1, c-erbB-2 and survivin in normal and corresponding tumor samples of 31 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and 8 cancers of the papilla of Vater.RESULTS: The overall median mRNA expression of survivin was significantly increased in both adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (P<0.01) and papilla of Vater (P<0.008) compared with uninvolved normal control tissue. In pancreatic cancer, expression of c-erbB-1 was significantly decreased compared with the normal pancreatic tissue (P<0.03), whereas in the cancer of the papilla of Vater expression of c-erbB-2 was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) compared with the paired normal samples. Gene expression was not associated with tumor stage, differentiation or prognosis.CONCLUSION: The common anti-apoptosis gene survivin is overexpressed both in the cancer of the papilla of Vater and pancreas. In contrast, the growth factor receptor genes c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 are differentially regulated in both tumor entities adding further evidence that pancreatic cancer is biologically different from the cancer of papilla of Vater.

  5. Deregulated Levels of the NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel Genes in Ukrainian Patients with Leukemia and Lymphoma in the Post-Chernobyl Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Savlı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is an important transcription factor in cancer and NF-κB activation has been seen in angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Relationships between specific NF-κB gene networks, leukemogenesis, and radiation exposure are still unknown. Our aim was to study the expression levels of the NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel genes in hematological malignancies in the post-Chernobyl period. Materials and Methods: We analyzed gene expression levels of NF- κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel in 49 B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 8 B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 3 acute myeloid leukemia, 3 chronic myeloid leukemia, 2 hairy cell leukemia, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome, and 2 T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia patients using realtime polymerase chain reaction. Results: Expression levels of NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel genes were found to be deregulated. Conclusion: These results could be accepted as specific gene traces to radiation-induced leukemia or as potential candidates for new diagnostic biomarker studies. Larger experiments and non-exposed control malignant cell populations are needed to clarify these suggestions.

  6. 免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD同时测定甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量%Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhiza uralensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemicai derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦日伟; 杨小丽; 仇峰; 杨美华; 覃洁萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时检测甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC- FLD测定的方法.方法:样品经甲醇-水(80:20)超声提取后,用免疫亲和柱净化和富集;以甲醇和0.5%乙酸溶液为流动相进行梯度洗脱,通过柱后光化学衍生,荧光检测器测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2,G1,B2,B1和赭曲霉毒素A的检测限分别为0.02,0.06,0.015,0.03,0.25μg·kg-1,平均加样回收率为76.0%~103%,RSD低于13%.结论:该方法快速简便、准确,可用于甘草中同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量.%Objective: To develop a method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhita walensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemical derivatization. Method; Sample was extracted with MeOH:- H2O (80:20) and cleaned up by immunoaffinity column. The toxins were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and the mobile phase was consisted of methanol and 0. 5% acetic acid solution with gradient elution. The determination was carried out by fluorescence detector after photochemical derivatization. Result; The detection limits of aflatoxin G2 , C,, B2 , B, and ochratoxin A were 0.02, 0. 06, 0. 015, 0.03 and 0. 25 μg · kg-1, respectively. The recoveries of analytes were from 76.0% to 103% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 13%. Conclusion; The method is a simple, accurate and can be used to determine the contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in G. Uralensis simultaneously.

  7. 二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物固相萃取-高效液相色谱法检测植物油中黄曲霉毒素B1B2%Determination of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in Edible Oil by Using Graphene Oxide-SiO2 as Soild Phase Extraction Coupled with HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒玲; 喻理; 李培武; 李敏; 张奇; 张文

    2014-01-01

    以二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物为固相萃取材料,建立了植物油中黄曲霉毒素B1B2的高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测方法。优化的条件为:复合材料的最佳用量为0.15 g,最佳萃取时间20 min,洗脱溶剂为乙腈,洗脱次数为2次。结果表明,在优化条件下,建立的二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物固相萃取-高效液相色谱法对黄曲霉毒素B1B2的检出限分别为0.17和0.05μg/L。将本方法应用于植物油实际样品的检测中,加标回收率在81.4%~105.3%之间,相对标准偏差为1.3%~8.6%。%Silica dioxide bound graphene oxide ( GO-SiO2 ) was applied as an effective adsorbent for determination and quantiflcation of aflatoxin B1 , B2 in edible oil by HPLC. The optimized conditions were GO-SiO2 0. 15 g, extraction time 20 min, elution reagent acetonitrile, elution cycles two times. Results showed under the optimum conditions, the detection limits of aflatoxin B1 , B2 were 0. 17 and 0. 05 μg/L, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the detection of the actual edible oil, the spiked recoveries of aflatoxin B1 and B2 were 81. 4%-105. 3% and the relative standard deviations were 1. 3%-8. 6%.

  8. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds. PMID:19238880

  9. Measurement of the production cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P}))/ \\sigma(\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P}))$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; 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Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Dujany, Giulio; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Korenkov, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the production cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P}))/ \\sigma(\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P}))$ is presented. The $\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P})$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P})$ bottomonium states, promptly produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV, are detected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC through their radiative decays $\\chi_{b1,2}(1\\mathrm{P}) \\rightarrow \\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S}) + \\gamma$. The emitted photons are measured through their conversion to e$^+$e$^-$ pairs, whose reconstruction allows the two states to be resolved. The $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ is measured through its decay to two muons. An event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 fb$^{-1}$ is used to measure the cross section ratio in a phase-space region defined by the photon pseudorapidity, |$\\eta^\\gamma$| < 1.0; the $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ rapidity, |$y^\\Upsilon$| < 1.5; and the $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ transverse momentum, 7 < $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^\\Upsilon$ < 40 GeV. The cross section ratio sh...

  10. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zheng; Zheng, Yunliang; Luan, Lianjun; Cai, Zengxuan; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Yongjiang

    2010-04-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) was developed. The approach was characterized in details and a special focus was placed on the recovery rates of isolation procedure in different TCM matrices, i.e. rhizomes and roots, seeds, flowers, grasses and leaves. For this purpose, [(13)C(17)]-aflatoxinB1 was employed as the internal standard and a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method was developed. The observed recovery rates of the six aflatoxins ranged from 85.6% to 117.6% in different matrices. Then, the established method was successfully applied to the determination of the six aflatoxins in various TCMs. For 30 commercial samples analyzed, 16 were contaminated with aflatoxins. The mean levels (incidence) of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in positive samples were 1.40 (68.8%), 1.27 (50.0%), 0.50 (43.8%) and 0.94 (43.8%) microg kg(-1), respectively. Interestingly, aflatoxin M1 was detected in two samples with the maximal content of 0.70 microg kg(-1). No sample was contaminated with aflatoxin M2. Meanwhile, a possible association between the contamination levels and the selected herbs was clarified in the present study. PMID:20363399

  11. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  12. Determination of Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in 34 Batches of Chinese Herbs by HPLC Associated with Post Column Photochemical Derivatization%免疫亲和柱净化HPLC柱后光化学衍生法测定34批中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文武; 熊凌云; 王瑞芳; 刘岩; 孙启生; 雷雨; 王强

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立HPLC柱后光化学衍生法检测中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1方法.方法 样品经过70%甲醇提取、免疫亲和拄净化后,采用HPLC柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测中药材黄曲霉毒素含量.对疑似成分进行液质确认.结果 黄曲霉毒素G2和B2,G1和B1分别在0.75 ~ 22.5 pg和5~ 75Pg线性关系良好,方法准确稳定.检测的34批次药材中,3批酸枣仁检出黄曲霉毒素,其中1批酸枣仁黄曲霉毒素B1超过5μg·kg-1.结论 该方法简便、准确,适用于中药材黄曲霉毒素的检测.%Objective To establish HPLC methods associated with post column Photochemical Derivatization to determine aflatoxin G2, Gl, B2, Bl in Chinese herbal. Method Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol and purified by an immunoaffinity column. Then the samples were analysed by HPLC fluorescence detector with post column Photochemical derivatization. Confirm the suspected components with LC-MS. Results The method with the great linear concentration range of 0.75-22.5 pg for aflatoxins G2,B2,and 5-75 pg for aflatoxins G1,B1 respectively, was stable and accurate. In the result of 34 batches of Chinese herbs,Aflatoxins were detected in 3 batches of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae among which Aflatoxin Bl of one batch exceed 5 μg·kg-l. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate,which is suitable for the determination of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal.

  13. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver. PMID:25036135

  14. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods. PMID:27364334

  15. Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1 in corn by high performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry%固相萃取-高效液相色谱/串联质谱检测谷物中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2和M1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩松; 范世华; 李华; 张凤清; 贺明睿; 崔相勇

    2011-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱/串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)同时检测谷物中的黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2和M1的方法.并优化了液相色谱条件和质谱的相关参数.谷物样品经研磨成粉末后,直接经甲醇-水( V∶V=10∶90)提取,Oasis HLB固相萃取净化,乙腈-水(0.2%甲酸)梯度洗脱,选择电喷雾离子源(ESI),正离子扫描多反应监测( MRM)模式,外标法定量.黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2和M1的定量下限分别为0.1、0.1、0.2、0.3、0.2 ng/g,平均回收率在74.6%~89.6%之间,测试精密度(RSD)在5.2%~11.3%之间.方法已用于谷物样品检测,黄曲霉毒素残留量最高达到B1 5.86 ng/g、G1 8.6 ng/g、M1 4.0 ng/g,B2和G2未检出.%A sensitive method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B,, B2, G,, G2 and M, in corn by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( HPLC-MS/MS). Analysis conditions of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were optimized. Aflatoxins were extracted with 10% ( V/V) methanol-water after corn was grinded into powder, purified through an Oasis HLB cartridge, eluted by methanol and water containing 0. 2% formic acid, and determinated by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of quantification for aflatoxin B,, B2, G1, G2 and M1 were 0. 1 ng/g, 0. 1 ng/g, 0.2 ng/g, 0.3 ng/g and 0.2 ng/g, the correlation coefficients were more than 0.9975 in respective linear ranges, and recoveries for analytes in different matrixs were 74. 6% ~ 89. 6% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) in different concentration levels were all less than 11. 3%. The proposed method was sensitive to meet the requirements for monitoring aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and Ml in corn.

  16. Panorama da Pesquisa em Marketing no Brasil: uma análise da produção funcionalista em periódicos Qualis Capes A2, B1 e B2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diante da tradição da pesquisa qualitativa ter abordagens paradigmáticas construtivistas ou não funcionalistas, o questionamento principal deste artigo é saber como se dá a apropriação de critérios de qualidade na pesquisa funcionalista, tendo como objetivo principal apresentar um panorama dos artigos publicados nas revistas nacionais classificadas com Qualis A2, B1 e B2 dos anos de 2003 a 2013. Para este fim, a análise debruçou-se sobre os artigos que apresentavam em seu escopo características qualitativas funcionalistas, tendo como objetivo avaliar como estão sendo trabalhados os critérios de qualidade nas publicações de marketing no Brasil, nos últimos 11 anos.

  17. Oasis HLB 固相萃取-超快速液相-三重四极杆质谱法测定花生和花生油中黄曲霉毒素 B1B2、G1、G2%Determination of aflatoxin B 1,B2,G1,G2 in peanut and peanut oil using oasis HLB SPE-Ultra fast liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳哲; 江恩源

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立了Oasis HLB固相萃取‐超快速液相‐三重四极杆质谱法测定花生和花生油中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的方法。方法样品用甲醇‐水(V甲醇∶V水=20∶80)提取,离心后过Oasis HLB柱萃取净化,超快速液相进行梯度洗脱,质谱用电喷雾离子源(ESI),经过正离子MRM 模式,外标法定量。结果黄曲霉毒素(AFT ) B1B2、G1、G2的最低检出限分别为:0.05、0.05、0.10、0.20μg/kg ,平均加标回收率在89.3%~98.7%之间,精密度(RSD )在2.6%~5.3%之间。结论本法利用Oasis HLB固相萃取柱良好的性能和质谱仪采用弯曲180度的碰撞池技术大大减少了样品中的杂质干扰,精密度和准确度高,方法操作简便,结果可靠。%Objective To establish a method to determine aflatoxin B1 ,B2 ,G1 ,G2 in peanut and peanut oil by oasis HLB SPE‐high performance liquid chromatography‐triple qua‐drupole tandem mass .Methods The sample underwent methanol‐water (V∶V=20∶80) extraction ,and was then purified using oasis (R) HLB cartridge after centrifugation .Through gradient elution of liquid chromatography ,ESI as mass spectrum ,and positive ion MRM mode ,the sample was quantified using external standard method .Results The minimum detection limit for AFT B1 ,B2 ,G1 and G2 were 0 .05 ,0 .05 ,0 .10 and 0 .20 ng/kg respectively while the average recovery rate of standard addition was 89 .3%‐98 .7% and RSD was 2 .6%‐5 .3% .Conclusions By optimizing sample extraction conditions , methods of precise extractions of oasis HLB SPE and cell collision of mass spectrometry bending with 180 degree were adopted to reduce the amount of disturbing impurities in the samples and to increase precision and accuracy . This method can be easily applied while the results are reliable .

  18. Factors Required for the Uridylylation of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3B1, 3B2, and 3B3 Peptides by the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (3Dpol) In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Arabinda; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Belsham, Graham J.

    2005-01-01

    The 5′ terminus of picornavirus genomic RNA is covalently linked to the virus-encoded peptide 3B (VPg). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is unique in encoding and using 3 distinct forms of this peptide. These peptides each act as primers for RNA synthesis by the virus-encoded RNA polymerase 3Dpol. To act as the primer for positive-strand RNA synthesis, the 3B peptides have to be uridylylated to form VPgpU(pU). For certain picornaviruses, it has been shown that this reaction is achieved by ...

  19. 免疫亲和柱萃取-液相色谱柱后衍生荧光法检测黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2%Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 based on immunoaffinity column extraction and liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝尚东; 欧战功

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This study presents a method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1,B2,G~,and G2.Methods:The samples were purified and enriched with immunoaffinity column,with the mobile phase consisting of water,methanol and acetonitrile (6∶3∶2),350 μl 4 mol/L nitric acid and 0.120 g potassium bromide,determined by fluorescent method after high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivation.Results:The method is highly selective with good.linearity (r > 0.999),the linear range of the method was 0.07 μg/kg ~9.08 μg/kg for AFB1,0.02 μg/kg ~ 2.70 μg/kg for AFB2,0.07 μg/kg ~ 9.0 μg/kg for AFG1,0.03 μg/kg ~2.79 μg/kg for AFG2,the detection limit and limit of quantification values (μg/kg) were:aflatoxin B1,0.02,0.07 ; aflatoxinB2,0.01,0.02 ; aflatoxin G1,0.02,0.07 ; and aflatoxin G2,0.01,0.03,the recoveries of the samples ranged from 80% to 105%.Condusion:The results show that the method is rapid,sensitive and accurate,and it can determine AFB1,AFB2,AFG1,AFG2 simultaneously.%目的:本文研究了同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1和G2(AFB1、AFB2 、AFG1、AFG2)的方法.方法:使用免疫亲和柱富集净化,以每升流动相含有0.120 g溴化钾和350μ4 mol/L硝酸的水:甲醇:乙腈(6:3:2)为洗脱液,高效液相色谱电化学柱后衍生,荧光法测定.结果:方法的选择性较好,线性关系(r>0.999),线性范围:AFB1为0.07 μg/kg ~ 9.08 μg/kg; AFB2为0.02 μg/kg~2.70 μg/kg;AFG1为0.07 μg/kg~9.0 μg/kg; AFG2为0.03 μg/kg~2.79 μg/kg,相对标准偏差0.5% ~ 3.5%之间,检测限和定量限值(μg/kg):AFB1为0.02,0.07;AFB2为,0.01,0.02;AFG1为0.02,0.07;AFG2为0.01,0.03,回收率为80%~105%.结论:该方法快速、准确,能同时测定AFB1、AFB2 、AFG1、AFG2.

  20. The cloning of cyclin B3 and its gene expression during hormonally induced spermatogenesis in the teleost, Anguilla japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We cloned cyclin B1, B2, and B3 cDNAs from the eel testis. Northern blot analysis indicated that these cyclin B mRNAs were expressed and increased from day 3 onward after the hormonal induction of spermatogenesis, and that cyclin B3 was most dominantly expressed during spermatogenesis. In situ hybridization showed that cyclin B1 and B2 were present from the spermatogonium stage to the spermatocyte stage. On the other hand, cyclin B3 mRNA was present only in spermatogonia. Although mouse cyclin B3 is expressed specifically in the early meiotic prophase, these results indicate that eel cyclin B3 expression is limited during spermatogenesis to spermatogonia, but is not present in spermatocytes. These facts together suggest that eel cyclin B3 is specifically involved in spermatogonial proliferation (mitosis), but not in meiosis

  1. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure.

  2. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifen; Han, Zheng; Cai, Zengxuan; Wu, Yongjiang; Ren, Yiping

    2010-03-01

    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products was developed. The sample was extracted by 84% of acetonitrile aqueous solution and the extract was purified by a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method. Then, the analytes were separated on Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile/methanol (50/50, v/v). The separated compounds were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electro-spray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R(2) > or = 0.9990), average recovery (74.7-86.8%) and precision (relative standard deviation aflatoxins in peanuts and their derivative products. Finally, a total of 73 samples randomly collected from different areas in Zhejiang province were screened for aflatoxins with the proposed method. The results showed that 31 samples of peanut butter, 14 samples of fresh peanut and 5 samples of musty peanut were contaminated with aflatoxins. Meanwhile, this was the first report on aflatoxins M1 and M2, which were found in unprocessed peanuts and their derivative products. PMID:20152266

  3. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure. PMID:23871563

  4. TaqI B1/B2 and -629A/C cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene polymorphisms and their association with CETP activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a Tehranian population. Part of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam S Daneshpour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene TaqI intron 1 B1/B2 polymorphism and the -629A/C CETP promoter polymorphism in respect to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in a healthy Iranian population taken from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS. The relationship between CETP activity and HDL-C level was also determined along with body mass index, blood pressure and tobacco smoking status. PCR-RFLP used to amplify a segment of the CETP intron 1 TaqI (B2/B1 polymorphism from 1021 individuals and we selected 345 individuals from the lowest, middle and highest HDL-C deciles and investigated the -629A/C polymorphism. We also evaluated the CETP activity of 103 of these individuals, each with at least one homozygous allele. The presence of the TaqI B2 and -629A/C A alleles were significantly associated with increased HDL-C levels (B2B2 = 1.19 ± 0.31 mmolL-1 vs. B1B1 = 1.01 ± 0.2 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001; AA = 1.15 ± 0.41 mmol L-1 vs. CC = 0.95 ± 0.28 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001 and decreased the CETP activity (B1B1 = 67.8 ± 8.9 pmol L-1 vs. B2B2 = 62.6 ± 9.6 pmol L-1 for p < 0.01; CC = 68.6 ± 8.4 pmol L-1 vs. AA = 62.7 ± 9.7 pmol L-1 for p < 0.002. The frequencies were 0.382 for the TaqI B2 allele and 0.462 for the -629A/C A allele, with linkage disequilibrium analysis giving D = 0.0965 and D' = 0.4695. We demonstrated that the TaqI B1 and B2 alleles and the -629A/C A and C alleles were in linkage disequilibrium in our population and that there was a significant association between the B2 and A alleles and high HDL-C levels and low CETP activity. Linkage disequilibrium between the TaqI A and B2 alleles also detected.

  5. Ultraviolet Photodissociation Dynamics of the Allyl Radical via the B̃(2)A1(3s), C̃(2)B2(3py), and Ẽ(2)B1(3px) Electronic Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Lucas, Michael; Alcaraz, Maria; Zhang, Jingsong; Brazier, Christopher

    2015-12-17

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled allyl radical via the B̃(2)A1(3s), C̃(2)B2(3py), and Ẽ(2)B1(3px) electronically excited states are studied at the photolysis wavelengths from 249 to 216 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight (HRTOF) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques. The photofragment yield (PFY) spectra of the H atom products are measured using both allyl chloride and 1,5-hexadiene as precursors of the allyl radical and show a broad peak centered near 228 nm, whereas the previous UV absorption spectra of the allyl radical peak around 222 nm. This difference suggests that, in addition to the H + C3H4 product channel, another dissociation channel (likely CH3 + C2H2) becomes significant with increasing excitation energy. The product translational energy release of the H + C3H4 products is modest, with the P(ET) distributions peaking near 8.5 kcal/mol and the fraction of the average translational energy in the total excess energy, ⟨fT⟩, in the range 0.22-0.18 from 249 to 216 nm. The P(ET)'s are consistent with production of H + allene and H + propyne, as suggested by previous experimental and theoretical studies. The angular distributions of the H atom products are isotropic, with the anisotropy parameter β ≈ 0. The H atom dissociation rate constant from the pump-probe study gives a lower limit of 1 × 10(8)/s. The dissociation mechanism is consistent with unimolecular decomposition of the hot allyl radical on the ground electronic state after internal conversion of the electronically excited state. PMID:26334360

  6. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility characteristics of a method using immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup with postcolumn derivatization and LC with a fluorescence detector (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AFs; sum of AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2) in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil have been established in a collaborative study involving 15 laboratories from six countries. Blind duplicate samples of blank, spiked at levels ranging from 0.25 to 20.0 microg/kg for AF, were analyzed. A naturally contaminated peanut oil sample was also included. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an IAC, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC-FLD analysis after postcolumn derivatization. Average recoveries of AFs from olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 84 to 92% (at spiking levels ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg); of AFB1 from 86 to 93% (at spiking levels ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg); of AFB2 from 89 to 95% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg); of AFG1 from 85 to 97% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microg/kg); and of AFG2 from 76 to 85% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg). RSDs for within-laboratory repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 3.4 to 10.2% for AF, from 3.5 to 10.9% for AFB1, from 3.2 to 9.5% for AFB2, from 6.5 to 14.9% for AFG1, and from 4.8 to 14.2% for AFG2. RSDs for between-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 6.1 to 14.5% for AF, from 7.5 to 15.4% for AFB1, from 7.1 to 14.6% for AFB2, from 10.8 to 18.1% for AFG1, and from 7.6 to 23.7% for AFG2. Horwitz ratio values were < or = 2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:23451385

  7. Infectious genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, 6a and 7a hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present inventors used the previously developed H77/JFH 1.sub.T27OOC,A4O8OT (1a/2a), J4/JFH .sub.1T2996C,A4827T,.DELTA.HVRI (1b/2a), J6/JFH .sub.1.DELTA.HVRI (2a/2a), J8/JFH 1.sub..DELTA.HVRI (2b/2a), S52/JFH 1.sub.T27i8G,.tau.7i6oc (3a/2a), SA13/JFH 1.sub.C34O5G,A3696G (5a/2a) and HK6a/JFH 1T.......sub.1389c,A1590G (6a/2a) constructs for the deletion of Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1) to construct viable, JFH 1 (genotype 2a) based, genomes. The present inventors serially passaged the viruses in cell culture obtaining relatively high HCV RNA titers and infectivity titers. Sequence analysis...

  8. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in peanut butter using on-line post-column photo-chemical derivatization-HPLC-FLD method. The samples were extracted with acetonitril-H2O (80:20) and purified with inmunoafinity column,aflatoxins were analyzed by HPLC -FLD with post -column photochemical derivatizaton. On optimum conditions,aflatoxin B1,G1 ranging 0.30 mg/L-10 mg/L showed a good linear relationship with aflatoxin B2,G2 ranging 0.06 mg/L-3.0mg/L with r>0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.%建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD<5.9%.黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的检测限(LOD)分别为0.10、0.03、0.15、0.04μg/kg.

  9. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇

    2015-01-01

    建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.

  10. Ecotin-Like ISP of L. major Promastigotes Fine-Tunes Macrophage Phagocytosis by Limiting the Pericellular Release of Bradykinin from Surface-Bound Kininogens: A Survival Strategy Based on the Silencing of Proinflammatory G-Protein Coupled Kinin B2 and B1 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Svensjö

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs expressed by Leishmania major enhance intracellular parasitism in macrophages by targeting neutrophil elastase (NE, a serine protease that couples phagocytosis to the prooxidative TLR4/PKR pathway. Here we investigated the functional interplay between ISP-expressing L. major and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. Enzymatic assays showed that NE inhibitor or recombinant ISP-2 inhibited KKS activation in human plasma activated by dextran sulfate. Intravital microscopy in the hamster cheek pouch showed that topically applied L. major promastigotes (WT and Δisp2/3 mutants potently induced plasma leakage through the activation of bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R. Next, using mAbs against kininogen domains, we showed that these BK-precursor proteins are sequestered by L. major promastigotes, being expressed at higher % in the Δisp2/3 mutant population. Strikingly, analysis of the role of kinin pathway in the phagocytic uptake of L. major revealed that antagonists of B2R or B1R reversed the upregulated uptake of Δisp2/3 mutants without inhibiting macrophage internalization of WT L. major. Collectively, our results suggest that L. major ISP-2 fine-tunes macrophage phagocytosis by inhibiting the pericellular release of proinflammatory kinins from surface bound kininogens. Ongoing studies should clarify whether L. major ISP-2 subverts TLR4/PKR-dependent prooxidative responses of macrophages by preventing activation of G-protein coupled B2R/B1R.

  11. Ecotin-like ISP of L. major promastigotes fine-tunes macrophage phagocytosis by limiting the pericellular release of bradykinin from surface-bound kininogens: a survival strategy based on the silencing of proinflammatory G-protein coupled kinin B2 and B1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensjö, Erik; Nogueira de Almeida, Larissa; Vellasco, Lucas; Juliano, Luiz; Scharfstein, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs) expressed by Leishmania major enhance intracellular parasitism in macrophages by targeting neutrophil elastase (NE), a serine protease that couples phagocytosis to the prooxidative TLR4/PKR pathway. Here we investigated the functional interplay between ISP-expressing L. major and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). Enzymatic assays showed that NE inhibitor or recombinant ISP-2 inhibited KKS activation in human plasma activated by dextran sulfate. Intravital microscopy in the hamster cheek pouch showed that topically applied L. major promastigotes (WT and Δisp2/3 mutants) potently induced plasma leakage through the activation of bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R). Next, using mAbs against kininogen domains, we showed that these BK-precursor proteins are sequestered by L. major promastigotes, being expressed at higher % in the Δisp2/3 mutant population. Strikingly, analysis of the role of kinin pathway in the phagocytic uptake of L. major revealed that antagonists of B2R or B1R reversed the upregulated uptake of Δisp2/3 mutants without inhibiting macrophage internalization of WT L. major. Collectively, our results suggest that L. major ISP-2 fine-tunes macrophage phagocytosis by inhibiting the pericellular release of proinflammatory kinins from surface bound kininogens. Ongoing studies should clarify whether L. major ISP-2 subverts TLR4/PKR-dependent prooxidative responses of macrophages by preventing activation of G-protein coupled B2R/B1R. PMID:25294952

  12. Method Validation for the Quantitative Analysis of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) and Ochratoxin A in Processed Cereal-Based Foods by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioğlu, Işil; Kolak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Modified AOAC 991.31 and AOAC 2000.03 methods for the simultaneous determination of total aflatoxins (AFs), aflatoxin B1, and ochratoxin A (OTA) in processed cereal-based foods by RP-HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection were validated. A KOBRA® Cell derivatization system was used to analyze total AFs. One of the modifications was the extraction procedure of mycotoxins. Both AFs and OTA were extracted with methanol-water (75+25, v/v) and purified with an immunoaffinity column before HPLC analysis. The modified methods were validated by measuring the specificity, selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, LOD, and LOQ parameters. The validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in 81 processed cereal-based foods purchased in Turkey. These rapid, sensitive, simple, and validated methods are suitable for the simultaneous determination of AFs and OTA in the processed cereal-based foods.

  13. Method Validation for the Quantitative Analysis of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) and Ochratoxin A in Processed Cereal-Based Foods by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioğlu, Işil; Kolak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Modified AOAC 991.31 and AOAC 2000.03 methods for the simultaneous determination of total aflatoxins (AFs), aflatoxin B1, and ochratoxin A (OTA) in processed cereal-based foods by RP-HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection were validated. A KOBRA® Cell derivatization system was used to analyze total AFs. One of the modifications was the extraction procedure of mycotoxins. Both AFs and OTA were extracted with methanol-water (75+25, v/v) and purified with an immunoaffinity column before HPLC analysis. The modified methods were validated by measuring the specificity, selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, LOD, and LOQ parameters. The validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in 81 processed cereal-based foods purchased in Turkey. These rapid, sensitive, simple, and validated methods are suitable for the simultaneous determination of AFs and OTA in the processed cereal-based foods. PMID:26268976

  14. The Mysterious Ways of ErbB2/HER2 Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Vibeke Bertelsen; Espen Stang

    2014-01-01

    The EGFR- or ErbB-family of receptor tyrosine kinases consists of EGFR/ErbB1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB3/HER3 and ErbB4/HER4. Receptor activation and downstream signaling are generally initiated upon ligand-induced receptor homo- or heterodimerization at the plasma membrane, and endocytosis and intracellular membrane transport are crucial for regulation of the signaling outcome. Among the receptors, ErbB2 is special in several ways. Unlike the others, ErbB2 has no known ligand, but is still the favore...

  15. Quantising the B=2 and B=3 Skyrmion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the quantisation of a collective Hamiltonian for the two-baryon system derived by us in a previous paper. We show that by increasing the sophistication of the approximations we can obtain a bound state - or a resonance - not too far removed from the threshold with the quantum numbers of the deuteron. The energy of this state is shown to depend very sensitively on the parameters of the model. Subsequently we construct part of a collective Hamiltonian for the three-baryon system. Large-amplitude quantum fluctuations play an important role in the intrinsic wave function of the ground state, changing its symmetry from tetrahedral to cubic. Apart from the tetrahedron describing the minimum of the potential, we identify a ''doughnut'' and a ''pretzel'' as the most important saddle points in the potential energy surface. We show that it is likely that inclusion of fluctuations through these saddle points leads to an energy close to the triton's value. (orig.)

  16. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyou; Rui

    2014-01-01

    The Src homology 2B(SH2B)family members(SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3)are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains.SH2B1(also called SH2-B and PSM)and SH2B2(also called APS)are able to form homo-or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains.Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins,including Janus kinase 2(JAK2),TrkA,insulin receptors,insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors,insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS1),and IRS2.SH2B1 enhances leptin signaling by both stimulating JAK2 activity and assembling a JAK2/IRS1/2 signaling complex.SH2B1 promotes insulin signaling by both enhancing insulin receptor catalytic activity and protecting against dephosphorylation of IRS proteins.Accordingly,genetic deletion of SH2B1 results in severe leptin resistance,insulin resistance,hyperphagia,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in mice.Neuronspecific overexpression of SH2B1βtransgenes protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.SH2B1 in pancreaticβcells promotesβcell expansion and insulin secretion to counteract insulin resistance in obesity.Moreover,numerous SH2B1 mutations are genetically linked to leptin resistance,insulin resistance,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in humans.Unlike SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3 are not required for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis.The metabolic function of the SH2B family is conserved from insects to humans.

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Aflatoxin B1B2、G1、G2 in Fried Foods By Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography%超高效液相色谱法同时测定油炸食品中4种黄曲霉毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 蔡志斌; 郑志伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a rapid, sensitive and simple method for the determination of aflatoxin B1B2 、G1、G2 in fried foods by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Methods Sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile and cleaned- up with the MFC. The purified solution was concentrated and evaporated to dryness. Aflatoxins were derivatized with TFA and detected and quantitated by UPLC with fluorescence detection. Results The four afltoxins could be separated in 5 minutes. The linear range of the method is 0.10~ 100. 00μg/L for aflatoxin B1 ,G1, and 0.05~50. 00μg/L for aflatox B2, G2, and the lowest detection limit was 0. 04μg/kg for aflatoxin B1 、G1 and 0.02μg/kg for B2, G2. The method has been successfully applied to determination of fried foods. The recoveries of aflatoxins was in the range of 82.0% ~ 101. 2%and the relative standard deviation was < 5 %,The correlation coefficient was ≥0.999. Conclusion This method is simpie,high sensitive, accurate and rapid for aflatoxin B1B2 、G1 、G2 detection in fried foods.%目的 建立一种快速、灵敏、简便的超高效液相色谱法(UPLC)同时测定油炸食品中黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1),B2 (AFB2),G1 (AFG1),G2 (AFG2)水平的方法.方法 样品用乙腈水(84:16)提取液提取后过滤,滤液经黄曲霉毒素多功能净化柱(MPC)净化,纯化液经浓缩挥干后,加三氟乙酸(TFA)衍生后,用带有荧光检测器的超高效液相色谱仪测定.结果 4种黄曲霉毒素5 min完全分离,线性范围质量浓度分别为0.10~100.00μg/L(AFB1,AFG1),0.05-50.00μg/L(AFB2,AFG2),最低检出质量分数分别为0.04μg/kg(AFB1,AFG1),0.02μg/kg(AFB2,AFG2),油炸食品回收率为82.0%~101.2%,相对标准偏差<5%,r≥0.999.结论 该方法简单、快速、灵敏度高,适用于油炸食品中4种黄曲霉毒素水平的同时测定.

  18. A propos cahier d'exercices : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire et avancé. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses indications pédagogiques pour aborder et exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques. La méthode " A propos " se compose de : - un manuel de l'élève pour les activités de classe avec la transcription des documents sonores ; - un coffret de 2 cd contenant plus de 50 documents sonores originaux ; - un cahier d'exercices pour le travail individuel de l'étudiant ; - un guide pédagogique proposant de très nombreux documents et activités complémentaires pour le professeur, avec le corrigé des exercices.

  19. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素%HPLC-MS/MS simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 in Pheretima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小丽; 仇峰; 韦日伟; 覃禹; 杨美华; 欧阳臻

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry method(LC -MS/MS) for simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins in Pheretima. Methods;The samples were firstly extracted with methanol - water solution ( 80:20, v/v), and then cleaned up by immunoaffinity columns. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ionization electrospray( ESI) mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for analysis of four aflatoxins. The transitions of m/z 313-241 (aflatoxin B, ,CE 50 eV) ,m/z 315-259 (aflatoxin B2,CE 43 eV) ,m/z 329-243 (aflatoxin G1,CE 38 eV) and m/z 331-245(aflatoxin G2,CE 40 eV) were used to quantify four aflatoxins,respectively. Results:The detection limits of aflatoxin B1,B2 ,G1 and G2 were 0. 03,0. 02,0. 03 and 0. 02 μg o kg-1 .respectively. The recoveries of four analytes ranged from 88. 0% to 100. 3% and the relative standard deviations were all below 6. 1 %. Conclusion; The method is sensitive, simple and accurate, and proved to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins in Pheretima.%目的:建立同时测定地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素含量的高效液相色谱串联质谱法.方法:样品经甲醇-水(80∶20,v/v)提取,通过免疫亲和柱净化后,采用高效液相色谱串联质谱法测定其中4个黄曲霉毒素的含量,以多反应监测(MRM)方式分别监测离子对m/z 313→241(黄曲霉毒素B1,CE 50 eV),m/z 315→259(黄曲霉毒素B2,CE 43 eV),m/z329→243(黄曲霉毒素G1,CE 38 eV)和m/z 331→245(黄曲霉毒素G2,CE 40 eV).结果:黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的检测限分别为0.03,0.02,0.03,0.02μg·kg-1,回收率在88.0%~100.3%范围内,RSD均低于6.1%.结论:该方法快速、灵敏,结果准确,适用于地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素的同时检测.

  20. Determination of Aflatoxins in Taditional Chinese Medicine by Cleaning up the Immunoaffinity Column and HPLC with Post Column Photochemical Derivatization%免疫亲和柱-HPLC柱后光化学衍生法测定中药饮片中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迪; 谭丹; 向文英; 孙佳; 李勇军; 王爱民

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立中药饮片中黄曲霉毒素( AF)B1B2、G1、G2含量测定的方法。方法:收集中药饮片87批,用免疫亲和柱进行AF的分离处理,采用高液相色谱( HPLC)柱后光化学衍生化法测定中药饮片中AFB1、AFB2、AFG1、AFG2含量并进行方法学分析。结果:被测定的AFB1、AFB2、AFG1、AFG2的检出限分别为0.7、0.3、0.6和0.3μg/kg,在选定的范围内线性关系良好( r≥0.999),精密度试验、重复性试验、准确度试验及标准样品验证试验结果均良好,87批中药饮片均未检出黄曲霉毒素。结论:免疫亲和柱-HPLC柱后光化学衍生化法操作简便,专属性强、灵敏度高,检测中药饮片中AFB1、AFB2、AFG1及AFG2的含量准确可靠。%Objective:To establish a method for determination of aflatoxins in Chinese medicinal de-coction pieces and to promote quality control of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. Methods:Eighty-seven batches of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces were collected and immunoaffinity column and HPLC with post column photochemical derivatization was adopted to measure aflatoxins content,inclu-ding aflatoxin B1,aflatoxin B2,aflatoxin G1,aflatoxin G2 in all samples. Results:The detection lim-it of aflatoxin B1 ,aflatoxin B2 ,aflatoxin G1 ,aflatoxin G2 was 0 . 7 ,0 . 3 ,0 . 6 and 0 . 3 μg/kg respec-tively. There was a a good linear relationship(r≥0. 999)in selected range of content. The results of precision test,repeatability test,accuracy test were good as well. In 87 different batches of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces,aflatoxins were not detected. Conclusion:The mothod of Immunoaffinity column and HPLC with post column photochemical derivatization is convenient,specific,sensitive,ac-curate and reliable in measuring aflatoxins content of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces.

  1. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  2. Development and in-house validation of a robust and sensitive solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Gatta, Stefania Della; Suman, Michele; Visconti, Angelo

    2011-07-15

    A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2)), ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (84:16, v/v) and cleaned up through a polymeric solid-phase extraction column. Detection and quantification of the nine mycotoxins were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), using fully (13)C-isotope-labelled mycotoxins as internal standards. The method was validated in-house for five different cereal processed products, namely barley, oat and durum wheat flours, rye- and wheat-based crisp bread. Recoveries and repeatability of the whole analytical procedure were evaluated at contamination levels encompassing the EU maximum permitted levels for each tested mycotoxin. Recoveries ranged from 89 to 108% for deoxynivalenol, from 73 to 114% for aflatoxins, from 85 to 114% for T-2 and HT-2 toxins, from 64 to 97% for zearalenone, from 74 to 102% for ochratoxin A. Relative standard deviations were less than 16% for all tested mycotoxins and matrices. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) ranged from 0.1 to 59.2 µg/kg. The trueness of the results obtained by the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of reference materials for aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone. The use of inexpensive clean-up cartridges and the increasing availability of less expensive LC/MS/MS instrumentation strengthen the potential of the proposed method for its effective application for reliable routine analysis to assess compliance of tested cereal products with current regulation. PMID:21638363

  3. 子宫切除联合阴道延长手术对Ⅰb1~Ⅰb2期宫颈癌患者婚姻质量的影响%Quality of marriage and sexual function of cervical cancer patients following radical hysterectomy and vaginal extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 张友忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of marriage and sexual function of cervical cancer patients following radical hysterectomy and vaginal extension.Methods Case-control and questionnairebased methods were used in this study.Forty patients of early-stage (Ⅰ b 1 ~ Ⅰ b2) cervical cancer who had undergone vaginal extension following classic radical hysterectomy were included in the observation group,while 40 patients with matching factors and radical hysterectomy only during the same period were included in the control group.The quality of marriage and sexual function were compared with OLSON marriage prolapse and incontinence sexual function questionnaire Shon Fonn (PISQ-12).Results The operation time and postoperative vaginal length in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).The emotional,physical,and total scores during postoperation were lower than those during preoperation (P < 0.01).The emotional,physical,and total scores in the control group were lower than those in the observation group (P < 0.01).The marital satisfaction,husband and wife communication,conflict resolution methods,extracurricular activities and sex scores in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).Conclusions Patients with peritoneovaginoplasty following radical hysterectomy had much longer vagina and less self-perceived short vagina.Vaginal extension following radical hysterectomy does not worsen the pelvic floor symptoms.%目的 探讨子宫切除联合阴道延长手术对Ⅰb1~Ⅰb2期宫颈癌患者婚姻质量、生活质量及性生活的影响.方法 选择本院住院经宫腔细胞学及宫颈活组织病理学确诊的Ⅰb1~Ⅰb2期宫颈癌患者80例为研究对象,采用随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,每组40例,两组分别给予腹腔镜子宫切除联合阴道延长手术与单独腹腔镜子宫切除手术治疗.观察患者术

  4. 超高效液相色谱法快速检测粮食中黄曲霉毒素的含量%Rapid Analysis of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) in Grain by Immuno-affinity Clear-up Column and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography without Derivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 王松雪; 张艳

    2013-01-01

    建立了免疫亲和柱净化-超高效液相色谱法快速测定粮食中黄曲霉毒素(Aflatoxins,AF)的检测方法.样品经提取后,用免疫亲和柱净化、浓缩,Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18色谱柱(50 mm×2.1 mm,1.7 um)分离.以甲醇-水(40∶60,V/V)为流动相,流速为0.2 mL/min,进样量为1μL,荧光检测器检测,激发波长为360 nm,发射波长为440 nm,无需衍生.黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的保留时间小于5min,从样品前处理到结果分析整个过程小于45 min.根据3倍信噪比的峰响应值,确定黄曲霉毒素(B1,B2,G1,G2)检出限分别为0.15,0.05,0.40,0.06 pg,4种毒素在0.4 ~ 60.0 pg,0.2~15.0 pg,1.5~ 60.0 pg和0.2~15.0 pg范围内分别呈线性相关,相关系数R2值分别为0.9999,0.9999,0.9998和0.9992;在小麦、玉米、稻谷3类样品中加标回收率为77.4% ~ 104.2%,精密度为1.8% ~ 8.9%.本方法无需衍生即可同时测定粮食中4种黄曲霉毒素,适用于粮食中黄曲霉毒素的快速定量测定.%A rapid and environmental-friendly analytical method without any derivation was established for the determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) in grain samples. The samples were extracted by methanol-water, cleared up with the immuno-affinity column (IAC). The separation of target compound was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18(50 mmx2. 1 mm, 1. 7μ,m) using methanol; water (40 = 60, V/V) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0. 2 mL/min at 25 ℃. The injection volume was 1 μL and detection wavelengths were set at 360 nm (λem) and 440 nm (λeX) using fluorescence detector (FLD). The retention time was less than 5 min, and the whole analytical time was less than 45 min. The detection limits of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 were 0.15, 0.05, 0.40 and 0.06 pg, respectively. The linear detection ranges of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 were 0. 4-60. 0, 0. 2-15. 0, 1. 5-60, 0. 2-15. 00 pg with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9999, 0.9999, 0.9998, 0.9992, respectively

  5. Determination of aflatoxins in Nelumbinis Semen by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC-FLD with on-line post-column photochemical derivatization and LC-MS/MS confirmation%免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生HPLC-FLD检测莲子中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2及其液质确证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书宇; 仇峰; 杨美华

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测药食同源中药材莲子中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的含量,并采用液质联用法进行确证.方法:样品以甲醇-水(80∶20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.并进一步采用LC-MS/MS对阳性样品进行确证.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1,G1在0.3~30μg·L-1,黄曲霉毒素B2,G2在0.09~9.0 μg·L-线性关系良好,r>0.999 9,回收率86.7% ~99.1%,RSD <4.87%.黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的检测限(LOD)分别为0.08,0.03,0.10,0.03 μg·kg-1.所测的20批莲子样品中,有14批样品的黄曲霉毒素检测结果呈阳性,其中黄曲霉毒素B1的污染水平为0.40~586μg·kg-1,黄曲霉毒素总量(B1+B2+G1+G2)的污染水平为0.40 ~ 602.5 μg·kg-1.通过LC-MS/MS确证,在与对照品相同的保留时间处,样品与对照品有相同的特征离子碎片,排除了样品假阳性的可能.结论:该方法简便快速,灵敏度高,重复性好,适用于莲子中黄曲霉毒素的检测.%To determine the contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Nelumbinis Semen using on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-HPLC-FLD method and verify the method by LC-MS method. Method: The samples were extracted with MeOH-H2O (80: 20) and purified with inmunoaffinity column, aflatoxins were analyzed by HPLC-FLD with post-column photochemical derivatizaton. The positive samples were further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Result: On optimum conditions, aflatoxin B1 , G1 ranging 0. 3-30 mg · L-1 showed a good linear relationship with aflatoxin B2, G2 ranging 0. 09-9. 0 mg · L-1 with r >0. 999 9. The recoveries ranged between 86. 7% and 99. 1 % , with RSDs all bellow 4. 87%. LOD of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G, and G2 were 0. 08, 0. 03, 0. 10, 0. 03 μg · Kg-1 , respectively. Among 20 Nelumbinis Semen samples, 14 were found to contain aflatoxin B1 ranging from 0. 40 to 586 μg · Kg-1. The

  6. Metabolic products of microorganisms. 249. Tetracenomycins B3 and D3, key intermediates of the elloramycin and tetracenomycin C biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, J; Eick, S; Zeeck, A; Reuschenbach, P; Zähner, H; Fiedler, H P

    1988-08-01

    Tetracenomycins B3 and D3, besides tetracenomycin D (D1), were produced by a blocked mutant of the elloramycin producer Streptomyces olivaceus TU 2353. The compounds were isolated as red powders, and their structures were elucidated by comparing their physicochemical data with those of the known tetracenomycins A2, B1, B2, D and E. Tetracenomycin B3 (2), the main compound, and tetracenomycin D (3) were antibiotically inactive against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas tetracenomycin D3 (1) showed a moderate activity against Bacillus subtilis and Arthrobacter aurescens. Tetracenomycin B3 (2) is the key intermediate where the biosynthesis of the elloramycins branches off from the line leading to tetracenomycin C (5) as the final product of the tetracenomycin biosynthesis branch.

  7. B2B marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  8. The Convergence of (i1i),(b2,1k0) and (i1i).(b3,1k0)%(i1i)*(b12k0)及(i1i)*(b31k0)在π*V(1)中的收敛性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建侠

    2009-01-01

    对连通有限型谱X,y,存在Adams谱序列{Es,tr,dr},满足(1)dr:Es,t,r→Es+r,t+r-1,r是谱序列的微分, (2)Es,t,2≌Exts,t,A(H*X,H*y),(3)收敛到[∑t-sY,X].当X分别是球谱S,Moore谱M,Toda-smith谱V(1)时,(πt-X)p分别是S,M,V(1)的稳定同伦群.利用Adams 谱序列,证明了(i1i)*(62,1k0)及(i1i)*(b3,1k0)是永久循环但不是边缘,因此收敛到π*V(1)中的非零元,其中P为奇索数,q=2p-2.

  9. B1 Aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    DGU that was developped during the project. B12 and B14 have measured the g-value and the U-value respectively of the aerogel DGU.Furthermore calculations of the energy saving potential by using aerogel windows in selected residential and commercial buildings under different climatic conditions were...... carried out as part of the A2/A3 project.The B1 Aerogel project has been carried out with partition of the following nations: Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom....

  10. B2(BO)6 0/- and B 2(BS) 6 0/- doubly bridged structures containing BO or BS as ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Si-Dian

    2014-09-01

    The investigation on the geometrical and electronic properties of B(2)(BO)(6) (0/-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (0/-) has been performed by density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP and BP86 methods. The chemical bonding in B(2)A(6) (A = H, BO, and BS) series is elucidated through the recently developed adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP). D(2h) B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) were found to possess two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups, as well as four terminal BO or BS groups that are analogs of diborane B(2)H(6). D(2)h B(2)(BO)(6) (-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (-) with two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups which are more stable than their corresponding D(3d) structures. The binding energy of B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) with respect to B(2)(BO)(6) (D2h) → 2B(BO)(3) (D(3h)) and B(2)(BS)(6)(D(2h)) → 2B(BS)(3) (D(3h)) are estimated to be (△)E = 19.8 and 40.6 kcal mol(-1) at CCSD(T)//B3LYP level, respectively. This finding advances the boronyl chemistry and helps establish the isolobal analogy between boron-rich oxide clusters and boranes. PMID:25159274

  11. Emergence of clonal groups O1:HNM-D-ST59; O15:H1-D-ST393; O20:H34/HNM-D-ST354; O25b:H4-B2-ST131 and ONT:H21,42-B1-ST101 among CTX-M-14-producing clinical isolates in Galicia; northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Miguel; López, Cecilia; Mamani, Rosalia; Blanco, Jesús E.; Alonso, María Pilar; García-Garrote, Fernando; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Herrera, Alexandra; Fernández, Ana; Fernández, Begoña; Agulla, Andrés; Bou, Germán; Blanco, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Abstract CTX-M enzymes, mainly CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15, have emerged as the most prevalent extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) type produced by Escherichia coli in Spain, with successful dissemination of clonal group O25b:H4-B2-ST131 producing CTX-M-15 within the hospital and community settings. However, until now CTX-M-14-producing E. coli in Spain had been shown to belong to a wide variety of serotypes with no predominance of a certain clonal group. In the present study, 654 E. co...

  12. aflatoxina b1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valdivia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de probar que la suplementación dietética de ácido elágico (AE o N-Acetilcisteína (NAC en pollos de engorda, atenúa los efectos de una intoxicación aguda por la aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, se intoxicaron con AFB1 pura, tres grupos de diez pollos cada uno (3.0 mb/kg pc, IP. Otros tres grupos recibieron solamente el vehículo (aceite de maíz 2.0 ml/kg pc, IP. Cuatro días antes se administró un alimento testigo, o bien, la misma dieta adicionada con AE (2.5 g/kg o NAC (200 mg/kg pc/6 h. A las 24 horas de la administración de AFB1, se cuantificaron las concentraciones hepáticas de glutatión (GSH, de actividad enzimática específica de la transferasa de glutatión (GST, alanina aminotransferasa, aspartato aminotransferasa y de proteínas hepáticas totales. Los resultados mostraron que NAC atenúa el impacto negativo de la AFB1 sobre el crecimiento corporal y al igual que AE, incrementa la GST y revierte parcialmente los efectos de AFB1 sobre GSH, lo cual sugiere que ambas sustancias pudieran conferir un efecto protector de las aves

  13. Kinetic energy release in CO fragmentation by electron loss and capture collisions of fast B''2''+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization and fragmentation of CO molecules have been investigated in charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ ions at v = 1.69 a.u.. Fragment ions from CO were measured by using a momentum 3D imaging technique in coincidence with outgoing projectile charge states. We deduced the kinetic energy release (KER) associated with charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ to B''3''+, B''1''+ and B''0''+. The KER spectra in the fragmentation to C''+ and O''+ ions are found to be different to some extent for these loss and capture collisions. It is concluded that the electron loss collision populates the intact CO molecule to highly excited states of (CO)''2''+''1 more effectively than electron capture collisions, resulting from different effective impact parameters associated with loss and capture collisions.

  14. Structural optimization and physical properties of TcB3 and MoB3 at high-pressure: First-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chun; Bai, Xiaowan; Du, Yungang; Zhao, Erjun; Lin, Lin; Hou, Qingyu

    2016-06-01

    The thermodynamic, mechanical and dynamic properties of TcB3 and MoB3 are systematically investigated at high-pressure by first-principles within density functional theory (DFT). The calculated formation enthalpies are negative for TcB3 with considered structures under the pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa. Triboride hP4-TcB3 (i.e., TcB3 in hP4-OsB3 type structure) has the lowest formation enthalpy of -1.44 eV under ambient condition. The largest shear modulus of 240 GPa and smallest Poisson’s ratio of 0.20 for oP16-TcB3 are comparable to those of 267 GPa and 0.15 for ReB2. The calculated elastic constants show that MB3 (M=Tc and Mo) are mechanically stable at ambient conditions, except for mP8-MoB3. The estimated high hardness of 33.4 and 33.1 GPa for oP16-TcB3 and hP4-TcB3, respectively, are reported for the first time. The calculated lattice parameters for MoB3 are in good agreement with the previously theoretical and experimental studies. Below 13 GPa, hP16-MoB3 and hR24-MoB3 are thermodynamically more favorable than MoB3 in other structures. A pressure-induced phase transition is predicted at 13 GPa from hP16-MoB3 and hR24-MoB3 to hP4-MoB3. Above 13 GPa, hP4-MoB3 becomes the thermodynamically most stable phase among MoB3 in considered structures. All compounds with considered structures are metallic, and the electronic structures of MB3 are governed by a strong hybridization between M-4d and B-2p states. The strong and directional covalent bonding between M-4d and B-2p as well as the strong interlayer interactions of boron layers are correlated to the high hardness of 38.0 and 38.4 GPa for hP16-MoB3 and hR24-MoB3, respectively.

  15. Cyclin B2 and p53 control proper timing of centrosome separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nam, H.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2014-01-01

    Cyclins B1 and B2 are frequently elevated in human cancers and are associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome; however, whether and how B-type cyclins drive tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that cyclin B1 and B2 transgenic mice are highly prone to tumours, including tumour

  16. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Wille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  17. The magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Henrichs; K. Kolenberg; B. Plaggenborg; S.C. Marsden; I.A. Waite; G.A. Wade

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star σ Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. W

  18. A propos livre de l'élève : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de Français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques

  19. Niacin and niacinamide (Vitamin B3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacin and niacinamide are forms of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains. Niacin and niacinamide are also found in many vitamin B complex ...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 15b.3 Section 15b.3 Agriculture Office of... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.3 Definitions. As used in this part, the...; epilepsy; muscular dystrophy; multiple sclerosis, cancer; heart disease; diabetes; mental...

  1. Ab initio investigation of the electronic and geometric structure of magnesium diboride, MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Mavridis, Aristides

    2005-12-01

    Employing multireference variational (MRCI) and coupled cluster (CC) methods combined with quadruple-zeta quality correlation-consistent basis set, we have studied 36 states of the magnesium diboride (MgB(2)) molecule as well as 17 states of the experimentally unknown diatomic MgB. For all states of MgB(2), we report geometries, atomization energies, and dipole moments, while for the first 5 states, potential energy profiles have been also constructed. The ground state is formally of (1)A(1) V-shaped symmetry with an atomization energy of 108.1(109) kcal/mol at the MRCI(MRCI + Davidson correction) level. The first excited state ((3)B(1)) is less than 1 kcal/mol above the X(1)A(1) state, with the next state of linear Mg-B-B geometry (b(3)Sigma(-)) located 10 kcal/mol higher. In all states, bent or linear, the bonding is complicated and unconventional because of the extraordinary bonding agility of the boron atom(s).

  2. Regiospecific O-methylation of naphthoic acids catalyzed by NcsB1, an O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic neocarzinostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yinggang; Lin, Shuangjun; Zhang, Jian; Cooke, Heather A; Bruner, Steven D; Shen, Ben

    2008-05-23

    Neocarzinostatin, a clinical anticancer drug, is the archetypal member of the chromoprotein family of enediyne antitumor antibiotics that are composed of a nonprotein chromophore and an apoprotein. The neocarzinostatin chromophore consists of a nine-membered enediyne core, a deoxyaminosugar, and a naphthoic acid moiety. We have previously cloned and sequenced the neocarzinostatin biosynthetic gene cluster and proposed that the biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid moiety and its incorporation into the neocarzinostatin chromophore are catalyzed by five enzymes NcsB, NcsB1, NcsB2, NcsB3, and NcsB4. Here we report the biochemical characterization of NcsB1, unveiling that: (i) NcsB1 is an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase; (ii) NcsB1 catalyzes regiospecific methylation at the 7-hydroxy group of its native substrate, 2,7-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid; (iii) NcsB1 also recognizes other dihydroxynaphthoic acids as substrates and catalyzes regiospecific O-methylation; and (iv) the carboxylate and its ortho-hydroxy groups of the substrate appear to be crucial for NcsB1 substrate recognition and binding, and O-methylation takes place only at the free hydroxy group of these dihydroxynaphthoic acids. These findings establish that NcsB1 catalyzes the third step in the biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid moiety of the neocarzinostatin chromophore and further support the early proposal for the biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid and its incorporation into the neocarzinostatin chromophore with free naphthoic acids serving as intermediates. NcsB1 represents another opportunity that can now be exploited to produce novel neocarzinostatin analogs by engineering neocarzinostatin biosynthesis or applying directed biosynthesis strategies. PMID:18387946

  3. The GABAB1a isoform mediates heterosynaptic depression at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guetg, Nicole; Seddik, Riad; Vigot, Réjan;

    2009-01-01

    GABA(B) receptor subtypes are based on the subunit isoforms GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b), which associate with GABA(B2) subunits to form pharmacologically indistinguishable GABA(B(1a,2)) and GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors. Studies with mice selectively expressing GABA(B1a) or GABA(B1b) subunits revealed...... baclofen. Here, we used a combination of genetic, ultrastructural and electrophysiological approaches to analyze to what extent GABA(B(1a,2)) and GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors inhibit glutamate release in response to physiological activation. We first show that at hippocampal mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 pyramidal...

  4. Electronic states of BP, BP +, BP -, B 2P 2, B2P2- and B2P2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Oswald, Rainer; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander; Rosmus, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    Using augmented sextuple zeta basis sets and internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions, potential energy, electric dipole and transition moments have been computed for the X 3Π, a 1Σ +, b 1Π and A 3Σ - states of BP, X 2Σ + and A 2Π states of BP - and X 4Σ - and A 4Π states of BP +. From these data spectroscopic constants, radiative transition probabilities and photoelectron spectra of BP - and BP have been evaluated. The non-vanishing spin-orbit coupling elements between the four low lying triplet and singlet states of the neutral BP have also been calculated from MRCI wavefunctions. The treatment of the corresponding perturbations in the manifold of dense rovibrational states in the three lowest states would require a precise knowledge of the electronic excitation energies. Our best singlet-triplet separations (X-a) are calculated to be 2412 cm -1 (MRCI) and 2482 cm -1 (restricted coupled cluster with perturbative triples (RCCSD(T))) with an estimated error bound of about ±200 cm -1. All three states have long radiative lifetimes with cascading among the rovibrational levels of different states. The ionization energy IE e of BP is calculated to be 9.22 eV (MRCI) and 9.48 eV (RCCSD(T)), the electron affinity EA e 2.51 eV (MRCI) and 2.74 eV (RCCSD(T)). The photoelectron spectra of BP and BP - have been obtained from the Franck-Condon factors of the MRCI potentials. For the UV spectroscopy the dipole allowed radiative transition probabilities are given for A 3Σ - ↔ X 3Π, b 1Π ↔ a 1Σ + of BP, A 2Π ↔ X 2Σ + of BP - and A 4Π ↔ X 4Σ - of BP +. The ionization energy IE e of B 2P 2 of 8.71 eV and the electron affinity EA e of 2.34 eV have been calculated by the RCCSD(T)/aVQZ approach. Also the harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the electronic ground states of the ions B2P2+ and B2P2- are given.

  5. Planar B3S2H3(-) and B3S2H3 clusters with a five-membered B3S2 ring: boron-sulfur hydride analogues of cyclopentadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Rui; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ou, Ting; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2016-08-21

    Boron clusters can serve as inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We present herein, based upon global searches and electronic structural calculations at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels, the global-minimum structures of two boron-sulfur hydride clusters: C2v B3S2H3(-) (1, (2)B1) and C2v B3S2H3 (2, (1)A1). Both species are perfectly planar and feature a five-membered B3S2 ring as the structural core, with three H atoms attached terminally to the B sites. Chemical bonding analysis shows that C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) has a delocalized 5π system within a heteroatomic B3S2 ring, analogous to the π bonding in cyclopentadiene, D5h C5H5. The corresponding closed-shell C2v B3S2H3(2-) (3, (1)A1) dianion is only a local minimum. At the single-point CCSD(T) level, it is 5.7 kcal mol(-1) above the chain-like C1 ((1)A) open structure. This situation is in contrast to the cyclopentadienyl anion, C5H5(-), a prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon with a π sextet. The C2v B3S2H3 (2) neutral cluster is readily obtained upon removal of one π electron from C2v B3S2H3(-) (1). The anion photoelectron spectrum of C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) and the infrared absorption spectrum of C2v B3S2H3 (2) are predicted. The C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) species can be stabilized in sandwich-type C2h [(B3S2H3)2Fe](2-) and salt C2h [(B3S2H3)2Fe]Li2 complexes. An intriguing difference is observed between the pattern of π sextet in C2v B3S2H3(2-) (3) dianion and that in cyclopentadienyl anion. The present work also sheds light on the mechanism of structural evolution in the B3S2H3(0/-/2-) series with charge states. PMID:27424889

  6. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desposito, Dorinne; Chollet, Catherine; Taveau, Christopher; Descamps, Vincent; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic mice, we assessed the effect of kinin receptor activation or inhibition by subtype-selective pharmacological agonists (B1R and B2R) and antagonist (B2R) on healing of experimental skin wounds. We also studied effects of agonists and antagonist on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. Levels of Bdkrb1 (encoding B1R) and Bdkrb2 (encoding B2R) mRNAs increased 1-2-fold in healthy and wounded diabetic skin compared with in non-diabetic skin. Diabetes delayed wound healing. The B1R agonist had no effect on wound healing. In contrast, the B2R agonist impaired wound repair in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, inducing skin disorganization and epidermis thickening. In vitro, B2R activation unbalanced fibroblast/keratinocyte proliferation and increased keratinocyte migration. These effects were abolished by co-administration of B2R antagonist. Interestingly, in the two mouse models of diabetes, the B2R antagonist administered alone normalized wound healing. This effect was associated with the induction of Ccl2 (encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein 1)/Tnf (encoding tumour necrosis factor α) mRNAs. Thus stimulation of kinin B2 receptor impairs skin wound healing in mice. B2R activation occurs in the diabetic skin and delays wound healing. B2R blockade improves skin wound healing in diabetic mice and is a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic ulcers.

  7. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements (before 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....410(b)-1(b)(2). (6) Integration with Social Security Act. See section 401(a)(5) and the regulations thereunder for rules relating to integration of plans with the Social Security Act. (7) Different age and... service. The plan can be shown not to satisfy the requirements of IRC section 410(b)(1)(A) as follows:...

  8. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to -225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276-426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans cyclin B3 is required for multiple mitotic processes including alleviation of a spindle checkpoint-dependent block in anaphase chromosome segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M R Deyter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The master regulators of the cell cycle are cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks, which influence the function of a myriad of proteins via phosphorylation. Mitotic Cdk1 is activated by A-type, as well as B1- and B2-type, cyclins. However, the role of a third, conserved cyclin B family member, cyclin B3, is less well defined. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans CYB-3 has essential and distinct functions from cyclin B1 and B2 in the early embryo. CYB-3 is required for the timely execution of a number of cell cycle events including completion of the MII meiotic division of the oocyte nucleus, pronuclear migration, centrosome maturation, mitotic chromosome condensation and congression, and, most strikingly, progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Our experiments reveal that the extended metaphase delay in CYB-3-depleted embryos is dependent on an intact spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC and results in salient defects in the architecture of holocentric metaphase chromosomes. Furthermore, genetically increasing or decreasing dynein activity results in the respective suppression or enhancement of CYB-3-dependent defects in cell cycle progression. Altogether, these data reveal that CYB-3 plays a unique, essential role in the cell cycle including promoting mitotic dynein functionality and alleviation of a SAC-dependent block in anaphase chromosome segregation.

  10. 15 CFR 8b.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 8b.3 Section 8b.3... Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) The Act means the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93-112... hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer,...

  11. In vivo knockdown of ErbB3 in mice inhibits Schwann cell precursor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Takada, Shuji; Tsumura, Hideki; Arai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-09-26

    The myelin sheath insulates neuronal axons and markedly increases the nerve conduction velocity. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cell precursors migrate along embryonic neuronal axons to their final destinations, where they eventually wrap around individual axons to form the myelin sheath after birth. ErbB2 and ErbB3 tyrosine kinase receptors form a heterodimer and are extensively expressed in Schwann lineage cells. ErbB2/3 is thought to be one of the primary regulators controlling the entire Schwann cell development. ErbB3 is the bona fide Schwann cell receptor for the neuronal ligand neuregulin-1. Although ErbB2/3 is well known to regulate both Schwann cell precursor migration and myelination by Schwann cells in fishes, it still remains unclear whether in mammals, ErbB2/3 actually regulates Schwann cell precursor migration. Here, we show that knockdown of ErbB3 using a Schwann cell-specific promoter in mice causes delayed migration of Schwann cell precursors. In contrast, littermate control mice display normal migration. Similar results are seen in an in vitro migration assay using reaggregated Schwann cell precursors. Also, ErbB3 knockdown in mice reduces myelin thickness in sciatic nerves, consistent with the established role of ErbB3 in myelination. Thus, ErbB3 plays a key role in migration, as well as in myelination, in mouse Schwann lineage cells, presenting a genetically conservative role of ErbB3 in Schwann cell precursor migration. PMID:25204498

  12. ErbB3/HER3 intracellular domain is competent to bind ATP and catalyze autophosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fumin; Telesco, Shannon E.; Liu, Yingting; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Lemmon, Mark A. (UPENN); (UPENN-MED)

    2010-06-21

    ErbB3/HER3 is one of four members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER) or ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family. ErbB3 binds neuregulins via its extracellular region and signals primarily by heterodimerizing with ErbB2/HER2/Neu. A recently appreciated role for ErbB3 in resistance of tumor cells to EGFR/ErbB2-targeted therapeutics has made it a focus of attention. However, efforts to inactivate ErbB3 therapeutically in parallel with other ErbB receptors are challenging because its intracellular kinase domain is thought to be an inactive pseudokinase that lacks several key conserved (and catalytically important) residues - including the catalytic base aspartate. We report here that, despite these sequence alterations, ErbB3 retains sufficient kinase activity to robustly trans-autophosphorylate its intracellular region - although it is substantially less active than EGFR and does not phosphorylate exogenous peptides. The ErbB3 kinase domain binds ATP with a K{sub d} of approximately 1.1 {micro}M. We describe a crystal structure of ErbB3 kinase bound to an ATP analogue, which resembles the inactive EGFR and ErbB4 kinase domains (but with a shortened {alpha}C-helix). Whereas mutations that destabilize this configuration activate EGFR and ErbB4 (and promote EGFR-dependent lung cancers), a similar mutation conversely inactivates ErbB3. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations, we delineate a reaction pathway for ErbB3-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer that does not require the conserved catalytic base and can be catalyzed by the 'inactive-like'configuration observed crystallographically. These findings suggest that ErbB3 kinase activity within receptor dimers may be crucial for signaling and could represent an important therapeutic target.

  13. On Products of Property b1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun WANG; Peiyong ZHU

    2012-01-01

    In this note,we present that:(1) Let X=σ{Xα:α ∈ A} be |A|-paracompact (resp.,hereditarily |A|-paracompact).If every finite subproduct of {Xα:α ∈ A} has property b1 (resp.,hereditarily property b1),then so is X.(2) Let X be a P-space and Y a metric space.Then,X × Y has property b1 iff X has property b1.(3) Let X be a strongly zero-dimensional and compact space.Then,X × Y has property b1 iff Y has property b1.

  14. Semisynthesis of S-desoxybrevetoxin-B2 and brevetoxin-B2, and assessment of their acute toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwood, Andrew I; Ginkel, Roel van; Wilkins, Alistair L; Munday, Rex; Ramsdell, John S; Jensen, Dwayne J; Cooney, Janine M; Miles, Christopher O

    2008-04-01

    Brevetoxins are neurotoxins associated with blooms of marine algae such as Karenia brevis and can accumulate in the marine food chain, causing intoxication of marine animals and people consuming seafood. Brevetoxin-B2 ( 5) is a toxic metabolite produced in shellfish exposed to algae that contain brevetoxin-B ( 1). S-Desoxybrevetoxin-B2 ( 4) has been proposed as a cometabolite produced during this transformation, and while LC-MS analyses suggest its presence in shellfish, it has not yet been isolated and characterized. Studies on these materials are severely constrained by the difficulty of obtaining and purifying them from natural sources. We have developed a convenient one-pot conversion of commercially available brevetoxin-B ( 1) into S-desoxybrevetoxin-B2 ( 4), and a simple method for converting 4 into brevetoxin-B2 ( 5). Full NMR and mass-spectral characterization of 4 and 5 confirmed their structures and showed that the ratio of diastereoisomers in the synthetic 4 and 5 was similar to that observed in naturally contaminated shellfish. The LD 50 values for 4, 5, and dihydrobrevetoxin-B ( 6) by ip injection in mice were 211, 400, and 250 microg/kg, respectively. The methodology for synthesis of brevetoxin metabolites should greatly facilitate toxicological, biochemical and immunochemical studies of these substances, as well as the production of analytical standards. PMID:18335998

  15. A Dual Role of erbB2 in Myelination and in Expansion of the Schwann Cell Precursor Pool

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, A.N.; Voiculescu, O.; Topilko, P.; Charnay, P; Birchmeier, C.

    2000-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 provides an important axonally derived signal for the survival and growth of developing Schwann cells, which is transmitted by the ErbB2/ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinases. Null mutations of the neuregulin-1, erbB2, or erbB3 mouse genes cause severe deficits in early Schwann cell development. Here, we employ Cre-loxP technology to introduce erbB2 mutations late in Schwann cell development, using a Krox20-cre allele. Cre-mediated erbB2 ablation occurs perinatally in peripheral nerves...

  16. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  17. Aflatoxin B1content in patients with hepatic diseases Aflatoxina B1 en pacientes con enfermedades hepáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara López

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of some Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius strains that occur in many foods and feeds. There are four major natural occurring aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2. These toxins can cause illness in human beings and animals. Aflatoxin B1 is the most abundant and toxic member of the family, and it is also the most potent hepatocarcinogen known. In order to estimate the potential human health risk of AFB1, it is useful to measure blood concentration. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in patients was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, in serum samples, obtained from 20 patient volunteers with hepatic disease. Out of the 20 patients, the presence of AFB1 was detected in only one of them, in a concentration of 0.47 ng/cm³. Nevertheless, this result should draw the attention of control organizations in Argentina to the need for a thorough food and feed inspection.Las aflatoxinas son metabolitos tóxicos producidos por cepas de Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus y A. nomius, presentes en alimentos y piensos. Las cuatro aflatoxinas principales son: aflatoxina B1, B2, G1 y G2. Dichas toxinas pueden causar enfermedades tanto en seres humanos como en animales. La aflatoxina B1 es la más abundante y la más tóxica del grupo y es también el más potente hepatocarcinógeno conocido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar la presencia de aflatoxina B1 en sangre humana para estimar el riesgo potencial de la salud. La determinación de aflatoxina B1 fue realizada por cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento, en suero de 20 pacientes voluntarios con enfermedades hepáticas. En sólo uno de estos pacientes se detectó la presencia de aflatoxina B1, en una concentración de 0.47ng/cm³. Estos resultados deberían ser tenidos en cuenta por los responsables de la vigilancia y control de los alimentos en la Argentina.

  18. Cardiac-specific over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 induces pro-survival pathways and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Sysa-Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that ErbB2 signaling has a critical role in cardiomyocyte physiology, based mainly on findings that blocking ErbB2 for cancer therapy is toxic to cardiac cells. However, consequences of high levels of ErbB2 activity in the heart have not been previously explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated consequences of cardiac-restricted over-expression of ErbB2 in two novel lines of transgenic mice. Both lines develop striking concentric cardiac hypertrophy, without heart failure or decreased life span. ErbB2 transgenic mice display electrocardiographic characteristics similar to those found in patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, with susceptibility to adrenergic-induced arrhythmias. The hypertrophic hearts, which are 2-3 times larger than those of control littermates, express increased atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain mRNA, consistent with a hypertrophic phenotype. Cardiomyocytes in these hearts are significantly larger than wild type cardiomyocytes, with enlarged nuclei and distinctive myocardial disarray. Interestingly, the over-expression of ErbB2 induces a concurrent up-regulation of multiple proteins associated with this signaling pathway, including EGFR, ErbB3, ErbB4, PI3K subunits p110 and p85, bcl-2 and multiple protective heat shock proteins. Additionally, ErbB2 up-regulation leads to an anti-apoptotic shift in the ratio of bcl-xS/xL in the heart. Finally, ErbB2 over-expression results in increased activation of the translation machinery involving S6, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. The dependence of this hypertrophic phenotype on ErbB family signaling is confirmed by reduction in heart mass and cardiomyocyte size, and inactivation of pro-hypertrophic signaling in transgenic animals treated with the ErbB1/2 inhibitor, lapatinib. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies are the first to demonstrate that increased ErbB2 over-expression in the heart can activate protective signaling

  19. Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hev b 1) and SRPP (Hev b 3): An overview on rubber particle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    This review article aims to gather all the knowledge on two important proteins associated with Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles: namely the rubber elongation factor (REF) and the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). It covers more then three decades of research on these two proteins and their homologues in plants, and particularly emphasizes on the different possible properties or functions of these various proteins found in plants.

  20. 32 CFR 242b.3 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.3 Notice. (a) Notice of all meetings of the Board shall be sent by the Secretary to each...-four hours before the meeting, shall be sufficient notice of any meeting. The recital by the Secretary...) Public announcement of meetings shall conform to the Public Meeting Procedures of the Board of...

  1. Role of kinin B2 receptors in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grastilleur, Sébastien; Mouledous, Lionel; Bedel, Jerome; Etcheverry, Jonathan; Bader, Michael; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Fourcade, Olivier; Frances, Bernard; Minville, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is a clinical challenge that can be complicated by opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Kinin receptors could mediate both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation and pain. A few recent studies suggest that dynorphin A could maintain neuropathic pain by activating the bradykinin (BK) receptor. Thus, the effect of a single administration of sufentanil (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) was investigated in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain using three strains of mice, i.e., knockout mice for one kinin receptor, B1R or B2R (B1KO, B2KO), and wild-type C57/BL6J mice (WT) treated with either a B1R (R954) or a B2R antagonist (HOE140) or a KKS inhibitor (aprotinin). Pain was assessed and compared between the different groups using two behavioral tests exploring mechanical (von Frey filaments) and thermal (Hargreaves test) sensitivity. Pretreatment with sufentanil induced a sustained increase in pain sensitivity with a delayed return to baseline values characterizing an OIH in carrageenan-injected mice only. Sufentanil-induced OIH was not observed in B2KO but persisted in B1KO and was blunted by aprotinin and the B2R antagonist only. Collectively, our data indicate that the B2R receptor and BK synthesis or availability are essential peripheral steps in the mechanism leading to OIH in a pain context. PMID:23324378

  2. Role of kinin B2 receptors in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grastilleur, Sébastien; Mouledous, Lionel; Bedel, Jerome; Etcheverry, Jonathan; Bader, Michael; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Fourcade, Olivier; Frances, Bernard; Minville, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is a clinical challenge that can be complicated by opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Kinin receptors could mediate both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation and pain. A few recent studies suggest that dynorphin A could maintain neuropathic pain by activating the bradykinin (BK) receptor. Thus, the effect of a single administration of sufentanil (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) was investigated in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain using three strains of mice, i.e., knockout mice for one kinin receptor, B1R or B2R (B1KO, B2KO), and wild-type C57/BL6J mice (WT) treated with either a B1R (R954) or a B2R antagonist (HOE140) or a KKS inhibitor (aprotinin). Pain was assessed and compared between the different groups using two behavioral tests exploring mechanical (von Frey filaments) and thermal (Hargreaves test) sensitivity. Pretreatment with sufentanil induced a sustained increase in pain sensitivity with a delayed return to baseline values characterizing an OIH in carrageenan-injected mice only. Sufentanil-induced OIH was not observed in B2KO but persisted in B1KO and was blunted by aprotinin and the B2R antagonist only. Collectively, our data indicate that the B2R receptor and BK synthesis or availability are essential peripheral steps in the mechanism leading to OIH in a pain context.

  3. Five new anthocyanins, ternatins A3, B4, B3, B2, and D2, from Clitoria ternatea flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terahara, N; Oda, M; Matsui, T; Osajima, Y; Saito, N; Toki, K; Honda, T

    1996-02-01

    Five new ternatins 1-5 have been isolated from Clitoria ternatea flowers, and the structures have been determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods as delphinidin 3-malonylG having 3'-GCG-5'-GCG, 3'-GCG-5'-GC, 3'-GCGCG-5'-GC, 3'-GCGC-5'-GCG, and 3'-GCGC-5'-GC side chains, respectively, in which G is D-glucose and C is p-coumaric acid. Pigment 1 had symmetric 3',5'-side chains. Compounds 3 and 4 are structural isomers. These ternatins were shown to form an intramolecular stacking between the aglycon ring and the 3',5'-side chains in solution. PMID:8991946

  4. 38 CFR 18b.2 - Reviewing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reviewing authority. 18b.2 Section 18b.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Rules § 18b.2 Reviewing authority. The term reviewing authority means the Secretary of Veterans...

  5. Cyclin B1 Vaccine Delays Spontaneous Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A, Vella; Min, Yu; Amy, Phillips; Olivera J, Finn

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified cyclin B1-specific T cells and antibodies in cancer patients with cyclin B1+ tumors and also in some healthy individuals. We also demonstrated that these responses may be important in cancer immunosurveillance by showing that vaccination against cyclin B1 prevents growth of transplantable cyclin B1+ tumors in mice. Constitutive overexpression of cyclin B1 was determined to correlate with the lack of p53 function. This allowed us to use p53−/− mice as a model that better approximates human disease. p53−/− mice spontaneously develop cyclin B1+ tumors. At 5–6 weeks of age, when the mice were still healthy with no evidence of tumor, they received the cyclin B1 vaccine and were then observed for tumor growth. We demonstrate that cyclin B1 vaccination can delay spontaneous cyclin B1+ tumor growth and increases median survival of tumor bearing p53−/− mice. PMID:19769738

  6. Substitution Effects on MgB2 Superconductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Rui-Xin; LIU Juan; YAN Xun-Ling; ZHAO Yuan; YANG Bing; YI Lin

    2008-01-01

    With the help of supercell method, the first-principle calculations were performed for the study of doping crystal Mg1-xAlxB2 and Mg(B1-yCy)2. Analyzing the variations of the charge distribution and the partial densities of states, we found that the compounds with doping A1 to MgB2 compound and/or replacing boron by carbon exhibit new covalent bond effects and unexpected electronic properties, related to superconductivity. The study of the density of states indicates that superconductivity decreases with the increase of AI fraction and carbon concentration. There exists a transition of superconductor to non-superconductor with the change of AI doping fraction. The substitution of boron by carbon results in the decrease of the transition temperature since the decrease of the electron concentration and the lattice constant. The theoretical predictions agree with experimental observations.

  7. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  8. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  9. On Heavy Carbon Doping of MgB$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Lee, K. -W.; PICKETT, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy carbon doping of MgB$_2$ is studied by first principles electronic structure studies of two types, an ordered supercell (Mg(B$_{1-x}$C$_{x}$)$_{2}$,x=0.0833) and also the coherent potential approximation method that incorporates effects of B-C disorder. For the ordered model, the twofold degenerate $\\sigma$-bands that are the basis of the high temperature superconductivity are split by 60 meV (i.e.7 meV/%C) and the $\\sigma$ Fermi cylinders contain 0.070 holes/cell, compared to 0.11 for ...

  10. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  11. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Desposito, D.; Chollet, C.; Taveau, C.; Descamps, V.; Alhenc-Gelas, F.; Roussel, R.; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, L.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic...

  12. Doping effects of carbon and titanium on the critical current density of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MgB2 bulks doped with Ti or/and C were prepared by an in situ solid state reaction method to determine the combined effect of C and Ti doping and to probe the detailed mechanism. The magnetization measurement shows that Mg0.95Ti0.05B1.95C0.05 sample has significantly improved flux pinning compared to the MgB1.95C0.05 sample at 20 K, indicating that C and Ti are largely cooperative in improving the Jc(H) behaviour. No TiC phase was detected in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Moreover, the overlap of the (100) peaks of MgB1.95C0.05 and Mg0.95Ti0.05B1.95C0.05 showed that Ti doping does not reduce the amount of C in MgB2. Microstructural analyses revealed that the addition of Ti eliminated the porosity present in the carbon-doped MgB2 pellet, resulting in an improved intergrain connectivity and an increase of effective current pass. Further, MgB2 doped with C and Ti, which mainly consists of spherical grains about 200-300 nm in size, shows an higher grain homogeneity than the C-doped sample, suggesting that the Ti doping in MgB1-xCx has played an important role in obtaining uniform grains

  13. Dendrite crystal morphology evolution mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ChongJun; ZHONG WeiZhuo; LIU YouWen

    2009-01-01

    Existence of [B3-O6]3- hexagonal ring growth unit in melt solution of β-BaB2O4 crystal was proved by the results of high temperature Raman measurements. A morphology evolution process of β-BaB2O4 crys-tal was observed by a high temperature in-situ observation device. The crystal morphology varied with the supersaturation of growth melt solution. The mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal morphology evolution was analyzed through the growth unit model.

  14. Dendrite crystal morphology evolution mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Existence of [B3-O6]3- hexagonal ring growth unit in melt solution of β-BaB2O4 crystal was proved by the results of high temperature Raman measurements.A morphology evolution process of β-BaB2O4 crys-tal was observed by a high temperature in-situ observation device.The crystal morphology varied with the supersaturation of growth melt solution.The mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal morphology evolution was analyzed through the growth unit model.

  15. Controlled indole-3-acetaldoxime production through ethanol-induced expression of CYP79B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, M.D.; Fuller, V.L.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram;

    2009-01-01

    Indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) is a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism. IAOx serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates (I-GLSs), camalexin and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The cytochrome P450s CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 catalyze the c...

  16. Sintering of TiB2 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swiatek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Titanium diborides (TiB2 ceramic is particularly interesting because it exhibits high elastic modulus and hardness as well as high thermal conductivity. The interest in TiB2 ceramic increased enormously due to these properties but applications seem to be limited due to difficulties during densification process. In the experiment the TiB2 compacts was obtained using HP-HT method. The aim of this study is to work out and optimize the sintering densification process of TiB2 ceramics.Design/methodology/approach: The high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP Bridgman type apparatus was used for densification method of TiB2 powder. Ceramics were sintered at pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and temperature at 1500-2300ºC ± 50ºC. The duration of sintering was 60 seconds. In order to investigate the structure changes, the optical and scanning electron microscope was used. Mechanical properties were determined by Vickers hardness. Young modulus measurements were carried out using ultrasonic method.Findings: The TiB2 ceramics was obtained without using sintering agents. The properties and structure of TiB2 ceramics strongly depend on conditions of sintering process. The application of the temperature of 1500ºC±50ºC and pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and time of 60 seconds permits to obtain the TiB2 ceramics without cracks.Practical implications: The TiB2 ceramic might be used for production of composites. From a practical position it is important to optimize the sintering densification of TiB2 ceramic.Originality/value: The TiB2 ceramics were formed using HP-HT technique without the use of additives. This method of sintering for TiB2 ceramics is original one.T7

  17. Depletion of the xynB2 gene upregulates β-xylosidase expression in C. crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is able to express several enzymes involved in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomasses. Five genes, xynB1-5, that encode β-xylosidases are present in the genome of this bacterium. In this study, the xynB2 gene, which encodes β-xylosidase II (CCNA_02442), was cloned under the control of the PxylX promoter to generate the O-xynB2 strain, which overexpresses the enzyme in the presence of xylose. In addition, a null mutant strain, Δ-xynB2, was created by two homologous recombination events where the chromosomal xynB2 gene was replaced by a copy that was disrupted by the spectinomycin-resistant cassette. We demonstrated that C. crescentus cells lacking β-xylosidase II upregulates the xynB genes inducing β-xylosidase activity. Transcriptional analysis revealed that xynB1 (RT-PCR analysis) and xynB2 (lacZ transcription fusion) gene expression was induced in the Δ-xynB2 cells, and high β-xylosidase activity was observed in the presence of different agro-industrial residues in the null mutant strain, a characteristic that can be explored and applied in biotechnological processes. In contrast, overexpression of the xynB2 gene caused downregulation of the expression and activity of the β-xylosidase. For example, the β-xylosidase activity that was obtained in the presence of sugarcane bagasse was 7-fold and 16-fold higher than the activity measured in the C. crescentus parental and O-xynB2 cells, respectively. Our results suggest that β-xylosidase II may have a role in controlling the expression of the xynB1 and xynB2 genes in C. crescentus. PMID:24142353

  18. Depletion of the xynB2 gene upregulates β-xylosidase expression in C. crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is able to express several enzymes involved in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomasses. Five genes, xynB1-5, that encode β-xylosidases are present in the genome of this bacterium. In this study, the xynB2 gene, which encodes β-xylosidase II (CCNA_02442), was cloned under the control of the PxylX promoter to generate the O-xynB2 strain, which overexpresses the enzyme in the presence of xylose. In addition, a null mutant strain, Δ-xynB2, was created by two homologous recombination events where the chromosomal xynB2 gene was replaced by a copy that was disrupted by the spectinomycin-resistant cassette. We demonstrated that C. crescentus cells lacking β-xylosidase II upregulates the xynB genes inducing β-xylosidase activity. Transcriptional analysis revealed that xynB1 (RT-PCR analysis) and xynB2 (lacZ transcription fusion) gene expression was induced in the Δ-xynB2 cells, and high β-xylosidase activity was observed in the presence of different agro-industrial residues in the null mutant strain, a characteristic that can be explored and applied in biotechnological processes. In contrast, overexpression of the xynB2 gene caused downregulation of the expression and activity of the β-xylosidase. For example, the β-xylosidase activity that was obtained in the presence of sugarcane bagasse was 7-fold and 16-fold higher than the activity measured in the C. crescentus parental and O-xynB2 cells, respectively. Our results suggest that β-xylosidase II may have a role in controlling the expression of the xynB1 and xynB2 genes in C. crescentus.

  19. Lattice dynamical and thermodynamical properties of ReB2, RuB2, and OsB2 compounds in the ReB2 structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Deligoz; K. Colakoglu; Y. O. Ciftci

    2012-01-01

    Structural and lattice dynamical properties of ReB2,RuB2,and OsB2 in the ReB2 structure are studied in the framework of density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation.The present results show that these compounds are dynamically stable for the considered structure.The temperature-dependent behaviors of thermodynamical properties such as internal energy,free energy,entropy,and heat capacity are also preented. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  20. Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8, were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr2Li[BeB3O8] structure, [BeB2O7]6− rings, made up from one BeO4 tetrahedron and two BO3 triangles, are connected to each other by [BO3] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB3O8]8−} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr2+ cations are seven- or eight-coordinated and Li+ cations are tetra-coordinated and lie between the chains.

  1. Kinin B1 receptors contributes to acute pain following minor surgery in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Jaime S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins play an important role in regulation of pain and hyperalgesia after tissue injury and inflammation by activating two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, the kinin B1 and B2 receptors. It is generally accepted that the B2 receptor is constitutively expressed, whereas the B1 receptor is induced in response to inflammation. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of kinin receptors on the onset of acute inflammation and inflammatory pain in humans. The present study investigated the changes in gene expression of kinin receptors and the levels of their endogenous ligands at an early time point following tissue injury and their relation to clinical pain, as well as the effect of COX-inhibition on their expression levels. Results Tissue injury resulted in a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors at 3 hours post-surgery, the onset of acute inflammatory pain. Interestingly, the up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors was positively correlated to pain intensity only after ketorolac treatment, signifying an interaction between prostaglandins and kinins in the inflammatory pain process. Further, the gene expression of both B1 and B2 receptors were correlated. Following tissue injury, B1 ligands des-Arg9-BK and des-Arg10-KD were significantly lower at the third hour compared to the first 2 hours in both the placebo and the ketorolac treatment groups but did not differ significantly between groups. Tissue injury also resulted in the down-regulation of TRPV1 gene expression at 3 hours post-surgery with no significant effect by ketorolac treatment. Interestingly, the change in gene expression of TRPV1 was correlated to the change in gene expression of B1 receptor but not B2 receptor. Conclusions These results provide evidence at the transcriptional level in a clinical model of tissue injury that up-regulation of kinin receptors are involved in the development of the

  2. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 contamination in ground red peppers commercialized in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Mehmet; Arslanğray, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are hepatogenic, teratogenic, imunosuppressive, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites found in feeds, nuts, wine-grapes, spices, and other grain crops. Humans are exposed to AFs via consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AF contamination in powdered red peppers sold in Sanliurfa. A total of 42 samples were randomly collected from retail shops, supermarkets, open bazaars, and apiaries and examined for the occurrence and levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 toxins. AFs were determined by using an HPLC system after pre-separation utilizing immunoaffinity columns. AFs levels were below 2.5 μg/kg in 16 samples, between 2.5 and 10 μg/kg in 13 samples while 13 samples had AFs higher than the tolerable limit (10 μg/kg) according to the regulations of Turkish Food Codex and European Commission. The occurrence of AF fractions during powdered red pepper processing steps was also evaluated. According to the results obtained in this study, it was found that the highest AF accumulations in powdered red peppers start during perspiration and final drying of the products processed on soil contacted surfaces while there was no limit exceeding aflatoxin contamination in the samples produced on concrete surfaces.

  3. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  4. 12 CFR 264b.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 264b.2 Section 264b.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... such. (c) Gift means a tangible or intangible present (other than a decoration) tendered by,...

  5. Montelukast Disposition: No Indication of Transporter-Mediated Uptake in OATP2B1 and OATP1B1 Expressing HEK293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Brännström

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies with montelukast show variability in effect and polymorphic OATP2B1-dependent absorption has previously been implicated as a possible cause. This claim has been challenged with conflicting data and here we used OATP2B1-transfected HEK293 cells to clarify the mechanisms involved. For montelukast, no significant difference in cell uptake between HEK-OATP2B1 and empty vector cell lines was observed at pH 6.5 or pH 7.4, and no concentration-dependent uptake was detected. Montelukast is a carboxylic acid, a relatively potent inhibitor of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1, and has previously been postulated to be actively transported into human hepatocytes. Using OATP1B1-transfected HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes in the presence of OATP inhibitors we demonstrate for the first time that active OATP-dependent transport is unlikely to play a significant role in the human disposition of montelukast.

  6. Montelukast Disposition: No Indication of Transporter-Mediated Uptake in OATP2B1 and OATP1B1 Expressing HEK293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Marie; Nordell, Pär; Bonn, Britta; Davis, Andrew M; Palmgren, Anna-Pia; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Rubin, Katarina; Grime, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies with montelukast show variability in effect and polymorphic OATP2B1-dependent absorption has previously been implicated as a possible cause. This claim has been challenged with conflicting data and here we used OATP2B1-transfected HEK293 cells to clarify the mechanisms involved. For montelukast, no significant difference in cell uptake between HEK-OATP2B1 and empty vector cell lines was observed at pH 6.5 or pH 7.4, and no concentration-dependent uptake was detected. Montelukast is a carboxylic acid, a relatively potent inhibitor of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1, and has previously been postulated to be actively transported into human hepatocytes. Using OATP1B1-transfected HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes in the presence of OATP inhibitors we demonstrate for the first time that active OATP-dependent transport is unlikely to play a significant role in the human disposition of montelukast. PMID:26694455

  7. Regulation of ErbB2 localization and function in breast cancer cells by ERM proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Nagham; Kvalvaag, Audun; Sandvig, Kirsten; Pust, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    The ERM protein family is implicated in processes such as signal transduction, protein trafficking, cell proliferation and migration. Consequently, dysregulation of ERM proteins has been described to correlate with carcinogenesis of different cancer types. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a novel functional interaction between ERM proteins and the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in breast cancer cells. We show that the ERM proteins ezrin and radixin are associated with ErbB2 receptors at the plasma membrane, and depletion or functional inhibition of ERM proteins destabilizes the interaction of ErbB2 with ErbB3, Hsp90 and Ebp50. Accompanied by the dissociation of this protein complex, binding of ErbB2 to the ubiquitin-ligase c-Cbl is increased, and ErbB2 becomes dephosphorylated, ubiquitinated and internalized. Furthermore, signaling via Akt- and Erk-mediated pathways is impaired upon ERM inhibition. Finally, interference with ERM functionality leads to receptor degradation and reduced cellular levels of ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptors in breast cancer cells. PMID:27029001

  8. Construction and Virulence of Filamentous Hemagglutinin Protein B1 Mutant of Pasteurella multocida in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Dong-chun; QU Lian-dong; SUN Yan; ZHANG Ai-qin; LIU Jia-sen; LU Yan; LIU Pei-xin; YUAN Dong-wei; JIANG Qian; SI Chang-de

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus, is the causative agent of fowl cholera, bovine hemorrhagic septicemia, enzoonotic pneumonia and swine atropic rhinitis. Two iflamentous hemagglutinin genes, fhaB1 and fhaB2, are the potential virulence factors. In this study, an inactivation fhaB1 mutant of P. multocida in avian strain C48-102 was constructed by a kanamycin-resistance cassette. The virulence of the fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain was assessed in chickens by intranasal and intramuscular challenge. The inactivation of fhaB1 resulted in a high degree of attenuation when the chickens were challenged intranasally and a lesser degree when challenged intramuscularly. The fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain were investigated their sensitivity to the antibody-dependent classical complement-mediated killing pathway in 90%convalescent chicken serum. The fhaB1 mutant was serum sensitive as the viability has reduced between untreated serum and heat inactivated chicken serum (P<0.007). These results conifrmed that FhaB1 played the critical roles in the bacterial pathogenesis and further studies were needed to investigate the mechanism which caused reduced virulence of the fhaB1 mutant.

  9. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions. For purposes of section 4216(b)(2) and this section: (1) Actual sale price. “Actual sale price... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(b)-3 Constructive sale price; special rule for...

  10. THE REINFORCING MECHANISM OF TiB2 IN TiB2/A357 COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Yu; Y.J. Zhang; Z.X. Zhao; F.X. Zhao; Q.K. Cai; C.S. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical properties were tested for in situ TiB2/A357 composite fabricated by LSM (mixed salts reaction) method. Microstructures of as cast and plastic deformed TiB2/A357 were investigated. The results show that there is a low misfit between (200)A1 and (101)TiB2 with [011]Al // [101]TiB2. There is a change from fully dendritic structure of the α-Al of A357 to a rosette-type structure of TiB2/A357. Significant increases in proof stress and Young's modulus can be obtained at low TiB2 additions. There exist dislocation loops around neighboring TiB2 particles with about 0. 1ηm in diameter and dislocation multiplication near TiB2 particles.

  11. Fungal degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, T

    1999-01-01

    A number of fungal cultures were screened to select an organism suitable to be used in the detoxification of aflatoxin B1. They were co-cultured in Czapek-Dox-Casamino acid medium with aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus. Several fungal cultures were found to prevent synthesis of aflatoxin B1 in liquid culture medium. Among these Phoma sp., Mucor sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma sp. 639, Rhizopus sp. 663, Rhizopus sp. 710, Rhizopus sp. 668, Alternaria sp. and some strains belonging to the Sporotrichum group (ADA IV B14(a), ADA SF VI BF (9), strain 720) could inhibit aflatoxin synthesis by > or =90%. A few fungi, namely ADA IV B1, ADA F1, ADA F8, also belonging to the Sporotrichum group, were less efficient than the Phoma sp. The Cladosporium sp. and A. terreus sp. were by far the least efficient, registering aflatoxin biosynthesis are also capable of degrading the preformed toxin. Among these, Phoma sp. was the most efficient destroying about 99% of aflatoxin B1. The cell free extract of Phoma sp. destroyed nearly 50 microg aflatoxin B1 100 ml(-1) culture medium (90% of the added toxin), and this was more effective than its own culture filtrate over 5 days incubation at 28+/-2 degrees C. The degradation was gradual: 35% at 24 h, 58% at 48 h, 65% at 72 h, 85% at 96 h and 90% at 120 h. The possibility of a heat stable enzymatic activity in the cell free extract of Phoma is proposed. PMID:10945479

  12. Observation of B-meson decays to b_1 pi and b_1 K

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabé, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; De La Vaissière, C; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b_1 meson and a charged pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 382 million B-Bbar pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 10^{-6}, B(B+ -> b1^0 pi+) = 6.7 +/- 1.7 +/- 1.0 (4.0 sigma), B(B+ -> b1^0 K+ = 9.1+/- 1.7+/- 1.0 (5.3 sigma), B(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = 10.9 +/- 1.2 +/- 0.9 (8.9 sigma), and B(B0 -> b1^-K+) = 7.4 +/- 1.0 +/- 1.0 (6.1 sigma), with the assumption that B(b_1 -> omega pi)=1. We also measure charge and flavor asymmetries Ach(B+ -> b1^0 pi+) = 0.05 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.02, Ach(B+ -> b1^0 K+ = -0.46 +/- 0.20 +/- 0.02, Ach(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -0.05 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.02, C(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -0.22 +/- 0.23 +/- 0.05, deltaC(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -1.04 +/- 0.23 +/- 0.08, and Ach(B0 -> b1^-K+) = -0.07 +/- 0.12 +/- 0.02, The first error quoted is statistical, the second systematic, and for the branch...

  13. Hotelzon's B2B content marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang

    2015-01-01

    This thesis follows a research-based structure. The objective of this research was to help the case company Hotelzon develop a practical business-to-business (B2B) content marketing plan to engage new customers. The research topic came up when the case company named Hotelzon started expanding its business to many other countries. Therefore, attracting new prospects has become a critical issue to B2B corporates in this online world and constantly changing business environment. The first pa...

  14. Beneficial effects of kinin B1 receptor antagonism on plasma fatty acid alterations and obesity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sébastien; Dias, Jenny Pena; El Midaoui, Adil; Couture, Réjean

    2016-07-01

    Kinins are the endogenous ligands of the constitutive B2 receptor (B2R) and the inducible B1 receptor (B1R). Whereas B2R prevents insulin resistance, B1R is involved in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of B1R in type 2 diabetes associated with obesity remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of 1-week treatment with a selective B1R antagonist (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg per day, by gavage) on hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, leptinemia, body mass gain, and abnormal plasma fatty acids in obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Treatment with SSR240612 abolished the body mass gain and reduced polyphagia, polydipsia, and plasma fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats without affecting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. The present study suggests that the upregulated B1R plays a role in body mass gain and circulating fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats. However, mechanisms other than B1R induction would be implicated in glucose metabolism disorder in ZDF rats, based on the finding that SSR240612 did not reverse hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:27172260

  15. EphB2 in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Vulnerability to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Han, Ying; Chen, Chen; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wen-Hao; Zhu, Wei-Li; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The ephrin B2 (EphB2) receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is associated with synaptic development and maturation. It has recently been implicated in cognitive deficits and anxiety. However, still unknown is the involvement of EphB2 in the vulnerability to stress. In the present study, we observed decreases in EphB2 levels and their downstream molecules in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in mice that were susceptible to chronic social defeat stress. The activation of EphB2 receptors with EphrinB1-Fc in the mPFC produced stress-resistant and antidepressant-like behavioral effects in susceptible mice that lasted for at least 10 days. EphB2 receptor knockdown by short-hairpin RNA in the mPFC increased the susceptibility to stress and induced depressive-like behaviors in a subthreshold chronic social defeat stress paradigm. These behavioral effects were associated with changes in the phosphorylation of cofilin and membrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and the expression of some synaptic proteins in the mPFC. We also found that EphB2 regulated stress-induced spine remodeling in the mPFC. Altogether, these results indicate that EphB2 is a critical regulator of stress vulnerability and might be a potential target for the treatment of depression. PMID:27103064

  16. Growth and study of LuNi2B2C single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth-nickel-borocarbides have attracted much interest in the last years because the compounds show the interplay of superconductivity and magnetic ordering. LuNi2B2C can be considered as non-magnetic reference system of such magnetic borocarbides as HoNi2B2C in which superconducting and antiferromagnetic ordering temperatures, Tc and TN, are similar. So far, LuNi2B2C crystals were only prepared by a flux method. For growing larger crystals we used an optical floating zone (FZ) technique, which already was successful in crystal growth of other RNi2B2C (R = Y,Tb,Ho,Tm,Er) compounds. In the case of LuNi2B2C, the primary crystallization field is far from the stoichiometric composition, and adjacent to the properitectic LuB2C2 phase field an extended region of LuNiBC occurs. Systematic studies of polycrystalline samples revealed that samples with nominal compositions LuNi5B3.5C and LuNi5B3C0.5 are free of the properitectic LuB2C2 and LuNiBC phases. Thus in the FZ crystal growth experiments we used a molten zone which corresponds to these compositions. From the grown LuNi2B2C rods single crystalline pieces have been prepared to investigate Fermi surface peculiarities by magneto-resistance measurements and to study the electronic band structure

  17. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by Use of UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2015-10-21

    This work developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products, which was then used to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the United States. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled, and amended with (13)C17-labeled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography, and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3 → 241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3 → 285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105-111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analyzed ranged from snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds.

  18. Cellular Barcoding Links B-1a B Cell Potential to a Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell State at the Single-Cell Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Trine A; Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Elin; Zriwil, Alya;

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a functional switch in neonatal mice hallmarked by a decrease in self-renewing divisions and entry into quiescence. Here, we investigated whether the developmental attenuation of B-1a cell output is a consequence of a shift in stem cell state during ontogeny....... Using cellular barcoding for in vivo single-cell fate analyses, we found that fetal liver definitive HSCs gave rise to both B-1a and B-2 cells. Whereas B-1a potential diminished in all HSCs with time, B-2 output was maintained. B-1a and B-2 plasticity could be reinitiated in a subset of adult HSCs...... by ectopic expression of the RNA binding protein LIN28B, a key regulator of fetal hematopoiesis, and this coincided with the clonal reversal to fetal-like elevated self-renewal and repopulation potential. These results anchor the attenuation of B-1a cell output to fetal HSC behavior and demonstrate...

  19. EGF receptor inhibitors increase ErbB3 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther; Kim, Jiyoung; Holst, Mikkel Roland;

    2012-01-01

    that, when inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, increased activation of ErbB3 via MET, or by re-localization of ErbB3 mediates cell survival. Here we show further evidence that members of the ErbB receptor family facilitate resistance......The potential benefits of drugs directly targeting the ErbB receptors for cancer therapy have led to an extensive development within this field. However, the clinical effects of ErbB receptor-targeting drugs in cancer treatment are limited due to a high frequency of resistance. It has been reported...... to EGFR inhibitor treatment in ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. We found that gefitinib treatment increased ErbB3 expression, both at protein and mRNA levels. ErbB3 expression was upregulated not only by gefitinib but also by a panel of different EGFR inhibitors, suggesting that inhibition...

  20. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  1. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, B. D.; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysis of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.

  2. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor attenuates melanoma tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that does not respond well to standard therapeutic approaches, such as radio- and chemotherapies. Furthermore, acquiring the ability to metastasize in melanoma and many other tumor types is directly related to incurable disease. The B1 kinin receptor participates in a variety of cancer-related pathophysiological events, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether this G protein-coupled receptor plays a role in tumor progression. We used a murine melanoma cell line that expresses the kinin B1 receptor and does not express the kinin B2 receptor to investigate the precise contribution of activation of the B1 receptor in tumor progression and correlated events using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor in the absence of B2 receptor inhibits cell migration in vitro and decreases tumor formation in vivo. Moreover, tumors formed from cells stimulated with B1-specific agonist showed several features of decreased aggressiveness, such as smaller size and infiltration of inflammatory cells within the tumor area, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the host anti-tumor immune response, lower number of cells undergoing mitosis, a poorer vascular network, no signs of invasion of surrounding tissues or metastasis and increased animal survival. Our findings reveal that activation of the kinin B1 receptor has a host protective role during murine melanoma tumor progression, suggesting that the B1 receptor could be a new anti-tumor GPCR and provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.

  3. Superconductivity in MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In January of 2001 the superconductivity of the compound MgB2 with a critical temperature Tc of up to 39 K was discovered. This Tc is the highest in all intermetallic compound and alloy superconductors. MgB2 has a simple structure and its manufacturing capital cost is lower, therefore it could become a practical superconductor in the future. The recent progress is reviewed here which covers the progress in electronic structure, high Tc mechanism, superconducting parameters (Debye temperature, specific heat coefficient of electron, critical fields, coherent length, penetration depth, energy gap, critical current and relaxation rate of flux). Moreover the issue on power transmission is discussed.

  4. B2B Pioneer A Millionaire Maker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China should soon see its largest group of instant millionaires after Jack Ma,Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Alibaba Group,announced on July 27 that the China’s preeminent e-commerce company has initiated the listing of its B2B unit alibaba.com

  5. B2-Eirene modelling of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, D. P.; Schneider, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Bosch, H.-S.; Wunderlich, R.; Fuchs, C.; Mast, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Becker, G.; Braams, B. J.; Reiter, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1997-02-01

    The extension of the computational region of the coupled fluid plasma, Monte-Carlo neutrals code, B2-Eirene, to the plasma center is discussed. The simulation of completely detached H-mode plasma is presented, as is the modelling of He and Ne compression.

  6. B2B制胜之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但华香

    2000-01-01

    在E-commerce初露头角的时候,精明的投资者就暗暗盯上了B2B,他们说“电子是壳,商务是核”,并且从那一刻起,现实而理智。于是,人们渐渐熟悉了E-commerce,人们看到了B2B的力量,看到了它的威慑力、穿透力和感召力。因为,B2B不说大话,只谈生意。新生意,旧生意 B2B(Business to Business E-commerce)市场之所以不断升温,不仅因为“商务”内核以“电子”的形式来表达时,能给商人们带来畅快的效率和便利,更因为它给企业带来的营业额和利润的潜能远远高于针对最终消费者的电

  7. Structure-function relationships of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcription factor WhiB1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the WhiB-like (Wbl protein family possess iron-sulfur clusters and are implicated in the regulation of developmental processes in Actinomycetes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses seven Wbl proteins. The [4Fe-4S] cluster of M. tuberculosis WhiB1 is relatively insensitive to O(2 but very sensitive to nitric oxide (NO. Nitric oxide nitrosylates the WhiB1 iron-sulfur cluster and promotes DNA-binding; the apo-forms of WhiB1 also bind DNA. However, the molecular requirements for iron-sulfur cluster acquisition and for DNA-binding by WhiB1 are poorly characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS: WhiB1 variants were created by site-directed mutagenesis and the abilities of the corresponding proteins to acquire an iron-sulfur cluster and/or bind to whiB1 promoter DNA were assessed. All four Cys residues (Cys9, 37, 40, and 46 in the N-terminal region of WhiB1 were required for incorporation of a [4Fe-4S] cluster, whereas a possible alternative cluster ligand Asp13 (by analogy with M. smegmatis WhiB2 was not. The C-terminal region of WhiB1 is predicted to house the DNA-binding domain of the protein consisting of a predicted β-turn ((58GVWGG(62 followed by two amino acid motifs ((72KRRN(75 and (78TKAR(81 that are conserved in WhiB1 proteins. Gly residues (Gly58, 61 and 62 in the β-turn and positively-charged residues (Lys72, Arg73, Arg74, Lys79 and Arg81 in the downstream conserved regions were required for binding of WhiB1 DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Site-directed mutagenesis of M. tuberculosis whiB1 and characterization of the corresponding proteins has been used to explore structure-function relationships of the NO-responsive transcription factor WhiB1. This showed that all four conserved Cys residues in the N-terminal region are required for incorporation of iron-sulfur clusters but not for DNA-binding. Analysis of variants with amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region revealed the crucial roles played by a predicted β-turn and two

  8. 维生素B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊生

    2007-01-01

    维生素B1又称硫胺素(thiamine)、抗脚气病因子、抗神经炎因子等,是维生素中发现最早的一种。早在公元前2697年,我国医书《内经》曾对脚气病进行过详细的论述,但发现维生素B1是一种必需的营养物质是在19世纪末和20世纪初。1897年,荷兰内科医生Eijkman发现脚气病是由于食精白米所致,用米糠或糙米可防治此病。1911年,Funk在伦敦Lister研究所从米糠中提取到这种治疗脚气病的物质,因为具有胺的性质,因此称之为“生命胺”,

  9. Habit and formation mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲维卓; 洪慧聪; 路治平; 赵天德; 华素坤; 唐鼎元; 赵庆兰

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the orientation of structure unit [B3O6]3- anion ring and the morphology of β-BaBO4 crystal has been studied on the basis of crystallography. According to the results measured from the solution structure of Na2O-B2O3 system, the structure of the growth unit of β-BaB2O4 crystal and the incorporation discipline of the growth unit on the faces and facets of the crystal are proposed. The formation mechanism and crystallization habit of the β-BaB2O4 are discussed. The dimensions of the growth unit vary with the physicochemistry conditions of the crystal growth. Moreover, the incorporation rates of the growth units with different dimensions on the faces and facets are also changed This is the major reason of the diver-sity of the crystal morphology

  10. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Modak; R S Rao; B K Godwal; S K Sikka

    2002-05-01

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with experiment. We obtain the mass enhancement parameter by using our calculated (F) and the experimental specific heat data. The c is found to be 24.7 K.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B2 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B2 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. • The energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. • The enthalpy of combustion ΔcH° and the thermodynamic parameters ΔfH°, ΔfS°, ΔfG° have been calculated. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 322 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B2, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. In a calorimeter with a static bomb and an isothermal shield, the energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. The enthalpy of combustion ΔcH° and the thermodynamic parameters ΔfH°, ΔfS°, ΔfG° and of reaction of formation of the riboflavin from simple substances at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated

  12. Mitochondrial Transcription Factor B2 Is Essential for Metabolic Function in Drosophila melanogaster Development*

    OpenAIRE

    Adán, Cristina; Matsushima, Yuichi; Hernández-Sierra, Rosana; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel Ángel; González-Vioque, Emiliano; Calleja, Manuel; Aragón, Juan J.; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Garesse, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of the basal transcription machinery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is critical to understand mitochondrial pathophysiology. In mammalian in vitro systems, mtDNA transcription requires mtRNA polymerase, transcription factor A (TFAM), and either transcription factor B1 (TFB1M) or B2 (TFB2M). We have silenced the expression of TFB2M by RNA interference in Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference knockdown of TF2BM causes lethality by arrest of larval deve...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-3 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer,...

  14. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  15. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel.

  16. High-average-power femtosecond pulse generation in the blue using BiB3O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, M.; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.; Kityk, I. V.

    2004-11-01

    Efficient generation of tunable femtosecond pulses in the blue is reported in the nonlinear crystal BiB3O6. By use of fundamental pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser at 76 MHz, single-pass second-harmonic average powers of as much as 830 mW have been generated at 50% conversion efficiency, and a tunable range of 375-435 nm in the blue is demonstrated. Temporal measurements using cross correlation of the fundamental and second-harmonic pulses in a 100-µm-thick ß-BaB2O4 crystal result in blue pulse durations of 220 fs for 130-fs fundamental pulses. Direct experimental comparison with ß-BaB2O4 confirms the superior performance BiB3O6 for second-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses.

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of MgB 2 for valence state of Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Talapatra; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Sen, Pintu; Barat, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukherjee, M.

    2005-03-01

    Core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been carried out on polycrystalline MgB 2 pellets over the whole binding energy range with a view to having an idea of the charge state of magnesium (Mg). We observe three distinct peaks in Mg 2p spectra at 49.3 eV (trace), 51.3 eV (major) and 54.0 eV (trace), corresponding to metallic Mg, MgB 2 and MgCO 3 or, divalent Mg species, respectively. Similar trend has been noticed in Mg 2s spectra. The binding energy of Mg in MgB 2 is lower than that corresponding to Mg(2+), indicative of the fact that the charge state of Mg in MgB 2 is less than (2+). Lowering of the formal charge of Mg promotes the σ → π electron transfer in boron (B) giving rise to holes on the top of the σ-band which are involved in coupling with B E 2g phonons for superconductivity. Through this charge transfer, Mg plays a positive role in hole superconductivity. B 1s spectra consist of three peaks corresponding to MgB 2, boron and B 2O 3. There is also evidence of MgO due to surface oxidation as seen from O 1s spectra.

  18. Flotillins as regulators of ErbB2 levels in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pust, S; Klokk, T I; Musa, N;

    2013-01-01

    Amplification and overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 occur in up to 30% of human breast cancers, and high ErbB2 levels are correlated with poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. In contrast to the epithelial growth factor receptor (ErbB1), ErbB2 is not downregulated by ligand......-induced mechanisms. Here we show that flotillins are involved in the stabilization of ErbB2 at the plasma membrane. In SKBR3 breast cancer cells and breast cancer tissue, a positive correlation between flotillin and ErbB2 expression levels could be demonstrated. Moreover, the tissue microarray analyses of biopsies...... from 194 patients diagnosed with carcinomas of the breast showed that flotillin-2 emerged as a potential predictor of prognosis in breast cancer. Depletion of flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 leads to internalization and degradation of ErbB2. Furthermore, flotillin-1 and -2 were found to be in a molecular...

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of MgB2 for valence state of Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been carried out on polycrystalline MgB2 pellets over the whole binding energy range with a view to having an idea of the charge state of magnesium (Mg). We observe three distinct peaks in Mg 2p spectra at 49.3 eV (trace), 51.3 eV (major) and 54.0 eV (trace), corresponding to metallic Mg, MgB2 and MgCO3 or, divalent Mg species, respectively. Similar trend has been noticed in Mg 2s spectra. The binding energy of Mg in MgB2 is lower than that corresponding to Mg(2+), indicative of the fact that the charge state of Mg in MgB2 is less than (2+). Lowering of the formal charge of Mg promotes the σ → π electron transfer in boron (B) giving rise to holes on the top of the σ-band which are involved in coupling with B E2g phonons for superconductivity. Through this charge transfer, Mg plays a positive role in hole superconductivity. B 1s spectra consist of three peaks corresponding to MgB2, boron and B2O3. There is also evidence of MgO due to surface oxidation as seen from O 1s spectra

  20. Syntheses and Bioactivity of 4"-Sulfonate-5-triphenylsilyl Avermectin B1a and Ivermectin B1a Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Lian-an; FANG Hong-yun; LI Zheng-ming; ZHAO Wei-guang; FAN Zhi-jin

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen new derivatives of avermectin B1a and ivermectin B1a were synthesized from C5-O-triphenylsilyl avermectin B1a and ivermectin B1a(yield from 40% to 83%). Their chemical structures were characterized by means of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FAB-MS spectrometries. Some of them show excellent insecticidal activity.

  1. Anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibodies and ErbB-2-directed vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yum L; Ward, Robyn L

    2002-01-01

    The tumour antigen ErbB-2 belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor family. Numerous studies have shown that ErbB-2 is overexpressed in many cancers and it is prognostically important in a subset of malignancies. It is well recognised that this receptor has many characteristics that make it an excellent target for tumour-specific immunotherapy. One anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibody, Herceptin or TrastuzuMab, has already shown clinical efficacy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, despite this success, it is still currently unclear how monoclonal antibodies inhibit tumour growth in vivo. This review will summarise the biological activities of a range of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs, as well as their possible mechanisms of action. In addition, as an active mode of immunotherapy, the current vaccine strategies for inducing or enhancing ErbB-2-specific immunity will also be discussed. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the activities of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs will aid in the development of both passive and active immunotherapies against this important receptor. PMID:11807621

  2. Activation of ErbB3, EGFR and Erk is essential for growth of human breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Benjaminsen, Rikke V; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    Seven fulvestrant resistant cell lines derived from the estrogen receptor alpha positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line were used to investigate the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1-4) signaling. We found an increase in mRNA expression of EGFR and the ErbB3/ErbB4 ligand...... cell lines concomitant with inhibition of Erk and unaltered Akt activation. In concert, inhibition of Erk with U0126 preferentially reduced growth of resistant cell lines. Treatment with ErbB3 neutralizing antibodies inhibited ErbB3 activation and resulted in a modest but statistically significant...

  3. 维生素B2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红卫

    2007-01-01

    维生素B2又称核黄素(riboflavin)。最初人们于19世纪后期认识到,在天然乳清中存在着一种可溶于水的能产生黄色荧光的物质,可预防皮肤炎症。1933年由几个科研小组将其分离出来,并命名为核黄素,意指其来源于卵黄素、肝黄素和尿黄素。

  4. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  5. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary E; Hirsch, Joseph A; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Jordan, Barry D; Cirio, Rosanna T; Elder, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The earliest and perhaps best example of an interaction between nutrition and dementia is related to thiamine (vitamin B1). Throughout the last century, research showed that thiamine deficiency is associated with neurological problems, including cognitive deficits and encephalopathy. Multiple similarities exist between classical thiamine deficiency and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in that both are associated with cognitive deficits and reductions in brain glucose metabolism. Thiamine-dependent enzymes are critical components of glucose metabolism that are reduced in the brains of AD patients and by thiamine decline, and a decrease in their levels could account for the reduction in glucose metabolism. In preclinical models, reduced thiamine can drive AD-like abnormalities, including memory deficits, neuritic plaques, and hyperphosphorylation of tau. Furthermore, excess thiamine diminishes AD-like pathologies. In addition to dietary deficits, drugs or other manipulations that interfere with thiamine absorption can cause thiamine deficiency. Elucidating the reasons why the brains of AD patients are functionally thiamine deficient and determining the effects of thiamine restoration may provide critical information to help treat patients with AD. PMID:26971083

  6. To be or not B2B?

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, L J

    2001-01-01

    La question du commerce électronique interentreprises par le web (Business to Business, B2B) est posée actuellement par les grands groupes industriels impliqués dans le commerce mondial. Les prévisions sont imposantes, le B2B atteindra le C.A. de 3000 milliards de dollars en 2003. Les conditions d'accès, la façon de procéder des deux organisateurs (ARIBA et COMMERCE ONE) des plus grandes places de marchés actuelles, sont décrites. La base de l'énorme pyramide est le catalogue électronique multilingue UNSPSC (United Nations Standard Products and Services Classification) et l'organisation ECCMA (Electronic Commerce Code Management Association) qui gère le développement des UNSPSC codes en 8 langues. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur (re)-déclare qu'un des efforts principaux à fournir par le CERN est la création de son propre catalogue électronique. Dans la Division ST, une aide partielle à ce vaste programme pourrait être apportée par la normalisation des codes et désignations des pièces de maint...

  7. Whole Genome and Transcriptome Sequencing of a B3 Thymoma

    OpenAIRE

    Iacopo Petrini; Arun Rajan; Trung Pham; Donna Voeller; Sean Davis; James Gao; Yisong Wang; Giuseppe Giaccone

    2013-01-01

    Molecular pathology of thymomas is poorly understood. Genomic aberrations are frequently identified in tumors but no extensive sequencing has been reported in thymomas. Here we present the first comprehensive view of a B3 thymoma at whole genome and transcriptome levels. A 55-year-old Caucasian female underwent complete resection of a stage IVA B3 thymoma. RNA and DNA were extracted from a snap frozen tumor sample with a fraction of cancer cells over 80%. We performed array comparative genomi...

  8. Coxsackievirus B3 infection and its mutation in Keshan disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Qun Ren; Xiang-Jun Li; Guang-Sheng Li; Zhi-Tao Zhao; Bo Sun; Fei Sun

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate coxsackievirus B3 infection and its gene mutation in Keshan disease.METHODS: The expression of Coxsackievirus B3 RNA was detected in autopsy specimens of acute (12 cases), sub-acute(27 cases) and chronic (15 cases) Keshan disease by in situ hybridization. In sub-acute Keshan disease specimens, 3 cases with positive result by in situ hybridization were selected RT-PCR analysis. The DNA segments were then sequenced.RESULTS: Coxsackievirus B3 RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of myocardiocyte. The positive rate was 83% in acute, 67% in sub-acute and 80% in chronic Keshan disease.In the conservative region of Coxsackievirus B3 genome,there was a mutation in 234 (C-T) compared to the noncardiovirulent strain, CVB3/0.CONCLUSION: Coxsackievirus B3 RNA can survive and replicate in heart muscle of Keshan disease, which may play an important role in the occurrence of Keshan disease. The possible mechanism of occurrence of Keshan disease is associated with point a mutation in Coxsackievirus B3 genome.

  9. Synthesis of 5-Deoxy-5-Acyloxyiminoavermectin B1 Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Four 5-deoxy-5-acyloxyiminoavermectin B1 derivatives 4a~d were synthesized via three steps from avermectin B1 and their biological activities were tested against Heliothis armigera,Laphygma exigua and Musca domestica.

  10. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 402.02. The certificate holder shall be deemed in compliance with § 157.206(b)(2)(vi) of the... appropriate) as determined pursuant to 50 CFR 402.01 for the purpose of initiating informal consultations. 2... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F...

  11. Compound list: aflatoxin B1 [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aflatoxin B1 AFB1 00165 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aflat...oxin_B1.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aflatoxin_B1.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax. 48.4061(b)-1 Section 48.4061(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section...

  13. Aflatoxin B1: Mechanism of mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites that frequently contaminate corn, peanuts and other products. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the most potent of these, is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system into a number of hydroxylated metabolites and glutathione conjugates in the process of conversion to more hydrophilic forms for urinary excretion. Unfortunately, one of these metabolites is the aflatoxin-8,9-epoxide that is produced in two forms, endo and exo. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are able to conjugate and detoxify this reactive intermediate. Species differences in susceptibility to the effects of AFB1 are partially related to differences in expression of specific GSTs that are able to conjugate the epoxide to glutathione. The exo epoxide is able to intercalate into DNA and this is followed by reaction of the C8 position of the epoxide with the N7 position of guanine.

    NMR studies of oligonucleotide duplexes containing the adduct have demonstrated that the adduct exists with the aromatic portion intercalated on the 5' face of the guanine residue with Watson-Crick base pairing maintained.

    However, this covalent adduct is chemically unstable due to the charge on the ribose ring. As a result, the guanine can be released from the DNA leaving an apurinic site. This released guanine adduct can be detected in the urine and serves as a biomarker of exposure to AFB1. Alternatively, the ribose ring opens forming a stable formamidopyrimidine (FAPY adduct. This adduct somewhat stabilizes the DNA duplex. Time course studies in animals have demonstrated that the N7 adduct is rapidly removed, probably because it causes more distortion in the helix, while the FAPY adduct is more

  14. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hu jinmin, H.J.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Business-to-business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing, e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support different B2B protocols dynamically to enable interaction between diverse enterprises. This paper proposes a framework for dynamic B2B interaction. A B2B transaction is divided into the interacti...

  15. Search for B-meson decays to b1ρ and b1K*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Chavez, A.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.

    2009-09-01

    We present a search for decays of B mesons to final states with a b1 meson and a ρ or K*(892) meson. The search is based on a data sample consisting of 465 million B Bmacr pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We do not observe any statistically significant signal. The upper limits we set on the branching fractions range from 1.4 to 8.0×10-6 at the 90% confidence level, including systematic uncertainties.

  16. Some Considerations on B2B in China%对我国B2B的一些思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 和金生

    2001-01-01

    B2B的现状入手,指出中国非常需要B2B;从B2B企业的内部环境对B2B出现的问题加以分析,并提出了相关对策,最后对B2B给予了展望。%Based on the analysis of the present situation of B2B,it indicates the requirement of B2B in China. Then,it analyses the questions in the implementation of B2B in enterprises and puts forward some countermeasures. Finally,the prospect of B2B development is given.

  17. Buck-Buck- Boost Regulatr (B3R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourra, Olivier; Fernandez, Arturo; Landstroem, Sven; Tonicello, Ferdinando

    2011-10-01

    In a satellite, the main function of a Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) is to manage the energy coming from several power sources (usually solar arrays and battery) and to deliver it continuously to the users in an appropriate form during the overall mission. The objective of this paper is to present an electronic switching DC-DC converter called Buck-Buck-Boost Regulator (B3R) that could be used as a modular and recurrent solution in a PCU for regulated or un- regulated 28Vsatellite power bus classes. The power conversion stages of the B3R topology are first described. Then theoretical equations and practical tests illustrate how the converter operates in term of power conversion, control loops performances and efficiency. The paper finally provides some examples of single point failure tolerant implementation using the B3R.

  18. A promising birefringent crystal Ba2Na3(B3O6)2F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xia, Mingjun; Li, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Bulk crystals of Ba2Na3(B3O6)2F (BNBF) have been successfully grown by top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) technique. Its transmittance spectra show a wide transparency range from 186 nm to 3000 nm. The refractive indices in 13 wavelengths were measured with high accuracy and the Sellmeier equations were obtained, which demonstrated that the title crystal displayed a birefringence (Δn = 0.1030 at 588 nm) comparable to that of the commercial birefringent crystal α-BBO (the high temperature form of BaB2O4). A prototype Glan-Taylor polarizer made of BNBF prisms was fabricated, which showed high transparency and large optical extinction ratio similar to the commercial polarizer made of α-BBO. In addition, BNBF crystal is less moisture sensitive than that of α-BBO, thus BNBF can be a potential new birefringent crystal.

  19. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(b)-2 Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a...

  20. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, H.J.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Business-to-business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing, e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should suppor

  1. TRUST IN B2B E-MARKETPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN KOT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  2. 32 CFR 242b.2 - Meetings of the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meetings of the Board. 242b.2 Section 242b.2... THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.2 Meetings of the Board. (a) Regular meetings. (1) The Board shall hold at... determined by the Board, meetings shall be held at the offices of the University, 4301 Jones Bridge...

  3. MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.; Rowell, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the realization and understanding of MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs are surveyed. High quality MgB2 junctions with suitable tunnel barriers have been realized based on both oriented and epitaxial thin MgB2 films. Multiband transport properties, such as the existence of two energ

  4. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  5. Design of 3B3 beamline control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Both structure and design of the control system in BSRF-3B3 beamline, are discussed and the subsystems are described. The LabVIEW software has advantages on data collecting and real time inspecting. In the process of data collecting, some methods are taken to solve the problems that may be met.

  6. Biotechnological Fluorescent Ligands of the Bradykinin B1 Receptor: Protein Ligands for a Peptide Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Charest-Morin

    Full Text Available The bradykinin (BK B1 receptor (B1R is a peculiar G protein coupled receptor that is strongly regulated to the point of being inducible in immunopathology. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a biomarker of active inflammatory states. In an effort to develop a novel imaging/diagnostic tool, we report the rational design and testing of a fusion protein that is a ligand of the human B1R but not likely to label peptidases. This ligand is composed of a fluorescent protein (FP (enhanced green FP [EGFP] or mCherry prolonged at its N-terminus by a spacer peptide and a classical peptide agonist or antagonist (des-Arg9-BK, [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK, respectively. The design of the spacer-ligand joint peptide was validated by a competition assay for [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK binding to the human B1R applied to 4 synthetic peptides of 18 or 19 residues. The labeling of B1R-expressing cells with EGFP or mCherry fused with 7 of such peptides was performed in parallel (microscopy. Both assays indicated that the best design was FP-(Asn-Glyn-Lys-des-Arg9-BK; n = 15 was superior to n = 5, suggesting benefits from minimizing steric hindrance between the FP and the receptor. Cell labeling concerned mostly plasma membranes and was inhibited by a B1R antagonist. EGFP-(Asn-Gly15-Lys-des-Arg9-BK competed for the binding of [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK to human recombinant B1R, being only 10-fold less potent than the unlabeled form of Lys-des-Arg9-BK to do so. The fusion protein did not label HEK 293a cells expressing recombinant human BK B2 receptors or angiotensin converting enzyme. This study identifies a modular C-terminal sequence that can be adapted to protein cargoes, conferring high affinity for the BK B1R, with possible applications in diagnostic cytofluorometry, histology and drug delivery (e.g., in oncology.

  7. Superconductivity and x-ray photoemission study of MgB2 thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 周岳亮; 朱亚彬; 张芹; 谢侃; 陈正豪; 吕惠宾; 杨国桢

    2002-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented MgB2 thin films with Tconset of 39.6K were fabricated by magnesium diffusing into pulsed-laser-deposited boron precursors. The estimation of critical current density Jc, using hysteresis loops and the Bean model, has given the value of 107A/cm2 (15K, 0T), which is one of the highest values ever reported. The x-ray photoemission study of the MgB2 thin films has revealed that the binding energies of Mg 2p and B 1s are at 49.4eV and 186.9eV, which are close to those of metallic Mg and transition-metal diborides, respectively.

  8. Defects, deformation mechanisms and phase stabilities in Nb-based B2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deformation mechanisms have been determined for compounds based on Nb3Al containing various additions of Ti. These compounds exhibit the B2 crystal structure and deform by activation of one or more of the following slip systems, namely left-angle 111 right-angle {110}, left-angle 111 right-angle {112} and left-angle 111 right-angle {123}. The dislocations are dissociated as superpartial pairs, each with Burgers vector, b, given by b=1/2 left-angle 111 right-angle, which bound a ribbon of antiphase boundary. Attempts have been made to determine the ordering temperatures and the ordering energy of these compounds. Estimates of the site occupancy of these nonstoichiometric B2 compounds have also been determined by the ALCHEMI technique. The phase stabilities of these compounds have been determined over a wide range of temperatures and the effect of these on mechanical properties has been assessed

  9. Effects of glucose doping on the MgB2 superconductors using cheap crystalline boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakkandy, Jafar Meethale; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Shah, M. Shahabuddin; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Qaid, Salem A. S.; Madhar, Niyaz Ahmad; Ramay, Shahid M.; Shar, Muhammad Ali

    2015-12-01

    We report the effect of glucose (C6H12O6) doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductor fabricated by dry mixing using planetary ball milling. Herein, as-prepared bulk polycrystalline Mg (B1-xCx) 2 samples with different doping levels (x = 0, 2, 4, and 6 at. %) were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and resistivity measurements, and microstructure analysis. When carbon doped, the reduction in critical transition temperature and shrinkage in a-lattice were obviously observed. This resulted in structural distortion of the MgB2 lattice, and thereby, enhanced an impurity scattering. In addition to these, upper critical field and high-field critical current densities were also enhanced. On the other hand, both pinning force and low-field critical current density are decreased. The high field enhancement and low field degradation are due to increase in impurity scattering and decrease in pinning force respectively.

  10. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro. PMID:27455553

  11. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro.

  12. Surface Binding of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Haskard, Carolyn A.; El-Nezami, Hani S.; Kankaanpää, Pasi E.; Salminen, Seppo; Ahokas, Jorma T.

    2001-01-01

    Specific lactic acid bacterial strains remove toxins from liquid media by physical binding. The stability of the aflatoxin B1 complexes formed with 12 bacterial strains in both viable and nonviable (heat- or acid-treated) forms was assessed by repetitive aqueous extraction. By the fifth extraction, up to 71% of the total aflatoxin B1 remained bound. Nonviable bacteria retained the highest amount of aflatoxin B1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and L. rhamnosus strain LC-705 (DS...

  13. The Escherichia coli phylogenetic group B2 with integrons prevails in childhood recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Stsepetova, Jelena; Pai, Kristiine; Vainumäe, Inga; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize the phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli, antibiotic resistance, and containment of class 1 integrons in the first attack of pyelonephritis and in subsequent recurrences in young children. Altogether, 89 urine E. coli isolates from 41 children with urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied for prevalence and persistence of phylogenetic groups by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibacterial resistance by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and class 1 integrons by PCR. Phylogenetic group B2 was most common (57%), followed by D (20%), A (18%) and B1 (5%). Overall resistance to betalactams was 61%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 28%, and was not associated with phylogenetic groups. According to PFGE, the same clonal strain persisted in 77% of patients. The persistence was detected most often in phylogenetic group B2 (70%). Phylogenetic group B2 more often contained class 1 integrons than group A. Integron positive strains had higher MIC values of cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. In conclusion, phylogenetic group B2 was the most common cause of the first episode of pyelonephritis, as well as in case of the persistence of the same strain and contained frequently class 1 integrons in childhood recurrent UTI. An overall frequent betalactam resistance was equally distributed among phylogenetic groups. PMID:24033434

  14. On the study of phase formation and critical current density in superconducting MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suchitra Rajput; Sujeet Chaudhary; Subhash C Kashyap; Pankaj Srivastava

    2006-06-01

    Superconducting bulk MgB2 samples have been synthesized by employing sintering technique without using any additional process steps, generally undertaken in view of the substantial loss of magnesium, during heat treatment. Starting with Mg rich powders having different atomic ratios of Mg : B, as against the nominally required Mg : B = 1 : 2 ratio, we have obtained superconducting MgB2 samples of different characteristics. The effect of excess Mg in the starting mixture and processing temperature on the phase-formation, transition temperature (C) and critical current density (C) have been investigated by electrical transport and a.c. susceptibility measurements. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses of MgB2 bulk samples have been carried out to understand the role of excess Mg and the effect of processing temperature. It is established that MgB2 samples with high critical current density can be synthesized from a Mg rich powder having Mg : B in 2 : 2 ratio, at temperatures around 790°C. Critical current density has been found to vary systematically with processing temperature.

  15. MAN1B1 deficiency: an unexpected CDG-II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Rymen

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD. However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency.

  16. Spectral analysis of Cu(2+): B(2)O(3)--ZnO--PbO glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, G; Buddhudu, S

    2005-11-01

    A new series of heavy metal oxide (PbO) based zinc borate glasses in the chemical composition of (95-x)B(2)O(3)-5ZnO-xPbO (x=10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mol%) have been prepared to verify their UV filtering performance. Both direct and indirect optical band gaps (E(opt)) have been evaluated for these glasses. For a reference glass of 45B(2)O(3)-5ZnO-50PbO, refractive indices at different wavelengths are measured and found the results satisfactorily correlated with the theoretical data upon the computation of Cauchy's constants of A=1.766029949, B=159531.024 nm(2) and C=-1.078 x 10(10) nm(4). Measurements concerning X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) profiles have been carried out for this glass. The FT-IR profile has revealed that the glass has both BO(3) and BO(4) units. From DSC thermogram, glass transition temperature (T(g)), crystallization temperature (T(c)) and melting temperature (T(m)) have been located and from them, other related parameters of the glass have also been calculated. Visible absorption spectra of 45B(2)O(3)-5ZnO-(50-x)PbO-xCuO (x=0. 1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mol%) have revealed two absorption bands at around 400 nm ((2)B(1g)-->(2)E(g)) and 780 nm ((2)B(1g)-->(2)B(2g)) of Cu(2+) ions, respectively. Emission bands at 422 and 512 nm are found for the 1 mol % CuO doped glass with excitations at 306 and 332 nm. PMID:16257737

  17. The simultaneous expression of both ephrin B3 receptor and E-cadherin in Barrett`s adenocarcinoma is associated with favorable clinical staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Matthias C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In intestinal epithelium, tyrosine kinase receptor Ephrin B3 (Eph B3 maintains the architecture of the crypt-villus axis by repulsive interaction with its ligand ephrin-B1. While loss of Eph B3 is linked to colorectal cancer initiation, overexpression of Eph B3 in cancer cell lines inhibits growth and induces functional changes with decreased mesenchymal and increased epithelial markers. In order to study this tumor suppressor activity of Eph B3 in esophageal adenocarcinoma we analyzed the simultaneous expression of Eph B3 and E-cadherin in both the healthy esophagus and in Barrett’s carcinoma. Methods Simultaneous expression of Eph B3 and E-cadherin was investigated in samples from 141 patients with Barrett’s carcinoma and from 20 healthy esophagi using immunhistology and quantitative PCR. Results from healthy squamous epithelium, Barrett’s metaplasia and staging-specific esophageal adenocarcinoma were correlated. Results A significantly reduced E-cadherin mRNA expression could be detected in adenocarcinoma compared to dysplasia. The immunhistological activity of E-cadherin and Eph B3 was reduced in adenocarcinoma compared to dysplasia or healthy esophageal mucosa. The intracellular E-cadherin distribution changed significantly from the cytoplasm to the membrane, when the Eph receptor was simultaneously expressed. Simultaneous expression of E-cadherin and Eph B3 showed a significant inverse correlation to tumor stage. Conclusions We present novel evidence of the tumor suppressor activity of Eph B3 in esophageal adenocarcinoma possibly due to the impact on redistribution of cellular E-cadherin to the membrane. Our results suggest that this effect might play a role in the dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence, the infiltrative growth pattern and the development of lymph node metastases.

  18. Mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB2 ceramic influenced by ZrB2 additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓; 傅正义; 辜萍; 王为民; 袁润章

    2002-01-01

    Since some transition metal diborides have the same crystal structure with TiB2, which can react with TiB2 to form solid solution by adequate technique. With ZrB2 used as additive, the TiB2-ZrB2 solid solution was prepared by hot pressing. The effects of additive content on mechanical properties of composite were investigated. The microstructure analyzing were employed by EPMA, SEM and TEM. It is shown that TiB2 can partly form solid solution with ZrB2 and redound to gain uniform grains, which h results in the increase of mechanical properties.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(b)-1 - Payroll period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll period. 31.3401(b)-1 Section 31.3401(b... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(b)-1 Payroll period. (a) The term payroll period means the... elapsed and receives the remainder at the end of the week, the payroll period is still the calendar...

  20. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Shirakawa, Jun; Hou, Lifei; Goodman, Jessica; Karampelias, Christos; Qiang, Guifeng; Boucher, Jeremie; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; De Jesus, Dario F.; Kahraman, Sevim; Bhatt, Shweta; Smith, Richard D.; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Gong, Yanping; Goldfine, Allison B.; Liew, Chong Wee; Doria, Alessandro; Andersson, Olov; Qian, Weijun; Remold-O' Donnell, Eileen; Kulkami, Rohit N.

    2016-01-12

    Compensatory β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance is a common feature in diabetes. We recently reported that liver-derived factors participate in this compensatory response in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a model of significant islet hyperplasia. Here we show that serpinB1 is a liver-derived secretory protein that controls β-cell proliferation. SerpinB1 is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice. SerpinB1 and small molecule compounds that partially mimic serpinB1 activity enhanced proliferation of zebrafish, mouse and human β-cells. We report that serpinB1-induced β-cell replication requires protease inhibition activity and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated β-cell replication in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1-treatment of islets modulated signaling proteins in growth and survival pathways such as MAPK, PKA and GSK3. Together, these data implicate SerpinB1 as a protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β-cell mass in patients with diabetes.

  1. OECD 28-days oral toxicity study on fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs M de; Egmond HP van; Jong WH de; Loveren H van; LPI; ARO; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het beschreven experiment werd uitgevoerd om inzicht te verkrijgen over effecten van lage doseringen fumonisine B1 op target organen en het immuunsysteem. Mannelijke ratten van drie weken oud werden oraal via maagsonde behandeld met 0, 0,19, 0,75 of 3 mg/kg lichaamsgewicht fumonisine B1, dagelij

  2. 29 CFR 2520.104b-1 - Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of this chapter, and section 414(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and 26 CFR 1.414(f) (40 FR... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure. 2520.104b-1 Section 2520.104b-1 Labor... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS...

  3. 17 CFR 260.10b-1 - Calculation of percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of percentages. 260.10b-1 Section 260.10b-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Calculation of percentages. The percentages of voting securities and other securities specified in section...

  4. 77 FR 32599 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... possible sale to provide the regeneration, overhaul, modifications, and logistics support of 4 Lockheed... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  5. 78 FR 36534 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... contractor technical and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics support....

  6. 78 FR 50045 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... engineering, technical and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics support....

  7. 76 FR 60455 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... engineering, technical and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistical and...

  8. 76 FR 72684 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... engineering, technical and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistical and...

  9. 78 FR 41039 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... elements of logistics support. The estimated cost is $170 million. The proposed sale will contribute to the... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  10. 26 CFR 11.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum coverage requirements. 11.410(b)-1 Section 11.410(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY...

  11. 77 FR 52698 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...: 18 AGM-65K2 MAVERICK All-Up- Round Missiles, 36 TGM-65K2 Captive Air Training Missiles, 3...

  12. 77 FR 42709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Services under Consideration for Purchase: 700 AGM-114K3A or AGM-114R3 HELLFIRE tactical missiles,...

  13. 76 FR 68432 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Purchase: 70 AGM-158 Joint Air-to- Surface Standoff Missiles (JASSM), 2 test vehicles, support and...

  14. 78 FR 26330 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Services under Consideration for Purchase: 500 AGM-114-N4/P4 HELLFIRE missiles. (iv) Military...

  15. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section...: 500 AGM-114R3 HELLFIRE II missiles, containers, spare and repair parts, support and test...

  16. 77 FR 40026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Consideration for Purchase: 300 AGM-114R3 HELLFIRE II missiles, containers, spare and repair parts, support...

  17. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...-Term Care Insurance Model Act (Model Act) and Long-Term Care Insurance Model Regulation...

  18. A research on B2B modes%B2B电子商务模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎梅

    2001-01-01

    21世纪是电子商务时代,在对最具潜力的B2B电子商务模式的网站调查基础上,对B2B电子商务的模式进行了详细分类和分析,为我国的B2B电子商务经营者制订切实可行的发展策略和营销策略提供了参考和借鉴.从目前情况和长远趋势来看,在B2B电子商务的4种模式中,其中企业B2B网站、B2B交易场、垂直型的B2B网站在中国将有很好的发展趋势.

  19. Potassium zinc borate, KZnB3O6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, KZnB3O6 contains a remarkable [B6O12]6− group (overline{1} symmetry formed by two rings linked by edge-sharing BO4 tetrahedra, a feature that has only been observed previously under high pressure conditions. These borate groups are connected through distorted ZnO4 tetrahedra in edge-shared pairs (overline{1} symmetry, forming a three-dimensional network whose cavities are filled by K+ cations.

  20. Potassium zinc borate, KZnB(3)O(6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Yao, Ji-Yong; Zhang, Jian-Xiu; Fu, Pei-Zhen; Wu, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, KZnB(3)O(6) contains a remarkable [B(6)O(12)](6-) group ( symmetry) formed by two rings linked by edge-sharing BO(4) tetra-hedra, a feature that has only been observed previously under high pressure conditions. These borate groups are connected through distorted ZnO(4) tetra-hedra in edge-shared pairs ( symmetry), forming a three-dimensional network whose cavities are filled by K(+) cations. PMID:21578991

  1. Protective Effects of the Alcohol Dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 Allele on Attention and Behavior Problems in Adolescents Exposed to Alcohol during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Neil C.; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against al...

  2. The B=2 system in the chiral quark-soliton model with broken scale invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Sarti, Valentina Mantovani; Vento, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between two B=1 states in the Chiral-Dilaton Model with scale invariance where baryons are described as non-topological solitons arising from the interaction of chiral mesons and quarks. By using the hedgehog solution for the B=1 states we construct, via a product ansatz, three possible B=2 configurations to analyse the role of the relative orientation of the hedgehog quills in the dynamics. We investigate the behaviour of these solutions in the range of long and intermediate distances between the two solitons. Since the product ansatz breaks down as the two solitons get close, we explore the short range distances regime by building up a six quarks bag and by evaluating the interaction energy as a function of the inter-soliton separation. We calculate the interaction energy as a function of the inter-soliton distance for the B=2 system and we show that for small separations the six quarks bag, assuming a hedgehog structure, provides a stable bound state that at large separations conne...

  3. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang Shang; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zhu, Ri Zhe; Choi, Byung-Min; Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Bok-Ryang

    2012-01-01

    Typically, chemopreventive agents involve either induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and/or inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) that are required for the activation of procarcinogens. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of phloretin against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediate, AFB(1)-8, 9-epoxide (AFBO), and its subsequent detoxification. Phloretin markedly inhibited formation of the epoxide with human liver microsomes in a dose-dependent manner. Phloretin also inhibited the activities of nifedipine oxidation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in human liver microsomes. These data show that phloretin strongly inhibits CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities, which are involved in the activation of AFB1. Phloretin increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12) cells in a dose-dependent manner. GST activity toward AFBO in cell lysates treated with 20 μM phloretin was 23-fold that of untreated control cell lysates. The expression of GSTA3, GSTA4, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 was induced by phloretin in a dose-dependent manner in AML 12 cells. GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were able to significantly increase the conjugation of AFBO with glutathione. Concurrently, induction of the GST isozyme genes was partially associated with the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Taken together, the results demonstrate that phloretin has a strong chemopreventive effect against AFB1 through its inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and its inductive effect on GST activity. PMID:22253071

  4. Organizational patterns for knowledge capture in B2B engagements

    OpenAIRE

    Niwe, Moses

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a means of knowledge capture in form of patterns that are solutions to reoccurring problems for business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Using empirical data, we examine the processes involved in the B2B engagement and capture valuable solutions as best practices. The collection of patterns forms a pattern language for B2B engagements that addresses operational, communication and collaboration areas of the B2B environment. The thesis is organized in...

  5. Boron isotope effect in superconducting MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud'ko, S L; Lapertot, G; Petrovic, C; Cunningham, C E; Anderson, N; Canfield, P C

    2001-02-26

    We report the preparation method of and boron isotope effect for MgB2, a new binary intermetallic superconductor with a remarkably high superconducting transition temperature T(c)(10B) = 40.2 K. Measurements of both temperature dependent magnetization and specific heat reveal a 1.0 K shift in T(c) between Mg11B2 and Mg10B2. Whereas such a high transition temperature might imply exotic coupling mechanisms, the boron isotope effect in MgB2 is consistent with the material being a phonon-mediated BCS superconductor.

  6. Correlation of c-erbB-2, EGF and EGFR expression with postoperative survival of patients with advanced carcinoma of the stomach.

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Guzinska-Ustymowicz; Jolanta Czyzewska; Andrzej Kemona

    2010-01-01

    The c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu), EGF and EGFR (erbB-1) proteins, members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, play a role in cell growth by binding to cell membrane receptors. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the expression of c-erbB-2, EGF and EGFR in advanced gastric carcinoma and to analyze its relationship with chosen anatomo-clinical parameters and prognosis. Standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase was used for c-erbB-2, EGF and EGFR immuno-histochemical staining (Novostain Sup...

  7. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction in ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4 powders and single crystals has been studied using synchrotron radiation as well as conventional X-rays. The experimental results are supported by calculations using density functional theory. ScB2, YB4 and HoB4 are hard materials (bulk ...

  8. Compensatory function of bradykinin B1 receptor in the inhibitory effect of captopril on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibroblast proliferation in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jun; REN Jiang-hua; FENG Dan; WANG Hong; XU Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Background Bradykinin(BK)acts mainly on two receptor subtypes:B1 and B2,and activation of B2 receptor mediates the most well-known cardioprotective effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors(ACEi),however,the role that B1 receptor plays in ACEi has not been fully defined.We examined the role of B1 receptor in the inhibitory effect of ACE inhibitor captopril on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibroblast proliferation induced by angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ) and explored its possible mechanism.Methods Neonatal cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts(CFs)were randomly treated with Ang Ⅱ,captopril,B2 receptor antagonist(HOE-140)and B1 receptor antagonist(des-Arg10,Leu9-kallidin)alone or in combination.Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell cycle,size and protein content.Nitric oxide(NO)and intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP)level were measured by colorimetry and radioimmunoassay.Results After the CFs and cardiomyocytes were incubated with 0.1 μmol/L Ang Ⅱ for 48 hours.the percentage of CFs in the S stage,cardiomyocytes size and protein content significantly increased(both P<0.01 vs control),and these increases were inhibited by 10 μmol/L captopril.However,NO and cGMP levels were significantly higher than that with Ang Ⅱ alone(both P<0.01).1 μmol/L HOE-140 or 0.1 μmol/L des-Arg10,Leu9-kallidin attenuated the effects of captopril,which was blunted further by blockade of both B1 and B2 receptors.Conclusions Acting via B2 receptor,BK contributes to the antihypertrophic and antiproliferative effects of captopril on cardiomyocytes and CFs.In the absence of B2 receptor,B1 receptor may act a compensatory mechanism for the B2 receptor and contribute to the inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and CFs proliferation by captopril.NO and cGMP play an important role in the effect of B1 receptor.

  9. Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of a B3 thymoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Petrini

    Full Text Available Molecular pathology of thymomas is poorly understood. Genomic aberrations are frequently identified in tumors but no extensive sequencing has been reported in thymomas. Here we present the first comprehensive view of a B3 thymoma at whole genome and transcriptome levels. A 55-year-old Caucasian female underwent complete resection of a stage IVA B3 thymoma. RNA and DNA were extracted from a snap frozen tumor sample with a fraction of cancer cells over 80%. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization using Agilent platform, transcriptome sequencing using HiSeq 2000 (Illumina and whole genome sequencing using Complete Genomics Inc platform. Whole genome sequencing determined, in tumor and normal, the sequence of both alleles in more than 95% of the reference genome (NCBI Build 37. Copy number (CN aberrations were comparable with those previously described for B3 thymomas, with CN gain of chromosome 1q, 5, 7 and X and CN loss of 3p, 6, 11q42.2-qter and q13. One translocation t(11;X was identified by whole genome sequencing and confirmed by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Ten single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 2 insertion/deletions (INDELs were identified; these mutations resulted in non-synonymous amino acid changes or affected splicing sites. The lack of common cancer-associated mutations in this patient suggests that thymomas may evolve through mechanisms distinctive from other tumor types, and supports the rationale for additional high-throughput sequencing screens to better understand the somatic genetic architecture of thymoma.

  10. The b1 structure function and nuclear pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The b1 structure function is measurable in deep inelastic scattering from polarized nuclei with unpolarized beams. The contributions of nuclear pions are evaluated and found to be small, about 2%. 8 refs

  11. Analysis of CYP27B1 in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jay P; Bernales, Cecily Q; Lee, Joshua D; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of genetic variability in CYP27B1 and its effect on risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) has yielded conflicting results. Here we describe a study to genetically characterize CYP27B1 and elucidate its role on MS risk in the Canadian population. Sequencing CYP27B1 failed to identify mutations known to cause loss of enzymatic activity, however genotyping of p.R389H in cases and controls identified the mutation in one multi-incident family (allele frequency = 0.03%) in which the p.R389H mutation segregates with disease in five family members diagnosed with MS, thus providing additional support for CYP27B1 p.R389H in the pathogenicity of MS. PMID:24308945

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  13. Effects of graphite doping on critical current density and microstructure of MgB2 bulks by an improved Mg-diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    abstract: A series of graphite-doped MgB2 bulks with high density have been successfully prepared by an improved Mg-diffusion method in ambient pressure. The effects of graphite doping on lattice parameters, Tc, Jc and microstructure of MgB2 have been investigated. The results show that compared to the nano-C-doped or CNTs-doped MgB2, C is not easy to substitute B in graphite-doped MgB2. However, at the same C content, the graphite-doped MgB2 has a higher Jc. At 10 K and self-field, the Jc for MgB1.985C0.015 reaches 0.58 MA/cm2. For the MgB1.945C0.055, at 5 K, 7 T and 10 K, 6 T the Jc achieves 10,000 A/cm2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than that for the undoped sample. In addition to improving electron scattering and intergranular connectivity, the unreacted graphite in the graphite-doped MgB2 is proposed to be responsible to the excellent Jc properties of MgB2 in high fields, due to depressed grain growth and enhanced grain boundary flux pinning

  14. Drosophila nuclear factor DREF regulates the expression of the mitochondrial DNA helicase and mitochondrial transcription factor B2 but not the mitochondrial translation factor B1

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.; Hernández, Rosana; Adán, Cristina; Roberti, Marina; Bruni, Francesco; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Cantatore, Palmiro; Matsushima, Yuichi; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Garesse, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    DREF [DRE (DNA replication-related element)-binding factor] controls the transcription of numerous genes in Drosophila, many involved in nuclear DNA (nDNA) replication and cell proliferation, three in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and two in mtDNA transcription termination. In this work, we have analysed the involvement of DREF in the expression of the known remaining genes engaged in the minimal mtDNA replication (d-mtDNA helicase) and transcription (the activator d-mtTFB2) machineri...

  15. Reversal of hemochromatosis by apotransferrin in non-transfused and transfused Hbbth3/+ (heterozygous B1/B2 globin gene deletion) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Monique P; Baek, Jin Hyen; Yalamanoglu, Ayla; Puglia, Michele; Vallelian, Florence; Burla, Bo; Vostal, Jaroslav; Schaer, Dominik J; Buehler, Paul W

    2015-05-01

    Intermediate beta-thalassemia has a broad spectrum of sequelae and affected subjects may require occasional blood transfusions over their lifetime to correct anemia. Iron overload in intermediate beta-thalassemia results from a paradoxical intestinal absorption, iron release from macrophages and hepatocytes, and sporadic transfusions. Pathological iron accumulation in parenchyma is caused by chronic exposure to non-transferrin bound iron in plasma. The iron scavenger and transport protein transferrin is a potential treatment being studied for correction of anemia. However, transferrin may also function to prevent or reduce iron loading of tissues when exposure to non-transferrin bound iron increases. Here we evaluate the effects of apotransferrin administration on tissue iron loading and early tissue pathology in non-transfused and transfused Hbb(th3/+) mice. Mice with the Hbb(th3/+) phenotype have mild to moderate anemia and consistent tissue iron accumulation in the spleen, liver, kidneys and myocardium. Chronic apotransferrin administration resulted in normalization of the anemia. Furthermore, it normalized tissue iron content in the liver, kidney and heart and attenuated early tissue changes in non-transfused Hbb(th3/+) mice. Apotransferrin treatment was also found to attenuate transfusion-mediated increases in plasma non-transferrin bound iron and associated excess tissue iron loading. These therapeutic effects were associated with normalization of transferrin saturation and suppressed plasma non-transferrin bound iron. Apotransferrin treatment modulated a fundamental iron regulatory pathway, as evidenced by decreased erythroid Fam132b gene (erythroferrone) expression, increased liver hepcidin gene expression and plasma hepcidin-25 levels and consequently reduced intestinal ferroportin-1 in apotransferrin-treated thalassemic mice.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P;

    2001-01-01

    Homobaclofen (5-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl) pentanoic acid) is a homologue of the classical GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen. In a recent study, the two enantiomers of this compound were tested in a GABA(B) receptor selective [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid ([3H]GABA) binding assay using rat brain homo...

  17. Effects of trout bradykinin on the motility of the trout stomach and intestine: evidence for a receptor distinct from mammalian B1 and B2 subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jorgen; J. Michael Conlon

    1997-01-01

    Trout bradykinin ([Arg0,Trp5,Leu8]-bradykinin; trout BK), recently isolated from kallikrein-treated trout plasma, produced sustained and concentration-dependent contractions of isolated longitudinal muscle from rainbow trout stomach (pD2=7.01±0.03) and proximal small intestine (pD2=7.37±0.07). The maximum responses were 85±2% (stomach) and 101±35% (intestine) of the corresponding responses to 10−5 M acetylcholine. Strips of circular smooth muscle from trout stomach and intestine did not contr...

  18. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil. PMID:26605670

  19. Synthesis of 4"-benzyloxyimino-4"-deoxyavermectin B1a derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Six new 4"-benzyloxyimino-4"-deoxyavermectin B1a derivatives were synthesized from avermectin B1a by the selective protection of C-5-hydroxy group, oxidation of C-4"-hydroxy group, and deprotection followed by reaction with O-substituted hydroxylamine hydrochlorides. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. Insecticidal activities of the derivatives against Phopalosiphum pseudobrassicae, Spodoptera exigua and Pluteua xylosteua were evaluated.

  20. Enhancement of Critical Current Density in Graphite Doped MgB2 Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-Liang; FENG Yong; XU Zheng; YAN Guo; CAO Lie-Zhao; LI Xiao-Guang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Graphite doped MgB2-xCx (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10) wires were fabricated via the in situ powder-in-tube method in flowing argon by using low carbon steel tubes as the sheath materials. With the increase of graphite concentration,the amount of unreacted graphite in the core area increases, and the average grain size of MgB2 decreases. It is found that the critical current density Jc can be significantly improved by graphite doping. The MgB2 wire with x = 0.05 exhibits the best Jc value of 16710A/cm2 at 6K, 4.5T, but the MgB1.9C0.1 wire has the highest Jc value of 2060 A/cm2 at 6 K, 8 T. It is suggested that the enhancement of Jc is due to not only the improvement of the microstructure features but also the introduction of pinning centres.

  1. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.403(b)-2 Definitions. (a) Application... 1450(b) of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (110 Stat. 1755, 1814) for special rules... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.403(b)-2 Section...

  2. Removal of oxide contamination from TiB2 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commerical TiB2 powders from the carbothermic process are invariably contaminated with oxygen. Contamination is usually caused by surface oxidation during grinding or comminution. Surface oxide contamination, which commonly occurs in fine TiB2 powders and affects their properties, can be removed by treatment with BCl3(g) at 6500C

  3. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-2 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Meaning of terms. 48.4161(b)-2 Section 48.4161(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... with a string and used for the propelling of arrows in the sport of archery (target shooting), or...

  4. Multiband model for tunneling in MgB2 junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.; Golubov, A.A.; Rogalla, H.; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Kong, Y.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical model for quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling in multiband superconductors is developed and applied to MgB2-based junctions. The gap functions in different bands in MgB2 are obtained from an extended Eliashberg formalism, using the results of band structure calculations. The temperat

  5. EXTREMAL VECTORS FOR VERMA TYPE REPRESENTATION OF B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čestmír Burdík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the Verma modules of the algebra B2 we explicitly construct factor representations of the algebra B2 which are connected with the unitary representation of the group SO(3, 2. We find a full set of extremal vectors for representations of this kind. So we can explicitly resolve the problem of the irreducibility of these representations.

  6. ORM-based semantics of B2B transactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.; Meersman, R; Herrero, P; Dillon, T

    2009-01-01

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely n

  7. 为了B2C的聚会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2006年12月8日“第一届中国B2C发展大会”在北京举行,在这个为了B2C的聚会中,业界人士、专家学者就中国B2C的现状畅所欲言,其中B2C经营模式、产品的创新、网上支付的应用情况、B2C网站的互动性.存在在的法律问题等消费者关注的问题成为讨论的热点。

  8. Production and characteristics of specialised monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin B1%高特异性黄曲霉毒素B1单克隆抗体的制备及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智; 李培武; 张奇; 张文; 丁小霞

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins are important mycotoxins of contaminated peanut products. Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic,accounting for over 70% of aflatoxin analogues. In present paper, aflatoxin B1 was transformed into hemiacetal,namely aflatoxin B2a, and then conjugated to protein as immunogen by reduction of sodium borohydride. After the fourth boost immunization, spleen cells of the immunized Balb/c mouse were fused with freshly isolated SP2/0 myeloma cells. Through selecting and identifying with enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), one clone 3A12 was obtained from cultured semi - solid medium. Sensitivity of antibody 3A12 reached 6.1 ± 0.025ng/mL.The cross - reactivities with other aflatoxin analogues ( aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2) were 7.8%, 20.2% and 0.6%respectively, with aflatoxin M1 less than 0.1%. It offered an important foundation for aflatoxin B1 -specific immuno- assay technologies and products.%本研究将黄曲霉毒素B1转化为半缩醛B2a,在硼氢化钠(NaBH4)还原作用下与载体蛋白偶联制备完全抗原.将制备的完全抗原免疫Balb/c小鼠,经4次免疫后取其脾脏与小鼠骨髓瘤细胞Sp2/0细胞融合,采用半固体培养基筛选后鉴定,获得杂交瘤细胞株3A12,抗体的灵敏度可达6.1±0.025ng/mL,抗体与其它黄曲霉毒素B2、G1及G2的交叉反应率依次为7.8%、20.2%及0.6%,与黄曲霉毒素M1交叉反应率小于0.1%.本研究为研发花生等农产品黄曲霉毒素B1特异性免疫分析技术及产品奠定了重要基础.

  9. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Matthias; Xia, Jingjing; Friedel, Roland H; Offermanns, Stefan; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Plexins serve as receptors for semaphorins and play important roles in the developing nervous system. Plexin-B2 controls decisive developmental programs in the neural tube and cerebellum. However, whether Plexin-B2 also regulates biological functions in adult nonneuronal tissues is unknown. Here we show by two methodologically independent approaches that Plexin-B2 is expressed in discrete cell types of several nonneuronal tissues in the adult mouse. In the vasculature, Plexin-B2 is selectively expressed in functionally specialized endothelial cells. In endocrine organs, Plexin-B2 localizes to the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and to both cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. Plexin-B2 expression is also detected in certain types of immune and epithelial cells. In addition, we report on a systematic comparison of the expression patterns of Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C, which show complementarity or overlap in some but not all tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 and its family member Plexin-B1 display largely nonredundant expression patterns. This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair.

  10. A ridge of recent massive star formation between Sgr B2M and Sgr B2N

    CERN Document Server

    De Vicente, P; Neri, R; Colom, P

    2000-01-01

    We present single dish and interferometric maps of several rotational transitions of HC3N vibrationally excited levels towards Sgr B2. The single dish maps show, for the first time, new four bright clumps (Sgr B2R1 to B2R4) in the ridge connecting the main cores Sgr B2M and Sgr B2N, and a low brightness extended region to the west of the ridge (Sgr B2W). The physical properties and the kinematics of all hot cores have been derived from the HC3N* lines. Our high angular resolution images show that the Sgr B2N hot core breaks in two different hot cores, Sgr B2N1 and N2, with different radial velocities and separated by 2 arcsec in declination. We find that the excitation of the HC3N* emission in all hot cores can be represented by a single temperature and that the linewidth of the HC3N* rotational lines arising from different vibrational levels systematically decreases as the energy of the vibrational level increases. The systematic trend in the linewidth is likely related to the increase of the velocity as the...

  11. Tissue Kallikrein Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating the B2R-ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kunxiong; Hu, Bin; Sang, Hongfei; Xie, Yi; Xu, Lili; Cao, Qinqin; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Lingling; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Renliang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) substantially increases the risk of ischemic stroke and reduces the tolerance to ischemic insults. Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been demonstrated to protect neurons from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in orthoglycemic model by activating the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). Considering the differential effects of B2R or bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) on cardioprotection and neuroprotection in I/R with or without diabetes, this study was designed to investigate the role of TK during cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Intravenous injection of TK inhibited apoptosis in neurons, alleviated edema and inflammatory reactions after focal cerebral I/R, significantly reduced the infarct volume, and improved functional recovery. These beneficial effects were accompanied by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and Bcl-2 signal proteins. Inhibition of the B2R or ERK1/2 pathway abated the effects of TK, whereas an antagonist of B1R enhanced the effects. These findings reveal that the neuroprotective effect of TK against cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats mainly involves the enhancement of B2R and ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 signaling pathway activity.

  12. Preparation of MgB2 Superconducting Materials%MgB2超导材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王醒东

    2014-01-01

    二硼化镁(MgB2)是重要的超导材料,在超导磁体等领域有着潜在的应用.本文介绍了MgB2超导块材、带材及薄膜,重点介绍了制备MgB2超导带材的粉末套管法以及制备MgB2超导薄膜的电子束蒸发法、共蒸发法和溅射法,指出了MgB2超导材料未来的发展方向.

  13. Effects of hypervitaminosis of vitamin B3 on silkworm biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kayvan Etebari; Leila Matindoost

    2004-12-01

    A high-dose of vitamin B3 in silkworm diet interrupts larval feeding and normal growth. High mortality of larvae occurs during molting and they cannot complete this process normally. Also the larvae exhibit nicotinamide hypervitaminosis symptoms such as immobility, dyspepsia, darkening of the skin, inability to excrete normally, exerting brownish fluid from anus and swelling of rectal muscles. Maximum larval weights in 1, 2 and 3 g/l treatments were 2.9, 1.6 and 1.2 g respectively, while maximum larval weight in the control was 5.6 g. Larval stage compared to control had increased 18, 26 and 31 days respectively. The concentration increase of uric acid in haemolymph demonstrates the hyperuricemia, while other measured biochemical compounds show significant decrease; sodium and potassium did not change significantly.

  14. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F; Gomes, Tatiana C B; Leal, Alexandre S; Morais, Vanessa A D; Oliveira, Marize S; Ferreira, Marli B; Gomes, Mateus B; Paschoal, Fabiano N; von S Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E G

    2012-10-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg(-1) and 1.0 µg kg(-1) respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  15. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15, immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1. The results revealed low aflatoxin B1contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination.

  16. Digitaalisen markkinoinnin suunnitelma b2b-yritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Harhakoski, Oskari

    2011-01-01

    Työ käsittelee digitaalisen markkinoinnin suunnitelman tekemistä b2b-yritykselle. Tavoitteena oli kilpailuedun hankkiminen sosiaalisen median tehokkaalla hyödyntämisellä mark-kinoinnissa. Konkreettisemmin yritys halusi lisää näkyvyyttä ja myyntiä. Suunnitelman laatimisessa hyödynnettiin POST-menetelmää. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitettiin b2b-markkinoinnin eroihin b2c-markkinointiin verrattuna. Myös yrityksen toimiminen Suomen markkinoilla huomioitiin. Lisäksi analysoitiin kilpailijoita asia...

  17. B2B营销的权威

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣

    2006-01-01

    现在很流行的一个词就是B2B营销,那么到底什么叫B2B营销呢?雷·赖特所著的《组织间营销》(英文全名Business—to—Business Marketing:AStep-by-Step Guide)可以回答你的问题,它可谓是全面了解B2B营销所涉及的各个层面的权威书籍。

  18. Ultrasonic Properties of the MgB2 Superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ri-Cheng; JIN Chang-Qing; LI Shao-Chun; WANG Ru-Ju; LI Feng-Ying; LIU Zhen-Xing; ZHU Jia-Lin

    2001-01-01

    The sound velocities of longitudinal and shear waves are measured on a polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor with Tc of 39 K. The specimen used in the experiments is pressed and heated using the MgB2 powder. The elastic moduli, Debye temperature and specific heat at room temperature are obtained based on sound velocity data. The results indicate that the velocities are much higher than those in the usual materials, while elastic constants remain reasonably soft, which may be due to the high transition temperature of the MgB2 superconductor.

  19. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individual will be considered to maintain a tax home in a foreign country and to have a closer connection to... exempt individual because of his or her status as a foreign government-related individual, teacher, trainee, student, or professional athlete. Section 301.7701(b)-3 also provides rules for...

  1. 26 CFR 1.512(b)-1 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial products, as described in Treasury Regulations 26 CFR 1.954-2T(a)(4)(iii)(B)). (3) Effective dates... from notional principal contracts (as defined in Treasury Regulations 26 CFR 1.863-7 or regulations... houses furnishing hotel services, or in tourist camps or tourist homes, motor courts, or motels, or...

  2. Characterization of LiB(3)O(5) crystal for second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, F; Wu, B; You, G; Chen, C

    1991-08-15

    We present second-harmonic generation characteristics of LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal with different phase-matching lengths and comparison with those of beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal. A computer program of the numerical interaction method was adopted to make the theoretical calculation of second-harmonic generation conversion efficiencies of LBO with different phase-matching lengths and power densities of the fundamental beam of a Nd:YAG laser, and the calculated result was compared with the experimental one. It is seen from the calculated and experimental results that for certain power densities of the fundamental laser beam, so long as the length of the LBO crystal is selected appropriately, a high energy conversion efficiency could be obtained. For example, an optimal external energy conversion efficiency of LBO crystal of more than 70% has been attained for several 100-MW/cm(2) fundamental laser beams. Experiments also showed that the crystal could be used under high power densities without any damage to the surface and the interior. PMID:19776930

  3. Thermal shock resistance of ZrB2 and ZrB2-30% SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal shock of high density (>99% relative density) zirconium diboride (ZrB2) and zirconium diboride containing 30 vol.% silicon carbide (SiC) was studied. Calculations based on thermal shock theory indicated that ZrB2-30 vol.% SiC should have greater thermal shock resistance than ZrB2 due to its higher fracture strength. Water quench tests revealed essentially the same critical thermal shock values for both materials (ΔTcrit = ∼400 deg. C). A finite element model was used to estimate the temperatures and stresses in both ceramics during quench testing. The model predicted that maximum thermal stresses during the experimental quench test exceeded the strength of ZrB2 (568 MPa) but not ZrB2-30 vol.% SiC (863 MPa). The lower than predicted thermal shock resistance of ZrB2-SiC was attributed to the non-uniform cooling between the ZrB2 matrix grains and the SiC particulate phase

  4. Structural stability and electrical properties of AlB2-type MnB2 under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural stability and electrical properties of AlB2-type MnB2 were studied based on high pressure angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction, in situ electrical resistivity measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and first-principles calculations under high pressure. The x-ray diffraction results show that the structure of AlB2-type MnB2 remains stable up to 42.6 GPa. From the equation of state of MnB2, we obtained a bulk modulus value of 169.9±3.7 GPa with a fixed pressure derivative of 4, which indicates that AlB2-type MnB2 is a hard and incompressible material. The electrical resistance undergoes a transition at about 19.3 GPa, which can be explained by a transition of manganese 3d electrons from localization to delocalization under high pressure. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron-gold alloy clusters and boron boronyl clusters: B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Bai, Hui; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-07-28

    Photoelectron spectroscopy and density-functional theory are combined to study the structures and chemical bonding in boron-gold alloy clusters and boron boronyl clusters: B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2). Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for all four species and the B-Au and B-BO clusters exhibit similar spectral patterns, with the latter species having higher electron binding energies. The electron affinities of B3Au, B3Au2, B3(BO), and B3(BO)2 are determined to be 2.29 ± 0.02, 3.17 ± 0.03, 2.71 ± 0.02, and 4.44 ± 0.02 eV, respectively. The anion and neutral clusters turn out to be isostructural and isovalent to the B3H(n)(-)∕B3H(n) (n = 1, 2) species, which are similar in bonding owing to the fact that Au, BO, and H are monovalent σ ligands. All B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2) clusters are aromatic with 2π electrons. The current results provide new examples for the Au∕H and BO∕H isolobal analogy and enrich the chemistry of boronyl and gold. PMID:23901981

  6. B2B“风口”渐近

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁

    2014-01-01

    经过十多年的发展,B2B业务在2014年有一种“风口”的感觉。经过十多年的发展,B2B在2014年有一种“风口”的感觉。2009-2013年,B2B交易额和市场收入差异非常大:包括阿里巴巴、慧聪网等总收入不到200亿元,而中国B2B市场的交易规模在7万~8万亿之间。

  7. Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.

  8. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting tapes using electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. D.; Wang, S. F.; Zhou, Y. B.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Cui, D. F.; Lu, H. B.; He, M.; Dai, S. Y.; Yang, G. Z.

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting MgB2/Ta tapes with a critical temperature of 34 K have been prepared successfully by ex situ annealing of electrophoresis-grown boron in the presence of Mg vapour at 920 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the MgB2/Ta tapes, and well-formed MgB2 crystals with sizes up to 2 μm were observed. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed randomly orientated growth of MgB2 phase in the tapes. Estimates using hysteresis loops and the Bean model give a value of 6.8 × 105 A cm-2 for the critical current density.

  9. Variability in equatorial B0 and B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability of ionospheric profile parameters B0 and B1, below the F2 peak is investigated for an equatorial station at two levels of solar activities. The whole 24 hours of the day and the four seasons of the year are covered. Absolute and relative variability indices were utilized in the study. Some evidences of correlations of variability index and profiles parameters were observed. Daytime values of relative variability in B1 at solar minimum were found to be greater than those of solar maximum. (author)

  10. Seasonal behaviour of B0 and B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary analysis of the thickness parameter B0 and the shape parameter B1 is presented. Noon electron density profiles recorded at five ionospheric stations during different seasonal and solar activity conditions are used in the study. The results show that both parameters present a seasonal trend with minimum value for B0 during the local winter and maximum during the local summer. This behaviour is inverted for B1. Discrepancies with IRI-90 model are found. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P L; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-05-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene also specifically induce GxC leads to TxA transversions. PMID:6405385

  12. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, P. L.; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyren...

  13. Scope of Internal Marketing in B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Niharika

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have focused on "internal marketing" from services marketing perspective. There is, therefore, a great dearth of in-depth research on its application to other business types. This research attempts to find the scope of internal marketing in B2B companies. The purpose of this research is to closely examine the elements, their linkage, tools and applications of Internal marketing when applied to B2B settings. Internal marketing, the application of marketing managem...

  14. TiB2 ceramic and DLC Multilayered PVD coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos da Silva Cruz, Ricardo Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Titanium diboride (TiB2) has been investigated as a potential candidate for several industrial applications, such as: cutting tools, electric devices, wear parts and many more fields of application. The main drawback of TiB2 is its brittle nature, which has limited its range of applications. Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) has been used in industrial applications, mainly for wear resistant parts. However, the application of DLC films has been limited by the level of internal stres...

  15. B2B emarketplace announcements and shareholder wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew H. Chen; Siems, Thomas F.

    2001-01-01

    In the business-to-business (B2B) sector, new supply-chain models within electronic marketplaces (eMarketplaces) offer firms significantly lower procurement costs, increased operating efficiencies, and expanded market opportunities. Using event-study methodology to look at the period July 1999-March 2000, Andrew Chen and Thomas Siems find that investors reacted favorably to B2B eMarketplace announcements, with slightly higher abnormal returns associated with vertical than with horizontal eMar...

  16. Preparation and characterization of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashwati Sen; D K Aswal; Ajay Singh; T V Chandrasekhar Rao; K P Muthe; J C Vyas; L C Gupta; S K Gupta; V C Sahni

    2002-05-01

    The MgB2 superconductor, synthesized using solid-state and liquid-phase sintering methods, have been characterized for various properties. The upper critical field, irreversibility line and critical current density have been determined using magnetization data. The current–voltage characteristics recorded under an applied magnetic field revealed the existence of vortex glass transition. The surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that MgB2 is sensitive to atmospheric degradation.

  17. POLICY CONCERNS FOR ONLINE B2B EXCHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hooker, Neal H.; Rha, Jong-Youn; Ernst, Stanley C.; Widdows, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Policy concerns arise as e-business activities become increasingly common. This paper discusses important elements of such concerns, particularly the pro- and anti-competitive assessment of online business-to-business (B2B) exchanges. The definition of markets, the role of quality management and communication, and join purchasing implications within such environments are related to food distribution systems. Other online business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-business (C2B) policy concern...

  18. B2B品牌的隐形价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹姆斯·格雷戈里; 唐纳德·塞克斯顿

    2007-01-01

    @@ 消费品营销人员满脑子想着品牌资产(brand equity),他们也理应如 此.B2B公司如能效法,将是明智之举.我们对450多家公司进行了16年的量化研究,结果表明B2B品牌蕴藏着数十亿美元的价值.

  19. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.

  20. Phonon dispersion and electron-phonon coupling in MgB2 and AlB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, K P; Heid, R; Renker, B

    2001-06-18

    We present a first principles investigation of the lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling of the superconductor MgB2 and the isostructural AlB2 within the framework of density functional perturbation theory using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method. Complete phonon dispersion curves and Eliashberg functions alpha2F are calculated for both systems. The main differences are related to high frequency in-plane boron vibrations, which are strongly softened in MgB2 and exhibit an exceptionally strong electron-phonon coupling. We also report on Raman measurements, which support the theoretical findings. Implications for the superconducting transition temperature are briefly discussed.

  1. Propionibacterium acnes induces an adjuvant effect in B-1 cells and affects their phagocyte differentiation via a TLR2-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambero, Monica; Teixeira, Daniela; Butin, Liane; Ishimura, Mayari Eika; Mariano, Mario; Popi, Ana Flavia; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria

    2016-09-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are present in large numbers in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as are macrophages, and are responsible for natural IgM production. These lymphocytes migrate to inflammatory foci and are also involved in innate immunity. It was also demonstrated that B-1 cells are able to differentiated into phagocytes (B-1CDP), which is characterized by expression of F4/80 and increased phagocytic activity. B-1 cell responses to antigens and adjuvants are poorly characterized. It has been shown that Propionibacterium acnes suspensions induce immunomodulatory effects in both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium has the ability to increase B-1 cell populations both in vitro and in vivo. P. acnes induces B-1CDP differentiation, increases the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and augments the expression of CD80, CD86 and CD40 in B-1 and B-1CDP cells. Because P. acnes has been shown to modulate TLR expression, in this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in B-1 cell population, including B-1CDP differentiation and phagocytic activity in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we have demonstrated that TLR2 signaling could be involved in the increase in the B-1 cell population induced by P. acnes. Furthermore, the early differentiation of B-1CDP is also dependent of TLR2. It was also observed that TLR signals also interfere in the phagocytic ability of B-1 cells and their phagocytes. According to these data, it is clear that P. acnes promotes an important adjuvant effect in B-1 cells by inducing them to differentiate into B-1CDP cells and modulates their phagocytic functions both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, most of these effects are mediated primarily via TLR2. These data reinforce the findings that such bacterial suspensions have powerful adjuvant properties. The responses of B-1 cells to exogenous stimulation indicate that these cells are important to the innate immune response. PMID:27233619

  2. Superconductivity in dense MgB2 wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, P C; Finnemore, D K; Bud'ko, S L; Ostenson, J E; Lapertot, G; Cunningham, C E; Petrovic, C

    2001-03-12

    MgB2 becomes superconducting just below 40 K. Whereas porous polycrystalline samples of MgB2 can be synthesized from boron powders, in this Letter we demonstrate that dense wires of MgB2 can be prepared by exposing boron filaments to Mg vapor. The resulting wires have a diameter of 160 microm, are better than 80% dense, and manifest the full chi = -1/4pi shielding in the superconducting state. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements indicate that MgB2 is a highly conducting metal in the normal state with rho(40 K) = 0.38 microOmega cm. By using this value, an electronic mean-free path, l approximately 600 A can be estimated, indicating that MgB2 wires are well within the clean limit. Tc, Hc2(T), and Jc data indicate that MgB2 manifests comparable or better superconducting properties in dense wire form than it manifests as a sintered pellet.

  3. Wind tunnel tests of Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac;

    2003-01-01

    This report contains 2D measurements of the Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24 airfoils. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The measurements were conducted in the VELUX open jet wind tunnel,which has a background turbulence intensity...... of the measurements was good and the agreement between measurements and numerical CFD predictions with EllipSys2D wasgood. For both airfoils predictions with turbulent flow captured very well the shapes of lift and drag curves as well as the magnitude of maximum lift. Measurements of Risø-B1-18 showed...

  4. Bradykinin receptors and EphB2/EphrinB2 pathway in response to high glucose-induced osteoblast dysfunction and hyperglycemia-induced bone deterioration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Ai, Wenting; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate bone dysfunction and the involvement of bradykinin receptors and the Eph/Ephrin signaling pathway in osteoblasts and in mice with diabetes-related osteoporosis in response to exposure to high glucose. Osteogenic transdifferentiation was inhibited when the osteoblasts were exposed to high glucose, and the expression levels of bone formation-related genes [Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were decreased, while those of bone resorption-related genes [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)] were increased. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of bradykinin receptor B1 (BK1R)/bradykinin receptor B2 (BK2R) and EphB2/EphrinB2 were significantly decreased in the osteoblasts following exposure to high glucose. Intriguingly, the interaction between BK2R and EphB2/EphrinB2 was confirmed, and BK2R loss-of-function significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of EphB2/EphrinB4. In vivo, hyperglycemia induced the disequilibrium of calcium homeostasis through the inhibition of bone formation and the acceleration of bone resorption, which was manifested by the reduction of trabecular bone mass of the primary and secondary spongiosa, as well as by the increase in the number of mature osteoclasts throughout the proximal tibial metaphysis in mice with diabetes-related osteoporosis. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BK1R/BK2R and EphB2/EphrinB2 in the tibias of the mice with diabetes-related osteoporosis were significantly decreased. These results demonstrate that bradykinin receptors and the EphB4/EphrinB2 pathway mediate the development of complications in mice with diabetes-related osteoporosis and suggest that the inactivation of bradykinin receptors and the EphB4/EphrinB2 pathway enhance the severity of complications in mice with diabetes-related osteoporosis. PMID:26782642

  5. Myocilin mediates myelination in the peripheral nervous system through ErbB2/3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heung Sun; Johnson, Thomas V; Joe, Myung Kuk; Abu-Asab, Mones; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi Chao; Tomarev, Stanislav I

    2013-09-13

    The glaucoma-associated gene, myocilin, is expressed in ocular and non-ocular tissues including the peripheral nervous system, but its functions in these tissues remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that in sciatic nerve, myocilin is expressed in Schwann cells with high concentrations at the nodes of Ranvier. There, myocilin interacts with gliomedin, neurofascin, and NrCAM, which are essential for node formation and function. Treatment of isolated dorsal root ganglion cultures with myocilin stimulates clustering of the nodal proteins neurofascin and sodium channel Nav1.2. Sciatic nerves of myocilin null mice express reduced levels of several myelin-associated and basal membrane proteins compared with those of wild-type littermates. They also demonstrate reduced myelin sheath thickness and partial disorganization of the nodes. Myocilin signaling through ErbB2/3 receptors may contribute to these observed effects. Myocilin binds to ErbB2/ErbB3, activates these receptors, and affects the downstream PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. These data implicate a role for myocilin in the development and/or maintenance of myelination and nodes of Ranvier in sciatic nerve. PMID:23897819

  6. Mechanical Spectroscopy of MgB2 Containing Sic / Spektroskopia Mechaniczna MgB2 Zawierającego Sic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound magnesium diboride (MgB2 has been well-known since the 1950s; however, its superconducting properties were unknown. Intrinsic characteristics of MgB2 make this material a promising candidate for technological applications, although the low value of the irreversibility field and the decrease in critical current density with the increase in the magnetic field considerably reduce its utility. The present work aimed to study the effect of carbon-based doping on anelastic properties of MgB2 as measured by mechanical spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by using the powder-intube method. The samples were made with 5, 7.5, and 10 wt.% of silicon carbide (SiC. The results reveal complex mechanical loss spectra caused by the interaction between point defects and surface defects in the crystalline lattice of MgB2.

  7. 76 FR 79658 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act (U) (i... Other 10 million TOTAL 60 million * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii... Anti-Tank Guided Missiles, tripods, JAVELIN Weapon Effects Simulators, enhanced basic skills...

  8. 77 FR 77040 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... unguided BLU-111B/B free-fall bomb into precision-guided ``smart'' bomb. The control and airfoil...

  9. 77 FR 77043 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... into precision-guided ``smart'' munitions. By adding a new tail section containing Inertial...

  10. 76 FR 69707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... defeat perimeter security threats and readily employ counter- and anti-terrorism measures. The RSLF... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Kingdom of Saudi... million. Other 2 million. Total 33 million. *As defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control...

  11. Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 in flour production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halt, M

    1994-10-01

    This paper discusses the results of investigations of contamination with aflatoxin-producing fungi and aflatoxin B1 affecting 545 samples of wheat grains, 475 samples of intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (like middlings) and 238 samples of flour. A significant contamination with moulds was detected in analyzed samples. Although Aspergillus (34.87%) and Penicillium (32.37%) dominated, other types were also present, e.g., Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Absidia and Trichoderma (listed in order of frequency). The presence of Aspergillus flavus, the known aflatoxin producer, was detected in 9.94% of analyzed samples. Isolates of A. Flavus were capable of producing aflatoxin B1 under favourable conditions. Aflatoxin B1 was found in 76.8% of samples contaminated with A. flavus. The highest contamination with aflatoxin B1 was detected in wheat grain samples (mean value of 16.3 micrograms/kg) and in intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (mean value of 11.13 micrograms/kg). Contamination was lower in flour samples (mean value of 4.13 micrograms/kg). With regard to proposed standards given by the FAO and WHO, under which the content of aflatoxin should not exceed 30 micrograms/kg in food products, only two of 96 samples did not meet these criteria. PMID:7859854

  12. 76 FR 72180 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... continues to be, an important force for political stability and economic progress in East Asia. The Royal... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Malaysia. (ii... Arms Export Control Act. Policy Justification Malaysia--AIM-9X-2 SIDEWINDER Missiles The Government...

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Straight line method. 1.167(b)-1 Section 1.167(b... Straight line method. (a) In general. Under the straight line method the cost or other basis of the... may be reduced to a percentage or fraction. The straight line method may be used in determining...

  14. 26 CFR 1.677(b)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.677(b)-1 Trusts for support... the child of the grantor, whom the grantor or his spouse is legally obligated to support. If income of... extent income of the current year is actually applied for the support or maintenance of his spouse....

  15. 77 FR 70153 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... in the region. The principal contractors will be Raytheon/Lockheed Martin Javelin Joint Venture in... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Oman (ii) Total... Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. POLICY JUSTIFICATION Oman--Javelin Missile The Sultanate...

  16. 77 FR 70151 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... region. The principal contractors will be Raytheon/Lockheed Martin Javelin Joint Venture (JJV) in Tucson... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Indonesia. (ii... defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii) Description and Quantity or Quantities...

  17. Coxsackievirus B3-induced apoptosis and Caspase-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN PING YUAN; WEI ZHAO; HONG TAO WANG; KAI YU WU; TAO LI; XIAO KUI GUO; SHAN QING TONG

    2003-01-01

    Cell death can be classified into two categories: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptotic pathway can beeither caspase-dependent or caspase-independent. Caspase-independent cytopathic effect (CPE) has beendescribed. In order to evaluate the pattern of HeLa cell death induced by Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)and whether apoptosis involves caspase activation, we co-cultivated HeLa cells with CVB3 and detectedthe cytopathic changes, the alteration of mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 gene plus caspase-3activity, as well as analyzing DNA fragmentation before and after caspase-3 activity inhibition. Accordingto the results, we propose that CVB3 may induce apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, the latter appearingmuch earlier. Caspase-3 is activated at the levels of both transcription and translation, and procaspase-3 isproteolytically cleaved, thus leading to the continuous increasing of both caspase-3 precursor protein and itssubunit. However, besides CPE, apoptosis induced by CVB3 is not a direct consequence of the activationof caspase-3, or caspase-3 is not the only effector molecule in apoptotic cell death, for caspase-3 inhibitorcan not decrease DNA fragmentation. Some other biochemical mechanisms may participate in the process,whose role weakens the effect of inhibiting caspase-3 activity.

  18. Non-resonant microwave absorption studies of superconducting MgB2 and MgB2 + MgO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Janhavi P Joshi; Subhasis Sarangi; A K Sood; Dilip Pal; S V Bhat

    2002-02-01

    Non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) studies of superconducting MgB2 and a sample containing ∼ 10% by weight of MgO in MgB2 are reported. The NRMA results indicate near absence of intergranular weak links in the pure MgB2 sample. A linear temperature dependence of the lower critical field c1 is observed indicating a non- wave superconductivity. However, the phase reversal of the NRMA signal which could suggest wave symmetry is also not observed. In the MgB2 + MgO sample, much larger low field dependent absorption is observed indicating the presence of intergranular weak links. The hysteretic behavior of NRMA is compared and contrasted in the two samples. In the pure MgB2 sample, a large hysteresis is observed between the forward and the reverse scans of the magnetic field indicating strong pinning of flux lines. This hysteresis saturates a few degrees below c while in the MgB2 + MgO sample, a much slower increase of hysteresis with decreasing temperature is observed, a signature of weaker pinning.

  19. Mechanical-thermal synthesis of NbB2 powder from Mg/B2O3/Nb powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different approaches were used for the synthesis of niobium boride using a stoichiometric ratio of Mg-B2O3-Nb powder mixture: (i) thermal ignition, (ii) mechanochemical and (iii) a combined mechanical and thermal activation process. Phase transformation analysis and structural evaluation were carried out by means of differential thermal analysis techniques, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During the thermal synthesis, the reaction between Mg and B2O3 partially occurred (liquid state reaction). The desired final phase (NbB2) was poorly obtained. Phase analysis revealed that the NbB2 phase was synthesized after 10 h of high energy ball milling. A pre-milling treatment of the powder mixture up to 2 h significantly reduced the reactions temperature (580 C). Consequently, NbB2 was prepared simultaneously involving magnesiothermic reduction of B2O3 and reaction between elemental of Nb and boron. Mg3(BO3)2, as major by-product, was formed in noticeable amounts during the thermal process, while its quantity significantly decreased during mechanochemical synthesis and completely eliminated by using the combined mechanical and thermal synthesis.

  20. Abnormal Expressions of Age, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 Receptor in Colonic Wall Contributed to STZ-Induced Diabetic Colon Remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    glycation end product (AGE) and AGE receptor (RAGE) were up-regulated in the diabetic colon wall (2). However, it lacks data in relation to the association between AGE, RAGE, transforming growth factor- b1 (TGF-b1) and TGFb1 receptor expressions with colon morphological and biomechanical remodeling...... glucose level was measured. The parameters of morphometric and biomechanical properties of colonic segments were obtained from diabetic (DM) and normal (Con) rats. The expressions of AGE, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 receptor were detected in different layers of the colon by immunohistochemistry. In order...... to determine the expressions of AGE, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 receptor in association with other parameters, and to see interrelation among AGE, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 receptor expressions, the multiple linear regression analysis was done. Results: The expressions of AGE, RAGE, TGF-b1 and TGF- b1 receptor...

  1. The compressibility of high purity YbB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B; Suzer, S; Ozdas, E

    2012-08-29

    The compressibility and phase stability of Y bB(2) are investigated under high pressure using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. The bulk modules of high purity Y bB(2) is obtained as ∼182 GPa using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The patterns measured up to 20 GPa and the pressure dependence of normalized lattice parameters, a/a(0) and c/c(0), reveal that the compressibility of Y bB(2) is low and fairly isotropic, and this material can be classified as a hard material. X-ray photoemission studies demonstrate that Yb in Y bB(2) has a mostly trivalent valence state at room temperature. Moreover, sample preparation details provide a new insight into the high purity synthesis of Y bB(2) at ambient pressure and moderate temperatures. The presented structural and compressibility results are in agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data on binary rare-earth borides and can serve as a reliable reference for future studies. PMID:22850355

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 3EK2B-3FNFB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6833343506 EVID> 3 3FNF EVID> 4 3FNF B 3FNF...EVID>EVID> 5 3FNF...3EK2B-3FNFB 3EK2 3FNF B B MGFLDGKRILLTGLLSNRSIAYGIAKACKREGAELAFTY...VGDRFKDRITEFAAEFGSE-LVFPCDVADDAQIDALFASLKTHWD---SLDGLVHSIGFAPREAIAG-DFLDGLTRENFRIAHDISAYSFPALAKAALPMLSDDASLL

  3. Expanding Interprofessional EHR Data in i2b2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Bonnie L; Christie, Beverly; Johnson, Steven G; Pruinelli, Lisiane; LaFlamme, Anne; Park, Jung In; Sherman, Suzan G; Byrne, Matthew D; Ranallo, Piper; Speedie, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Emerging issues of team-based care, precision medicine, and big data science underscore the need for health information technology (HIT) tools for integrating complex data in consistent ways to achieve the triple aims of improving patient outcomes, patient experience, and cost reductions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of creating a hierarchical flowsheet ontology in i2b2 using data-derived information models and determine the underlying informatics and technical issues. This study is the first of its kind to use information models that aggregate team-based care across time, disciplines, and settings into 14 information models that were integrated into i2b2 in a hierarchical model. In the process of successfully creating a hierarchical ontology for flowsheet data in i2b2, we uncovered a variety of informatics and technical issues described in this paper. PMID:27570680

  4. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  5. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  6. Polymorphism of CYP11B2 determines salt sensitivity in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Naoharu; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Tomoike, Hitonobu; Takashima, Naoyuki

    2007-04-01

    Aldosterone plays essential roles in body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. However, the association between polymorphisms in the CYP11B2 gene and hypertension is controversial. We resequenced CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and identified 35 polymorphisms in this region. We performed association studies between the plasma aldosterone concentration and 13 polymorphisms in this region in 1443 subjects. The subjects were all obtained from the Suita Cohort Study. Multiple regression analysis indicated that aldosterone levels were determined by renin activity, age, total cholesterol, and hematocrit. Residuals of the aldosterone levels after adjusting for these confounding factors were nominally associated with the T(-344)C (P=0.0026), C(595)T (P=0.0180), -(4837)C (P=0.0310), and G(4936)A (P=0.0498) polymorphisms. Only the T(-344)C polymorphism was significantly associated with the aldosterone level after a correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni). A significant interaction was observed between the T(-344)C polymorphism and renin activity in determining aldosterone levels. Moreover, a significant interaction was observed in 2063 subjects between urinary sodium excretion, which reflects sodium intake, and the T(-344)C polymorphism in determining systolic blood pressure. Only subjects with the TT genotype showed a positive correlation between urinary sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure. In vitro experiments confirmed the functional significance of this T(-344)C polymorphism in terms of angiotensin II reactivity. Thus, the T(-344)C polymorphism in CYP11B2 appears to affect salt sensitivity in Japanese and to have clinical significance.

  7. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. 48.4061(b)-3 Section 48.4061(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-3...

  8. B2C支付的三大瓶颈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卓

    2007-01-01

    尽管B2C电子支付正在如火如荼地发展,但仍然存在着这样或那样的问题,这些问题已经影响到了B2C业务的发展。作为以满足市场需求而生的第三方支付厂商们,也需要因时做出改变,以满足现在的支付需求。

  9. Isostructural Transition of MgB2 Under High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Ling; WU Qi; ZHAN Zai-Ji; WANG Wen-Kui; WANG Wen-Kui; T.Kikegawa

    2001-01-01

    The high-pressure behaviour of the superconductor MgB2 with a hexagonal structure has been investigated by the in situ synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction method under pressures up to 42.2 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. An abrupt decrease of about 7% in the unit cell volume of this material occurs in the pressure range of 26.3-30.2 GPa. A split of the Raman spectrum was also observed. The jump of the compression curve and Raman spectrum are ascribed to an isostructural transition in MgB2 at a pressure of 30.2 GPa.

  10. Customized E-Learning for B2B Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thomasma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business-to-Business (B2B companies have customers that are primarily other corporations. These companies have unique problems in workplace training. They must train their customers and their customers’ employees. A B2B company may operate with only a few dozen employees, but they may need to help thousands of customers learn how to make best use of their product or service. Discussions with industry executives suggest an ideal training solution might include a number of features that are reviewed in this paper.

  11. Superconducting properties of MgB2 from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, A; Profeta, G; Lathiotakis, N N; Lüders, M; Marques, M A L; Franchini, C; Gross, E K U; Continenza, A; Massidda, S

    2005-01-28

    Solid MgB(2) has rather interesting and technologically important properties, such as a very high superconducting transition temperature. Focusing on this compound, we report the first nontrivial application of a novel density-functional-type theory for superconductors, recently proposed by the authors. Without invoking any adjustable parameters, we obtain the transition temperature, the gaps, and the specific heat of MgB(2) in very good agreement with experiment. Moreover, our calculations show how the Coulomb interaction acts differently on sigma and pi states, thereby stabilizing the observed superconducting phase.

  12. Superconductivity of metallic boron in MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortus, J; Mazin, I I; Belashchenko, K D; Antropov, V P; Boyer, L L

    2001-05-14

    Boron in MgB2 forms stacks of honeycomb layers with magnesium as a space filler. Band structure calculations indicate that Mg is substantially ionized, and the bands at the Fermi level derive mainly from B orbitals. Strong bonding with an ionic component and considerable metallic density of states yield a sizable electron-phonon coupling. Together with high phonon frequencies, which we estimate via zone-center frozen phonon calculations to be between 300 and 700 cm(-1), this produces a high critical temperature, consistent with recent experiments. Thus MgB2 can be viewed as an analog of the long sought, but still hypothetical, superconducting metallic hydrogen.

  13. Risk Analysis and Consumer Protection in B2C Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-zheng; SHI Qi-liang; Gary Millar; Ruhul A. Sarker

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the perceived lack of security is a major obstacle to the wider acceptance of e-commerce. To overcome this barrier, businesses need to implement comprehensive consumer protection systems that protect consumers during every stage of the purchasing process. This paper used the consumer behaviour model as the basis for analysing risks in Bussiness-to-Consumer (B2C) transactions. Four categories of risks were identified: information, agreement, payment and delivery risk. By combining these risk categories with the three dimensions of management, technology and legislation, a comprehensive B2C consumer protection framework is developed.

  14. Biochemical characterization of the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Tutor

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of the A isoenzyme of ß-hexosaminidase (Hex produced by different mutations of the gene that codes for the alpha subunit (Tay-Sachs disease has two variants with enzymological differences: the B variant consists of the absence of Hex A isoenzyme and the B1 variant produces an inactive Hex A isoenzyme for the hydrolysis of the GM2 ganglioside and synthetic substrates with negative charge. In contrast to the early childhood form of the B variant, the B1 variant appears at a later clinical stage (3 to 7 years of age with neurodegenerative symptoms leading to the death of the patient in the second decade of life. The most frequent mutation responsible for the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant is R178H, which has a widespread geographic and ethnic distribution. The highest incidence has been described in Portugal, which has been suggested as the point of origin of this mutation. Biochemical characterization of this lysosomal disease is carried out using negatively charged synthetic alpha subunit-specific sulfated substrates, since Hex A isoenzyme heat-inactivation assays are not applicable. However, the determination of the apparent activation energy of Hex using the neutral substrate 3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide, may offer a valid alternative. The presence of an alpha subunit in the alphaß heterodimer Hex A means that its activation energy (41.8 kJ/mol is significantly lower than that of the ßß homodimer Hex B (75.1 kJ/mol; however, as mutation inactivates the alpha subunit, the Hex A of the B1 variant presents an activation energy that is similar to that of the Hex B isoenzyme.

  15. Rapid Immunoenzyme Assay of Aflatoxin B1 Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Urusov, Alexandr E.; Alina V. Petrakova; Vozniak, Maxim V.; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Boris B. Dzantiev

    2014-01-01

    The main limitations of microplate-based enzyme immunoassays are the prolonged incubations necessary to facilitate heterogeneous interactions, the complex matrix and poorly soluble antigens, and the significant sample dilutions often required because of the presence of organic extractants. This study presents the use of antibody immobilization on the surface of magnetic particles to overcome these limitations in the detection of the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1. Features of the proposed system are...

  16. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Prado; Altoé, Aline F.; Tatiana C. B. Gomes; Leal, Alexandre S.; Morais, Vanessa A. D.; Marize S. Oliveira; Marli B. Ferreira; Gomes, Mateus B.; Fabiano N. Paschoal; Rafael von S. Souza; Daniela A. Silva; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aime...

  17. Improving MRI surface coil decoupling to reduce B1 distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christian

    As clinical MRI systems continue to advance, larger focus is being given to image uniformity. Good image uniformity begins with generating uniform magnetic fields, which are easily distorted by induced currents on receive-only surface coils. It has become an industry standard to combat these induced currents by placing RF blocking networks on surface coils. This paper explores the effect of blocking network impedance of phased array surface coils on B1 distortion. It has been found and verified, that traditional approaches for blocking network design in complex phased arrays can leave undesirable B1 distortions at 3 Tesla. The traditional approach of LC tank blocking is explored, but shifts from the idea that higher impedance equals better B1 distortion at 3T. The result is a new design principle for a tank with a finite inductive reactance at the Larmor Frequency. The solution is demonstrated via simulation using a simple, single, large tuning loop. The same loop, along with a smaller loop, is used to derive the new design principle, which is then applied to a complex phased array structure.

  18. 拟南芥B3转录因子基因超家族%Research progress of Arabidopsis B3 transcription factor gene superfamily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光宇; 叶玲飞; 陈信波

    2013-01-01

    B3类转录因子基因组成了植物所特有的B3基因超家族,按照其结构和功能的特征可将其进一步分为LAV(LEAFY COTYLEDON2 [LEC2]-ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3]-VAL)、RF(AUXINRESPONSE FACTOR)、RAV(RELATED TO ABI3 and VPl)和REM(REPRODUCTIVE MERISTEM)等4个家族.B3基因超家族主要存在于裸子植物、苔藓和绿藻类植物中,并在植物逆境胁迫响应和生长发育过程中起着极其重要的作用.目前已在拟南芥中发现了118个B3类转录因子,本文综述了拟南芥中B3转录因子基因超家族的系统发育和功能鉴定方面的研究进展.%The B3 transcription factor genes form a plant-specific B3 gene superfamily and can be further classified into four families:LAV (LEAFY COTYLEDON2 [LEC2]-ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3]-VAL),ARF (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR),RAV (RELATED TO ABI3 and VP1) and REM (REPRODUCTIVE MERISTEM) family.The B3 transcription factor genes exist mainly in gymnosperms,mosses and green algae and play extremely important roles in plant stress responses and plant growth and development.In Arabidopsis,118 B3 superfamily transcription factor genes have been identified.This review aims to overview the research progress of the phylogenetical and functional characterization of the B3 gene superfamily in Arabidopsis.

  19. Wind tunel tests of Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-B1-24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Gaunaa, M.; Antoniou, I.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains 2D measurements of the Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-B1-24 airfoils. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The measurements were conducted in the VELUX open jet wind tunnel, which has a background turbulence intensity of 1%, and an inlet flow velocity of 42 m/s. The airfoil sections had a chord of 0.600 m giving a Reynolds number of 1.6Oe106. The span was 1.9 m and end plates were used to minimize 3D flow effects. The measurements comprised both static and dynamic inflow. Static inflow covered angles of attack from 5o to 30 deg. Dynamic inflow was obtained by pitching the airfoil in a harmonic motion around various mean angles of attack. The test matrix involved smooth flow, various kinds of leading edge roughness, stall strips, vortex generators and Gurney flaps in different combinations. The quality of the measurements was good and the agreement between measurements and numerical CFD predictions with EllipSys2D was good. For both airfoils predictions with turbulent flow captured very well the shapes of lift and drag curves as well as the magnitude of maximum lift. Measurements of Risoe-B1-18 showed that the maximum lift coefficient was 1.64 at an angle of attack of approximately 13 deg. The airfoil was not very sensitive to leading edge roughness despite its high maximum lift. Measurements with stall strips showed that stall strips could control the level of maximum lift. The Risoe-B1-24 measurements showed that the maximum lift coefficient was 1.62 at an angle of attack of approximately 14 deg. The airfoil was only little sensitive to leading edge roughness despite its high relative thickness and high maximum lift. Measurements with delta wing shaped vortex generators increased the maximum lift coefficient to 2.02 and measurements with Gurney flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient to 1.85. Measurements with combination of vortex generators and Gurney flaps showed a maximum

  20. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  1. First observation of the hadronic transition $ \\Upsilon(4S) \\to \\eta h_{b}(1P)$ and new measurement of the $h_b(1P)$ and $\\eta_b(1S)$ parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Tamponi, U; Abdesselam, A; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Atmacan, H; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Badhrees, I; Bakich, A M; Barberio, E; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hedges, M T; Hou, W -S; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Julius, T; Kato, E; Katrenko, P; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, S H; Kinoshita, K; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Lange, J S; Lewis, P; Libby, J; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mori, T; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Pesántez, L; Pestotnik, R; Petriřc, M; Piilonen, L E; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Starič, M; Steder, M; Stypula, J; Tanida, K; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, M -Z; Wang, X L; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of $771.6 \\times 10^{6}$ $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decays collected by the Belle experiment at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ collider, we observe for the first time the transition $\\Upsilon(4S) \\to \\eta h_b(1P)$ with the branching fraction ${\\cal B}[\\Upsilon(4S) \\to \\eta h_b(1P)]= (2.18 \\pm 0.11 \\pm 0.18) \\times 10^{-3}$ and we measure the $h_b(1P)$ mass $M_{h_{b}(1P)} = (9899.3 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 1.0)$ MeV/$c^{2}$, corresponding to the hyperfine splitting $\\Delta M_{\\mathrm HF}(1P) = (0.6 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 1.0)$ MeV/$c^{2}$. Using the transition $h_b(1P) \\to \\gamma \\eta_b(1S)$, we measure the $\\eta_b(1S)$ mass $M_{\\eta_{b}(1S)} = (9400.7 \\pm 1.7 \\pm 1.6)$ MeV/$c^{2}$, corresponding to $\\Delta M_{\\mathrm HF}(1S) = (59.6 \\pm 1.7 \\pm 1.6)$ MeV/$c^{2}$, the $\\eta_b(1S)$ width $\\Gamma_{\\eta_{b}(1S)} = (8 ^{+6}_{-5} \\pm 5)$ MeV/$c^{2}$ and the branching fraction ${\\cal B}[h_b(1P) \\to \\gamma \\eta_b(1S)]= (56 \\pm 8 \\pm 4) \\%$.

  2. Supporting B2B Business Documents in XML Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hyoungdo

    2004-01-01

    While XML web services become recognized as a solution to business-to-business transactions, there are many problems that should be solved. For example, it is not easy to manipulate business documents of existing standards such as RosettaNet and UN/EDIFACT EDI, traditionally regarded as an important resource for managing B2B relationships. As a starting point for the complete implementation of B2B web services, this paper deals with how to support B2B business documents in XML web services. In the first phase, basic requirements for driving XML web services by business documents are introduced. As a solution, this paper presents how to express B2B business documents in WSDL, a core standard for XML web services. This kind of approach facilitates the reuse of existing business documents and enhances interoperability between implemented web services. Furthermore, it suggests how to link with other conceptual modeling frameworks such as ebXML/UMM, built on a rich heritage of electronic business experience.

  3. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The Net

  4. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.;

    1989-01-01

    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from...

  5. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Masrour; E K Hlil; M Hamedoun; A Benyoussef; O Mounkachi; H El Moussaoui

    2015-08-01

    The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the MnB2 compounds. Polarized spin and spin–orbit coupling are included in calculations within the framework of the ferromagnetic state between two adjacent Mn atoms. Magnetic moment considered to lie along the (001) axes are computed. The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic energies of MnB2 systems are obtained. Obtained data from ab-initio calculations are used as input for the high-temperature series expansions (HTSEs) calculations to compute other magnetic parameters. The exchange interactions between the magnetic atoms Mn–Mn in MnB2 are established by using the mean field theory. The HTSEs of the magnetic susceptibility with the magnetic moments in MnB2 (Mn) through Ising model is given. The critical temperature C (K) is obtained by HTSEs applied to the magnetic susceptibility series combined with the Padé approximant method. The critical exponent associated with the magnetic susceptibility is deduced as well.

  6. Erratum: Ultrasonic Properties of the MgB2 Superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍春; 王汝菊; 李凤英; 刘振兴; 朱嘉林; 禹日成; 靳常青

    2001-01-01

    The last sentence in the abstract should be: "The results indicate that the velocities are much higher than those in the usual materials while elastic constants remain reasonably soft, which is considered to be one of the reasons for the high transition temperature of the MgB2 superconductor".

  7. Multiband model for penetration depth in MgB2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, A.A.; Brinkman, A.; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Jepsen, O.

    2002-01-01

    The results of first-principles calculations of the electronic structure and the electron-phonon interaction in MgB2 are used to study theoretically the temperature dependence and anisotropy of the magnetic-field penetration depth. The effects of impurity scattering are essential for a proper descri

  8. 29 CFR 2520.104b-2 - Summary plan description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section 102 or 29 CFR 2520.102-3 would have been reflected in the most recently distributed summary plan... section 102 or 29 CFR 2520.102-3 would have been reflected in the most recently distributed summary plan... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary plan description. 2520.104b-2 Section...

  9. Investigation of TaC–TaB2 ceramic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Behzad Mehdikhani; Gholam Hossein Borhani; Saeed Reza Bakhshi; Hamid Reza Baharvandi

    2016-02-01

    The TaC–TaB2 composition was sintered by spark plasma (SPS) at 1900–2100°C and applied pressure of 30 MPa. TaC and 2–3 wt% B4C were used as starting powders. Densification process, phase evolution, microstructure and the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicated that the TaC–TaB2 composition could be SPS to 97% of theoretical density in 10 min at 2100°C. Addition of B4C leads to an increase in the density sample from 76 to 97%. B4C nano-powder resists grain growth even at high temperature 2100°C. The formation of TaB2/carbon at TaC grain boundaries helps in pinning the grain boundary and inhibiting grain growth. The phase formation was associated with carbon and boron diffusion from the starting particles B4C to form TaB2 phases. TaC grain sizes decreased with increase in B4C concentration. Samples with 2.0 wt% B4C composition had highest flexure strength up to 520 MPa. The effect of B4C addition on hardness measured by microhardness has been studied. Hardness of samples containing 3.0 wt% B4C was 16.99 GPa.

  10. Superconductivity in MgB2: Clean or Dirty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazin, I.I.; Andersen, O.K.; Jepsen, O.; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Golubov, A.A.; Kuz'menko, A.B.; Marel, van der D.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of experimental facts and theoretical arguments favor a two-gap model for superconductivity in MgB2. However, this model predicts strong suppression of the critical temperature by interband impurity scattering and, presumably, a strong correlation between the critical temperature and

  11. Caracas, una guerra sin nombre, unidad didáctica para desarrollar la expresión oral, nivel B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Pujalte López-Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta unidad didáctica está dirigida a alumnos de español como lengua extranjera con un nivel B1-B2, y su objetivo es desarrollar las destrezas orales, en especial la expresión oral. La unidad ha sido diseñada para ser impartida en clases de auxiliar de conversación.

  12. Reinvestigation on the phase transition of a LiB3O5 crystal near its melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, S. M.; Zheng, G. M.; Feng, D. X.; Yao, Y. N.; Zhao, Y.; You, J. L.; Hu, Z. G.

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been applied to investigate in-situ the phase transition of a LBO (LiB3O5) crystal near its melting point in order to explain the discrepancies between the experimental results observed in the LBO crystal growth process and the predicted results obtained from the Li2O-B2O3 phase diagram. When the LBO crystal begins to melt, it first decomposes to the kinetic products Li2B4O7 and B2O3; then the Li2B4O7 reacts with the undecomposed LBO to form the thermodynamic product Li3B7O12. On the basis of these results, a set of models have been proposed to describe the structural transformations present in the phase transition. Additionally, our experimental result indicates that Li3B7O12 is stable/metastable at room temperature. Its Raman spectrum has been calculated by the density functional theory method for identification of the Li3B7O12 crystalline phase in a mixture. The result shows that Li3B7O12 has three strong characteristic Raman peaks located around 595, 775 and 1040 cm-1.

  13. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057

  14. Evaluating surface energy budgets simulated by SiB3 at three different climate-ecosystem tower sites%SiB3对不同下垫面的模拟试验与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玲梅; 卢立新; 邢伟坡; 张立新; Ian Baker; 张庚军; 左菁颖

    2011-01-01

    首先介绍简单生物圈模式版本3( Simple Biosphere Model 3,SiB3)相比SiB2的改进之处以及相应的参数化方案.为了检验SiB3模式能否模拟不同下垫面的地气之间水分和能量交换,本文在全球选择3个代表高、中、低纬度的典型实验站点(青藏高原安多站点、亚马逊流域的Km34站点和美国中西部的WLEF站点),利用SiB3进行模拟分析和实验验证.研究结果表明,SiB3能够较好地模拟出不同下垫面的地表感热通量、潜热通量和净辐射通量随时间的变化率以及变化趋势,模式模拟值和测量值的相关系数达到0.80左右.但与实测相比,SiB3模拟的感热通量值仍偏高.在安多站点,模式模拟的地表土壤水分比较干燥,且模拟的地表温度较测量值偏高.%In this paper, three climate - ecosystem representative sites have been selected to run SiB3 to evaluate its performance, including Anduo on Tibetan Plateau, Km34 flux tower site in Amazon Basin, and WLEF tower in midwest of United States. Among these three sites, Anduo has a typical arid and semi-arid climate with high-plain grassland, Km34 tower site is in tropical rainforest, and WLEF tower site has temperate continental climate with mixed forest. Our work demonstrates that the net radiations, sensible heat fluxes, latent heat fluxes, and land-surface skin temperatures are reasonably simulated especially for Tibetan Plateau and Amazon, where the correlations between modeled and observed values are generally above 0. 80. The simulated sensible heat fluxes have persistent positive biases of 40. 1 73. 9 and 53. 5 w/ m2, compared to the measurements at all three sites. At Anduo site, the simulated soil moisture is too dry, and SiB3 has some difficulties in reproducing the observed soil water variations with depth.

  15. Orbital Interaction and Electron Density Transfer in PdII([9]aneB2AL2 Complexes: Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Keun Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The geometric structures of Pd-complexes {Pd([9]aneB2AL2 and Pd([9]aneBABL2 where A = P, S; B = N; L = PH3, P(CH33, Cl−}, their selective orbital interaction towards equatorial or axial (soft A…Pd coordination of macrocyclic [9]aneB2A tridentate to PdL2, and electron density transfer from the electron-rich trans L-ligand to the low-lying unfilled a1g(5s-orbital of PdL2 were investigated using B3P86/lanl2DZ for Pd and 6-311+G** for other atoms. The pentacoordinate endo-[Pd([9]aneB2A(L-donor2]2+ complex with an axial (soft A--Pd quasi-bond was optimized for stability. The fifth (soft A--Pd quasi-bond between the σ-donor of soft A and the partially unfilled a1g(5s-orbital of PdL2 was formed. The pentacoordinate endo-Pd([9]aneB2A(L-donor2]2+ complex has been found to be more stable than the corresponding tetracoordinate endo-Pd complexes. Except for the endo-Pd pentacoordinates, the tetracoordinate Pd([9]aneBABL2 complex with one equatorial (soft A-Pd bond is found to be more stable than the Pd([9]aneB2AL2 isomer without the equatorial (A-Pd bond. In particular, the geometric configuration of endo-[Pd([9]anePNP(L-donor2]2+ could not be optimized.

  16. Strongly bound metastable states of B2 + 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Pablo J.; Wright, James S.

    1990-08-01

    The stabilities of about 25 electronic states of B2+2 have been investigated using a multireference CI (MRD-CI) method and an AO basis set composed of 6s4p2d contracted Gaussian species per atom, including semidiffuse functions relevant for an adequate description of charge transfer interactions. The ground state X1∑+g (σ2gσ2u) is repulsive, as expected by its electronic configuration with a zero bond order. In spite of this and the doubly-positive charge, many excited states are found to be metastable, four of them (11∏g, 11∏u, 13∑-g, and 11Δg ) having potential wells from 1.52 eV (11∏u) to 2.83 eV (13∑-g). Relative to the ground state configuration, the metastable states arise from the excitations σu→σg(3∑+u), σu→πu(3,1∏g), σ2u→σgπu(3,1∏u), and σ2u→π2u(3∑-g, 1Δg, 1∑+g); they are analogous to those states showing deep local minima in B2 and B+2. Differences in stabilities among quasibound states can be explained on the basis of the asymptotic ΔE's between repulsive channels B++B+ and appropriate higher-lying limits (states) B+B2+ of bonding character; another important factor governing stability is the actual bonding character of the electronic configurations assigned to each state. The vertical double-ionization potential B2B2+2(π2u→∞) between both ground states is 27.97 eV, the repulsive X1∑+g dication state being created with 8.37 eV excess energy relative to B++B+. Doubly-ionized states with a chance of being detected because of their long lifetimes against predissociation are those showing a strongly quasibound character, such as (with the vertical double ionization potential in eV given in parentheses): 11∏g(σuπu→∞; 30.29); 11∏u(σ2uπu→σg∞; 31.30); 13∑-g(σ2u→∞; 31.33), and 11Δg(σ2u→∞; 31.95).

  17. In vivo characterization of NcsB3 to establish the complete biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid moiety of the neocarzinostatin chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Vu Thi Thu; Oh, Tae Jin; Yamaguchi, Tokutaro; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-10-01

    Neocarzinostatin (NCS) is an enediyne antibiotic produced by Streptomyces carzinostaticus. The NCS chromophore consists of an enediyne core, a sugar moiety, and a naphthoic acid (NA) moiety. The latter plays a key role in binding the NCS chromophore to its apoprotein to protect and stabilize the bioactive NCS chromophore. In this study, we expressed three genes: ncsB (naphthoic acid synthase), ncsB3 (P450 hydroxylase), and ncsB1 (O-methyltransferase), in Streptomyces lividans TK24. The three genes were sufficient to produce 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid. Production was analyzed and confirmed by LC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we report the functional characterization of ncsB3 and thereby elucidate the complete biosynthetic pathway of NA moiety of the NCS chromophore. PMID:20735485

  18. Immunolocalization and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changmao; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Wenzhen; Luo, Damin

    2014-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the anatomic sites of expression and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The immunolocalization results revealed that native AC-cathBs were found present in the L1 and L3 larvae, female and male adults, and the AC-cathBs were localized mainly on the digestive tract of A. cantonensis and expressed at varied levels and in different patterns in the internal tissues according to their developmental stage. Consistent with the infective stage of L3 is a much more intense staining of AC-cathBs in the esophagus compared with the intestine. In contrast to L3, more abundant signals were located to the intestine of adults, suggesting that nutrition digestion likely to be the main function of the protease at this point. AC-cathBs fluorescent signals were present in excretory pore, excretory tube in lateral cords, and muscular esophagus of larvae, further supported the AC-cathB-1, -2 likely to be released by A. cantonensis as excretory/secretory products. Additionally, only the protein AC-cathB-2 was detected in the reproductive system, especially in the wall of vas deferens, uterus, and oviduct of the parasites, whether the AC-cathB-2 has some function in germ cells development and maturation need to be further characterized. Although the anatomic sites and expression patterns were different in larvae and adults and the corresponding function might not the same, AC-cathB-1 and -2 involved in the host-parasite interaction in addition to digestive function.

  19. An intrinsic propensity of murine peritoneal B1b cells to switch to IgA in presence of TGF-β and retinoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnudeo Roy

    Full Text Available AIMS: In the present study we have investigated the comparative switching propensity of murine peritoneal and splenic B cell subpopulations to IgA in presence of retinoic acid (RA and TGF-β. METHODS AND RESULTS: To study the influence of RA and TGF-β on switching of B cell subpopulations to IgA, peritoneal (B1a, B1b and B2 cells and splenic (B1a, marginal zone, and B2 B cells from normal BALB/c mice were FACS purified, cultured for 4 days in presence of RA and TGF-β and the number of IgA producing cells was determined by ELISPOT assay or FACS analysis. In presence of TGF-β, peritoneal B1b cells switched to IgA more potently than other peritoneal B cell subpopulations. When TGF-β was combined with retinoic acid (RA, switching to IgA was even more pronounced. Under these conditions, "innate" B cells like peritoneal and splenic B1 cells and MZ B cells produced IgA more readily than B2 cells. Additionally, high frequency of nucleotide exchanges indicating somatic hypermutation in VH regions was observed. Besides IgA induction, RA treatment of sorted PEC and splenic B cells led to expression of gut homing molecules - α4β7 and CCR9. Intraperitoneal transfer of RA-treated B1 cells into Rag1(-/- recipients resulted in IgA in serum and gut lavage, most efficiently amongst B1b cell recipients. CONCLUSION: Present study demonstrates the differential and synergistic effect of RA and TGF-β on switching of different B cell subpopulations to IgA and establishes the prominence of peritoneal B1b cells in switching to IgA under the influence of these two factors. Our study extends our knowledge about the existing differences among B cell subpopulations with regards to IgA production and indicates towards their differential contribution to gut associated humoral immunity.

  20. Remelting of aluminium with the addition of AlTi5B1 and AlTi3C0,15 grain refiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobešrek, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It was found that concentration of boron in aluminium with the addition of AlTi5B1 grain refiner is decreasing during remelting as a consequence of TiB2 particles settling down due to gravity. TiB2 particles remained in aluminium after four remelts shows lower effect of grain refinement compared to non-remelted samples with the same TiB2 content. It was also found that TiC particles are still present in aluminium with the addition of AlTi3C0,15 grain refiner after four remelts and they probably participate in nucleation of α-Al grains.

  1. The CHESS survey of the L1157-B1 shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, G.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Vasta, M.; Viti, S.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lorenzani, A.

    2012-03-01

    Outflows generated by protostars heavily affect the kinematics and chemistry of the hosting molecular cloud due to strong shocks. These shocks heats and compress the ambient dense gas switching on a complex chemistry that leads to an enhancement of the abundance of several species, as reported in ``chemically active'' outflows, whose archetype is the outflow of the low-mass Class 0 protostar L1157. We present the results of the spectral survey of the shock region L1157-B1 carried out with PACS, SPIRE and HIFI instruments in the framework of the Herschel key program CHESS. The high spectral resolution data from HIFI show that different excitation conditions coexist in the B1 shock while the high PACS spatial resolution data shows a different spatial distribution of the the detected specie. We will discuss the properties of the different gas components and present the physical conditions derived from different species. We will present a first comparison with shock models highlighting the complex structure of this shocked region.

  2. DELF B1 200 activités

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Anatole

    2006-01-01

    L'ouvrage est organisé par compétences de réception et de production. Chaque partie propose d'abord une présentation de l'épreuve correspondante, puis les activités de préparation suivies d'épreuves-types et d'une auto-évaluation. Dans le cadre d'une approche actionnelle, les activités fournissent les outils nécessaires à la préparation des examens. Elles donnent des exemples concrets répondant aux attentes des candidats comme à celle des examinateurs. LeNouveau DELF B1 propose des activités précises en vue d'atteindre les compétences nécessaires aux épreuves (oral, écrit, réception, production); sa simplicité et sa pédagogie en font une méthode complète. Dans la tradition de la collection Nouvel Entraînez-vous, cet ouvrage est pratique, didactique et se prête à une utilisation en autonomie ou en classe.Le niveau B1 dit " avancé " évalue un niveau de compétence où l'apprenant peut se considérer comme étant indépendant. Arrivé à ce stade, il est apte de comprendre l'inform...

  3. Screening and Initial Binding Assessment of Fumonisin B1 Aptamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. DeRosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, fungi that are ubiquitous in corn (maize. Insect damage and some other environmental conditions result in the accumulation of fumonisins in corn-based products worldwide. Current methods of fumonisin detection rely on the use of immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The use of aptamers offers a good alternative to the use of antibodies in fumonisin cleanup and detection due to lower costs and improved stability. Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that are selected using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX for their ability to bind to targets with high affinity and specificity. Sequences obtained after 18 rounds of SELEX were screened for their ability to bind to fumonisin B1. Six unique sequences were obtained, each showing improved binding to fumonisin B1 compared to controls. Sequence FB1 39 binds to fumonisin with a dissociation constant of 100 ± 30 nM and shows potential for use in fumonisin biosensors and solid phase extraction columns.

  4. Rapid Immunoenzyme Assay of Aflatoxin B1 Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr E. Urusov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main limitations of microplate-based enzyme immunoassays are the prolonged incubations necessary to facilitate heterogeneous interactions, the complex matrix and poorly soluble antigens, and the significant sample dilutions often required because of the presence of organic extractants. This study presents the use of antibody immobilization on the surface of magnetic particles to overcome these limitations in the detection of the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1. Features of the proposed system are a high degree of nanoparticle dispersion and methodologically simple immobilization of the antibodies by adsorption. Reactions between the immobilized antibodies with native and labeled antigens are conducted in solution, thereby reducing the interaction period to 5 min without impairing the analytical outcome. Adsorption of immunoglobulins on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles increases their stability in aqueous-organic media, thus minimizing the degree of sample dilution required. Testing barley and maize extracts demonstrated a limit of aflatoxin B1 detection equal to 20 pg/mL and total assay duration of 20 min. Using this method, only the 3-fold dilution of the initial methanol/water (60/40 extraction mixture in the microplate wells is necessary. The proposed pseudo-homogeneous approach could be applied toward immunodetection of a wide range of compounds.

  5. Rapid immunoenzyme assay of aflatoxin B1 using magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Petrakova, Alina V; Vozniak, Maxim V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2014-01-01

    The main limitations of microplate-based enzyme immunoassays are the prolonged incubations necessary to facilitate heterogeneous interactions, the complex matrix and poorly soluble antigens, and the significant sample dilutions often required because of the presence of organic extractants. This study presents the use of antibody immobilization on the surface of magnetic particles to overcome these limitations in the detection of the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1. Features of the proposed system are a high degree of nanoparticle dispersion and methodologically simple immobilization of the antibodies by adsorption. Reactions between the immobilized antibodies with native and labeled antigens are conducted in solution, thereby reducing the interaction period to 5 min without impairing the analytical outcome. Adsorption of immunoglobulins on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles increases their stability in aqueous-organic media, thus minimizing the degree of sample dilution required. Testing barley and maize extracts demonstrated a limit of aflatoxin B1 detection equal to 20 pg/mL and total assay duration of 20 min. Using this method, only the 3-fold dilution of the initial methanol/water (60/40) extraction mixture in the microplate wells is necessary. The proposed pseudo-homogeneous approach could be applied toward immunodetection of a wide range of compounds. PMID:25412219

  6. Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the oxidation behavior of ZrB2-20 vol% SiC is examined. Samples were exposed in stagnant air in a zirconia furnace (Deltech, Inc.) at temperatures of 1327, 1627, and 1927 C for ten ten-minute cycles. Samples were removed from the furnace after one, five, and ten cycles. Oxidized material was characterized by mass change when possible, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Oxidation kinetics, oxide scale development, and matrix recession were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Oxidation and recession rates of ZrB2 - 20 vol% SiC were adequately modeled by parabolic kinetics. Oxidation rates of this material are rapid, allowing only very short-term application in air or other high oxygen partial pressure environments.

  7. Structured Crowdsourcing: A B2B Innovation Roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Engell, Toke; Jensen, Nik Grewy;

    Crowdsourcing is an increasingly popular source of both ideas and funding. Crowdsourcing in a B2B context is less well understood and, as such, much of our discussion will highlight business-to-business crowdsourcing. More generally discussion will address crowdsourcing relative to innovation...... from crowd-sourcing efforts. The roadmap emphasizes on early stages in the overall innovation management activity that is related to development and specification of the task to be crowdsourced, the identification of the crowd, the creation of the environment to connect the crowdsourcer, the task...... and the crowd, motivation of the crowd, and actual activities in reaching the crowd. Managing the input from the crowd is regarded as a later stage in the overall innovation management but also as a focal point in the arguments for improving B2B crowdsourcing. In crowd selection processes this paper aims...

  8. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    , service, configuration and customisation of the products in their company as well as to develop an apposite understanding of the key values and characteristics of the client organisation. Based on a design-ethnographical study of real sales practice in lift truck business the paper draws parallels between......This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... sales agent’s work practice and collaborative conceptual design work, i.e. innovation design work. This perception provides a means to understand the value that the use of conceptual design tools could possibly provide for sales negotiation work. We also use the notion of boundary object to elaborate...

  9. Permanent magnet with MgB2 bulk superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-07-01

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB2) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (cryocoolers, making MgB2 bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  10. High-resolution photoemission study of MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, T; Souma, S; Muranaka, T; Akimitsu, J

    2001-05-21

    We have performed high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy on MgB2 and observed opening of a superconducting gap with a narrow coherent peak. We found that the superconducting gap is s like with the gap value ( Delta) of 4.5+/-0.3 meV at 15 K. The temperature dependence (15-40 K) of the gap value follows well the BCS form, suggesting that 2Delta/k(B)T(c) at T = 0 is about 3. No pseudogap behavior is observed in the normal state. The present results strongly suggest that MgB2 is categorized into a phonon-mediated BCS superconductor in the weak-coupling regime.

  11. Heterostructures of Bi-4334 and MgB2 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathi, M.; Singh, R.

    2016-05-01

    We report the studies on hetero structures of Bi-4334 and MgB2 superconductors. The two superconductors were arranged in the form of bulk multilayers using hydraulic pressure system. X-ray diffraction pattern and dc magnetization studies confirm the presence of both superconducting phases in this try-layer hetero structured sample. The d.c magnetization shows the superconducting onset at 77K and 39K for Bi-4334 and MgB2 phases respectively. Critical current density (Jc) is calculated from hysteresis loop of the sample in both in-plane field and out of plane field configurations. Inverted anisotropy in Jc is observed due to enhancement of ab-plane properties because of multilayer growth process. Morphology of the samples at surface and interface of two superconducting layers is discussed in view of Field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Evidence for two superconducting gaps in MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X K; Konstantinovic, M J; Irwin, J C; Lawrie, D D; Franck, J P

    2001-10-01

    We have measured the Raman spectra of polycrystalline MgB2 from 25 to 1200 cm(-1). A superconductivity-induced redistribution in the electronic Raman continuum was observed. Two pair-breaking peaks appear in the spectra, suggesting the presence of two superconducting gaps. The measured spectra were analyzed using a quasi-two-dimensional model in which two s-wave superconducting gaps open on two sheets of Fermi surface. For the gap values we have obtained Delta(1) = 22 cm(-1) ( 2.7 meV) and Delta(2) = 50 cm(-1) ( 6.2 meV). Our results suggest that a conventional phonon-mediated pairing mechanism occurs in the planar boron sigma bands and is responsible for the superconductivity of MgB2.

  13. Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Gal Peled; Roman Yasinov; Nir Karasikov

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operat...

  14. Social media usage: an investigation of B2B salespeople

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta J. Schultz; Charles H. Schwepker, Jr; David J. Good

    2012-01-01

    A great deal has been written recently in the practitioner press about the strategic importance and usage of social media. However, as practitioners only release limited information about the internal advantages such a tool provides, research in this emerging field remains extremely limited about its usage in the sales area. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically assess a model of social media usage among business-to-business (B2B) salespeople. A survey of 27...

  15. Content Marketing vs. Traditional Advertising for B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This thesis follows a traditional research-based structure. The thesis focuses around content marketing and traditional advertising for B2B companies. The thesis was pro-duced for a company called INS and aims at showing that, in present times, content marketing is more valuable than traditional advertising. The first part of the thesis covers different views and theories on both content market-ing and traditional advertising, from definitions, types, roles and stages to planning and mea...

  16. STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF NEW SUPERCONDUCTOR MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE LUN-HUA; YAN QI-WEI; ZHANG PAN-LIN; HU GUI-QING

    2001-01-01

    The superconductivity of a sintered pellet of the newly discovered MgB2 superconductor has been studied with magnetic measurements and its crystal structure was analysed using the Rietveld method of powder X-ray patterns. It has hexagonal symmetry (S.G. P6/mmm) with unit cell lattice parameters a=0.308136(14)nm and c=0.351782(17)nm.

  17. Superconductivity in MgB2 irradiated with energetic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Viorel; Craciun, Liviu; Ionescu, Alina Marinela; Aldica, Gheorghe; Miu, Lucica; Kuncser, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    A series of MgB2 samples were irradiated with protons of 11.3 and 13.2 MeV. Magnetization data shows an insignificant reduction of the critical temperatures but a continuous decrease of the Meissner fraction with increasing fluence or energy. All samples show a consistent improvement of the critical current density compared to the virgin sample and an increase of the pinning energy at high fields as resulted from relaxation data.

  18. CO and its Isotopomers Observation towards Sgr B2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. L. Sun; J. S. Zhang; D. R. Lu; J. J. Qiu

    2014-09-01

    We present our observations toward Sgr B2 region in = 1−0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and C17O using 13.7-m Delingha millimeter telescope with newly installed 9-beam SIS superconducting receiver. From the integrated line intensity, we derive the abundance ratio of C18O/C17O with a mean value of 3.11 ± 0.10, which is consistent with the previous results.

  19. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  20. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making.

  1. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of an MgB2 bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present the experimental results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of a superconducting MgB2 bolometer. The device was made from an MgB2 meander-like structure suspended on a 500 nm thick SiN membrane. The MgB2 meander line was 50 μm wide and 7.6 mm long and it was defined by optical lithography and dry etching. The SiN membrane had an area of 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm and it was obtained by a silicon micromachining technique. The electrical and thermal properties of the device were measured at low temperature in a closed-cycle cryocooler. The resulting Tc of the meander was unchanged with respect to the unprocessed film and the transport properties, measured in voltage-biased mode, indicated a value for Jc of the order of 105 A cm-2 at 27 K. The logarithmic sensitivity of the bolometer turned out to be higher than 150. The study of the thermal properties of the bolometer on the membrane showed a thermal conductance of the order 10-5 W K-1 at a working temperature of 32 K. The bolometer, irradiated by a chopped laser beam, showed a cut-off frequency of 94 Hz. The maximum experimental responsivity was estimated to be 2.3 x 103 V W-1

  3. B2C电子商务网站设计%Design of B2 C E-commerce Website

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董慧; 王海洋; 谢静

    2014-01-01

    With the development of information technology, E-commerce is springing up. As the mainstream of E-commerce, B2C(Business to Consumer) has occupied a considerable market share in global online-shopping trade. In order to provide a more user-friendly B2C E-commerce website and enhance the interests of enterprises, it is essential to make a detailed demand a-nalysis and design. Therefore, the essay analyses the demand of a B2C E-commerce website through the perspective of customers, the inner enterprises and the network marketing, divides each function module as well as analyses the business flow and data flow. Based on the demand analysis, the whole design of the system focuses on the relational database design process of user, shopping cart and goods. In combination with the search engine optimization, it is more conducive to explore potential customer. Furthermore, it plays a guiding role in the website maintenance and development in the long run.%随着信息化的发展,电子商务蓬勃兴起。 B2C(Business to Consumer)作为当今主流电子商务,已在全球网络购物交易额中占据相当大的市场份额。为了提高B2 C电子商务网站的用户体验和企业的收益,详细的需求分析和设计是必不可少的。本文从客户、企业内部和网络营销3个方面对B2 C电子商务网站进行需求分析,划分各个功能模块,分析业务流和数据流。根据需求给出系统整体设计,并重点叙述以用户、购物车、商品的关系为例的数据库设计过程。结合搜索引擎优化思想,更有利于发掘潜在用户,并为后期的网站维护和发展起了导向作用。

  4. Activation of macrophages by an exopolysaccharide isolated from Antarctic Psychrobacter sp. B-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leiye; Sun, Guojie; Wei, Jingfang; Wang, Yingze; Du, Chao; Li, Jiang

    2016-09-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated and purified from an Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium B-3, identified as Psychrobacter sp., and the activation of RAW264.7 cells by B-3 EPS was investigated. The results show that B-3 EPS, over a certain concentration range, promoted cell viability, nitric oxide production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α secretion, and phagocytic ability. Furthermore, TAK-242, an inhibitor of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) significantly reduced nitric oxide production by these cells after stimulation with B-3 EPS. Moreover, B-3 EPS induced p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation in these cells. In conclusion, B-3 EPS might have activated RAW264.7 cells by combining with TLR4 on cell surface and triggering activation of NF-κB signaling pathways, implying that this EPS could activate macrophages and regulate initial immune response.

  5. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Mamajek, E E; Prsa, A; Harmanec, P; Asplund, M; Bennett, P D; Capitaine, N; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Depagne, E; Folkner, W M; Haberreiter, M; Hekker, S; Hilton, J L; Kostov, V; Laskar, J; Kutz, D W; Mason, B D; Milone, E F; Montgomery, M M; Richards, M T; Schou, J; Stewart, S G

    2015-01-01

    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale such that a radiation source with $M_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most com...

  6. First Observation of the Hadronic Transition ϒ(4S)→ηh(b)(1P) and New Measurement of the h(b)(1P) and η(b)(1S) Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamponi, U; Mussa, R; Abdesselam, A; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Atmacan, H; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Badhrees, I; Bakich, A M; Barberio, E; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S-K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hedges, M T; Hou, W-S; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Julius, T; Kato, E; Katrenko, P; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, S H; Kinoshita, K; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Lange, J S; Lewis, P; Libby, J; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mori, T; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Pesántez, L; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y-S; Sokolov, A; Starič, M; Steder, M; Stypula, J; Tanida, K; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, M-Z; Wang, X L; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

    2015-10-01

    Using a sample of 771.6×10(6) ϒϒ(4S) decays collected by the Belle experiment at the KEKB e(+)e(-) collider, we observe, for the first time, the transition ϒ(4S)→ηh(b)(1P) with the branching fraction B[ϒ(4S)→ηh(b)(1P)]=(2.18±0.11±0.18)×10(-3) and we measure the h(b)(1P) mass M(h(b)(1P))=(9899.3±0.4±1.0)  MeV/c(2), corresponding to the hyperfine (HF) splitting ΔM(HF)(1P)=(0.6±0.4±1.0)  MeV/c(2). Using the transition h(b)(1P)→γη(b)(1S), we measure the η(b)(1S) mass M(η(b)(1S))=(9400.7±1.7±1.6)  MeV/c(2), corresponding to ΔM(HF)(1S)=(59.6±1.7±1.6)  MeV/c(2), the η(b)(1S) width Γ(η(b)(1S))=(8(-5)(+6)±5)  MeV/c(2) and the branching fraction B[h(b)(1P)→γη(b)(1S)]=(56±8±4)%. PMID:26551806

  7. Electric-quadrupole interaction at 181Hf/181Ta in Hf doped MgB2 and HfB2: a perturbed angular correlation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperfine interaction of the 181Hf/181Ta is studied in HfB2 and Hf doped MgB2 by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. Nuclear quadrupole constants and attenuation factors were extracted from the data. Quadrupole coupling constant shows that Hf goes to three inequivalent sites in MgB2. There is sign of HfB2 formation at high temperature. (author)

  8. EphB2 tyrosine kinase-dependent forward signaling in migration of neuronal progenitors that populate and form a distinct region of the dentate niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Timothy; Henkemeyer, Mark

    2011-08-10

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is one of two areas in the mature brain where stem cells reside to continuously produce new neurons throughout adulthood. While much research has focused on the DG for its roles in adult neurogenesis, little is known regarding how this key region of the brain initially develops to form its distinct architecture. We show here that the murine EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase is critical for embryonic/postnatal development of a specific region of the DG known as the lateral suprapyramidal blade (LSB). Intracellular truncation and point mutants demonstrate that EphB2 catalytic activity is essential for LSB formation. This is consistent with expression of EphB2 in nestin-positive neural progenitor cells that migrate medially from the lateral ventricle dentate notch neuroepithelium to populate the tertiary matrix and form the DG near the midline of the brain. Animals lacking ephrin-B1 recapitulate loss of the receptor and show that this molecule acts as the ligand to stimulate EphB2 forward signaling and direct migration of the neural progenitors into the dorsal compartment of the tertiary matrix and form the LSB. Immunoreactivity against the extracellular matrix protein Reelin in a region directly above the developing LSB is dramatically reduced when EphB2 forward signaling is disrupted. Together, these results indicate ephrin-B1 interacting with EphB2 controls the migration of dentate progenitor cells into the dorsal half of the developing DG, perhaps in part by affecting Reelin expression in a key compartment directly above the LSB.

  9. Predominant porB1A and porB1B genotypes and correlation of gene mutations with drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Renxian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations of porB1A and porB1B genes and their serotypes exist in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from different geographical areas, and some site mutations in the porB1B gene correlate with drug resistance. Methods The β-lactamase production of N. gonorrhoeae isolates was determined by paper acidometric test and nitrocefin discs. The porB1A and porB1B genes of 315 non-penicillinase-producting N. gonorrhoeae (non-PPNG strains were amplified by PCR for sequencing to determine serotypes and site mutations. A duplex PCR was designed to simultaneously detect both porB1A and porB1B genes. Penicillin and tetracycline resistance was assessed by an in vitro drug sensitivity test. Results Of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates, 31.1% tested positive for porB1A and 68.9% for porB1B genes. All the 98 porB1A+ isolates belonging to IA6 serotype with either no mutation at the 120 and 121 sites (88.8% or a D120G (11.2% mutation and were no resistance to both penicillin and tetracycline. Among the 217 porB1B+ isolates, 26.7%, 22.6% and 11.5% belonged to IB3, IB3/6 and IB4 serotypes, respectively. Particularly, two novel chimeric serotypes, IB3/6-IB2 and IB2-IB4-IB2, were found in 77 and 8 porB1B+ isolates. Two hundred and twelve (97.7% of the porB1B+ isolates were presented G120 and/or A121 mutations with 163 (76.9% at both sites. Interestingly, within the 77 porB1B+ isolates belonging to IB3/6-IB2 serotype, 15 were discovered to possess novel deletions at both A121 and N122 sites. All the replacement mutations at these sites in PorB1B were correlated with resistance and the deletion mutation showed the highest resistance. Conclusion N. gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in Eastern China include a sole PorB1A serotype (IA6 and five PorB1B serotypes. Multiple mutations in porB1B genes, including novel A121 and N122 deletions, are correlated with high levels of penicillin and tetracycline resistance.

  10. Neon ion Irradiation studies on MgB2 Superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Talapatra, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Sen, Pintu; P. Barat

    2004-01-01

    160 MeV Neon ion irradiation has been carried out on MgB2 polycrystalline pellets at various doses. There has not been any significant change in Tc except at the highest dose of 1x10^15 ions/cm^2. Increase in resistivity has been noticed. Resistivity data has been fitted with Bloch-Gruneisen function and the values of Debye temperature, residual resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistivity have been extracted for irradiated as well as unirradiated samples. The increase in the resist...

  11. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants.......This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...

  12. Superconductivity in MgB2: clean or dirty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, I I; Andersen, O K; Jepsen, O; Dolgov, O V; Kortus, J; Golubov, A A; Kuz'menko, A B; Van Der Marel, D

    2002-09-01

    A large number of experimental facts and theoretical arguments favor a two-gap model for superconductivity in MgB2. However, this model predicts strong suppression of the critical temperature by interband impurity scattering and, presumably, a strong correlation between the critical temperature and the residual resistivity. No such correlation has been observed. We argue that this fact can be understood if the band disparity of the electronic structure is taken into account, not only in the superconducting state, but also in normal transport.

  13. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Bhide; R M Kadam; M D Sastry; Ajay Singh; Shashwati Sen; Manmeet Kaur; D K Aswal; S K Gupta; V C Sahni

    2002-05-01

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave absorption has been found to obey a $\\sqrt{H}$ dependence with two different slopes, which indicated a transition from strongly pinned lattice to flux flow regime.

  14. Phonon dispersion and lifetimes in MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhay; Calandra, Matteo; D'Astuto, Matteo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Bellin, Christophe; Krisch, Michael; Karpinski, J; Kazakov, S M; Jun, J; Daghero, D; Parlinski, K

    2003-03-01

    We measure phonon dispersion and linewidth in a single crystal of MgB2 along the Gamma-A, Gamma-M, and A-L directions using inelastic x-ray scattering. We use density functional theory to compute the effect of both electron-phonon coupling and anharmonicity on the linewidth, obtaining excellent agreement with experiment. Anomalous broadening of the E(2g) phonon mode is found all along Gamma-A. The dominant contribution to the linewidth is always the electron-phonon coupling.

  15. Two-band superconductivity in MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavarone, M; Karapetrov, G; Koshelev, A E; Kwok, W K; Crabtree, G W; Hinks, D G; Kang, W N; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Lee, S I

    2002-10-28

    The study of the anisotropic superconductor MgB2 using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveals two distinct energy gaps at Delta(1)=2.3 meV and Delta(2)=7.1 meV at 4.2 K. Different spectral weights of the partial superconducting density of states are a reflection of different tunneling directions in this multiband system. Temperature evolution of the tunneling spectra follows the BCS scenario [Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 552 (1959)

  16. Correlation of needle core biopsy with excision histology in screen-detected B3 lesions: the Merrion Breast Screening Unit experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, B D

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Needle core biopsy (NCB) is a widely-used technique for non-operative evaluation of screen-detected breast lesions. Although most NCBs are B2 (benign) or B5 (malignant), some fall into the B3 category of "uncertain malignant potential". This study aims to categorise the lesions prompting a B3 NCB in the Merrion Breast Screening Unit, and establish the incidence of malignancy on subsequent excision biopsy. METHODS: Patients attending the Merrion Breast Screening Unit in Dublin between 2000 and 2008 who had a B3 NCB were identified. The NCB pathology reports were reviewed and the diagnosis correlated with excision histology; the latter was classified as benign, atypical or malignant. Lesion-specific positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy were derived. RESULTS: 141 patients with a B3 NCB were identified. The most frequent lesions on NCB were radial scar (RS; n = 57), atypical intraductal epithelial proliferation (AIDEP; n = 25) and papillary lesion (n = 24). The final diagnosis was malignant in 22 patients (16%), atypical in 40 (28%) and benign in 79 (56%). Two of the patients with a malignant diagnosis had invasive carcinoma. The lesion-specific PPVs were: lobular neoplasia 50%, AIDEP 32%, columnar cell lesion with atypia 12.5%, RS 12.3%, papillary lesion 8.3%, suspected phyllodes tumour 7.7%, and spindle cell lesion 0%. Atypia on RS NCB predicted an atypical or malignant excision diagnosis, but atypia on papillary lesion NCB did not. CONCLUSIONS: One-sixth of B3 NCBs in this series proved to be malignant on excision. The PPV for malignancy varied according to lesion type.

  17. Fumonisin B1 and the kidney: modes of action for renal tumor formation by fumonisin B1 in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephanie; Dekant, Wolfgang; Mally, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is an important contaminant of maize and maize-based products. In rodent toxicity studies, FB1 was shown to be hepato- and nephrotoxic, and to induce renal tumors in rats when administered via the diet. Of particular note are the aggressive growth characteristics of FB1-induced tumors with a high potential to metastasize. While genotoxicity does not appear to contribute to FB1 carcinogenicity, it is well established that FB1-mediated disruption of sphingolipid metabolism plays a key role in FB1 toxicity. This review provides an overview on human dietary exposure to FB1, FB1 toxicity and carcinogenicity, and potential mechanisms involved in FB1-mediated tumor formation, with a particular focus on cellular functions of sphingolipids and biological consequences of FB1-mediated perturbation of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:22771819

  18. Generation and characterization of a Cyp4b1 null mouse and the role of CYP4B1 in the activation and toxicity of Ipomeanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Oliver T; Liggitt, H Denny; Rettie, Allan E; Kelly, Edward J

    2013-08-01

    4-Ipomeanol (IPO) is a prototypical pulmonary toxin that requires P450-mediated metabolic activation to reactive intermediates in order to elicit its toxic effects. CYP4B1 is a pulmonary enzyme that has been shown, in vitro, to have a high capacity for bioactivating IPO. In order to determine, unambiguously, the role of CYP4B1 in IPO bioactivation in vivo, we generated Cyp4b1 null mice following targeted disruption of the gene downstream of exon 1. Cyp4b1 (-/-) mice are viable and healthy, with no overt phenotype, and no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other P450 isoforms in any of the tissues examined. Pulmonary and renal microsomes prepared from male Cyp4b1 (-/-) mice exhibited no detectable expression of the protein and catalyzed the in vitro bioactivation of IPO at IPO (20mg/kg) to Cyp4b1 (+/+) mice resulted in characteristic lesions in the lung, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, which were completely absent in Cyp4b1 (-/-) mice. We conclude that CYP4B1 is a critical enzyme for the bioactivation of IPO in vivo and that the Cyp4b1 (-/-) mouse is a useful model for studying CYP4B1-dependent metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23748241

  19. 22 CFR 9b.3 - Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations. 9b.3 Section 9b.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT... media organizations must: (a) Present to the Office of Press Relations, Department of State,...

  20. Preparation of highly preferred orientation TiB2 coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preparation of titanium diboride (TiB2) coatings on the graphite substrate by continuous current plating (CCP) and pulse current plating (PIC) electrochemical techniques in fluoride electrolytes (LiF-NaF-KF)containing K2TiF6 and KBF4 as the electrochemically-active components at 700℃. Thick leveled and uniform coatings were obtained and were composed of relatively pure TiB2. The effect of the experimental parameters on the microstructure of the coatings was studied. The results showed the electrodeposition with PIC produced coatings with better quality, when compared with those obtained by CCP, under the conditions of the current density i = 0.6 A/cm2, frequency = 100 Hz, and ton/toff = 4/1. XRD analysis indicated that the preferred orientation of coatings is (110) plane, which is in accordance with the prediction of the two-dimensional crystal nuclei theory. The effect of a ratio of ton/toff and frequency on the crystal size, texture coefficient and microstress was also investigated.

  1. USING UML SCENARIOS IN B2B SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jakimi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios has become a popular technique for requirements elicitation and specification building. Since scenarios capture only partial descriptions of the system behavior, an approach for scenario composition and/or integration is needed to produce more complete specifications. The Unified Modeling Language (UML, which has become a standard notation for object-oriented modeling, provides a suitable framework for scenario acquisition using Use Case diagrams and Sequence or Collaboration diagrams. In this paper, we suggest an algorithmic and tool support for composing and integrating scenarios that are represented in form of sequence diagrams. We suggest four operators (;: sequential operator, ||: concurrent operator, ?: conditional operator and  * :iteration operator to compose a set of scenarios that describe a use case of a given system. In this paper, we suggest also to apply the scenario approach to B2B systems (Business to Business. We propose to develop B2B systems as a three activities process deriving formal specifications and code skeletons from UML scenarios. Activities of this proposed process are generally automatic and are supported by a set of developed algorithms and tools.

  2. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  3. Low-noise THz MgB2 Josephson mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Daniel; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, Boris S.

    2016-09-01

    The potential applications for high frequency operation of the Josephson effect in MgB2 include THz mixers, direct detectors, and digital circuits. Here we report on MgB2 weak links which exhibit the Josephson behavior up to almost 2 THz and using them for low-noise heterodyne detection of THz radiation. The devices are made from epitaxial film grown in the c-axis direction by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition method. The current in the junctions travels parallel to the surface of the film, thus making possible a large contribution of the quasi-two-dimensional σ-gap in transport across the weak link. These devices are connected to a planar spiral antenna with a dielectric substrate lens to facilitate coupling to free-space radiation for use as a detector. The IcRn product of the junction is 5.25 mV, giving confirmation of a large gap parameter. The sensitivity of the mixer was measured from 0.6 THz to 1.9 THz. At a bath temperature of over 20 K, a mixer noise temperature less than 2000 K (DSB) was measured near 0.6 THz.

  4. Multilayer MgB2 superconducting quantum interference filter magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Elias; Melbourne, Thomas; Davidson, Bruce A.; Xi, X. X.; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    We report two types of all-MgB2 superconductive quantum interference filter (SQIF) magnetometers that can measure absolute magnetic fields with high sensitivity. In one configuration, the SQIFs were made of 20 multilayer nonplanar all-MgB2 superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 0.4 to 3.6 μm2. These devices are sensitive to magnetic fields parallel to the substrate and show a single antipeak from 3 to 16 K with a maximum transfer function of ˜16 V/T at 3 K and a field noise of ˜110 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 10 K. In a second configuration, the SQIFs were made with 16 planar SQUIDs connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 4 μm2 to 25 μm2 and are sensitive to the magnetic fields perpendicular to the substrate. The planar SQIF shows a single antipeak from 10 to 22 K with a maximum transfer function of 7800 V/T at 10 K and a field noise of ˜70 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 20 K.

  5. The Microwave Sintering Technology and Its Application in the Synthesis of ZrB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhiyong; LI Lin; PENG Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    The principles and features of microwave sintering, the application in refractories and synthesis methods of ZrB2 are reviewed. The synthesis results of ZrB2 by thermit deoxidate method show that production price of ZrB2 can be effectively lowered through microwave synthesis. It will expand the application of ZrB2 in refractories.

  6. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  7. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  8. Genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and its ammonium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Márquez, R; Tejada de Hernandez, I; Madrigal Bujaidar, E

    1995-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1 is a main contaminant in diverse agricultural products. In an attempt to reduce this problem and the hazards to human health, an AFB1 inactivating system with ammonia has been developed. In this work we evaluated the efficiency of the system in mice using micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis. Four groups of animals were fed for 8 weeks with a special diet mainly composed of maize: (1) uncontaminated; (2) uncontaminated/inactivated; (3) contaminated/inactivated; and (4) contaminated. We evaluated MN at weekly intervals in peripheral blood, and in weeks 4 and 8 SCE frequencies were quantified in bone marrow cells. The results shows that animals fed with AFB1 contaminated/inactivated maize had a 45% lower level of induced cytogenetic damage than those animals fed with AFB1 contaminated but not inactivated maize. A residual amount of AFB1 after the inactivating treatment and reconversion back to AFB1 in the organism may account for the remaining increased levels of SCE and MN.

  9. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair by nuclear lamin b1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Butin-Israeli

    Full Text Available The nuclear lamins play important roles in the structural organization and function of the metazoan cell nucleus. Recent studies on B-type lamins identified a requirement for lamin B1 (LB1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in normal diploid cells. In order to further investigate the function of LB1 in proliferation, we disrupted its normal expression in U-2 OS human osteosarcoma and other tumor cell lines. Silencing LB1 expression induced G1 cell cycle arrest without significant apoptosis. The arrested cells are unable to mount a timely and effective response to DNA damage induced by UV irradiation. Several proteins involved in the detection and repair of UV damage by the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway are down-regulated in LB1 silenced cells including DDB1, CSB and PCNA. We propose that LB1 regulates the DNA damage response to UV irradiation by modulating the expression of specific genes and activating persistent DNA damage signaling. Our findings are relevant to understanding the relationship between the loss of LB1 expression, DNA damage signaling, and replicative senescence.

  10. Phosphorous chemistry in the shocked region L1157 B1

    CERN Document Server

    Aota, Takuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of phosphorous-bearing species in one-dimensional C-shock models. We find that the abundances of P-bearing species depend sensitively on the elemental abundance of P in the gas phase and on the abundance of N atoms in the pre-shock gas. The observed abundance of PN and the non-detection of PO towards L1157 B1 are reproduced in C-shock models with shock velocity v=20km s-1 and pre-shock density n(H2) =10^4 - 10^5, if the elemental abundance of P in the gas phase is 10^-9 and the N-atom abundance is n(N)/nH - 10^-5 in the pre-shock gas. We also find that P-chemistry is sensitive to O- and N-chemistry, because N atoms are destroyed mainly by OH and NO. We identify the reactions of O-bearing and N-bearing species that significantly affect P chemistry.

  11. Getting started with Oracle SOA B2B Integration a hands-on tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Krishnaprem; Perlovsky, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This hands on tutorial gives you the best possible start you could hope for with Oracle B2B. Learn using real life scenarios and examples to give you a solid footing of B2B.This book is for B2B architects, consultants and developers who would like to design and develop B2B integrations using Oracle B2B. This book assumes no prior knowledge of Oracle B2B and explains all concepts from scratch using illustrations, real world examples and step-by-step instructions. The book covers enough depth and details to be useful for both beginner and advanced B2B users.

  12. The body vitamin B1 levels of rats fed a diet containing the minimum requirement of vitamin B1 is reduced by exercise.