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Sample records for b-type structure die

  1. Synthesis and structural characterization of amorphous alloys of the Fe-Ni-B type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was prepared the alloy FeNiB for chemical reduction, using four p H values (5, 6, 7 and 7.5). To p H=6 partially oxidized particles were obtained, between 16 and 20%. In the synthesis to other p H values, the obtained particles were highly oxidized (65-90%) according to the X-ray diffraction results, in all the preparations the particles were partially crystallized, with crystal size that varied between 4 and 10 nm. The structure of these particles can be consider that they are formed by a nucleus due to the alloy and an oxide armor recovering it. (Author)

  2. Impact of Temperature on Cooling Structural Variation of Forging Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesova, Marianna; Czan, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    The article is focused on the issue of die forging in the automotive industry. The cooling effect of temperature on the structure of forged die are under review. In the article, there is elaborated the analysis of theoretical knowledge in the field, focusing on die forging and experimentally proven effect of the cooling rate on the final structure of forged dies made of hypoeutectic carbon steel C56E2.

  3. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all. PMID:26305155

  4. Structure optimization of porthole die based on aluminum profile extrusion process numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-hong; ZHAO Guo-qun; LUAN Yi-guo; LOU Shu-mei; MA Xin-wu

    2006-01-01

    Porthole die extrusion method is used to produce hollow aluminum profile. Due to the complexity of the porthole die structure and the material flow, it is very difficult to get ideal profile products with the firstly designed die structure. Finite volume numerical simulation was used to analyze the extrusion process of a hollow profile with porthole die and the problem of non-uniform material flow was found. Optimization was made to the originally designed die to solve the problem. Lower load, reasonable seaming location and even extruded forepart with uniform material flow in the optimized die extrusion were obtained. Guidelines to porthole die design were given and it is also concluded that finite volume method with Eulerian description avoids mesh regeneration and is suitable to numerical simulation of severe deformation processes, such as profile extrusion.

  5. Structural changes of radial forging die surface during service under thermo-mechanical fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial forging is one of the modern open die forging techniques and has a wide application in producing machine parts. During operation at high temperatures, severe temperature change associated with mechanical loads and the resultant wearing of the die surface lead to intense variation in strain on the die surface. Therefore, under this operating condition, thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) occurs on the surface of the radial forging die. TMF decreases the life of the die severely. In the present research, different layers were deposited on a 1.2714 steel die by SMAW and GTAW, with a weld wire of UDIMET 520. The microstructure of the radial forging die surface was investigated during welding and service using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that, after welding, the structure of the radial forging die surface includes the γ matrix with a homogeneous distribution of fine semi-spherical carbides. The weld structure consisted mostly of columnar dendrites with low grain boundaries. Also, microstructural investigation of the die surface during operation showed that the weld structure of the die surface has remained without any considerable change. Only dendrites were deformed and broken. Moreover, grain boundaries of the dendrites were revealed during service.

  6. A super-ductile alloy for the die-casting of aluminium automotive body structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, D.; Ji, S; Fan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Super-ductile die-cast aluminium alloys are critical to future light-weighting of automotive body structures. This paper introduces a die-cast aluminium alloy that can satisfy the requirements of these applications. After a review of currently available alloys, the requirement of a die-cast aluminium alloy for automotive body structural parts is proposed and an Al-Mg-Si system is suggested. The effect of the alloying elements, in the composition, has been investigated on the microstructure an...

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of amorphous alloys of the Fe-Ni-B type; Sintesis y caracterizacion estructural de aleaciones amorfas del tipo Fe-Ni-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez B, J.; Garcia S, I. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was prepared the alloy FeNiB for chemical reduction, using four p H values (5, 6, 7 and 7.5). To p H=6 partially oxidized particles were obtained, between 16 and 20%. In the synthesis to other p H values, the obtained particles were highly oxidized (65-90%) according to the X-ray diffraction results, in all the preparations the particles were partially crystallized, with crystal size that varied between 4 and 10 nm. The structure of these particles can be consider that they are formed by a nucleus due to the alloy and an oxide armor recovering it. (Author)

  8. Forming the structure and properties of hybrid coatings on reversible rotating extrusion dies

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lukaszkowicz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this monograph was to develop the methodology of formation, classification of properties and analysis of the structure of the surface layers, particularly the zone connecting the core and the coating and between the single layers created on the working surfaces of dies for the plastic formation on non-ferrous metals, with particular consideration to the specific nature of the extrusion process with reversibly rotating die (the KOBO method).Design/methodology/approach: ...

  9. Influence of the supporting die structures on the fracture strength of all-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Munir Tolga; Yondem, Isa; Aykent, Filiz; Eraslan, Oğuz

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the elastic modulus of supporting dies on the fracture strengths of all-ceramic materials used in dental crowns. Four different types of supporting die materials (dentin, epoxy resin, brass, and stainless steel) (24 per group) were prepared using a milling machine to simulate a mandibular molar all-ceramic core preparation. A total number of 96 zirconia cores were fabricated using a CAD/CAM system. The specimens were divided into two groups. In the first group, cores were cemented to substructures using a dual-cure resin cement. In the second group, cores were not cemented to the supporting dies. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). The geometric models of cores and supporting die materials were developed using finite element method to obtain the stress distribution of the forces. Cemented groups showed statistically higher fracture strength values than non-cemented groups. While ceramic cores on stainless steel dies showed the highest fracture strength values, ceramic cores on dentin dies showed the lowest fracture strength values among the groups. The elastic modulus of the supporting die structure is a significant factor in determining the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns. Using supporting die structures that have a low elastic modulus may be suitable for fracture strength tests, in order to accurately reflect clinical conditions. PMID:21845404

  10. Design and characterization of microscale heater structures for test die and sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.A.; Bowman, D.; Filter, W.; Mitchell, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, J. [Philips Semiconductors, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The authors describe a class of microscale heaters fabricated with CMOS processes on silicon wafers. These heaters were designed to produce localized high temperatures above 400 C for test and sensor applications. The temperature levels produced for various input powers and the thermal profiles surrounding the heater for packaged and wafer-level heater structures were studied to guide the placement of microelectronics integrated with the heater structures on the same die. To show the performance of the design, they present resistance sensor measurements, IR temperature profiles, and results from a 3D thermal model of the die. This effort demonstrates that it is possible to successfully operate both a microscale heater and microcircuits on the same die.

  11. Forming the structure and properties of hybrid coatings on reversible rotating extrusion dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lukaszkowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this monograph was to develop the methodology of formation, classification of properties and analysis of the structure of the surface layers, particularly the zone connecting the core and the coating and between the single layers created on the working surfaces of dies for the plastic formation on non-ferrous metals, with particular consideration to the specific nature of the extrusion process with reversibly rotating die (the KOBO method.Design/methodology/approach: Nanocrystalline structure layers production technology was developed, which included nanocomposite and low-friction layers with desired usable properties ensuring increased durability, abrasive and adhesion wear strength. The production process of dual-layer coatings, such as hard nitride layer - low friction DLC layer, was carried out in the continuous mode, on a device furnished with technologies of lateral, rotating cathodes and central rotating cathode, within one technological process. The developed coatings were tested under the working conditions for the elements coated with them (tools – dies, in order to establish the anticipated responses and properties during their use.Findings: The numerous interdisciplinary tests and analyses carried out in the scope of material science, production technology and computer techniques as well as the results obtained provided foundation for the formation of structure and tribological properties of the dies by controlled process conditions. The required final quality and durability of the tools for plastic metal formation in the extrusion process was obtained, which has been proven under operating conditions.Practical implications: Economically efficient process improvement, increased production efficiency and quality and products reliability through increased durability and unfailing operation time of tools for plastic formation of nonferrous metals and improved usable properties shall guarantee measurable

  12. Laser-assisted micro-forming process with miniaturised structures in sapphire dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current results will be presented on developing and miniaturising a novel laser-assisted forming process to manufacture microstructures in metals such as stainless steel and aluminum. Due to its mechanical and optical properties, sapphire is a well-suited material for the micro-forming tool. Because of its high band gap, radiation with small wavelengths in the UV range is required to reach the ablation threshold. Thus, excimer lasers are used for manufacturing the microstructures. On the other hand, its high transmittance for higher wavelengths allows heating of the work-piece through the sapphire die during the micro-forming process, which allows a better form filling. The main goal of these investigations is to identify the scaling effects on micro-formed structures that result from miniaturising microstructures on dies for the development of strategies to overcome obstacles caused by these miniaturisation effects.

  13. Investigation on slot-die coating of hybrid material structure for OLED lightings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, Dong-Kyun; Park, Jongwoon

    2016-08-01

    With an attempt to fabricate large-area OLED lighting panels, we investigate slot-die coating of a small molecule (SM) hole transport layer (HTL). It is observed that SM HTL films formed by spin coating exhibit pinhole-like surface, whereas the films by slot-die coating show micro-sized hillocks due to agglomeration. As the plate temperature of the slot coater is increased, smaller hillocks appear more densely. To tackle it, a small amount of a polymer HTL is added into the SM HTL (Hybrid HTL). By the aid of entangled polymer chains, small molecules are prohibited from migrating and thus agglomerations disappear. The peak-to-peak roughness of the slot-coated hybrid HTL films is measured to be about 11.5 nm, which is slightly higher than that (~7 nm) of the polymer HTL film, but much lower than that (~1071 nm) of the SM HTL film. Similar results are also observed in spin-coated films. It is also addressed that OLED with the hybrid HTL shows higher luminous efficacy, compared to OLED with the SM HTL or the polymer HTL. We have further demonstrated that the dissolution problem occurring between two stacked layers with different solvents during slot-die coating can be suppressed to a great extent using such a combination of materials in hybrid structure.

  14. Recursive Health Care Structures and Choice in the Manner of Our Dying: An Auto-Ethnographic Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackers, Ger

    2016-03-01

    Science has shaped our understanding of the diseases we are diagnosed with. Medical treatment has transformed their natural courses. The law has married medical knowledge and experience to the legal competence of physicians to make ultimate decisions for the patient at the end of life. When it is our time to die, we will confront a pre-structured health care landscape affording some courses of action while limiting others. In this article, I provide an auto-ethnographic account of the dying of one woman, my wife, diagnosed with ovarian cancer. It speaks of our meeting with oncology, her refusal of aggressive treatment, and the palliative care allies we found for her way of dying. It also speaks of the opportunities for choice in dying that emerge when participants in the care collective accept that one of them must die while the others live on. PMID:25814522

  15. Die opvoedingstaak van die universiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Preller

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vraag na die opvoedingstaak van die universiteit is onafskeidelik verbonde aan die siening wat gehuldig word aangaande die opvoeding, die student en die universiteit. Dit is derhalwe nodig om vooraf hierdie begrippe in oënskou te neem. Met inagneming van die beskikbare tyd daartoe, sal die drie begrippe slegs kursories en in so ’n mate ontleed word as wat nodig is om die sentrale tema te belig.

  16. The EU electricity production structure requires a differentiated energy policy; Die Stromerzeugungsstruktur der EU erfordert eine differenzierte Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-04-15

    For the electricity production of the EU there are differentiated structures which are based on different natural conditions, political decisions and investments of past decades. It has long been struggled committed to the ''one and correct'' energy policy. But precisely because of the differences in the individual countries, a unified energy and climate policy for the EU is not the right way. Diversity is a strength, which quite the EU Commission considered. Increased understanding of the specifics in other countries should just apply the German politics and the public that all too often judges from their own perspective. [German] Bei der Stromerzeugung in der EU bestehen differenzierte Strukturen, die auf unterschiedlichen natuerlichen Gegebenheiten, politischen Entscheidungen und Investitionen vergangener Jahrzehnte beruhen. Seit langem wird engagiert um die ''eine und richtige'' Energiepolitik gerungen. Doch gerade wegen der Unterschiede in den einzelnen Laendern kann eine vereinheitlichte Energie- und Klimapolitik fuer die EU nicht der richtige Weg sein. Vielfalt ist eine Staerke, was die EU-Kommission durchaus beruecksichtigt. Mehr Verstaendnis fuer die Spezifika in anderen Laendern sollte daher gerade die deutsche Politik und Oeffentlichkeit aufbringen, die allzu oft aus eigener Perspektive heraus urteilt.

  17. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  18. Die eenheid van die universiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Coetzee

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit lyk na ’n teenstrydigheid otn te besin oor die eenheid van ’n universiteit. Die naam „universiteit” is tog afgelei van die Latynse woord „universitas”, wat in die amptelike stukke van die meeste Europese lande vandag nog gebruik word. Hierdie woord beteken „die geheel” en dit veronderstel natuurlik dadelik eenheid.

  19. Die topkwark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  20. A luminescence study of B-type Eu2O3 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Stump, N. A.; Haire, R. G.; Burns, J. B.; Peterson, J. R.

    1994-07-01

    Luminescence spectra from Eu3+ ion in B-type (monoclinic) Eu2O3 powder have been recorded at room temperature as a function of pressure using a diamond anvil cell. Changes in the spectral pattern of the Eu3+ ion emission at about 4 GPa indicated that a phase transition to the A-type (hexagonal) structure had taken place. Upon release of the applied pressure, the B-type structure was regained with hysteresis. The spectral shifts with pressure have been used to study the effect of pressure on the spin-orbit interaction of the 4f electrons in the Eu3+ ion.

  1. Die roeping van die onderwyser in die verbondsonderrig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. van Rooy

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die sewentiende eeu het die Europese regerings in 'n besondere verhouding tot die kerke gestaan. In sommige lande was die Rooms-Katolieke kerk en in ander lande sekere Protestantse kerke die dominerende kerkgroepering. Skeiding tussen kerk en staat was feitlik onbekend. Die regerings het sowel die godsdiens as die onderwys bevorder en ondersteun. In die Protestantse lande het die regerings juis die Reformatoriese kerke gebruik om skole te stig, daaroor toesig te hou en die onderwys te bevorder.

  2. Die roeping van die onderwyser in die verbondsonderrig

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. van Rooy

    1994-01-01

    Gedurende die sewentiende eeu het die Europese regerings in 'n besondere verhouding tot die kerke gestaan. In sommige lande was die Rooms-Katolieke kerk en in ander lande sekere Protestantse kerke die dominerende kerkgroepering. Skeiding tussen kerk en staat was feitlik onbekend. Die regerings het sowel die godsdiens as die onderwys bevorder en ondersteun. In die Protestantse lande het die regerings juis die Reformatoriese kerke gebruik om skole te stig, daaroor toesig te hou en die onde...

  3. Die Bachelor/Master-Struktur in der Medizin - Die Perspektive der Medizinstudierenden [The Bachelor/Master structure in Medicine - Statement of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinmann, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] In July 2007 medical student representatives from all over Europe developed a consensus statement about the Bachelor/Master structure in Medicine on the 6th IFMSA/EMSA Bologna-Process-follow up conference in Amsterdam. The document analyzes this action line of the Bologna Declaration regarding the following: common European core curriculum, integrated curricula, integrity of the course, quality assurance and audit, access to the Master phase, promoting the European dimension, utilisation of medical degrees, and tuition fees. No stance, either for or against the two-cycled structure is made. Rather prerequisites, opportunities and dangers of implementation are looked at and discussed. The document was adopted by IFMSA as Statement of Beliefs and as position paper by bvmd. [german] Im Juli 2007 erarbeiteten Medizinstudierendenvertreter aus ganz Europa eine einvernehmliche Erklärung zur Bachelor/Master-Struktur in der Medizin auf der 6. Bologna-Prozess Folgekonferenz der IFMSA und der EMSA in Amsterdam. Das Dokument analysiert dieses Kernthema der Bologna Deklaration in den Aspekten gemeinsames, europäisches Kerncurriculum, integrierte Curricula, Integrität des Studiums, Qualitätssicherung und Audit, Zugang zum Masterstudiengang, Förderung der europäischen Dimension, Verwendung der Abschlüsse und Studiengebühren. Dabei werden keine Aussagen für oder gegen die zweistufige Struktur getroffen, sondern vielmehr Voraussetzungen, Chancen und Gefahren einer Implementierung betrachtet und diskutiert. Das Dokument wurde als Statement of Beliefs von der IFMSA und als Positionspapier von der bvmd verabschiedet.

  4. Memorandum op die beswaarskrif oor die diakenamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Die probleem in die beswaarskrif voor die Sinode 1973 spits hom toe op die vraag: wat is die objek van die diakonale diens? Is dit die hele gemeente of alleen ’n gedeelte van die gemeente nl. die armes? In verband hiermee moet ook gevra word: welke spesifieke opdrag is inherent aan die diakenamp?

  5. Die vrou in die kerkgeskiedenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boeseken

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Die onderwerp, "Die vrou in die kerkgeskiedenis” is so veelsydig as die lewe self en die eerste vraag wat opduik is: "Waar begin die kerkgeskiedenis?” Daaroor het in boeke wat in die dertigerjare van hierdie eeu geskryf is, geen eenstemmigheid geheers nie. In ’n beknopte geskiedenis van wat Spoelstra vir katkisante geskryf het, verduidelik hy dat die kerkgeskiedenis by Adam en Eva begin, terwyl in hul "Kerkgeskiedenis vir ons Volk” A. M. Kriel en G. B. A. Gerdener skryf dat die kerkgeskiedenis op die Pinksterdag begin. (Hiermee stem S. du Toit asook Spoelstra, Pont en Keet  saam. G. S. Wegener sê in "Die Lewende Kerk” dat dit op Golgotha "in vertwyfeling, wanhoop en vrees” begin. Maar nou wil ek as "leek” en miskien as "ketter” van al hierdie geleerde uitsprake verskil. Vir my begin die kerkgeskiedenis met die opstanding van Christus uit die graf, toe Hy volgens Job. 20:7 aan Maria gesê het: "Gaan na my broeders en sê vir hulle: "Ek vaar op na my Vader en julle Vader en na my God en julle God”.

  6. B-type natriuretic peptide secretion following scuba diving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passino, Claudio; Franzino, Enrico; Giannoni, Alberto;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the neurohormonal effects of a scuba dive, focusing on the acute changes in the plasma concentrations of the different peptide fragments from the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) precursor.......To examine the neurohormonal effects of a scuba dive, focusing on the acute changes in the plasma concentrations of the different peptide fragments from the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) precursor....

  7. Correlation between B type natriuretic peptide and metabolic risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wen-hua; Chen, Li-Ying; Dai, Hong-Lei; CHEN, JIAN-HUA; Yan CHEN; Fang, Li-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been shown that B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level can indicate cardiovascular disease. However, the association between BNP and metabolic risk factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and metabolic risk factors. Material and methods A total of 11,508 subjects were selected from those who underwent health examinations in our hospital. NT-proBNP, waist circumference, blood ...

  8. Structural materialization of stainless steel molds and dies by the low temperature high density plasma nitriding

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko; Fukuda Tatsuya; Morita Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a mold substrate material for injection molding and as a die for mold-stamping and direct stamping processes. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP), which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was eas...

  9. High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminium and Magnesium Alloys : Grain Structure and Segregation Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Laukli, Hans Ivar

    2004-01-01

    Cold chamber high pressure die casting, (HPDC), is an important commercial process for the production of complex near net shape aluminium and magnesium alloy castings. The work presented in the thesis was aimed at investigating the microstructure formation in this type of casting. The solidification characteristics related to the process and the alloys control the formation of grains and defects. This again has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the castings.The investigatio...

  10. Structure of Water Mist Stream and its Impact on Cooling Efficiency of Casting Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is a continuation of research on the use water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of die-casting aluminum alloys. The paper presents results of research and analysis process, spraying water and generated a stream of water mist, the effect of the type of nozzle, the nozzle size and shape of the emitting of the water mist on the wall surface of casting die on the microstructure and geometry of water mist stream and cooling efficiency. Tests were used to perform high-speed camera to record video in the visible and infrared camera. Results were used to develop a computerized image analysis and statistical analysis. The study showed that there are statistical relationships between water and air flow and geometry of the nozzle and nozzle emitting a stream of microstructure parameters of water mist and heat the incoming stream. These relationships are described mathematical models that allow you to control the generating of adequate stream of water mist and a further consequence, the cooling efficiency of casting die.

  11. Die Musikdidaktik und die Deutschdidaktik

    OpenAIRE

    Holle, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Der Beitrag beschreibt die deutsche Musikdidaktik von einer Meta-Ebene. Die an den Autor, einen Deutschdidaktiker, herangetragene Aufgabe wurde in drei Fragen gefasst: 1. Wie stellt sich die Landschaft der Deutschdidaktik aus der Adler- (bzw. Google earth-) Perspektive dar? 2. Wo würde der Adler die Brennpunkte der musikdidaktischen Tagungsdiskussion auf seiner Deutschdidaktik-Karte verorten? 3. Welche Gemeinsamkeiten und welche Unterschiede sieht der Adler zwischen der deutsch- und...

  12. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  13. Die struktuur van die tekskode: die strukturele organisasie van 'Die jonkmanskas' van Koos Prinsloo

    OpenAIRE

    R. Botha

    1989-01-01

    A unique quality of literature is that the text system is not just an instrument for conveying a literary message; the structure of the system is in itself meaningful. This article will closely examine the structural organisation and the functional significance of Koos Prinsloo’s short story “Die Jonkmanskas” . “Die jonkmanskas” is a story with a complex structure, written in the postmodernist idiom, and originated from three distinct stories. These embedded stories simultaneously work as com...

  14. Identification of Magnetite in B-type Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Spectrally blue (B-type) asteroids are rare, with the second discovered asteroid Pallas being the largest and most famous example. We conducted a focused, infrared spectroscopic survey of B-type asteroids to search for water-related features in these objects. Our results show that the negative optical spectral slope of some B-type asteroids is due to the presence of a broad absorption band centered near 1.0 micron. The 1-micron band can be matched in position and shape using magnetite (Fe3O4), which is an important indicator of past aqueous alteration in the parent body. Furthermore, our observations of B-type asteroid (335) Roberta in the 3-micron region reveal an absorption feature centered at 2.9 micron, which is consistent with the absorption due to phyllosilicates (another hydration product) observed in CI chondrites. The new observations suggest that at least some B-type asteroids are likely to have incorporated significant amounts of water ice and to have experienced intensive aqueous alteration.

  15. Die Kumulantenmethode

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird eine neue Methode zur Reduktion der Boltzmann-Gleichung auf ein System partieller Differentialgleichungen diskutiert. Nach einer kurzen Einführung in die kinetische Theorie einer Mischung inerter Gase wird ein Überblick in die aus der Literatur bekannten Momentenmethoden gegeben. Der anschließend vorgestellten Kumulantenmethode liegt die Annahme zugrunde, daß durch Stoßprozesse in einem Gas Korrelationen höherer Ordnung schneller abgebaut we...

  16. Kepler observations of the variability in B-type stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, Luis A.; Pigulski, A.; De Cat, P.; Handler, Gerald; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Frescura, F.; Briquet, M.; Cuypers, J.; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Degroote, P.; Dukes, R.J.; Garcia, R.A.; Green, E.M.; Heber, U.; Kawaler, Steve D.; Lehmann, H.; Leroy, B.; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Neiner, Coralie; Østensen, Roy; Pricopi, D.; Roxburgh, Ian; Salmon, Sebastien; Smith, M.A.; Suárez, J.C.; Suran, M.; Szabó, R.; Uytterhoeven, Katrien; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Caldwell, D.A.; Girouard, F.R.; Sanderfer, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies, characteristic of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be cons...

  17. Ion-beam enhanced etching for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate; Ionenstrahlverstaerktes Aetzen fuer die 3D-Strukturierung von Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gischkat, Thomas

    2010-01-12

    The present thesis deals with the usage of the ion-beam enhanced etching (IBEE) for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}).Hereby the approach of the enhancement of the wet-chemical etching rate due to the irradiation with energetic ions is pursued. This method is very success promising for the realization of micro- and nanostructures with perpendicular structural walls as well as small roughnesses. The aim of this thesis consisted therein to form the foundations for the realization of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (for instance: Layer systems and photonic crystals) in LiNbO{sub 3} with high optical quality and to demonstrate on selected examples. Conditions for the success of the IBEE structuration technique is first of all the understanding of the defect formation under ion irradiation as well as the radiation-induced structure changes in the crystal and the change of the chemical resistance connected with this. For this the defect formation was studied in dependence on th ion mass, the ion energy, and the irradiation temperature. Thermally induced influences and effects on the radiation damage, as they can occur in intermediate steps in the complex processing, must be known and were studied by means of subsequent temperature treatment. The results from the defect studies were subsequently applied for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures in LiNbO{sub 3}. Shown is the realization of lateral structure with nearly perpendicular structure walls as well as the realization of thin membranes and slits. The subsequent combination of lateral structuration with the fabrication of thin membranes and slits allowed the three-dimensional structuration of LiNbO{sub 3}. This is exemplarily shown for a microresonator and for a 2D photonic crystal with below lying air slit. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Ausnutzung des ionenstrahlverstaerkten Aetzens (IBEE: Ion Beam Enhanced Etching) fuer die 3D-Strukturierung von

  18. New approaches for the reliability-oriented structural optimization considering time-variant aspects; Neue Ansaetze fuer die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung unter Beachtung zeitvarianter Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuschel, N.

    2000-07-01

    The optimization of structures with respect to cost, weight or performance is a well-known application of the nonlinear optimization. However reliability-based structural optimization has been subject of only very few studies. The approaches suggested up to now have been unsatisfactory regarding general possibility of application or easy handling by user. The objective of this thesis is the development of general approaches to solve both optimization problems, the minimization of cost with respect to constraint reliabilty and the maximization of reliability under cost constraint. The extented approach of an one-level-method will be introduced in detail for the time-invariant problems. Here, the reliability of the sturcture will be analysed in the framework of the First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM). The use of time-variant reliability analysis is necessary for a realistic modelling of many practical problems. Therefore several generalizations of the new approaches will be derived for the time-variant reliability-based structural optimization. Some important properties of the optimization problems are proved. In addition some interesting extensions of the one-level-method, for example the cost optimization of structural series systems and the cost optimization in the frame of the Second-Order-Reliabiity-Method (SORM), are presented in the thesis. (orig.) [German] Die Optimierung von Tragwerken im Hinblick auf die Kosten, das Gewicht oder die Gestalt ist eine sehr bekannte Anwendung der nichtlinearen Optimierung. Die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung wurde dagegen weit seltener untersucht. Die bisher vorgeschlagenen Ansaetze koennen bezueglich ihrer allgemeinen Verwendbarkeit oder ihrer nutzerfreundlichen Handhabung nicht befriedigen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist nun die Entwicklung allgemeiner Ansaetze zur Loesung der beiden Optimierungsprobleme, einer Kostenminimierung unter Zuverlaessigkeitsrestriktionen und einer

  19. Structural materialization of stainless steel molds and dies by the low temperature high density plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a mold substrate material for injection molding and as a die for mold-stamping and direct stamping processes. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical elements at present. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness of 1400 Hv within its thickness of 40 μm without any formation of nitrides after 14.4 ks plasma nitriding at 693 K. This nitrogen solid-solution treated stainless steel had thermal resistivity even at the mold-stamping conditions up to 900 K.

  20. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: From Posttranslational Processing to Clinical Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides and peptide fragments from their molecular precursors are markers of heart disease. Clinical studies have defined the current diagnostic utility of these markers, whereas biochemical elucidation of peptide structure and posttranslational processing has......-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are useful plasma markers in heart failure. New data have defined cardiac myocytes as competent endocrine cells in posttranslational processing and cellular secretion....

  1. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  2. Ab initio investigation of the surface properties of dispenser B-type and scandate thermionic emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Vasilios; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Booske, John H.; Morgan, Dane; Turek, Ladislav; Kirshner, Mark; Kowalczyk, Richard; Wilsen, Craig

    2009-05-01

    Scandate cathodes (BaxScyOz on W) are important thermionic electron emission materials whose emission mechanism remains unclear. Ab initio modeling is used to investigate the surface properties of both scandate and traditional B-type (Ba-O on W) cathodes. We demonstrate that the Ba-O dipole surface structure believed to be present in active B-type cathodes is not thermodynamically stable, suggesting that a nonequilibrium steady state dominates the active cathode's surface structure. We identify a stable, low work function BaxScyOz surface structure, which may be responsible for some scandate cathode properties and demonstrate that multicomponent surface coatings can lower cathode work functions.

  3. Riglyne uit die verlede vir die sendingwerk van die toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Cronj�

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer daar dan oor "riglyne" uit die verlede vir die sendingwerk van die "toekoms" gehandel word, is dit �n riskante onderneming. Te meer nog as gevolg van skrywer se noue kontak met die buitelandse sending van die Ned. Geref. Kerk, wat sy objektiwiteit mag be�nvloed. Te midde van die risiko's daaraan verbonde en met vermyding van bogenoemde slaggate so ver moontlik, wil ons tog probeer om sekere riglyne te trek wat moontlik ook rigtinggewend vir die uitgebreide sendingwerk van die Kerk in die toekoms kan wees.

  4. Die kultuurkrisis en die opvoeding van die jeug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1958-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons gaan ons besig hou met die krisis in die opvoeding en onderwys van die 20ste eeu, en veral van die tweede kwart daarvan. Ons wil direk aan die begin baie duidelik stel dat ons op hierdie terrein voortdurend krisisse belewe.

  5. Die Heimkunft

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Romer

    2009-01-01

    En hommage amical à René Gallet.Die HeimkunftRuhig glänzen indes die silberen Höhen darüber,Voll mit Rosen ist schon droben der leuchtende Schnee.- HölderlinAnd then one day the young master returnsfrom a dark placeand birdsong leads the wanderer inand the cat yawns and curls againin the headiness of this instantthe house is fragrantwith woodsmoke and honeysucklewhich is a kind of accomplishment.Returning from dogmahome to the humanehe lays asideknapsack, alpenstock and hat,goes straight to t...

  6. Die Heimkunft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Romer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En hommage amical à René Gallet.Die HeimkunftRuhig glänzen indes die silberen Höhen darüber,Voll mit Rosen ist schon droben der leuchtende Schnee.- HölderlinAnd then one day the young master returnsfrom a dark placeand birdsong leads the wanderer inand the cat yawns and curls againin the headiness of this instantthe house is fragrantwith woodsmoke and honeysucklewhich is a kind of accomplishment.Returning from dogmahome to the humanehe lays asideknapsack, alpenstock and hat,goes straight to t...

  7. Atrial secretion of B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Rehfeld, Jens F; Nilsson, Brian; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2006-01-01

    In the normal heart, the endocrine capacity resides in the atria. Atrial myocytes express and secrete natriuretic hormones that regulate fluid homeostasis and blood pressure. But in ventricular disease, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene expression is also...... understanding of the endocrine atria during ventricular dysfunction is still scarce. Although ventricular disease and increased circulating concentrations are associated, it does not entail that the ventricle is the sole or even the main source in all types of heart disease. Clearly, the endocrine atria are...

  8. Heat treatment impact on the structure of die-cast magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the following paper there have been the structure and properties of the MCMgAl6Zn1 magnesiumcast alloy as-cast state and after a heat treatment presented.Design/methodology/approach: A casting cycle of alloys has been carried out in an induction crucible furnaceusing a protective salt bath Flux 12 equipped with two ceramic filters at the melting temperature of 750±10ºC,suitable for the manufactured material. The following results concern light and scanning microscopy, X-rayqualitative and quantitative microanalysis.Findings: The results of the EDS chemical composition analysis confirm the presence of magnesium, aluminum,manganese, and zinc, constituting the structure of α solid solution with the Mg17Al12 placed mainly on the grainorder in the form of plates, also the phase AlMnFe with irregular shape, occurred often in the shape of blocksor needles and the Laves phase Mg2Si.Research limitations/implications: According to the alloys characteristic, the applied cooling rate and alloyadditions seems to be a good compromise for mechanical properties and microstructures, nevertheless furthertests should be carried out in order to examine different cooling rates and parameters of solution treatmentprocess and aging process.Practical implications: A desire to create as light vehicle constructions as possible and connected with itlow fuel consumption have made it possible to make use of magnesium alloys as a constructional material inautomotive industry.Originality/value: The undertaken examinations aim at defining the influence of a chemical composition andprecipitation processes on the structure and casting magnesium alloy properties in its as-cast state and after heattreatment with a different content of alloy components.

  9. Die prediking oor die historiese stof van die Ou Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Lion-Cachet

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Uit ’n steekproef wat gedoen is uit die preke wat in Die Kerkblad (1986- 1987 verskyn het, blyk dit dat 40% van hierdie preke historiese stof uit die Ou Testament as teks gebruik het.

  10. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  11. Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Genis

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD ressorteer onder die Hoofdirektoraat Kultuur en Vakkundige Hulp- dienste van die Departement van Nasionale Opvoeding. Die hoofdoelwit van die NVD is die skepping van ’n fijnksionele vakwoordeskat in veral Afrikaans, parallel met die inter- nasionaal gebruikte terminologieë.

  12. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a B-type (cricket-type) allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Lenz, C; Winther, A M;

    2001-01-01

    nonamidated C terminus. We have previously reported the structure of an A-type allatostatin preprohormone from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a B-type prepro-allatostatin from Drosophila (DAP-B). DAP-B is 211 amino acid residues long and contains one copy each...

  13. Spearman se G en die faktorstrukture van die senior aanlegtoetse en die algemene skolastiese aanlegtoets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. De Bruin

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Spearman's G and the factor structures of the Senior Aptlitude Test and the General Scholastic Aptitude Test. Scores of 1507 university students on the six subtests of the General Scholastic Aptitude Test (GSAT and on nine subtests of the Senior Aptitude Tests (SAT were subjected to a joint confirmatory factor analysis. This procedure was followed to examine (a the extent to which scores in respect of the two batteries of tests, are explained by a general factor (Spearman's g, and (b the relationship between the two general factors. Scores on the GSAT subtests were adequately explained by just one factor. With regard to the SAT three group factors could be distinguished, namely Verbal Ability, Visual-Spatial Ability and Numerical Ability. The correlations between the group factors were so high that the influence of a general factor was evident. The general factors underlying the SAT and GSAT respectively, also correlated significantly. In view of findings suggesting the general intelligence is the best single predictor of criteria such as academic success and work performance, the GSAT is recommended for selection purposes. Opsomming Tellings van 1507 universiteitstudente op die ses subtoetse van die ASAT en nege subtoetse van die SAT, is gesamentlik aan 'n bevestigende faktorontleding onderwerp. Hierdie prosedure is gevolg om ondersoek in te stel na (a die mate waartoe 'n algemene faktor (Spearman se g die tellings op die twee batterye toetse onderskeidelik onderle, en (b wat die verwantskap tussen die twee algemene faktore sou wees. Ten opsigte van die ASAT is dit duidelik dat slegs een faktor tellings op al ses subtoetse verklaar. Ten opsigte van die SAT kon drie groepsfaktore onderskei word/ naamlik Verbale Vermoe, Visueel-Ruimtelike Vermoe en Numeriese Vermoe. Die korrelasies tussen die drie groepsfaktore was egter so hoog dat dit duidelik is dat daar 'n algemene faktor onderliggend is aan die nege subtoetse. Die algemene faktore wat die

  14. Die kommunistiese gevaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Nicol

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Sestig jaar gelede het ons beskou dat die Kommunisme sommer een van die moontlike teorieë was vir die inrigting van ’n staat se geldsake. Vandag is die beginsels van daardie teorie tot in die fynste besonderheid uitgewerk en toegepas op een derde van die mensdom. Sy heerskappy strek van die Beringse Straat tot in die middel van Duitsland, van die Noordpoolsee tot by die Suidsee van Sjina, die grense van Indië, Iran en Turkye. Daardie gebied beslaan een kwart van die bewoonde aarde en sluit in 900,000,000 siele, sê een derde van die mensdom. Die uitbreiding duur nog voort en telkens verneem ons van pogings wat met sukses aangewend word om nuwe lande binne die invloedsfeer van die Kommunisme te bring.

  15. Kepler observations of variability in B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Balona, L A; De Cat, P; Handler, G; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Engelbrecht, C A; Frescura, F; Briquet, M; Cuypers, J; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J; Degroote, P; Dukes, R J; Garcia, R A; Green, E M; Heber, U; Kawaler, S D; Ostensen, R; Pricopi, D; Roxburgh, I; Salmon, S; Smith, M A; Suarez, J C; Suran, M; Szabo, R; Uytterhoeven, K; Christensen-Dalsgaard,; Kjeldsen, H; Caldwell, D A; Girouard, F R; Sanderfer, D T

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies characteristic of SPB stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be considered as SPB/beta Cep hybrids. In all cases the frequency spectra are quite different from what is seen from ground-based observations. We suggest that this is because most of the low frequencies are modes of high degree which are predicted to be unstable in models of mid-B stars. We find that there are non-pulsating stars within the beta Cep and SPB instability strips. Apart from the pulsating stars, we can identify stars with frequency groupings similar to what is seen in Be stars but which are not Be stars. The origin of the groupings is not clear, but may be related to rotation. We find periodic variations in other stars which we attribute to proximity effects in binary systems or possibly rotational modulation. We find no evidence fo...

  16. Fundamental properties of nearby single early B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental parameters of a sample of 26 apparently slowly-rotating single early B-type stars in the solar neighbourhood are presented and compared to high-precision data from detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The data are used to discuss the evolutionary status of the stars in context of the most recent Geneva grid of models. Evolutionary masses plus radii and luminosities are determined to better than typically 5%, 10%, and 20% uncertainty, respectively, facilitating the mass-radius and mass-luminosity relationships to be recovered with a similar precision as derived from DEBs. Good agreement between evolutionary and spectroscopic masses is found. Absolute visual and bolometric magnitudes are derived to typically 0.15-0.20mag uncertainty. Metallicities are constrained to better than 15-20% uncertainty and tight constraints on evolutionary ages of the stars are provided. Signatures of mixing with CN-cycled material are found in 1/3 of the sample stars. Typically, these are consistent with the amount predic...

  17. Die struktuur van die tekskode: die strukturele organisasie van 'Die jonkmanskas' van Koos Prinsloo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Botha

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available A unique quality of literature is that the text system is not just an instrument for conveying a literary message; the structure of the system is in itself meaningful. This article will closely examine the structural organisation and the functional significance of Koos Prinsloo’s short story “Die Jonkmanskas” . “Die jonkmanskas” is a story with a complex structure, written in the postmodernist idiom, and originated from three distinct stories. These embedded stories simultaneously work as commentaries, parodies and corrective devices, so that the ultimate interpretation of “Die jonkmanskas” is also determined through its structural code. An important aspect of this short story, which is highlighted by the structural code, is the interaction between the author’s text, the narrator’s text and the character’s text. In this [pseudo] autobiography the distinction between the actual author, the abstract author and the narrator is gradually erased, because time and again the narrator changes his role from character to narrator to author.

  18. Clinical implications of defective B-type natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Santosh G; Mills, Roger M; Schellenberger, Ute; Saqhir, Syed; Protter, Andrew A

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of the natriuretic peptide system continues to evolve rapidly. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), originally thought to be a simple volume-regulating hormone that is produced in response to cardiac stretch, has been shown to also play important roles in modulating bronchodilation, endothelial function, and cardiac remodeling. Recent data demonstrate that elevated levels of BNP in patients with heart failure do not represent a simple ratcheting up of normal production in response to increased stimulus. Instead, we now know that chronic stimulation of BNP synthesis induces a reversion to fetal gene expression, resulting in production of high molecular weight forms of BNP that are functionally deficient. Standard point-of-care BNP assays are immunoassays that will detect any molecule containing the target epitopes. Consequently, these assays cannot distinguish between defective, high molecular weight forms of BNP and normal, physiologically active BNP. In 2 separate evaluations, mass spectroscopy detected little, if any, normal BNP in patients with heart failure, despite the appearance of high circulating levels of immunoreactive BNP (iBNP) using commercial assays. Therefore, these commercial assays should be considered to be only an indication of myocardial stress. They do not measure physiologic BNP activity. This accounts for the "BNP paradox," namely, that administration of exogenous recombinant human BNP (rhBNP, nesiritide) has substantial clinical and hemodynamic impact in the presence of high levels of circulating iBNP using commercial assays. In addition to its short-term hemodynamic impact, rhBNP may have other important effects in this setting, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:20014209

  19. Die kerstening van strukture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Daar is in ons tyd orals in die wêreld ’n algemene gevoel van onbehae met betrekking tot die bestaande orde. Die ontwikkelingslande kyk met ’n gevoel van afguns na die ryk geïndustrialiseerde lande van die Weste om in die welvaart wat daar geniet word te deel. In die ryk lande is mense egter nie tevrede met wat hulle verwerf het nie. Die bestaande orde word as onregverdig ervaar en steeds ernstiger klink die roep dat die samelewing moet verander. Die wêreld — of dit nou die Ooste of die Weste is of waar ook al — is vasgevang in verkeerde strukture. Daardie strukture moet verander word. Waar christene met hierdie probleem worstel, daar word gespreek van kerstening van die strukture.

  20. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. I. Pistorius

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  1. Die toepassing van die Q-metode van die NIPN vir poswaardering by kooperasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barnard

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of the Q-method of job evaluation in 13 small, medium and big co-operatives, is discussed. Specific attention is given to the purpose and method of investigation; the findings and recommendations made to the various boards of directors as well as the specific problems encountered in the application of the Q-method and the establishment of an integrated salary structure. Differences between the three categories of cooperatives regarding pay curves, the under or over payment of comparable job grades etc., are discussed.OpsommingDie toepassing van die Q-metode van poswaardering by 13 koöperasies, bestaande uit klein, middelslag en groot koöperasies, word bespreek. Aandag word veral aan die doel en metode van ondersoek gewy. Verder word bevindinge en aanbevelings aan die verskillende direksies bespreek rakende spesifieke probleme wat ervaar is met betrekking tot die toepassing van die Q-metode en die koppeling van posgrade met salarisskale. Verskille tussen die drie kategorieë koöperasies ten opsigte van salariskurwes, oor- of onderbetaling van vergelykbare posgrade, ens. word aangedui.

  2. Die voorgeskiedenis van kwantumberekening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Potgieter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Die hoofidees wat tans gestalte vind in die teorie en tegnologie van kwantumberekening is in die laat 1970’s en vroeg 1980’s deur fisici in die Weste en ’n wiskundige in die voormalige Sowjetunie neergelˆ e. Dat di´ e teorie ook wortels in die Russiestalige vakliteratuur het, is nie algemeen bekend in die Weste nie. Daar word kortliks gekyk na die idee soos deur Benioff en (veral Feynman in die Weste versprei, asook die voorstel van di´ e rekengrondslag deur Manin in die Russiese literatuur. Die outeur hoop om hiermee so ’n onpartydig moontlike sintese van die vroe ¨ e gedagtegeskiedenis rondom kwantumberekening aan te bied. Die rol van omkeerbare en onomkeerbare berekeningsprosesse word vlugtig bekyk soos dit verband hou met die ontstaan van kwantumberekening, asook die sogenaamde Inligtingsparadoks in die fisika. Die inligtingsteorie en die fisika het heelwat met mekaar te kommunikeer, soos hierdie paradoks uitwys.

  3. N-terminal Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: a measure of significant patent cuctus arteriosus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OFarombi-Oghuvbu, IO

    2008-01-24

    Background: B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker for ventricular dysfunction secreted as a pre-prohormone, Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (ProBNP), and cleaved into BNP and a biologically inactive fragment, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Little is known about the clinical usefulness of NT-proBNP in preterm infants.\\r\

  4. Materials on dies for pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the stress of die materials of thermal fatigue is defi ned and material life is derived theoretically and compared with the measured values. The important properties of the die materials as thermal conductivity, coeffi cient of thermal expansivity, modulus of elasticity and mechanical properties are described. Binding to it single die materials as carbon steels and chrome-tungsten steels are analyzed. As the perspective die material for pressure die casting of ferrous metals appears molybdenum with regard to advantageous properties.

  5. USING LOGIC COMPONENTS FOR CONCEPTUAL DIE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Logic components are used to support the conceptual design. Taking the stamping die structure as the research object,several logic components are defined for the conceptual die construction design. A new method-logic assembly modeling is presented to satisfy the characteristic of the top-down die design process. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic can provide a natural,intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about die construction design at the conceptual stage. This method can reflect the designer's thought clearly and provide the designer with a test bed for generating alternatives and performing reasoning work at the conceptual die design stage.

  6. Die voorspellingswaarde van die takseersentrum: 'n Oorsig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Pietersen

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment centre: a brief review of predictive value. Factors such as the rise of the professional manager, industrialization and worker expectations have, over the last few decades, increasingly placed managers in the limelight as a key occupational group. In this regard the assessment centre has become prominent as a method for the identification of managerial potential. However, a brief review of the relevant research literature indicates low predictive variances for the managerial assessment centre. This fact, together with the limited scope of the assessment centre, therefore necessitates, amongst other things, a wider research perspective which will include other work and non-work related factors as well. Opsomming Verskynsels soos die opkoms van die professionele bestuurder, industrialisering en stygende werkerverwagtinge het meegebring dat die kollig die afgelope paar dekades al hoe meer op bestuurders as sleutelberoepskategone geplaas is. In hierdie verband het veral die takseersentrum aandag gekry as 'n metode vir die identifisering van bestuurs- potensiaal 'n Kort oorsig van die betrokke navorsingsliteratuur toon egter lae voorspellingsvariansiesyfers vir die takseersentrum aan. Hierdie feit, tesame met die beperkte fokus van die takseersentrum, noodsaak, onder andere, 'n wyer navorsingsperspektief wat ook ander relevante werk- en nie-werkverwante faktore msluit.

  7. Die Ganztagsschulentwicklung in Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Dobe, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Die Ganztagsschulentwicklung in Berlin nach dem 2. Weltkrieg ist wie die historische Entwicklung Deutschlands und der Stadt durch eine Zweiteilung gekennzeichnet: Im Ostteil der Stadt die Polytechnische Oberschule mit ganztägigen Angeboten für alle Schülerinnen und Schüler und im Westteil die Grundschule sowie das dreigliedrige Oberschulsystem mit der zusätzlichen Gesamtschule, die nur in sehr seltenen Fällen ganztägige Betreuung anboten, die den Horten überlassen blieb, die den Kindertagesst...

  8. Die Universiteit en beroepsopleidng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Garbers

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available By elke gradedag is daar by die betrokkenes die neiging om terug te dink aan die pad wat hul bekroning voorafgegaan het. Diegene wat hulle met die volwassewording besig hou, weet maar al te goed aan hoeveel voorwaardes oor baie jare voldoen moes word om ’n jongmens by hier­ die mylpaal te kon bring. Aan baie kwaliteitseise in die opvoeding moes voldoen word. Veel meer as voeding, versorging en die voorsien van middele deur die ouers was nodig. Ook ’n bepaalde kwaliteit kontak en gesprekvoering met mekaar en wedersydse aanvaarding en positiewe verwagtings van mekaar was nodig. Ge- leenthede moes voorsien en benut word, selfstandigheid moes deur die ouers toe- gelaat en deur die kinders verdien word, ens.

  9. Generation und Familie – über die Ambivalenz eines multistrukturellen Verhältnisses Generation and Family—On the Ambivalence of Multi-Structural Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bollmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband Generationen und Familien, welcher dem Soziologen Kurt Lüscher zum 70. Geburtstag gewidmet ist, stellt eine kritische Gegenwartsdiagnose des aktuellen Theorie- und Forschungsstandes zu diesem Thema dar. Schon in ihrem Vorwort machen die beiden Herausgeber auf die Diversität und den Facettenreichtum des Familien- und Generationenkonzeptes in modernen Gesellschaften aufmerksam: familiale Generationenbeziehungen werden in ganz unterschiedlicher Weise gelebt, und je nach theoretischer Lesart ergeben sich vielfältige Deutungsmuster. Die Beiträge nähern sich der Verflechtung von Familie, Generation und Gesellschaft sowohl in theoretischer als auch in empirischer Hinsicht. Inhaltlich reihen sie sich in drei übergeordnete Themenblöcke ein: „Generationen, Generationenverhältnisse und Generationenbeziehungen“, „Familie, Alltag und Identität“ und „Soziologie, Recht und Politik”.The collected volume Generationen und Familien, which is dedicated to the sociologist Kurt Lüscher on his 70th birthday, presents a critical diagnosis of the current state of theory and research on this theme. The editors point to the diversity and multi-structural nature of the concept of family and generation in their forward to the volume: Familial relations between generations are experienced in very different ways and, depending upon the theoretical reading, they provide multiple patterns for interpretation. The contributions approach the linkage between family, generation, and society in a theoretical and an empirical manner. The contents can be divided into three general thematic blocks: “Generation, generational relations, and generational relationships,” “family, daily life, and identity,” and “sociology, law, and politics.”

  10. Die strategischen Antworten Europas

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenfeld, Werner; Emmanouilidis, Janis A.; Metz, Almut

    2006-01-01

    Europa hat zwei Gesichter. Es gab Zeiten, da waren die Europäer vom Wunder der Integration verzaubert. Nach Jahrhunderten leidvoller Erfahrung kriegerischer Gegnerschaften, nach imperialen Verwüstungen, nach nationalistischen Eruptionen hatten die Völker des Kontinents den inneren Hebel gleichsam komplett gewendet. Diese europäische Erfolgsgeschichte setzt sich heute fort. Gleichzeitig aber erscheint die Erfolgsgeschichte Europas gegenwärtig wie die Beschreibung einer entfernten Epoche. Die R...

  11. Die filosofiese filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L F. Schulze

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available ’n Filter is ’n opvanger. Dit kan dien as ’n suiweraar wat die onsuiwerhede in vog of water opvang en terughou. Dit kan egter ook dien om ligstrale van ’n bepaalde golflengte op te vang en weg te hou van die oë of van die lens van ’n kamera. Hierdeur word die beeld of omgewing wat ek sien of fotografeer, gekleur. Ons gebruik die woord filter hier in lg. sin, hoewel die meeste mense dit nie as sodanig wil sien of erken nie, maar meen om dit bloot as suiweraar te gebruik.

  12. DIE SLEUTELSEROMONIE VAN GIBRALTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Van Zyl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 'There was always a Rock. Them was always strife around it."Gibraltar is geleë in Andalusië die suidelike provinsie van Spanje en is inderwaarheid 'an arm of land thrust out into the sea.'" Die hele eiland is eintlik 'n reuse rotsberg wat, wanneer die warm oostewind waai, deur 'n wolk oorkoepel word en die toeskouer onwillekeurig herrinner aan die Grieke se berg van die Gode - Olympus. 'It is hardly surprising, then, that the Rock, and the whole area surrounding it, became imbued first with myth and legend, and then with history.'''

  13. Reduced immunoreactivities of B-type natriuretic peptide in pulmonary arterial hypertension rats after ranolazine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Kwan Chang; Choe, Soo Young; Hong, Young Mi

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe pulmonary vascular disease characterized by sustained increase in the pulmonary arterial pressure and excessive thickening and remodeling of the distal small pulmonary arteries. During disease progression, structural remodeling of the right ventricular (RV) impairs pump function, creates pro-arrhythmic substrates and triggers for arrhythmias. Notably, RV failure and lethal arrhythmias are major contributors to cardiac death in PAH that are not directly addressed by currently available therapies. Ranolazine (RAN) is an anti-anginal, anti-ischemic drug that has cardioprotective effects of heart dysfunction. RAN also has anti-arrhythmic effects due to inhibition of the late sodium current in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that RAN could reduce the mal-adaptive structural remodeling of the RV, and prevent triggered ventricular arrhythmias in the monocrotaline-induced rat model of PAH. RAN reduced ventricular hypertrophy, reduced levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, and decreased the expression of fibrosis. In addition, RAN prevented cardiovascular death in rat model of PAH. These results support the notion that RAN can improve the functional properties of the RV, highlighting its potential benefits in the setting of heart impairment. PMID:27051563

  14. B-type natriuretic peptide and COPD in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Minora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arrived to the emergency department (ED with dyspnea / hypoxia, the existence of possible correlations between blood levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP and presence of heart failure [HF], mortality, outcome of the ED visit (discharge, ospitalization,death, and length of post-ED hospital stays. Materials and methods: Clinical history, medical examination and blood levels of NT-proBNP were perfomed in all patients selected to our emergency department with the above symptoms between December 2006 and December 2008. Emergency department and hospital charts for these patients were later retrospectively reviewed to identify patients diagnosed with COPD. Results: A total of 546 patients (mean age 77 years, 52% women had final diagnoses of COPD (with or without HF. Eight died in the ED, 104 were discharged after the ED visit, and 424 were hospitalized. Hospitalizations were longer for patients with COPD alone (21 days vs. 13 days for COPD + HF. Mortality among hospitalized patients was 9.7%. Seventy-six percent of the patients had elevated blood levels of NT-proBNP (>450ng/L in the ED. Most of these patients (54% had COPD and HF; the others (22% had COPD alone (p < 0.01. Low levels of NT-proBNP (<450ng/L were more frequent in patients with simple COPD who were discharged after the ED visit (89/ 546. In this group, 25/89 returned to the ED after more than 60 days; 17% had simple COPD, and 10/25 were hospitalized. Elevated blood NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.001. Discussion: The findings of the present study indicate that HF is the main cause of dyspnea and hypoxia among patients with COPD who present to the ED with these symptoms. High blood levels of NT-proBNP on ED admission can alert ED physicians to the presence of HF, allowing them to prescribe appropriate treatment and make more

  15. Evolution of single B-type stars with a large angular momentum content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Anahí; Haemmerlé, Lionel

    2014-10-01

    ZAMS we therefore recommend to use as the initial rotational rate the values derived once the quasi-stationary state is reached, that is, after the abrupt decrease in surface velocity. By producing stellar structures at the ZAMS with differentially rotating profiles and larger angular momentum content than in our previous works, we obtain models that rotate close to the critical limit throughout the whole MS. These models have a longer MS lifetime and a higher surface chemical enrichment already at the end of the MS, particularly at Z = 0.002. Interestingly, the initial equatorial rotational velocities are virtually metallicity independent for all stellar models we computed in the B-type star range with the same mass and angular momentum content at the ZAMS. If, as some observational evidence indicates, B-type stars at Z = 0.002 rotate with a higher equatorial velocity at the ZAMS than stars with Z = 0.014, our finding would indicate that the angular momentum content of B-type stars in the SMC is higher than their Galactic counterparts. Tables 1-4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Die verhouding doop en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available By die aanvalle wat op die kinderdoop geloods word, kom telkens die verhouding doop en geloof ter sprake. Die geloof is so wesentlik met die doop verbonde, sodat daar nie gedoop mag word waar die geloof nie aanwesig is nie. 0ns lees inderdaad dwarsdeur die Nuwe Testament van ’n innige samehang wat daar tussen geloof en doop beslaan.

  17. Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; de León, J.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Kelley, M. S. P.; Hanuš, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. B-type asteroids constitute a peculiar spectral class within the C-complex. Previous work has pointed out the difference between the visible geometric albedos of B-types and those of the Pallas collisional family (PCF), whose few members with observed spectra are B-types (one exception out of eight objects). This has been interpreted as being due to compositional differences. However, the PCF members are typically smaller than the spectroscopically classified B-types, and the following possibilities have not been ruled out: the albedo differences might be related to a size-albedo dependence and/or to the generally larger errors of the WISE data and best-fitting values of the derived parameters expected for smaller objects. Aims: We compare albedos and beaming parameters of PCF members and B-types of similar sizes and re-examine our conclusion on the different composition of the PCF. Methods: By modelling their WISE/NEOWISE data, we derived sizes and albedos of all objects whose Sloan Digital Sky Survey reflectances are similar to the typical B-type reflectance spectra. In particular, we derived the so-called infrared beaming parameters (η), effective diameters (D), and corresponding visible geometric albedos (pV), and studied their value distributions. Results: We obtained the effective diameter and geometric visible albedo for ~600 B-type asteroids whose sizes range between 2 and 100 km, approximately half of which have fitted η-values that are inversely correlated to size. We found that the albedo distributions of the PCF is significantly different from that of other B-types in the same size range (2-20 km), and we rule out any size-albedo dependency or biases related to the lower quality of the pV-values of smaller objects. In addition, we also found differences between the η-value distribution of the PCF and the other similarly-sized B-types. Conclusions: The differences in the visible albedos of PCF members and the other B-types of similar sizes is

  18. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  19. Die Bedeutung des Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Picot, Arnold; Neuburger, Rahild; Prinz, Aloys; Esser, Josef; Hoeren, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Gegenwärtig vollzieht sich eine Wandlung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft durch das Internet. Sind die hohen Erwartungen, die von vielen an das Internet geknüpft werden, berechtigt? Was vermag das Internet zu leisten?

  20. Die invloed van die neo-marxistiese kultuuranalise op die Wêreldraad van Kerke en die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Toe die studente dwarsoor die VSA en Europa in die laat sestigerjare ’n plotselinge en radikale verset openbaar het teen die bestaande orde, het hulle die deur geopen vir ’n nuwe mededinger om die hart van die Westerse kultuur. Dit is die nou reeds bekende neo-Marxisme. Sedertdien het hierdie jongeling sy voetspore op vele vlakke van die Westerse kultuur gelaat.

  1. Are Gay Communities Dying or Just in Transition? Results from an International Consultation Examining Structural Change in Gay Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Rosser, B. R.; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about how gay communities are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as now larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while th...

  2. Die neuen Schriftstellerinnen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthilde Vahsen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wiebke Eden stellt in ihrem Band elf Frauen vor, die ihrer Meinung nach die neue Schriftstellerinnen-Generation innerhalb der deutschsprachigen Gegenwartsliteratur repräsentieren. Die Autorinnen sind: Jenny Erpenbeck, Julia Franck, Judith Hermann, Felicitas Hoppe, Zoë Jenny, Stefanie Kremser, Tanja Langer, Grit Poppe, Kathrin Röggla, Birgit Vanderbeke und Maike Wetzel.

  3. The nature of the late B-type stars HD 67044 and HD 42035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, R.; Gebran, M.; Royer, F.

    2016-04-01

    While monitoring a sample of apparently slowly rotating superficially normal bright late B and early A stars in the northern hemisphere, we have discovered that HD 67044 and HD 42035, hitherto classified as normal late B-type stars, are actually respectively a new chemically peculiar star and a new spectroscopic binary containing a very slow rotator HD 42035 S with ultra-sharp lines (v_{{e}}sin i= 3.7 km s^{-1}) and a fast rotator HD 42035 B with broad lines. The lines of Ti ii, Cr ii, Mn ii, Sr ii, Y ii, Zr ii and Ba ii are conspicuous features in the high resolution SOPHIE spectrum (R=75000) of HD 67044. The Hg ii line at 3983.93 Å is also present as a weak feature. The composite spectrum of HD 42035 is characterised by very sharp lines formed in HD 42035 S superimposed onto the shallow and broad lines of HD 42035 B. These very sharp lines are mostly due to light elements from C to Ni, the only heavy species definitely present are strontium and barium. Selected lines of 21 chemical elements from He up to Hg have been synthesized using model atmospheres computed with ATLAS9 and the spectrum synthesis code SYNSPEC48 including hyperfine structure of various isotopes when relevant. These synthetic spectra have been adjusted to high resolution high signal-to-noise spectra of HD 67044 and HD 42035 S in order to derive abundances of these key elements. HD 67044 is found to have distinct enhancements of Ti, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba and Hg and underabundances in He, C, O, Ca and Sc which shows that this star is not a superficially normal late B-type star, but actually is a new CP star most likely of the HgMn type. HD 42035 S has provisional underabundances of the light elements from C to Ti and overabundances of heavier elements (except for Fe and Sr which are also underabundant) up to barium. These values are lower limits to the actual abundances as we cannot currently place properly the continuum of HD 42035 S. More accurate fundamental parameters and abundances for HD

  4. Die Onderwys en Opvoeding van die Afrikaner in die Twintigste Eeu (I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Die twintigste eeu het vir die Afrikaner waar hy ook in Suid-Afrika woonagtig was, baie donker aangebreek: In die loop van 1900 is die twee Boere-Republieke beset en al het die worstelstryd van die Boeremagte nog tot in 1902 voortgeduur, was die einde vanaf 1900 reeds beslis.

  5. B-type Natriuretic Peptide circulating forms: Analytical and bioactivity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandle, Tim G; Richards, A Mark

    2015-08-25

    B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), A-type and C-type Natriuretic Peptides (ANP and CNP) comprise a family of peptides that retain a common ring structure and conserved amino acid sequences. All are present in the heart, but only BNP and ANP are regarded as primarily cardiac secretory products. BNP and ANP, acting through a guanylyl cyclase receptor, increase sodium and water excretion by the kidney, induce vasodilation, reduce blood pressure, counteract the bioactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems and possess anti-hypertrophic and anti-fibrotic properties. BNP is synthesised in cardiomyocytes first as the precursor peptide preproBNP. Removal of the signal peptide from preproBNP produces proBNP which is cleaved to produce the biologically active carboxy-terminal BNP peptide and the inactive N-terminal fragment, NT-proBNP. BNP, NT-proBNP, proBNP and the C-terminal portion of the BNP signal peptide have been detected in human plasma as well as multiple sub-forms including truncated forms of BNP and NT-proBNP, as well as variable glycosylation of NT-proBNP and proBNP. The origin of these circulating forms, their potential bioactivity and their detection by current analytical methods are presented in this review. PMID:26160054

  6. Pulsating B-type stars in the open cluster NGC 884: frequencies, mode identification and asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Aerts, C; Miglio, A; Carrier, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field beta Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physics in the stellar structure and evolution models of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismology study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884. We describe a thorough investigation of the pulsational properties of all B-type stars in the cluster. Overall, our detailed frequency analysis resulted in 115 detected frequencies in 65 stars. We found 36 mono-periodic, 16 bi-periodic, 10 tri-periodic, and 2 quadru-periodic stars and one star with 9 independent frequencies. We also derived the amplitudes and phases of all detected frequencies in the U, B, V and I filter, if available. We achieved unambiguous identifications of the mode degree for twelve of the de...

  7. Emergent criticality in complex turing B-type atomic switch networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Adam Z; Avizienis, Audrius V; Sillin, Henry O; Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Aono, Masakazu; Gimzewski, James K

    2012-01-10

    Recent advances in the neuromorphic operation of atomic switches as individual synapse-like devices demonstrate the ability to process information with both short-term and long-term memorization in a single two terminal junction. Here it is shown that atomic switches can be self-assembled within a highly interconnected network of silver nanowires similar in structure to Turing’s “B-Type unorganized machine”, originally proposed as a randomly connected network of NAND logic gates. In these experimental embodiments,complex networks of coupled atomic switches exhibit emergent criticality similar in nature to previously reported electrical activity of biological brains and neuron assemblies. Rapid fluctuations in electrical conductance display metastability and power law scaling of temporal correlation lengths that are attributed to dynamic reorganization of the interconnected electro-ionic network resulting from induced non-equilibrium thermodynamic instabilities. These collective properties indicate a potential utility for realtime,multi-input processing of distributed sensory data through reservoir computation. We propose these highly coupled, nonlinear electronic networks as an implementable hardware-based platform toward the creation of physically intelligent machines. PMID:22329003

  8. Die eenheid van die lewe en politici kontra akademici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. van Wyk de Vries

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Die verklaring van die 29 alcademici oor die kleurlingvraagstuk het oor die algemeen sterk afwysende reaksie uitgelok van sommige politici, ministers en politieke party-koerante. Vir my was hierdie reaksie nie heeltemal onverwags nie.

  9. Facile synthesis of B-type carbonated nanoapatite with tailored microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanolime and a phosphate-based chelating agent were used to synthesize B-type carbonated apatite. Developed Rietveld refinement strategies allowed one to determine process yield, product crystallinity as well as structural (unit cell) and microstructural (size, strain) parameters. The effect of synthesis temperature (20–60 °C) as well as Ca/P ratio (1.5–2.5) and solid content (10–30 wt%) of the starting batch on these properties were investigated. FTIR, TEM and gas adsorption data provided supporting evidence. The process yield was 42–60 wt% and found to be governed by the Ca/P ratio. The purified products had high specific surface area (107–186 m2/g) and crystallinity (76–97%). The unit cell parameters, correlated to the degree of structural carbonate, were sensitive to the Ca/P ratio. Instead, temperature governed the microstructural parameters. Less strained and larger crystals were obtained at higher temperatures. Long-term aging up to 6 months at 20 °C compensated for higher crystal growth kinetics at higher temperature. - Graphical abstract: Controlled synthesis of carbonated apatite at moderate temperatures using nanolime and sodiumhexametaphosphate as starting reagent. - Highlights: • Chemical synthesis of nano-sized apatite with tailored microstructure was performed. • Colloidal Ca(OH)2 and a phosphorus-based chelating agents were used as reagents. • The method is simple and reproducible which facilitate industrial process scale-up. • Rietveld refinement strategies for product characterization were developed. • Rietveld analyses provided yield, microstructural and structure information

  10. Facile synthesis of B-type carbonated nanoapatite with tailored microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.romagnoli@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Hanuskova, Miriam, E-mail: Miriam.hanuskova@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Fabbri, Elena, E-mail: Elena.fabbri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro F., E-mail: Alessandro.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Nanolime and a phosphate-based chelating agent were used to synthesize B-type carbonated apatite. Developed Rietveld refinement strategies allowed one to determine process yield, product crystallinity as well as structural (unit cell) and microstructural (size, strain) parameters. The effect of synthesis temperature (20–60 °C) as well as Ca/P ratio (1.5–2.5) and solid content (10–30 wt%) of the starting batch on these properties were investigated. FTIR, TEM and gas adsorption data provided supporting evidence. The process yield was 42–60 wt% and found to be governed by the Ca/P ratio. The purified products had high specific surface area (107–186 m{sup 2}/g) and crystallinity (76–97%). The unit cell parameters, correlated to the degree of structural carbonate, were sensitive to the Ca/P ratio. Instead, temperature governed the microstructural parameters. Less strained and larger crystals were obtained at higher temperatures. Long-term aging up to 6 months at 20 °C compensated for higher crystal growth kinetics at higher temperature. - Graphical abstract: Controlled synthesis of carbonated apatite at moderate temperatures using nanolime and sodiumhexametaphosphate as starting reagent. - Highlights: • Chemical synthesis of nano-sized apatite with tailored microstructure was performed. • Colloidal Ca(OH){sub 2} and a phosphorus-based chelating agents were used as reagents. • The method is simple and reproducible which facilitate industrial process scale-up. • Rietveld refinement strategies for product characterization were developed. • Rietveld analyses provided yield, microstructural and structure information.

  11. Wetterdaten verbessern die Energieversorgung

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Detlev; Hoyer, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Schon heute stammen in Europa 15 Prozent des verbrauchten Stroms aus erneuerbaren Energien. Tendenz steigend. Bis zum Jahr 2040 könnte bereits die Hälfte des Europäischen Strombedarfs durch die umweltfreundlichen Technologien gedeckt werden. Momentan sorgen allerdings Wetter und Klima noch für starke Schwankungen bei der Energieversorgung durch die Resourcen schonende Stromerzeugung. Die vielfältigen Einflüsse von Wetter und Klima auf die Energieversorgung werden das Deutsche Zentrum für Luft...

  12. Die Ukraine und die Staaten Ostmitteleuropas

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrova, Olga

    1997-01-01

    'In den meisten Abhandlungen zur Außenpolitik der Ukraine stehen solche Probleme wie das russisch-ukrainische Verhältnis, die Beziehungen zum Westen, vor allem zu den USA, und die Position der Ukraine in der Frage der NATO-Osterweiterung im Mittelpunkt des Interesses. Dem Verhältnis der Ukraine zu ihren unmittelbaren westlichen Nachbarn, den Staaten Ostmitteleuropas - Polen, Slowakei, Tschechische Republik, Ungarn - wird in der Regel nur am Rande Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Jedoch kommt den ost...

  13. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  14. Are gay communities dying or just in transition? Results from an international consultation examining possible structural change in gay communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon Rosser, B R; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard

    2008-05-01

    This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about if gay communities are changing, and if so, how they are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as currently larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while the gay population in their cities appeared stable or growing, the gay community appeared in decline. Measures included greater integration of heterosexuals into historically gay-identified neighborhoods and movement of gay persons into suburbs, decreased number of gay bars/clubs, less attendance at gay events, less volunteerism in gay or HIV/AIDS organizations, and the overall declining visibility of gay communities. Participants attributed structural change to multiple factors including gay neighborhood gentrification, achievement of civil rights, less discrimination, a vibrant virtual community, and changes in drug use. Consistent with social assimilation, gay infrastructure, visibility, and community identification appears to be decreasing across cities. HIV prevention planning, interventions, treatment services, and policies need to be re-conceptualized for MSM in the future. Four recommendations for future HIV prevention and research are detailed. PMID:18484330

  15. Openbaring, teologie en die regswetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Postma

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste tyd is telkens en weer gewaarsku teen die gevare van oorspesialisasie en die hipertrofie van professionalisme. Die gemis aan ’n totaliteitsvisie wat hiermee gepaard gaan, word dan ook tereg teengegaan en wel deur aan die Wysbegeerte as die Wetenskap van die totaliteit van die kosmos in toenemende mate sy regmatige plek as wetenskapsintegreerder te gun. Hierdie grootmoedige gun van ’n plek in die son van geleerdheid kan egter ook uit bedenklike motiewe plaasvind. Die vakwetenskaplike kan nie of wil nie die plek en betekenis van sy spesifieke vak bepaal en bepeins nie en vind dit in elk geval moeilik om die verband tussen Gods Woord en sy besondere vak in duidelike perspektief te sien; vandaar dan ’n grootmoedige toelaat dat die wysbegeerte die „veritas” dien terwyl die eie ek tevrede is om die „utilitas” onderdanig te wees.

  16. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  17. Oor die verhouding tussen woordeboekstrukture, woordeboek- inhoud en leksikografiese funksies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus H. Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    OPSOMMING: Navorsing op die gebied van die metaleksikografie het oor die laaste paar dekades 'n betekenisvolle fokusverbreding ondergaan. Die aanvanklike fokus was veral op die woordeboekinhoud. Mettertyd het die fokus verskillende woordeboekstrukture ingesluit en tans val leksikografiese funksies binne die bestek van metaleksikografiese navorsing. Al drie hierdie komponente van die leksikografie is ter sake vir die beplanning en samestelling van gebruiker-gedrewe woordeboeke. In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat die vertrekpunt in die beplanning van 'n nuwe woordeboek nie in die eerste plek 'n bestaande woordeboek moet wees nie. Die tei-kengebruiker moet die vertrekpunt van die hele leksikografiese proses uitmaak. Dit moet lei tot die vasstelling van leksikografiese funksies, die keuse van leksikografiese data en die bepaling van die relevante woordeboekstrukture. Hierdie strukture moet die data op so 'n manier aanbied dat die gebruiker in staat is om 'n optimale onttrekking van inligting te bereik. Terselfdertyd moet die leksikografiese funksies van die woordeboek probleemloos vervul kan word.


    Sleutelwoorde: DATAVERSPREIDINGSTRUKTUUR, GEBRUIKERGEDREWE BENADE-RING, GEBRUIKERSITUASIE, GEBRUIKERSPERSPEKTIEF, GEBRUIKSITUASIE, KENNISGE-RIGTE FUNKSIES, KOMMUNIKASIEGERIGTE FUNKSIES, LEKSIKOGRAAF, LEKSIKOGRA-FIESE DATA, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE FUNKSIES, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE PROSES, TEKSPRODUKSIE, TEKSRESEPSIE, TOEGANGSTRUKTUUR, WOORDEBOEKBEPLANNING, WOORDEBOEKGE-BRUIKER, WOORDEBOEKINHOUD, WOORDEBOEKSTRUKTURE

    *****

    ABSTRACT: About the Relationship between Dictionary Structures, Diction-ary Contents and Lexicographic Functions. Over the last few decades, research in the field of metalexicography has undergone a significant broadening of scope. The original focus had chiefly been on the contents of dictionaries. In the course of time, the focus also included different dictionary structures and the scope of current metalexicographic

  18. Electronic structure of epitaxial chalcopyrite surfaces and interfaces for photovoltaics; Elektronische Struktur epitaktischer Chalkopyrite und deren Heterokontakte fuer die Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Andreas

    2012-02-14

    This thesis constitutes a comprehensive study of the surface physics of epitaxial CuInSe{sub 2} films. It comprises analyses of the surface morphology and reconstruction, electronic band structure as well as hetero-junctions relevant to photovoltaic applications. Therefore, especially the aspect of stoichiometry variation from the CuInSe{sub 2} to the copper-deficient defect phases was considered. Preparation and analysis was completely performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions in order to ensure the investigation of well-defined samples free of contaminants. For some of the analysis techniques, single-crystalline samples are indispensable: They allow for the determination of surface periodicity by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). In combination with concentration depth profiling by angle-resolved x-ray photoemission, to types of surface reconstructions could be distinguished for the near-stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2}(112) surface. In the copper-rich case, it is stabilized by Cu{sub In} anti-site defects and on the indium-rich side by 2 V{sub Cu} defects, as predicted by surface total energy calculations by Jaffe and Zunger. Both configurations correspond to a c(4 x 2) reconstruction of the zinc blende type (111) surface. For the defect compound CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, a sphalerite order of the surface was found, which points at a weakening or absence of the chalcopyrite order in the bulk of the material. The unusual stability of the (112) surface could also be proven by comparison with the reconstruction and surface order of (001) and (220) surfaces. The results from surface analysis were used to measure the valence band structure of the epitaxial samples by synchrotron-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The CuInSe{sub 2}(001) surface gives access to the high symmetry directions {Gamma}-T and {Gamma}-N of momentum space. By contrasting the data obtained for the stoichiometric surface with the copper-poor defect compound, a reduction of the

  19. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  20. Die Raumfahrtpolitik des Bundesforschungsministeriums

    OpenAIRE

    Weyer, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit der Raumfahrtpolitik des Bundesforschungsministeriums. Zunächst wird auf die Raketenforschung der Nachkriegszeit 1945-1955 eingegangen. Im Anschluss wird der Aufbau einer forschungspolitischen Identität des Bundes auf dem Wege über die Weltraumforschung (1955-1969) nachgezeichnet. Im vierten Kapitel werden die Probleme und Herausforderungen der Raumfahrtpolitik (1969-1982) beleuchtet. Danach widmet sich der Autor der bemannten Raumfahrt und dem Aufbruc...

  1. The Angry Dying Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal response...

  2. Extrusion die and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  3. Specialization of B-Type Cyclins for Mitosis or Meiosis in S. Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Dahmann, C.; Futcher, B.

    1995-01-01

    The CLB1, CLB2, and CLB3 genes encode B-type cyclins important for mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while a fourth B-type cyclin gene, CLB4, has no clear role. The effects of homozygous clb mutations on meiosis were examined. Mutants homozygous for clb1 clb3, or for clb1 clb4, gave high levels of sporulation, but produced mainly two-spored asci instead of four-spored asci. The cells had completed meiosis I but not meiosis II, producing viable diploid ascospores. CLB1 and CLB4 seem to be m...

  4. Die Messung von Vernetzung

    OpenAIRE

    Kreische, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Die Nutzungsanalyse der von Bibliotheken angebotenen Datenbanken und Volltextangebote ist bisher nicht nur stark von den Datenlieferungen der Anbieter abhängig, sondern auch sehr statisch. Mit der Einführung von Linking Resolvern, die über Statistiktools verfügen, verbessern sich die Möglichkeiten der Nutzungsanalyse deutlich. Am Beispiel der Einführung des Linking Resolvers SFX an der ULB Düsseldorf sollen verschiedene Analysemöglichkeiten vorgestellt werden. Insbesondere die über den Linkin...

  5. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  6. Die Balance der Verantwortung

    OpenAIRE

    Abt, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Die Balance der Verantwortung Ein Modell der Pädagogik zur Entwicklung von Verantwortungsfähigkeit Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Begriff der Verantwortung, der in der Gesellschaft häufig verwendet wird und dort in der Regel positiv belegt ist. Neben der Vorstellung einer modernen Begriffsinterpretation lege ich die Bedeutung des Themas Verantwortung für die menschliche Existenz und damit auch für die Themen Erziehung und Bildung dar. Ausgehend von der Frage, warum Menschen in der d...

  7. Modelle van interreligieuse toleransie in die onderwys van die een-en-twintigste eeu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charste C. Wolhuter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vir ’n toenemend multireligieuse samelewing en globaliserende wêreld behoort die opvoedeling, net soos in die verlede, voorberei te word vir saamleef met mense wie se religieuse oortuigings anders is as hulle eie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die belangrikste modelle van interreligieuse toleransie in terme van hulle bruikbaarheid in die onderwys te evalueer. Hierdie evaluering geskied aan die hand van die volgende maatstawwe: die struktuur en aard van religie en die plek daarvan in die lewe van die mens; die aard, doelstellings en reikwydte van onderwys; die toenemende diverse samestelling van samelewings; en die kontemporêre samelewingstendense van toenemende individualisering en pluralisering. Die hoofmodelle van interreligieuse verhoudings, naamlik eksklusivisme (sowel die sendingywer- as die laissez faire-variasies, inklusivisme, universalisme en ook die verskillende vorms van pluralisme, insluitende positiewe of dialogiese pluralisme, word aan hierdie maatstawwe gemeet. Op grond van die tekortkomings van hierdie modelle word ’n nuwe model, te wete ’n lewensbeskoulik(e saamleef, vervolgens ontwikkel en voorgestel.Models of interreligious tolerance for education in the 21st century. For an increasingly multi-religious society and globalised world, the educand should also be prepared for living with people who embrace religious beliefs that may differ from their own. The aim of this article is to evaluate the various models of interreligious tolerance in terms of their usefulness in education. This assessment takes place according to the following parameters: the nature and structure of religion and the place thereof in the lives of people; the increasingly diverse composition of societies; the contemporary societal trends of growing individualisation and pluralisation, and also the nature, aims and extent of education. The major models of interreligious relations are weighed up against these criteria, namely

  8. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  9. Impact of epitope specificity and precursor maturation in pro-B-type natriuretic peptide measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, J.P.; Dahlstrom, U.; Alehagen, U.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac-derived natriuretic peptides are sensitive plasma markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent reports have disclosed a more complex molecular heterogeneity of B-type natriuretic peptide precursor (proBNP)-derived peptides than previously suggested. In this study, we examined the im...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117 Section 862.1117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  11. Data Mining Rules for Ultrasonic B-Type Detection and Diagnosis for Cholecystolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOUWei; YANLi-min; HEGuo-sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents realistic data mining based on the data of B-type ultrasonic detection and diagnosis for cholrcystolithiasis (gallbladder stone in biliary tract) recorded by a district central hospital in Shanghai during the past several years. Computer simulation and modeling is described.

  12. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  13. Die Lust am Vater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Volkening

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Herrmanns Studie analysiert die Produktivität ödipaler Plot-Strukturen in der deutschsprachigen Literatur des 20. Jahrhunderts. Dabei zeigt sich die Persistenz männlicher Konfliktmuster des Expressionismus in der feministischen Literatur seit den 1960er Jahren. De-ödipalisierte Narrative findet Herrmann im US-amerikanischen Science-Fiction-Film.

  14. Die Diktatur der Suchmaschinen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Spinnler-Dürr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Die „Googlisierung“ mit ihren Algorithmen hat sich in der Bibliothekswelt breit gemacht. Die Einschlitzsuche scheint notwendig geworden zu sein, damit die BenutzerInnen auch im Bibliothekskatalog einfach und schnell ihre Informationen finden können. Bei näherer Analyse erweist sich dies als Illusion, denn auch mit der Einschlitzsuche ist ein grosser Teil der BenutzerInnen überfordert. Dafür werden sinnvolle Suchmöglichkeiten (zum Beispiel Erweiterte Suche und Indexsuche, die ergänzend zur Ein­schlitzsuche benutzt werden könnten, ausrangiert. Der in diesem Artikel entworfene „OPAC 2000plus“ versucht, die alten Tugenden mit den neuen Möglichkeiten, die die Suchmaschinentechnologie bietet, zu vereinen.„Googlisation“, i.e. the use of algorithms, has spread more and more widely in the library world. Single search features seem to be necessary, since they allow users of library catalogues to easily find the information they need. A closer look however reveals this assumption to be an illusion: A great part of the users are still unable to cope with the single search. At the same time, useful supplementary alternatives like extended search and indexed search are being discarded more and more. The article suggests that old and new search possibilities could be united in a catalogue called „OPAC 2000plus“.

  15. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  16. Mathematical model of determination of die bearing length in design of aluminum profile extrusion die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫洪; 王高潮; 夏巨谌; 李志刚

    2004-01-01

    Based on the finite element simulation of profile extrusion process, the effect of local extrusion ratio, die bearing area and the distance between extrusion cylindrical center and local die orfice center on mental flow velocity was investigated. The laws of deformed metalflow on profile extrusion process were obtained. The smaller the local extrusion ratio, the faster the metal flow velocity; the smaller the area of die bearing, the faster the metal flow velocity; the smaller the distance of position of local die orifice(the closer the distance of position of local die orifice from extrusion cylindrical axis), the faster the metal flow velocity. The effect of main parameters of die structure on metal flow velocity was integrated and the mathematical model of determination of die bearing length in design of aluminum profile extrusion die was proposed. The calculated results with proposed model were well compared with the experimental results. The proposed model can be applied to determine die bearing length in design of aluminum profile extrusion die.

  17. Die antwoord van die Calvinistiese filosofie en praktyk van die opvoeding op die wysgerigreligieuse eise van die moderne tyd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Schutte

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons lewe in woelige, wonderlike tye. Beskrywing hiervan is aan die orde van die dag, elkeen met ander klem en treffende byvoeglike naamwoorde. Dit het mode geword om ons probleme en sogenaamde krisisse terug te voer tot die besondersheid van ons moderne eeu. Die opvoedkundige terrein is hiervan ook ’n getroue verteenwoordiger. Nuwe en besonderse tye verg nuwe en besonderse opvoedkundige benadering. Ons huise lyk en is anders, ons ouers eis en gee anders, ons gemeenskap tree anders op en is baie meer gekompliseerd, ons kinders mag psigies nog na die van ons voorgeslagte lyk en aard, maar tog is die verhoudings so totaal verskillend dat hulle maklik soos vreemde wesens vergelyk.

  18. Die zwei Kulturen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankolekar, Anupriya; Krötzsch, Markus; Tran, Than; Vrandecic, Denny

    Oft werden zwei mögliche Entwicklungen des Webs diskutiert - das Web 2.0 und das Semantic Web. Wenn wir diese zwei Visionen für das zukünftige Web unter die Lupe nehmen, dann lässt sich feststellen, dass sich die Ideen in ihrem Kern und ihren Technologien gegenseitig ergänzen. Dementsprechend können und sollen beide Visionen von den Erfahrungen und Stärken der anderen profitieren. Wir glauben daran, dass zukünftige Webanwendungen den Web 2.0-Fokus auf Community und Benutzerfreundlichkeit beibehalten und, darüber hinaus, auch von Technologien des Semantic Web zur Vereinfachung der mashupähnlichen Datenintegration profitieren werden. Auf Basis eines Semantic Blog-Szenarios werden wir hier die Vorteile einer möglichen Kombination von Semantic Web und Web 2.0 illustrieren, die zeitnah realisiert werden kann. Wir werden auch auf technische Probleme eingehen, die bei der Erweiterung dieses Szenarios entstehen. Wir stellen dar, wie aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Semantic Web Forschung diese Probleme angehen können, und setzen zugleich auch Schwerpunkte für die zukünftige Forschung, die in diesem Zusammenhang relevant sind.

  19. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  20. Die Zentralbankgeld-Wirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Die Notenbanken haben weltweit mit einer Ausweitung ihrer Bilanzen auf das Scheitern der Kreditwirtschaft in der Finanz- und Schuldenkrise reagiert. Allerdings bleibt offen, wie sie in ein tragbares Regime der traditionellen Geld- und Kreditabsicherungsbeziehungen zurückgelangen können. Das Vertrauen in das internationale Finanzsystem könnte wiederhergestellt werden, wenn ein neuer Standard für ein globales Geldsystem entstehen würde. Das könnte die chinesische Währung, die an Gold oder einen...

  1. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  2. Isolation and Synthesis of Laxaphycin B-Type Peptides: A Case Study and Clues to Their Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bornancin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The laxaphyci’s B family constitutes a group of five related cyclic lipopeptides isolated from diverse cyanobacteria from all around the world. This group shares a typical structure of 12 amino acids from the l and d series, some of them hydroxylated at the beta position, and all containing a rare beta-amino decanoic acid. Nevertheless, they can be differentiated due to slight variations in the composition of their amino acids, but the configuration of their alpha carbon remains conserved. Here, we provide the synthesis and characterization of new laxaphycin B-type peptides. In doing so we discuss how the synthesis of laxaphycin B and analogues was developed. We also isolate minor acyclic laxaphycins B, which are considered clues to their biosynthesis.

  3. Die spreektaal van die Indiër-Suid- Afrikaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Bekker

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available Die term „Indier-Suid-Afrikaners” word deur die Indiërbe- volking hier te lande nadruklik bo die term „Suid-Afrikaanse Indiërs” verkies, omdat hierdie bevolkingsgroep alle reële bande met die moederland verbreek het en hartstogtelik verlang om volwaardig deel van die Suid-Afrikaanse staatsbestel te wees. Hulle wil net een vaderland ken, en dit is Suid-Afrika. Die daadwerklike uitvloeisel van hierdie begeerte word ook in hulle taalgebruik weerspieël. Die Afrikaners, wat deel gehad het en nog het aan ’n eie taalstryd, ken iets soortgelyks met die verskil dat hulle ’n eie Algemeen-Beskaaf gevorm het. Die taalgebruikskwessie is dan ook een van die interessantste verskynsels van die Indiërsamelewing.

  4. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing. PMID:25080714

  5. N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide during pharmacological heart rate reduction in hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, M; Kistorp, C; Corell, P; Andersen, H U; Jarlov, A; Faber, J

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that elevated N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels in hyperthyroidism are mainly driven by increased metabolism due to excess thyroid hormones. Therefore, serum levels of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were studied during reduced cardiac work load by means of...... pharmacologically induced heart rate reduction in untreated hyperthyroidism. We designed a noncontrolled interventional study. Eighteen women with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism were evaluated (including an echocardiography) before and after pharmacological heart rate reduction with 360 mg verapamil daily for 6......-index decreased from median 319 to 315 arbitrary units (p=0.039) and free triiodothyronine-index increased from 8.6 to 9.9 arbitrary units (p=0.010). No changes in echocardiographic parameters were observed. A decrease in resting heart rate in untreated hyperthyroidism due to verapamil treatment did not result in...

  6. When Somebody Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alguien muere All living things — including bugs and fish and people — die. It's difficult, even for grownups, ... kind of death for families and friends to deal with because it happens so fast. There is ...

  7. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  8. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  9. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  10. A Cadmium-transporting P1B-type ATPase in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    OpenAIRE

    Adle, David J.; Sinani, Devis; Kim, Heejeong; Lee, Jaekwon

    2006-01-01

    Detoxification and homeostatic acquisition of metal ions are vital for all living organisms. We have identified PCA1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an overexpression suppressor of copper toxicity. PCA1 possesses signatures of a P1B-type heavy metal-transporting ATPase that is widely distributed from bacteria to humans. Copper resistance conferred by PCA1 is not dependent on catalytic activity, but it appears that a cysteine-rich region located in the N terminus sequesters copper. Unexpe...

  11. Pharmacological chaperones as a potential therapeutic option in methylmalonic aciduria cblB type

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge-Finnigan, Ana; Brasil, Sandra; Underhaug, Jarl; Ruíz-Sala, Pedro; Merinero, Begoña; Banerjee, Ruma; Desviat, Lourdes R; Ugarte, Magdalena; Martinez, Aurora; Pérez, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) cblB type is caused by mutations in the MMAB gene. This encodes the enzyme ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ATR), which converts reduced cob(I)alamin to an active adenosylcobalamin cofactor. We recently reported the presence of destabilizing pathogenic mutations that retain some residual ATR activity. The aim of the present study was to seek pharmacological chaperones as a tailored therapy for stabilizing the ATR protein. High-throughput ligand screening of o...

  12. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and B-type natriuretic peptide in heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG De-jia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular function, symptom status, quality of life and reduces hospitalization and mortality in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class Ⅲ or IV heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay despite optimal medical management.1 B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its amino terminal cleavage equivalent (NT-pro BNP) levels correlate with the severity of heart failure and predict prognosis of heart failure patients.2

  13. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstall, P. R.; Dufton, P. L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C. J.; Howarth, I. D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km s-1) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, fB(obs) = 0.25 ± 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower binary fractions of 0.08 ± 0.08 and 0.10 ± 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars in 30 Dor. We obtain a present-day binary fraction fB(true) = 0.58 ± 0.11, with a flat period distribution. Within the uncertainties, the multiplicity properties of the B-type stars agree with those for the O stars in 30 Dor from the VFTS. Appendices A, B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A93

  14. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in the Critically Ill with Acute Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo de Cal; Mikko Haapio; Cruz, Dinna N.; Paolo Lentini; Andrew A. House; Ilona Bobek; Grazia M. Virzì; Valentina Corradi; Flavio Basso; Pasquale Piccinni; Angela D'Angelo; Chang, Jamie W.; Rosner, Mitchell H.; Claudio Ronco

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in the intensive care unit (ICU) and associated with poor outcome. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a biomarker related to myocardial overload, and is elevated in some ICU patients. There is a high prevalence of both cardiac and renal dysfunction in ICU patients. Aims. To investigate whether plasma BNP levels in the first 48 hours were associated with AKI in ICU patients. Methods. We studied a cohort of 34 consecutive ICU patients. P...

  15. Die Pseudarthrose nach Sprunggelenksarthrodese

    OpenAIRE

    Günter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    Die Sprunggelenksarthrodese ist bei therapieresistenter Schmerzsymptomatik einer Sprunggelenksarthrose, nicht beherrschbarer Entzündung im Bereich des Rückfußes, Talusnekrose, schmerzhafter Pseudarthrose nach Arthrodese der Sprunggelenke sowie kontrakter Deformität des Rückfußes mit Gangstörung und Hautkomplikation indiziert. Sie stellt immer noch einen komplizierten Eingriff mit einer hohen Komplikationsrate dar. Dazu trägt neben den häufigen Wundheilungsstörungen die Pseudarthrose bei. Das ...

  16. Europa und die Informationsgesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Marahrens, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Bei dem Artikel handelt es sich um einen Bericht zum 3. SuMa-eV-Forum am 28.09.2006 in Berlin. Die Tagung stand unter dem Titel "Suchmaschinen: In Technik, Wirtschaft und Medienkunst". Dieses Dokument ist die Eigenarchivierung des Autors eines in der Ausgabe 1/2007 der Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie (ZfBB, Klostermann Verlag, ISSN 0044-2380) erschienenen Artikels.

  17. Nicht ohne die Mitarbeiter

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Stewens, Günter; Frankenberger, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    Bei Merger und Acquisition dominieren in der Praxis meist technische Themen wie die rechtlichen Aspekte oder die unterschiedlichen Arten einer Due Diligence. Personalaspekte werden oft erst im Rahmen der Post-Merger-Integration behandelt. Dabei hängt der Erfolg einer Übernahme ganz wesentlich von dem frühzeitigen Eingreifen und richtigen Handeln der Personalfachleute in jeder einzelnen Phase des Mergers ab.

  18. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  19. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Evans, C J; Howarth, I D; Simón-Díaz, S; de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars ...

  20. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  1. Die Kirche von Cajamarca - die Herausforderung einer Option für die Armen in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Knecht, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Die Kirche in Lateinamerika hat für die Profilbildung wissenschaftlicher Theologie im 20. Jahrhun-dert eine Reihe von theoretischen Entwürfen vorgelegt, die für die Programmatik der Theologie ins-gesamt grundlegend und richtungweisend sind. In der europäischen Rezeption wird jedoch zu wenig beachtet, dass sich hinter dem Sammelbegriff „Theologie der Befreiung“ eine Reihe sehr differenzier-ter Konzeptionen verbergen, die in je unterschiedlichen kulturellen Kontexten die Evangelisierung themati...

  2. Aspekte van die hersiening van die Fisikawoordeboek I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Louw

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available In die vorige uitgawe van hierdie tydskrif is aangedui dat ’n Redaksiekomitee onder die vleuels van die Departement van Nasionale Opvoeding se Nasionale Vakterminologie - diens (NVD benoem is om die tweetalige Fisikawoor­deboek - te hersien.

  3. Diskussie oor die millenium en die herstel van Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Engelbrecht van Waverley

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit verheug my dat daar eindelik gereageer word op my boekie. Behalwe telefoonoproepe en briewe van medechiliaste was daar tot dusver geen kommentaar van anti-chiliastiese kant. Ek het die boekie aan ongeveer 1800 predikante en professore gestuur en vriendelik uitgenooi tot nuwe besinning. Net soos oor die soteriologie, is die Bybel nêrens in teëspraak met homself oor die eskatologie nie. God gee in sy Woord nie vir ons drie verskillende toekomsbeelde om uit te kies nie. God is een en sy profetiese Woord is deurgaans eenstemmig m.b.t. die raad van God oor Israel, die nasies en die kerk.

  4. Die Ou Testament oor demone en die Satan

    OpenAIRE

    W. Vosloo

    1992-01-01

    In die lig van die Bybel glo ek nie in die Satan nie. ’n Christen glo net in God, en kan dus nie ook in die Satan glo nie, want dit sou vertroue en ’n persoonlike verhouding impliseer. Miskien moet ek eerder saam met Otto Weber sê: "Ons glo teen die duiwel"! Hierdie onderskeid is nodig omdat te veel Christene soveel statuur aan die Satan gee dat dit God verdwerg. In sy Screwtape Letters skryf die gevierde C.S. Lewis:

  5. Die Ou Testament oor demone en die Satan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vosloo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In die lig van die Bybel glo ek nie in die Satan nie. ’n Christen glo net in God, en kan dus nie ook in die Satan glo nie, want dit sou vertroue en ’n persoonlike verhouding impliseer. Miskien moet ek eerder saam met Otto Weber sê: "Ons glo teen die duiwel"! Hierdie onderskeid is nodig omdat te veel Christene soveel statuur aan die Satan gee dat dit God verdwerg. In sy Screwtape Letters skryf die gevierde C.S. Lewis:

  6. Investigation of the structure and properties of Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb bulk amorphous alloy obtained by pressure die casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pilarczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this paper is investigation of the microstructure and thermal properties of selected Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb bulk amorphous alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb alloy in form of rods with diameter of ø=1.5 and ø=2 mm. Master alloy ingot with compositions of Fe37.44Co34.56B19.2Si4.8Nb4 was prepared by induction melting of pure Fe, Co, B, Si and Nb elements in argon atmosphere. The structure analysis of the studied materials in as-cast state was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD. The thermal properties: glass transition temperature (Tg, onset crystallization temperature (Tx and peak crystallization temperature (Tp of the as-cast alloys were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC method. The microscopic observation of the fracture morphology of studied amorphous materials in rods form with different diameter was carried out by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM, within different magnification.Findings: The Fe-based bulk metallic glasses in form of rod were successfully produced by die pressure casting method. The investigation revealed that the studied rods are amorphous. These materials exhibit good glassforming ability. These tested rods with diameter of 1.5 and 2 mm exhibit similar characteristic temperatures (Tg, Tx, Tp. The exothermic peaks describing crystallization process of studied bulk metallic glasses are observed Morphology of cross section rods is changing having contact with copper mould during casting from smooth fracture inside rod to fine narrow dense veins pattern near to rod surface. These rods have smooth surface and metallic luster. The presented fractures are characteristic for metallic glasses.Practical implications: The success of production of studied Fe-based bulk metallic glasses is important for future practical application of those materials as elements of magnetic circuits, sensors and precise current transformers

  7. Die strukturele komposisie van die proloog van die Johannesevangelie heroorweeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. van der Watt

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The structural composition of the Johannine Prologue reconsidered A brief summary of several efforts to describe the structure of the Prologue Is followed by a suggestion that the Prologue consists of two parts. Each part is individually structured according to its own structuring principle. These two parts are again structurally linked in order to illustrate their interdependence in transmitting the message of the pre-incarnative Logos who became flesh so that we might share in God's grace.

  8. Die insluiting van inheemse kennis in die wetenskapklaskamer: ’n Betoog vanuit die kultuurhistoriese aktiwiteitsteorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. de Beer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n teoretiese besinning oor die insluiting van inheemse kennis in die wetenskapklaskamer deur van derdegenerasie-kultuurhistoriese aktiwiteitsteorie (KHAT, soos deur Engeström gekonseptualiseer, as lens gebruik te maak. Die betoog is dat die leerder die natuurwetenskapklaskamer binnekom met inheemse kennis. Deur bedag te wees op die vergestalte (beliggaamde en gesitueerde kognisie van elke kind, kan die onderwyser sodanige inheemse kennis as ’n nuttige invalshoek gebruik om die dikwels abstrakte wetenskapkurrikulum meer toeganklik en relevant vir die kind te maak. Deur so ’n KHATlens word verskeie faktore ook uitgewys wat negatief inwerk op die insluiting van inheemse kennis in die skoolkurrikulum.

  9. Eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Teurlinckx

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Nooit sou die Franse jeug — en die van Europa en verder — in dié mate deur die eksistensialisme be'invloed gewees het nie, indien hierdie filosofie in wysgerige traktate sou begrawe gelê het. Die eksistensialiste het die koning van die filosofiese verhaal, Voltaire, met sukses op sy Candide- en Zadig-pad gevolg en hulle teorieë in letterkundige werke, ver- hale, romans en ook toneelstukke kwytgeraak, wat baie gelees is en waaruit ook ander literatore kragte en inspirasie geput het. Omrede daarvan is daar inderdaad baie eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde, maar ’n eintlike eksistensialistiese letterkunde was daar nie, en ’n Eksistensialistiese Letterkun­ dige skool het nooit bestaan nie. Ook sit hierdie eksistensialiste nie langs dieselfde vuur nie. Die Christelike eksistensialis Gabriel Marcel het op 21 April van hierdie jaar uitgevaar teen die „Sartriane” na aanleiding van die opvoering van Les Paravents, Die W indskerms van Jean Genêt in ’n Paryse staatsondersteunde teater. „Mens mag seker wees”, skryf Marcel in Les Nouvelles Littéraires, „dat die hele sartriaanse parogie sal skreeu: groot meesterwerk”. Voortgaande op sy distansiëring kan die literêre eksistensialiste in drie groepe ingedeel word: 1. Die Sartriane; 2. Die Christelike Eksistensialiste; 3. Die Onafhanklikes.

  10. Will sacubitril-valsartan diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mair, Johannes; Lindahl, Bertil; Giannitsis, Evangelos;

    2016-01-01

    application of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care is and will be the rapid rule-out of suspected acute heart failure there is no significant impairment to be expected for B-type natriuretic peptide testing in the acute setting. However, monitoring of chronic heart failure patients on......Since the approval of sacubitril-valsartan for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, a commonly raised suspicion is that a wider clinical use of this new drug may diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing as sacubitril may interfere with B...... sacubitril-valsartan treatment with B-type natriuretic peptide testing may be impaired. In contrast to N-terminal-proBNP, the current concept that the lower the B-type natriuretic peptide result in chronic heart failure patients, the better the prognosis during treatment monitoring, may no longer be true....

  11. Die Wiege stand doch in Africka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Kaum ein Forschungsgebiet ist so umstritten wie die Palaeoanthropologie, die Lehre yore Ursprung der Menschheit. Nicht nur die Vorgeschichte, ouch die unmittelbare Entstebung des Homo sapiens entzweit die Experten: Die einen verrnuten die Wiege in Afrika,die anderen gehen davon aus, dass sich tier moderne Mensch auf mehreren Kontinenten gleichzeifig aus Vorfahren eatwickelte,

  12. Die E-Energy Referenzarchitektur

    OpenAIRE

    Maximilian Irlbeck, Vasileios Koutsoumpas

    2015-01-01

    E-Energy, das bisher größte Smart Grid Förderprojekt in Deutschland, hat in 6 Modellregionen die Zukunft des Energiesystems untersucht. Gegenstand dieses technischen Berichtes ist die Beschreibung einer Modellregion-übergreifender IKT Architekturvorstellung, die E-Energy Referenzarchitektur. Referenzarchitekturen enthalten nachhaltig gesammeltes empirisches Wissen aus Felderfahrungen und Systemarchitekturen und bieten im Allgemeinen eine Vision für die Entwick-lung von Systemen. Die E-En...

  13. Auswirkungen angeleiteter Itemanalysebesprechungen mit Dozierenden auf die Qualität von Multiple Choice Prüfungen [Effect of structured feedback to teachers on the quality of multiple choice examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyeler, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: In order to allow a meaningful interpretation of multiple choice (MC assessment data, MC examinations have to be highly valid on the one hand and represent a reliable measure on the other. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of structured feedback given to teachers by assessment experts on the validity and reliability of subsequent MC examinations. Methods: This feedback was introduced in the 3rd year of undergraduate medical training at the University of Zurich in 2007 and applied to nearly all teachers. Various validity and reliability criteria (relevance of content, taxonomic level, psychometric characteristics of all end-of-term examinations one year before and one year after this intervention were compared. Other factors such as objectivity and representativeness were kept constant. Results: After the introduction of structured feedback the multiple choice questions revealed a trend toward higher relevance. Taxonomic levels remained unchanged. However, selectivity and reliability coefficients increased significantly and the number of items eliminated from examination scoring due to insufficient psychometric properties decreased. Conclusion: Structured feedback by assessment experts to teachers is a valuable tool for quality improvement of MC examinations, in particular regarding reliability. [german] Hintergrund: Damit Multiple Choice Prüfungen über die reinen Prüfungsergebnisse hinausgehende Schlussfolgerungen zulassen, müssen sie für die jeweiligen Interpretationsabsichten inhaltlich gültig sein und hinreichend zuverlässig messen. Die vorliegende Studie geht der Frage nach, ob von Prüfungsexperten mit Dozierenden geführte Itemanalysebesprechungen eine Steigerung der Validität und Reliabilität nachfolgender Prüfungen bewirken. Methoden: Diese Itemanalysebesprechungen wurden im dritten Studienjahr Humanmedizin an der Universität Zürich 2007 erstmalig flächendeckend eingeführt. Um deren

  14. Die afrikaner en sy pers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Scholtz

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Die versoek w at van u inrigting tot my gekom het om buitengewone professor in die Persw etenskap te word, was vir my deels vererend, m aar deels het dit my in 'n moeilike posisie gestel. Dit was vir my vererend, om dat dit gekom het van 'n universiteit m et wie se Christelik- Nasionale koers ek my ten voile kan vereenselwig. Dit was dan ook vir my vererend, om dat ek daardeur in staat gestel kan w ord om die volk w aartoe ek behoort, op 'n vir my nuwe terrein te dien. As sodanig is dit vir my im m ers m oontlik om ook ’n beskeie bydrae te lewer tot die geestelike vorm ing van die jeug van ons volk. Dit het my m oeilik geval om, w aar ek reeds die m iddeljarige leeftyd bereik het, nou vir die eerste maal as dosent op te tree, aangesien ek daarvan in die verlede nie die m inste kennis en ervaring opgedoen het nie. As joernalis rig ek my im m ers tot die breë publiek deur middel van die pen. As dosent m oet ek my deur middel van die mond tot die studente rig. Dit lê voor die hand dat die eise w at so aan my gestel word, totaal anders is as dié waar- aan ek oor 'n tydperk van m eer as 'n kw arteeu as joer­ nalis gewoond geraak het.

  15. Emission from the Centrifugal Magnetospheres of Magnetic B-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, Matt; Rivinius, Thomas; Townsend, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10% of B-type stars possess strong magnetic fields, and of these, 25% host centrifugal magnetospheres (CMs) in which the radiative wind, magnetic field, and rotational support interact to form a dense circumstellar plasma visible in a variety of diagnostic lines. In this article we review the basic theory behind CMs, outline current theoretical and observational problems, compare the observational properties of CM host stars to those of classical Be stars, and finally present preliminary results of a population study aimed at clarifying the characteristics of this growing sub-class.

  16. Identification, characterization and physiological significance of metabolites of the B-type natriuretic peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Schwiebs, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP1-32) is secreted in large amounts upon increasing blood pressure and other cardiopathological conditions to protect the body by its vasoactive and antifibrotic effects. It is routinely measured in the clinic as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure and is used as a drug (Nesiritide®) for the therapy of such. In circulation, BNP1-32 is constantly exposed towards proteolytic activity and it was thus hypothesised that, similar to other v...

  17. Relationship between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yuanyuan; Shang, Xiliang; Zhou, Linuo; Hu, Renming; Li, Yiming; Ding, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that obese individuals have reduced natriuretic peptide levels. But conflicting data exist on the relation of natriuretic peptide levels to other metabolic risk factors. Material and methods We investigated the relationship between plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (NT-proBNP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic risk factors in 469 patients free of heart failure. Two hundred thirty diagnosed MetS cases and 239 non-MetS cas...

  18. Complex asteroseismology of the hybrid B-type pulsator $\\gamma$ Pegasi: a test of stellar opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Przemysław

    2010-01-01

    Using the updated oscillation spectrum of $\\gamma$ Pegasi, we construct a set of seismic models which reproduce two pulsational frequencies corresponding to the $\\ell=0$, p$_1$ and $\\ell=1$, g$_1$ modes. Then, we single out models which reproduce other well identified modes. Finally, we extend our seismic modelling by a requirement of fitting also values of the complex, nonadiabatic parameter $f$ associated to each mode frequency. Such complex asteroseismology of the B-type pulsators provides a unique test of stellar metallicity and opacities. In contrast to our previous studies, results for $\\gamma$ Peg indicate that both opacity tables, OPAL and OP, are equally preferred.

  19. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstall, P. R.; Dufton, P. L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C J; Howarth, I. D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Mink, de, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km s-1) are classified as spectroscopic b...

  20. A Search for O VI in the Winds of B-Type Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Zsargo, J.; Fullerton, A. W.; Lehner, N.; Massa, D.

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of FUSE spectra of 235 Galactic B-type stars in order to determine the boundaries in the H-R diagram for the production of the superion O VI in their winds. By comparing the locations and morphology of otherwise unidentified absorption features in the vicinity of the O VI resonance doublet with the bona fide wind profiles seen in archival IUE spectra of the resonance lines of N V, Si IV and C IV, we were able to detect blueshifted O VI lines in the spectra of giant ...

  1. Die virtuelle Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Mörtenböck, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Mit der Verbreitung neuer Technologien konstruiert sich der Ausdruck unserer Kultur als ein Gemisch aus Bilder einer virtuellen Realität und solchen der analogen Wirklichkeit. Die Computerwelt hat auf diese Art neue, hybride Räume eröffnet und ist dabei selbst ein Raum für unzählige Phantasien und Erwartungen geworden. Im Mittelpunkt dieser Spannungsfelder vermittelt Architektur zwischen ihren inneren Welten und deren sichtbaren Oberflächen. Damit verbunden stellt sich die Frage, welche gesel...

  2. Die Klassifizierung des Blutdrucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrabal F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Während der systolische Blutdruck in der Bevölkerung mit zunehmendem Lebensalter in jedem Dezennium weiter ansteigt, beginnt der diastolische Blutdruck ab dem 50. Lebensjahr für jede systolische Blutdruckstratifizierung als Ausdruck einer zunehmenden Gefäßschädigung wieder zu sinken. Deswegen muß der Blutdruck ausschließlich nach dem systolischen Blutdruck klassifiziert werden. Die Häufigkeitsverteilung des systolischen und diastolischen Blutdrucks innerhalb der Bevölkerung entspricht einer Gauss'schen Glockenkurve. Jede Unterteilung in normotensiv und hypertensiv entspricht deshalb einer völlig willkürlichen Dichotomisierung. Je niedriger der Blutdruck, desto geringer die mechanische Belastung der Blutgefäße und desto geringer auch die mechanisch induzierten Gefäßschäden. Das war der Grund für die zuletzt vom "7th JNC on Prevention, Detection and Treatment of Hypertension" des NIH, USA, vorgenommene Klassifizierung des Blutdrucks in normal (kleiner als 120 mmHg systolisch, prähypertensiv (120-140 mmHg und Hypertonie-Stadium I (140-160 mmHg systolisch und Hypertonie-Stadium II ( 160 mmHg systolisch. Damit muß leider die nahezu gesamte gesunde österreichische Bevölkerung, die nach bisheriger Klassifikation noch keinen Hochdruck aufweist, als prähypertensiv klassifiziert werden. Ein wirklicher Informationsgewinn (der ja mit der Klassifikation bezweckt wird ist meiner Meinung nach damit nicht mehr gegeben. Die Österreichische Hochdruckliga schlägt eine zusätzliche Klassifikation des Blutdrucks nach dem „Pressure Load“ vor, welches aus einer statistisch aussagekräftigen Zahl von Selbstmessungen leicht zu errechnen ist. Jedes Pressure Load von mehr als 20 % (mehr als 20 % der selbst gemessenen Blutdruckwerte 135/85 mmHg entspricht einer Hypertonie, die je nach Höhe der Blutdruckwerte entweder mit Änderungen des Lebensstils oder mit antihypertensiver Medikation zu bekämpfen ist.

  3. Improvement of enantioselectivity of the B-type halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yu, Fujio; Ohtaki, Akashi; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    Halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase (H-Lyase) is a bacterial enzyme involved in the degradation of halohydrins. This enzyme catalyzes the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a vicinal hydroxyl group in halohydrins, producing the corresponding epoxides. The H-Lyases have been classified into A, B and C subtypes based on amino acid sequence similarities. These enzymes have attracted much attention as industrial catalysts in the synthesis of chiral chemicals from prochiral halohydrins. In the present study, we constructed mutants of B-type H-Lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074 (HheB) displaying higher enantioselectivity by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis and random mutagenesis. A triple mutant of HheB exhibited 98.5% enantioselectivity, the highest ever reported, toward (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-butyronitrile production, with the yield reaching approximately two-fold that of the wild-type enzyme. We discuss the structural basis of the high enantioselectivity and productivity of the mutant by comparing the crystal structures of the mutant HheB and the wild-type enzyme in complex with or without the substrate analogue. PMID:27215832

  4. Die ontwikkeling van 'n instrument vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepte-orientasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. De Jager

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of an instrument (the RD-Depth Questionnaire, Form B for measuring the construct psychological depth orientation is discussed. Results show that the questionnaire has satisfactory internal consistency and that the items of the questionnaire in general measure the same characteristic. Further research is needed to refine and improve the questionnaire until it meets all the psychometric requirements of a good measuring instrument.OpsommingDie ontwikkeling van 'n instrument (die RD-Diepte Vraelys, Vorm B vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepteoriëntasie word bespreek. Resultate dui daarop dat die vraelys bevredigende interne bestendigheid toon en dat die items van die vraelys oor die algemeen dieselfde eienskap meet. Verdere navorsing word egter nog vereis om die vraelys te verfyn en te verbeter sodat dit aan al die psigometriese vereistes van 'n goeie meetinstrument sal voldoen.

  5. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro Arisuda; Akihito Hasuno; Junji Yoshida; Kazunari Tanii

    2008-01-01

    High-speed injection die casting is an efficient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, deficiencies (such as die damage in eady period) due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die temperature analysis, flow analysis and thermal stress analysis). The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  6. Soeklig op die Klerksdorp-kompleks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Potgieter

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Al vyf blanke universiteite van Transvaal is op die een of ander wyse gemoeid met die beplanningsnavorsingsprojek in die Klerksdorpse gebied wat op die oomblik aan die gang is. Vir dié navorsing het die Staat R18,000 bewillig, verskillende myngroepe altesaam R6,000, en plaaslike owerhede R1,500. En in die komitee wat beheer oor die navorsing uitoefen, is twee staatsdepartemente verteenwoordig, afgesien natuurlik van die verteenwoordiging van die betrokke universiteite.

  7. Magnetic survey of emission line B-type stars with FORS1 at the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Savanov, I; Yudin, R V; Pogodin, M A; Stefl, St; Rivinius, Th; Cure, M; 10.1002/asna.200911236

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of our search for magnetic fields in a sample of 16 field Be stars, the binary emission-line B-type star upsilon Sgr, and in a sample of fourteen members of the open young cluster NGC3766 in the Carina spiral arm. The sample of cluster members includes Be stars, normal B-type stars and He-strong/He-weak stars. Nine Be stars have been studied with magnetic field time series obtained over ~1 hour to get an insight into the temporal behaviour and the correlation of magnetic field properties with dynamical phenomena taking place in Be star atmospheres. The spectropolarimetric data were obtained at the European Southern Observatory with the multi-mode instrument FORS1 installed at the 8m Kueyen telescope. We detect weak photospheric magnetic fields in four field Be stars, HD62367, mu Cen, o Aqr, and epsilon Tuc. The strongest longitudinal magnetic field, =117+-38G, was detected in the Be star HD62367. Among the Be stars studied with time series, one Be star, lambda Eri, displays cyclic variab...

  8. Stability of g-modes in rotating B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aprilia,; Saio, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the stability of low degree $g$-modes in uniformly rotating B-type stars, taking into account the effects of the Coriolis force and the rotational deformation. From an analysis treating rotation frequency as a small parameter it is found that slow rotation tends to $destabilize$ high radial-order $retrograde$ $g$-modes, although the effect is very small or absent for relatively low order modes. Calculating eigenfrequencies at selected rotation rates, we find, on the other hand, that rapid rotation tends to $stabilize$ $retrograde$ $g$-modes. The stabilizing effect appears stronger for less massive B-type stars having low effective temperatures. If we change rotation rate continuously, the frequency of a $g$-mode belonging to ($l', m$) crosses frequencies of other $g$-modes belonging to ($l', m$). If the parity of the two encountering modes are the same, they interact each other and the stability (i.e., imaginary part of eigenfrequency) of each mode is modified. Using an asymptotic method we di...

  9. The precursor to B-type natriuretic peptide is an O-linked glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Ute; O'Rear, Jessica; Guzzetta, Andrew; Jue, Rodney A; Protter, Andrew A; Pollitt, N Stephen

    2006-07-15

    Human pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP), the precursor for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and compared by Western blot analysis to BNP cross-reacting material immunoprecipitated from the plasma of heart failure patients. Both recombinant and native forms co-migrated as a diffuse band centered around 25 kDa and were reduced to a 12 kDa species by treatment with a mixture of O-link deglycosylation enzymes. The 108-amino acid CHO-expressed protein was examined by tryptic mapping and LC-MS and found to be an O-linked glycoprotein. Determination of the sites of O-glycosyl addition by blank cycle sequencing of tryptic and Glu-C (Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease) peptides showed that there are seven sites of glycosylation confined to a 36-amino acid residue stretch within the center of the propeptide region. This data is consistent with previous observations of higher molecular weight isoforms of BNP. PMID:16750161

  10. Extracting Radial Velocities of A- and B-type Stars from Echelle Spectrograph Calibration Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Juliette C; Vanderburg, Andrew; Morton, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    We present a technique to extract radial velocity measurements from echelle spectrograph observations of rapidly rotating stars ($V\\sin{i} \\gtrsim 50$ km s$^{-1}$). This type of measurement is difficult because the line widths of such stars are often comparable to the width of a single echelle order. To compensate for the scarcity of lines and Doppler information content, we have developed a process that forward-models the observations, fitting the radial velocity shift of the star for all echelle orders simultaneously with the echelle blaze function. We use our technique to extract radial velocity measurements from a sample of rapidly rotating A- and B-type stars used as calibrator stars observed by the California Planet Survey observations. We measure absolute radial velocities with a precision ranging from 0.5-2.0 km s$^{-1}$ per epoch for more than 100 A- and B-type stars. In our sample of 10 well-sampled stars with radial velocity scatter in excess of their measurement uncertainties, three of these are s...

  11. Circumbinary Planets Orbiting the Rapidly Pulsating Subdwarf B-type binary NY Vir

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, S -B; Dai, Z -B; Lajús, E Fernández; Xiang, F -Y; He, J -J

    2011-01-01

    We report here the tentative discovery of a Jovian planet in orbit around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B-type (sdB-type) eclipsing binary NY Vir. By using new determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we detect that the observed-calculated (O-C) curve of NY Vir shows a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 7.9\\,years and a semiamplitude of 6.1\\,s, while it undergoes a downward parabolic change (revealing a period decrease at a rate of $\\dot{P}=-9.2\\times{10^{-12}}$). The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary companion was determined to be $M_3\\sin{i^{\\prime}}=2.3(\\pm0.3)$\\,$M_{Jupiter}$ when a total mass of 0.60\\,$M_{\\odot}$ for NY Vir is adopted. This suggests that it is most probably a giant circumbinary planet orbiting NY Vir at a distance of about 3.3 astronomical units (AU). Since the rate of period decrease can not be explained by true angular momentum loss caused by grav...

  12. CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS ORBITING THE RAPIDLY PULSATING SUBDWARF B-TYPE BINARY NY Vir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the tentative discovery of a Jovian planet in orbit around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B-type (sdB-type) eclipsing binary NY Vir. By using newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we detect that the observed-calculated (O – C) curve of NY Vir shows a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 7.9 yr and a semiamplitude of 6.1 s, while it undergoes a downward parabolic change (revealing a period decrease at a rate of P-dot = -9.2 x 10-12). The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel-time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary companion was determined to be M3sin i' = 2.3(± 0.3)MJupiter when a total mass of 0.60 M☉ for NY Vir is adopted. This suggests that it is most probably a giant circumbinary planet orbiting NY Vir at a distance of about 3.3 astronomical units (AU). Since the rate of period decrease cannot be explained by true angular momentum loss caused by gravitational radiation or/and magnetic braking, the observed downward parabolic change in the O – C diagram may be only a part of a long-period (longer than 15 years) cyclic variation, which may reveal the presence of another Jovian planet (∼2.5 MJupiter) in the system.

  13. Formation of Nonclassical Ordered Phases of A B -Type Multiarm Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Deng, Hanlin; Li, Weihua; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

    2016-02-01

    The formation of ordered phases from block copolymers is driven by a delicate balance between the monomer-monomer interaction and chain configurational entropy. The configurational entropy can be regulated by designed chain architecture, resulting in a new entropy-driven mechanism to control the self-assembly of ordered phases from block copolymers. An effective routine to regulate the configurational entropy is to utilize multiarm architecture, in which the entropic contribution to the free energy could be qualitatively controlled by the fraction of bridging configurations. As an illustration of this mechanism, the phase behavior of two A B -type multiarm block copolymers, B0-(Bi-Ai) m and (B1-Ai-B2) m where the minority A blocks form cylindrical or spherical domains, are examined using the self-consistent field theory (SCFT). The SCFT results demonstrate that the packing symmetry of the cylinders or spheres can be controlled by the length of the bridging B blocks. Several nonclassical ordered phases, including a novel square array cylinder with p 4 m m symmetry, are predicted to form from the A B -type multiarm block copolymers.

  14. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  15. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  16. Influence of orographically induced transport process on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the distribution of trace gases; Einfluss orographisch induzierter Transportprozesse auf die Struktur der atmosphaerischen Grenzschicht und die Verteilung von Spurengasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossmann, M.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of terrain on the structure of the atmospheric boundary-layer and the distribution of trace gases during periods of high atmospheric pressure was studied by means of meteorological and air-chemical data collected in September 1992 during the TRACT experiment in the transition area between the upper Rhine valley and the northern Black Forest. The emphasis was on the investigation of the development of the convective boundary layer, the formation of thermally induced circulation systems, and the orographic exchange between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere. Thanks to the extensive measurements, phenomena not yet described in literature could be verified by case studies, and processes that had only been established qualitatively could be quantified. (orig.)

  17. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  18. Die historiese betroubaarheid van die aartsvadervertellinge. 'n Beknopte bespreking van die huidige debat na aanleiding van die jongste publikasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vosloo

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Die afgelope twintig jaar was daar �n toenemende belangstelling in die aartsvadervertellinge in Genesis. Benewens die talle tydskrifartikels het skrywers soos die volgende ook boeke oor die onderwerp die lig laat sien: A. Parrot (1962, W. M. Clark (1964, R. Kilian (1966, R. E. Clements (1967, N. Lohfink (1967, H. Weidemann (1968, R. Martin-Achard (1969, T. L. Thompson (1974, J. van Seters (1975, J. P. Fokkelman (1975, C. Westermann (1976, R. Rendtorff (1977, J. Bright (1977, W. McKane (1979 en A. R. Millard en D. J. Wiseman (1980.

  19. Swaziland die Geologie en Geografie van Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Wessels

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1943 het die eerste werklike grootskaalse kartering van die gebied 'n aanvang geneem. En van 1949 af, met die koms van die eerste stel lugfoto’s, is hierdie tempo versnel. Die basiese opname van die gebied is dan ook in 1957 voltooi. In die eerste stadiums van kartering is die klassifikasie van die verskillende rotstopes gevolg soos wat dit deur Hall en later Van Eeden gedoen is. Soos die werk gevorder het, is veranderings ingevoer om die klassifikasie aan te pas by plaaslike omstandighede, maar nie almal hiervan het die toets van die tyd deurstaan nie.

  20. Veldbrandnavorsing in die Struikmopanieveld van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Die geskiedenis van veldbrand en die ontwikkeling van die huidige brandbeleid in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin, Republiek van Suid-Afrika, word bespreek. Aandag word gegee aan die ligging en uitleg van die brandproefherhalings in die struikmopanieveld. Die metode van opname van die houtagtige komponente en die veldlaag word bespreek, sowel as die kriteria wat gebruik is in die vergelyking tussen brandbehandelings. 'n Fitososiologiese tabel van die verskillende persele is opgestel met spesifieke verwysing na die verskille in grondsoorte en hoe dit die floristiese samestelling bei'nvloed. Uit die resultate wat verkry is, is dit duidelik dat meer frekwente brande 'n nadelige invloed op die veldlaag het. Dit hang egter grootliks at van die seisoen van diejaar waarin gebrand word, sowel as die reenval en gepaardgaande opbou van brandbare materiaal. Brande in Augustus, Oktober en Desember is strawwer en rig meer skade in die veldlaag aan. In 'n nat siklus word die houtagtige komponent beter beheer deur 'n meer frekwente brand, maar as dit in 'n droe siklus toegepas word, kan dit lei tot bosindringing. 'n Oorwegende gevolgtrekking van hierdie studie is dat 'n brand* beleid wat nie daarop ingestel is om die natuurlike regime sover moontlik te simuleer nie, tot veldagteruitgang kan lei. Veld fire research on the mopani shrubveld of the Kruger National Park. The history of veld burning and the development of the current burning policy in the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, are discussed. Attention is given to the siting and lay-out of replications of the experimental burning plots in the northern mopani shrubveld. The method used for syurveying the woody and herbaceous components and the criteria used for comparing different burning treatment are explained. A phytosociological table of different plots is presented with special reference to differences in soil types and its influence on floristic composition. The results obtained show that

  1. The Structure and Properties of Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline CrN Coatings in Corrosion Protective Die Casting Molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sung-Yong

    2015-07-01

    Chromium nitride coatings for the surface modified die casting molds with various ICP powers have been prepared using ICP assisted magnetron sputtering. The applied ICP power was varied from 0 to 300 W. The deposited coatings were characterized post-deposition using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Single CrN phased coatings with nano-grain sized (< 20 nm) were identified. The corrosion resistance and hardness of each coating were evaluated from potentiost at and nanoindentator. Superior corrosion protective coatings in excess of 20 GPa were deposited with assistance of ICP plasma during sputtering. PMID:26373141

  2. Aard, funksie en invloed van die Literatuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Elst

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Binne die raam werk van die tema van hierdie simposium gaan dit om twee komponente:die Literatuur, meer bepaald die letterkundige werk of woordkunswerk met sy drie genres endie gemeenskap, die onlvangers of belewers van die Literatuur of doodgewoon die lesers.

  3. Dying for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  4. Dying for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchan, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  5. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  6. Die persepsies en houdings van gelowige jonggetroude egpare oor seksuele intimiteit in die huwelik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinee Pretorius

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel is gebaseer op empiriese navorsing om die persepsies en houdings van gelowige, jonggetroude egpare oor seksuele intimiteit in die huwelik na te vors. Daar is gefokus op hoe die egpare die verhouding sien waarbinne seksuele intimiteit geniet en beleef mag word; wat na hulle mening die man en vrou se plig is rakende die seksuele; wat hulle persepsies is oor die vryheid wat seksuele intimiteit binne die huwelik bied, en wat eksklusiwiteit ten opsigte van seksuele intimiteit binne die huwelik vir elkeen van hulle beteken. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is gebruik en sewe gelowige egpare wat minder as twee jaar getroud was (N = 11, het aan die navorsing deelgeneem. Die navorsingsdata is uit ’n kort vraelys verkry en deur semigestruktureerde onderhoude wat met sommige van die deelnemers gevoer is. ’n Ryke oes van data is verkry en ’n hele aantal temas is identifiseer. Hierdie temas sluit goed aan by die basisteoretiese en metateoretiese perspektiewe wat as onderbou vir hierdie navorsing gedien het.The perceptions and attitudes of religious newlywedded couples regarding sexual intimacy in the marriage. This article is based on empirical research done to explore the perceptions and attitudes of religious newlywedded couples regarding sexual intimacy in the marriage. The research focused on how the couples regard a relationship in which sexual intimacy can be enjoyed and experienced; what, in their opinion, the husband and the wife’s responsibilities are towards each other regarding sex; what their perceptions are about the freedom that sexual intimacy offers in marriage, and what marital exclusivity regarding sexual intimacy means to each of the participants. A qualitative research design was used and seven religious couples that were married less than two years (N = 11 participated in this research. The research data was obtained by using a short questionnaire and semi-structured interviews which were conducted with some of

  7. Chemical compositions of Four B-type Supergiants in the SMC Wing

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J K; Dufton, P L; Ryan, R S I

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution UCLES/AAT spectra of four B-type supergiants in the SMC South East Wing have been analysed using non-LTE model atmosphere techniques to determine their atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions. The principle aim of this analysis was to determine whether the very low metal abundances ($-$1.1 dex compared with Galactic value) previously found in the Magellanic Inter Cloud region (ICR) were also present in SMC Wing. The chemical compositions of the four targets are similar to those found in other SMC objects and appear to be incompatible with those deduced previously for the ICR. Given the close proximity of the Wing to the ICR, this is difficult to understand and some possible explanations are briefly discussed.

  8. An investigation of the applicability of a JxB type current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous theoretical work on JxB current drives is briefly reviewed. Two separate cases are identified. The first is one in which the travelling wave propagates perpendicular to the steady state magnetic field and the second is for the situation in which propagation is parallel to a significant component of the steady state field. For the first case, field penetration and synchronous electron motion is possible. The second case is investigated by considering in detail an m=0 type mode for tokamak parameters, ion motion being taken into account. It is found that neither synchronous motion nor field penetration occurs. Since it is this latter case which is appropriate to tokamaks, these being characterised by the major current flow being parallel to the field, it is concluded that the JxB type current drive has no application in high temperature tokamak devices. (author)

  9. Non-LTE calculations of silicon-line strengths in B-type stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, D.J.; Brown, P.J.F.; Dufton, P.L.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-10-15

    Non-LTE line-formation calculations have been undertaken for Si II, Si III and Si IV ions using a new grid of model atmospheres. The principal difference to previous calculations is the completeness and reliability of the adopted atomic data. Equivalent widths of 58 silicon lines are presented for a range of effective temperatures (17 500-30 000 K), logarithmic gravities (3.5-4.5), microturbulent velocities (0 and 5 km s/sup -1/) and silicon abundances (approximately 7.0-8.0 dex) appropriate to main-sequence early B-type stars. Also tabulated are the corresponding LTE line strengths. The importance of non-LTE effects, particularly in the near-infrared, are confirmed.

  10. Non-LTE calculations of silicon-line strengths in B-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-LTE line-formation calculations have been undertaken for Si II, Si III and Si IV ions using a new grid of model atmospheres. The principal difference to previous calculations is the completeness and reliability of the adopted atomic data. Equivalent widths of 58 silicon lines are presented for a range of effective temperatures (17 500-30 000 K), logarithmic gravities (3.5-4.5), microturbulent velocities (0 and 5 km s-1) and silicon abundances (approximately 7.0-8.0 dex) appropriate to main-sequence early B-type stars. Also tabulated are the corresponding LTE line strengths. The importance of non-LTE effects, particularly in the near-infrared, are confirmed. (author)

  11. Bilinear identities for an extended B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Runliang; Liu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Yunbo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the bilinear identities for the wave functions of an extended B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy, which contains two types of (2+1)-dimensional Sawada-Kotera equation with a self-consistent source (2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II). By introducing an auxiliary variable corresponding to the extended flow for the BKP hierarchy, we find the tau-function and the bilinear identities for this extended BKP hierarchy. The bilinear identities can generate all the Hirota's bilinear equations for the zero-curvature forms of this extended BKP hierarchy. As examples, the Hirota's bilinear equations for the two types of 2d-SKwS (both 2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II) will be given explicitly.

  12. Identification of pulsational modes in rotating slowly pulsating B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Szewczuk, W

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the geometry of pulsational modes is a prerequisite for seismic modelling of stars. In the case of slowly pulsating B-type (SPB) pulsators, the simple zero-rotation approach so far used for mode identification is usually not valid because pulsational frequencies are often of the order of the rotational frequency. Moreover, this approach allows us to determine only the spherical harmonic degree, $\\ell$, while the azimuthal order, $m$, is beyond its reach. On the other hand, because of the density of oscillation spectra of SPB stars, knowledge of $m$ is indispensable if one wants to assign the radial order, $n$, to the observed frequency peaks. Including the effects of rotation via the traditional approximation, we perform identification of the mode angular numbers ($\\ell,~m$) for 31 SPB stars with available multicolour time series photometry. Simultaneously, constraints on the rotational velocity, $V_{\\rm rot}$, and the inclination angle, $i$, are determined assuming uniform rotation and a constan...

  13. Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and mortality in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Gall, M-A; Hansen, B V; Hovind, Peter; Parving, H-H

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Raised N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is associated with a poor cardiac outcome in non-diabetic populations. Elevated NT-proBNP predicts excess morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients with an elevated urinary albumin excretion rate. This study...... investigated the prognostic value of NT-proBNP in a cohort of type 2 diabetic patients. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observational follow-up study, 315 type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (n=188), microalbuminuria (n=80) and macroalbuminuria (n=47) at baseline were followed for...... 1.37 [0.79-2.37] and 2.26 [1.27-4.02], p=0.01). When patients with normo-, micro- and macroalbuminuria were analysed separately, NT-proBNP levels above the median (62 ng/l) were consistently associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality in all three groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS...

  14. Verbessern Discovery Systeme die Informationskompetenz?

    OpenAIRE

    Dörte Böhner

    2013-01-01

    Mit dem Auftauchen von Discovery Systemen entstand die Hoffnung, dass der Schulungsbedarf und damit der Aufwand für die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz verringert und durch die Systeme selbst die Informationskompetenz verbessert werden kann. Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet kritisch das Zusam­menspiel von Discovery Systemen und Informationskompetenz anhand von Recherchegewohnheiten eher untrainierter Studierender. Anhand einer kurzen Gegenüberstellung der unterschiedlichen Recherche­konzepte v...

  15. Die Ethischen Dimensionen der Sicherheitsforschung

    OpenAIRE

    Kolliarakis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Seit langem existiert der Wunsch, Stakeholder, Endnutzer und Bürger am Forschungsprozess über sicherheitsrelevante Themen zu beteiligen. Dies beinhaltet auch die potenziellen Auswirkungen der Forschungsprozeduren und -ergebnisse auf diese Statusgruppen. Bereits im vergangenen Sommer wurden diese Themen in zwei Workshops auf europäischer Ebene behandelt, geladen hatten die Generaldirektion (GD) Forschung und Innovation [link] bzw. die Research Executive Agency der Europäischen Kommission [link...

  16. 阻流环及模具结构对大扩展比连续挤压成形的影响%Effect of the preventing mould and die structure on continuous extrusion deforming under large expansion ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    运新兵; 姚明亮; 赵颖; 杨俊英; 李冰; 宋宝韫

    2011-01-01

    Continuous extrusion under large expansion ratio is a new technology for manufacturing copper strip. Preventing mould and die structure are important effecting factor of deformation. Based on the characteristic of the forming process, the model of rigid-plastic FEM on DEFORM-3D was established and the numerical simulation of continuous extrusion forming process of the copper strip was carried out. The metal flow regularity and the mean-square deviation of velocity with different structures of preventing mould and die were analyzed. The results show that when using preventing mould of drum form with flow promoting angle and using die with variable calibrating strap, the variance of flow velocity is minimum, and when the mean-square deviation of velocity is 1.14, the deformation is the most homogeneous. The results provide the value of directory in optimization design of preventing mould and die structure for continuous extrusion forming.%大扩展比连续挤压是制造铜带的一种新技术,阻流环及模具结构是影响扩展成形的重要因素.根据大扩展比连续挤压扩展成形特点,建立基于DEFORM-3D刚塑性有限元模型,通过对铜带连续挤压过程的数值模拟,分析不同阻流环及模具结构下的金属流动规律、流速均方差.实验与数值模拟结果均表明,使用有促流角的圆鼓形阻流环及变定径带模具时,金属流动速度差最小;流速均方差为0.58时,变形最均匀.为连续挤压成形模具优化设计提供了重要的依据.

  17. Goethe und die Architekturtheorie

    OpenAIRE

    Büchsenschuß, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Trotz einer Vielzahl sekundärliterarischer Beiträge zum Thema ‚Goethe und die Baukunst’ und einer seit Jahren geforderten Bearbeitung des architekturtheoretischen Gehalts im Werk Goethes, gibt es bis auf den heutigen Tag keine umfassende Arbeit hierüber. In dieser Dissertation werden nun Goethes Beiträge zur Architektur detailliert untersucht; der Schwerpunkt ruht hierbei auf den architekturtheoretischen Aspekten. Im ersten Teil der Dissertation wird ein biographisch-chronologischer Überblick...

  18. Die Beharrlichkeit im Verborgenen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Karin Flaake geht in ihrer psychoanalytischen Interpretation innerfamilialer Konstellationen der Frage nach, wie das Zur-Frau-Werden von jungen Frauen erlebt wird. Dabei kommt den körperliche Wandlungsprozessen der Pubertät und den darin eingelagerten expliziten sowie verborgenen Deutungen des Weiblichen – vor allem des weiblichen Körpers – durch die Eltern eine prominente Rolle zu.

  19. Die Evolution der Nierenfunktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Aufgaben der Nieren in der Entgiftung, der Elektrolyt- und Säure-Basen- Haushaltshomöostase sowie der Regulation des Wasserhaushalts werden durch ein extrem komplexes Zusammenspiel von glomerulären und tubulären Funktionen sicher gestellt. Das Studium der Anpassung der einzelnen Strukturen und Stoffwechselabläufe an sich verändernde Umgebungsbedingungen im Laufe der Evolution erlaubt es, unser Verständnis der Physiologie, aber auch der Pathophysiologie zu vertiefen.

  20. When the flame dies

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Ed; Morris, R

    2012-01-01

    When the flame dies Composer - Ed Hughes Librettist - Roger Morris Video - Will Reynolds & Poppy Burton-Morgan With the voices of Andrew McIntosh (baritone); Lucy Williams (mezzo); Peter Kirk (tenor); Emily Phillips (soprano); Ben Williamson (counter-tenor); also video artist Loren O'Dair. Ensemble - The New Music Players Advisers: Tim Hopkins and David Chandler (Professor of Photography, University of Plymouth). Duration: 70 minutes The unnamed Poet, protagonist of the drama, dreams of the U...

  1. Die aktuelle Zahl

    OpenAIRE

    Unger, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Mehr als 100 Milliarden Euro Vermo- gen haben Deutsche laut einer Studie von Boaz and Company in der Schweiz gebunkert. Ein beachtlicher Teil davon stammt aus Steuerhinterziehung. Auch Al ice Schwarzer, mit lhrem Buch .. Der kleine Unterschied und seine grofSen Folgen" eine lkone der franzosischen und deutschen Frauenbewegung, hat Steuern hinterzogen. lhre Selbstanzeige und deren Bekannt werden durch ln diskretionen im Finanzmin isterium werfen die Frage auf, wer hier wen hintergangen hat. Di...

  2. Die Position eines Supervisors

    OpenAIRE

    Teichmann, Volker

    2002-01-01

    Aus der Sicht eines Supervisors ist die Frage nach Qualitätssicherung Eulen nach Athen tragen. Supervision ist eines der ältesten Mittel der Qualitätssicherung und seit jeher integraler Bestandteil sowohl der Klinischen Psychologie als auch anderer Bereiche wie ABO oder Verkehrspsychologie. Ebenso sind Zertifizierung/Akkreditierung Selbstverständlichkeiten. Damit als erstes ein klares JA bezüglich der oben gestellten Frage. Verstanden als Reflexion des eigenen Handelns zur Optimierung d...

  3. Pharmacological chaperones as a potential therapeutic option in methylmalonic aciduria cblB type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Finnigan, Ana; Brasil, Sandra; Underhaug, Jarl; Ruíz-Sala, Pedro; Merinero, Begoña; Banerjee, Ruma; Desviat, Lourdes R; Ugarte, Magdalena; Martinez, Aurora; Pérez, Belén

    2013-09-15

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) cblB type is caused by mutations in the MMAB gene. This encodes the enzyme ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ATR), which converts reduced cob(I)alamin to an active adenosylcobalamin cofactor. We recently reported the presence of destabilizing pathogenic mutations that retain some residual ATR activity. The aim of the present study was to seek pharmacological chaperones as a tailored therapy for stabilizing the ATR protein. High-throughput ligand screening of over 2000 compounds was performed; six were found to enhance the thermal stability of purified recombinant ATR. Further studies using a well-established bacterial system in which the recombinant ATR protein was expressed in the presence of these six compounds, showed them all to increase the stability of the wild-type ATR and the p.Ile96Thr mutant proteins. Compound V (N-{[(4-chlorophenyl)carbamothioyl]amino}-2-phenylacetamide) significantly increased this stability and did not act as an inhibitor of the purified protein. Importantly, compound V increased the activity of ATR in patient-derived fibroblasts harboring the destabilizing p.Ile96Thr mutation in a hemizygous state to within control range. When cobalamin was coadministrated with compound V, mutant ATR activity further improved. Oral administration of low doses of compound V to C57BL/6J mice for 12 days, led to increase in steady-state levels of ATR protein in liver and brain (disease-relevant organs). These results hold promise for the clinical use of pharmacological chaperones in MMA cblB type patients harboring chaperone-responsive mutations. PMID:23674520

  4. CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS ORBITING THE RAPIDLY PULSATING SUBDWARF B-TYPE BINARY NY Vir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Dai, Z.-B.; He, J.-J. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Fernandez-Lajus, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Xiang, F.-Y., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Physics Department, Xiangtan University, 411105 Xiangtan, Funan Province (China)

    2012-02-15

    We report here the tentative discovery of a Jovian planet in orbit around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B-type (sdB-type) eclipsing binary NY Vir. By using newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we detect that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of NY Vir shows a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 7.9 yr and a semiamplitude of 6.1 s, while it undergoes a downward parabolic change (revealing a period decrease at a rate of P-dot = -9.2 x 10{sup -12}). The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel-time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary companion was determined to be M{sub 3}sin i' = 2.3({+-} 0.3)M{sub Jupiter} when a total mass of 0.60 M{sub Sun} for NY Vir is adopted. This suggests that it is most probably a giant circumbinary planet orbiting NY Vir at a distance of about 3.3 astronomical units (AU). Since the rate of period decrease cannot be explained by true angular momentum loss caused by gravitational radiation or/and magnetic braking, the observed downward parabolic change in the O - C diagram may be only a part of a long-period (longer than 15 years) cyclic variation, which may reveal the presence of another Jovian planet ({approx}2.5 M{sub Jupiter}) in the system.

  5. Die skepping van welstand in die skool se kurrikulum vir natuurwetenskappe: Die twee vermiste skakels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. de Beer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel werp lig op twee vermiste skakels wat daartoe lei dat die welstand van leerders en ’n waardering vir ’n meer holistiese siening van gesondheidsorg nie voldoende aandag kry in die kurrikula vir natuurwetenskappe op skool nie. Eerstens word gesondheidsorg in die kurrikula vir natuurwetenskappe (Senior Fase en lewenswetenskappe (Verdere Opvoeding en Opleiding vanuit ’n baie reduksionistiese perspektief beskou (ook deur die betrokke onderwysers, en leerders ontwikkel dus nie waardering vir die holistiese aard daarvan nie. Tweedens word daar betoog vir meer klem op die affektiewe domein in die natuurwetenskappeklaskamer, en groter fokus op inheemse kennisstelsels, wat wel holisme omvat. Die artikel bied praktiese voorbeelde van hoe die grense tussen die natuurwetenskap en die metafisika oorgesteek kan word, sonder om die doktrines wat die aard van natuurwetenskappe beskryf, in gedrang te bring. Voorts word aangedui hoe sodanige oorsteek van grense kan lei tot ’n meer genuanseerde beeld en waardering vir holistiese gesondheidsorg onder skoolleerders.

  6. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  7. Die Finanztransaktionssteuer und deren Kaskadeneffekt durch die steuerliche Belastung

    OpenAIRE

    Schmallowsky, Katrin; Schmallowsky, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    [Fazit] Die Finanztransaktionssteuer ist klar abzulehnen. Sowohl auf Ebene der EU als auch auf nationaler Ebene wären zunächst die Haushalte zu konsolidieren und auf ein normales wirtschaftliches Risiko zurückzuführen. Häufig wird übersehen, dass sich die Finanzkrisen ablösen, was bedeutet, dass die nächste Finanzkrise unmittelbar bevorsteht. Wann diese eintreten wird, ist derzeit nicht vorhersehbar; dass sie kommen wird, ist vorhersehbar. Dies lässt sich nur durch starke saubere Haushalte un...

  8. DIE STRYD TEEN DIE VOORPOSTE: 1-2 FEBRUARIE 1941 (III)

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, L.

    2012-01-01

    Die vyand is mislei en verrasDie vraag is dikwels gestel waarom die Italiaanse lugmag geen rol gespeel het om die aanmars teen Suid-Abessinië en die aanvalle op die voorposte te stuit nie. Behalwe die feit dat die Italianers nie onmiddellik van die aanmars geweet het nie, het die Hertog van Aosta in 'n rapport aan die Italiaanse weermagshoofkwartier in Rome te kenne gegee dat die lugmag nie kon optree nie weens 'n tekort aan vliegtuie. In die lig van die sterk lugmagbasisse na aan die buitepo...

  9. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  10. Die eunug in die klassieke mitologie en samelewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Retief

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die konsep, eunug, wat na ’n gekastreerde persoon (gewoonlik manlik verwys, het sy oorsprong in die mitologie. Van hier word dit deurgevolg na die Klassieke tydperk. Kastrering vir religieuse redes was deel van godsdiensrituele gekoppel aan verering van aardgodinne en fertiliteit. Die kultusse wat aan die godinne Kubele, Hekate, Atargatis-Dea, Astarte, Artemis en Innana-Ishtar gewy was en wat deur eunugpriesters bedien was, word beskryf. Kastrering vir niereligieuse redes, oorwegend weens sosio-ekonomiese oorwegings, het waarskynlik tydens die 2de millennium v.C. sy oorsprong in Midde-Oosterse lande gehad vanwaar dit teen ongeveer die 5de eeu v.C. na Griekeland, en twee eeue later na Rome uitgebrei het. ’n Oorsig word gelewer van die invloed en rol van die eunug ten tye van die klassieke beskawing. Die sogenaamde “kongenitale eunug” waar hipogonadisme weens ’n aangebore letsel ontstaan, ’n baie seldsame verskynsel, word nie verder bespreek nie.

  11. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  12. The body of the Audi A4; Die Karosseriestruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornberg, C. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    On the basis of experience gained from the A4 and A6, the body of the new Audi A4 combines proven structural design features with new and innovative technologies. This article describes in detail the measures that were taken with regard to crash behaviour and vibration levels as well as durability and corrosion protection. (orig.) [German] Auf der Grundlage von Erfahrungen, die mit dem A4 und dem A6 gewonnen wurden, verbindet die Karosserie des neuen Audi A4 bewaehrte Konstruktionsmerkmale mit neuen Technologien. Der folgende Beitrag beschreibt detailliert die Massnahmen, die im Hinblick auf Crashverhalten und Schwingungskomfort sowie Haltbarkeit und Korrosionsschutz getroffen wurden. (orig.)

  13. The elusive third subunit IIa of the bacterial B-type oxidases: the enzyme from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Prunetti

    Full Text Available The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is catalyzed by complicated membrane-bound metallo-enzymes containing variable numbers of subunits, called cytochrome c oxidases or quinol oxidases. We previously described the cytochrome c oxidase II from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus as a ba(3-type two-subunit (subunits I and II enzyme and showed that it is included in a supercomplex involved in the sulfide-oxygen respiration pathway. It belongs to the B-family of the heme-copper oxidases, enzymes that are far less studied than the ones from family A. Here, we describe the presence in this enzyme of an additional transmembrane helix "subunit IIa", which is composed of 41 amino acid residues with a measured molecular mass of 5105 Da. Moreover, we show that subunit II, as expected, is in fact longer than the originally annotated protein (from the genome and contains a transmembrane domain. Using Aquifex aeolicus genomic sequence analyses, N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometry analysis on entire subunits, we conclude that the B-type enzyme from this bacterium is a three-subunit complex. It is composed of subunit I (encoded by coxA(2 of 59000 Da, subunit II (encoded by coxB(2 of 16700 Da and subunit IIa which contain 12, 1 and 1 transmembrane helices respectively. A structural model indicates that the structural organization of the complex strongly resembles that of the ba(3 cytochrome c oxidase from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the IIa helical subunit being structurally the lacking N-terminal transmembrane helix of subunit II present in the A-type oxidases. Analysis of the genomic context of genes encoding oxidases indicates that this third subunit is present in many of the bacterial oxidases from B-family, enzymes that have been described as two-subunit complexes.

  14. Sedimentêre omgewings van die Inhaca-eilandstelsel met spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Peché

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Inhaca-eilandstelsel is geleë langs die suidooskus van Mosambiek. Die oostekant van die stelsel grens aan die Indiese Oseaan en die westekant aan die Baai van Maputo. Hierdie eilandstelsel bestaan uit Inhaca- en Portugese eiland, asook ’n groep sandbanke wat van die noordlike punt van Inhaca na Portugese eiland strek. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verskillende moderne en oer-sedimentêre omgewings op die eilandstelsel te identifiseer en te beskryf, die invloed van getye en golfaksie op die moderne sedimentêre omgewing vas te stel en die geochemiese en petrografiese samestelling van die geologiese eenhede te bepaal.

  15. Die Hofmethode in der Praxis

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Ausgehend von einem assoziativen Bedeutungsmodell und einem relationalen Textverständnis wird die Bedeutung eines Wortes als Funktion derjenigen Wörter aufgefasst, die das betreffende Wort (wie einen Hof) umgeben. Die Hofmethode greift aus einem längeren Text die fünf Wörter vor und die fünf Wörter nach bestimmten Stichwörtern als "Bedeutungshöfe" heraus und vergleicht diese Höfe mit den Stichwörtern eines anderen Textes. Der paarweise Ähnlichkeitswert zwischen einer Reihe von Wortverwendunge...

  16. Die Partnerschaft NATO-Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrova, Olga

    1997-01-01

    Mitte 1997 schloss die Ukraine wichtige Abkommen und Verträge, die ihre Staatlichkeit nach aussen gefestigt und ihre Stellung in Europa wesentlich untermauert haben. Dazu gehört auch die Charta über die besondere Partnerschaft zwischen der NATO und der Ukraine. Die Charta soll vor allem einen Rahmen für den Ausbau der herausgehobenen Beziehungen NATO-Ukraine schaffen. In ihr werden Bereiche der Konsultation und der Zusammenarbeit zwischen der NATO und der Ukraine sowie deren institutionellen ...

  17. Die ideaal van die spreker in die satiriese gedig: M.M. Walters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Cameron

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer van die satirikus gepraat word, word eintlik die spreker in die satiriese gedig veronderstel. “For the Muse ought always to be our reminder that it is not the author as man who casts these shadows on our printed page, but the author as poet” (Mack, 1971:193.

  18. Die teologie in gesprek met die ekonomie

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. (Kobus) Labuschagne

    1992-01-01

    Theology in dialogue with economics The purpose of this essay is to explain the development of Western society and its economic foundation, and to offer a Christian ethical evaluation of the different economic structures.

  19. Die teologie in gesprek met die ekonomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Labuschagne

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Theology in dialogue with economics The purpose of this essay is to explain the development of Western society and its economic foundation, and to offer a Christian ethical evaluation of the different economic structures.

  20. Ekumeniese kerkreg: Die aangewese weg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Strauss

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Die argument word gehoor dat kerkregeringstelsels soos dié van die Rooms-Katolieke, Lutherse en gereformeerde kerke van ’n transendentale aard was en is. Daardeur word geïmpliseer dat hierdie stelsels een transendentale, unieke vaste beginsel gebruik om ’n hele stelsel van kerkregering van buite af te bepaal. Volgens Leo Koffeman, ’n voorstander van ’n ekumeniese kerkreg, plaas hierdie stelsels hulself hiermee buite die diskoers oor kerkreg en kerkregering en die beweging van die Heilige Gees. ’n Ekumeniese kerkreg, daarenteen, is ten gunste van ’n gemeenskaplike kerkreg tussen kerke. Omdat dit verskillende tradisies bymekaar bring, is dit ’n kritiese en daarom beter benadering. Die skrywer oorweeg hierdie argumente krities in die lig van ’n gereformeerde benadering tot kerkreg.

  1. Die andersheid van Die verdwaalde land – die waarheid as storie vertel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hattingh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Die verdwaalde land was written by Abraham Phillips, a so-called Coloured man from a South African working class background; someone who has no knowledge of literary conventions. The question arises: how can such a text be read without its uniqueness being affected by biased preconceptions? This article shows that post-structurally inspired theories on colonial discourse reveal perspectives on the complexity within the simplicity of this story. In this analysis of Die verdwaalde land particular emphasis is placed on identifying the framing strategies through which images and presentations of the Self and Other are created. Literary conventions are exposed as mechanisms which demarcate meaning, which in principle do not differ much from the manipulative strategies which define identity in the real world.Irrespective of nationality and time the line at which light race meets dark is the line at which human sociality is found at the lowest ebb; and wherever that line conies into existence there arc found the darkest shadows which we humans have cast by our injustice and egoism across the earth. (Olive Schreiner - Thoughts on South Africa

  2. Temperature field and failure analysis of die-casting die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soković

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dies for aluminium alloys die-casting fail because of a great number of a different and simultaneously operating factors. Some of them may be controlled to some extent by the die-casting experts.Design/methodology/approach: In the experimental part of our work the failures on the working surface of the fixed half of the testing die for die-casting of aluminium alloys were observed with the use of non-destructive testing methods: such as thermographic analysis, penetrants, and metallographic examination of polymeric replicas.Findings: In the process of the die-casting the primary source of loading is cyclic variation of the temperature; the influence of other loads is relatively insignificant.Research limitations/implications: For economical production of aluminium and aluminium alloys die-castings it is important that the dies have a long working life. The replacement of a die is expensive in both: money and production time.Practical implications: Beside, the die design, the material selection and the process thermal stress fatigue course, which is the consequence of the working conditions, the inhomogeneous and to low initial temperature of the die, contribute to the cracks formation.Originality/value: It is clearly seen from the presented thermographs, that the required temperatures and homogeneity of the temperature field of the discussed case are not possible to reach without the changing both: the heating method and the die design. Therefore in the first stage a solution of the problem should be in changing of the position of heating and/or cooling channels, i.e. their closer shifting to the working surface of the die.

  3. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  4. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  5. Die Erkenntnis der Liebe

    OpenAIRE

    Mitscherlich-Schönherr, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Mit der Frage nach der Erkenntnis der Liebe möchte ich mich der verbreiteten, einfachen Gegenüberstellung von dem Wahn der Leidenschaften einerseits und der nüchternen Verstandeserkenntnis andererseits widersetzen. Ich trete für ein phänomenologisch angeleitetes Verständnis der liebenden Erkenntnis als Erkenntnis des Geliebten in seiner haecceitas ein. Der liebende Blick schaut meiner Ansicht nach den Geliebten in seinen Eigenschaften als diese besondere Person, die ihre Eigenschaften hat. Im...

  6. Die pastorale sielkundige as diakonale pastor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Smuts

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available In die bedieningspatroon van die Ned. Geref. Kerk het die pastorale sielkundige die afgelope aantal jare steeds meer op die voorgrond begin tree. Hy is egter 'n problematiese figuur, wie se identiteit van meer as een kant onder bespreking is. In ander lande, selfs in die VSA waar die kerk veel gebruik maak van die sielkunde, is dit moeilik om 'n presiese parallel vir hom te vind. Sowel binne as buite die kerk word hy deur sommige bevraagteken. Daarom is dit noodsaaklik om vanuit die teologie te kyk na die werk wat hy doen.

  7. Onderwysersopleiding as prakties-sielkundige antwoord op die eise wat die moderne tyd aan die Calvinistiese filosofie en praktyk van die opvoeding stel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Cilliers

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Die tema van hierdie simposium gaan oor hoe die eise van die moderne tyd deur die Calvinistiese filosofie en praktyk van die opvoeding benader kan word. Aan my is toebedeel die prakties-sielkundige aspek daarvan; maar dit is ’n geweldige wye onderwerp en daarom gaan ek my meer bepaald toespits op een besondere aspek daarvan naamlik die van die onderwyser en onderwysersopleiding.

  8. Nitriding of Aluminum Extrusion Die: Effect of Die Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2010-04-01

    Nitriding of complex-shaped extrusion dies may result in non-uniform nitride layers and hence a required hardness may not be achieved in some regions of the bearing area. The present study is carried out to assess the effect of extrusion die profile on the characteristics and growth behavior of nitride layers so that the critical die design feature can be identified to enhance the uniformity of the nitride layer. For this purpose, AISI H13 steel samples have been manufactured with profiles similar to those of hot extrusion dies. The samples were then gas nitrided under controlled nitriding potential. The uniformity and depth of nitride layers have been investigated in terms of compound layer and total nitride case depth for selected die features. The results of this study indicated the need to include the effect of profile on the nitride layer for the optimal die design with improved service life.

  9. Die gebruik van metode in die filosofie, spesiaal in die reformatoriese tra­disie 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. van der Merwe

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Die onderw erp van my voordrag, Die gebruik van metode in die fílosofie, verg ’n paar verduidelikende opinerkings vooraf. Ek dink u verm oed alreeds dat hierdie fomulering ’n versuikerde pil is om u in so ’n mate nuuskierig te maak dat una ’n heerlike vrye filosofiese ‘onderonsie’ gedurende die teepouse darem vir ’n tw eede sessie terugkeer. Want is dit nie twee smaaklike heuningdruppels nie: filosofie en sy metode’ en ‘metode in die Reformatoriese filosofiese tradisie'?! Veral as in gedagte gehou word dat in teenstelling met wat ’n mens sou verw ag, daaroor dié onderwerp as sodanig relatief maar heel weinig geskrywe is en word, selfs as die ‘Inleidings in die Metodologie’ daarby gereken word.

  10. Rekenaargesteunde onderrig (RGO in die Departement Grieks aan die UOVS: Die moonthkhede van RGO in Grieksonderrig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van W. Cronje

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word besin oor die vraag of RGO inderdaad in die onderrig van Grieks moontlik is en word aangedui hoe bekende RGO-tegnieke soos die opbou van databanke en itemgenerering werkbaar gemaak kan word in die rekenarisering van die ondem'g van Grieks. Die gebruik van SPINX 2000 ('n program wat aan die UOVS ontwikkel is word ook bespreek. In this article the reasons are discussed why CAE in Greek is indeed possible. The ways in which well-known techniques in CAE, e.g. the processing of data and the generating of items, can be applied, are discussed, as well as the use of SPINX 2000, a program develped at UOFS.

  11. Die derivation der slowenischen substantive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ]ože Toporišič

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick­ sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im

  12. Die Einbeziehung der Nichtregierungsorganisationen in die Arbeit der UNESCO

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinka, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    NGOs gelten als wichtige Akteure, um die Belange der Zivilgesellschaft auch auf internationaler Ebene zu repräsentieren. Die UNESCO hat ihr Potenzial bereits frühzeitig erkannt und bietet ihren Partner-NGOs verschiedene Wege der Einflussnahme. Mit der neuen NGO-Richtlinie von 2011 haben neben internationalen NGOs auch lokale und regionale nichtstaatliche Organisationen die Möglichkeit, einen Konsultativ- oder Assoziativstatus mit der UNESCO einzugehen und dementsprechend ihre Interessen in de...

  13. Die historiese Jesus, die Jesus-beweging en die vorming van die kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries van Aarde

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical Jesus, the Jesus movement and the birth of the church. The article focuses on the birth of the church. The point at which the church began its existence is located within the boundaries of fonnative Judaism. The parting of the ways is explained as a movement from faction to sect, to the eventual fonnation of the church in its own right as distinct from the synagogue. The historical Jesus should therefore not be seen as the founder of the church. However, the article argues that the relation of the life and death of the historical Jesus to the resurrection belief of the post-paschal Jesus movement constitutes the cradle of the church. This continuum between Jesus and New Testament Christendom is referred to by means of the Gennan phrase die Sache Jesu. Reconsideration of this trajectory results in the conviction that the vision and program of the historical Jesus cannot be neglected when one reflects on the nature of the church in the New Testament or on the vocation of the church through history to the present day. Two thought complexes form the kernel of die Sache Jesu: God's unbounded presence and the concept that everyone has unmediated and non-hierarchical access to the grace of God.

  14. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  15. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star sigma Lupi

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichs, H F; Plaggenborg, B; Marsden, S C; Waite, I A; Landstreet, J D; Wade, G A; Grunhut, J H; Oksala, M E

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. To identify them, we use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of UV stellar wind lines occurring symmetric about the approximate rest wavelength. Probable magnetic candidates are targets for follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic field. From the UV wind line variability the B1/B2V star sigma Lupi emerged as a new magnetic candidate star. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. The longitudinal component of the magnetic field integrated over the visible surface of the star was determined with the Least-Squares Deconvolution method. The UV line variations of sigma Lupi are similar to what is known in magnetic B stars, but no periodicity could be determined. We detected a varying longitudinal magnetic field with amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G, which supports an oblique magnetic-rotator configuration. The EW variations of the UV lines, the magnetic and ...

  16. Separating E and B types of polarization on an incomplete sky

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Detection of magnetic-type ($B$-type) polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation plays a crucial role in probing the relic gravitational wave (RGW) background. In this paper, we propose a new method to deconstruct a polarization map on an incomplete sky into purely electric and magnetic polarization type maps, ${\\mathcal{E}}(\\hat{\\gamma})$ and ${\\mathcal{B}}(\\hat{\\gamma})$, respectively. The main properties of our approach are as follows: Firstly, the construction of the fields ${\\mathcal{E}}(\\hat{\\gamma})$ and ${\\mathcal{B}}(\\hat{\\gamma})$ out of the initial polarization field is an information lossless method in the continuous limit. In practice however, one should remove a narrow edge of the constructed maps due to various numerical errors, including those arising from finite pixel sizes, and this leads to a small loss of information. Secondly, this method is fast and can be efficiently applied to high resolution maps due to the use of the fast spherical harmonics transformation. Third...

  17. Nitrogen enrichment, boron depletion and magnetic fields in slowly-rotating B-type dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, T; Briquet, M

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary models for massive stars, accounting for rotational mixing effects, do not predict any core-processed material at the surface of B dwarfs with low rotational velocities. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we present a detailed and fully-homogeneous, NLTE abundance analysis of 20 early B-type dwarfs and (sub)giants that reveals the existence of a population of nitrogen-rich and boron-depleted, yet intrinsically slowly-rotating objects. The low-rotation rate of several of these stars is firmly established, either from the occurrence of phase-locked UV wind line-profile variations, which can be ascribed to rotational modulation, or from theoretical modelling in the pulsating variables. The observational data presently available suggest a higher incidence of chemical peculiarities in stars with a (weak) detected magnetic field. This opens the possibility that magnetic phenomena are important in altering the photospheric abundances of early B dwarfs, even for surface field strengths at the one hund...

  18. Improving stellar parameter and abundance determinations of early B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    In the past years we have made great efforts to reduce the statistical and systematic uncertainties in stellar parameter and chemical abundance determinations of early B-type stars. Both the construction of robust model atoms for non-LTE line-formation calculations and a novel self-consistent spectral analysis methodology were decisive to achieve results of unprecedented precision. They were extensively tested and applied to high-quality spectra of stars from OB associations and the field in the solar neighbourhood, covering a broad parameter range. Initially, most lines of hydrogen, helium and carbon in the optical/near-IR spectral range were reproduced simultaneously in a consistent way for the first time, improving drastically on the accuracy of results in published work.By taking additional ionization equilibria of oxygen, neon, silicon and iron into account, uncertainties as low as ~1% in effective temperature, ~10% in surface gravity and ~20% in elemental abundances are achieved - compared to ~5-10%, ~2...

  19. Expression of the Scavenger Receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) family in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herboso, Leire; Talamillo, Ana; Pérez, Coralia; Barrio, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, cholesterol is transformed into steroid hormones in the adrenal gland, the ovaries or the testes. The Scavenger Receptors Class B Type I (SR-BI) are membrane proteins that belong to the CD36 family and participate in the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl ester in the mammalian steroidogenic tissues. Fourteen members of the CD36 family have been identified in Diptera, although their expression patterns remain uncharacterized. Using in situ hybridization we have characterized the expression patterns of the fourteen SR-BIs in Drosophila melanogaster. We analyzed three different developmental larval stages prior to and during the peak of the insect steroid hormone ecdysone, which triggers the larval to pupal transition. We focused on the steroidogenic tissues, such as the prothoracic gland, the ovaries and the testes, and extended our analysis to non-steroidogenic tissues, such as the fat body, salivary glands, the gut, the gastric caeca or the central nervous system. Our results show highly regulated expression patterns, with three genes crq, pes and Snmp being upregulated in steroidogenic tissues at the onset of pupariation when steroidogenesis is crucial. This study underlines the importance of the transport of cholesterol and steroids in the process of ecdysone synthesis. PMID:21948708

  20. The nature of the late B-type stars HD 67044 and HD 42035

    CERN Document Server

    Monier, R; Royer, F

    2016-01-01

    While monitoring a sample of apparently slowly rotating superficially normal bright late B and early A stars in the northern hemisphere, we have discovered that HD 67044 and HD 42035, hitherto classified as normal late B-type stars, are actually respectively a new chemically peculiar star and a new spectroscopic binary containing a very slow rotator HD 42035 S with ultra-sharp lines (vsini = 3.7 km/s) and a fast rotator HD 42035 B with broad lines. The lines of Ti, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba are conspicuous features in the high resolution SOPHIE spectrum of HD 67044. The HgII line at 3983.93 A is also present as a weak feature. The composite spectrum of HD 42035 is characterised by very sharp lines formed in HD 42035 S superimposed onto the shallow and broad lines of HD 42035 B. These very sharp lines are mostly due to light elements from C to Ni, the only heavy species definitely present are Sr and Ba. Selected lines of 21 chemical elements from He up to Hg have been synthesized using model atmospheres compute...

  1. Oxygen abundance determination of B-type stars with the OI 7771-5A lines

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen abundances of 34 B-type stars in the effective temperature range of Teff~10000-28000K with diversified rotational velocities (vesini~ 0-250km/s) were determined from the OI triplet lines at 7771-5A, with an aim to examine whether this OI feature can be a reliable abundance indicator for such high-temperature stars including rapid rotators. It revealed that the required non-LTE abundance correction is distinctly large (ranging from ~-0.6dex to ~-1.7dex) and its consideration is indispensable. On the condition that the non-LTE effect is taken into account, this triplet is a useful O abundance indicator (with a precision of ~200mA). In contrast, it is not adequate for abundance derivation for stars at Teff >~25000K, where its strength rapidly drops down toward a hardly detectable level (except for sharp-lined stars) and its sensitivity to Teff or log g becomes considerably large. The resulting non-LTE oxygen abundances turned out to be almost normal (i.e., near-solar around ~8.7-8.8 within +/-~0.2dex) for...

  2. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  3. Die EU und die 'Neuen Nachbarn' Ukraine und Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    Mit der Osterweiterung erhält die EU im Mai 2004 zunächst zwei 'Neue Nachbarn': die Ukraine und Belarus. Vor diesem Hintergrund präsentierte die EU im März 2003 ein Strategiepapier »Größeres Europa/Nachbarschaft«, in dem sie eine stufenweise Verdichtung der Beziehungen vorschlägt, nach Ländern differenziert und abhängig von der jeweiligen Verwirklichung innerer Reformen. Gemeinsam erarbeitete, projektbezogene Aktionspläne sollen den Rahmen füllen; die Tür zur EU-Mitgliedschaft bleibt halboffe...

  4. Molecular ion index assisted comprehensive profiling of B-type oligomeric proanthocyanidins in rhubarb by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Kazuma, Kohei; Wei, Sheng-Li; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are major anti-diarrhea constituents in rhubarb, one of the frequently used traditional medicines. However, the phytochemical investigation of PAs in rhubarb was hampered by their strenuous purification and identification. In the present study, aiming to clarify the distribution of PAs in different rhubarb species, a molecular ion index was priorly established according to the structural features of B-type PAs, which led to a series of targeted discovery of oligomeric PAs in rhubarb by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Totally, 66 oligomeric PAs including 27 dimers, 29 trimers, and 10 tetramers were tentatively identified on the basis of their MS/MS spectra from 28 rhubarb samples derived from 5 Rheum species as R. palmatum, R. tanguticum, R. officinale, R. coreanum, and R. laciniatum. It is noteworthy that 6 propelargonidins, 14 prodelphinidins, and 10 procyanidin-tetramers were identified from rhubarb for the first time. The profiling comparison of these oligomeric PAs in different rhubarb samples was achieved by visualizing their abundance in a heat map, which indicated the dominant PAs in rhubarb were procyanidin-dimer and its galloylated derivatives. Graphical Abstract A molecular ion index was priorly established according to the structural features of B-type PAs, which led to a series of targeted discovery of oligomeric PAs in rhubarb by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. PMID:26931121

  5. Decomposition of DyF3 and its effect on magnetic performance of DyF3-doped Nd-Fe-B-type hot-deformed magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, H. W.; Lee, J. G.; Yu, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    Decomposition of DyF3 and its effect on the magnetic performance of the hot-pressed compact and die-upset magnet of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B-type material were investigated. DyF3 was thermally decomposed above 660 °C, and this decomposition was linked closely to the coercivity enhancement. When the DyF3 doped flakes were hot-pressed above the decomposition temperature of DyF3, the diffusion of Dy into the flakes was promoted, and leading to profound coercivity enhancement. Coercivity of the hot-pressed magnet was further enhanced by post-hot-press annealing, and coercivity as high as 24.5 kOe was obtained after the optimum annealing. The DyF3 doped hot-deformed magnet exhibited enhanced magnetic performance (iHc = 17.5 kOe, Br = 12.8 kG, (BH)max = 37.6 MGOe) with respect to the un-doped magnet without sacrificing significant remanence. Coercivity was improved by 30%. In magnet in which the decomposition of DyF3 and Dy diffusion were fully accomplished, the region originally occupied by added DyF3 was completely replaced by NdF3.

  6. Op die grens van vakwetenskap en filosofie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Elaine Botha

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Die begrip “grens” soos dit voorkom in die titel is vir meerdere uitleg vatbaar. Eerstens sou dit kon dui op ’n onoorskreibare punt tussen die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe, so iets soos ’n grenspaal of baken, met ander woorde ’n punt van waterdigte skeiding tussen die domein van die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe. As ’n mens soms die dramatiese grensgevegte tussen die filo­ sofie en die vakwetenskappe in die wetenskaplike literatuur beskou1 dan blyk dit kennelik noodsaaklik te wees om wel sodanige grens te stel, veral ten einde die gevaar van weten­ skaplike terrorisme van die een of die ander kant die hoof te bied.

  7. Handelinge in die erediens: Die verryking van die liturgie deur musiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsabé Kloppers

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Actions in the worship service: Enriching liturgy through musicThe worship service in the Reformed Churches in South Africa has of late come under pressure. On the one hand it is experienced as too rigid and “traditional”. On the other hand superficial forms of renewal create tension. In this article the worship service and the meaning of the liturgical actions in the worship service of the Afrikaans Reformed Churches are discussed, and related to world-wide ecumenical tendencies. It is argued that certain liturgical actions are a necessary part of the ritual of the worship service. The structure needs inner logic, although there should also be some degree of flexibility. Hymns and music offer the means for a more creative presentation of liturgical actions and traditional forms. Suggestions to enrich the liturgy through the use of hymns and liturgical forms in the Liedboek van die Kerk (2001 are offered.

  8. Moraliteit, die opdringerige en die voorwaardelike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Heyns

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Morality, the obtrusive and the conditional The secularist (immanentist, historicist and pluralistic nature of current thinking disables the articulation of transcendental conditions for morality. It is ostensibly especially the constancy of a structure for morality, as transcendental condition, for morality that is disputable. However, an aggressive immanentism sees to it that a transcendent origin for morality does not even appear on the agenda of late modern thinkers, which makes the latter probably an equally serious marginalisation of transcendental considerations. In this article the (sometimes unconscious experience of some philosophers that a constant structure for morality obtrudes itself upon us, is highlighted. A further claim is that a similar obtrusion can be observed about a coherent diversity of moral sources (i.e. sources which find themselves in a transcendental position with regard to each other. The “most daring” argument is for a transcendental transcendent origin for morality.

  9. Die wysgerige konsepsie van Thomas van Aquino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Van Aquino

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Samevattend is tot dusver die volgende aangetoon: Die werklikheid vertoon volgens Thomas 'n hierargiese struktuur. Daar is verskillende grade van syn. God is die hoogste, die volheid van syn, en by die laere synsniveaus is daar steeds 'n verdere verwydering van hierdie synsvolmaaktheid in die rigting van absolute afwesigheid van syn. Hierdie synshiërargie is volgens die vorm-materieskema opgebou. Die materie in die hoëre synslaag word vorm vir die laere, of omgekeerd: die vorm van die laere is die materie vir die hoëre dinge. God is absoluut suiwer vorm of wet (essensie. Die vorme van die dinge is die goddelike wet (genoem exemplar, similitudo, ratio, verbum of imago wat deur God daarin geskape is. God druk op dié wyse sy gelykenis op kreatuur.like wyse uit. Sy absolute volmaaktheid kan alleen tot uitdrukking gebring word deur 'n veelheid en verskeidenheid van geskape dinge. God word deur Thomas die causa effiaiens en exemplaris genoem. Die verhouding tussen Skepper en geskape werklikheid is dus dié van oorsaak en gevolg. As gevolg van sy wetsidee word daar deur Thomas dus nie duidelik tussen Skepper en skepping onderskei nie, want skepping beteken volgens hom onder andere dat God iets goddeliks (die wet in die dinge lê. Via die goddelike wet in die dinge ingeskape, is daar 'n sekere kontinuiteit tussen God en kosmos.

  10. Die Transition zur pflegenden Tochter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dräger

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch aus der Reihe „Studien zur Gesundheits- und Pflegewissenschaft“ beschreibt den theoretischen Hintergrund, das methodische Vorgehen und die Ergebnisse einer biografischen Untersuchung, die sich dem Übergang von der Tochter zur pflegenden Tochter widmete. Grundlage der Publikation ist die Dissertation (2002 der Autorin. Mit der Berücksichtigung biographischer und familiärer Hintergründe wird eine neue Perspektive in der Forschung zu pflegenden Angehörigen eingenommen.

  11. Gegen die Neubelebung der Entfernungspauschale

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Juergen B.; Eekhoff, Johann; Franz, Wolfgang; Fuest, Clemens; Möschel, Wernhard; Neumann, Manfred J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Noch in diesem Jahr wird sich das Bundesverfassungsgericht mit der Frage befassen, ob die Pendlerpauschale mit dem Grundgesetz vereinbar ist. Angerufen wurde das Verfassungsgericht im letzten Jahr von zwei Finanzgerichten der ersten Instanz, sowie Anfang dieses Jahres vom Bundesfinanzhof. Die obersten Steuerrichter halten die seit dem 1. Januar 2007 geltende Regelung der Entfernungspauschale, wonach Fahrtkosten zur Arbeit erst ab dem 21. Kilometer abzusetzen sind, für verfassungswidrig. Nach ...

  12. Pylstertmotte (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. van den Berg

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available 'n Totaal van 42 spesies van pylstertmotte is in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin versamel. Die bekendste hiervan is die patatrusper (Herse convolvuli (L en die dood-skedelmot (Acherontia atropos (L. Die volgende spesies wat versamel is, se voorkoms is nog nie voorheen vir die Republiek van Suid-Afrika aangemeld nie nl. Pemba flavillacea (Walk., Praedora plagiata (R. &J., Leptoclanis basalis (Walk., Polyptychus calcareus (R. &J., Polyptychus compar (R. &J., Nephele aequivalens (Walk., Nephele peneus (Cram., Hippotion roseipennis (Butler en Xenosphingia jansei (Jord.. Die verspreiding van Oligographa juniperi (Bsd. wat langs die kusgebiede van Natal en die Oos-Kaap aangetrefword, is op verskeie plekke in die Krugerwildtuin versamel.

  13. Die Presbiter by Lukas en Paulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste navorsing oor Lukas word die skrywer van die derde evangelieverhaal en die Handelinge van die Apostels aan ons bekend gestel as ’n teoloog wat uit die ‘Sitz im Leben’ (uit die situasie van sy eie tyd die boodskap aangaande Christus interpreteer . Lukas sou hom by sy interpretasie van die Christusboodskap laat lei het deur ’n bepaalde dogmatiese ‘Verstandnis’ waardeur hy homself verraai as ’n teoloog van die na-apostoliese tyd.

  14. Osteoporose - die Sicht des Radiologen

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    Grampp S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Die frühe Diagnose der Osteoporose und eine akkurate Beurteilung von Behandlungserfolgen stehen im Mittelpunkt der radiologischen Bemühungen. Die häufigsten angewendeten Methoden, um das periphere Skelett sowie das Achsenskelett zu beurteilen, sind die Zwei-Spektren-Röntgenabsorptiometrie, die quantitative Computertomographie und der quantitative Ultraschall. Generell werden die Meßergebnisse eines Individuums mit einer alters-, geschlechts-, und rassenspezifischen Kontrollgruppe verglichen. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse ein Indikator des künftigen Frakturrisikos eines Patienten. Die radiologische Diagnose der Osteoporose kann durch die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse erfolgen, auch wenn keine prävalenten Frakturen vorliegen. Das Frakturrisiko für den Meßwert eines Individuums steigt um etwa das 1,5 bis 2,5-fache für jede Standardabweichung (SD unter der Spitzenknochenmasse der Normbevölkerung (T-score. Die Wahl des Meßortes und der Untersuchungstechnik zur Bestimmung der Knochenmasse oder des Frakturrisikos muß sich nach individuellen Gegebenheiten des Patienten sowie den Stärken und Limitationen der Techniken richten.

  15. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

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    Johan J. Du Preez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal- holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  16. Die Effekte ambidextrer Führung auf die Ideengenerierung und Ideenimplementierung, die Team-Innovation und die allgemeine Teamleistung

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit basiert auf der Annahme, dass die bisherigen Ansätze in der Führungsliteratur vor dem Hintergrund neuer Herausforderungen durch Ansätze ergänzt werden sollten, die sich explizit auf den Umgang mit scheinbaren Widersprüchen und Paradoxien beziehen. Zu diesem Zweck wird in Anlehnung an bestehende Paradox-Ansätze eine Konzeptualisierung und Operationalisierung der ambidextren Führung vorgeschlagen. Ambidextre Führung wird dabei definiert als Verhaltensweisen, die gegensätz...

  17. Die navorsingsmetode van die fundamentele opvoedkunde*

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    J. L. Van der Walt

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental Pedagogics, as one of the group of sciences constituting Education, has it's own set of research methods, although investigation of and thought about these do not always seem to he firmly grounded. Such investigation reveals that the inductive, verification o f hypothesis method as well as the method of literature study, is a basic method  of this discipline. Apart from these well-known methods there are, however, other methods of research which are useful only for Fundamental Pedagogics. Such methods would include the method of reflection about principles where the process of thinking fulfils itself within the framework of regulative principles; the method of the analysis of phenomena as a subsection of the encompassing method of the empirical study of structure, the transcendental-critical method with its various phases (the immanent. the transcendental, the. transcendent and the ethretical and the problem- historical method. For the Fundamental Pedagogics student all these methods (as far as possible in combination to evade the danger of monism are useful and important, because they do not only enable him to analyse the phenomenon of education, hut also to reflet tellingly on educational events and to describe educational structures, as well as to dele mine which religion is the driving force behind a specific theory of education and practice of education, and which then functions within that framework.

  18. Effect of grain size and tungsten addition on microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B type magnets

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    A. Przybył

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the microstructural and magnetic examinations of Nd-Fe-B type magnets produced by the mechanical powder milling method and doped with tungsten.Design/methodology/approach: The effect of the grain size and addition of tungsten on the microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline alloys of the basic composition of Nd10Fe84B6, as produced by the method of mechanical alloying in the process of prolonged milling, was investigated in the study. Powders were subjected to milling for a duration ranging from 10 to 120 hours in an Ar protective atmosphere. Moreover tungsten was added to the base alloy that exhibited the best magnetic parameters. The tungsten content of alloys varied in a broad range from 0 to 33 at%.Findings: The examinations have shown that the grinding duration, for which the best magnetic properties are obtained, is 90 hours. Prolonged grinding has a significant effect on the grain size and microstructure refinement. The alloy addition in the form of tungsten, similarly as in the case of prolonged grinding, leads to a structure refinement. In the case of W addition, an increase in the coercive field, with a simultaneous decrease in the value of remanence and magnetic energy density (BHmax, is observed.Practical implications: Development of relatively cheap Nd10Fe56W28B6 magnets of good service properties.Originality/value: Determination of the effect of grain size and tungsten content on the magnetic properties and microstructure of the Nd-Fe-B magnets.

  19. The Born Rule Dies

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2009-01-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule dies and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure pr...

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma with chronic B-type hepatitis complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A 57-year-old man consulted a local hospital because of a persistent slight fever. At the age of 37 years he was diagnosed having B-type hepatitis, but left the liver dysfunction untreated. Twenty years later, he was diagnosed having chronic hepatitis B, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and macrocytic anemia, and referred to our hospital for further investigation. A HCC with a maximum diameter of 5.2 cm was detected in segment 8. Results of blood tests included 1.8 mg/dL serum total bilirubin, 0.9 mg/dL bilirubin, less than 10 mg/dL haptoglobin, 7.9 g/dL hemoglobin, 130 fL MCV, and 14.5% reticulocytes. A bone marrow sample showed erythroid hyperplasia. The direct Coombs test gave a positive result. We diagnosed the anemia as autoimmmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), for which prednisolone could not be administered due to positivity for HBsAg and HBeAg. After preparation of washed blood cells for later transfusion, the patient underwent systematic resection of segment 8. The cut surface of the resected specimen demonstrated an encapsulated yellow-brownish tumor measuring 52 mm × 40 mmwhich was diagnosed pathologicaly as moderately differentiated HCC. On the 9th postoperative day, the patient's temperature rose to 38℃, and exacerbated hemolysis was observed. The maximum total bilirubin value was 5.8 mg/dL and minimum hemoglobin level was 4.6 g/dL. He tolerated this period without blood transfusion. Currently he is being followed up as an outpatient, and shows no signs of HCC recurrence or symptoms of anemia. AIHA associated with HBV infection has been described in only three previous cases, and the present case is the first in which surgery was performed for accompanying HCC.

  1. Regulation and splicing of scavenger receptor class B type I in human macrophages and atherosclerotic plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagerberg Björn

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in the cardiovascular system is related to its role in the reverse transport of cholesterol from the arterial wall to the liver for subsequent excretion via the bile. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI binds HDL and mediates selective uptake of cholesterol ester and cellular efflux of cholesterol to HDL. The role of SR-BI in atherosclerosis has been well established in murine models but it remains unclear whether SR-BI plays an equally important role in atherosclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SR-BI and its isoforms in human macrophages and atherosclerotic plaques. Methods The effect of hypoxia and minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL, two proatherogenic stimuli, on SR-BI expression was studied in human monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy subjects using real-time PCR. In addition, SR-BI expression was determined in macrophages obtained from subjects with atherosclerosis (n = 15 and healthy controls (n = 15. Expression of SR-BI isoforms was characterized in human atherosclerotic plaques and macrophages using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. Results SR-BI expression was decreased in macrophages after hypoxia (p Conclusion We conclude that SR-BI is regulated by proatherogenic stimuli in humans. However, we found no differences between subjects with atherosclerosis and healthy controls. This indicates that altered SR-BI expression is not a common cause of atherosclerosis. In addition, we identified SR-BIII as a novel isoform expressed in human macrophages and in human atherosclerotic plaques.

  2. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžovic-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n =8 and stress group (n =8. Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep containing tap water (temperature ca. 25°C. The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the irst day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacriiced and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.. Results There was no statistically signiicant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81±0.14 ng/ml as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 ±0.08ng/ml. After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs.272.8 g, but this difference was not statistically signiicant. The stress period had no inluence on food intake in the stress rat group. Conclusion The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not suficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  3. Die wortels en kenmerke van die tradisionele Afrikaanse lewenstyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coetzee

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In ons tydsgewrig kan dit moontlik vreemd opklink om by 'n akademiese fees te begin met ’n verwysing na ’n Bybelwoord, maar hier, vandág, waar ons die honderdste bestaansja a r feestelik gedenk van 'n hoëronderwysinrigting wat onbevange in sy naamvaandel die stempel „Christelik” dra, sal dit niemand verbaas as ek my reiaas vanmore plaas onder ’n Bybelteks nie: Matt. 7:16 — ... ’n Mens pluk tog nie druiwe van dorings of vye van distels nie? Matt. 12:33 — Julie moet of die boom goed maak en sy vrugte goed, of julle moet die boom sleg maak en sy vrugte sleg; want aan sy vrugte word die boom geken.

  4. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  5. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  6. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  7. Die faktore gemeenskaplik aan die selfondersoekvraelys van Holland en die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Swanevelder

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors common to the Self Directed Search of Holland (SDS and the new South African Vocational Interest Inventory (SAVII. The new South African Vocational Interest Inventory was locally developed with the purpose to create a single vocational interest inventory for all population groups in the RSA. In this study the common factors underlying the SDS and the SAVII were determined with the aid of interbattery factor analysis. The results indicate that there are six common factors underlying the two instruments for both the standard nine boys and girls, and that these factors agree with the six factors built into the SDS by Holland. Opsomming Die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys (SABBV is plaaslik ontwikkel met die doel om 'n enkele beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys vir alle bevolkingsgroepe binne die RSA, daar te stel. In hierdie studie is daar ondersoek ingestel na die gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die SABBV en die Selfondersoekvraelys (SOV van Holland met behulp van 'n interbatteryfaktorontleding. Daar is bevind dat daar ses gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die twee instrumente is vir sowel standerd nege seuns as dogters, en dat hierdie faktore ooreenstem met die ses faktore wat deur Holland in die SOV ingebou is.

  8. Die Krise in Libyen, die libysche Muslimbruderschaftund die internationalen Implikationen (Stand: September 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Lübben, Ivesa; Reichinnek, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Die blutigen und desaströsen Kämpfe um den Flughafen in Tripolis zwischen verschiedenen regierungsgestützten Zintan-Milizen und oppositionellen, von islamistischen Kräften unterstützten Misrata-Milizen sind nur eines von vielen Indizien dafür, dass es seit dem Sturz des Gaddafi-Regimes keiner der libyschen Regierungen gelungen ist, die großen Probleme des Landes zu lösen: die Auflösung der Milizen und den Aufbau von zentralen Sicherheitsstrukturen, die Einleitung eines inklusiven politischen...

  9. Dietary A- and B-type procyanidins : characterization and biofunctional potential of an abundant and diverse group of phenolics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Procyanidins (PCs) are phenolic compounds that belong to the class of flavonoids and are oligomers of monomeric (epi)catechin units. These monomeric units can be linked to each other by a single C4-C8 or C4-C6 linkage, which is referred to as B-type. Besides these single linkages an additional ether

  10. Die Parlamentswahlen 2008 in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie; Knirsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nach den Parlamentswahlen vom März 2008 in Malaysia deutet manches auf einen politischen Umbruch hin: Die regierende Barisan Nasional (BN), die sich bislang einer komfortablen Zweidrittelmehrheit von 91,4 Prozent der Sitze im Parlament des Landes erfreut hatte, rutschte auf 63,1 Prozent ab und das...

  11. Die etiek van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Die etiek van Barth kan nie reg verstaan word sonder begrip van sy ganse teologiese agtergrond en opset, en ek wil byvoeg: sonder die besondere tydsomstandighede (oorlog! waarin hy geleef en gewerk het nie. Dit is verder bekend dat in sy teologiese ontwikkeling verskillende figure groot invloed op hom uitgeoefen het.

  12. Leierskapstyl en die lerende organisasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Victor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style and the learning organisation. In the present highly competitive environment, it has become increasingly important for organisational leaders to establish a learning organisation. In this study the focus was on the extent of influence that the evolution of organisations, as determined by their relative level of leadership practises (leadership style, has on the establishment of a learning organisation. Opsomming Die daarstel van ’n lerende organisasie deur bedryfsleiers word toenemend belangrik in die hedendaagse hoogskompeterende omgewing. In hierdie studie is gefokus op die mate van beinvloeding wat die evolusie van organisasies, soos deur hul relatiewe vlak van demokratiese leierskapspraktyke (leierskapstyl bepaal, op die daarstelling van’n lerende organisasie het.

  13. Die transkripsielees van T.T. Cloete

    OpenAIRE

    T. Gouws

    1989-01-01

    In a transcriptual approach to the literary discourse, the text as artefact is regarded as a creation of the scriptor. The artificiality of the poetics implies conscious or unconscious structuring - Cloete terms it dreamful thinking (“die dromende denke”) - by inevitably exploiting language conventions and the poetic devices, the sole purpose being that the organised composition can be the only (as well as measurable) indication of authorial intention. Likewise, in as far as language presents...

  14. Jesus Christus se begronding van die opstanding (Matt 22 in die Ou-Testamentiese openbaring en die implikasies daarvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap L. Helberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anders as die Sadduseërs en ander mense se mensgesentreerde benadering tot die menslike bestaan en daarom tot ’n moontlike opstanding, is Jesus se benadering Godgesentreerd (óp God gerig en déur God verrig en Skrifgefundeer.Dit wil sê ’n benadering gefundeer in wat God geopenbaar het en wat menslike bespiegeling, teologie of verwerking van wat met Jesus gebeur het, te bowe gaan. Hierdie Skriffundering is gegrond in God as die lewende, onverganklike, aktiewe en lewewekkende God se persoonlike verhouding met die mens in sy konkrete, historiese bestaan (Matt 22:23−33. So word die ware liggaamlike en geestelike bestaan verseker, naamlik ’n onverbreekbare persoonlike verhouding met God – nou en na die dood, rustend in Jesus Christus se lewe, dood en opstanding. Hierdie begronding veronderstel ’n Skrif- en Geesgefundeerde, Godgesentreerde hermeneutiek, eksegese, erediens, prediking en kerklike inrigting, gedra deur selfondersoek en bekering, diensbaarheid in liefde vir God en die naaste (Matt 22:34−41, en verantwoordelikheid teenoor God se skepping.Unlike the Sadducees’ and other people’s homocentric approach to man’s existence, and therefore to a possible resurrection, Jesus’ approach is theocentric (focused on God and conducted by God and founded in Scripture, that is founded in what God reveals, transcending human speculation, theology or processing of what happened to Jesus.This founding in Scripture is grounded in the living, immortal, active and life-giving God’s personal relation with man in his concrete, historical existence (Mt 22:23−33. In this way the real physical and spiritual existence is secured, that is an unbreakable personal relationship with God, now and after death, resting in Jesus Christ’s life, death and resurrection. This grounding implies a Scripture- and Spirit-founded, God-centered hermeneutics, exegesis, public worship, preaching, and church structuring, conveyed by self-examination and

  15. Dying and multiplying life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Arias, David

    2014-09-01

    It was only after James P. Lovette's death, in 2006, that I discovered that the twenty-four-year-old colleague and friend with whom I had spent so many afternoons debating issues in organ transplantation had been the first successful child heart transplantee in the world and one of the longest-living survivors of a second transplant. During the years we met, he never even hinted at the fact that three different hearts had beaten in his chest. The revelation that his life had been an almost uninterrupted chain of medical challenges suddenly made me appreciate his quirkiness in a whole new light. Organ transplantation crudely exemplifies a traditional moral dilemma between means and ends: in order to save a life, someone else has to die. Bioethicists involved in this field have the role of identifying the ethical issues surrounding organ donation and helping others to argue in an intelligible and convincing way. In my view, bioethicists have the obligation to foster a discussion as open and transparent as possible on these matters. Still, I sometimes fear that I may be helping to cause unnecessary harms to potential recipients who are desperately waiting for a vital organ. Scholars would be chillingly cold if their quest for truth systematically came at the cost of lives lost. Every life can be meaningful and provide meaning to many others. This is true even with organ recipients, who often have short lives full of considerable suffering. PMID:25231665

  16. Adapt or die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management. PMID:9283343

  17. Die plek van goud in die huidige internasionale monetêre stelsel en die rol wat dit kan speel in die herstel van die internasionale monetêre orde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Erasmus

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vrye wêreld het sedert die oorloggedwonge opskorting van die goudstandaard in 1914, ’n groot agteruitgang in die internasionale betalingsmeganisme beleef. Hoewel die inter- nasionale goudstandaard in die laaste helfte van die twintiger- jare herstel is, was meeste lande nie langer gedwee om hulle aan die monetêre dissipline van dié stelsel te onderwerp nie en vind ons dat die een land na die ander onder die druk van die depressie in die dertigerjare die goudstandaard laat vaar het. Die Verenigde State van Amerika was die enigste uitson- dering. Geleidelik moes wisselkoersstabiliteit en die vrye inter­ nasionale betalingsverkeer vir wisselkoersmanipulasie en valu- tabeheer plek maak. Hierdie transformasie was ’n weerspieë- ling van die sterker opkoms van ekonomiese nasionalisme en die begeerte van die onderskeie lande om elkeen vir homself die beste voordeel in die internasionale ekonomiese en finan- siële terrein toe te eien. Die daarstelling van die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds te Bretton Woods in 1944, was ’n simptoom van die wêreldwye kommer oor die vooroorlogse neigings op monetêre gebied en terselfdertyd ’n poging om meer dissi­ pline in die internasionale betalingsverkeer te skep. Feit is egter dat ondanks sy positiewe resultate op sommige gebiede, die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds nie heeltemal 'n geskikte substituut vir die goudstandaard daargestel het nie. Wat meer is, die skok van die internasionale monetêre steurnisse word nog steeds deur die lande met die internasionale geldeenhede, naamlik die pond sterling en die dollar ondervind.

  18. Die doel en plek van liggaamlike opvoeding in die opvoedingsprogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. J. Smith

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Die beskaafde mens is van ’n gedurige fisieke stryd om selfbehoud en sekerheid van bestaan geleidelik onthef. Sy stryd teen die natuur is in baie opsigte grotendeels oorwin: die klimaat, deur kleding en woning;voedselversekering, deur landbou en veeteelt; beweging, deur vervoermiddels om hom te verplaas; bewerking en beskerming, deur gereedskap en wapens; hy beskik oor vaste verblyfplekke in plaas van te swerf en te soek; sodat ’n groot stuk fisieke inspanning en kragsverbruik weggeval en dus vrygekoni het vir waarneming, oordenking en organisering vansy ervaringe.

  19. Surface structuring of metals and non-metals for printing tools and embossing dies with an ultrafast ps-laser machining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Stephan; Hennig, Guido

    2015-03-01

    With roll-to-roll processes, millions of reproductions (e.g. RFID-antennas or Fresnel-lenses) can be produced in a fast and economical way. The processing of replica tools for such printing and embossing applications requires in many cases sub-μm and μm-structures. Ultra-short pulse lasers with ps- and fs-pulse durations and in single pulse or burst mode operation are appropriate tools to generate this micro- or nanostructures. In recent years the ongoing development of these laser sources and of fast beam delivery optics allows higher ablation rates combined with a superior quality for several materials like copper and brass as well as glass and dielectrics. Different ps-laser systems at 10 ps with up to 80 W at 1064 nm with a pulse repetition rate up to 8 MHz and energies up to 50 μJ (at lower repetition rate) have been used in a micro-engraving system for large cylindrical workpieces. This setup allows the micro structuring of cylinder surfaces as well as the processing of thin film substrate sheets up to a thickness of approximately 300 μm. Dimensions up to 7 m face length and circumferences up to 1,3 m can be processed with an accuracy of about 1μm. A variety of metals have been investigated by structuring 2D and 3D elements. The process is nearly melt-free, but the resulting surface structure of the ablated zone depends on the sort of metal. The high fluencies also enable the engraving of transparent materials which allow a much faster micro processing speed compared to metals. This work shows examples of micro-structuring melamine-resin coated cylinder surfaces and hybrid materials.

  20. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost......: the highest lower bound proved for any data structure problem is only polylogarithmic. Our main result is to demonstrate that one can in fact obtain polynomial cell probe lower bounds for non-adaptive data structures. To shed more light on the seemingly inherent polylogarithmic lower bound barrier, we...

  1. Die Entwicklung der Weimarer Parteien in ihren Hochburgen und die Wahlerfolge der NSDAP

    OpenAIRE

    Falter, Jürgen W.; Bömermann, Hartmut

    1987-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag beschreiben die Autoren sowohl die Entwicklung sogenannter Parteihochburgen in der Weimarer Republik als auch die Entwicklung der Parteien in ihren Hochburgen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wahlerfolge der NSDAP. Zunächst werden die Begriffe Hochburg und Diaspora definiert. Es handelt sich um Gebiete, die sich im allgemeinen durch die starke Verdichtung bzw. durch die fast vollständige Abwesenheit bestimmter sozialer Faktoren auszeichnen, durch die einzelne Parteien b...

  2. Die Wiederentdeckung der Erziehung und ihre Infragestellung durch die Neurobiologie

    OpenAIRE

    Thole, Werner

    2007-01-01

    "'Erziehung' als aktive Sozialisationshilfeleistung erlebt gegenwärtig eine Renaissance. Vertrauen wir den Meldungen der halbaufgeklärten Boulevardpresse, dann melden sich die Eltern in ihrer Funktion als Erziehungsagentur zurück, um den 'Erziehungsnotstand', unter anderem ausgerufen von der Fernsehmoderatorin Petra Gerster, zu beheben. 'Super Nanny' ist in dem Konzert der 'Wiederentdeckung der Erziehung' nur die mediale Krönung einer allgemeinen Tendenz. Quasi im Rücken dieser öffentlichen D...

  3. VERBRUIKERSGEDRAG IN DIE WEERMAG : 'N ALTERNATIEWE SIENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Beukes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Omstandighede in die wêreld verander feitlik oornag. Kommunisme faal in Oos-Europa, die oorlog in Angola is verby, Namibië verkry onafhanklikheid, die ANC word ontban en die Apartheidswette word afgeskaf. Hierdie gebeure was twee jaar gelede ondenkbaar. Die gevolge van bogenoemde gebeure het ook die Verdedigingsgemeenskap beïnvloed. Die Weermagbegroting is met meer as 3 miljard rand besnoei, diensplig is verkort, grootskaalse rasionalisasie word tans in die Weermag onderneem en in die algemeen heers daar groter finansiële dissipline in die SAW. Elke rand uitgegee moet behoorlik verreken en motiveer word. En veral na die BSB-debakel word SAW bedrywighede en besteding met valk-oë dopgehou. Dit is teen hierdie agtergrond dat verbruikersgedrag in die SA Weermag bespreek gaan word.

  4. EXTRUSION DIE CAE OF THE STEEL REINFORCED PLASTIC PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Q. Ma; H.Y. Sun; D.C. Kang; K.D. Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The steel reinforced plastic pipe is a new kind of pressure pipe. It is made up with steel wires and plastic. Because reinforced skeleton of the steel wire increase the complexity of plastic flow during the extrusion phase, the traditional design criteria of extrusion die is not suitable. The study on extrusion die of the kind of pipe is very important step in produce development. Using finite element (FE) method in this paper, the flow rule of molten plastic inside the die has been predicted and a group of optimal structural parameters was obtained. These results are helpful for reducing the design cycle and improve the quality of the final product.

  5. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  6. Magnetic structure and microstructure of die-upset hard magnets RE13.75Fe80.25B6 (RE=Nd, Pr): A possible origin of high coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ transmission electron microscopy magnetizing experiments combined with Lorentz magnetic microscopy in Fresnel endash Foucault modes were used to characterize the magnetic structure of die-upset, high energy-product hard magnets Nd13.75Fe80.25B6 and Pr13.75Fe80.25B6. Experimental observations indicate a well-aligned grain structure and quasiperiodic nonaligned open-quotes extended defectclose quotes layers transverse to press direction. The local remanence of the open-quotes defectclose quotes layers is far from saturation when the external field is removed. The layers are enriched with inclusions of approximate composition Nd7Fe3, generally with a polygonal shape, and are associated with the original ribbon interfaces. They may be responsible for a high coercivity mechanism, since the motion of reverse domains can be impeded by these layers, even when they are nucleated. Thus, a delayed nucleation of reversed domains seems to be a limiting factor for magnetization reversal and coercivity force. Both Lorentz magnetic imaging and high-resolution microscopy highlight the role of magnetocrystalline anisotropy for domain wall-grain boundary interactions and pinning. Local remanence was estimated directly from magnetic moment sensitive Foucault images. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. Opportunities and challenges for the future utilization of bio methane in regional energy supply structures; Chancen und Herausforderungen fuer die zukuenftige Nutzung von Biomethan in regionalen Energieversorgungsstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Biogas/Bioenergie

    2013-10-01

    In fact, that the transition of the energy system needs a decentralisation of energy supply. Energy from biomass will play an important role for stabilisation of energy supply and compensation of fluctuating energy demand and energy supply from solar and wind power. Especially biomethane what can be stored in the natural gas grid allows high flexibility in its use. Therefore the following options are analysed: - Integration of biomethane/biogas driven CHP units in local heat supply structures - Flexible operation of biomethane/biogas driven CHP units - Synergies through utilisation of biomethane as vehicle fuel. (orig.)

  8. Diffusion der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien und die Qualifikationsstruktur der Arbeitskräfte (Diffusion of information and communication technology and the qualification structure of the workforce)

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Martin

    2002-01-01

    "The paper examines the relationship between the diffusion of information and communication technology (ICT) and the skill structure of the employees. The data basis comes from a survey conducted among 4150 German firms in the year 2000. The penetration of ICT is measured with the aid of: (i) the proportion of the workers who spend at least half of their time at the workplace using a computer, (ii) the number of computers per worker, (iii) the proportion of the workers with Internet access an...

  9. Die verfehlte Sanktionspolitik des Westens gegen Simbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Grauvogel, Julia; Soest, Christian von

    2015-01-01

    Am 20. Februar 2015 verlängerte die Europäische Union (EU) ihre Sanktionen gegen Simbabwes Machthaber Robert Mugabe und seine Frau Grace. Die Nachbarstaaten Simbabwes hatten sich schon immer gegen die westliche Sanktionspolitik gewandt. Als Reaktion auf Menschenrechtsverletzungen in Simbabwe hatten die EU, die USA und weitere westliche Staaten Anfang der 2000er Jahre Sanktionen gegen die Regierung Mugabe verhängt. Zeitweise waren mehrere Hundert Personen von Kontensperrungen und Reisebes...

  10. Biogas-BHKW: Einflussparameter auf die Formaldehydemissionen

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Torsten; Beer, Volker; Wedwitschka, Harald

    2010-01-01

    An 11 Blockheizkraftwerken (BHKW) ohne Oxidationskatalysator und an 10 BHKW mit Oxidationskatalysator in Sachsen und Thüringen wurden die Einflussfaktoren auf die Formaldehydemissionen untersucht. Geprüft wurden insbesondere die Motorbetriebsparameter wie z.B. Zylindertemperaturen, Verbrennungsluftverhältnis, die Biogaszusammensetzung und die Biogasfeuchte. Im Ergebnis konnte kein bzw. nur ein geringer Einfluss der untersuchten Parameter auf die Formaldehydbildung festgestellt werden. Ebe...

  11. The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars: Surface chemical compositions of B-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, I; Smartt, S J; Ryans, R S I; Evans, C J; Lennon, D J; Trundle, C; Hubeny, I; Lanz, T

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution FLAMES spectra of approximately 50 early B-type stars in three young clusters at different metallicities, NGC6611 in the Galaxy, N11 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and NGC346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Using the TLUSTY non-LTE model atmospheres code, atmospheric parameters and photospheric abundances (C, N, O, Mg and Si) of each star have been determined. These results represent a significant improvement on the number of Magellanic Cloud B-type stars with detailed and homogeneous estimates of their atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions. The relationships between effective temperature and spectral type are discussed for all three metallicity regimes, with the effective temperature for a given spectral type increasing as one moves to a lower metallicity regime. Additionally the difficulties in estimating the microturbulent velocity and the anomalous values obtained, particularly in the lowest metallicity regime, are discussed. Our chemical comp...

  12. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens Oscar; Kjær, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    acromegaly is initiated. This was a three months prospective study investigating short-term cardiac effects of treatment in acromegalic patients. Cardiac function was evaluated by the gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP and......Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment of...... increase in EDVI, and increased levels of BNP and NT-proBNP suggesting an initial decrease in cardiac function....

  13. What Happens When Someone Dies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and sleepiness Mental confusion Constipation or incontinence Nausea Refusal to eat or drink Each of these symptoms, ... having a "non-hospital DNR" (see Understanding Health Care Decisions ) if the person is dying at home. ...

  14. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  15. Emosionele reaksies van die moeder van die seksueel misbruikte kind na bekendmaking van seksuele misbruik / Wilna Joy Stander

    OpenAIRE

    Stander, Wilna Joy

    2009-01-01

    * OPSOMMING: Die doelstelling van die navorsing was om die reaksies van die moeder van die seksueel misbruikte kind na bekendmaking van die oortreding te bepaal en hoedat die forensiese maatskaplike werker die moeder tydens die forensiese proses behulpsaam kan wees. Doelwit 1: Om vas te stel wat die emosionele reaksies van die moeders was nadat seksuele misbruik van hul kinders bekend gemaak is. Doelwit 2: Om vas te stel in watter mate die forensiese maatskaplike werker inligting aa...

  16. Correlation between low-temperature creep and intergranular diffusion of Kh16N15M3B type steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented for Kh16N15M3B type steel containing different amounts of carbon, molybdenum and niobium that was tested the diffusion mobility of iron-59 species. It is shown that at 400-500 deg C the diffusion of iron-59 is only intergranular. The correlation established between creep and diffusion. It is shwn that the activation energies for creep and intergranular diffusion correlate. 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, C J; Kennedy, M B; Dufton, P. L.; Howarth, I. D.; N. R. Walborn; Markova, N.; Clark, J. S.; Mink, de, S.E.; Koter, de, A.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J; McEvoy, C. M.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. E...

  18. PI-RADS classification. Structured reporting for MRI of the prostate; PI-RADS-Klassifikation. Strukturiertes Befundungsschema fuer die MRT der Prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roethke, Matthias; Schlemmer, H.P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologie; Blondin, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Franiel, T. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To flesh out the ESUR guidelines for the standardized interpretation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) for the detection of prostate cancer and to present a graphic reporting scheme for improved communication of findings to urologists. Materials and Methods: The ESUR has recently published a structured reporting system for mMRI of the prostate (PI-RADS). This system involves the use of 5-point Likert scales for grading the findings obtained with different MRI techniques. The mMRI includes T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and MR spectroscopy. In a first step, the fundamentals of technical implementation were determined by consensus, taking into account in particular the German-speaking community. Then, representative images were selected by consensus on the basis of examinations of the three institutions. In addition, scoring intervals for an aggregated PI-RADS score were determined in consensus. Results: The multiparametric methods were discussed critically with regard to implementation and the current status. Criteria used for grading mMRI findings with the PI-RADS classification were concretized by succinct examples. Using the consensus table for aggregated scoring in a clinical setting, a diagnosis of suspected prostate cancer should be made if the PI-RADS score is 4 or higher ({>=} 10 points if 3 techniques are used or {>=} 13 points if 4 techniques are used). Finally, a graphic scheme was developed for communicating mMRI prostate findings. Conclusion: Structured reporting according to the ESUR guidelines contributes to quality assurance by standardizing prostate mMRI, and it facilities the communication of findings to urologists. (orig.)

  19. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion - influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen zum Schadstoffeintrag durch den Hausbrand - Auswirkungen des gegenwaertigen Strukturwandels auf die urbane Belastungssituation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-12-31

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In Fortsetzung eines vom Berichterstatter bearbeiteten OeKOR-Teilprojekts zur chemischen Charakterisierung von Emissionen aus dem Hausbrand von Braunkohle galt es, auf der Basis einer an der Flaechennutzung ausgerichteten Untergliederung der Stadtregion Leipzig in unterschiedliche Strukturtypen langfristige Immissionsbeobachtungen zu beginnen mit dem Ziel, eine Zustandsanalyse des Umweltmediums Luft bezueglich des Gehalts an fluechtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) in ihrer gesamten Breite zu ermoeglichen. Das verstaerkte Interesse an diesen Verbindungen resultiert aus dem fuer eine Reihe von VOC belegten toxikologischen Gefahrenpotential fuer den menschlichen Organismus sowie ihrer atmosphaerenchemischen

  20. Die betroubaarheid van saamgestelde tellings

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Schepers

    1993-01-01

    The reliability of composite scores. A formula for estimating the reliability of composite scores is developed on the basis of the formal definition of reliability. This formula is less restricting than Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Spearman and Brown's prophecy formula. It is similar to Mosier's Formula 18, but uses less information. The application of the formula is illustrated with real data. Opsomming 'n Formule om die betroubaarheid van saamgestelde tellings te beraam, is aan die han...

  1. Soziale Gesundheitsversorgung durch die PKV

    OpenAIRE

    Wallrabenstein, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Die Private Krankenversicherung ist explizit seit Einführung der Versicherungspflicht im Jahr 2008 neben der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung zweite Säule eines umfassenden Krankenversicherungsschutzes in Deutschland. Sie ist – auch schon traditionell – umfassend reguliert; Versichertenwettbewerb innerhalb der PKV aber auch zur GKV findet in entsprechend enger rechtlicher Strukturierung statt. In den letzten Jahren wird die PKV zudem auch immer stärker bei der Regulierung der Leistungserbring...

  2. Clinical management of dying patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward...

  3. Die semantiese differensiaal as telefoonopnametegniek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. R. Joubert

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Differential as a telephone survey technique. The public image of an organisation plays an important role in the success thereof since it continually determines whether the environment reacts favourably or unfavourably towards it. It is therefore important to be aware of the public image of an organisation, and which methods can be used to determine it. This study compared two attitude scales (a Likert type mail questionnaire and a Semantic Differential type telephone questionnaire which can be used in the determination of an organisation's image. A comparison of the two scales produced significant results. These results indicate that a Semantic Differential type scale can be used successfully in telephone surveys. Opsomming Die openbare beeld van 'n organisasie speel 'n belangrike rol in die sukses daarvan aangesien dit deurentyd bepaal of die omgewing gunstig of ongunstig daarteenoor reageer. Dit is gevolglik belangrik dat bestuur kennis neem van die openbare beeld van sy organisasie en hoe daardie beeld bepaal kan word. Met hierdie studie is twee houdingskale ('n Likert-tipe posvraelys en 'n Semantiese Differensiaal-tipe telefoonvraelys wat in die bepaling van 'n openbare beeld gebruik word, vergelyk. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat 'n aangepaste Semantiese Differensiaal met sukses gebruik kan word in telefoononderhoude.

  4. Uitdagings in die onderrig van evolusie in die lewenswetenskappeklaskamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. de Beer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel skryf die outeurs oor navorsing wat hulle gedoen het oor onderwysers se siening van die onderrig van evolusie, wat in 2008 as ’n tema in lewenswetenskappe in Suid-Afrikaanse skole ingesluit is. Hierdie vernuwing in die kurrikulum is met gemengde reaksies begroet. Terwyl sommige onderwysers dit met entoesiasme onderrig, is baie gekant teen die onderrig van evolusie. Die artikel is gebaseer op ’n navorsingsprojek waarby 255 onderwysers betrek is. Vraelyste is gebruik om kwalitatiewe data, wat vir diskoers ontleed is, in te samel. Die diskoers van die onderwysers het getoon dat ’n groot getal van hulle nie hul onderrigopdrag kan versoen met hul geloof nie en konsepte oor evolusie as ‘feite’ verduidelik, maar seker maak dat evolusie as ’n teorie gediskrediteer word. Dit het verreikende implikasies vir sowel onderwyseropleiding as kurrikulumontwikkeling. Konseptuele veranderingsteorie word as ’n lens gebruik om na hierdie problematiek te kyk. Challenges in the teaching of evolution in the life sciences classroom. In this article the authors report on research that was conducted about teachers’ views on evolution, which was introduced as a theme in the school life sciences curriculum in 2008. This innovation in the curriculum has been met with mixed reactions. Whereas some teachers embrace this new theme, many teachers are opposed to the teaching of evolution. The article reports on an inquiry that was conducted amongst 255 teachers and in which survey questionnaires were used to collect qualitative data, which was analysed for its discourse. The discourse of the teachers shows that many of them cannot reconcile their religious faith with their teaching and that they may teach the ‘facts’ of evolution, but make sure that they discredit evolution as a theory. This raises serious concerns about teacher education and curriculum development. The authors examine these issues through the lens of conceptual change

  5. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: From Posttranslational Processing to Clinical Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides and peptide fragments from their molecular precursors are markers of heart disease. Clinical studies have defined the current diagnostic utility of these markers, whereas biochemical elucidation of peptide structure and posttranslational processing has...... revealed new plasma peptide forms of potential clinical use.CONTENT:Natriuretic propeptide structures undergo variable degrees of endo- and exoproteolytic cleavages as well as amino acid modifications, which leave the plasma phase of the peptides highly heterogeneous and dependent on cardiac...

  6. Plantegroeiklassifikasie van die A-landtipe van die Mooirivier - opvanggebied, Transvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bezuidenhout

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Die doel van hierdie studie was om hoofplantegroei-eenhede en hulle variasies, van die A-landtipe, te identifiseer, karakteriseer en aan die hand van die habitat ekologies te interpreteer. Vyf plantgemeenskappe is deur die toepassing van 'n numeriese klassifikasie en Braun-Blanquet-prosedures geidentifiseer en elk is met ’n spesifieke habitat gekorreleer. 'n Duidelike onderskeid is tussen die hoogliggende en die laagliggende plantgemeenskappe gemaak. Plantegroeigradiënte en geassosieerde gradiënte in habitat is deur toepassing van ’n ordeningstegniek geidentifiseer. Die studie beklemtoon die belangrikheid van topografie en grondtipe vir die afbakening van plantegroei-bestuurseenhede vir boerdery of natuurbewaring.

  7. Verslag van die tweede internasionale calvynkongres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Dr. B. J. v.d. Walt het die kongres aan die Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 25 — 28 September 1978, bygewoon en doen daarvan soos volg verslag: Eintlik was hierdie die eerste internasionale Calvynkongres. Die Calvynkongres wat vanaf 16 — 19 September 1974 aan die Vrije Universiteit gehou is,was ’n Europese kongres. Hierdie tweede byeenkoms het nie alleen meer navorsers getrek nie (ongeveer 80 teenoor die 40 Calvynkenners by die eerste byeenkoms, maar die kongresgangers het ook veel meer lande (16 verteenwoordig — selfs van so vêr as die VSA, Kanada, Japan, Korea en Suid-Afrika. Ook lande agter die ystergordyn soos die Deutsche Demokratische Republik, Hongarye en Roemenië was goed verteenwoordig.

  8. Die Suid-Afrikaanse uitgebreide maritieme gebied: ’n Alternatiewe metode vir die bepaling van die voet van die kontinentale helling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Pantland

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuslande het ’n eenmalige geleentheid om by die Verenigde Nasies (VN aansoek te doen om ’n uitgebreide maritieme gebied, indien hul wetenskaplik kan toon dat die voet van die kontinentale helling (VKH buite hul soewereine 200 seemyl eksklusiewe ekonomiese sone gele¨e is. Die VN definieer geomorfologies die VKH as die kromme van maksimale buiging tussen die afplattende kontinentale helling en die bodem van die diepsee. In hierdie artikel word daar getoon hoe gediskretiseerde tegnieke uit differensiaalmeetkunde suksesvol gebruik kan word om die VKH benaderd uit satelliet seebodem dieptedata te bepaal, sonder om van data gladstrykingstegnieke gebruik te maak. Hierdie differensiaalmeetkundige benadering is ’n alternatief tot ’n huidige, wyd-gebruikte tegniek vir die bepaling van die VKH en toon dat internasionale spekulasie oor die opportunisme van hierdie tegniek bloot vanuit ’n geomorfologiese perspektief geregverdig mag wees. Die numeriese resultate wat verkry word, is ’n wetenskaplik verantwoordbare aanwyser ten opsigte van die moontlike ligging van die VKH rondom die Suid-Afrikaanse kus.

  9. 17. Kassel symposium energy systems technology. Structures and grids for the future energy supply; 17. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Strukturen und Netze fuer die Energieversorgung von Morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 17th Kassel symposium from 11th to 12th October, 2012, in Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) E-Energy - the art of flexibilization between market and regulation (Michael Wedler); (2) The model region Harz (Florian Schloegl); (3) The role of IKT at the transformation of the energy supply - Chances for new business ideas (Arnold Picot); (4) Standardized connection of plants to IEC 61850 (Martin Winter); (5) Implementation of a IKT infrastructure for a virtual power plant in the model region Harz (Manuel Wickert); (6) OGEMA2.0 - Smart grid meets smart home (David Nestle); (7) Evaluation of the grid stability of a purely regenerative power supply (Kaspar Knorr); (8) Biogas plants and storage for the integration of renewable energies (Patrick Hochloff); (9) moma Architecture and functions in the intelligent energy system (Andreas Kiessling); (10) Power hub - showing the full potential of the VPP technology (Andreas Bjerre); (11) Implementation of electricity grids, heat grids and traffic grids - Potentials, requirements and efficiencies (Wolfram Wellssow); (12) Exploration of the regional distribution grid as a basis for the implementation of smart grids using the RegModHarz project as an example (Christian Roehrig); (13) New design and works management of distribution grids in decentralized supply structures (Martin Braun); (14) Advantages and challenges of the coupling of natural gas distribution systems and power distribution systems (Herbert Bauer); (15) Acceptance of renewable energies in the region Harz (Amelie Fechner); (16) Business models for a future 100 per cent supply of renewable energies (Peer Ritter).

  10. Tweedimensionele generatorfunksie vir die vektorkardiogram vir gebruik in volume-geleidingsmodelle van die toraks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Geldenhuys

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ’n Elektrokardiogram (EKG meet die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart op die veloppervlak. Volumegeleidingsmodelle van die toraks kan ontwerp word om hierdie metings te simuleer. ’n Generatorfunksie, wat die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart beskryf, word benodig om hierdie simulasies aan te dryf. Hoewel soortgelyke simulasies van variërende kompleksiteit in die literatuur bespreek word, is daar ’n behoefte aan ’n vereenvoudigde, dog omvattende benadering wat kan dien as inleiding tot die onderwerp of vir gevalle waar ’n eerste-orde-benadering tot die probleem voldoende is. In hierdie artikel word ’n oorsig gegee oor die vektorinterpretasie van die EKG, ook bekend as ’n vektorkardiogram (VKG, in die tweedimensionele menslike frontale vlak. Die afleiding van die ekwivalente elektriese dipool (met ander woorde die kardiale vektor vanaf die VKG, wat gebruik kan word as ’n stroombron-generatorfunksie vir volumegeleidingsmodelle wat die EKG simuleer, word bespreek. ’n Prosedure om so ’n volume-geleidingsmodel met die eindige-element-tegniek te implementeer en die vereenvoudigde tweedimensionele generatorfunksie te gebruik, sowel as die resultate daarvan, word bespreek. Die algemene kenmerke van gemete EKG-afleidings stem ooreen met dié wat deur die eenvoudige model voorspel word.

  11. Die rol van die onderwys in die handhawing en uitbouing van ons volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Jordaan

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Op die oog af lyk dit ’n baie maklike onderwerp, maar hoe meer 'n mens daaroor nadink hoe ingewikkelder en omvangryker word die implikasies wat verband hou. Dit is veral so omdat dit hier voor alles gaan om eerste fundamentele uitgangspunte, dit wil sê, om lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. Dit geld van albei komponente — van onderwys sowel as van kultuur.

  12. Ist die Gastarbeiterskala noch zeitgemäß? : die Reformulierung einer ALLBUS-Skala

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Thomas; Schwarzer, Stefan

    1994-01-01

    'Die Gastarbeiter-Skala aus dem ALLBUS wurde reformiert und in drei unabhängigen Stichproben erhoben. Die Ergebnisse aus diesen drei Stichproben werden mit ALLBUS 1990 verglichen, indem die klassischen Gastarbeiter-Items erhoben worden sind. Die Eindimensionalität sowie die Stabilität der Faktorenladungen über die Stichproben sind durch einen multiplen Gruppenvergleich (LISREL) nachgewiesen. Die externe Gültigkeit wird zum einen anhand einer Stichprobe mit den Konstrukten 'Nationalismus', 'Au...

  13. Die betekenis van Ambrosius as oorgangsfiguur tussen die klassieke kultuurpatroon en sekere aspekte van die vroeë Christendom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Malan

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available Die kerkvader Ambrosius het ’n periode in die geskiedenis van die Wes-Europese beskawing geleef, wat deur Muller as ‘one of the most important and most interesting ages in the history of mankind’ beskou word, vanweë die felt dat dit die ‘closing chapter in the history of the old world’ en ‘the introduction to a new epoch in the history of Christianity and the new world’ gevorm het.

  14. Moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word aandag gevra vir enkele moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag. Volgens die outeur staan die vrae oor God, Jesus, die mens en die aarde in die sentrum van belangstelling en oorheers dit in ’n groot mate die teologiese debat. Die opkoms van die moderne aggressiewe ateïsme, die wetenskaplike navorsing oor die historiese Jesus, die groeiende vrae oor die mens en die menslike samelewing, asook die dreigende ekologiese krisis op aarde, sorg vir nuwe debatte van ongekende omvang. Die outeur bespreek hierdie debatte oorsigtelik, met kritiek waar nodig, en sluit af met enkele rigtingwysers van wat hy as ‘goeie teologie’ verstaan.In this article attention is paid to some modern discourses in theology today. According to the author the questions about God, Jesus, man and the earth are in the centre of interest and to a large extent dominate the theological debate. The rise of modern aggressive atheism, the scientific research on the historic Jesus, the growing questions about man and human society as well as the threatening ecological crisis on earth, provide new discourses of unparalleled magnitude. The author provides a broad summary of these discourses, with criticism where necessary, and concludes with some indicators of his view what can be called ‘good theology’.

  15. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  16. Short time die attach characterisation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, P

    2008-01-01

    Thermal qualification of the die attach of semiconductor devices is a very important element in the device characterization as the temperature of the chip is strongly affected by the quality of the die attach. Voids or delaminations in this layer may cause higher temperature elevation and thus damage or shorter lifetime. Thermal test of each device in the manufacturing process would be the best solution for eliminating the devices with wrong die attach layer. In this paper we will present the short time thermal transient measurement method and the structure function evaluation through simulations and measurements for die attach characterization. We will also present a method for eliminating the very time consuming calibration process. Using the proposed methods even the in-line testing of LEDs can be accomplished.

  17. Verbessern Discovery Systeme die Informationskompetenz?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Böhner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem Auftauchen von Discovery Systemen entstand die Hoffnung, dass der Schulungsbedarf und damit der Aufwand für die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz verringert und durch die Systeme selbst die Informationskompetenz verbessert werden kann. Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet kritisch das Zusam­menspiel von Discovery Systemen und Informationskompetenz anhand von Recherchegewohnheiten eher untrainierter Studierender. Anhand einer kurzen Gegenüberstellung der unterschiedlichen Recherche­konzepte von Suchmaschinen und bibliothekarischen Rechercheangeboten werden Rückschlüsse auf die zu fördernden Schwerpunkte bei der Informationskompetenz gezogen und untersucht, welche Schlüsselrolle Discovery Systeme dabei spielen.The dissemination of discovery systems has raised hopes that the need for extensive teaching of information literacy might be reduced in the future. Also, their intuitive approach has been hopefully seen to enable the development of a better information literacy. This article critically focusses on the interaction of discovery systems and information literacy by analysing research behaviours of comparatively untrained students. In order to define which specific themes should be promoted by information literacy education, the author examines various research concepts of search engines as well as research offers of libraries. On this basis the key role of discovery systems will be explored.

  18. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE LEËRKOLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Jacobs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Die behoefte aan formele opleiding vir militêre aanvoering in Suid-Afrika bestaan sedert die eerste verdedigingskemas alhier ontwerp is. Hierdie tekort aan offisiere is aanvanklik uit die Garnisoen aan die Kaap bevredig. Toenemende militêre bedrywighede teen inboorlinge en die ontwikkeling van die kommandostelsel Nat sy eie militêre leiers voortgebring het, let al hoe duideliker die gebrek aan offisiere met 'n gespesialiseerde militêre kennis beklemtoon. Sulke offisiere kon egter nie anders as :leur formele opleiding beskikbaar gemaak Nord nie.

  19. Die Rechtsprechung der ICSID-Schiedsgerichte

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsos, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Die Beilegung von Investitionsstreitigkeit erfolgt innerhalb des ICSID-Systems durch die nicht ständigen und für jeden Fall neu gebildeten ICSID-Schiedsgerichte. Mit Institutionen zur Sicherung der homogenen Entwicklung der Rechtsprechung wie die EG-Generalanwälte, die EG-Vorabentscheidung, das WTO-„Appellate Body“ oder die einem Berufungsverfahren gleichstehende Verweisung an die Große Kammer des EMRGH ist allerdings das ICSID-System nicht ausgestattet. Vielmehr ist die Möglichkeit einer Ber...

  20. Bylae tot „Koers”, Februarie 1954. Die opvoedkunde*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CHR. Coetzee

    1956-03-01

    Full Text Available Die veld van ondersoek van hierdie wetenskap is die opvoeding. Dit is een van die wydste en omvangrykste velde van wetenskaplike ondersoek. En die aantal vraagstukke wat in hierdie veld lê, is onmeetlik. Die opvoeding self is net so breed as die lewe. As die lewensvraagstukke in aantal onnoembaar is, dan is die opvoedingsvraagstukke eweneens onnoembaar.

  1. Geologie van die Bergkwagga Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K Toerien

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Die geologie van die Bergkwagga Nasionale Park word behandel. Die topografie en dreinering word bespreek en gevolg deur 'n kort behandeling van die Serie Beaufort (asook doleriet intrusies soos dit in die Park voorkom. The geology of the Mountain Zebra National Park is dealt with. The topography and drainage is discussed, followed by a brief discussion of the Beaufort Series (and dolerite intrusion, as it occurs in the Park.

  2. Die Bedeutung der spirituellen Heilung in Tunesien

    OpenAIRE

    Dridi, Sameh

    2012-01-01

    Die Schulmedizin ist zwar das offizielle und anerkannte Gesundheitssystem in Tunesien, jedoch findet der Beobachter zahlreiche traditionelle und moderne alternative Heilmethoden, die miteinander koexistieren. Dazu gehört die spirituelle Heilung bzw. die tibb ruhani, die im letzten Jahrzehnt zunehmend eine zentrale Stellung im „health seeking behavior“ der Jugendlichen eingenommen hat. Viele der älteren Heilpraktiken standen in der Öffentlichkeit im Schatten der Schulmedizin und des offiziel...

  3. Ist die Bank der Zukunft eine Bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Spremann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Ist die Bank der Zukunft noch eine Bank? Ist sie noch eine Bank mit Menschen, oder wird die virtuelle Bank das Modell der Zukunft sein? Haben die Filialen noch eine Chance, oder werden künftig alle Bankgeschäfte über Computer abgewickelt? Umfragen unter Kreditinstituten bestätigen, dass die gegenwärtig drängendste Frage ist, auf welchem Weg die Bank und der Mensch zusammenkommen.

  4. Fördern gewalthaltige Bildschirmspiele die Aggressionsbereitschaft?

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Die Frage, ob gewalthaltige Bildschirmspiele die Aggressionsbereitschaft der SpielerInnen erhöht, wird in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert. Demgegenüber spricht die vorliegende Forschung mehrheitlich für die Annahme eines aggressionsfördernden Effekts, auch wenn die Größenordnung und praktische Bedeutung der gefundenen Zusammenhänge unterschiedlich beurteilt wird. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisstand zum Zusammenhang zwischen Gewaltspielkonsu...

  5. Endokrinologie in der Lebensmitte: Die Perimenopause.

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert-Klauss V

    2012-01-01

    Anhand dreier Kasuistiken aus der gynäkologischen Hormonsprechstunde werden beispielhaft besondere Situationen und eine darauf individuell abgestimmte Hormontherapie während der Perimenopause vorgestellt. Der erste Fall beschreibt eine 47-jährige Patientin mit ausgeprägter perimenopausaler Symptomatik und Östrogen-Dominanz. Die Dokumentation über 5 Jahre illustriert die Probleme, die perimenopausal durch die endogene Überstimulation der Ovarien entstehen können. Über die Unvorherseh...

  6. Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P. Retief

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse, geneesmiddels en chirurgie – laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie ’n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk ’n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islam-geneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra.

  7. Per Mausklick in die Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Klampfer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Onlinesupervision im Hinblick auf Fallbesprechungen aus der Onlineberatung ist sinnvoll, zumal die auftauchenden Fragestellungen, welche häufig nur im Kontext des Mediums nachvollziehbar sind, durch das gleiche Medium besprochen werden, in dem sie auch entstanden sind. Angefangen von der schriftkommunzierten Falldarstellung, dem reduzierten Gefühlsaudruck bis hin zu den Interventionen bietet dieses Medium vielfältige und onlinespezifische Arbeitsmethoden. Allerdings ist es – neben den beschriebenen Grenzen – auch wichtig, immer wieder ein Gegengewicht zur "virtuellen Welt" herzustellen und wieder "Bodenhaftung" zu spüren, was hauptsächlich in der face-to-face-Beratungssituation möglich ist. Somit stellt die Onlinesupervision eine eigenständige und hilfreiche Möglichkeit dar, die eigene Arbeit kontextnah zu betrachten und zu hinterfragen, sofern sie zielgerichtet und eventuell ergänzend zur Live-Supervision eingesetzt wird.

  8. Die Präeklampsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancher-Todesca D

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In westlichen Industrieländern werden 10-15 % aller Schwangerschaften durch eine krankhafte Blutdrucksteigerung kompliziert. Hypertensive Erkrankungen während der Schwangerschaft zählen zu den häufigsten Ursachen mütterlicher und fetaler Morbidität und Mortalität. Nach der International Society for the Study of Hypertension (ISSHP unterscheidet man eine chronische Hypertonie, schwangerschaftsinduzierte Hypertonie, leichte/schwere Präeklampsie und Eklampsie. Die Pathogenese der Präeklampsie/Eklampsie ist bis heute unklar. Es gibt keine spezifischen diagnostischen Tests, die Therapie richtet sich nach den Symptomen, bzw. der Prävention der Komplikationen. Einzige kausale Therapie ist nach wie vor die Beendigung der Schwangerschaft.

  9. Der Nahostkonflikt und die Medien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Richter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diese Einführung in eine Themenausgabe zu den vielfältigen Rollen der Medien im Nahostkonflikt skizziert die Probleme, die sich für Medien und Journalisten als Akteure im Konflikt, Adressaten der Konfliktparteien und Anlass für Konflikt durch ihre Berichterstattung ergeben. Das Konfliktgebiet Israel und Palästina ist sowohl für Forschung über Auslandsbericht-erstattung, über transnationale Agenda Building- und Public Diplomacy-Prozesse als auch über mediensystemische Entwicklungen in Besatzer- und Besatzungsgebieten interessant. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über das Feld und führt dabei in die in der Themenausgabe präsentierten empirischen Studien zum Nahostkonflikt und den Medien ein.

  10. Die struktuur en moontlike aandrywingskragte van die 1991 - 1992 - droogte in Suidelike Afrika

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Jury

    1993-01-01

    'n Diagnostiese model word gebruik om die onderliggende atmosferiese prosesse wat aanleiding gegee het tot die 1991-1992- droogte oor Suidelike Afrika, te ondersoek. Dit blyk dat 'n styging in seeoppervlaktemperature van meer as 1 °C in die tropiese deel van die Suid-Indiese Oseaan in die winter van 1991 aanleiding kon gegee het tot 'n afwyking in die gemiddelde Walker-sirkulasie. Hierdeur is die invloei van warm, vogtige lug vanaf die Mosambiekkanaal oor die oostelike platorand van Suidel...

  11. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  12. DIE STRYD TEEN DIE VOORPOSTE: 1-2 FEBRUARIE 1941 (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Du Plessis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Die vyand is mislei en verrasDie vraag is dikwels gestel waarom die Italiaanse lugmag geen rol gespeel het om die aanmars teen Suid-Abessinië en die aanvalle op die voorposte te stuit nie. Behalwe die feit dat die Italianers nie onmiddellik van die aanmars geweet het nie, het die Hertog van Aosta in 'n rapport aan die Italiaanse weermagshoofkwartier in Rome te kenne gegee dat die lugmag nie kon optree nie weens 'n tekort aan vliegtuie. In die lig van die sterk lugmagbasisse na aan die buiteposte, by Neghelli en Yavello, is hierdie rede myns insiens nie meor as 'n minder geloofwaardige verskoning nie. Die Suid-Afrikaanse lugmag, wat boonop in 'n vyandelike lugruim moes beweeg, het vyandelike basisse getakel met slegs enkele vliegtuie - soms met net een. Die waarheid is eerder dat die Italiaanse inligtingsdiens op 'n verkeerde voet gevang is en dat die beskikbare lugmag en landmagte onvoorbereid en ongemotiveerd was om die koppige Springbokaanmars te stu it. 1 SA Divisie het hulle mislei om te glo alles is veilig en daarna drie buiteposte binne twee dae platgeloop.

  13. Kink degeneracy and rogue potential solution for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHENHUI XU; HANLIN CHEN; ZHENGDE DAI

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we obtained the exact breather-type kink soliton and breather-type periodic soliton solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (BKP) equation using the extended homoclinic test technique. Some new nonlinear phenomena, such as kink and periodic degeneracies, are investigated. Using the homoclinic breather limit method, some new rational breather solutions are found as well. Meanwhile, we also obtained the rational potential solution which is found to be just a rogue wave. These results enrich thevariety of the dynamics of higher-dimensional nonlinear wave field.

  14. Discovery of a magnetic field in the CoRoT hybrid B-type pulsator HD 43317

    OpenAIRE

    Briquet, M.; Neiner, C.; Leroy, B; Pápics, P. I.

    2013-01-01

    Context. A promising way of testing the impact of a magnetic field on internal mixing (core overshooting, internal rotation) in main-sequence B-type stars is to perform asteroseismic studies of a sample of magnetic pulsators. Aims: The CoRoT satellite revealed that the B3IV star HD 43317 is a hybrid SPB/β Cep-type pulsator that has a wealth of pulsational constraints on which one can perform a seismic modelling, in particular, probing the extent of its convective core and mixing processes. M...

  15. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... estimate the expected concentration of plasma proBNP based on age and gender was established for dyspneic subjects: an actual plasma proBNP concentration below half of the expected value ruled out left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 100% to 100%; specificity 15...

  16. Dietary A- and B-type procyanidins : characterization and biofunctional potential of an abundant and diverse group of phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Appeldoorn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Procyanidins (PCs) are phenolic compounds that belong to the class of flavonoids and are oligomers of monomeric (epi)catechin units. These monomeric units can be linked to each other by a single C4-C8 or C4-C6 linkage, which is referred to as B-type. Besides these single linkages an additional ether bond can be present, C2-O-C7 or C2-O-C5, which is referred to as A-type. PCs are highly abundant in our diet. Well known PC food sources are cocoa, apple, grape seeds, wine and nuts. After the int...

  17. Brauchen wir die Klimawende? Die Fakten des Weltklimaberichts

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Die wesentlichen Punkte des 5. Weltklimaberichts (IPCC) werden im öffentlichen Rahmen vorgestellt. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf dem 1. Band zu den naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen. Erwartete Auswirkungen im sozioökonomischen Umfeld aus dem 2. Band werden ebenso zusammengefasst dargestellt wie wesentliche Möglichkeiten der Vermeidung des Klimawandels aus dem 3. Band.

  18. 'Die Zeit' im Konversationsunterricht ('Die Zeit' in a Conversation Class)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Cantarino, Barbel

    1975-01-01

    The German weekly newspaper "Die Zeit" contains a very rich variety of topics and is therefore an inexhaustable source for an exciting conversation class. This article outlines and lists the advantages of a German conversation course organized around this newspaper. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  19. Bylaag tot ,,Koers": Die taak, grondslag en terrein van die plantfisiologie, met spesiale verwysing na plantfisiologiese navorsing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Botha

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Die natuurwetenskappe is vroeër in twee groepe ingedeel, nl. die verklarende en die beskrywende wetenskappe. Onder eersgenoemde groep het die Fisika en die Skeikunde geressorteer, terwyl die Geologie, die Plantkunde en die Dierkunde onder laasgenoemde groep geplaas is.

  20. Die stand van wiskundeonderwys in Afrikaanse skole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Stols

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoërordedenkvaardighede is noodsaaklike basiese vaardighede vir die een-en-twintigste eeu aangesien rekenaars berekeninge en algoritmes baie vinniger en akkurater kan doen as mense. Dit beteken dat skole leerders moet toerus om logies te dink, patrone te ontdek, bewyse te lewer, asook om nieroetineprobleme op te los. Hierdie fasette wat as hoërordedenke geklassifiseer word, is die kern van wiskundige denke en ontwikkeling. Suid-Afrika neem aan verskeie internasionaal vergelykende studies deel. Met behulp van hierdie vergelykende studies kan bepaal word hoe die Afrikaanse wiskundeleerders in Suid-Afrika se prestasie met dié van leerders in ander lande vergelyk en ook wat die tekortkominge in die wiskundeonderwys is. Volgens die 2003-TIMSS-uitslae is die probleem in Afrikaanse skole juis dié vrae wat hoërordedenke vereis. Dit beteken dat die Afrikaanse skole ’n doelbewuste poging sal moet aanwend om hoërordedenke te ontwikkel. Die 1999-TIMSS-videostudie toon dat die lande wat die beste presteer, soos Japan, tydens onderrig meer tyd wy aan die ontwikkeling van begripsvorming en aan die oplos van moeiliker probleme. Die fokus in die presterende lande is op die ontwikkeling van hoërordedenke deur probleemoplossing. Daar word dus minder tyd afgestaan aan herhaling van roetine- of soortgelyke oefeninge wat ’n rekenaar ook kan doen. Die omgekeerde hiervan is ’n tipiese verskynsel in Afrikaanse skole, waar ’n onderwyser byvoorbeeld een of meer voorbeelde op die bord doen waarna die leerders ’n hele aantal soortgelyke roetine-oefeninge doen.

  1. The production and characterisation of highly anisotropic PrFeCoB-type HDDR powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the processing of highly anisotropic HDDR powder and PTFE-bonded magnets with the composition Pr13.7Fe63.5Co16.7B6M0.1 (M=Zr or Nb) has been undertaken. These alloys were processed by an homogenising heat treatment for a range of times, and a subsequent HDDR treatment employing a range of disproportionation times. The optimum time for the homogenisation of the as-cast structure was found to be 20 h at 1100 deg. C, while the optimum disproportionation time in the HDDR treatment was found to be 10 min at 860 deg. C. Zr-additions appear to inhibit grain growth during the heat treatment process, whereas Nb-additions appeared to control more effectively the grain growth during the disproportionation and recombination stages of the HDDR process

  2. Die funksie van die belydenis en die dogma in die struktuur van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk en die implikasies daarvan vir die predikant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Pont

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of the Confession and Doctrine in the structure of the NHK and the implications thereof for a minister of the WordThe whole question of the function of the Confession and Doctrine in the structure of the NHK is mainly a question of church order. This matter is treated, in the first place, by looking at history and the calvinist roots of the Church. Because the Confessio Belgica names the true preaching of the Word as one of the marks of the Church, it is of paramount importance for the Church to maintain true preaching. The norm by which true preaching is measured, is the regula fidei, i e the Bible and in the second place the Confession and the Doctrine. In the form of subscription by the ministers of the Word they acknowledge that Confession is in accordance with the Word and therefore a true norm for measuring true preaching. Three cases of alleged heresy committed by ministers are examined to determine in which way the Church Councils applied the mentioned norms.

  3. Die Belydenis van Belhar en die ekumene teen die agtergrond van die Drie Formuliere van Eenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. le R. du Plooy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Confession of Belhar and ecumenism against the backdrop of the Three Forms of Unity This article focuses on the Confession of Belhar and in- vestigates from an ecclesiastical and theological perspective the question whether this confession should be accepted and added as a fourth confession to the existing Three Forms of Unity. The following aspects are addressed: the origin and content of the Confession of Belhar, the ecclesiastical and theological reaction within the family of Dutch Reformed Churches as well as in the reformed ecumenical world. A critical analysis of the content is made and evaluated, and in con- clusion attention is given to a few options with regard to the place of the Confession of Belhar in the reformed ecumenical world in the future. A comparison between the Three Forms of Unity and the Confession of Belhar shows a definite difference in quality. The Confession of Belhar is not of a similar standard with regard to the theological and doctrinal content and structure of the Three Forms of Unity, and does not add quality or neglected faith-related value to these existing creeds.

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Dufton, P L; Howarth, I D; Walborn, N R; Markova, N; Clark, J S; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Dunstall, P R; Hénault-Brunet, V; Apellániz, J Maíz; McEvoy, C M; Sana, H; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 +/- 12.2 km/s from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3-sigma criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (>345 km/s) or...

  5. Hypoglycemic activities of A- and B-type procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts from different Cinnamon barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaolian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Rui; Wu, Ximin; Wu, Yingchun; Huang, Caiguo; Li, Yiming

    2011-02-15

    Procyanidin oligomers in Cinnamon are thought to be responsible for the biological activity in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify types of procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species and investigate their different effects, the present study investigated procyanidin oligomers in polyphenolic oligomer-rich extracts of three Cinnamon samples by LC-MS methods, and their hypoglycemic activities were detected in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that two of the three samples from Cinnamomum cassia were rich in B-type procyanidin oligomers, and the other sample was rich in A-type procyanidin oligomers. The Cinnamon extracts were administered at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice for 14 days. The results showed that blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased in all Cinnamon extract groups compared with the control group (pCinnamon extracts significantly increased the consumption of extracellular glucose in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and normal HepG2 cells compared with the control group. These results suggest that both A- and B-type procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species have hypoglycemic activities and may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 DM. PMID:20851586

  6. XML - die Zukunft des Web?

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Was ist XML? Was kann man damit machen? Welche Anwendungsgebiete für XML sind denkbar? Was gibt es derzeit für Applikationen? Wie wirkt sich diese neue (Meta-)Sprache auf die zukünftige Netznutzung aus?

  7. When a major star dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrologers are slowly learning what happens when a star dies. On the night of 23-24 February 1987, the light of an exploding star - a supernova with the name SN 1987A - reached the earth. In this article this astrological event of the century are discussed, and its importance for astrologers

  8. How Tycho Brahe really died

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Petersen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 we commemorate the 4th centenary of the death of Tycho Brahe, perhaps the first great scientists in a modern sense.This famous Danish astronomer died in Prague on the 24th of October 1601, eleven days after he had attended a banquet at the Bohemian count of Rosenberg. Tycho was too courte...

  9. Welches Geschlecht hat die Avantgarde?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Lehnert

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch betrachtet das Theater der französischen und amerikanischen ‚Avantgarde‘ der Moderne und Postmoderne unter dem Aspekt des Geschlechts: Welcher Verfahren bedient sich avantgardistische Kunst, ist avantgardistische Kunst in geschlechtlicher Hinsicht restriktiv, oder ermöglicht sie die subversive feministische oder auch lesbisch-schwule Ausformung spezifischer Formen?

  10. Die roeping van die staat t.o.v. die onderwys en kultuur in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de Klerk

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available My toespraak verplaas my na die dae van my minislerskap van Nasionale Opvoeding, waarby Kultuur en Onderwys inbegrepe is. Wat ek nou daarvan sal sê bly my oortuiging, net soos dit enkele maande gelede in my vorige hoedanigheid was.

  11. Modelling die filling with charged particles using DEM/CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Nkem Nwose; Chunlei Pei; Chuan-Yu Wu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of electrostatic charge on powder flow behaviour during die filling in a vacuum and in air were analysed using a coupled discrete element method and computational fluid dynamics (DEM/CFD) code,in which long range electrostatic interactions were implemented.The present 2D simulations revealed that both electrostatic charge and the presence of air can affect the powder flow behaviour during die filling.It was found that the electrostatic charge inhibited the flow of powders into the die and induced a loose packing structure.At the same filling speed,increasing the electrostatic charge led to a decrease in the fill ratio which quantifies the volumetric occupancy of powder in the die.In addition,increasing the shoe speed caused a further decrease in the fill ratio,which was characterised using the concept of critical filling speed.When the electrostatic charge was low,the air/particle interaction was strong so that a lower critical filling speed was obtained for die filling in air than in a vacuum.With high electrostatic charge,the electrostatic interactions became dominant.Consequently,similar fill ratio and critical filling speed were obtained for die filling in air and in a vacuum.

  12. Die struktuur en moontlike aandrywingskragte van die 1991 - 1992 - droogte in Suidelike Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Jury

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available 'n Diagnostiese model word gebruik om die onderliggende atmosferiese prosesse wat aanleiding gegee het tot die 1991-1992- droogte oor Suidelike Afrika, te ondersoek. Dit blyk dat 'n styging in seeoppervlaktemperature van meer as 1 °C in die tropiese deel van die Suid-Indiese Oseaan in die winter van 1991 aanleiding kon gegee het tot 'n afwyking in die gemiddelde Walker-sirkulasie. Hierdeur is die invloei van warm, vogtige lug vanaf die Mosambiekkanaal oor die oostelike platorand van Suidelike Afrika moontlik onderdruk, met 'n gepaardgaande afname in reenval. Die afleiding word gemaak dat die patroon en siklusse van somerreënval oor Suidelike Afrika nou goed genoeg verstaan word om tentatiewe voorspellings te waag, maar dat toenemende samewerking tussen instansies in Suider-Afrika wat hulle met die weerkunde besig hou, hiervoor nodig is.

  13. Studienplatzvergabe: die cleversten Bewerber kommen zum Zug

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Braun; Nadja Dwenger; Dorothea Kübler

    2008-01-01

    Überlastete Universitätsverwaltungen und langwierige Nachrückverfahren sind die Folge der dezentralen Vergabe von Studienplätzen. Um die Studienplatzvergabe künftig schneller und einfacher abwickeln zu können, soll die Zentralstelle für die Vergabe von Studienplätzen (ZVS) die Universitäten als Serviceeinrichtung unterstützen. Eine solche Unterstützung ist zwar sinnvoll, sie wird aber nicht ohne Weiteres alle Probleme lösen können. Zentrale Vergabeverfahren, bei denen die Abstimmung zwischen ...

  14. Exploratory study on H13 steel dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    Ultrahigh-strength H13 steel is a recommended die material for aluminum die casting; dies made from H13 steel can be safely water- cooled during hot working operations without cracking. However, after time the dies exhibited surface cracking and excessive wear. Erosive wear also occurs owing to high pressure injection of molten Al. An exploratory study was made of the causes for surface cracking of H13 dies. Results suggest that surface cracking is caused by interrelated factors, internal to the die material as well as externally induced conditions.

  15. Die Integration Ostdeutschlands in die Europäische Union: eine Erfolgsgeschichte?

    OpenAIRE

    Toepel, Kathleen; Weise, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Seit der Vereinigung ist die Zustimmung zur deutschen EU-Mitgliedschaft in Ostdeutschland stark zurückgegangen. Überzeugende Gründe hierfür sind nicht zu erkennen. Die Aufnahme der DDR in die EG erfolgte weitgehend reibungslos und verzögerte die deutsche Vereinigung nicht. Bei der Übertragung des Gemeinschaftsrechts und bei der Anwendung der Beihilfenaufsicht haben die europäischen Institutionen die spezifische Situation Ostdeutschlands gewürdigt. Über die EU Strukturfonds engagiert sich die ...

  16. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE BLANKE JEUG IN DIE TWEEDE VRYHEIDSOORLOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Visser

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a detailed description of the lives of white Youths during the Second War of Independence in South Africa. The plight of children confined in concentration camps all over the country, the high death rate due to malnutrition and the outbreak of disease in the camps are analysed and the attention is focussed on the allarming fact that whereas 6189 burghers died during this war, a total of 27, 927 men, women and children died in concentration camps during the same period. It can thus safely be said that it was much safer at the front than in a concentration camp. Examples of extraordinary valour by young children were numerous during this war and some of these are related in the article.

  17. Die betekenis van die bepalings van die 1996 Grondwet: Die aanhef en hoofstuk 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Venter

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preamble and Chapter 1 This contribution is intended to be the first installment of a systematic interpretation of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996.Due to the foundational and repetitive reference in the text to values, regard must constantly be had to those values when this Constitution is interpreted.Even though the preamble does not contain positive norms, is an important interpretive source of the foundations of the Constitution. An important deviation from the preamble of the 1993 Constitution, is that the term Rechtsstaat ("constitutional state" is not employed. The introduction of this notion in South African law and its meaning in general is described. With reference to relevant dicta in recent constitutional cases, the Constitutional Principles in terms of which the 1996 Constitution was formulated and the text of the Constitution itself, it is argued that this is essentially a Rechtsstaat Constitution, but that the divergence in the range of constitutional values creates the danger of the constitutional state floundering in the waters of the social state.Section 1, being the foundational provision, is not unamendable, but it is very tightly entrenched. The most profound values of the Constitution are set out in this compact formulation. The question is inevitably raised whether, where values have to compete for precedence in concrete circumstances, a hierarchy of values must be construed. An analysis of section 1 in the context of other relevant provisions of the Constitution reveals that human dignity is the primary nuclear value of the Constitution, supported by equality and freedom. Democracy, supremacy of the Constitution and the rule of law are structural and procedural values of the Constitution subordinate to the nuclear values and non-racialism and non-sexism are derived values.How it is possible for a constitution to be superior law, as section 2 provides regarding the 1996 Constitution, is analysed

  18. Die spel van assosiasies in en om 'Die verlossing van die beeld' van Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. du Toit

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The play of association in and around 'The liberation of the image' by Breyten Breytenbach This analysis focuses on the conjunction of memory and imagination, which is an important impulse in, and key to, Breytenbach’s work. The play with language and with associations, the foregrounding, in the short story, “Die verlossing van die beeld” (Breytenbach, 1983 with its metafictional title and apparently divergent motifs (rain/water, watch, onion, the death and burial of a grandfather acts, as it were, as an invitation to the reader to become a co-player. The reader ventures on a search for traces, intertextual links within the Breytenbach oeuvre and for already acknowledged influences such as Surrealism (which in turn casts some light on the strange title of the story and the Eastern philosophies such as Zen and the even older Taoism. The analysis also takes into account the context in which “Mouroir” was written, namely Breytenbach’s term in prison (1975-1982. Seeing that the writer had to hand in his manuscripts to the jail authorities regularly, he might have decided, consciously or by intuition, to hide some thoughts and feelings behind a screen or a mask, in, for example in “Die verlossing van die beeld”, a lighter tone and irony.

  19. Microstructure of AM50 die casting magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiełbus

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: AM50 magnesium alloy allows high-energy absorption and elongation at high strength and has goodcastability. It contains aluminum and manganese. Typically, it is used in automotive industry for steering wheels,dashboards and seat frames. The aim of this paper is to present the results of investigations on the microstructureof the AM50 magnesium alloy in an ingot condition and after hot chamber die casting.Design/methodology/approach: Die casting was carried out on 280 tone locking force hot-chamber die castingmachine. For the microstructure observation, a Olympus GX+70 metallographic microscope and a HITACHIS-3400N scanning electron microscope with a Thermo Noran EDS spectrometer equipped with SYSTEM SIXwere used.Findings: Based on the investigation carried out it was found that the AM50 magnesium alloy in as ingotcondition is characterized by a solid solution structure a with partially divorced eutectic (a + Mg17Al12 andprecipitates of Mn5Al8 phase. After hot chamber die casting is characterized by a solid solution structure awith fully divorced eutectic a + Mg17Al12. Moreover, the occurrence of Mn5Al8 phase and some shrinkageporosity has been proved.Research limitations/implications: Future researches should contain investigations of the influence of the diecasting process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AM50 magnesium.Practical implications: AM50 magnesium alloy can be cast with cold- and hot-chamber die casting machine.Results of investigation may be useful for preparing die casting technology of this alloy.Originality/value: The results of the researches make up a basis for the investigations of new magnesium alloysfor hot chamber die casting with addition of RE elements designed to exploitation in temperature to 175°C.

  20. Die Wissensgesellschaft und die Bildung des Subjekts - ein Widerspruch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hacke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag untersucht, inwiefern sich medienpädagogisch relevante Diskrepanzen zwischen dem Diskurs der Wissensgesellschaft und jugendlichem Medienhandeln nachzeichnen lassen. Dazu werden zunächst einige Aspekte des Konstrukts Wissensgesellschaft skizziert, das in seiner gegenwärtig populären Form ins Fahrwasser an volkswirtschaftlichen Verwertungskalkülen orientierter Denkformen geraten ist. Dies wird in Bezug auf die sich daran gekoppelte Programmatik von Kompetenz diskutiert, welche den «homo oeconomicus» beschwört und sich darin konträr zu klassisch bildungstheoretischen Kategorien verhält. Weitergeführt werden diese Überlegungen anhand der Problematisierung des Medienkompetenztheorems, das sich bis heute damit schwer tut, sich von der Vereinnahmung durch zweckrationale und restringierende Tendenzen zu befreien. Argumentiert wird, dass mit Medienkompetenz zu wenig einer milieuspezifischen Differenzierung Rechnung getragen werden kann, die eine wichtige Prämisse für eine soziale Ungleichheiten ernst nehmende Medienpädagogik ist. Als eine Alternative diskutieren wir, inwieweit sich hier praxeologische Perspektiven zum Verständnis jugendlichen Handelns anbieten. Der Beitrag mündet in einige medienpädagogisch fruchtbare Ideen, in deren Zentrum eine reflexivere, stärker am Habitus von Jugendlichen orientierte Praxis steht.

  1. Straatsburg en artikel 2 van die dordtse kerkorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Schulze

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available In art. 2 K.O. word daar vier soorte kerklike dienste on dcrskei, nl. „dié van die bedienaars van die Woord, dié van die professore aan die teologiese skool, die van die ouderlinge, en dié van die diakens”.

  2. Christelik-nasionaal : outentieke, ideologiese of gesekulariseerde nasionalisme? : die inslag van die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika gedurende die periode 1877 tot 1910 / M. Elaine Botha

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, M Elaine

    1982-01-01

    In teenstelling met ander lande wat in die loop van die sestiende en sewentiende eeu deur Europese moondhede gekoloniseer is, en by name in teenstelling met lande wat deur Protestants-Calvinistiese moondhede gekoloniseer is, vertoon suid-Afrika ʼn eiesoortige stempel van Calvinisme wat duidelik van die van ander lande onderskeibaar is. Tog is hierdie nuanse van die Calvinisme moeilik presies omlynbaar en vervloei die lyne daarvan in die loop van die geskiedenis steeds sodat die presies gestalt...

  3. [Die Gründung...] / Anders Henriksson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henriksson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Rets.: Karsten Brüggemann. Die Gründung der Republik Estland und das Ende des "Einen und unteilbaren Russland" : die Petrograder Front des Russischen Bürgerkrieges, 1918-1920. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2002

  4. Die ausbildung von wertbedeutungen im schuljugendalter*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Heusinger

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Die folgenden Darlegungen stützen sich auf Untersuchungsergebnisse des Verlassers zur Sprachentwicklung in der Ontogenese. Angeregt wurde die UnterSuchung durch die besonders in den letzten Jahren in mehreren Ländern verstärkt erhobenen Forderungen, nicht nur die Sprache des Klein­ kindes, sondern vornehmlich den Entwicklungsstand der Schülersprache auf den einzelnen Klassenstufen zu erforschen und den Prozeß der Sprachentwicklung des Schülers genauer zu bestimmen. Die Forderungen sind (so z. B. in der DDR durch das Bestreben motiviert, weitere wissenschaftliche Voraussetzungen für die Verbesserung der muttersprachlichen Bildung und Erzliehung zu schaffen. Es geht also vor allem um Bedürfnisse des Muttersprachunterrichts, die aus der gesellschaftlichen Bedeutung der Sprache überhaupt und den steigenden Anforderungen an die gesellschaftliche Kommunikation insbesondere erwachsen.

  5. Ethnographische Filme und die Darstellung von Frauen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Filmographie werden ethnographische und koloniale Filme aus dem Bestand des Nederlands Filmmuseum kommentiert, die für die Frage nach der Darstellung von Frauen und Geschlechterverhältnissen von Interesse sind.

  6. Oor die verhouding tussen woordeboekstrukture, woordeboek- inhoud en leksikografiese funksies

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus H Gouws

    2011-01-01

    OPSOMMING: Navorsing op die gebied van die metaleksikografie het oor die laaste paar dekades 'n betekenisvolle fokusverbreding ondergaan. Die aanvanklike fokus was veral op die woordeboekinhoud. Mettertyd het die fokus verskillende woordeboekstrukture ingesluit en tans val leksikografiese funksies binne die bestek van metaleksikografiese navorsing. Al drie hierdie komponente van die leksikografie is ter sake vir die beplanning en samestelling van gebruiker-gedrewe woordeboeke. In hie...

  7. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Kjær, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment of...... NT-proBNP). CMRI was performed at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Levels of IGF-I, BNP and NT-proBNP were measured after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months. Eight patients (5 males and 3 females, mean age 53 ± 12 years (range 30-70)) and 8 matched healthy control subjects were included. Median IGF-I Z...

  8. The telomeric protein AKTIP interacts with A- and B-type lamins and is involved in regulation of cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Torre, Mattia La; Fratini, Federica; Crescenzi, Marco; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Spitalieri, Paola; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Astrologo, Letizia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Cundari, Enrico; Raimondo, Domenico; Biroccio, Annamaria; Gatti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AKTIP is a shelterin-interacting protein required for replication of telomeric DNA. Here, we show that AKTIP biochemically interacts with A- and B-type lamins and affects lamin A, but not lamin C or B, expression. In interphase cells, AKTIP localizes at the nuclear rim and in discrete regions of the nucleoplasm just like lamins. Double immunostaining revealed that AKTIP partially co-localizes with lamin B1 and lamin A/C in interphase cells, and that proper AKTIP localization requires functional lamin A. In mitotic cells, AKTIP is enriched at the spindle poles and at the midbody of late telophase cells similar to lamin B1. AKTIP-depleted cells show senescence-associated markers and recapitulate several aspects of the progeroid phenotype. Collectively, our results indicate that AKTIP is a new player in lamin-related processes, including those that govern nuclear architecture, telomere homeostasis and cellular senescence. PMID:27512140

  9. Die Optimierung der Entsorgungslogistik von Industrieunternehmen

    OpenAIRE

    Heimsoth, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    Im Arbeitsgebiet der Entsorgungslogistik von Industrieunternehmen ist bislang erst sehr vereinzelt angestrebt worden, systematisch die vorhandenen Prozesse zu optimieren. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde zunächst die Ausgangssituation der Entsorgungslogistik untersucht und dargestellt, dass die vorhandene Behältertechnik in Bezug auf die geforderte durchgängige Kompatibilität entlang der Transportkette Industrieentsorgung Schwachstellen aufweist und deutlich gemacht, dass eine Kombination der Le...

  10. Integration landwirtschaftlicher Funktionen in die Raumplanung

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Der anhaltende Strukturwandel in der Landwirtschaft und die spezifische Problematik der Intensivtierhaltung werfen regionale Entwicklungs- und Planungsprobleme auf, die vor allem in Niedersachsen eine kontroverse Diskussion über den Einsatz steuernder Instrumente und die Rolle der Raumordnung und Bauleitplanung auslöste. Die LAG Nordwest der ARL nahm diese Diskussion zum Anlass, im Rahmen einer Arbeitgruppe praxisorientierte Handlungsempfehlungen für eine bessere Integration landwirtschaftlic...

  11. Die Familie Treplin im Ersten Weltkrieg

    OpenAIRE

    Mense, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In der Geschichtswissenschaft gilt der Erste Weltkrieg als die "Urkatastrophe des 20. Jahrhunderts" (Kennan). Er stand am Anfang einer Epoche gewaltiger Umwälzungen, die erst am Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts einer neuen Weltordnung Platz machen sollte, die allerdings noch immer instabil ist. Er bewirkte die Aufweichung der überkommenen bürgerlichen Sozialordnung Europas, beschleunigte den Niedergang des Bürgertums als führende gesellschaftliche Schicht, setzte neue politische Kräfte frei "einerse...

  12. Über die Beliebigkeit juristischer Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenzer, Ingeborg

    2000-01-01

    Im vorliegenden Aufsatz geht die Autorin der Frage nach, inwieweit sich im Familienrecht - wie dies im Obligationenrecht der Fall ist - eine gewisse Konsistenz und nachvollziebare juristische Argumentation finden lässt. Dafür wird, ausgehend vom Rechtsverständnis zu Beginn dieses Jahrhunderts, hintereinander die Entwicklung der Scheidungsgründe, des Unterhaltsrechts, des Güterrechts und des Vorsorgeausgleichs sowie des Kindesrechts betrachtet. Am Ende kommt die Autorin zum Schluss, dass von e...

  13. Die Integration von Mobilen Diensten ins Fahrzeug

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Die Vernetzung von Fahrzeugen stellt aktuell eine der größten Herausforderungen für die Automobilindustrie dar, was dazu führt, dass sich insbesondere Automobilhersteller bei der Schaffung von nachhaltigen Wettbewerbsvorteilen mit den Spezifika der digitalen Ökonomie auseinandersetzen müssen. Die Wissenschaft – insbesondere das Strategische Management – lässt die Praxis mit dieser Fragestellung jedoch weitestgehend alleine und bietet kaum Theorien oder Modelle im Kontext der digitalen Ökonomi...

  14. Die gebruik van die Delphi-tegniek vir die ontwikkeling van kriteria vir die beoordeling van kurrikula vir transkulturele verpleging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna CD Zeelie

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Nursing professionals need specific training to be empowered to render culture congruent care. In this article, criteria regarding transcultural nursing content for inclusion in nursing curricula are drafted.

    Opsomming
    Verpleegkundiges benodig spesifieke opieiding om bemagtiging vir die lewer van kultuur-kongruente sorg te ontvang. In hierdie artikel word kriteria rakende transkulturele verpleegkundige inhoud vir insluiting in Verpleegkunde kurrikulu opgestel. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. DETECTION OF A TERTIARY BROWN DWARF COMPANION IN THE sdB-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY HS 0705+6700

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HS 0705+6700 is a short-period (P = 2.3 hr), close binary containing a hot sdB-type primary and a fully convective secondary. We have monitored this eclipsing binary for more than two years and as a result, 32 times of light minimum were obtained. Based on our new eclipse times together with these compiled from the literature, it is discovered that the observed-calculated curve of HS 0705+6700 shows a cyclic variation with a period of 7.15 years and a semiamplitude of 92.4 s. The periodic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect that may be due to the presence of a tertiary companion. The mass of the third body is determined to be M 3sin i' = 0.0377(±0.0043) M sun when a total mass of 0.617 M sun for HS 0705+6700 is adopted. For orbital inclinations i' ≥ 32.08, the mass of the tertiary component would be below the stable hydrogen-burning limit of M 3 ∼ 0.072 M sun, and thus it would be a brown dwarf. The third body is orbiting the sdB-type binary at a distance shorter than 3.6 AU. HS 0705+6700 was formed through the evolution of a common envelope after the primary becomes a red giant. The detection of a substellar companion in HS 0705+6700 system at this distance from the binary could give some constraints on stellar evolution in such systems and the interactions between red giants and their companions.

  16. A Strange Kind of Dying

    OpenAIRE

    Sitton, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation is a basic symptom of loss, and poetry naturally reflects this disjointing and destructive effect. The fracturing within the poetic form reflects the internal and repeated fracturing effects of trauma on one's own life. In this poetry collection, A Strange Kind of Dying, the speaker is bound by the question, "How is it that I can piece myself back together?" The collection of poetry is meant to help the speaker to find healing from the fragmentation through language. The work is...

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. J.; Kennedy, M. B.; Dufton, P. L.; Howarth, I. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Markova, N.; Clark, J. S.; de Mink, S. E.; de Koter, A.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; McEvoy, C. M.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 ± 12.2 kms-1 from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3σ criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (≥345 kms-1) or small (≤65 kms-1) rotational velocities. Of the candidate runaways, VFTS 358 (classified B0.5: V) has the largest differential radial velocity (-106.9 ± 16.2 kms-1), and a preliminary atmospheric analysis finds a significantly enriched nitrogen abundance of 12 + log (N/H) ≳ 8.5. Combined with a large rotational velocity (vesini = 345 ± 22 kms-1), this is suggestive of past binary interaction for this star. Table 7 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Die Fliege und der Hammer

    OpenAIRE

    Theilmann, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Der Beitrag von Charlotte Theilmann basiert auf einer Feldforschung in einer norwegischen Dachorganisation für ökonomisch, sozial und rechtlich schlechter gestellte Gruppen. In Bezug auf ein Recht auf einen zufrieden stellenden Lebensstandard und soziale Sicherheit wird untersucht, in wie weit die Organisation Teile des Internationalen Paktes über soziale Menschenrechte als Argumentationsgrundlage benutzt. Anhand dieses Beispieles wird der zentralen Frage nachgegangen, welches Bild von Mensc...

  19. Die ontwikkeling van 'n Organisasie Diagnostiese vraelys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Verwey

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is the development of a questionnaire which can be used to diagnose the functioning of organisations. Factor- and item analyses confirmed the conceptual model to a large extent. The high degree of internal consistency of the questionnaire, lends at least initial support for the construct validity of the model. OpsommingDie hoofdoel met hierdie studie is die ontwikkeling van 'n vraelys wat vir die diagnose van 'n organisasie se funksionering gebruik kan word. Op grond van 'n oorsig van die literatuur is eers 'n model van organisasiegedrag ontwikkel. Hierdie model dien as basis vir die vraelys wat deur 'n steekproef, geneem uit verskeie organisasies, voltooi is. Deur item- en faktorontledings word die aard van die konsepsuele model waarop die vraelys baseer is, in 'n groot mate bevestig. Die hoë interne konstantheid van die vraelys verleen tentatiewe ondersteuning vir die aanname dat die model oor 'n hoë mate van konstrukgeldigheid beskik.

  20. Frugal Innovation - die aufstrebende Mittelklasse gewinnen

    OpenAIRE

    Gassmann, Oliver; Winterhalter, Stephan; Wecht, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Unternehmen, die die aufstrebende Mittelklasse in Emerging Markets erobern wollen, kommen nicht um sie herum: "Frugale Innovationen" sind spezifisch für die Bedürfnisse von Kunden in Emerging Markets entwickelte Lösungen. Wenn westliche Firmen sie nicht selber entwickeln, laufen sie Gefahr Boden an Firmen aus Emerging Marktes zu verlieren - auch in den westlichen Heimmärkten.

  1. Die Europäische Union

    OpenAIRE

    Holzinger, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Die Europäische Union (EU) als Studienobjekt der Politikwissenschaft berührt nahezu alle ihre Teildisziplinen. Die Internationalen Beziehungen befassten sich mit der EU auf Grund ihrer weit vorangeschrittenen Integration von Nationalstaaten, die als erklärungsbedürftige Kooperation im internationalen System angesehen wurde.

  2. Die kuns van Maggie Laubser . 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dekker

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Dis vir my ’n groot genoeë om iets te mag sê oor die kuns van 'n vrouw at jare lank haar pad eensaam gegaan het, trou gebly het aan haar kunstenaarsoortuiging en nie toegegee het aan die smaak van die publiek, geenkompromieë daarmee gesluit het terwille van populariteit of stoflike gewin nie.

  3. Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling in die gesprek tussen wetenskap en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Erasmus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel. Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word ’n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat ’n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos.Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible. This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to

  4. Linkspopulismus im Vergleich : Die niederländische Socialistische Partij (SP) und die deutsche Linke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerrit; Wielenga, Friso; Hartlieb, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Die Populisten versuchen, eine politische Unterstützung durch die Wählerschaft zu mobilisieren, indem sie sich scharf vom Establishment distanzieren, das die berechtigten Interessen des Volkes nicht kenne oder sie ignoriere. Programmatisch geht dies fast immer mit radikal-demokratischen Vorschlägen

  5. Die rol van kapitaal in die ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling van onderontwikkelde gebiede*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. du Plessis

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available In die teorie oor ekonomiese groei speel kapitaal ’n besonder prominente rol. Kapitaal met die daarby behorende tegnologiese ontwikkeling, word beskou as die belangrikste enkele faktor verantwoordelik vir die bereiking en instandhouding van ’n „ten voile ontwikkelde” volkshuishouding.

  6. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A RING-DIE GRANULATOR FOR STRAWS

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Hu, Tingzhou Lei,; Shengqiang Shen,; Quanguo Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This research provides an optimal design of structural parameters for ring-die granulators used in the cool briquetting process. Experimental research on the briquetting rate of pellets was carried out for three kinds of crop straws with different granularities, moisture ratios, and length-diameter ratios of the die hole. Results showed that: when the swoop angle β was 45o and the diameter ratio of roller to die was equal to 0.585, the equipment would have higher productivity and lower die-ro...

  7. “Ruik die verderf in die kieliebakke”: Breyten Breytenbach se blik op die lyk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crous

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available “Smell the rot in the armpits”: Breyten Breytenbach’s perspectives on the corpse The purpose of this article is to analyse Breyten Breytenbach’s so-called corpse poem, “bekommernis”, taken from his debut album “die ysterkoei moet sweet” (1964. The theoretical point of departure is the theories of Kristeva, in particular her essay on abjection. Not only does the article focus on Breytenbach’s portrayal of the abject, but also shows to what extent his use of language describing death, decay and the cadaver illustrates what Kristeva calls “a revolution in poetic language”. Given the fact that the poem is situated in a Zen Buddhist context, the Zen philosophy on death and dying is also taken into consideration when analysing aspects such as the dissolution of the ego, the bardos of death, et cetera.

  8. Die Auswirkungen der medialen Internetnutzung auf die Print-Zeitung - Eine medienlinguistische Analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Uhrich, Daniela Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Dissertation mit dem Titel „Die Auswirkungen der medialen Internetnutzung auf die Print-Zeitung“ war es, herauszufinden, wie sich die Print-Zeitungen durch den Einfluss der Online-Medien verändern. Als Korpus wurden die lokale Tageszeitung Mainpost, die überregionale Tageszeitung Süddeutsche Zeitung, sowie die Wochenzeitschrift Spiegel gewählt. In den beiden Zeiträumen Juni bis August 1999 und Juni bis August 2009 wurden die Titelthemen der drei Presseerzeugnisse untersucht un...

  9. Die Debatte über die Grenzen der EU Angesichts der Türkischen Mitgliedschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Die Türkei steht seit  Jahren vor der Tür der EU, sucht eine Vollmitgliedschaft nach. Die Türkei wird heute mit anderen Staaten, die der Europäischen Union (EU) beigetreten sind, verglichen und darauf behauptet, dass nur ein kleiner Teil der Türkei in Europa liegt, und die Türkei eher moslemisch geprägt ist. Bei der Analyse wird auf drei Fragen Bezug genommen; Stellt die Grenze der Türkei wirklich ein Problem für die EU dar? Passen die EU und ...

  10. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf Hilzensauer; Alex Naringbauer

    2015-01-01

    Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmög...

  11. Die Politik Deutschlands in der Kosovofrage

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Franziska

    2009-01-01

    Anfang des Jahres 2008 erkannte die Bundesrepublik Deutschland den Kosovo als souveränen Staat an, während sich die Europäische Union mit dieser Entscheidung zurückhielt. Die Politikwissenschaftlerin Franziska Krämer untersucht in ihrer Arbeit „Die Politik Deutschlands in der Kosovofrage“ das Spannungsverhältnis zwischen eigenständiger deutscher und europäischer Außenpolitik. Am Beispiel des Kosovo wird die Problematik der Verflechtung von deutschen und europäischen Politikebenen diskutiert. ...

  12. Über die Kunst des Rezensierens

    OpenAIRE

    Prange, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Der Autor geht der Frage nach, "ob sich die Rezension gegenüber der... Evaluation wird behaupten können, die die maßgebende Funktion der Selbstkritik von Wissenschaft so viel besser und umfassender zu erfüllen scheint". Er nimmt eine "kritische Betrachtung" des Rezensionswesens vor und formuliert Grundregeln für "die Würdigung und Beurteilung fremder Texte". Dabei bezieht er sich u.a. auf das Basismodell für die semiotische Analyse kommunikativer Akte von Charles Morris. (DIPF/Orig./Un)

  13. EU-Schuldenkrise: Krisenmanagement und die Kosten

    OpenAIRE

    Hishow, Ognian N.

    2011-01-01

    Die Euroländer haben einen Rettungsschirm aufgespannt, der notleidenden EU-Staaten bis 2013 Hilfe gewährt. Allerdings helfen sie nicht durch Zuschüsse, sondern durch die Vergabe von Krediten und Garantien. Ognian Hishow bezweifelt, dass die betroffenen Länder - vor allem Griechenland und Portugal - die damit verbundene neuerliche Belastung tragen können. Daher plädiert er dafür, dass die übrigen Euroländer einen Teil der Last übernehmen.

  14. “O, DIE DONKIE IS ‘N WONDERLIKE DING!” DIE VOORSTELLING EN UITBEELDING VAN DIE DONKIE IN ENKELE KLASSIEKE, BYBELSE EN PATRISTIESE TEKSTE

    OpenAIRE

    J.P.K. Kritzinger

    2012-01-01

    In Upington, voor die Kalahari-Oranjemuseum, is daar ‘n lewensgrootte brons standbeeld opgerig vir die donkie om die bydrae, wat hy gelewer het in die ontwikkeling van die Laer Oranjerivier-vallei, te gedenk. In 1986 is daar in die destydse Pietersburg voor die burgersentrum ook ‘n standbeeld vir die donkie opgerig om “dié miskende dier op ‘n tasbare wyse te vereer vir sy rol in die mynwese in die streek”.1 In Melbourne, Australië, is daar ook ‘n brons standbeeld, dié keer van ‘n soldaat en s...

  15. X-radiographic study of rare-earth compounds with special regardment of modulated structures. The response of the crystal structure to stoichiometry deviations; Roentgengraphische Untersuchung von Seltenerdverbindungen mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung modulierter Strukturen. Die Antwort der Kristallstruktur auf Stoechiometrieabweichungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisegang, Tilmann

    2010-04-09

    Even shortly after World War II, as large amounts of ultrapure rare earths (RE) became available for scientific research, a large reservoir of peculiar phenomena was uncovered. These had not been investigated before or were completely unknown. Examples of these phenomena are, magnetic ordering, the KONDO effect, quantum critical points, heavy fermion behaviour, as well as superconductivity. A strong influence of small variations of the chemical composition on the physical properties had been observed. The main focus of the present thesis is the detailed elucidation of the crystal structure of fundamental representatives of this class of substances, as well as the influence of dedicated variations of the chemical composition on their structure and properties. In particular, the characterisation of modulated crystals is an important facet. A large spectrum of physical methods, especially X-ray diffraction, is employed in the investigations. Results on oriented intergrowth in the Y-Ni-B-C system, incommensurately ordered vacancies in the Ce-Si system, incorporation of stacking faults as well as commensurately ordered transition metal atoms (TM) in the RE-TM-Si system and site specific occupancy in the Y-Mn-Fe-O system are presented. Their elucidation is reported for the first time. It is shown which consequences the structural peculiarities will have on the physical properties. An objective of this thesis is to give an overview of the possible ''answers'' that can be obtained with regard to the influence of the crystal structure of rare earth transition metal compounds on deviations of the chemical composition. (orig.)

  16. Die Dezentralisierung im Gesundheitswesen Kolumbiens und Brasiliens und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Leprakontrolle

    OpenAIRE

    Kalk, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Pläne zur Dezentralsierung sind ein integrierter Bestandteil der Gesundheitssektorreform in einer zunehmenden Anzahl von Ländern. Die Fähigkeit derartiger Reformen, die Qualität und Effizienz des Gesundheitssystem zu verbessern, ist nur durch begrenzte wissenschaftliche Evidenz untermauert. Diese Studie beabsichtigt die Auswirkungen der Dezentralisierung auf ein spezielles Feld der Seuchenkontrolle, die Leprakontrolle, in Kolumbien und Brasilien zu untersuchen. Sie analysiert die zuzuordnende...

  17. Die invloed van ‘n intensiewe opleidingsprogram op die Kardio Stres-indeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Claassen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mense ondervind baie stressors in hul alledaagse lewe, wat ‘n groot uitwerking het op daagliksefunksionering. Kardio Stres-indeks (KSI is ‘n nie-indringende mate van die stres wat die hartervaar. KSI (uitgedruk as ‘n persentasie berekeninge word gebaseer op die duur van die QRSkompleks, hart tempo, ritme en standaardafwyking van die RR-interval (RRSD spesifieke parameters.

  18. Die uitwerking van die onkruiddoder Roundup® op sommige populasies van grondmikrobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelia Marais

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die glifosaatbevattende onkruiddoder, Roundup®, word wêreldwyd vir onkruidbeheer gebruik. Alhoewel hierdie onkruiddoder beskou word as ‘n lae-toksiese (en dus veilige produk, heers daar tog kommer oor die langdurige effek daarvan op grondmikrobes, plante, diere en die mens. Verskeie artikels in die meer populêre media en internet verwys na die gevare van Roundup®. Grondmikrobes speel ‘n belangrike rol in die afbraak van landbouchemikalieë. Daar is boere wat sukrose of melasse as ‘n voedselaanvulling vir grondmikrobes gebruik. Sommige boere meng dit ook met onkruiddoders ten einde die moontlike nadelige effek daarvan op voordelige grondmikrobes te verminder, deur hulle van ‘n eenvoudige koolstofbron te voorsien. Die effek van Roundup®, met en sonder die byvoeging van sukrose, is gedurende hierdie ondersoek bepaal met betrekking tot sommige aspekte van die mikrobiologiese gemeenskappe in die grond. Grondmonsters is by drie geleenthede geneem, naamlik voor behandeling, ‘n week daarna en 20 dae daarna. Hierdie grondmonsters is daarrna gebruik vir die meting van kweekbare protosoë (mees-waarskynlike-getal en metaboliese potensiaal van hoofsaaklik die bakteriese grondgemeenskap (Biolog EcoplateTM, terwyl die filamentagtige groei in situ (versteekte-plaatjie-tegniek bepaal is. Die byvoeging van suiker het nie ‘n betekenisvolle effek gehad op die werking van die onkruiddoder nie. Terwyl Roundup® wel die metabolisme van die grondbakterieë beduidend verander het, het die bakteriegemeenskap na 20 dae, waarskynlik as gevolg van natuurlike prosesse, herstel.

  19. Die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. de Kock

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. These constructs were selected by virtue of their importance in the literature, as well as the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship which exists between them. The Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC General Scholastic Aptitude Test (ASAT was used for measuring intelligence, Duttweiler's Internal Control Index (ICI was used for determining locus of control and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM was used as a criterion for coping with task complexity. These instruments were administered to 292 subjects to determine whether the relationship between locus of control and task complexity was effected when the effect of intelligence was controlled. The results indicated a significant relationship between locus of control and task complexity, however the relationship was no longer significant after the effect of intelligence was controlled. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taak-kompleksiteit te ondersoek. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies na aanleiding van hulle belangrikheid in die literatuur asook die leemte in empiric se navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband wat tussen hulle bestaan. Die Algemene Skolastiese Aanlegtoets (ASAT van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing (RGN is gebruik vir die meting van intelligensie, die Internal Control Index (ICI van Duttweiler is gebruik vir die meting van lokus van kontrole en die Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM van Raven is gebruik as maatstaf vir die bantering van taakkompleksiteit. Die genoemde meetinstrumente is op 292 proefpersone toegepas om te bepaal of die verband tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit geaffekteer word wanneer daar vir die effek

  20. Verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae in Suid-Afrika gebaseer op die rekords in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die kosmopolities-verspreide Unionoida bereik hul grootste diversiteit in Noord-Amerika. In Suid-Afrika word twee genera van die familie Unionidae, naamlik Unio en Coelatura wat vier spesies insluit, aangetref. Hierdie artikel handel oor die verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 gebaseer op die rekords in die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVWSV van Suid-Afrika. Alhoewel dit elders in Suid-Afrika sporadies aangetref is, is die Wes-Kaap die enigste provinsie waarvan geen monster op rekord in die databasis van die NVWSV is nie. Van die 58 monsters wat op rekord is, is die meerderheid in riviere (32.8% en damme (20.7% versamel en in watertoestande wat as standhoudend, staande, helder en vars beskryf is. ’n Temperatuur-indeks wat vir hierdie spesie bereken is, het dit vyfde in rangorde geplaas van die 12 Bivalvia-spesies wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word op grond van ’n assosiasie met lae omgewingstemperature. ’n Besluitnemingsboom-analise het aangedui dat temperatuur, substratum en waterbronne die mees betekenisvolle bydrae gelewer het tot die daarstelling van die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van U. caffer. Omdat omvattende opnames van varswater Mollusca deur staatsinstansies reeds in die tagtigerjare van die vorige eeu uitgefaseer is en die meerderheid versamelpunte sedertdien nie weer gemonster is nie, is kennis oor hul huidige stand van bewaring en spesiediversiteit gebrekkig. Negatiewe resultate by drie voormalige lokaliteite van U. caffer wat wel intussen deur die outeurs besoek is, dui egter daarop dat die voortbestaan daarvan, soos van sommige verwante spesies elders in die wêreld, bedreig word. Dit word bepleit dat opnames van varswater Mollusca met die gedokumenteerde verspreiding in die databasis van die NVWSV as riglyn, beplan en uitgevoer behoort te word. Die resultate van sulke opnames behoort ’n groot bydrae te lewer om die huidige stand van die verspreiding en spesiediversiteit van

  1. Kan die gevoeligheid van grondlewende organismes bydra om die volhoubaarheid van landbewerking van olieraffinadery afval te beoordeel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan J. Reinecke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voordelige grondlewende organismes lewer ekostelseldienste in gesonde grondtipes. Olieraffinaderye genereer groot hoeveelhede soliede afval wat verskeie tipes koolwaterstowwe en metale bevat wat in die grond geploeg word tydens landbewerking van die afval. Die bedoeling is om die afval deur die grond-ekostelsel te laat degradeer. Die kontaminante mag egter giftig wees vir die diverse verskeidenheid van grondorganismes. Vir die volhoubaarheid van dié praktyk is dit nodig om te weet of remediёring van die landbewerkte grond voldoende was vir die beoogde, voortgesette gebruik daarvan. Indikatore is nodig om die graad van herstel van sodanige grondtipes te bepaal. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die grond van ’n landbewerkte gebied chemies te ontleed en die toksisiteit en herstel te bepaal deur van gestandardiseerde bioassesserings met die komposteringswurm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta en die springstert Folsomia candida (Collembola gebruik te maak. Die organismes is blootgestel aan die gekontamineerde en kontrolegrond en hulle oorlewing, groei, voortplantingsukses en vermydingsgedrag is nagegaan. Die resultate het getoon dat die grond van die landbewerkte perseel steeds verskeie gevaarlike chemikalieё bevat, soos die dieselreeks organiese verbindings, maar dat die grond nie akuut toksies vir die organismes was nie. Dit het wel die groei en voortplanting van die erdwurms, asook die voortplanting van die springsterte nadelig beïnvloed. Die perseel benodig steeds remediёring alvorens grondbewerking van olieslik voortgesit word. Bioasessering het, aanvullend tot die chemiese analises, ’n meer volledige en meer ekologies relevante beeld van die remediëringstatus en toksisiteit van die grond verskaf. Die bevinding ondersteun die gebruik van bioassesserings as ’n eko-toksikologiese metode om landbewerkingsgrond te evalueer.

  2. Bakterielle Endokarditis: Die Sicht des Kardiologen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Für die klinische Diagnostik der bakteriellen Endokarditis gelten die von der Duke University erstellten Kriterien als Goldstandard. Die in der Praxis übliche Einschätzung durch klinisch, echokardiographisch und mikrobiologisch tätige Experten erreicht eine ähnlich hohe Genauigkeit. Entscheidend dabei ist, daß eine enge Zusammenarbeit dieser Spezialisten besteht. Die Symptome der bakteriellen Endokarditis sind unspezifisch und die Erkrankung relativ selten. Deshalb wird die Diagnose oft verspätet, durchschnittlich 2–4 Wochen nach Krankheitsbeginn, gestellt. Neben den vielen klinischen Hinweisen entsprechend den Duke-Kriterien ist vor allem die bei 50 % aller Patienten vorhandene Kombination von klinischen Zeichen eines schweren bakteriellen Infekts und embolischen Ereignissen für die Endokarditis typisch. Die Echokardiographie ist das einzige bildgebende Verfahren, dem bei der Diagnostik der bakteriellen Endokarditis wesentliche Bedeutung zukommt. Gegenüber der transthorakalen Echokardiographie weist die transösophageale Echokardiographie sowohl beim Nachweis von Vegetationen als auch zur Erfassung von Komplikationen die bei weitem bessere diagnostische Genauigkeit auf und sollte daher bei der Mehrzahl der Patienten zum Einsatz kommen. Basis der Endokarditisbehandlung ist eine adäquate antibiotische Therapie. Für den Kliniker ist aber von entscheidender Bedeutung, jene Patienten zu identifizieren, die dringend einer herzchirurgischen Intervention bedürfen. Gesichert ist die Indikation zur Operation bei Patienten im Schock, bei Herzinsuffizienz auf Basis einer Klappeninsuffizienz, extravalvulärer Ausbreitung des Entzündungsprozesses, mechanischen Komplikationen, fehlendem Ansprechen auf adäquate antibiotische Therapie und Prothesenendokarditis früh nach Klappenersatz. Zusätzliche Entscheidungskriterien sind Art des Endokarditiskeims, Beschaffenheit der Vegetation, stattgehabte Embolie und ob eine Prothese oder native Klappe

  3. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Catala, C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.; Castro, N.; Schmid, V. S.; Scardia, M.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Michel, E.; Samadi, R.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD 46769 (V = 5.79). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target. Methods: We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending and spectroscopic follow-up data using standard Fourier analysis and phase dispersion minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assuming a dipole field. Results: In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84 d with an amplitude of 87 ppm and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69 d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not reveal any sign of pulsations. Our results are consistent with the absence of variability in the Hipparcos light curve. The spectroscopy leads to a projected rotational velocity of 72 ± 2 km s-1 and does not reveal periodic variability or the need to invoke macroturbulent line broadening. No signature of a magnetic field is detected in our data. A field stronger than ~500 G at the poles can be excluded, unless the possible non-detected field were more complex than dipolar. Conclusions: The absence of pulsations and macroturbulence of this evolved B-type supergiant is placed into the context of instability computations and of observed variability of evolved B-type stars. Based on CoRoT space-based photometric data; the CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO

  4. Die kognitiewe, persoonlikheids- en belangstellingsprofiele van homogene klasse, gevorm aan die hand van die jung-persoonlikheidsvraelys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Carstens

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive, personality and interest profiles of homogeneous classes formed with reference to the Jung Personality Questionnaire. The principal aim of the study was to determine whether individuals can be classified into natural classes according to the dimensions of the Jung Personality Questionnaire (JPQ, viz. introversionextraversion, feeling-thinking, intuition-sensing and perception-judging. Five clusters were obtained by means of a cluster analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences between the obtained clusters in terms of the mean vectors of scores from the Senior Aptitude Test (SAT, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16-PF and the 19 Field Interest Inventory (19-FII. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the differences amongst the five clusters in terms of the above mentioned mean scores. Statistically significant results were obtained. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om die teorie van Jung te gebruik ten einde vas te stel of persone in natuurlike klasse ingedeel kan word aan die hand van die vier bipolere persoonlikheidsdimensies van die Jung- persoonlikheidsvraelys (JPV, naamlik introversie- ekstraversie, gevoel-denke, intuisie-waarneming en persepsiebeoordeling. Deur middel van bondelontleding is vyf bondels verkry en met behulp van meerveranderlike variansieontleding is vasgestel dat die bondels statistics beduidend van mekaar verskil ten opsigte van die vektore van gemiddeldes van die Senior Aanlegtoets (SAT, die Sestien-persoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys (16-PF, en die Negentienveld-belangstellingsvraelys (19-VBV. Die verskille tussen bondels ten opsigte van die bogemelde tellings, is deur middel van eenrigting-variansieontleding ondersoek en statistics beduidende resultate is verkry.

  5. Ekonomiese invloede op die Suid-Afrikaanse beskawingspatroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Jacobs

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die aanwesigheid van gunstige hulpbronne in 'n land is nie 'n waarborg vir sy ekonomiese ontwikkeling nie. Daar moet die nodige kulturele magte wees om hierdie opgehoopte ryk- dom in produktiewe beleggings om te sit. Daarvoor is die inisiatief, die visie en die kapitaal van die ondernemer nodig. Wat die opbrengs van hierdie beskikbare hulpbronne sal wees, hang ook van die besondere sosiale en kulturele milieu af waarbinne die ekonomiese aktiwiteite in ’n land beoefen word. In enige gemeenskap is hierdie milieu die eksterne uiting van die fundamentele godsdienstige, morele en kulturele opvat- tings en aspirasies van die mense wat daardie gemeenskap vorm. Hierdie uiteindelike waardes neig weer om uitdrukking te vind in sekere godsdienstige, sosiale, politieke en kulturele instellings, wat weer op hulle beurt die lewenswyse vir die mense in die gemeenskap voorskryf en die motiverings en ge- dragspatrone van hulle reaksie op bepaalde omstandighede bepaal.

  6. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  7. The dying rabbit problem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Antonio M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study a generalization of the Fibonacci sequence in which rabbits are mortal and take more that two months to become mature. In particular we give a general recurrence relation for these sequences (improving the work in the paper Hoggatt, V. E., Jr.; Lind, D. A. "The dying rabbit problem". Fibonacci Quart. 7 1969 no. 5, 482--487) and we calculate explicitly their general term (extending the work in the paper Miles, E. P., Jr. Generalized Fibonacci numbers and associated matri...

  8. Die Leiden des jungen Werthers

    OpenAIRE

    Wibe, Henriette Nøddebo; Mathiassen, Jonas Bundgaard; Villadsen, Line Møgelvang; Aeppli, Jon Marius Brogaard; Hvidtfeldt, Sidi Sami Idrissi; Jakobsen, Mathias Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    This project investigate the philosophical influence of Jean-Jaques Rousseau’s Discours sur I’origine et les fondemens de I’inégalité parmi les hommes on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. The concepts of the natural and conscious man that are set forth in the second Discours are compared to Werthers dualistic selfhood and the influence this has on the understanding of the narrative of Werther. Furthermore the project assesses the extent to which the revised 1787 ver...

  9. Lig op Satan en Satanisme vanuit die Nuwe Testament

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. van Rensburg

    1992-01-01

    In hierdie artikel word, in aansluiting by en as voorsetting van prof. Vosloo se "Lig op Satanisme vanuit die Ou Testament" ook in die Nuwe Testament lig op die Satan en Satanisme-verskynsel gesoek. Wat die aard van die inhoud van hierdie artikel betref, probeer ek doelbewus om die stof só aan te bied dat dit gemaklik tot die gemiddelde ernstige Bybelleser kommunikeer. Derhalwe is die aanpak nie akademies-wetenskaplik nie, maar populêr-wetenskaplik.

  10. Erosiegevaar in die Hoër Tugelarivierdreineerkom

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Pretorius; J. Cooks; D. W. Marais

    1988-01-01

    Die omvang van die probleem van gronderosie in Suid-Afrika word kortliks bespreek en verskeie modelle wat reeds in ander lande gebruik is om die probleem te kwantifiseer, word aangehaal. Daar word aangedui dat die potensiële erosiegevaar nie in hierdie studies aangespreek word nie. Die model wat in die huidige studie gebruik word om die potensiële erosiegevaar vir die Tugelarivieropvanggebied te kwantifiseer, is gebaseer op vier veranderlikes, naamlik erositeit, gradiënt, gronderodeerbaarheid...

  11. Lig op Satan en Satanisme vanuit die Nuwe Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. van Rensburg

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word, in aansluiting by en as voorsetting van prof. Vosloo se "Lig op Satanisme vanuit die Ou Testament" ook in die Nuwe Testament lig op die Satan en Satanisme-verskynsel gesoek. Wat die aard van die inhoud van hierdie artikel betref, probeer ek doelbewus om die stof só aan te bied dat dit gemaklik tot die gemiddelde ernstige Bybelleser kommunikeer. Derhalwe is die aanpak nie akademies-wetenskaplik nie, maar populêr-wetenskaplik.

  12. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  13. Bedryf- en organisasiesielkunde - Die grondslag van personeelbestuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Coetzee

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article in People and Profits Whyte (1978 attempts to distinguish between Industrial Psychology and Personnel Management and states that Industrial Psychology is "one specific aspect" of Personnel Management. Whether such difference exists is analysed in terms of Whyte's definition and views of Personnel Management and Industrial Psychology and recent developments in the field of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. It is concluded that differences do exist but that they are not the same as those which Whyte emphasizes. In order to promote common objectives both the similarities and differences should be recognized and close co-operation between Industrial and Organizational psychologists and Personnel Mangers should be encouraged.OpsommingIn 'n onlangse artikel in People and Profits poog Whyte (1978 om 'n onderskeid te tref tussen Bedryfsielkunde en Personeelbestuur en spreek die mening uit dat die Bedryfsielkunde 'n spesifieke aspek van Personeelbestuur is. Of daar wel so 'n onderskeid bestaan word in hierdie artikel ontleed aan die hand van Whyte se definisie en beskouinge van Personeelbestuur en Bedryfsielkunde en die resente ontwikkelinge op die terrein van die Bedryf- en Organisasiesielkunde. Daar word tot die slotsom gekom dat daar wel geringe klemverskille bestaan, maar dat dit nie dieselfde is as die wat Whyte beklemtoon nie. Ten einde die gemeenskaplike doelstellings te bevorder, moet beide die ooreenkomste en verskille erken word en moet noue samewerking tussen Bedryf- en Organisasiesielkundiges en personeelbestuurders aangemoedig word.

  14. DIE DIREKTORAAT OPENBARE BETREKKINGE GEDURENDE WÊRELDOORLOG II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Otto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was die Suid-Afrikaanse Direktoraat Openbare Betrekkinge (SAOB, soos die van enige ander Statebondslande, geskoei op Britse lees. Om die werking van die SAOB te kan verstaan, is dit dus nodig om kortliks die Britse organisasie te beskryf.

  15. DIE DIREKTORAAT OPENBARE BETREKKINGE GEDURENDE WÊRELDOORLOG II

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, W.

    2012-01-01

    Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was die Suid-Afrikaanse Direktoraat Openbare Betrekkinge (SAOB), soos die van enige ander Statebondslande, geskoei op Britse lees. Om die werking van die SAOB te kan verstaan, is dit dus nodig om kortliks die Britse organisasie te beskryf.

  16. BRITSE FORTIFIKASIES IN DIE ANGLO-BOEREOORLOG (1899 - 1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Visser

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie publikasie is gebaseer op JL. Hattingh se MA-verhandeling (DOYS, Nov. 1996 getiteld Die Britse blokhuisstelsel tydens die Anglo-Boereoorlog, 1899-1902. Luidens die voorwoord, is die verhandeling egter vir publikasiedoeleindes geheel en al deur prof. A. Wessels, wat as studieleier vir die verhandeling opgetree het, verwerk. Die publikasie beslaan sewe hoofstukke. Hoofstuk 1 verskaf 'n historiese oorsig van die ontstaan en ontwikkeling van militêre fortifikasies van die Romeinse tydperk af tot vandag. Hoofstuk 2 handel oor die redes vir die oprigting van die fortifikasies, hoofstuk 3 oor die verskillende tipes blokhuise en hoofstuk 4 oor die oprigting van die blokhuislinies. Hoofstuk 5 bied 'n bespreking van die lewe in die blokhuise, terwyl hoofstuk 6 'n uiteensetting van die Britte se strategiese en taktiese aanwending van die blokhuislinies gee. In die slothoofstuk, hoofstuk 7, word die blokhuisstelsel as krygsmaatreël geëvalueer, onder meer aan die hand van die sogenaamde "beginsels van oorlogvoering" wat teen die einde van die 19de eeu gegeld het.

  17. Die geskiedenis van die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog in Suid-Afrlka, 1899-1902. Deel IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sedert 1940, en na 1959 as Staatshistorikus, is dr J. H. Breytenbach bedrywig om die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog na te vors en sy bevindings geleidelik te boek te stel. Sy navorsing is gebaseer op aile beskikbare bronne, waaronder 'n groot aantal van ons argiefstukke wat tot hede of gedeeltelik of gladnie deur navorsers bearbei is nie. Op die wyse vul die skrywer, nou op las van die Minister van Nasionale Opvoeding en onder toesig van die departement Geskiedenis van die Universiteit van Pretoria, 'n groot leemte aan. Hy ontrafel terselfdertyd die verskillende tendense in die menigvuldige, uiteenlopende gegewens, hy probeer waarheid en verdigsel ontrafel om op die wyse te kom tot 'n waarheidsgetroue, objektiewe geskiedskrywer sover dit, menslikerwys gepraat, moontlik is.

  18. HR 5907: Discovery of the most rapidly rotating magnetic B-type star by the MiMeS Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Grunhut, J H; Wade, G A; Townsend, R H D; Marcolino, W L F; Bohlender, D A; Szeifert, Th; Petit, V; Matthews, J M; Rowe, J F; Moffat, A F J; Kallinger, T; Kuschnig, R; Guenther, B D; Rucinski, S M; Sasselov, D; Weiss, W W

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of a very strong magnetic field in the rapidly rotating early B-type star HR 5907, based on observations obtained as part of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project. We infer a rotation period of 0.508276 +0.000015/-0.000012 d from photometric and H{\\alpha} EW measurements, making this the shortest period, non-degenerate, magnetic massive star known to date. From the comparison of IUE UV and optical spectroscopy with LTE BRUCE/KYLIE models we find a solid-angle integrated, uniform black-body temperature of 17 000 \\pm 1000 K, a projected rotational velocity of 290 \\pm 10 km/s, an equatorial radius of 3.1 \\pm 0.2 R_sun, a stellar mass of 5.5 \\pm 0.5 M_sun, and an inclination angle of the rotation axis to our line-of-sight of 70 \\pm 10\\circ. Our measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field, which vary between -500 and -2000 G, phase coherently with the rotation period and imply a surface dipole field strength of \\sim15.7 kG. On the other hand, from fits to mean Leas...

  19. Discovery of a magnetic field in the CoRoT hybrid B-type pulsator HD 43317

    CERN Document Server

    Briquet, M; Leroy, B; Pápics, P I

    2013-01-01

    A promising way of testing the impact of a magnetic field on internal mixing (core overshooting, internal rotation) in main-sequence B-type stars is to perform asteroseismic studies of a sample of magnetic pulsators. The CoRoT satellite revealed that the B3IV star HD 43317 is a hybrid SPB/beta Cep-type pulsator that has a wealth of pulsational constraints on which one can perform a seismic modelling, in particular, probing the extent of its convective core and mixing processes. Moreover, indirect indicators of a magnetic field in the star were observed: rotational modulation due to chemical or temperature spots and X-ray emission. Our goal was to directly investigate the field in HD 43317 and, if it is magnetic, to characterise it. We collected data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at TBL (T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot, Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from HD 43317. We modelled the longitudinal field me...

  20. On the incidence of magnetic fields in slowly-pulsating B, Beta Cephei and B-type emission line stars

    CERN Document Server

    Silvester, J; Henrichs, H F; Wade, G A; Petit, V; Alecian, E; Huat, A -L; Martayan, C; Power, J; Thizy, O

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained 40 high-resolution circular spectropolarimetric measurements of 12 slowly-pulsating B (SPB) stars, 8 Beta Cephei stars and two Be stars with the ESPaDOnS and NARVAL spectropolarimeters. The aim of these observations is to evaluate recent claims of a high incidence of magnetic field detections in stars of these types obtained using low-resolution spectropolarimetry by Hubrig (2006), Hubrig (2007) and Hubrig (2009). The precision achieved is generally comparable to or superior to that obtained by Hubrig et al., although our new observations are distinguished by their resolution of metallic and He line profiles, and their consequent sensitivity to magnetic fields of zero net longitudinal component. In the SPB stars we confirm the detection of magnetic field in one star (16 Peg), but find no evidence of the presence of fields in the remaining 11. In the Beta Cep stars, we detect a field in xi^1 CMa, but not in any of the remaining 7 stars. Finally, neither of the two B-type emission line stars sh...

  1. Correlation of B-type natriuretic peptide levels and echocardiographic parameters in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun Ah; Shin, Jeonghee; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Eun Hee; Son, Chang Sung; Lee, Joo Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the correlation, according to postnatal age, between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and echocardiographic parameters for the assessment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants with respiratory distress. Methods We enrolled 42 preterm infants with respiratory distress who underwent serial echocardiographic evaluation with simultaneous plasma BNP measurements until ductal closure. The correlations between BNP levels and the following 4 representative echocardiographic parameters were studied: diameter of the ductus arteriosus (DA), ratio of the left atrial diameter to the aortic diameter (LA/Ao), ratio of the PDA diameter to the infant's left pulmonary artery diameter (PDA/LPA), and the antegrade diastolic flow of LPA (DFLPA). Results BNP levels were significantly correlated to the magnitude of the ductal shunt, comprising the DA diameter, PDA/LPA ratio, LA/Ao ratio, and antegrade DFLPA for the overall study period. The earliest significant correlation, starting from postnatal day 2, was observed between the LA/Ao ratio and BNP levels. The PDA/LPA ratio and the antegrade DFLPA showed significant correlations with BNP levels postnatal day 3 onward, and with the DA diameter, postnatal day 5 onward. Conclusion BNP levels and echocardiographic parameters showed a positive correlation, but the significance of the correlations differed according to the postnatal age, especially during the first few days of life. PMID:27186229

  2. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, C; Catala, C; Neiner, C; Briquet, M; Castro, N; Schmid, V S; Scardia, M; Rainer, M; Poretti, E; Papics, I; Degroote, P; Bloemen, S; Oestensen, R H; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Michel, E; Samadi, R

    2013-01-01

    {We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD\\,46769 ($V=5.79$). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target.} {We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending, as well as spectroscopic follow-up data, by using standard Fourier analysis and Phase Dispersion Minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assumping a dipole field.} {In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84\\,d with an amplitude of 87\\,ppm, and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69\\,d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not revea...

  3. The IACOB project: III. New observational clues to understand macroturbulent broadening in massive O- and B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Simón-Díaz, S; Castro, N; Herrero, A; Aerts, C; Puls, J; Telting, J; Grassitelli, L

    2016-01-01

    We aim to provide new empirical clues about macroturbulent spectral line broadening in O- and B-type stars to evaluate its physical origin. We use high-resolution spectra of ~430 stars with spectral types in the range O4-B9 (all luminosity classes). We characterize the line-broadening of adequate diagnostic metal lines using a combined FT and GOF technique. We perform a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the whole sample using automatic tools coupled with a huge grid of FASTWIND models. We also incorporate quantitative information about line asymmetries to our observational description of the characteristics of the line-profiles, and present a comparison of the shape and type of line-profile variability found in a small sample of O stars and B supergiants with still undefined pulsational properties and B main sequence stars with variable line-profiles. We present a homogeneous and statistically significant overview of the (single snapshot) line-broadening properties of stars in the whole O and B star doma...

  4. High-performance α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B-type nanocomposite magnets fabricated by direct melt spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bai; ZHANG Lei; SHEN Baogen; ZHAO Tongyun; YU Ronghai

    2013-01-01

    High-performance α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B-type nanocomposite magnets based on the compositions of Pr8Fe86B6 microalloyed with Co,Nb and C were fabricated by direct melt spinning.The coercivity was greatly improved from 5.5 kOe for the Pr8Fe86B6 ribbons to 7.4 kOe for the Pr8Fe85NbB5C ribbons.The balanced high coercivity and remanence were obtained in Pr8Fe75Co10NbB5C ribbons due to the Co substitution for Fe,which led to the significant improvement of magnetic properties in these ribbons.A remanence ratio of 0.82,a coercive field of 6.6 kOe and a maximum energy product of 26.2 MGOe in melt-spun Pr8Fe75Co10NbB5C ribbons were obtained at room temperature.

  5. Numerical investigation on MHD oblique flow of Walter's B type nano fluid over a convective surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study numerically investigates the oblique flow of a Walter-B type nano fluid over a convective surface. Effects of transversely applied magnetic field are also taken into account. The governing system is presented in the form of coupled differential equations by means of suitable similarity transformations which are then solved by using Spectral Quasi-linearization Method (QLM) and the Spectral Local Linearization Method (LLM). The results for velocities temperature as well as nano particle concentration are plotted against pertinent flow parameters. It is found that applied magnetic field M has opposite influence on normal and tangential components of local shear stress and it decays the local heat flux and mass flux rate at the stretching convective surface. Thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion effects on the local heat and mass flux rate are found to be non-similar in a quantitative sense. In order to signify the validity of current numerical scheme, a remarkable agreement is presented with the previous literature for some limiting cases. (authors)

  6. Effect of B-type natriuretic peptides on long-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, Konstantinos C; O'Sullivan, Crochan J; Heg, Dik; Praz, Fabien; Stortecky, Stefan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Buellesfeld, Lutz; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Wenaweser, Peter

    2015-11-15

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are elevated in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and decrease acutely after replacement of the stenotic valve. The long-term prognostic value of BNP after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and the relative prognostic utility of single versus serial peri-interventional measurements of BNP and N-terminal prohormone BNP (NT-pro-BNP) are unknown. This study sought to determine the impact of BNP levels on long-term outcomes after TAVI and to compare the utility of BNP versus NT-pro-BNP measured before and after intervention. We analyzed 340 patients with severe AS and baseline pre-TAVI assessment of BNP. In 219 patients, BNP and NT-pro-BNP were measured serially before and after intervention. Clinical outcomes over 2 years were recorded. Patients with high baseline BNP (higher tertile ≥591 pg/ml) had increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 3.16, 95% confidence interval 1.84 to 5.42; p curve 0.75; p <0.01). Baseline-to-discharge reduction, but not baseline levels of BNP, was related to New York Heart Association functional improvement. In conclusion, high preintervention BNP independently predicts 2-year outcomes after TAVI, particularly when elevated levels persist after the intervention. BNP and NT-pro-BNP and their serial periprocedural changes provide complementary prognostic information for symptomatic improvement and survival. PMID:26428025

  7. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A RING-DIE GRANULATOR FOR STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu, Tingzhou Lei,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an optimal design of structural parameters for ring-die granulators used in the cool briquetting process. Experimental research on the briquetting rate of pellets was carried out for three kinds of crop straws with different granularities, moisture ratios, and length-diameter ratios of the die hole. Results showed that: when the swoop angle β was 45o and the diameter ratio of roller to die was equal to 0.585, the equipment would have higher productivity and lower die-roller contact strength, yielding a good comprehensive briquetting effect; when the granularity was 4mm, the moisture ratio was 16% and the length-diameter ratio was 5.2, the equipment would ensure a higher briquetting rate of pellets and the lowest power consumption per ton of material, yielding the best briquetting effect. This provides references for structural design and process parameters selection of ring-die granulators.

  8. Kan die gevoeligheid van grondlewende organismes bydra om die volhoubaarheid van landbewerking van olieraffinadery afval te beoordeel?

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan J. Reinecke; Sophia A. Reinecke; Mia van Wyk

    2015-01-01

    Voordelige grondlewende organismes lewer ekostelseldienste in gesonde grondtipes. Olieraffinaderye genereer groot hoeveelhede soliede afval wat verskeie tipes koolwaterstowwe en metale bevat wat in die grond geploeg word tydens landbewerking van die afval. Die bedoeling is om die afval deur die grond-ekostelsel te laat degradeer. Die kontaminante mag egter giftig wees vir die diverse verskeidenheid van grondorganismes. Vir die volhoubaarheid van dié praktyk is dit nodig om te weet of remediёr...

  9. Das Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas und seine Wirkung auf die Besucher

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    In dieser Studie wird erstmals die Frage untersucht, wie das Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas in Berlin auf die Besucher wirkt. Dafür wird eine quantitative Befragung von 500 Besuchern durchgeführt. Zunächst werden die Erinnerungskulturtheorien von Jan und Aleida Assmann und Horst-Alfred Heinrich vorgestellt. Anschließend wird das Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas örtlich und zeitlich eingebunden, indem das Konzept des repräsentativen öffentlichen Raums eingeführt und die Erinn...

  10. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  11. Die Toxikologie des Quecksilbers und seiner Verbindungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Syversen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Artikel gibt einen konzentrierten Überblick über die Toxikologie von anorganischem Quecksilber zusammen mit einer umfassenden Übersicht über die Neurotoxikologie von Methylquecksilber. Die Probleme bei der Verwendung von anorganischem Quecksilber in Dentalamalgam werden sowohl im Hinblick auf eine berufsbedingte Exposition als auch bezüglich der möglichen gesundheitlichen Belastung von Patienten behandelt. Ebenso werden die zwei „ungelösten Rätsel” der Neurotoxizität von Methylquecksilber besprochen: die zelluläre Selektivität und das verzögerte Einsetzen der Symptome. Die für diese Aspekte relevante Literatur wird diskutiert, und es wird eine Reihe von Vorschlägen gemacht, wie diese Beobachtungen erklärt werden können.

  12. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE MILITÊRE AKADEMIE, 1950 - 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Visser

    2012-02-01

    part of the debate. Also in dispute, was the location of the Academy at Saldanha, rather than in the military heart-land in Pretoria. By interpreting the academic training needs of the Defence Force correctly and positioning itself accordingly, the Academy survived that crisis. Thereafter, the Academy time and again adapted to the changing military and socio-political environment and strove towards ever increasing relevance to the Defence Force. In this way female and non-European students were admitted to the Military Academy, whilst the way was also paved for the admittance of students from other African states. In anticipation of the new political dispensation in South Africa, a concerted effort was launched in 1990 to make the student body more representative of the South Africa population in terms of race and sex. The Military Academy has through the years established itself as a credible military academic institution and has made a significant contribution towards military professionalism in South Africa. By 1990 it favourably positioned itself to continue that role in future. Though forming only a small percentage of the total officer corps, the Academy graduates have gradually been distributed at all levels of the' officer corps and have dominated the top posts in the SA Defence Force since the early 1970's. They were consequently well placed in 1990 to play a significant role in preparing the Defence Force for the so-called "New South Africa". ****** AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid-Afrikaanse Militêre Akademie is op 1 April 1950 gestig met die doel om die militêrakademiese opleiding van kandidaatoffisiere hier te lande op dieselfde peil as in die buiteland te bring en dit terselfdertyd tot universiteitsvlak te verhef. Die Minister van Verdediging, F.C. Erasmus, wou egter ook die Akademie gebruik as instrument om die Afrikaner sy regmatige plek, naas Engelssprekendes, in die offisierskorps te laat inneem en sodoende die oorwegend Britse karakter van die

  13. Die Ausbildung von Sozialassistentinnen in Sachsen

    OpenAIRE

    Liebscher-Schebiella, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Die Entwicklungen in den Sozialen Berufen sind seit jeher eng verbunden mit dem gesellschaftlichen Interesse an der Absicherung der Erziehung, Betreuung, Beratung, Begleitung und Pflege von Menschen in unterschiedlichen Lebenslagen. Mit den an die Entwicklung der modernen Gesellschaft gebundenen Pluralisierungs- und Entgrenzungsprozessen werden Pflege, Erziehung und Betreuung immer mehr zu öffentlichen Aufgaben. Dabei entwickeln sich neue Aufgaben, die den Bedarf an professionellem sozialen H...

  14. Visualization Simulations for Cold Press Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pressing process is a manufacturing method that obtained work piece with certain dimension, shape and capability through die forcing roughcast to produce plastic deformation or separate. This paper focuses on the key problems of visualization simulation in pressing die. The final aim is that numerical simulation system can simulate the process of processing forming technique, which can supply some necessary and accurate key parameters for die design. The detail description of mechanical characteristic an...

  15. Die Kontroverse um das Freihandelsabkommen TTIP

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp M. Richter; Greta F. Schäffer

    2014-01-01

    Ein kurzer Name sorgt für eine anhaltende Debatte: TTIP [ti:t ]. Seit Beginn der Verhandlungen im Sommer 2013 trägt die mediale Berichterstattung über die geplante »Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership« zwischen der EU und den USA zur kritischen Auseinandersetzung mit der Thematik bei. Hierbei ergibt sich bisweilen die Schwierigkeit, sachlich fundierte Argumente von einseitigen Stellungnahmen zu differenzieren. Faktisch handelt es sich bei TTIP um ein Freihandels- und Investitionsab...

  16. Awareness of dying: it needs words

    OpenAIRE

    Lokker, Martine E.; van Zuylen, Lia; Veerbeek, Laetitia; Rijt, Carin C. D.; van der Heide, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this research is to study to what extent dying patients are aware of the imminence of death, whether such awareness is associated with patient characteristics, symptoms and acceptance of dying, and whether medical records and nurses’ and family caregivers’ views on patients’ awareness of dying agree. Methods Nurses and family caregivers of 475 deceased patients from three different care settings in the southwest Netherlands were requested to fill out questionnaires. The...

  17. Neue Einsichten in die Struktur deutscher Familiennamen

    OpenAIRE

    Hellfritzsch , Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Mit beeindruckender Regelmäßigkeit – bei Vorhaben dieser Art heute durchaus nicht der Normalfall – sorgen die Herausgeber des „Deutschen Familiennamenatlas“ (DFA) für die konsequente Realisierung ihres onomastischen Großprojekts und – nicht weniger bedeutsam – die Erweiterung ihres Mitarbeiterstabs durch systematische Förderung, Qualifizierung und Einbeziehung junger Wissenschaftler. Der im Abstand von einem Jahr nach den beiden Grammatik-Bänden (Graphematik und Phonologie der Familiennamen: ...

  18. Die Liassandsteinfelsen der Südeifel

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Die Südwesteifel, das Gebiet des sog. Naturpark Südeifel, grenzt im Westen an die Sauer (= Grenze von Luxemburg) und im Süden an die Mosel. Das Gebiet ist von einer besonderen geologischen Diversität: in einer Schichtstufenlandschaft ist hier fast das ganze Mesozoikum auf kleinstem Raum vertreten. Ursprünglich haben Jura (Lias), Keuper, Muschelkalk und Bundsandstein konkordante Ablagerungen auf dem eingerumpften variszischen Gebirge hinterlassen, welches aus devonischen Schiefern und Kalken b...

  19. Die neuronale Verarbeitung von Nomen und Verben

    OpenAIRE

    Frankenberg, Jenny v.

    2008-01-01

    Auszug: Wie arbeitet unser Gehirn? Was sind die Grundlagen der Kognition? Wie funktioniert unser Sprachsystem? Das ist nur ein kleiner Teil der Probleme, mit denen sich Kognitionsforscher und Neurowissenschaftler auf der ganzen Welt auseinandersetzen. Die Frage nach den neurofunktionellen Grundlagen der Sprachverarbeitung hat dabei zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Obwohl jedes gesunde Kind problemlos und auch unter schwierigen Bedingungen Sprache erwerben und verwenden kann, sind die zugrunde...

  20. Die Alpen im Frühmittelalter

    OpenAIRE

    Winckler, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Diese Arbeit wählte einen neuen Ansatz, um die Alpen in den Jahren 500 bis 800 zu beschreiben: Anstatt die einzelnen Regionen von Ost nach West - oder umgekehrt - durchzugehen und eine Herrschaftsgeschichte nach der anderen zu schreiben, wurden die relevanten Strukturen erfasst - also Zugriff, Grenzen, Verkehrsrouten, Christentum, Besiedlung, Wirtschaft, regionale Methoden der Machtentfaltung und Identitätsspuren der Bevölkerung. Diese Strukturen wurden miteinander verglichen. Dadurch war es ...

  1. Einfluss eines schweren Traumas auf die Frakturheilung

    OpenAIRE

    Recknagel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Es gibt klinische Hinweise, dass die Frakturheilung bei polytraumatisierten Patienten gestört ist. Eine der Ursachen könnte die posttraumatische systemische Inflammation darstellen. Das Thoraxtrauma ist eines der häufigsten und zugleich kritischsten Begleitverletzungen, da es verglichen mit anderen Verletzungen zu einer stärkeren systemischen Inflammation führt. Diese systemische Inflammation ist gekennzeichnet durch die Freisetzung von pro inflammatorischen Zytokinen, einer starken Aktivieru...

  2. Die Entwicklung der Kulturlandschaft "Elbtal Dresden"

    OpenAIRE

    Roch, Isolde

    2006-01-01

    Der Beitrag beleuchtet die Herausbildung der Stadtlandschaft am Fluss von der Gestaltungsidee für die Residenzstadt bis zur Großstadt im Industriezeitalter, bezogen auf planerische Einflussnahmen, die Wirksamkeit der Unterschutzstellung von Landschaften und Denkmalen sowie der Beteiligung der Bürgerschaft an Entscheidungen zur Stadtentwicklung. Aus den Vorgehensweisen beim Wiederaufbau der Stadt und der Herausbildung einer Kulturlandschaft von Weltgeltung werden Erfolgsfaktoren...

  3. Die Altäre von Selinunt

    OpenAIRE

    Voigts, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    In der Dissertation wurden die Altäre von Selinunt, einer griechischen Kolonie auf Sizilien, mit den Methoden der Bauforschung untersucht. Die neun behandelten Brandopferaltäre sind monumentale Quaderbauten, die bis zu 20 m Länge erreichen. Sie stammen aus der Blütezeit Selinunts, dem 6. und 5. Jh. v. Chr. Die Bauten waren bereits im 19. und 20. Jh. freigelegt worden und wurden nun in Bauaufnahmen dokumentiert, zeichnerisch rekonstruiert und zeitlich eingeordnet. Dabei ließ sich an ihnen eine...

  4. Die religieuse grondslag van ons omgewingskrisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Hugo

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Die mensdom is besig om sy habitat op so ’n wyse te misbruik en te besoedel dat sy toekoms op hierdie planet duister is. In die woorde van White “.. surely no creature other than man has ever managed to foul its nest in such short order”. Hierdie stelling is nie oordrewe nie soos blyk uit die vloedgolf van literatuur wat tans verskyn oor hierdie kwessie. Miskien die sprekendste titel onder hierdie bronne wat onlangs verskyn het, is dié onder redaksie van Anderson: “OMEGA: Murder of the Ecosystem and Suicide of Man.”

  5. Die samestelling en evaluering van 'n groepfasiliteringskursus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and evaluation of a group facilitation course. The personality profile of a group facilitator is conceptualised as consisting of group knowledge and skills, interpersonal effectiveness, and personality traits. A group facilitation course directed at the stimulation of this profile was developed. The course improved the skills of praticipants to respond to process issues in a group, as well as their knowledge of group facilitation. Their empathy, respect, genuineness and concreteness improved significantly. Although changes in spontaneity, time competence and existentiality were found after completing the course, these changes cannot be ascribed to the course. Organisational factors may impede the development of the personality traits of the group facilitator. Opsomming Die persoonlikheidsprofiel van die groepfasiliteerder word gekonseptualiseer as groepkennis en -vaardighede, interpersoonike effektiwiteit, en persoonlikheidskenmerke. 'n Groepfasiliteringskursus gerig op die stimulering van hierdie profiel is ontwikkel. Die kursus het daartoe bygedra om deelnemers se vaardigheid om op prosesaangeleenthede in 'n groep te reageer, asook om hul kennis van groepfasilitering te verbeter. Deelnemers se empatie, respek, egtheid en konkreetheid het beduidend toegeneem. Alhoewel veranderinge ten opsigte van spontaneïteit, tydsbewustheid en eksistensialiteit gevind is, kan hierdie veranderinge nie aan die kursus toegeskryf word nie. Organisasiefaktore kan struikelblokke wees in die weg van die ontwikkeling van die persoonliheidskenmerke van die groepfasiliteerder.

  6. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  7. Water exit pathways and proton pumping mechanism in B-type cytochrome c oxidase from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longhua; Skjevik, Åge A; Han Du, Wen-Ge; Noodleman, Louis; Walker, Ross C; Götz, Andreas W

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a vital enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to water and pumps protons across mitochondrial and bacterial membranes. While proton uptake channels as well as water exit channels have been identified for A-type CcOs, the means by which water and protons exit B-type CcOs remain unclear. In this work, we investigate potential mechanisms for proton transport above the dinuclear center (DNC) in ba3-type CcO of Thermus thermophilus. Using long-time scale, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several relevant protonation states, we identify a potential mechanism for proton transport that involves propionate A of the active site heme a3 and residues Asp372, His376 and Glu126(II), with residue His376 acting as the proton-loading site. The proposed proton transport process involves a rotation of residue His376 and is in line with experimental findings. We also demonstrate how the strength of the salt bridge between residues Arg225 and Asp287 depends on the protonation state and that this salt bridge is unlikely to act as a simple electrostatic gate that prevents proton backflow. We identify two water exit pathways that connect the water pool above the DNC to the outer P-side of the membrane, which can potentially also act as proton exit transport pathways. Importantly, these water exit pathways can be blocked by narrowing the entrance channel between residues Gln151(II) and Arg449/Arg450 or by obstructing the entrance through a conformational change of residue Tyr136, respectively, both of which seem to be affected by protonation of residue His376. PMID:27317965

  8. Discovery of a magnetic field in the CoRoT hybrid B-type pulsator HD 43317

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquet, M.; Neiner, C.; Leroy, B.; Pápics, P. I.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2013-09-01

    Context. A promising way of testing the impact of a magnetic field on internal mixing (core overshooting, internal rotation) in main-sequence B-type stars is to perform asteroseismic studies of a sample of magnetic pulsators. Aims: The CoRoT satellite revealed that the B3IV star HD 43317 is a hybrid SPB/β Cep-type pulsator that has a wealth of pulsational constraints on which one can perform a seismic modelling, in particular, probing the extent of its convective core and mixing processes. Moreover, indirect indicators of a magnetic field in the star were observed: rotational modulation due to chemical or temperature spots and X-ray emission. Our goal was to directly investigate the field in HD 43317 and, if it is magnetic, to characterise it. Methods: We collected data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from HD 43317. We modelled the longitudinal field measurements directly with a dipole. Results: Zeeman signatures in the Stokes V profiles of HD 43317 are clearly detected and rotationally modulated, which proves that this star exhibits an oblique magnetic field. The modulation with the rotation period deduced from the CoRoT light curve is also confirmed, and we found a field strength at the poles of about 1 kG. Our result must be taken into account in future seismic modelling work of this star. Based on observations obtained using the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi (France), which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU).

  9. Improved HDDR processing route for production of anisotropic powder from sintered NdFeB type magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) process has been investigated as a possible means of producing bonded magnets from used NdFeB-type sintered magnets with compositions, Nd13.4Dy0.8Al0.7Nb0.3Fe78.5B6.3 and Nd12.5Dy1.8Al0.9Nb0.6Co5.0Fe72.8B6.4 (atomic%). It has been shown that by increasing the processing temperature, an increase in the equilibrium pressure for disproportionation and in the overall reaction time was observed. The magnetic properties of the lower Dy content magnet were affected significantly by the change in processing temperature with a peak in properties observed at 880 °C producing magnetic powder with a remanence of 1.08 (±0.02) T, a coercivity of 840 (±17) kA m−1, and a maximum energy product of 175 (±2.5) kJ m−3. Further work on magnets with a significantly higher Dy content has shown that simultaneous processing of sintered magnets with varying compositions can be achieved by increasing the hydrogen pressure, however a range of magnetic properties are produced depending on the initial compositions of the samples in the input feed. - Highlights: • Reduced oxidation during the HDDR processing in this work compared to the previous paper resulted in a powder with a higher coercivity. • Increasing the hydrogen pressure for disproportionation allowed for Dy, Co rich NdFeB compositions to be processed. • Mixed compositions (which will be typical from “real scrap”) can be processed simultaneously in the same equipment. • Mixed feeds produced lower magnetic properties due to overprocessing of the low Dy content compositions

  10. 'n Voorlopige model vir die sistematiese beskrywing van gebruikersvriendelikheid in woordeboeke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman L Beyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Opsomming: Die gebruikersperspektief staan tans sentraal in die leksikografiese gesprek. Dit spruit uit die beginsel dat enige woordeboek in die eerste plek vir gebruik deur 'n bepaalde teikengebruikersgroep bedoel moet wees, en as sodanig moet die woordeboek op daardie gebrui-kersgroep afgestem wees — dit moet gebruikersvriendelik wees. In hierdie artikel word van die standpunt uitgegaan dat die gebruik van 'n woordeboek as 'n kommunikatiewe handeling begryp moet word, wat die geleentheid bied om insigte uit die kommunikasiewetenskap in die metalek-sikografie te benut. Na aanleiding van die algemene kommunikasiemodel vir interpersoonlike kommunikasie wat in die literatuur oor kommunikasiewetenskap voorkom, word 'n leksikogra-fiese kommunikasiemodel voorgestel. Uit hierdie model kan minstens elf leksikografiese para-meters afgelei word aan die hand waarvan gebruikersvriendelikheid in woordeboeke sistematies beskryf kan word. Die struktuur wat hierdie parameters aan 'n gesprek oor gebruikersvriendelik-heid in woordeboeke kan gee, bemiddel die formulering van die ware doel van 'n gebruikers-vriendelike woordeboek.

    Sleutelwoorde: GEBRUIK, GEBRUIKER, GEBRUIKERSPERSPEKTIEF, GEBRUIKERSVER-WYSINGSRAAMWERK, GEBRUIKERSVRIENDELIKHEID, KANAAL, KOMMUNIKASIEMODEL, KONTEKS, LEKSIKOGRAAF, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE KOMMUNIKASIEMODEL, MEDIUM, META-TEKS, STYLGIDS, TERUGVOER, WERKLIKE DOEL, WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKPLAN

    Abstract: A Preliminary Model for the Systematic Description of User-friendliness in Dictionaries. The user perspective is a central notion in current lexico-graphical discourse. This stems from the principle that a dictionary should in the first place be meant for use by a specific target user group, and as such the dictionary should be aimed at that target user group — it should be user friendly. In this article the point of departure is that the use of a dictionary should be regarded as a communicative act, which presents the opportunity

  11. Ultrasound motion tracking for radiation therapy; Ultraschallbewegungstracking fuer die Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bildgestuetzte Medizin MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Schwaab, J. [Mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    In modern radiotherapy the radiation dose can be applied with an accuracy in the range of 1-2 mm provided that the exact position of the target is known. If, however, the target (the tumor) is located in the lungs or the abdomen, respiration or peristalsis can cause substantial movement of the target. Various methods for intrafractional motion detection and compensation are currently under consideration or are already applied in clinical practice. Sonography is one promising option, which is now on the brink of clinical implementation. Ultrasound is particularly suited for this purpose due to the high soft tissue contrast, real-time capability, the absence of ionizing radiation and low acquisition costs. Ultrasound motion tracking is an image-based approach, i.e. the target volume or an adjacent structure is directly monitored and the motion is tracked automatically on the ultrasound image. Diverse algorithms are presently available that provide the real-time target coordinates from 2D as well as 3D images. Definition of a suitable sonographic window is not, however, trivial and a gold standard for positioning and mounting of the transducer has not yet been developed. Furthermore, processing of the coordinate information in the therapy unit and the dynamic adaptation of the radiation field are challenging tasks. It is not clear whether ultrasound motion tracking will become established in the clinical routine although all technical prerequisites can be considered as fulfilled, such that exciting progress in this field of research is still to be expected. (orig.) [German] In der modernen Strahlentherapie kann die Dosis mit einer Genauigkeit von 1-2 mm appliziert werden, sofern die Position der Zielstruktur genau bekannt ist. Liegt diese Zielstruktur (der Tumor) jedoch in der Lunge oder im Abdomen, koennen u. a. die Atmung oder die Peristaltik zu einer substanziellen Bewegung des Zielvolumens fuehren. Verschiedene Methoden zur intrafraktionellen Bewegungsdetektion

  12. Metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van wetenskaplike navorsing in die Liturgiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend J. de Klerk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Om die nuwe ontwikkelings in die Liturgiek grondig te kan beoordeel, moet na die metateoretiese onderbou van die verskillende standpunte gekyk word. Wanneer ’n navorser op die terrein van die Liturgiek nie hierdie wendings in sy metateoretiese vertrekpunte verreken nie, kan sodanige navorser of meegesleur word deur hierdie denkrigtings, of aan die ander kant, impulsief reaksionêr ’n onwetenskaplike oordeel daaroor uitspreek. Die navorsingsartikel het daarom ten doel om die eie reformatoriese metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van die Liturgiek te probeer formuleer en om vas te stel wat die invloed daarvan is in die konteks van wendings in die denkklimaat asook die leefwêreld en kultuur waarin die wetenskaplike taak uitgevoer word. Hierdie navorsingsartikel het verder ten doel om ’n voorbeeld daar te stel hoe hierdie metateoretiese beskouing ’n navorsingsprojek kan stuur. Die wyse waarop God in die doop werksaam is en die effek daarvan op vergifnis en versoening in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, is die voorbeeld van hoe ’n navorsingsprojek in die wetenskap van die Liturgiek aangepak kan word.

  13. Analyzing and modeling methods for warpages of thin and large dies with redistribution layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dote, Aki; Kitada, Hideki; Mizushima, Yoriko; Nakamura, Tomoji; Sakuyama, Seiki

    2016-06-01

    Analyzing and modeling methods for warpages including cylindrical deformations are discussed in large-area dies with redistribution layers (RDLs) and thin 50-µm-thick Si substrates. The buckling behavior of warpage, a deformation transition from spherical to cylindrical, strongly depends on the lateral sizes of the dies and the RDL structures, and can be calculated using the analytical model of the nonlinear plate theory. The equivalent stress values are introduced to simplify RDL structures by applying the model to measured curvatures of homogeneous patterned samples. Area densities of Cu are a good index for evaluating die warpage even for inhomogeneous patterned RDLs.

  14. Die gebruik van die Suid-Afrikaanse Diatoomindeks as hulpmiddel vir bewaringsbestuur van Hewitt se spookpadda

    OpenAIRE

    V. Botha; Weldon, C.; Taylor, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Hewitt se spookpadda(Heleophryne hewitti), is ‘n bedreigde spesie wat slegs in vier strome vandie Elandsberge voorkom. Die totale area van besetting vanH. hewittiis binne die grense van ‘n bosbou plantasie.

  15. Bylaag 3 tot „Koer&’’, April en Junie, 1955: Die belang van toegepaste geologie en die werk van die geoloog in ons mineral afhanklike besawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Ackermann

    1955-03-01

    Full Text Available Die toekomstigc ontwikkeling, welvaart en sekuriteit van ons land en die handhawing en verbetering van ons huidige lewenstandaard hang tot’n groot mate af van die doeltreffendste gebruik van ons oorvloedige mineraalhulpbronne, maar beperkte watervoorrade.

  16. Der Einfluß von Doxycyclin auf die Cytokin- und Lipidmediatorsynthese sowie die Proliferation humaner Leukozyten

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer, Ömer

    2004-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde der Einfluß von Doxycyclin auf die Cytokin- und Lipidmediatorsynthese sowie das Proliferationsverhalten humaner Leukozyten untersucht. Die PBMC und PMN wurden durch einen diskontinuierlichen doppelten Ficoll-Gradienten getrennt. Die Zellen wurden in Anwesenheit von Doxycyclin unter gleichzeitiger Stimulation mit TSST-1, ConA, SEB und LPS für 24 h bei 37 [$\\textdegree$]C unter Zellkulturbedingungen inkubiert. Die freigesetzten Cytokine wurden mittels ELISA. D...

  17. Die Unternehmensteuerreform 2008: Deutschlands Antwort auf die Globalisierung - oder doch ein Stückwerk?

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Baretti; Doina Maria Radulescu; Michael Stimmelmayr

    2008-01-01

    Zum Jahresbeginn trat die Unternehmensteuerreform 2008 in Kraft. Christian Baretti, Doina Maria Radulescu und Michael Stimmelmayr untersuchen hier, inwieweit die Reform die Attraktivität des Wirtschaftsstandorts Deutschland verbessert wird. Ihrer Ansicht nach wird die Senkung der Körperschaftsteuerbelastung für Kapitalgesellschaften diesem Ziel gerecht. Den weiteren - insbesondere zur Gegenfinanzierung - ergriffenen Maßnahmen fehlt es jedoch an Stringenz. Trotz positiver Signalwirkung zeugt d...

  18. DIE GEBRUIK VAN FALINGSTEMPO AS 'N BESLUITNEMINGSHULPMIDDEL VIR INSTANDHOUDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Strauss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Falingstempomodelle (en veral die badmodel word dikwels gebruik vir die analisering van oorsake van falings om regstellende aksie te neem.
    Daar is egter sekere slaggate in die gebruik van bier die metode wat die besluitnemer mislei en foutiewe besluite (aksies tot gevolg het.
    Hierdie swakhede word ontleed en 'n -eenvoudige alternatief (nie,- , noodwendig die beste alternatief nie word in die plek daarvan voorgehou.

  19. Maatskaplike toestande op die Lichtenburgse alluviale diamantdelwerye, 1926 - 1945.

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Elna

    1986-01-01

    • Opsomming: In Mei 1926 is die eerste spoeldelwerye in die distrik Lichtenburg geprokIameer en daarna - tot en met 1945 - 'n verdere 104. Nuus omtrent die ontdekking van ryk diamantvelde noord van die dorp het vinnig versprei en teen die einde van 1926 was duisende beroepsdelwers, fortuinsoekers en blanke en swart arbeiders met bulle gesinne reeds op die delwerye saamgetrek. Die meeste delwers was verarmde blankes wat tevergeefs gehoop bet om hul ekonomiese posisie maklik en vinnig te ...

  20. Konzepte zur Signalverarbeitung für die kontrastmittelspezifische Ultraschallabbildung

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkening, Wilko G.

    2003-01-01

    Die Versorgung von Organen durch das Kapillarsystem mit Blut (Perfusion) kann durch konventionelle Ultraschall- Abbildungsverfahren (US-AV) nicht abgebildet werden. Die Darstellung der Organperfusion, die z. B. für die Schlaganfall- und die Tumordiagnostik von großer Bedeutung ist, gelingt dagegen mit dem Einsatz von Ultraschall- Kontrastmitteln (US-KM). Die Mikroblasen, mit denen das Blut durch Injektion von US-KM angereichert wird, sind zum einen durch die Zerstörbarkeit mittels...

  1. Vox populi - zur Herausforderung der Bildungspolitik durch die halbdirekte Demokratie

    OpenAIRE

    Criblez, Lucien

    2011-01-01

    Volksabstimmungen schaffen größtmögliche Öffentlichkeit in der Bildungspolitik, weil die stimmberechtigte Bevölkerung über die Abstimmungsvorlagen informiert werden muss und weil im Vorfeld von Volksabstimmungen ein öffentlicher Diskurs über die Vorlagen stattfindet. Der Beitrag weist auf die Tradition der halbdirekten Demokratie in der Schweiz hin und zeigt im Sinne einer Heuristik an drei Fallbeispielen die bildungspolitischen Themen, die zur Abstimmung gelangten und die Resultate der Absti...

  2. Väter. Die Bedeutung des Vaters für die psychische Entwicklung des Kindes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Seiffge-Krenke

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch behandelt die Bedeutung des Vaters für die psychische Entwicklung vor allem kleinerer Kinder anhand empirischer Daten und Befunde, die sich überwiegend auf Frankreich beziehen, z. T. aber auch deutsche und anglo-amerikanische Studien berücksichtigen

  3. Die vraag na ’n nuwe belydenis, met besondere verwysing na die ‘Proeve’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Uit Matt. 16:16–18 blyk dat daar ’n allernouste verband deur Christus gelê is tussen kerk en belydenis. Die belydenis staan ook in onmiddellike verband met die bediening van die sleutelmag (vgl. vr. 84 H. Kateg..

  4. Ideologiese normverplasings en die Afrikaanse handwoordeboek van die negentigerjare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carstens

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Ideological norm replacement and the Afrikaans desk dictionary of the ninetiesIn South Africa the past decade has been marked by extensive sociopolitical changes and by concomitant linguistic changes. These changes may be regarded as instances of norm replacement - a process during the course of which a norm or a set of norms is gradually replaced by another norm or set of norms. It is maintained that the standard synchronic dictionaries of a language not only have the obligation to reflect lexicalised norm replacements, but also to make projections with regard to future use. Two standard synchronic desk dictionaries of Afrikaans, namely the eighth edition of Verklarende Afrikaanse Woordeboek (1992 and the third edition of Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (1994 are explored with special regard to their reflection of norm replacements within the domains of race and political ideology. It is shown that the compilers of these dictionaries consciously and sincerely aimed at removing all racial bias but that they failed to record the diversity of meaning within the political lexicon and the semantic shifts which have occurred within that lexicon during the past decade.

  5. Prognostic assessment of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure by combining high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Rehfeld, Jens F.;

    2010-01-01

    N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful biomarker in heart failure assessment, whereas measurement of cardiac troponin is central in the diagnosis of patients with acute coronary syndromes. This report examined the prognostic use of combining high-sensitivity cardiac...

  6. Order-disorder transition in B-type Cu2ZnSnS4 and limitations of ordering through thermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisch, Katharina; Ren, Yi; Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Scragg, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    B-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with varying degrees of cation order were produced and examined with resonant Raman spectroscopy. Simulations based on Vineyard's theory of order allowed kinetic analysis of the final degree of order after the applied thermal treatments. Combining the results from the simulations and the resonant Raman spectra, the kinetic parameters within the Vineyard model for the order-disorder transition in B-type CZTS were determined, as well as a method which allows quantification of the degree of order based on resonant Raman spectra. The knowledge gained about the order-disorder transition in B-type CZTS allowed the prediction of a best practice thermal treatment for high ordering. This further leads to awareness about practical limits of thermal treatments regarding the cation ordering in B-type CZTS, and suggests that such treatments are not able to produce the high cation order necessary to sufficiently reduce detrimental potential fluctuations.

  7. Rotating massive main-sequence stars. II. Simulating a population of LMC early B-type stars as a test of rotational mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brott, I.; Evans, C.J.; Hunter, I.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Dufton, P.L.; Cantiello, M.; Trundle, C.; Lennon, D.J.; de Mink, S.E.; Yoon, S.C.; Anders, P.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Rotational mixing in massive stars is a widely applied concept, with far-reaching consequences for stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis, and stellar explosions. Aims. Nitrogen surface abundances for a large and homogeneous sample of massive B-type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hav

  8. Rotating massive main-sequence stars: II. Simulating a population of LMC early B-type stars as a test of rotational mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Brott; C.J. Evans; I. Hunter; A. de Koter; N. Langer; P.L. Dufton; M. Cantiello; C. Trundle; D.J. Lennon; S.E. de Mink; S. -C Yoon; P. Anders

    2011-01-01

    Context. Rotational mixing in massive stars is a widely applied concept, with far-reaching consequences for stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis, and stellar explosions. Aims. Nitrogen surface abundances for a large and homogeneous sample of massive B-type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hav

  9. Etiese perspektiewe op haatspraak in die lig van die derde gebod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobus M. (Koos Vorster

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel fokus op die implikasies van die derde gebod met betrekking tot haatspraak in Suid-Afrika (SA vandag. Die artikel gaan uit van die standpunt dat die name van God op sy wese dui. Die name van God soos dit in die bybelse openbaringsgeskiedenis ontwikkel word, druk die gemeenskapskarakter van God se verhouding met mense en die skepping uit. Die betekenis van die name kulmineer in die Nuwe-Testamentiese uitdrukkings Vader en God is liefde. Alle verbale gedrag wat hierdie gemeenskaps- en liefdesverhouding inhibeer, oortree die derde gebod. Die misbruik van die Naam van God vind onder andere plaas wanneer mense, wat na die beeld van God geskep is, gedegradeer word deur haatspraak, omdat sodanige degradering die gemeenskap en liefde tussen God en die mens skend. Ten slotte word sekere gevalle van haatspraak soos dit vandag in Suid-Afrika voorkom, teologies-eties belig teen die agtergrond van die betekenis van die derde gebod. Hierdie vorms sluit religieuse, rassistiese, xenofobiese, seksistiese en homofobiese haatspraak in.This article focuses on the implications of the third commandment for hate speech in modern-day South Africa. The article contends that the names of God are expressions of his Being. The names of God as they are developed in the biblical history of revelation express his creation of covenantal community and restored relations with humankind and creation. The meaning of the names of God culminates in the New Testament expressions Father and God is love. Verbal actions that inhibit the new community created by God or violate love transgress the third commandment. Misuse of the name of God occurs among others when people, created in the image of God, are verbally degraded by hate speech because such degradation violates the community of love between God and humankind. In conclusion, the article indicates forms of hate speech in South Africa that should be dealt with in the light of the third commandment. These are acts

  10. A knowledge-based system for selection of progressive die components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present paper describes a knowledge-based system (KBS developed for selection of progressivedie components to automate the design process of progressive dies in stamping industries.Design/methodology/approach: The production rule based KBS approach of Artificial Intelligence (AI hasbeen utilized for constructing the proposed system. The system has been structured into seven KBS modules.Modules are user interactive and designed to be loaded in to the prompt area of AutoCAD.Findings: The output of system modules includes the type and proper dimensions of progressive die componentsnamely die block, die gages (front spacer and back gage, stripper, punches, punch plate, back plate, die-set andfasteners. The system has been designed in such a way that the expert advices imparted by its modules areautomatically stored in different output data files. These data files can be further utilized for automatic modelingof die components and die assembly.Research limitations/implications: Although the system is limited to the design of progressive dies only, yet itcan be extended further for the design of other types of dies also.Practical implications: The proposed system is ready for use in sheet metal industries for quick selection ofprogressive die components. The system can be implemented on a PC having AutoCAD software and thereforeits low cost of implementation makes it affordable by small and medium sized stamping industries.Originality/value: The proposed system is capable of accomplishing the time-consuming task of selection ofprogressive die components in a very short time period.

  11. Logistiek: Die oorsprong, konseptuele ontwikkeling en betekenis daarvan in hedendaagse gebruik

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel J. Pienaar

    2011-01-01

    Opsomming: Hierdie artikel beskryf die oorsprong van die woord logistiek, stip die ontwikkeling daarvan uit en verklaar die hedendaagse betekenis daarvan. Die ontwikkelingsgang van die begrip word aangedui vanaf die oorsprong daarvan in Grieks, met inagneming van die opeenvolgende opname daarvan in Laat-Latyn, Frans en Nederlands, tot by die huidige gebruik daarvan in Afrikaans. Die vestiging van die Franse logistique as milit?re konsep gedurende die Napoleontiese oorlo?, en die uitb...

  12. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  13. Abraham Kuyper en volksideologie onder die Afrikaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smit

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Om die waarheid te sê, Kuyper is lank nie meer gewild in Gereformeerde geledere in Suid-Afrika nie. Deels moet dit gewyt word aan die assosiasie van apartheidsideologie met Kuyper se idee van skeppingsordeninge (’n idee wat ook verbind kan word met Hitler se regverdiging van sy uitwissingsoperasies.

  14. Die ideologische Reichweite des Kompetenzbegriffs. Eine Wortmeldung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Oidtmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend von Jürgen Gunias »Versuch einer genealogischen Ideologiekritik« am Kompetenzbegriff aus Textpraxis # 4 untersuchen Klaus Oidtmann und Paul Stadelhofer den betriebswirtschaftlichen und philosophischen Gebrauch der Kompetenz. Die Autoren stellen die Notwendigkeit heraus, zwischen ökonomisch verkürzten Individuen und freien, gebildeten Bürgern zu unterscheiden.

  15. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  16. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  17. Die loopbaanpatrone van Suid-Afrikaanse bestuurders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Schreuder

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Career paths of South African Managers. The changing nature of work results in upward mobility within organisations becoming increasingly limited. This requires individuals to rethink their careers. An important prerequisite for this is adequate self-knowledge. Preferred career paths are often related to the "career culture" of an organisation, which is often not aligned with individual motives and needs. The aim of this study was to determine the match between career preferences and career motives. The results on the whole indicate a poor match between these constructs. Recommendations are made on the basis of these findings. Opsomming Die veranderende aard van werk veroorsaak dat opwaartse mobiliteit in organisasies meer beperk raak. Dit verg dat individue opnuut oor hulle loopbane sal moet besin. 'n Belangrike voorvereiste hiervoor is voldoende selfkennis. Die loopbaanpad wat individue verkies hou dikwels verband met die loopbaankultuur van 'n organisasie en is nie altyd in ooreenstemming met hulle eie motiewe en behoeftes nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal in waiter mate daar 'n passing is tussen die respondente se loopbaanvoorkeure en hulle loopbaanmotiewe. Die resultate dui oor die algemeen op 'n swak passing. Aanbevelings word op grond van die bevindinge gemaak.

  18. Identification of five B-type response regulators as members of a multistep phosphorelay system interacting with histidine-containing phosphotransfer partners of Populus osmosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, the multistep phosphorelay signaling pathway mediates responses to environmental factors and plant hormones. This system is composed of three successive partners: hybrid Histidine-aspartate Kinases (HKs, Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer proteins (HPts, and Response Regulators (RRs. Among the third partners, B-type RR family members are the final output elements of the pathway; they act as transcription factors and clearly play a pivotal role in the early response to cytokinin in Arabidopsis. While interactions studies between partners belonging to the multistep phosphorelay system are mainly focused on protagonists involved in cytokinin or ethylene pathways, very few reports are available concerning partners of osmotic stress signaling pathway. Results In Populus, we identified eight B-type RR proteins, RR12-16, 19, 21 and 22 in the Dorskamp genotype. To assess HPt/B-type RR interactions and consequently determine potential third partners in the osmosensing multistep phosphorelay system, we performed global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assays in combination with Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC assays in plant cells. We found that all B-type RRs are able to interact with HPt predominant partners (HPt2, 7 and 9 of HK1, which is putatively involved in the osmosensing pathway. However, different profiles of interaction are observed depending on the studied HPt. HPt/RR interactions displayed a nuclear localization, while the nuclear and cytosolic localization of HPt and nuclear localization of RR proteins were validated. Although the nuclear localization of HPt/RR interaction was expected, this work constitutes the first evidence of such an interaction in plants. Furthermore, the pertinence of this partnership is reinforced by highlighting a co-expression of B-type RR transcripts and the other partners (HK1 and HPts belonging to a potential osmosensing pathway. Conclusion Based on the interaction studies

  19. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roodt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of voluntary, controllable labour turnover. Labour turnover for individuals can be classified as voluntary or non-voluntary, whereas labour turnover in organisations can be categorised as controllable or non-controllable. Data on total labour turnover in a particular service organisation indicated the existence of a possible problem. Voluntary, controllable labour turnover between 1 January 1988 and 31 March 1991 for technicians only within this particular organisation was closely scrutinised by calculating the direct recruitment, training, and separation costs for this period. The replacement costs of the technical population alone (N = 1594 for the last-mentioned period were approximately R94 million and could possibly increase to as high as R470 million if the hidden costs are also considered. If these costs are projected to the period 1980-1991 in which there were 60284 voluntary leavers, the total labour turnover costs for this organisation could be astronomical. It is clear from the above that preventative strategies by management could reduce the negative consequences of labour turnover and improve the prospects of a positive outcome. Opsomming Arbeidomset kan vir individue as vrywillig of nie-vrywillig geklassifiseer word; daarenteen kan arbeidomset vir organisasies as beheerbaar of nie-beheerbaar gekategoriseer word. Gegewens oor totale arbeidomset in "n bepaalde diensorganisasie het op die bestaan van 'n moontlike probleem gewys. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset van slegs tegnici is vir die periode 1 Januarie 1988 tot 31 Maart 1991 in die betrokke organisasie nader ondersoek, deur die direkte verkrygings-, opieidings- en skeidingskoste van tegniciverlaters vir hierdie tydperk te bereken. Die vervangingskoste van slegs die tegnicipopulasie (N = 1594 vir die laasgenoemde tydperk het sowat R94 miljoen beloop en kon selfs so hoog soos R470 miljoen wees as die verskuilde kostes ook verreken is. Indien hierdie kostes

  20. Research on Forging Die Design Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenlei; FAN Yushun

    2006-01-01

    Forging die design is heavily dependent on engineers' experiences. But traditional AI technologies can barely provide a standard knowledge representation style for knowledge transferring. This paper introduces ontology into forging die design. 3-layer forging die design ontology is built, which includes Meta-ontology, Domain-ontology and Bottom ontology. Further, by conceptualization, the concepts and their relations are formally addressed by primitives such as Term, Relation and Function etc, which are explicitly expressed by concept tree. Bottom ontology uses Knowledge Item and Prototype to represent and capture general knowledge for knowledge reuse and share. Forging die design ontology building approach is discussed for standard knowledge representation, knowledge mine and knowledge driven CAD design etc. And OWL language is employed for integration among different domain ontologies integration. Finally a locomotive forging die KBE system is presented to demonstrate this approach.

  1. Die belewinge van informele versorgers van MIV/VIGS-pasiënte: ‘n salutogene perspektief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Potgieter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Family members as well as informal caregivers are increasingly bearing the responsibility of taking care of persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, 2000:5. The intensity of the caregiving process and the variety of stressors caregivers are exposed to (Uys, 2002:101-102; De Figueiredo & Turato, 2001:637-640; Flaskerud, Carter & Lee, 2000:128, have been well researched and documented. In this study, the salutogenic perspective was used to determine the sense of coherence of a group of eight informal caregivers. This perspective serves as one of the theories within the movement of positive psychology, where the focus is on the origins of psychological well-being. The results of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC and the analysis of semi- structured interviews revealed a number of general resistance resources that have a positive influence on the caregivers’ sense of coherence, as well as their psychological well-being. These results may lead to the development of a psycho-educational program which will assist caregivers in maintaining their psychological well-being in spite of the stressors associated with caregiving. Opsomming Versorging van persone gediagnoseer met MIV/VIGS word toenemend die verantwoordelikheid van die pasiënte se familielede en informele versorgers (UNAIDS, 2000:5. Die intensiteit van die versorgingstaak, en die verskeidenheid stressore waaraan versorgers blootgestel word, is reeds goed nagevors en gedokumenteer (Uys, 2002:101-102; De Figueiredo & Turato, 2001:637-640; Flaskerud, Carter & Lee, 2000:128. In hierdie studie is die salutogene perspektief aangewend om die koherensiesin van ‘n groep bestaande uit agt informele versorgers te ondersoek. Hierdie perspektief dien as een van die teorieë binne die beweging van die positiewe sielkunde waar gefokus word op die oorsprong van psigologiese welstand. Die resultate van die Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC en die ontleding van semigestruktureerde onderhoude het ‘n aantal

  2. Correlation of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide with clinical parameters in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Janko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Identification of patients with arterial hypertension and a possible onset of heart failure by determining the concentration of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP enables timely intensification of treatment and allows clinicians to prescribe and implement optimal and appropriate care. The aim of this study was to evaluate NT-proBNP in patients with longstanding hypertension and in patients with signs of hypertensive cardiomyopathy. Methods. The study involved 3 groups, with 50 subjects each: “healthy” persons (control group, patients with hypertension and normal left ventricular systolic function (group 1 and patients with longstanding hypertension and signs of hypertensive cardiomyopathy with impaired left ventricular systolic function (group 2. We measured levels of NT-proBNP, Creactive protein and creatinine according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All the patients were clinically examined including physical examination of the heart with blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiogram (ECG and echocardiogram. Results. Our results showed that the determined parameters generally differed significantly (Student’s t-test among the groups. The mean (± SD values of NT-proBNP in the control group, group 1 and group 2 were: 2.794 (± 1.515 pmol/L, 9.575 (± 5.449 pmol/L and 204.60 (84,93 pmol/L, respectively. NTproBNP correlated significantly with the determined parameters both in the group 1 and the group 2. In the group 1, the highest correlation was obtained with Creactive protein (r = 0.8424. In the group 2, the highest correlation was obtained with ejection fraction (r = - 0.9111. NT-proBNP showed progressive increase in proportion to the New York Heart Association (NYHA classification. The patients in thegroup 2 who belonged to the II and III NYHA class had significantly higher levels of NTproBNP than those in the NYHA class I (ANOVA test, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest that

  3. Die Krakauer Kirche von Karmeliten und Karmelitaninnen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szymon Wronski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten Karmelitinnen Zum Heiligen Josef. Ein glücklicher Auftakt und somit die charakteristische Einführung in das 20. Jh. für den Kirchenbau von Krakau war die Errichtung der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche an der Lobzowska-Straße 40, in der die Architekten (Tadeusz Stryjeński (1849-1943 - Projektant der Kirche und Franciszek Mączyński (1874-1947 - Ausführer des Bauprojektes mit eigenen Verbesserungen die historisch- eklektizistischen Formen d.h. die mittelalterlichen Formen vor allem des sog. Übergangsstils vereinfachten. Die Kirche, die in den Jahren 1903-1905 errichtet wurde, steht inmitten vom Baukomplex des Klosters, dessen Grundriss das Quadrat ist49. Der Kirchenbau ist ein dem Gesamtbau des Klosters eingefügter Längsraum. Hinter dem Chor liegt das Oratorium des Konvents. Das Material Backstein (mit Verwendung von Stein erinnert an die Baukunst eines der besten Architekten jener Zeit, nämlich Teodor Talowskis (1857-1910, der viele Kirchen in Südpolen, aber auch viele Bürgerhäuser nicht nur in Krakau im ausgehenden 19. Jh. baute. Die Architektur der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche ist immer noch im Malerischen begriffen. Aber die Vereinfachung der historischen Formen führt zu ihrer „Beruhigung” und dadurch zur Wuchtigkeit des Ausdrucks. Bemerkenswert ist die in dieser Zeit (in der Anlage noch seltene ausgewogene Proportionierung des Baukörpers. Das methodische Prinzip jener Zeit ist der Kontrast. Im Kontrast zu den gedrungenen und wuchtigen Formen des Baukörpers stehen z.B. die sich verjüngenden obeliskenförmigen und pylonenartigen Türmchen, die nicht nur die Eingangsfassade der Kirche flankieren, sondern auch an den Ecken des Querhauses der Kirche stehen. Die ingravierten weißen Steine an der Fassade in der Zahl von Zehn erinnern an das Gebot des Karmelterinnenordens: Bete täglich den Rosenkranz und sind zugleich ein Vanitativmotiv. 2. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten

  4. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  5. Die bewerking van idiome in tweetalige woordeboeke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Potgieter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Opsomming: Woordeboeke is belangrike en noodsaaklike hulpmiddels vir vertalers, maar tog het baie vertalers gemengde gevoelens oor veral tweetalige woordeboeke. Terwyl hulle aan die een kant nie werklik sonder hulle kan werk nie, bied tweetalige woordeboeke aan die ander kant dikwels vir die vertaler min of geen leiding. Dit blyk ook dat tweetalige woordeboeke nie voldoende hulpmiddels vir professionele vertalers is by die vertaling van idiome nie. Teorie? betreffende en benaderings tot vertaling word in die bespreking betrek. Die vertaling van idiome behels meer as net die vertaling van enkelwoorde. In hierdie artikel word aandag gegee aan die huidige bewerking van idiome in tweetalige woordeboeke sowel as die probleme waarmee vertalers gekonfronteer word by die vertaling van idiome. Sleutelwoorde: IDIOOM, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VERTAALEKWIVALWENT, ABSOLUTE EKWIVALENSIE, GEDEELTELIKE EKWIVALENSIE, DIVERGENSIE, ZERO-EKWIVALENSIE, SURROGAATEKWIVALENSIE, REGISTERVERSKILLE, ONVASTHEDE, TAALBOUSELS Abstract: The Treatment of Idioms in Bilingual Dictionaries. Dictionaries are important and necessary aids for translators, but still many translators have mixed feelings especially regarding bilingual dictionaries. While on the one hand they cannot really work without them, on the other hand bilingual dictionaries often give the translator little or no guidance. It also appears that bilingual dictionaries are not sufficient aids for professional translators in the translation of idioms. Theories regarding and approaches to translation are broached in the discussion. The translation of idioms entails more than just the translation of single words. In this article, attention is given to the present treatment of idioms in bilingual dictionaries, as well as problems with which translators are confronted in the translation of idioms. Keywords: IDIOM, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, TRANSLATION EQUIVALENT, ABSOLUTE EQUIVALENCE, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE, DIVERGENCE, ZERO

  6. Medizinisches Callcenter im Nachtdienst, Teil 2: Die Wirkung auf die Befindlichkeit

    OpenAIRE

    Gnädinger, M; Buchwalder, C; Orellano, J; van der Meer, A.

    2008-01-01

    Die Nächte stellen wohl die grösste Belastung der Ärzte2 im Notfalldienst dar, vor allem, nachdem wegen Überalterung Notfallkreise zusammengelegt werden mussten und damit der Druck auf den einzelnen Dienstarzt zugenommen hat. Die Dienstkreise Frauenfeld und Arbon–Romanshorn mit 30450 bzw. 37217 Einwohnern untersuchten, ob eine nächtliche Vortriagierung (22 bis 8 Uhr) der Anrufe durch ein medizinisches Callcenter die Dienstärzte entlasten könnte. Die Phase ohne Callcenter dauerte vom ...

  7. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5" from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program with die

  8. Dying to go to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearar, A

    1997-01-01

    In southern Sudan, the recent war sparked a mass migration of boys aged 5-18 who traveled through perilous terrain to the borders of Ethiopia in search of promised security and schooling. Thousands of these children died from hardships suffered in the wild, from the inadvertent or deliberate attacks of warriors, from hunger, from thirst, or from disease. Those who endured the hardships and arrived at their destination were shocked to find only military training centers or rudimentary schooling for those who were too weak or too young to be trained for battle. Eventually, the refugees were forced back into Sudan, and today about 20,000 of these unaccompanied children are displaced. Several nongovernmental organizations are running family reunification projects, and follow-up activities carried out among the reunified children reveal that they carry the scars of their trauma. The drawings the children produce as art therapy usually include the image of a young child holding a school book. While these children have a constant struggle with their memories, those who have not returned home or who have lost their families to war or disease are even more forlorn. As food rations have been halved in the refugee camps, many children are pursuing any possible alternative living arrangement. Some attempt to travel to South Africa or Egypt and some join an army in an effort to overcome the desperation of their present situation. PMID:12294200

  9. Kapitalstock und demographische Komponente - Wie kann die Rentenversicherung reformiert werden?

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Dreger; Jürgen Kolb

    1997-01-01

    Der Artikel untersucht die Produktions- und Beschäftigungswirkungen alternativer Reformoptionen zur Finanzierung der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung. Diskutiert werden die Erweiterung der Rentenformel um eine demographische Komponente und die Bildung eines steuerfinanzierten Teilkapitalstocks als Ergänzung zum Umlageverfahren. Kurzfristig verursacht der Aufbau des Kapitalstocks Belastungen. Langfristig überwiegen jedoch die expansiven Effekte, weil die ansonsten notwendigen Beitragssteigerung...

  10. Technisches Informationssystem für die Entwicklung textilbewehrten Betons

    OpenAIRE

    Butenweg, Christoph; Meskouris, Konstantin; Meister, Sylvia; Dreyer, Stephan; Schulte-Althoff, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In der letzten Periode des Sonderforschungsbereichs 532 wurde eine benutzerfreundliche Internetplattform für den Verbundwerkstoff Textilbeton entwickelt. Die Plattform beinhaltet auf verschiedenen Ebenen umfassende Informationen über Textilbeton, die in Form eines digitalen Handbuchs aufbereitet sind. Präsentiert werden unter anderem die Möglichkeiten des Bauens mit Textilbeton, die Bauteilbemessung, die materialspezifischen Festigkeits- und Verbundeigenschaften sowie verschiedene Produktions...

  11. Pastorale begeleiding van die self-mutileerder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentzel C. Coetzer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel het  dit geblyk dat die toenemende voorkoms van self-mutilering onder jongmense in talle gevalle as uitlaatklep gedien het vir opgeboude druk en nie soseer as ‘n selfmoordpoging nie. Heel dikwels was dit ‘n uitvloeisel van mishandeling en/of seksuele misbruik en die persoon het  dan hierdie metode gebruik om van innerlike pyn ontslae te raak. Gevoelens van alleenheid, ‘n behoefte aan beheer, ‘n behoefte om net íéts te voel, asook ‘n behoefte om die self te straf, kon ook ‘n rol gespeel het. Die gesinsklimaat was oor die algemeen van besondere belang. Hierdie probleem het aan pastorale beraders en aan die kerk ‘n besondere uitdaging gebied deur onder andere veel meer op die probleem van pyn, asook die hantering daarvan te fokus. Dit het  verband gehou met die feit dat ontkenning in die verlede ‘n groot rol gespeel het in sekere kerklike kringe en ook binne sekere gesinne. As deel van ‘n pastoraal-terapeutiese strategie in die begeleiding van die self-mutileerder kon aspekte soos die identifisering van die rol van  leuens, die benutting van oplossings uit die verlede, vergifnis, nagmaal, gebed en meditasie gevolglik uiters belangrike komponente van die helingsproses gevorm het. Pastorale beraders sal hulleself ten volle op die hoogte moet bring van die verskynsel van self-mutilering ten einde in staat te wees om werklik te kan help.Pastoral guidance for the self-mutilator. In this article it seemed that the increase in the occurrence of self-mutilation among young people in many cases served as a pressure-relief valve and not a suicide attempt as such.  It was very often the outcome of ill-treatment and/or sexual abuse and the person used this method to get rid of the inner pain. Feelings of aloneness, a need to be in control, a need to feel at least something and a need to punish the self could also have played a role. The family climate was generally very important. This provided a special challenge

  12. Die Entdeckung des Unteilbaren Quanten, Quarks und die Entdeckung des Higgs-Teilchens

    CERN Document Server

    Resag, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Mitten in Europa ist eine der größten und komplexesten Maschinen in Betrieb gegangen, die wir Menschen je gebaut haben: der Large Hadron Collider (kurz LHC). Mit ihm öffnet sich ein Fenster in eine neue Welt, die viele Geheimnisse birgt: Was verleiht den Teilchen der Materie ihre Masse? Gibt es verborgene Raumdimensionen? Existiert ein tiefer Zusammenhang zwischen Teilchen mit verschiedenem Spin (Supersymmetrie)? Woraus besteht die dunkle Materie, die unser Universum durchdringt? Gibt es das Higgs-Teilchen? Mit diesem Buch taucht der Leser ein in diese wunderbare Welt, die wir Menschen in der Neuzeit entdeckt haben: Atome und ihre Substruktur aus Quarks und Leptonen, die rätselhafte Quantenmechanik, Teilchen des Lichts, Einsteins Gewebe aus Raum und Zeit, die vier Wechselwirkungen und schließlich die neue Welt, in die der LHC gerade vordringt und in der wir Higgs-Teilchen, Supersymmetrie und womöglich erste Anzeichen für die String-Theorie vermuten. Die erste Vermutung konnte mittlerweile bestätigt w...

  13. Skoolwetenskappe se reaksie op die uitdagings vir voedselproduksie in die 21e eeu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley le Grange

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Die aard van voedselproduksie het in die 21ste eeu verander. Dit is vanweë veranderende eetgewoontes te wyte aan globalisering en verstedeliking, sowel as klimaatsverandering soos veranderende reënvalpatrone, skommelings in temperatuur, ensovoorts. Druk op beide die aanvraag en voorsiening van voedselsekuriteit, sowel as wat presies benodig word om voedselsekuriteit te waarborg, word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Voorts word daar ook besin oor die rol wat opvoeding kan speel om toekomstige uitdagings aangaande voedselsekuriteit te takel. Dit is gedoen aan die hand van ’n ondersoek van die Kurrikulum- en Assesseringsbeleidverklaring (KABV vir Lewenswetenskappe om sodoende die geleenthede vir opvoeding rakende voedselproduksie te bepaal. Die verkenning bevind dat voedselsekuriteit ingesluit is as tema in KABV vir Lewenswetenskappe en dat geleenthede vir opvoeding in verband met uitdagings rakende voedselproduksie en -voorsiening wel geskep word. Besorgdheid word egter ook uitgespreek oor die beperkings wat ’n voorskriftelike, inhoudsgebaseerde en toetsgedrewe kurrikulum op die kwaliteit van die leerervaring in verband met voedselproduksie, -voorsiening en -sekuriteit kan hê.

  14. Thermo-mechanical cracking of a new and laser repair welded die casting die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of thermo-mechanical fatigue cracking of die casting die during industrial use. An innovative, production friendly approach to monitor the surface crack dimensions was introduced, which is based on measuring defect-fin on the casting part. A new four moulds die casting die was monitored 40 000 cycles in order to complete the production series. The production was stopped three times for laser repair welding of cracks since the defect-fins were not acceptable. The defect-fin heights were measured every 1 000 cycles on the castings before and after repair welding of die surface cracks. The in-service die life can be prolonged with laser repair welding for several times, even thought that in-service die life for a particular repair varies.

  15. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  16. Die Himmel über uns: Über die Bedeutung des Gleichgewichts für die Wirtschaftswissenschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article was published in Freeman, Alan (2006): Die Himmel über uns. Über die Bedeutung des Gleichgewichts für die Wirtschaftswissenschaft, EXIT! Krise und Kritik der Warengesellschaft 3, 212-241 It is the German translation of an chapter originally published in Mosini, V (ed) (2007) Equilibrium in Economics: Scope and Limits. London: Routledge ISBN 0415391377 It was entitled ‘Heavens above: what equilibrium means for economics’, and appeared on pp240-260. The book was devoted to...

  17. Jesus Christus se begronding van die opstanding (Matt 22) in die Ou-Testamentiese openbaring en die implikasies daarvan

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap L. Helberg

    2014-01-01

    Anders as die Sadduseërs en ander mense se mensgesentreerde benadering tot die menslike bestaan en daarom tot ’n moontlike opstanding, is Jesus se benadering Godgesentreerd (óp God gerig en déur God verrig) en Skrifgefundeer.Dit wil sê ’n benadering gefundeer in wat God geopenbaar het en wat menslike bespiegeling, teologie of verwerking van wat met Jesus gebeur het, te bowe gaan. Hierdie Skriffundering is gegrond in God as die lewende, onverganklike, aktiewe en lewewekkende God se persoonlike...

  18. Achilles tendon and sports; Die Achillessehne im Sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulreich, N.; Kainberger, F. [Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Wien (Austria); Huber, W.; Nehrer, S. [Univ.-Klinik fuer Orthopaedie Wien (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    Because of the rising popularity of recreational sports activities achillodynia is an often associated symptom with running, soccer and athletics. Therefore radiologist are frequently asked to image this tendon. The origin of the damage of the Achilles tendon is explained by numerous hypothesis, mainly a decreased perfusion and a mechanical irritation that lead to degeneration of the tendon. High-resolution technics such as sonography and magnetic resonance imaging show alterations in the structure of the tendon which can be graduated and classified. Manifestations like tendinosis, achillobursitis, rupture and Haglunds disease can summarized as the tendon overuse syndrom. A rupture of a tendon is mostly the result of a degeneration of the collagenfibres. The task of the radiologist is to acquire the intrinsic factors for a potential rupture. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund des starken Anstiegs des Freizeitsportes sind Achillodynien ein besonders mit Laufsport, Fussball und Leichtathletik assoziiertes Symptom und die Indikation zur radiologischen Abklaerung wird oft gestellt. Die Entstehung von Sehnenschaeden wird durch eine Reihe von Hypothesen erklaert, wobei eine gestoerte Gewebeperfusion und eine mechanische Irritation als Hauptursachen angesehen werden, die zur Degeneration des Sehnengewebes und des umgebenden Gleitlagers fuehren. Sie koennen aufgrund sonographischer und MR-tomographischer Zeichen meist klar klassifiziert und graduiert werden, wobei hochaufloesende Techniken eine wesentliche Voraussetzung fuer die subtile Analyse der Sehnenstruktur darstellen. Die einzelnen klinischen Erscheinungsformen wie Tendinose, Achillobursitis, Haglund-Ferse und Sehnenruptur koennen unter dem Begriff des ''Sehnenueberlastungssyndroms'' (Tendon overuse syndrome) subsummiert werden. Rupturen der Achillessehne treten so gut wie immer bei bereits vorgeschaedigtem Kollagenfasergewebe auf, und der radiologischen Diagnostik kommt wesentliche Bedeutung dabei zu

  19. Dying and death in some Roma communities: ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriel; Gramma, Rodica; Enache, Angela; Pârvu, Andrada; Ioan, Beatrice; Moisa, Ştefana Maria; Dumitraş, Silvia; Chirita, Radu

    2014-04-01

    The Roma people have specific values, therefore their views and beliefs about illness, dying and death are important to be known for health care providers caring for members of this community. The aim of this qualitative study based on 48 semi-structured interviews with Roma patients and caregivers in communities in two regions of Romania was to examine their selfdescribed behaviors and practices, their experiences and perceptions of illness, dying and death. Five more important themes about the Roma people facing dying and death have been identified: (1) The perception of illness in the community as reason for shame and the isolation that results from this, as well as the tendency for Roma people to take this on in their self image; (2) The importance of the family as the major support for the ill/dying individual, including the social requirement that family gather when someone is ill/dying; (3) The belief that the patient should not be told his/her diagnosis for fear it will harm him/her and that the family should be informed of the diagnosis as the main decision maker regarding medical treatment; (4) The reluctance of the Roma to decide on stopping life prolonging treatment; (5) The view of death as 'impure'. These results can be useful for health care providers working with members of the Roma community. By paying attention to and respecting the Roma patients' values, spirituality, and relationship dynamics, the medical staff can provide the most suitable healthcare by respecting the patients' wishes and expectations. PMID:23097156

  20. ’n Beoordeling van die Skrifberoep ten opsigte van die doodstraf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Wet Saaiman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In die lig van die Christelike etiek is ’n beroep op die Skrif ’n sine qua non waar ’n standpunt in verband met ’n etiese vraagstuk ingeneem word. Met ’n beroep op die Skrif is die probleem ongelukkig nie sonder meer opgelos nie. Die verskillende vertolkings van die Skrif het tot gevolg dat etici met teenoorgestelde standpunte hul op dieselfde Skrifgedeeltes beroep. Dit is egter nie voldoende om slegs ’n goeie uiteensetting van vertrekpunte of selfs hermeneutiese reëls te gee nie. Die Christelike etikus moet ’n grondige kennis van die werklikheid hê – etiek word eenvoudig nie in ’n vakuum beoefen nie. In hierdie artikel is ’n beoordeling gedoen van die Skrifberoep ten opsigte van die doodstraf. In die artikel is aangetoon dat die Skrif ten spyte van goeie hermeneutiese vertrekpunte gemanipuleer kan word om die etikus se eie voorveronderstelling te weerspieël.An adjudication of the use of Scripture regarding capital punishment. The use (recall of Scripture is, in light of Christian ethics, a sine qua non when a position with regard to an ethical problem is assumed. A simple interpretation of Scripture does not necessarily settle the problem. Different interpretations of Scripture result in a difference of opinions even when the same Scriptural texts are used. It is therefore simply not sufficient to note a fair explanation of departure points or hermeneutical principles. The Christian ethicist should have an intimate knowledge of reality – ethics is not practised in a vacuum. In this article an adjudication of the use or interpretation of Scripture in the light of capital punishment was conducted. In this article it was shown that Scripture is most often misused despite of fair hermeneutical principles only to reflect the ethicist own preconceived ideas.