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Sample records for b-type carbohydrate kinase

  1. The plastid-localized pfkB-type carbohydrate kinases FRUCTOKINASE-LIKE 1 and 2 are essential for growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Gilkerson Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription of plastid-encoded genes requires two different DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, a nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP and plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP. Recent studies identified two related pfkB-type carbohydrate kinases, named FRUCTOKINASE-LIKE PROTEIN (FLN1 and FLN2, as components of the thylakoid bound PEP complex in both Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba (mustard. Additional work demonstrated that RNAi-mediated reduction in FLN expression specifically diminished transcription of PEP-dependent genes. Results Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis FLN knockout alleles to examine the contribution of each gene in plant growth, chloroplast development, and in mediating PEP-dependent transcription. We show that fln plants have severe phenotypes with fln1 resulting in an albino phenotype that is seedling lethal without a source of exogenous carbon. In contrast, fln2 plants display chlorosis prior to leaf expansion, but exhibit slow greening, remain autotrophic, can grow to maturity, and set viable seed. fln1 fln2 double mutant analysis reveals haplo-insufficiency, and fln1 fln2 plants have a similar, but more severe phenotype than either single mutant. Normal plastid development in both light and dark requires the FLNs, but surprisingly skotomorphogenesis is unaffected in fln seedlings. Seedlings genetically fln1-1 with dexamethasone-inducible FLN1-HA expression at germination are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type. Induction of FLN-HA after 24 hours of germination cannot rescue the mutant phenotype, indicating that the effects of loss of FLN are not always reversible. Examination of chloroplast gene expression in fln1-1 and fln2-1 by qRT-PCR reveals that transcripts of PEP-dependent genes were specifically reduced compared to NEP-dependent genes in both single mutants. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that each FLN protein contributes to wild type growth, and acting additively are

  2. Predictors of Left Ventricle Remodeling: Combined Plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide Decreasing Ratio and Peak Creatine Kinase-MB.

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    Hsu, Jen-Te; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Jung-Jung; Wang, Po-Chang; Chang, Shih-Tai; Yang, Teng-Yao; Jang, Shih-Jung; Yang, Tsung-Han; Hsiao, Ju-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that patients who had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have found that measuring B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the subacute phase of left ventricular (LV) remodeling can predict the possible course of LV remodeling. This study assessed the use of serial BNP serum levels combined with early creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) to predict the development of significant LV remodeling in AMI patients. Methods: Nighty-seven patients with new onset AMI were assessed using serial echocardiographic studies and serial measurements of BNP levels, both performed on day-2 (BNP1), day-7 (BNP2), day-90 (BNP3), and day-180 (BNP4) after admission. LV remodeling was defined as >20% increase in biplane LV end-diastolic volume on day-180 compared to baseline (day-2). Results: Patients were divided into LV remodeling [LVR(+)] and non LV remodeling [LVR(-)] groups. No first-week BNP level was found to predict remodeling. However, the two groups had significantly different day-90 BNP level (208.1 ± 263.7 pg/ml vs. 82.4 ± 153.7 pg/ml, P = 0.039) and significantly different 3-month BNP decrease ratios ( R BNP13) (14.4 ± 92.2% vs. 69.4 ± 25.9%, P remodeling. Additionally, combining peak CK-MB and R BNP13 offered an excellent discrimination for half-year remodeling when assessed by ROC curve (AUC = 0.818, P remodeling. The early peak CK-MB additionally offered an incremental power to the predictions derived from serial BNP examinations.

  3. Predictors of Left Ventricle Remodeling: Combined Plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide Decreasing Ratio and Peak Creatine Kinase-MB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Te; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Jung-Jung; Wang, Po-Chang; Chang, Shih-Tai; Yang, Teng-Yao; Jang, Shih-Jung; Yang, Tsung-Han; Hsiao, Ju-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that patients who had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have found that measuring B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the subacute phase of left ventricular (LV) remodeling can predict the possible course of LV remodeling. This study assessed the use of serial BNP serum levels combined with early creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) to predict the development of significant LV remodeling in AMI patients. Methods: Nighty-seven patients with new onset AMI were assessed using serial echocardiographic studies and serial measurements of BNP levels, both performed on day-2 (BNP1), day-7 (BNP2), day-90 (BNP3), and day-180 (BNP4) after admission. LV remodeling was defined as >20% increase in biplane LV end-diastolic volume on day-180 compared to baseline (day-2). Results: Patients were divided into LV remodeling [LVR(+)] and non LV remodeling [LVR(-)] groups. No first-week BNP level was found to predict remodeling. However, the two groups had significantly different day-90 BNP level (208.1 ± 263.7 pg/ml vs. 82.4 ± 153.7 pg/ml, P = 0.039) and significantly different 3-month BNP decrease ratios (RBNP13) (14.4 ± 92.2% vs. 69.4 ± 25.9%, P < 0.001). The appropriate cut-off value for RBNP13 was 53.2% (AUC = 0.764, P < 0.001). Early peak CK-MB (cut-off 48.2 ng/ml; AUC = 0.672; P = 0.014) was another independent predictor of remodeling. Additionally, combining peak CK-MB and RBNP13 offered an excellent discrimination for half-year remodeling when assessed by ROC curve (AUC = 0.818, P < 0.001). Conclusion: RBNP13 is a significant independent predictor of 6-month LV remodeling. The early peak CK-MB additionally offered an incremental power to the predictions derived from serial BNP examinations. PMID:28138312

  4. A novel nucleoside kinase from Burkholderia thailandensis: a member of the phosphofructokinase B-type family of enzymes.

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    Ota, Hiroko; Sakasegawa, Shin-Ichi; Yasuda, Yuko; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2008-12-01

    The genome of the mesophilic Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis contains an open reading frame (i.e. the Bth_I1158 gene) that has been annotated as a putative ribokinase and PFK-B family member. Notably, although the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene showed only 29% similarity to the recently identified nucleoside kinase from hyperthermophilic archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, 15 of 17 residues reportedly involved in the catalytic activity of M. jannaschii nucleoside kinase were conserved. The gene was cloned and functionally overexpressed in Rhodococcus erythropolis, and the purified enzyme was characterized biochemically. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was unusually broad for a bacterial PFK-B protein, and the specificity extended not only to purine and purine-analog nucleosides but also to uridine. Inosine was the most effective phosphoryl acceptor, with the highest k(cat)/K(m) value (80 s(-1).mm(-1)) being achieved when ATP served as the phosphoryl donor. By contrast, this enzyme exhibited no activity toward ribose, indicating that the recombinant enzyme was a nucleoside kinase rather than a ribokinase. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of a bacterial nucleoside kinase in the PFK-B family.

  5. Carbohydrates

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    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  6. Prevalence of the B Type Raf Kinase V600E Mutation in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Features

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    Kim, Chae Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Rho, Myong Ho Kook Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Sup [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To study the prevalence of B type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutations, and to evaluate the ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features associated with thyroid cytology of indeterminate nodules. We assessed the presence or absence of BRAF mutation in 44 specimens from patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules according to two consecutive preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology procedures. In 9 specimens, the test for BRAF mutation was not possible due to scant cellularity. DNA was extracted from the atypical cells and then analyzed for the BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. The ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of the patients were characterized according to their mutation status. The BRAF V600E mutation was present in 17 (48.6%) of 35 patients with indeterminate cytology results and in 17 (54.8%) of the 31 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Twenty two of 35 cytologically indeterminate nodules had calcifications, and among them 14 cases were proven to be positive for BRAF V600E mutations. Extrathyroid extension was significantly more frequent in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.027), while tumor size, lympho-vascular invasion, or lymph node metastasis were not associated with the mutation. Screening for BRAF V600E mutations in conjunction with cytology may increase the diagnostic accuracy for PTC with indeterminate cytology results.

  7. The FGGY carbohydrate kinase family: insights into the evolution of functional specificities.

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    Ying Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Function diversification in large protein families is a major mechanism driving expansion of cellular networks, providing organisms with new metabolic capabilities and thus adding to their evolutionary success. However, our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of functional diversity in such families is very limited, which, among many other reasons, is due to the lack of functionally well-characterized sets of proteins. Here, using the FGGY carbohydrate kinase family as an example, we built a confidently annotated reference set (CARS of proteins by propagating experimentally verified functional assignments to a limited number of homologous proteins that are supported by their genomic and functional contexts. Then, we analyzed, on both the phylogenetic and the molecular levels, the evolution of different functional specificities in this family. The results show that the different functions (substrate specificities encoded by FGGY kinases have emerged only once in the evolutionary history following an apparently simple divergent evolutionary model. At the same time, on the molecular level, one isofunctional group (L-ribulokinase, AraB evolved at least two independent solutions that employed distinct specificity-determining residues for the recognition of a same substrate (L-ribulose. Our analysis provides a detailed model of the evolution of the FGGY kinase family. It also shows that only combined molecular and phylogenetic approaches can help reconstruct a full picture of functional diversifications in such diverse families.

  8. Chronological Lifespan in Yeast Is Dependent on the Accumulation of Storage Carbohydrates Mediated by Yak1, Mck1 and Rim15 Kinases

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    Tang, Yingzhi; Quan, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhe; Oliver, Stephen G.; Zhang, Nianshu

    2016-01-01

    Upon starvation for glucose or any other macronutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of characteristics that are specific to quiescent cells to ensure longevity. Little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence entry and lifespan extension. Using starvation-specific gene reporters, we screened a subset of the yeast deletion library representing the genes encoding ‘signaling’ proteins. Apart from the previously characterised Rim15, Mck1 and Yak1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators were shown to be necessary for proper quiescence establishment and for extension of chronological lifespan (CLS), suggesting that entry into quiescence requires the integration of starvation signals transmitted via multiple signaling pathways. The CLS of these signaling mutants, and those of the single, double and triple mutants of RIM15, YAK1 and MCK1 correlates well with the amount of storage carbohydrates but poorly with transition-phase cell cycle status. Combined removal of the glycogen and trehalose biosynthetic genes, especially GSY2 and TPS1, nearly abolishes the accumulation of storage carbohydrates and severely reduces CLS. Concurrent overexpression of GSY2 and TSL1 or supplementation of trehalose to the growth medium ameliorates the severe CLS defects displayed by the signaling mutants (rim15Δyak1Δ or rim15Δmck1Δ). Furthermore, we reveal that the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species are cooperatively controlled by Yak1, Rim15 and Mck1, and the three kinases mediate the TOR1-regulated accumulation of storage carbohydrates and CLS extension. Our data support the hypothesis that metabolic reprogramming to accumulate energy stores and the activation of anti-oxidant defence systems are coordinated by Yak1, Rim15 and Mck1 kinases to ensure quiescence entry and lifespan extension in yeast. PMID:27923067

  9. Counting carbohydrates

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    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  10. The role of glucose kinase in carbohydrate utilization and extracellular polysaccharide production in Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris.

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    Lu, Guang-Tao; Yang, Zheng-Jiu; Peng, Fang-Yin; Tan, Yi-Ning; Tang, Yong-Qin; Feng, Jia-Xun; Tang, Dong-Jie; He, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2007-12-01

    The genome of the Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc) strain 8004 encodes three uncharacterized proteins, XC1166, XC1223 and XC1976, annotated as glucose kinase (Glk) by bioinformatic studies. Here we have investigated the biochemical characteristics and physiological roles of these proteins with particular reference to the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). XC1166, XC1223 and XC1976 were overexpressed as fusion proteins with a His(6) affinity tag and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The standard Glk activity assay revealed that all three proteins possessed apparent Glk activity, with XC1976-His(6) being the most active; the specific activity values were 1.16x10(6) U mg(-1) for XC1166-His(6), 4.36x10(7) U mg(-1) for XC1223-His(6) and 2.63x10(8) U mg(-1) for XC1976-His(6). TLC analysis showed, however, that only XC1976-His(6) could phosphorylate glucose. Insertional mutants of XC1166, XC1223 and XC1976 were generated using the suicide plasmid pK18mob. Although mutant strains with insertions in XC1166 or XC1223 had Glk activity similar to that of the wild-type strain, the XC1976 mutant had only about 6% of the wild-type activity. Mutation in XC1976 had complex effects on EPS production. In media containing arabinose, glucose, galactose, sucrose or maltose, the XC1976 mutant produced about 40-75% of the wild-type level of EPS, whereas in medium containing fructose, the mutant showed a 30% increase in EPS production compared to the wild-type strain. The XC1976 mutant also showed attenuated virulence on the host plant Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus). The results indicate that XC1976 has the most significant role for the parameters tested.

  11. Periexercise coingestion of branched-chain amino acids and carbohydrate in men does not preferentially augment resistance exercise-induced increases in phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis.

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    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Li, Rui; Cooke, Matthew; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a single bout of resistance exercise (RE) in conjunction with periexercise branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on skeletal muscle signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis were determined. It was hypothesized that CHO + BCAA would elicit a more profound effect on these signaling markers compared with CHO. Twenty-seven males were randomly assigned to CHO, CHO + BCAA, or placebo (PLC) groups. Four sets of leg presses and leg extensions were performed at 80% 1 repetition maximum. Supplements were ingested 30 minutes and immediately before and after RE. Venous blood and muscle biopsy samples were obtained immediately before supplement ingestion and 0.5, 2, and 6 hours after RE. Serum insulin and glucose and phosphorylated levels of muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphorylated 70S6 kinase, and 4E binding protein 1 were assessed. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant group × time interactions were observed for glucose and insulin (P protein kinase B (P = .031), mammalian target of rapamycin (P = .003), and phosphorylated 70S6 kinase (P = .001). Carbohydrate and CHO + BCAA supplementation significantly increased IRS-1 compared with PLC (P = .002). However, periexercise coingestion of CHO and BCAA did not augment RE-induced increases in skeletal muscle signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis when compared with CHO.

  12. Carbohydrate Analysis

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    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  13. B-type stars in eclipsing binaries

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    Ratajczak, Milena; Pigulski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    B-type stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique astrophysical tools to test several aspects of stellar evolution. Such objects can be used e.g. to determine the masses of Beta Cephei variable stars, as well as help to place tighter constraints on the value of the convective core overshooting parameter α. Both precise photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy with high SNR are required to achieve these goals, but since many of the targets are bright enough, the challenge is fair. Following this assumption, we shall explain how we plan to examine both the aforementioned aspects of stellar evolution using observations of B-type stars obtained with a wide range of spectrographs, as well as BRITE-Constellation satellites.

  14. Carbohydrate Loading.

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    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  15. Carbohydrate microarrays

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    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola;

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray-based technol...

  16. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

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    Peters Sandra; LeBlanc Paul

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  17. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

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    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  18. Carbohydrate malabsorption

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    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  19. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2 and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

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    Donald K. Layman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2. This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0 or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270, 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80, 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6, 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0, or water (Sham control. Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0, but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to

  20. Post-meal responses of elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to leucine and carbohydrate supplements for regulating protein synthesis duration and energy homeostasis in rat skeletal muscle.

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    Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Garlick, Peter J; Anthony, Tracy G; Layman, Donald K

    2012-11-13

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0) or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270), 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80), 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6), 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0), or water (Sham control). Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0), but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to reduced

  1. Learning about Carbohydrates

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    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Carbohydrates A A ... of energy for the body. Two Types of Carbohydrates There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  2. B-type natriuretic peptide secretion following scuba diving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passino, Claudio; Franzino, Enrico; Giannoni, Alberto;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the neurohormonal effects of a scuba dive, focusing on the acute changes in the plasma concentrations of the different peptide fragments from the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) precursor....

  3. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

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    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Teens > Carbohydrates and Diabetes A A A What's in this ... that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates ...

  4. B-type natriuretic peptides and mortality after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Berrocoso, Teresa; Giralt, Dolors; Bustamante, Alejandro;

    2013-01-01

    To measure the association of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal fragment of BNP (NT-proBNP) with all-cause mortality after stroke, and to evaluate the additional predictive value of BNP/NT-proBNP over clinical information....

  5. Low prevalence of B-type natriuretic peptide levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenhuis, J; Voors, AA; Jaarsma, T; Hillege, HL; Hoes, AW; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2006-01-01

    Background In patients with acute heart failure (HF) presenting at the emergency department, a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level <100 pg/mL was found in only 10% of the patients. However, in a more stable outpatient HF population from another study, a BNP level <100 pg/mL was found in as many a

  6. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

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    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  7. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

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    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  8. Atrial secretion of B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2006-01-01

    In the normal heart, the endocrine capacity resides in the atria. Atrial myocytes express and secrete natriuretic hormones that regulate fluid homeostasis and blood pressure. But in ventricular disease, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene expression is also...... activated in ventricular myocytes. Plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides and their biosynthetic precursors are accordingly increased in patients with marked ventricular dysfunction. In contrast, atrial peptide secretion in ventricular disease has received less attention, and our present...... are also active in heart failure. Plasma measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors can perhaps help us to discriminate when, where and how....

  9. Carbohydrates as food allergens

    OpenAIRE

    SOH, Jian Yi; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2015-01-01

    The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are t...

  10. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

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    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  11. Carbohydrates as allergens.

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    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  12. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

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    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  13. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  14. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  15. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117... Systems § 862.1117 B-type natriuretic peptide test system. (a) Identification. The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) test system is an in vitro diagnostic device intended to measure BNP in whole blood...

  16. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  17. Kepler observations of the variability in B-type stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, Luis A.; Pigulski, A.; De Cat, P.

    2011-01-01

    variations in other stars which we attribute to proximity effects in binary systems or possibly rotational modulation. We find no evidence for pulsating stars between the cool edge of the SPB and the hot edge of the δ Sct instability strips. None of the stars shows the broad features which can be attributed......The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies, characteristic of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could...... be considered as SPB/β Cephei (β Cep) hybrids. In all cases, the frequency spectra are quite different from what is seen from ground-based observations. We suggest that this is because most of the low frequencies are modes of high degree which are predicted to be unstable in models of mid-B stars. We find...

  18. Fundamental properties of nearby single early B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, María-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    Aims: Fundamental parameters of a sample of 26 apparently slowly-rotating single early B-type stars in OB associations and in the field within a distance of ≲400 pc from the Sun are presented and compared to high-precision data from detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). Together with surface abundances for light elements the data are used to discuss the evolutionary status of the stars in context of the most recent Geneva grid of models for core hydrogen-burning stars in the mass-range ~6 to 18 M⊙ at metallicity Z = 0.014. Methods: The fundamental parameters are derived on the basis of accurate and precise atmospheric parameters determined earlier by us from non-LTE analyses of high-quality spectra of the sample stars, utilising the new Geneva stellar evolution models. Results: Evolutionary masses plus radii and luminosities are determined to better than typically 5%, 10%, and 20% uncertainty, respectively, facilitating the mass-radius and mass-luminosity relationships to be recovered for single core hydrogen-burning objects with a similar precision as derived from DEBs. Good agreement between evolutionary and spectroscopic masses is found. Absolute visual and bolometric magnitudes are derived to typically ~0.15-0.20 mag uncertainty. Metallicities are constrained to better than 15-20% uncertainty and tight constraints on evolutionary ages of the stars are provided. Overall, the spectroscopic distances and ages of individual sample stars agree with independently derived values for the host OB associations. Signatures of mixing with CN-cycled material are found in 1/3 of the sample stars. Typically, these are consistent with the amount predicted by the new Geneva models with rotation. The presence of magnetic fields appears to augment the mixing efficiency. In addition, a few objects are possibly the product of binary evolution. In particular, the unusual characteristics of τ Sco point to a blue straggler nature, due to a binary merger. Conclusions: The accuracy

  19. Carbohydrates in therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Joshi, Lokesh

    2007-07-01

    Awareness of the importance of carbohydrates in living systems and medicine is growing due to the increasing understanding of their biological and pharmacological relevance. Carbohydrates are ubiquitous and perform a wide array of biological roles. Carbohydrate-based or -modified therapeutics are used extensively in cardiovascular and hematological treatments ranging from inflammatory diseases and anti-thrombotic treatments to wound healing. Heparin is a well-known and widely used example of a carbohydrate-based drug but will not be discussed as it has been extensively reviewed. We will detail carbohydrate-based and -modified therapeutics, both those that are currently marketed or in various stages of clinical trials and those that are potential therapeutics based on promising preclinical investigations. Carbohydrate-based therapeutics include polysaccharide and oligosaccharide anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant and anti-thrombotic agents from natural and synthetic sources, some as an alternative to heparin and others which were designed based on known structure-functional relationships. Some of these compounds have multiple biological effects, showing anti-adhesive, anti-HIV and anti-arthrithic activities. Small molecules, derivatives or mimetics of complement inhibitors, are detailed for use in limiting ischemia/ reperfusion injuries. Monosaccharides, both natural and synthetic, have been investigated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. Modification by glycosylation of natural products, or glycosylation-mimicking modification, has a significant effect on the parent molecule including increased plasma half-life and refining or increasing desired functions. It is hoped that this review will highlight the vast therapeutic potential of these natural bioactive molecules.

  20. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology that would benefit from a greater understanding of the role of carbohydrate relations. PMID:26479502

  1. N-terminal Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: a measure of significant patent cuctus arteriosus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OFarombi-Oghuvbu, IO

    2008-01-24

    Background: B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker for ventricular dysfunction secreted as a pre-prohormone, Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (ProBNP), and cleaved into BNP and a biologically inactive fragment, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Little is known about the clinical usefulness of NT-proBNP in preterm infants.\\r\

  2. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  3. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  4. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology th...

  5. Functional analysis of anomeric sugar kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Louis P; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-09-02

    Anomeric sugar kinases perform fundamental roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Under- or overexpression of these enzymes, or mutations causing functional impairments can give rise to diseases such as galactosaemia and so the study of this class of kinase is of critical importance. In addition, anomeric sugar kinases which are naturally promiscuous, or have been artificially made so, may find application in the synthesis of libraries of drug candidates (for example, antibiotics), and natural or unnatural oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological functions of these enzymes, the tools which have been developed to investigate them, and the current frontiers in their study.

  6. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  7. Identification of five B-type response regulators as members of a multistep phosphorelay system interacting with histidine-containing phosphotransfer partners of Populus osmosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, the multistep phosphorelay signaling pathway mediates responses to environmental factors and plant hormones. This system is composed of three successive partners: hybrid Histidine-aspartate Kinases (HKs, Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer proteins (HPts, and Response Regulators (RRs. Among the third partners, B-type RR family members are the final output elements of the pathway; they act as transcription factors and clearly play a pivotal role in the early response to cytokinin in Arabidopsis. While interactions studies between partners belonging to the multistep phosphorelay system are mainly focused on protagonists involved in cytokinin or ethylene pathways, very few reports are available concerning partners of osmotic stress signaling pathway. Results In Populus, we identified eight B-type RR proteins, RR12-16, 19, 21 and 22 in the Dorskamp genotype. To assess HPt/B-type RR interactions and consequently determine potential third partners in the osmosensing multistep phosphorelay system, we performed global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assays in combination with Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC assays in plant cells. We found that all B-type RRs are able to interact with HPt predominant partners (HPt2, 7 and 9 of HK1, which is putatively involved in the osmosensing pathway. However, different profiles of interaction are observed depending on the studied HPt. HPt/RR interactions displayed a nuclear localization, while the nuclear and cytosolic localization of HPt and nuclear localization of RR proteins were validated. Although the nuclear localization of HPt/RR interaction was expected, this work constitutes the first evidence of such an interaction in plants. Furthermore, the pertinence of this partnership is reinforced by highlighting a co-expression of B-type RR transcripts and the other partners (HK1 and HPts belonging to a potential osmosensing pathway. Conclusion Based on the interaction studies

  8. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high......-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  9. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with growth hormone disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Vestergaard, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertension and subsequent congestive heart failure. Impairment of cardiac function has also been associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) have emerged as strong diagnostic and prognostic risk...

  10. Relationship between branching density and crystalline structure of A- and B-type maize mutant starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Planchot, V; Colonna, P; Bertoft, E

    2000-06-02

    Amylopectin from two double maize mutant starches of A-crystalline (wxdu) and B-crystalline type (aewx) was subjected successively to hydrolysis involving alpha and beta amylases, which isolated clusters and all branching zones of clusters (BZC). Enzymatic analysis together with ionic and size-exclusion chromatography revealed the structural features of the clusters and BZC and their role in starch crystallization. A-type clusters were larger (dp(n) > 80) and contained more (but shorter) chains than B-type clusters. The BZC of A-type starch was also larger, but with a shorter distance between the branching points than in B-type BZC. A-type clusters had a densely packed structure and B-type a poorly branched structure. Models for the structure of A- and B-type clusters are presented, and a hypothesis for the influence of cluster geometry on crystallization is proposed.

  11. Mouse B-Type Lamins Are Required for Proper Organogenesis But Not by Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngjo; Sharov, Alexei A; McDole, Katie; Cheng, Melody; Hao, Haiping; Fan, Chen-Ming; Gaiano, Nicholas; Minoru S.H. Ko; Zheng, Yixian

    2011-01-01

    B-type lamins, the major components of the nuclear lamina, are believed to be essential for cell proliferation and survival. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) do not need any lamins for self-renewal and pluripotency. Although genome-wide lamin-B binding profiles correlate with reduced gene expression, such binding is not directly required for gene silencing in ESCs or trophectoderm cells. However, B-type lamins are required for proper organogenesis. Defects in spindle orientatio...

  12. The Preparation of B-type Starch Spherocrystals by Freezing Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Qi LIU; Jiu Gao YU; Xiu Ping SUN

    2004-01-01

    The B-typed starch spherocrystals were prepared by the dissolution and freezing crystallization of acid-hydrolyzed starch obtained by the mild hydrolysis of maize starch. The spherocrystals were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry (TG) and gel pervasion chromatogram (GPC). The results show that the preparation was a B-type spherocrystal with the average degree of polymerization of 14 glucose units, and the average diameter of crystal particles was about 7μm.

  13. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  14. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  15. A Broad Specificity Nucleoside Kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W.; Columbus, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 A resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β /α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, frutokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had bee...

  16. Decarbonylation and dehydrogenation of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark A.; Klaeren, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Carbohydrates, especially aldose or ketose sugars, including those whose carbonyl group is masked by hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal formation, are decarbonylated by heating the feed carbohydrate together with a transition metal complex in a suitable solvent. Also, primary alcohols, including sugar alditols are simultaneously dehydrogenated and decarbonylated by heating a mixture of rhodium and ruthenium complexes and the alcohol and optionally a hydrogen acceptor in an acceptable solvent. Such defarbonylation and/or dehydrogenation of sugars provides a convenient procedure for the synthesis of certain carbohydrates and may provide a means for the conversion of biomass into useful products.

  17. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However, the imp......BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However...

  18. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangel, Jonatan U; Pedersen, Henriette L; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise I; Salmean, Armando Asuncion; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads H; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.

  19. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  20. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well.

  1. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star σ Lupi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Landstreet, J.D.; Wade, G.A.; Grunhut, J.H.; Oksala, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. Indirect indicators are needed to identify them before investing in time-intensive spectropolarimetric observations. Aims. We use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of ultraviolet (UV) stellar

  2. Characterization of A- and B-type starch granules in Chinese wheat cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; GUO Qi; FENG Nan; WANG Jin-rong; WANG Shu-jun; HE Zhong-hu

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the major component of wheat lfour and serves as a multifunctional ingredient in food industry. The objective of the present study was to investigate starch granule size distribution of Chinese wheat cultivars, and to compare structure and functionality of starches in four leading cultivars Zhongmai 175, CA12092, Lunxuan 987, and Zhongyou 206. A wide variation in volume percentages of A- and B-type starch granules among genotypes was observed. Volume percentages of A- and B-type granules had ranges of 68.4–88.9% and 9.7–27.9% in the ifrst cropping seasons, 74.1–90.1% and 7.2–25.3% in the second. Wheat cultivars with higher volume percentages of A- and B-type granules could serve as parents in breeding program for selecting high and low amylose wheat cultivars, respectively. In comparison with the B-type starch granules, the A-type granules starch showed difference in three aspects: (1) higher amount of ordered short-range structure and a lower relative crystalinity, (2) higher gelatinization onset (To) temperatures and enthalpies (ΔH), and lower gelatinization conclusion temperatures (Tc), (3) greater peak, though, and ifnal viscosity, and lower breakdown viscosity and pasting temperature. It provides important information for breeders to develop potentialy useful cultivars with particular functional properties of their starches suited to speciifc applications.

  3. Spectroscopic Evidence for an Oxazolone Structure in Anionic b-Type Peptide Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzetic, J.; Oomens, J.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectra of anionic b-type fragments generated by collision induced dissociation (CID) from deprotonated peptides are reported. Spectra of the b(2) fragments of deprotonated AlaAlaAla and AlaTyrAla have been recorded over the 800-1800 cm(-1) spectral range by multiple-photon dissociation (MP

  4. Spectroscopic evidence for an oxazolone structure in anionic b-type peptide fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grzetic; J. Oomens

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectra of anionic b-type fragments generated by collision induced dissociation (CID) from deprotonated peptides are reported. Spectra of the b2 fragments of deprotonated AlaAlaAla and AlaTyrAla have been recorded over the 800-1800 cm-1 spectral range by multiple-photon dissociation (MPD) s

  5. Data Mining Rules for Ultrasonic B-Type Detection and Diagnosis for Cholecystolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Wei; YAN Li-min; HE Guo-sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents realistic data mining based on the data of B-type ultrasonic detection and diagnosis for cholrcystolithiasis (gallbladder stone in biliary tract) recorded by a district central hospital in Shanghai during the past several years. Computer simulation and modeling is described.

  6. Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willoughby Darryn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to endurance competition, many endurance athletes participate in a carbohydrate loading regimen in order to help delay the onset of fatigue. The "classic" regimen generally includes an intense glycogen depleting training period of approximately two days followed by a glycogen loading period for 3–4 days, ingesting approximately 60–70% of total energy intake as carbohydrates, while the newer method does not consist of an intense glycogen depletion protocol. However, recent evidence has indicated that glycogen loading does not occur in the same manner for males and females, thus affecting performance. The scope of this literature review will include a brief description of the role of estradiol in relation to metabolism and gender differences seen in carbohydrate metabolism and loading.

  7. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    subunits are highly conserved during evolution. The relationship between CK-2 alpha from humans and plants is still 73%. Similar relationships are reported for the beta-subunit. Chromosomal assignment of CK-2 alpha shows two gene loci, one of which is a pseudogene. They are located on different chromosomes......, no genetic changes are necessarily involved; the observed changes may be entirely due to a signal transduction pathway where CK-2 could be phosphorylated by another kinase(s). CK-2 cDNAs from various organisms have been isolated and characterized. From the deduced amino acid sequence it turns out that CK-2......-subunit affecting: (i) stability, (ii) enzyme specificity and (iii) enzyme activity. The question where CK-2 and its subunits are located throughout the cell cycle has also been addressed, mainly because of the large discrepancies that still exist between results obtained by different investigators. Tissue...

  8. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  9. (Secondary) solid tumors in thyroid cancer patients treated with the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib may present diagnostic challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, T.C.; Kapiteijn, E.; Wezel, T. van; Smit, J.W.A.; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Morreau, H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is an orally active multikinase tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets B-type Raf kinase (BRAF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1 and 2, and rearranged during transfection (RET), inducing anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic actions in a wide range of s

  10. Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Womack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1. Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage, high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat, or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat. After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial. Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05, and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min, HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min. Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists.

  11. Mouse B-Type Lamins Are Required for Proper Organogenesis But Not by Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Sharov, Alexei A.; McDole, Katie; Cheng, Melody; Hao, Haiping; Fan, Chen-Ming; Gaiano, Nicholas; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Zheng, Yixian

    2012-01-01

    B-type lamins, the major components of the nuclear lamina, are believed to be essential for cell proliferation and survival. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) do not need any lamins for self-renewal and pluripotency. Although genome-wide lamin-B binding profiles correlate with reduced gene expression, such binding is not directly required for gene silencing in ESCs or trophectoderm cells. However, B-type lamins are required for proper organogenesis. Defects in spindle orientation in neural progenitor cells and migration of neurons probably cause brain disorganizations found in lamin-B null mice. Thus, our studies not only disprove several prevailing views of lamin-Bs but also establish a foundation for redefining the function of the nuclear lamina in the context of tissue building and homeostasis. PMID:22116031

  12. PROJECTED ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF 136 EARLY B-TYPE STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmany, C. D.; Glaspey, J. W. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bragança, G. A.; Daflon, S.; Fernandes, M. Borges; Cunha, K. [Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP: 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI: 48109-1107 (United States); Bensby, T., E-mail: garmany@noao.edu [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    We have determined projected rotational velocities, v sin i, from Magellan/MIKE echelle spectra for a sample of 136 early B-type stars having large Galactocentric distances. The target selection was done independently of their possible membership in clusters, associations or field stars. We subsequently examined the literature and assigned each star as Field, Association, or Cluster. Our v sin i results are consistent with a difference in aggregate v sin i with stellar density. We fit bimodal Maxwellian distributions to the Field, Association, and Cluster subsamples representing sharp-lined and broad-lined components. The first two distributions, in particular, for the Field and Association are consistent with strong bimodality in v sin i. Radial velocities are also presented, which are useful for further studies of binarity in B-type stars, and we also identify a sample of possible new double-lined spectroscopic binaries. In addition, we find 18 candidate Be stars showing emission at Hα.

  13. N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide during pharmacological heart rate reduction in hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, M; Kistorp, C; Corell, P

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that elevated N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels in hyperthyroidism are mainly driven by increased metabolism due to excess thyroid hormones. Therefore, serum levels of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were studied during reduced cardiac work load by means...... of pharmacologically induced heart rate reduction in untreated hyperthyroidism. We designed a noncontrolled interventional study. Eighteen women with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism were evaluated (including an echocardiography) before and after pharmacological heart rate reduction with 360 mg verapamil daily for 6......-index decreased from median 319 to 315 arbitrary units (p=0.039) and free triiodothyronine-index increased from 8.6 to 9.9 arbitrary units (p=0.010). No changes in echocardiographic parameters were observed. A decrease in resting heart rate in untreated hyperthyroidism due to verapamil treatment did not result...

  14. Spectroscopic Evidence for an Oxazolone Structure in Anionic b-Type Peptide Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzetic, Josipa; Oomens, Jos

    2012-02-01

    Infrared spectra of anionic b-type fragments generated by collision induced dissociation (CID) from deprotonated peptides are reported. Spectra of the b2 fragments of deprotonated AlaAlaAla and AlaTyrAla have been recorded over the 800-1800 cm-1 spectral range by multiple-photon dissociation (MPD) spectroscopy using an FTICR mass spectrometer in combination with the free electron laser FELIX. Structural characterization of the b-type fragments is accomplished by comparison with density functional theory calculated spectra at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level for different isomeric structures. Although diketopiperazine structures represent the energetically lowest isomers, the IR spectra suggest an oxazolone structure for the b2 fragments of both peptides. Deprotonation is shown to occur on the oxazolone α-carbon, which leads to a conjugated structure in which the negative charge is practically delocalized over the entire oxazolone ring, providing enhanced gas-phase stability.

  15. Challenges with nonfiber carbohydrate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M B

    2003-12-01

    Nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) encompass a compositionally and nutritionally diverse group exclusive of those carbohydrates found in NDF. Their content in feeds has often been described as a single value estimated by difference as 100% of dry matter minus the percentages of CP, NDF (adjusted for CP in NDF), ether extract, and ash. A calculated value was used because of difficulties with assays for individual NFC, but it does not differentiate among nutritionally distinct NFC. Errors in NFC estimation can arise from not accounting for CP in NDF and when multipliers other than 6.25 are appropriate to estimate CP. Analyses that begin to distinguish among NFC are those for starch, soluble fiber (non-NDF, nonstarch polysaccharides), and low molecular weight carbohydrates (mono- and oligosaccharides). Many starch analyses quantify alpha-glucans through specific hydrolysis of alpha-(1 --> 4) and alpha-(1 --> 6) linkages in the glucan, and measurement of released glucose. Incomplete gelatinization and hydrolysis will lead to underestimation of starch content. Starch values are inflated by enzyme preparations that hydrolyze carbohydrates other than alpha-glucan, measurement of all released monosaccharides without specificity for glucose, and failure to exclude free glucose present in the unhydrolyzed sample. Soluble fiber analyses err in a fashion similar to NFC if estimation of CP requires multipliers other than 6.25, or if contaminants such as CP and starch have not been properly accounted. Depolymerization and incomplete precipitation can also decrease soluble fiber estimates. The low molecular weight carbohydrates have been defined as carbohydrates soluble in 78 to 80% ethanol, which separates them from polysaccharides. They can be measured in extracts using broad-spectrum colorimetric assays (phenol-sulfuric acid assay or reducing sugar analysis of acid hydrolyzed samples) or chromatographic methods. Limitations of the colorimetric assays include lack of differentiation

  16. Photometric amplitudes and phases of B-type main sequence pulsators: sources of inaccuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Szewczuk, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    We discuss all possible sources of uncertainties in theoretical values of the photometric amplitudes and phases of B-type main sequence pulsators. These observables are of particular importance because they contain information about the mode geometry as well as about stellar physics. Here, we study effects of various parameters coming both from theory of linear nonadiabatic oscillations and from models of stellar atmospheres. In particular, we show effects of chemical composition, opacities and, for the first time, effects of the NLTE atmospheres.

  17. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and B-type natriuretic peptide in heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG De-jia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular function, symptom status, quality of life and reduces hospitalization and mortality in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class Ⅲ or IV heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay despite optimal medical management.1 B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its amino terminal cleavage equivalent (NT-pro BNP) levels correlate with the severity of heart failure and predict prognosis of heart failure patients.2

  18. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Modulates Ghrelin, Hunger, and Satiety in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blind...

  19. [The role of B type natriuretic peptide in the assessment of post myocardial infarction prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, A; Ibn el Hadj, Z; Chrigui, R; Kammoun, I; Lefi, A; Chine, S; Gargouri, S; Keskes, H; Kachboura, S

    2006-10-01

    Recently cardiac peptides have received close attention as cardiovascular markers. Brain (B type) natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized predominantly in ventricular myocardium. Previous studies have shown that this hormone can provide prognostic information in patients with myocardial infarction. The aim of this review is to evaluate the impact of plasma levels of BNP on prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction and remodelling and major cardiac events after myocardial infarction.

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Evans, C J; Howarth, I D; Simón-Díaz, S; de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars ...

  1. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  2. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as a marker of blunt cardiac contusion in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Halil; Sarikaya, Sezgin; Neijmann, Sebnem Tekin; Uysal, Emin; Yucel, Neslihan; Ozucelik, Dogac Niyazi; Okuturlar, Yıldız; Solak, Suleyman; Sever, Nurten; Ayan, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac contusion is usually caused by blunt chest trauma and, although it is potentially a life-threatening condition, the diagnosis of a myocardial contusion is difficult because of non-specific symptoms and the lack of an ideal test to detect myocardial damage. Cardiac enzymes, such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTn-I), and cardiac troponin T (cTn-T) were used in previous studies to demonstrate the blunt cardiac contusion (BCC). Each of these diagnostic tests alone is not effective for diagnosis of BCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), CK, CK-MB, and cTn-I levels as a marker of BCC in blunt chest trauma in rats. The eighteen Wistar albino rats were randomly allocated to two groups; group I (control) (n=8) and group II (blunt chest trauma) (n=10). Isolated BCC was induced by the method described by Raghavendran et al. (2005). All rats were observed in their cages and blood samples were collected after five hours of trauma for the analysis of serum h-FABP, NT-pro BNP, CK, CK-MB, and cTn-I levels. The mean serum NT-pro BNP was significantly different between group I and II (10.3 ± 2.10 ng/L versus 15.4 ± 3.68 ng/L, respectively; P=0.0001). NT-pro BNP level >13 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 70%, and a negative predictive value of 87.5% for predicting blunt chest trauma (area under curve was 0.794 and P=0.037). There was no significant difference between two groups in serum h-FABP, CK, CK-MB and c Tn-I levels. A relation between NT-Pro BNP and BCC was shown in this study. Serum NT-proBNP levels significantly increased with BCC after 5 hours of the blunt chest trauma. The use of NT-proBNP as an adjunct to other diagnostic tests, such as troponins, electrocardiography (ECG), chest x-ray and echocardiogram may be beneficial for diagnosis of

  3. CDK-1 and two B-type cyclins promote PAR-6 stabilization during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Rabilotta

    Full Text Available In the C. elegans embryo, formation of an antero-posterior axis of polarity relies on signaling by the conserved PAR proteins, which localize asymmetrically in two mutually exclusive groups at the embryonic cortex. Depletion of any PAR protein causes a loss of polarity and embryonic lethality. A genome-wide RNAi screen previously identified two B-type cyclins, cyb-2.1 and cyb-2.2, as suppressors of par-2(it5ts lethality. We found that the loss of cyb-2.1 or cyb-2.2 suppressed the lethality and polarity defects of par-2(it5ts mutants and that these cyclins act in cell polarity with their cyclin-dependent kinase partner, CDK-1. Interestingly, cyb-2.1; cyb-2.2 double mutants did not show defects in cell cycle progression or timing of polarity establishment, suggesting that they regulate polarity independently of their typical role in cell cycle progression. Loss of both cyclin genes or of cdk-1 resulted in a decrease in PAR-6 levels in the embryo. Furthermore, the activity of the cullin CUL-2 was required to achieve suppression of par-2 lethality when both cyclins were absent. Our results support a model in which CYB-2.1/2/CDK-1 antagonize CUL-2 activity to promote stabilization of PAR-6 levels during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants.

  4. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  5. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...

  6. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  7. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  8. The B-type lamin is required for somatic repression of testis-specific gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelyov, Y. Y.; Lavrov, S. A.; Mikhaylova, L. M.; Nurminsky, I. D.; Kulathinal, R. J.; Egorova, K. S.; Rozovsky, Y. M.; Nurminsky, D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Large clusters of coexpressed tissue-specific genes are abundant on chromosomes of diverse species. The genes coordinately misexpressed in diverse diseases are also found in similar clusters, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms regulate expression of large multigenic regions both in normal development and in its pathological disruptions. Studies on individual loci suggest that silent clusters of coregulated genes are embedded in repressed chromatin domains, often localized to the nuclear periphery. To test this model at the genome-wide scale, we studied transcriptional regulation of large testis-specific gene clusters in somatic tissues of Drosophila. These gene clusters showed a drastic paucity of known expressed transgene insertions, indicating that they indeed are embedded in repressed chromatin. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the major role for the B-type lamin, LamDmo, in repression of large testis-specific gene clusters, showing that in somatic cells as many as three-quarters of these clusters interact with LamDmo. Ablation of LamDmo by using mutants and RNAi led to detachment of testis-specific clusters from nuclear envelope and to their selective transcriptional up-regulation in somatic cells, thus providing the first direct evidence for involvement of the B-type lamin in tissue-specific gene repression. Finally, we found that transcriptional activation of the lamina-bound testis-specific gene cluster in male germ line is coupled with its translocation away from the nuclear envelope. Our studies, which directly link nuclear architecture with coordinated regulation of tissue-specific genes, advance understanding of the mechanisms underlying both normal cell differentiation and developmental disorders caused by lesions in the B-type lamins and interacting proteins. PMID:19218438

  9. Complex asteroseismology of the hybrid B-type pulsator $\\gamma$ Pegasi: a test of stellar opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Przemysław

    2010-01-01

    Using the updated oscillation spectrum of $\\gamma$ Pegasi, we construct a set of seismic models which reproduce two pulsational frequencies corresponding to the $\\ell=0$, p$_1$ and $\\ell=1$, g$_1$ modes. Then, we single out models which reproduce other well identified modes. Finally, we extend our seismic modelling by a requirement of fitting also values of the complex, nonadiabatic parameter $f$ associated to each mode frequency. Such complex asteroseismology of the B-type pulsators provides a unique test of stellar metallicity and opacities. In contrast to our previous studies, results for $\\gamma$ Peg indicate that both opacity tables, OPAL and OP, are equally preferred.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectrocopic Binarity of O and B type stars (Chini+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Nasseri, A.; Stahl, O.; Zinnecker, H.

    2013-05-01

    We have performed a comprehensive spectroscopic survey on a large representative sample of 249 O- and 581 B-type stars. Using the high-resolution spectrograph BESO at the Hexapod Telescope at the Universitatssternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile, we obtained 3632 multi-epoch optical spectra. The observing period started in 2009 January and is still going on. The spectra comprise a wavelength range from 3620 to 8530Å and provide a mean spectral resolution of R=50000. (1 data file).

  11. Emission from the Centrifugal Magnetospheres of Magnetic B-type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Rivinius, T.; Townsend, R.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 10% of B-type stars possess strong magnetic fields, and of these, 25% host centrifugal magnetospheres in which the radiative wind, magnetic field, and rotational support interact to form a dense circumstellar plasma visible in a variety of diagnostic lines. In this article we review the basic theory behind CMs, outline current theoretical and observational problems, compare the observational properties of CM host stars to those of classical Be stars, and finally present preliminary results of a population study aimed at clarifying the characteristics of this growing sub-class.

  12. Emission from the Centrifugal Magnetospheres of Magnetic B-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, Matt; Rivinius, Thomas; Townsend, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10% of B-type stars possess strong magnetic fields, and of these, 25% host centrifugal magnetospheres (CMs) in which the radiative wind, magnetic field, and rotational support interact to form a dense circumstellar plasma visible in a variety of diagnostic lines. In this article we review the basic theory behind CMs, outline current theoretical and observational problems, compare the observational properties of CM host stars to those of classical Be stars, and finally present preliminary results of a population study aimed at clarifying the characteristics of this growing sub-class.

  13. Disorders of carbohydrate digestion and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitlinger, L A; Lebenthal, E

    1988-04-01

    The carbohydrate malabsorptive syndromes are frequently seen by pediatricians. The congenital deficiency states are quite rare, but adult type hypolactasia and lactose intolerance following rotavirus infection are recognized with increasing frequency by primary care physicians. Therapy for these disorders involves identification of the offending carbohydrate, removal of the carbohydrate from the diet, and exclusion of other entities that may result in carbohydrate malabsorption but not respond to its removal from the diet. Prognosis for both the primary and secondary carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes is excellent. Compliance with diets for those pediatric patients who will require lifelong therapy remains problematic.

  14. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Submariner Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    metabolism the Wilkerson Point System, for glucose values, used in conjunction with patterns of insulin response described by Kraft(4) serves as the means...amount of exercise and carbohydrate metabolism characteristics occurred in both submariners and non-submariners. An inverse relationship also seems to...individuals(7). In the present study a significant negative correlation was also found between exercise vs one and two hour postprandial glucose and two hour

  15. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Sugai; M.S.R. Figueiredo; ANTÔNIO, R. V.; P. M. Oliveira; V.A Cardoso; Ricardo, J.; Merino, E.; L.F Figueiredo; D.N. Heidrich

    2004-01-01

    Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approach...

  16. Nutritional and metabolic responses in common dentex (Dentex dentex) fed on different types and levels of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; Cardenete, Gabriel; Morales, Amalia E; Hidalgo, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the capacity of common dentex (Dentex dentex) to efficiently use dietary carbohydrates. So, the effects of different type and levels of carbohydrates on growth performance, feed utilization, fish composition, plasma metabolites and key metabolic pathways in liver and white muscle of common dentex are presented. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22 MJ kg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types, pregelatinized starch (PS), dextrin (Dx) and maltodextrin (Mx), and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates. Growth performance was not significantly influenced by treatments. The best feed utilization was observed in 18% Mx group. Higher hepatic lipid content was found in fish fed lower dietary carbohydrate levels. PS induced higher liver and white muscle hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities compared to the lower values observed for Mx. Malic enzyme and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver and white muscle were lower in Mx group. The influence of dietary carbohydrates source was more noticeable than those induced by the carbohydrate level, when glycolysis and lipogenesis pathways were considered. Common dentex is able to use properly dietary carbohydrates, although optimal dietary inclusion levels are below 24%. The greater protein-sparing effect was promoted by the less complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin) and the best feed utilization indices were obtained at intermediate levels of inclusion (18%).

  17. Identification of a major QTL controlling the content of B-type starch granules in Aegilops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Thomas; Rejab, Nur Ardiyana; Griffiths, Simon; Leigh, Fiona; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Simmonds, James; Uauy, Cristobal; Trafford, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Starch within the endosperm of most species of the Triticeae has a unique bimodal granule morphology comprising large lenticular A-type granules and smaller near-spherical B-type granules. However, a few wild wheat species (Aegilops) are known to lack B-granules. Ae. peregrina and a synthetic tetraploid Aegilops with the same genome composition (SU) were found to differ in B-granule number. The synthetic tetraploid had normal A- and B-type starch granules whilst Ae. peregrina had only A-granules because the B-granules failed to initiate. A population segregating for B-granule number was generated by crossing these two accessions and was used to study the genetic basis of B-granule initiation. A combination of Bulked Segregant Analysis and QTL mapping identified a major QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 4S that accounted for 44.4% of the phenotypic variation. The lack of B-granules in polyploid Aegilops with diverse genomes suggests that the B-granule locus has been lost several times independently during the evolution of the Triticeae. It is proposed that the B-granule locus is susceptible to silencing during polyploidization and a model is presented to explain the observed data based on the assumption that the initiation of B-granules is controlled by a single major locus per haploid genome. PMID:21227932

  18. The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Bagnulo, S; Alecian, E; Grunhut, J; Kochukhov, O; Wade, G

    2009-01-01

    Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the "normal" A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. We wish to stablish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and pi Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled ...

  19. Comparison of physicochemical properties of B-type nontraditional starches from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Man, Jianmin; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Weidong; Huai, Huyin; Wei, Cunxu

    2015-01-01

    Starches were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, Canna edulis and Canna indica and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, and showed a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Their physicochemical properties were investigated and compared. These starches showed significantly different granule morphologies and sizes, but all had eccentric hila. The C. longa starch had the lowest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the highest content of amylopectin long branch-chain, and the L. lancifolium starch the highest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the lowest content of amylopectin long branch-chain among the four starches. The L. lancifolium starch had the lowest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the lowest pasting peak, hot and final viscosities, and the C. longa starch had the highest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the highest pasting hot, final and setback viscosities and the lowest pasting breakdown viscosity. The C. longa and L. lancifolium starches possessed very high and low resistance to hydrolysis and digestion, respectively. The above physicochemical properties would be useful for the applications of B-type starches in food and nonfood industries.

  20. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  1. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, and do not help you feel as satisfied. FIBER High-fiber foods include: Whole grains, such ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. Differential models for B-type open-closed topological Landau-Ginzburg theories

    CERN Document Server

    Babalic, Mirela; Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu; Tavakol, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a family of differential models for B-type open-closed topological Landau-Ginzburg theories defined by a pair $(X,W)$, where $X$ is any non-compact Calabi-Yau manifold and $W$ is any holomorphic complex-valued function defined on $X$ whose critical set is compact. The models are constructed at cochain level using smooth data, including the twisted Dolbeault algebra of polyvector valued forms and a twisted Dolbeault category of holomorphic factorizations of $W$. We give explicit proposals for cochain level versions of the bulk and boundary traces and for the bulk-boundary and boundary-bulk maps of the Landau-Ginzburg theory. We prove that most of the axioms of an open-closed topological field theory are satisfied on cohomology and conjecture that the remaining axioms are also satisfied.

  3. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: From Posttranslational Processing to Clinical Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides and peptide fragments from their molecular precursors are markers of heart disease. Clinical studies have defined the current diagnostic utility of these markers, whereas biochemical elucidation of peptide structure and posttranslational processing has...... revealed new plasma peptide forms of potential clinical use.CONTENT:Natriuretic propeptide structures undergo variable degrees of endo- and exoproteolytic cleavages as well as amino acid modifications, which leave the plasma phase of the peptides highly heterogeneous and dependent on cardiac......-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are useful plasma markers in heart failure. New data have defined cardiac myocytes as competent endocrine cells in posttranslational processing and cellular secretion....

  4. Bilinear identities for an extended B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Runliang; Liu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Yunbo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the bilinear identities for the wave functions of an extended B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy, which contains two types of (2+1)-dimensional Sawada-Kotera equation with a self-consistent source (2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II). By introducing an auxiliary variable corresponding to the extended flow for the BKP hierarchy, we find the tau-function and the bilinear identities for this extended BKP hierarchy. The bilinear identities can generate all the Hirota's bilinear equations for the zero-curvature forms of this extended BKP hierarchy. As examples, the Hirota's bilinear equations for the two types of 2d-SKwS (both 2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II) will be given explicitly.

  5. Two new SB2 binaries with main sequence B-type pulsators in the Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papics, P. I.

    2013-06-01

    OB stars are important in the chemistry and evolution of the Universe, but the sample of targets well understood from an asteroseismological point of view is still too limited to provide feedback on the current evolutionary models. Our study extends this sample with two spectroscopic binary systems. Aims. Our goal is to provide orbital solutions, fundamental parameters and abundances from disentangled high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra, as well as to analyse and interpret the variations in the Kepler light curve of these carefully selected targets. This way we continue our efforts to map the instability strips of β Cep and slowly pulsating B stars using the combination of high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy and uninterrupted space-based photometry. Methods. We fit Keplerian orbits to radial velocities measured from selected absorption lines of high-resolution spectroscopy using synthetic composite spectra to obtain orbital solutions. We use revised masks to obtain optimal light curves from the original pixel-data from the Kepler satellite, which provided better long term stability compared to the pipeline processed light curves. We use various time-series analysis tools to explore and describe the nature of variations present in the light curve. Results. We find two eccentric double-lined spectroscopic binary systems containing a total of three main sequence B-type stars (and one F-type component) of which at least one in each system exhibits light variations. The light curve analysis (combined with spectroscopy) of the system of two B stars points towards the presence of tidally excited g modes in the primary component. We interpret the variations seen in the second system as classical g mode pulsations driven by the κ mechanism in the B type primary, and explain the unexpected power in the p mode region as a result of nonlinear resonant mode excitation.

  6. CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS ORBITING THE RAPIDLY PULSATING SUBDWARF B-TYPE BINARY NY Vir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Dai, Z.-B.; He, J.-J. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Fernandez-Lajus, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Xiang, F.-Y., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Physics Department, Xiangtan University, 411105 Xiangtan, Funan Province (China)

    2012-02-15

    We report here the tentative discovery of a Jovian planet in orbit around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B-type (sdB-type) eclipsing binary NY Vir. By using newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we detect that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of NY Vir shows a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 7.9 yr and a semiamplitude of 6.1 s, while it undergoes a downward parabolic change (revealing a period decrease at a rate of P-dot = -9.2 x 10{sup -12}). The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel-time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary companion was determined to be M{sub 3}sin i' = 2.3({+-} 0.3)M{sub Jupiter} when a total mass of 0.60 M{sub Sun} for NY Vir is adopted. This suggests that it is most probably a giant circumbinary planet orbiting NY Vir at a distance of about 3.3 astronomical units (AU). Since the rate of period decrease cannot be explained by true angular momentum loss caused by gravitational radiation or/and magnetic braking, the observed downward parabolic change in the O - C diagram may be only a part of a long-period (longer than 15 years) cyclic variation, which may reveal the presence of another Jovian planet ({approx}2.5 M{sub Jupiter}) in the system.

  7. Surface characterization of carbohydrate microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurr, David J; Horlacher, Tim; Oberli, Matthias A; Werz, Daniel B; Kroeck, Lenz; Bufali, Simone; Seeberger, Peter H; Shard, Alexander G; Alexander, Morgan R

    2010-11-16

    Carbohydrate microarrays are essential tools to determine the biological function of glycans. Here, we analyze a glycan array by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to gain a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of the individual spots and to improve carbohydrate microarray quality. The carbohydrate microarray is prepared by piezo printing of thiol-terminated sugars onto a maleimide functionalized glass slide. The hyperspectral ToF-SIMS imaging data are analyzed by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to discern secondary ions from regions of the array containing saccharide, linker, salts from the printing buffer, and the background linker chemistry. Analysis of secondary ions from the linker common to all of the sugar molecules employed reveals a relatively uniform distribution of the sugars within the spots formed from solutions with saccharide concentration of 0.4 mM and less, whereas a doughnut shape is often formed at higher-concentration solutions. A detailed analysis of individual spots reveals that in the larger spots the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) salts are heterogeneously distributed, apparently resulting in saccharide concentrated at the rim of the spots. A model of spot formation from the evaporating sessile drop is proposed to explain these observations. Saccharide spot diameters increase with saccharide concentration due to a reduction in surface tension of the saccharide solution compared to PBS. The multivariate analytical partial least squares (PLS) technique identifies ions from the sugars that in the complex ToF-SIMS spectra correlate with the binding of galectin proteins.

  8. Applications of synthetic carbohydrates to chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepenies, Bernd; Yin, Jian; Seeberger, Peter H

    2010-06-01

    Access to synthetic carbohydrates is an urgent need for the development of carbohydrate-based drugs, vaccines, adjuvants as well as novel drug delivery systems. Besides traditional synthesis in solution, synthetic carbohydrates have been generated by chemoenzymatic methods as well as automated solid-phase synthesis. Synthetic oligosaccharides have proven to be useful for identifying ligands of carbohydrate-binding proteins such as C-type lectins and siglecs using glycan arrays. Furthermore, glyconanoparticles and glycodendrimers have been used for specific targeting of lectins of the immune system such as selectins, DC-SIGN, and CD22. This review focuses on how diverse carbohydrate structures can be synthetically derived and highlights the benefit of synthetic carbohydrates for glycobiology.

  9. New fabrication and applications of carbohydrate arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Chen, Xin; Xiao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate arrays are used as high-throughput screening platforms to study the carbohydrate-mediated recognition events for glycobiology. The polysaccharide arrays are easy to fabricate by non-covalently or covalently immobilizing polysaccharides onto array surfaces because polysaccharides have hydrophobic interactions. Oligosaccharides must be derived and covalently or non-covalently immobilized onto array surfaces to fabricate oligosaccharide arrays because they have hydrophilic interactions. At the moment, carbohydrate arrays are mainly used to study the carbohydrate-protein interactions and carbohydrate-binding lectins or antibodies, which are possible to be applied to clinics and diagnoses. This review mainly summed up the new fabrication strategies of carbohydrate arrays and their applications in recent four years.

  10. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Eric C; Feinman, Richard D; Mavropoulos, John C; Vernon, Mary C; Volek, Jeff S; Wortman, James A; Yancy, William S; Phinney, Stephen D

    2007-08-01

    The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is carbohydrate restriction. Recent studies show that, under conditions of carbohydrate restriction, fuel sources shift from glucose and fatty acids to fatty acids and ketones, and that ad libitum-fed carbohydrate-restricted diets lead to appetite reduction, weight loss, and improvement in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  12. Regioselective azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates and applications thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Mallikharjuna Rao; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Taneja, Subhash Chandra

    2012-12-07

    Azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) has been achieved in high yields under Mitsunobu conditions. The azidation of carbohydrates is effected at 0 °C essentially only at the primary alcoholic position in mono, di- and triols in protected/unprotected glycosides, whereas the remaining secondary hydroxyl groups got silylated. Surprisingly, no azidation of the secondary hydroxyls was observed in all the carbohydrate substrates. Applications of the methodology for the synthesis of amino sugars, triazoles and azasugars are reported.

  13. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  14. Regioselective monodeprotection of peracetylated carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Marco; Guisan, Jose M; Terreni, Marco; Palomo, Jose M

    2012-10-01

    This protocol describes the regioselective deprotection of single hydroxyls in peracetylated monosaccharides and disaccharides by enzymatic or chemoenzymatic strategies. The introduction of a one-pot enzymatic step by using immobilized biocatalysts obviates the requirement to carry out tedious workups and time-consuming purifications. By using this straightforward protocol, different per-O-acetylated glycopyranosides (mono- or disaccharides, 1-substituted or glycals) can be transformed into a whole set of differentially monodeprotected 1-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 4-alcohols and 6-alcohols in high yields. These tailor-made glycosyl acceptors can then be used for stereoselective glycosylation for oligosaccharide and glycoderivative synthesis. They have been successfully used as building blocks to synthesize tailor-made di- and trisaccharides involved in the structure of lacto-N-neo-tetraose and precursors of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen T and the antitumoral drug peracetylated β-naphtyl-lactosamine. We are able to prepare a purified monoprotected carbohydrate in between 1 and 4 d. With this protocol, the small library of monodeprotected products can be synthesized in 1-2 weeks.

  15. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  16. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  17. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized.

  18. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  20. Improving stellar parameter and abundance determinations of early B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    In the past years we have made great efforts to reduce the statistical and systematic uncertainties in stellar parameter and chemical abundance determinations of early B-type stars. Both the construction of robust model atoms for non-LTE line-formation calculations and a novel self-consistent spectral analysis methodology were decisive to achieve results of unprecedented precision. They were extensively tested and applied to high-quality spectra of stars from OB associations and the field in the solar neighbourhood, covering a broad parameter range. Initially, most lines of hydrogen, helium and carbon in the optical/near-IR spectral range were reproduced simultaneously in a consistent way for the first time, improving drastically on the accuracy of results in published work.By taking additional ionization equilibria of oxygen, neon, silicon and iron into account, uncertainties as low as ~1% in effective temperature, ~10% in surface gravity and ~20% in elemental abundances are achieved - compared to ~5-10%, ~2...

  1. Pulsating B-type stars in the open cluster NGC 884: frequencies, mode identification and asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Aerts, C; Miglio, A; Carrier, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field beta Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physics in the stellar structure and evolution models of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismology study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884. We describe a thorough investigation of the pulsational properties of all B-type stars in the cluster. Overall, our detailed frequency analysis resulted in 115 detected frequencies in 65 stars. We found 36 mono-periodic, 16 bi-periodic, 10 tri-periodic, and 2 quadru-periodic stars and one star with 9 independent frequencies. We also derived the amplitudes and phases of all detected frequencies in the U, B, V and I filter, if available. We achieved unambiguous identifications of the mode degree for twelve of the de...

  2. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star sigma Lupi

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichs, H F; Plaggenborg, B; Marsden, S C; Waite, I A; Landstreet, J D; Wade, G A; Grunhut, J H; Oksala, M E

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. To identify them, we use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of UV stellar wind lines occurring symmetric about the approximate rest wavelength. Probable magnetic candidates are targets for follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic field. From the UV wind line variability the B1/B2V star sigma Lupi emerged as a new magnetic candidate star. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. The longitudinal component of the magnetic field integrated over the visible surface of the star was determined with the Least-Squares Deconvolution method. The UV line variations of sigma Lupi are similar to what is known in magnetic B stars, but no periodicity could be determined. We detected a varying longitudinal magnetic field with amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G, which supports an oblique magnetic-rotator configuration. The EW variations of the UV lines, the magnetic and ...

  3. Emergent criticality in complex turing B-type atomic switch networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Adam Z; Avizienis, Audrius V; Sillin, Henry O; Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Aono, Masakazu; Gimzewski, James K

    2012-01-10

    Recent advances in the neuromorphic operation of atomic switches as individual synapse-like devices demonstrate the ability to process information with both short-term and long-term memorization in a single two terminal junction. Here it is shown that atomic switches can be self-assembled within a highly interconnected network of silver nanowires similar in structure to Turing’s “B-Type unorganized machine”, originally proposed as a randomly connected network of NAND logic gates. In these experimental embodiments,complex networks of coupled atomic switches exhibit emergent criticality similar in nature to previously reported electrical activity of biological brains and neuron assemblies. Rapid fluctuations in electrical conductance display metastability and power law scaling of temporal correlation lengths that are attributed to dynamic reorganization of the interconnected electro-ionic network resulting from induced non-equilibrium thermodynamic instabilities. These collective properties indicate a potential utility for realtime,multi-input processing of distributed sensory data through reservoir computation. We propose these highly coupled, nonlinear electronic networks as an implementable hardware-based platform toward the creation of physically intelligent machines.

  4. Endothelial Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I Protects against Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris L. Vaisman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI in endothelial cells (EC was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC.

  5. The nature of the late B-type stars HD 67044 and HD 42035

    CERN Document Server

    Monier, R; Royer, F

    2016-01-01

    While monitoring a sample of apparently slowly rotating superficially normal bright late B and early A stars in the northern hemisphere, we have discovered that HD 67044 and HD 42035, hitherto classified as normal late B-type stars, are actually respectively a new chemically peculiar star and a new spectroscopic binary containing a very slow rotator HD 42035 S with ultra-sharp lines (vsini = 3.7 km/s) and a fast rotator HD 42035 B with broad lines. The lines of Ti, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba are conspicuous features in the high resolution SOPHIE spectrum of HD 67044. The HgII line at 3983.93 A is also present as a weak feature. The composite spectrum of HD 42035 is characterised by very sharp lines formed in HD 42035 S superimposed onto the shallow and broad lines of HD 42035 B. These very sharp lines are mostly due to light elements from C to Ni, the only heavy species definitely present are Sr and Ba. Selected lines of 21 chemical elements from He up to Hg have been synthesized using model atmospheres compute...

  6. Solids flow diagram of a CFB riser using Geldart B-type powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiva Mahmoudi; Chian Wen Chan; Anke Brems; Jonathan Seville; Jan Baeyens

    2012-01-01

    Riser operating modes are vital to designing a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor for a required process of either a gas-solid or a gas-catalytic nature.Different operating modes provide different solids' residence times and mixing behaviors,which define the reactions' efficiency and yield.The literature demonstrates distinct operating modes resulting from observed differences in slip factors and the range of particle velocities and their associated residence time distribution.The present research uses positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) in a riser of B-type bed material to determine the different operating modes by measuring (i) particle velocities and residence time distribution,(ii) population densities of these particles in the cross-sectional area of the riser,and (iii) solids flow pattern at the bottom of the riser.Data treatment defines four distinct solids hold-up regimes in the riser and proposes a “phase diagram” depicting the existence of the different operating modes (dilute,dense,core-annulus and combined) as a function of the superficial gas velocity and solids circulation flux in the riser.The delineated regimes have good agreement with available literature data and known industrial operations.Comparison with literature data for risers using A-type powders is also fair.The diagram enables CFB designers to better delineate operating characteristics.

  7. Cortical Brain Connectivity and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Valeriani, Lavinia; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bramanti, Placido; Mecarelli, Oriano; Rossini, Paolo M

    2015-07-01

    The brain has a high level of complexity and needs continuous oxygen supply. So it is clear that any pathological condition, or physiological (aging) change, in the cardiovascular system affects functioning of the central nervous system. We evaluated linear aspects of the relationship between the slowness of cortical rhythms, as revealed by the modulation of a graph connectivity parameter, and congestive heart failure (CHF), as a reflection of neurodegenerative processes. Eyes-closed resting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of 10 patients with CHF were recorded by 19 electrodes positioned according the international 10-20 system. Graph theory function (normalized characteristic path length λ) was applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA software, therefore getting rid of volumetric propagation influences. The EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The analysis between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) values and λ showed positive correlation in delta, associated with a negative correlation in alpha 2 band. Namely, the higher the severity of the disease (as revealed by the BNP vales), the higher the λ in delta, and lower in alpha 2 band. Results suggest that delta and alpha λ indices are good markers of the severity of CHF.

  8. WW Geminorum: An early B-type eclipsing binary evolving into the contact phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, 235000 Huaibei, Anhui Province (China); Yang, Y., E-mail: yygcn@163.com, E-mail: yangyg@chnu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangy818@yeah.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Information Science Technology, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China)

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q {sub ph} = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the period studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P {sub mod} = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10{sup –8} day yr{sup –1}, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.

  9. Identification of a hemerythrin-like domain in a P1B-type transport ATPase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Matthew E.; Subramanian, Poorna; Davydov, Roman; Hoffman, Brian M.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The P1B-type ATPases couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to metal ion translocation across cell membranes. Important for prokaryotic metal resistance and essential metal distribution in eukaryotes, P1B-ATPases are divided into subclasses on the basis of their metal substrate specificities. Sequence analysis of putative P1B-5-ATPases, for which the substrate has not been identified, led to the discovery of a C-terminal soluble domain homologous to hemerythrin (Hr) proteins and domains. The Hr domain from the Acidothermus cellulolyticus P1B-5-ATPase was cloned, expressed, and purified (P1B-5-Hr). P1B-5-Hr binds two iron ions per monomer and adopts a predominantly helical fold. Optical absorption features of the iron-loaded and azide-treated protein are consistent with features observed for other Hr proteins. Autooxidation to the met form is very rapid, as reported for other prokaryotic Hr domains. The presence of a diiron center was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data. The occurrence of a Hr-like domain in a P-type ATPase is unprecedented and suggests new regulatory mechanisms as well as an expanded function for Hr proteins in biology. PMID:20672819

  10. Oxygen abundance determination of B-type stars with the OI 7771-5A lines

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen abundances of 34 B-type stars in the effective temperature range of Teff~10000-28000K with diversified rotational velocities (vesini~ 0-250km/s) were determined from the OI triplet lines at 7771-5A, with an aim to examine whether this OI feature can be a reliable abundance indicator for such high-temperature stars including rapid rotators. It revealed that the required non-LTE abundance correction is distinctly large (ranging from ~-0.6dex to ~-1.7dex) and its consideration is indispensable. On the condition that the non-LTE effect is taken into account, this triplet is a useful O abundance indicator (with a precision of ~200mA). In contrast, it is not adequate for abundance derivation for stars at Teff >~25000K, where its strength rapidly drops down toward a hardly detectable level (except for sharp-lined stars) and its sensitivity to Teff or log g becomes considerably large. The resulting non-LTE oxygen abundances turned out to be almost normal (i.e., near-solar around ~8.7-8.8 within +/-~0.2dex) for...

  11. B-type natriuretic peptide to predict ductus intervention in infants <28 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Christoph; Lemmer, Julia; Metze, Boris; Koehne, Petra S; Mueller, Christian; Obladen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequent in neonates with gestational age of less than 28 wk. Clinical and echocardiographic signs define hemodynamic significance of PDA, but do not reveal the need for PDA intervention in the first days of life. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been proposed as a screening tool for PDA in preterm infants. To determine whether BNP can predict the need for PDA intervention, plasma BNP was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay in 67 preterm infants <28 wk (median 26) on the second day of life in a prospective blinded study. PDA intervention was based on specified clinical and echocardiographic findings. Twenty-four patients (intervention group) received treatment for PDA and 43 patients (controls) remained without intervention. BNP concentrations were higher in the intervention (median 1069 pg/mL) than in the control group (247 pg/mL, p < 0.001). BNP correlated positively with ductal size (R = 0.46, p < 0.001) and atrial/aortic root ratio (R = 0.54, p < 0.001). In conclusion, plasma BNP proved to be a good predictor for ductus intervention (area under the curve: 0.86) with the best cutoff at 550 pg/mL on the second day of life in ventilated infants less than 28 wk gestation (sensitivity: 83%; specificity: 86%).

  12. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  13. HE 0437-5439 -- an unbound hyper-velocity main-sequence B-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Christlieb, N; Reimers, D; Edelmann, Heinz; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Heber, Uli; Christlieb, Norbert; Reimers, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 16th magnitude star, HE0437-5439, with a heliocentric radial velocity of +723+-3km/s. A quantitative spectral analysis of high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the VLT and the UVES spectrograph shows that HE0437-5439 is a main sequence B-type star with Teff=20350K, log g=3.77, solar within a factor of a few helium abundance and metal content, rotating at v sin i=54km/s. Using appropriate evolutionary tracks we derive a mass of 8 Msun and a corresponding distance of 61 kpc. Its galactic rest frame velocity is at least 563km/s, almost twice the local Galactic escape velocity, indicating that the star is unbound to the Galaxy. Numerical kinematical experiments are carried out to constrain its place of birth. It has been suggested that such hyper-velocity stars can be formed by the tidal disruption of a binary through interaction with the super-massive black hole at the Galactic center (GC). HE0437-5439 needs about 100Myrs to travel from the GC to its presentposition, much lon...

  14. Derivatization Reaction of Carbohydrates with Urea as the Reagent and Fluorimetric Determination of Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Jing-He(杨景和); CAO,Xi-Hui(曹西慧); WANG,Min(王敏); WU,Xia(吴霞); SUN,Chang-Xia(孙长侠)

    2002-01-01

    It is found that in the presence of sulfuric acid carbohydrates condense with urea to afford the condensation products, which emit fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensities of system are proportional to the concentrations of carbohydrates. Based on this linear relationship,quantitative determination of kinds of carbohydrates has been made. Among an the carbohydrates tested, the sensitivity of α-rhamnose is the highest and its limits of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-8 mol/L. So α-rhamnose can be selectively determed in the presence of other carbohydrates. A interaction mechanism is also discussed.

  15. Industrial applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Prasad N; Aisverya, S; Nithya, R; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials have been used increasingly in various fields, such as drug delivery, imaging, and tissue engineering. The main reason justifying the widespread use of biomaterials relies on its valuable and low-cost source of new drugs. Current research goals are focused on identifying more potent and specific compounds with antitumor, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, anticoagulant, and antiviral activities. The increasing knowledge of structural analysis and chemical modifications enables the use of these marine carbohydrates in a newer way for the human welfare. This chapter focuses on the recent developments related to industrial and biomedical applications using chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan derivatives and reports the main advances published over the last 10-15 years.

  16. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, J L

    1999-07-01

    Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans.

  17. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžovic-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n =8 and stress group (n =8. Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep containing tap water (temperature ca. 25°C. The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the irst day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacriiced and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.. Results There was no statistically signiicant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81±0.14 ng/ml as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 ±0.08ng/ml. After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs.272.8 g, but this difference was not statistically signiicant. The stress period had no inluence on food intake in the stress rat group. Conclusion The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not suficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma with chronic B-type hepatitis complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A 57-year-old man consulted a local hospital because of a persistent slight fever. At the age of 37 years he was diagnosed having B-type hepatitis, but left the liver dysfunction untreated. Twenty years later, he was diagnosed having chronic hepatitis B, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and macrocytic anemia, and referred to our hospital for further investigation. A HCC with a maximum diameter of 5.2 cm was detected in segment 8. Results of blood tests included 1.8 mg/dL serum total bilirubin, 0.9 mg/dL bilirubin, less than 10 mg/dL haptoglobin, 7.9 g/dL hemoglobin, 130 fL MCV, and 14.5% reticulocytes. A bone marrow sample showed erythroid hyperplasia. The direct Coombs test gave a positive result. We diagnosed the anemia as autoimmmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), for which prednisolone could not be administered due to positivity for HBsAg and HBeAg. After preparation of washed blood cells for later transfusion, the patient underwent systematic resection of segment 8. The cut surface of the resected specimen demonstrated an encapsulated yellow-brownish tumor measuring 52 mm × 40 mmwhich was diagnosed pathologicaly as moderately differentiated HCC. On the 9th postoperative day, the patient's temperature rose to 38℃, and exacerbated hemolysis was observed. The maximum total bilirubin value was 5.8 mg/dL and minimum hemoglobin level was 4.6 g/dL. He tolerated this period without blood transfusion. Currently he is being followed up as an outpatient, and shows no signs of HCC recurrence or symptoms of anemia. AIHA associated with HBV infection has been described in only three previous cases, and the present case is the first in which surgery was performed for accompanying HCC.

  19. Facile synthesis of B-type carbonated nanoapatite with tailored microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.romagnoli@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Hanuskova, Miriam, E-mail: Miriam.hanuskova@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Fabbri, Elena, E-mail: Elena.fabbri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro F., E-mail: Alessandro.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Nanolime and a phosphate-based chelating agent were used to synthesize B-type carbonated apatite. Developed Rietveld refinement strategies allowed one to determine process yield, product crystallinity as well as structural (unit cell) and microstructural (size, strain) parameters. The effect of synthesis temperature (20–60 °C) as well as Ca/P ratio (1.5–2.5) and solid content (10–30 wt%) of the starting batch on these properties were investigated. FTIR, TEM and gas adsorption data provided supporting evidence. The process yield was 42–60 wt% and found to be governed by the Ca/P ratio. The purified products had high specific surface area (107–186 m{sup 2}/g) and crystallinity (76–97%). The unit cell parameters, correlated to the degree of structural carbonate, were sensitive to the Ca/P ratio. Instead, temperature governed the microstructural parameters. Less strained and larger crystals were obtained at higher temperatures. Long-term aging up to 6 months at 20 °C compensated for higher crystal growth kinetics at higher temperature. - Graphical abstract: Controlled synthesis of carbonated apatite at moderate temperatures using nanolime and sodiumhexametaphosphate as starting reagent. - Highlights: • Chemical synthesis of nano-sized apatite with tailored microstructure was performed. • Colloidal Ca(OH){sub 2} and a phosphorus-based chelating agents were used as reagents. • The method is simple and reproducible which facilitate industrial process scale-up. • Rietveld refinement strategies for product characterization were developed. • Rietveld analyses provided yield, microstructural and structure information.

  20. Interleukin-2 carbohydrate recognition modulates CTLL-2 cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K; Yamashita, K

    2001-03-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) specifically recognizes high-mannose type glycans with five or six mannosyl residues. To determine whether the carbohydrate recognition activity of IL-2 contributes to its physiological activity, the inhibitory effects of high-mannose type glycans on IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cell proliferation were investigated. Man(5)GlcNAc(2)Asn added to CTLL-2 cell cultures inhibited not only phosphorylation of tyrosine kinases but also IL-2-dependent cell proliferation. We found that a complex of IL-2, IL-2 receptor alpha, beta, gamma subunits, and tyrosine kinases was formed in rhIL-2-stimulated CTLL-2 cells. Among the components of this complex, only the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit was stained with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin which specifically recognizes high-mannose type glycans. This staining was diminished after digestion of the glycans with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H or D, suggesting that at least a N-glycan containing Man(5)GlcNAc(2) is linked to the extracellular portion of the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit. Our findings indicate that IL-2 binds the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit through Man(5)GlcNAc(2) and a specific peptide sequence on the surface of CTLL-2 cells. When IL-2 binds to the IL-2Ralpha subunit, this may trigger formation of the high affinity complex of IL-2-IL-2Ralpha, -beta, and -gamma subunits, leading to cellular signaling.

  1. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  2. Carbohydrate functionalized carbon nanotubes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorityala, Bala Kishan; Ma, Jimei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Peng; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2010-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted tremendous attention in biomedical applications due to their molecular size and unique properties. This tutorial review summarizes the strategies to functionalize CNTs with bioactive carbohydrates, which improve their solubility, biocompatibility and biofunctionalities while preserving their desired properties. In addition, studies on the usage of carbohydrate functionalized CNTs to detect bacteria, to bind to specific lectins, to deliver glycomimetic drug molecules into cells and to probe cellular activities as biosensors are reviewed. Improvement in biocompatibility and introduction of bio-functionalities by integration of carbohydrate with CNTs are paving the way to glyconanotechnology and may provide new tools for glycobiological studies.

  3. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a B-type (cricket-type) allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Lenz, C; Winther, A M

    2001-01-01

    and nonamidated C terminus. We have previously reported the structure of an A-type allatostatin preprohormone from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a B-type prepro-allatostatin from Drosophila (DAP-B). DAP-B is 211 amino acid residues long and contains one copy each...

  4. Will sacubitril-valsartan diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mair, Johannes; Lindahl, Bertil; Giannitsis, Evangelos;

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval of sacubitril-valsartan for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, a commonly raised suspicion is that a wider clinical use of this new drug may diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing as sacubitril may interfere with B...

  5. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens Oscar; Kjær, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...

  6. Strategies toward the Total Synthesis of Calyciphylline B-type Alkaloids: A Computational Perspective Aided by DFT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit Kumar; Berger, Gilles; Hanessian, Stephen

    2016-06-17

    Herein we describe synthetic efforts toward the total synthesis of calyciphylline B-type alkaloids. In the process, we disclose a detailed DFT study of equilibrium geometries and transition states that explains the stereochemical outcome during the formation of critical intermediates. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals interesting conformational features in the naturally occurring deoxycalyciphylline B and its synthetic congeners.

  7. Carbohydrate feeding and exercise: effect of beverage carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R; Seifert, J G; Eddy, D E; Paul, G L; Halaby, G A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ingesting fluids of varying carbohydrate content upon sensory response, physiologic function, and exercise performance during 1.25 h of intermittent cycling in a warm environment (Tdb = 33.4 degrees C). Twelve subjects (7 male, 5 female) completed four separate exercise sessions; each session consisted of three 20 min bouts of cycling at 65% VO2max, with each bout followed by 5 min rest. A timed cycling task (1200 pedal revolutions) completed each exercise session. Immediately prior to the first 20 min cycling bout and during each rest period, subjects consumed 2.5 ml.kg BW-1 of water placebo (WP), or solutions of 6%, 8%, or 10% sucrose with electrolytes (20 mmol.l-1 Na+, 3.2 mmol.l-1 K+). Beverages were administered in double blind, counterbalanced order. Mean (+/- SE) times for the 1200 cycling task differed significantly: WP = 13.62 +/- 0.33 min, *6% = 13.03 +/- 0.24 min, 8% = 13.30 +/- 0.25 min, 10% = 13.57 +/- 0.22 min (* = different from WP and 10%, P less than 0.05). Compared to WP, ingestion of the CHO beverages resulted in higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and higher RER values during the final 20 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). Markers of physiologic function and sensory perception changed similarly throughout exercise; no differences were observed among subjects in response to beverage treatments for changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, sodium, potassium, for changes in plasma volume, plasma osmolality, rectal temperature, heart rate, oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion, or for indices of gastrointestinal distress, perceived thirst, and overall beverage acceptance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Factors Associated with Serum B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Infants with Single Ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Ryan J.; Zak, Victor; Hsu, Daphne; Cnota, James; Colan, Steven D.; Hehir, David; Kantor, Paul; Levine, Jami C.; Margossian, Renee; Richmond, Marc; Szwast, Anita; Williams, Derek; Williams, Richard; Atz, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the value of B-type natriuretic peptide measurements (BNP) in infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology are lacking. The objective of this analysis was to describe the changes in BNP in infants with SV physiology before and after superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. Methods BNP levels were measured by a core laboratory pre-SCPC (5.0 ± 1.6 months) and at age 14 months during a multicenter trial of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition therapy in infants with SV. Multivariable longitudinal analysis was utilized to model the associations between BNP with three sets of grouped variables (echocardiographic, catheterization, growth). Multivariable analysis was performed to assess associations with patient characteristics at both visits. Associations between BNP and neurodevelopmental variables were investigated at the 14 month visit as neurodevelopmental assessment was performed only at this visit. Results BNP was significantly higher before SCPC (n=173) than at 14 months (n=134); median [IQR] 80.8 pg/ml [35–187] v. 34.5 pg/ml [17–67], p 100 pg/ml was present in 72 (42%) subjects pre-SCPC and 21 (16%) at 14 months. In the 117 patients who had BNP at both visits, the median BNP decreased 32 pg/mL [1–79 pg/mL], p<0.01. In longitudinal multivariable analysis, higher BNP were associated with a higher end-systolic volume z-score (p=0.01), greater degree of atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation (p<0.01), lower weight z-score (p<0.01), and lower length z-score (p=0.02) In multivariable analyses, higher BNP at 14 months was associated with presence of arrhythmia post-SCPC surgery (p<0.01), prior Norwood procedure (p<0.01), longer length of hospital stay post-SCPC surgery (p=0.04), and lower Bayley Psychomotor Developmental Index (p=0.02). Conclusion BNP decreases in infants with SV from the pre- SCPC visit to 14 months. Higher BNP is associated with increased ventricular dilation in systole, increased AV valve

  9. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  10. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  11. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...... monomers. This approach divides carbohydrates into 3 main groups, sugars (DP1–2), oligosaccharides (DP3–9), and polysaccharides (DP ≥ 10), the latter being further divided into starch (α-1:4,1,6-D-glucans) and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). Dietary fiber (DF) recently has been defined as carbohydrate...

  12. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Herbert Read

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  13. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read CharlesHerbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  14. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...... production into a suitable levulinic acid ester in the presence of a zeolite or zeotype catalyst and a suitable alcohol, and the ester may be further converted into levulinic acid if desired....

  15. Molecular simulations of carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions: motivation, issues and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    The characterization of the 3D structure of oligosaccharides, their conjugates and analogs is particularly challenging for traditional experimental methods. Molecular simulation methods provide a basis for interpreting sparse experimental data and for independently predicting conformational and dynamic properties of glycans. Here, we summarize and analyze the issues associated with modeling carbohydrates, with a detailed discussion of four of the most recently developed carbohydrate force fields, reviewed in terms of applicability to natural glycans, carbohydrate-protein complexes and the emerging area of glycomimetic drugs. In addition, we discuss prospectives and new applications of carbohydrate modeling in drug discovery.

  16. Thymidine kinases in archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, A.R.; Matakos, A.; Sandrini, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six fully sequenced archaeal genomes were searched for genes coding for putative deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). We identified only 5 human-like thymidine kinase 1 genes (TK1s) and none for non-TK1 kinases. Four TK1s were identified in the Euryarchaea and one was found in the Crenarchaea...... that a functional deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway is not crucial for the archaeal cell....

  17. An aberrant adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Okuda, H; Oka, K; Watanabe, T; Ueda, K; Nojima, M; Kuby, S A; Manship, M; Tyler, F H; Ziter, F A

    1981-08-13

    The sera from patients with human Duchenne (X-linked) progressive muscular dystrophy contain elevated adenylate kinase (ATP: AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) activities, in addition to their characteristically high creatine kinase (ATP; creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) activities. By agarose gel electrophoresis of human Duchenne dystrophic serum, the presence of an apparently normal human serum adenylate kinase together with a variant species of adenylate kinase was detected. The latter enzyme species appeared, in its mobility, to be similar to that of the normal human liver-type adenylate kinase. The presence of this aberrant liver-type adenylate kinase could also be demonstrated by characteristic (for the liver type) inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di-(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate. On the other hand, by inhibition titrations with an anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase, hemolysates from the erythrocytes of several Duchenne and Becker's dystrophics were found to contain approx. 96% muscle-type adenylate kinase and their serum approx. 97% muscle-type adenylate kinase. These same patients contained approx. 89% M-M type creatine kinase in their serum (by inhibition against anti-human muscle-type creatine kinase) indicative of the presence also of M-B plus B-B type active isoenzymes. All of these data can best be explained by the presence of a variant or mutant adenylate kinase isoenzyme in the dystrophic serum. This isoenzyme appears to resemble the liver type in its inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in its heat stability (compare also the agarose gel electrophoresis pattern); but structurally, it is a muscle type, or derived from a muscle type, as shown immunologically by inhibition reactions with anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase. Whether this is a fetal-type isoenzyme of adenylate kinase will require further

  18. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star σ Lupi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, H. F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S. C.; Waite, I. A.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.; Grunhut, J. H.; Oksala, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. Indirect indicators are needed to identify them before investing in time-intensive spectropolarimetric observations. Aims: We use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of ultraviolet (UV) stellar wind lines occurring symmetric about the approximate rest wavelength. Our aim is to identify probable magnetic candidates which would become targets for follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic field. Methods: From the UV wind line variability the B1/B2V star σ Lupi emerged as a new magnetic candidate star. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. The longitudinal component of the magnetic field integrated over the visible surface of the star was determined with the least-squares deconvolution method. Results: The UV line variations of σ Lupi are similar to what is known in magnetic B stars, but no periodicity could be determined. We detected a varying longitudinal magnetic field with amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G, which supports an oblique magnetic-rotator configuration. The equivalent width variations of the UV lines, the magnetic and the optical-line variations are consistent with the photometric period of 3.02 d, which we identify with the rotation period of the star. Additional observations with ESPaDOnS attached to the CFHT confirmed this discovery, and allowed the determination of a precise magnetic period. Analysis revealed that σ Lupi is a helium-strong star, with an enhanced nitrogen abundance and an underabundance of carbon, and has a chemically spotted surface. Conclusions.σ Lupi is a magnetic oblique rotator, and is a He-strong star. Like in other magnetic B stars the UV wind emission appears to originate close to the magnetic equatorial plane, with maximum emission occurring when a magnetic pole points towards the Earth. The 3.01972 ± 0.00043 d magnetic rotation period is consistent with

  19. Carbohydrate analysis of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Ricky; Jarroll, Edward L; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2009-08-01

    We analyzed biochemically Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites, intact cysts and cyst walls belonging to the T4 genotype using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Cyst walls were prepared by removing intracellular material from cysts by pre-treating them with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) containing dithiothreitol, and then subjecting these to a series of sequential enzymatic digestions using amyloglucosidase, papain, DNase, RNase and proteinase K. The resulting "cyst wall" material was subsequently lyophilized and subjected to glycosyl composition analysis. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the removal of intracystic material following enzymatic treatment. Our results showed that treated A. castellanii trophozoites, intact cysts and cyst walls contained various sugar moieties, of which a high percentage was galactose and glucose, in addition to small amounts of mannose, and xylose. Linkage analysis revealed several types of glycosidic linkages including the 1,4-linked glucosyl conformation, indicative of cellulose. Inhibitor studies suggested that, beside sugar synthesis, cytoskeletal re-arrangement and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated pathways are involved in A. castellanii encystment.

  20. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Kjær, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    of acromegaly is initiated. This was a three months prospective study investigating short-term cardiac effects of treatment in acromegalic patients. Cardiac function was evaluated by the gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP......Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...... and NT-proBNP). CMRI was performed at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Levels of IGF-I, BNP and NT-proBNP were measured after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months. Eight patients (5 males and 3 females, mean age 53 ± 12 years (range 30-70)) and 8 matched healthy control subjects were included. Median IGF-I Z...

  1. Invasive and noninvasive correlations of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, Fábio; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Soares, Milena B P; Pinho-Filho, Joel Alves; Nascimento, Thais; Barojas, Marcos M; Andrade, Marcus V S; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Ricardo; Bocchi, Edimar

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy (HFCC) differs from failure with other etiologies because of the occurrence of intense inflammatory infiltrate and right ventricle compromise. This article investigates correlations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels with parameters of severity in HFCC. Twenty-eight patients and 8 normal controls underwent heart catheterization and clinical and laboratory analyses. BNP levels were higher in patients with HFCC (PHFCC, irrespective of NYHA class, and that the occurrence of HFCC correlates with severity of disease.

  2. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  3. THE O- AND B-TYPE STELLAR POPULATION IN W3: BEYOND THE HIGH-DENSITY LAYER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Bagley, Micaela B.; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sherry, William H., E-mail: mbagley@email.arizona.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    We present the first results from our survey of the star-forming complex W3, combining VRI photometry with multiobject spectroscopy to identify and characterize the high-mass stellar population across the region. With 79 new spectral classifications, we bring the total number of spectroscopically confirmed O- and B-type stars in W3 to 105. We find that the high-mass slope of the mass function in W3 is consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and that the extinction toward the region is best characterized by an R{sub V} of approximately 3.6. B-type stars are found to be more widely dispersed across the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) than previously realized: they are not confined to the high-density layer (HDL) created by the expansion of the neighboring W4 H ii region into the GMC. This broader B-type population suggests that star formation in W3 began spontaneously up to 8–10 Myr ago, although at a lower level than the more recent star formation episodes in the HDL. In addition, we describe a method of optimizing sky subtraction for fiber spectra in regions of strong and spatially variable nebular emission.

  4. The O- and B-Type Stellar Population in W3: Beyond the High-Density Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Kiminki, Megan M; Bagley, Micaela B; Sherry, William H; Rieke, George H

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from our survey of the star-forming complex W3, combining VRI photometry with multiobject spectroscopy to identify and characterize the high-mass stellar population across the region. With 79 new spectral classifications, we bring the total number of spectroscopically-confirmed O- and B-type stars in W3 to 105. We find that the high-mass slope of the mass function in W3 is consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and that the extinction toward the region is best characterized by an Rv of approximately 3.6. B-type stars are found to be more widely dispersed across the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) than previously realized: they are not confined to the high-density layer (HDL) created by the expansion of the neighboring W4 HII region into the GMC. This broader B-type population suggests that star formation in W3 began spontaneously up to 8--10 Myr ago, although at a lower level than the more recent star formation episodes in the HDL. In addition, we describe a method of optimizing sky subtr...

  5. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  6. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  7. Carbohydrates and T cells: a sweet twosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Fikri Y; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-04-01

    Carbohydrates as T cell-activating antigens have been generating significant interest. For many years, carbohydrates were thought of as T-independent antigens, however, more recent research had demonstrated that mono- or oligosaccharides glycosidically linked to peptides can be recognized by T cells. T cell recognition of these glycopeptides depends on the structure of both peptide and glycan portions of the antigen. Subsequently, it was discovered that natural killer T cells recognized glycolipids when presented by the antigen presenting molecule CD1d. A transformative insight into glycan-recognition by T cells occurred when zwitterionic polysaccharides were discovered to bind to and be presented by MHCII to CD4+ T cells. Based on this latter observation, the role that carbohydrate epitopes generated from glycoconjugate vaccines had in activating helper T cells was explored and it was found that these epitopes are presented to specific carbohydrate recognizing T cells through a unique mechanism. Here we review the key interactions between carbohydrate antigens and the adaptive immune system at the molecular, cellular and systems levels exploring the significant biological implications in health and disease.

  8. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  9. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin R. Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (biomolecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Recently, interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. We focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The development of methods for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-line mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS) is driven by the need for accurate, robust, and sensitive glycomics analysis for basic biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics. One important capability is to profile glycan mixtures with respect to the patterns of substituents including sialic acids, acetate, sulfate, phosphate, and other groups. There is additional need for an MS-compatible separation system capable of resolving carbohydrate isomers. This chapter summarizes applications of CS/MS to analysis of carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and glycopeptides that have appeared since 2008. Readers are referred to recent comprehensive reviews covering earlier publications.

  12. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.

  13. Studying Kinetochore Kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saurin, Adrian T; Kops, Geert J P L

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic kinetochores are signaling network hubs that regulate chromosome movements, attachment error-correction, and the spindle assembly checkpoint. Key switches in these networks are kinases and phosphatases that enable rapid responses to changing conditions. Describing the mechanisms and dynamics

  14. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... the expected concentration of plasma proBNP based on age and gender was established for dyspneic subjects: an actual plasma proBNP concentration below half of the expected value ruled out left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 100% to 100%; specificity 15%, 95% CI 12...

  15. Kink degeneracy and rogue potential solution for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHENHUI XU; HANLIN CHEN; ZHENGDE DAI

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we obtained the exact breather-type kink soliton and breather-type periodic soliton solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (BKP) equation using the extended homoclinic test technique. Some new nonlinear phenomena, such as kink and periodic degeneracies, are investigated. Using the homoclinic breather limit method, some new rational breather solutions are found as well. Meanwhile, we also obtained the rational potential solution which is found to be just a rogue wave. These results enrich thevariety of the dynamics of higher-dimensional nonlinear wave field.

  16. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse.

  17. Genetics of carbohydrate accumulation in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates composed of fructose chains attached to a basal sucrose molecule and act both as health-enhancing pro- and pre-biotics. In onion, higher fructan concentrations are correlated with greater soluble solids content, dry weights, and pungency. We analyzed dry weights ...

  18. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  19. Selective carbohydrate utilization by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, D.; O'Connell Motherway, M.; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Neerven, van R.J.J.; Nauta, A.; Sinderen, van D.

    2013-01-01

    Aim - To evaluate the ability of specific carbohydrates, including commercially available products, to support the growth of representatives of two well-known groups of gut commensals, namely lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Methods and Results - Sixty-eight bacterial strains, representing 29 human-

  20. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  1. Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Brandon W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins compared to a commercial product (sport chews. Methods Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO2max treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT. Heart rate (HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA, glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures with a Fisher’s post hoc analysis to determine significant differences. Results VO2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L-1 during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively, and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively. Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6

  2. Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Stanford, Kristin I; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of early H. sapiens, modern lifestyles are predominantly sedentary. As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. A resulting metabolic disease is type 2 diabetes, a complex endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of circulating glucose. This disease now affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has beneficial effects to help control impaired glucose homeostasis with metabolic disease, and is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. We will also focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is now well established that there are different proximal signaling pathways that mediate the effects of exercise and insulin on glucose uptake, and these distinct mechanisms are consistent with the ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in the face of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. Ongoing research in this area is aimed at defining the precise mechanism by which exercise increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and the types of exercise necessary for these important health benefits.

  3. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kieber-Emmons; Anastas Pashov; Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi; Fariba Jousheghany; Cecile Artaud; Leah Hennings

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- an...

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Dufton, P L; Howarth, I D; Walborn, N R; Markova, N; Clark, J S; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Dunstall, P R; Hénault-Brunet, V; Apellániz, J Maíz; McEvoy, C M; Sana, H; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 +/- 12.2 km/s from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3-sigma criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (>345 km/s) or...

  5. Effects of structural imperfection on gelatinization characteristics of amylopectin starches with A- and B-type crystallinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkina, Natalia K; Wikman, Jeanette; Bertoft, Eric; Yuryev, Vladimir P

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of physical structures on the properties of starch granules. Starches with a high amylopectin content possessing A- and B-type crystallinity were chosen for the study. The gelatinization temperature decreased in the following order: maize (A) > potato (B) > wheat (A) > barley (A), which did not reflect a correlation with the type of crystallinity. Low values of gelatinization temperature were accompanied with high free surface energy of the crystallites. It is proposed that these data are caused by different types of imperfections in starch crystals. Annealing resulted in an enhancement of the gelatinization temperature and a decrease of the free surface energy of the crystallites for all starches reflecting a partial improvement of crystalline perfection. A limited acid hydrolysis (lintnerization) of the starches decreased the gelatinization temperature because of a partial disruption of the crystalline lamellae and an increase of the amount of defects on the edges of the crystallites. Annealing of the lintnerized starches improved the structure of maize and potato starch, giving them similar structural and physicochemical parameters, which was opposite the behavior of the annealed sample from wheat. The possible nature of removable and nonremovable defects inside the crystalline region of the starch granules is discussed. It is concluded that, besides the allomorphic A- and B-types of crystal packing, physical defects in the crystals possess a major impact on starch gelatinization.

  6. Block synthesis of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides related to the human ABO blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Ivan M; Korchagina, Elena Yu; Popova, Inna S; Tyrtysh, Tatiana V; Paramonov, Alexander S; Bovin, Nicolai V

    2016-07-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycosides of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides via [3 + 1] block scheme. Peracetylated trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides were used as glycosyl donors. The well-known low reactivity of 4-OH group of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine forced us to test four glucosamine derivatives (3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc and 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl β-glycosides of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc, 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3, and 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2) to select the best glycosyl acceptor for the synthesis of type 2 tetrasaccharides. The desired tetrasacchrides were not isolated, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycosyde of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAcβ was glycosylated. Glycosylation of 3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivative resulted in α-glycoside as a major product. High stereospecificity was achieved only in the synthesis of B (type 2) tetrasaccharide, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2β was applied as the glycosyl acceptor (β/α 5:1), whereas glycosylation with trichloroacetimidate of A trisaccharide was not stereospecific (β/α 1.3:1). Glycosylation of 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycoside of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3β with trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides provided the same stereochemical yield (β/α 1.5:1).

  7. Early type stars at high galactic latitudes II. Four evolved B-type stars of unusual chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Ramspeck, M; Edelmann, H

    2001-01-01

    We present the result of differential spectral analyses of a further four apparently normal B-type stars. Abundance anomalies (e.g. He, C, N enrichment), slow rotation and/or high gravities suggest that the programme stars are evolved low-mass B-type stars. In order to trace their evolutionary status several scenarios are discussed. Post-AGB evolution can be ruled out. PG 0229+064 and PG 1400+389 could be horizontal branch (HB) stars, while HD 76431 and SB 939 have already evolved away from the extreme HB (EHB). The low helium abundance of HD 76431 is consistent with post-EHB evolution. The enrichment in helium, carbon and nitrogen of the remaining stars can be explained either by deep mixing of nuclearly processed material to the surface or by diffusion processes modified by magnetic fields and/or stellar winds. A kinematic study of their galactic orbits indicates that the stars belong to an old disk population.

  8. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is r

  9. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu

    2012-04-16

    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme).

  10. A- to B-Type Olivine Fabric Transitions Associated with Hydration, Dehydration and Shear Above the Farallon Flat Slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, W. M.; Smith, D.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate mantle rocks associated with hydration, dehydration and shear above the Farallon flat-slab at its contact with the base of North America. The rocks we focus on are ultramafic inclusions hosted within serpentinized ultramafic microbreccia diatremes of the Navajo Volcanic Field (New Mexico) that erupted to the surface at the waning stages of the Laramide orogeny. A large number of petrological and geochronological studies have pinpointed the origin of these rocks to the hydrated mantle wedge above the Farallon slab as well as tectonically eroded and entrained fragments of the plate interface. We combine petrological observations and EBSD measurements of olivine grainsize and LPO to examine the effects of hydration on olivine fabric development in different parts of the supra-subduction zone mantle. The rocks examined include weakly deformed to strongly foliated tectonites we interpret to represent partially hydrated fragments of the upper plate mantle; and mylonites and ultramylonites we interpret to represent deformed fragments of the plate interface. The rocks deformed at temperatures ranging from 500-900°C based on thermometry, and olivine compositions in some record heating just before incorporation in the diatreme mix. We observe the following: Tectonites exhibit A-type bulk olivine LPOs, but show transitions to B-type LPO in local, fine-grained, dynamically recrystallized regions associated with hydrous minerals. Mylonites and ultramylonites with stable chlorite and/or antigorite and recrystallized grainsizes of less than 10μm show strong B-type olivine LPOs. A single mylonite with recrystallized grainsizes of ~35μm shows evidence for prograde metamorphism and dehydration through the chlorite breakdown reaction at temperatures above ~770°C. It contains no hydrous minerals and shows a strong A-type olivine LPO. Together these rocks demonstrate a strong correlation between hydration under high stress conditions, and B-type olivine LPO

  11. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gregory R; Clark, Sally A; Cox, Amanda J; Halson, Shona L; Hargreaves, Mark; Hawley, John A; Jeacocke, Nikki; Snow, Rodney J; Yeo, Wee Kian; Burke, Louise M

    2010-07-01

    We determined the effects of varying daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training on endurance performance, whole body rates of substrate oxidation, and selected mitochondrial enzymes. Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists or triathletes were pair matched and randomly allocated to either a high-carbohydrate group (High group; n = 8) or an energy-matched low-carbohydrate group (Low group; n = 8) for 28 days. Immediately before study commencement and during the final 5 days, subjects undertook a 5-day test block in which they completed an exercise trial consisting of a 100 min of steady-state cycling (100SS) followed by a 7-kJ/kg time trial on two occasions separated by 72 h. In a counterbalanced design, subjects consumed either water (water trial) or a 10% glucose solution (glucose trial) throughout the exercise trial. A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle on day 1 of the first test block, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout 100SS. Training induced a marked increase in maximal citrate synthase activity after the intervention in the High group (27 vs. 34 micromol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Tracer-derived estimates of exogenous glucose oxidation during 100SS in the glucose trial increased from 54.6 to 63.6 g (P < 0.01) in the High group with no change in the Low group. Cycling performance improved by approximately 6% after training. We conclude that altering total daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training in trained athletes results in differences in selected metabolic adaptations to exercise, including the oxidation of exogenous carbohydrate. However, these metabolic changes do not alter the training-induced magnitude of increase in exercise performance.

  12. Functionalized carbon nanomaterials derived from carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2010-02-01

    A tremendous growth in the field of carbon nanomaterials has led to the emergence of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, mesoporous carbon and more recently graphene. Some of these materials have found applications in electronics, sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, composites, and so forth. The high temperatures and hydrocarbon precursors involved in their synthesis usually yield highly inert graphitic surfaces. As some of the applications require functionalization of their inert graphitic surface with groups like -COOH, -OH, and -NH(2), treatment of these materials in oxidizing agents and concentrated acids become inevitable. More recent works have involved using precursors like carbohydrates to produce carbon nanostructures rich in functional groups in a single-step under hydrothermal conditions. These carbon nanostructures have already found many applications in composites, drug delivery, materials synthesis, and Li ion batteries. The review aims to highlight some of the recent developments in the application of carbohydrate derived carbon nanostructures and also provide an outlook of their future prospects.

  13. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k......Da and HES 450 kDa) and dextran (DEX 500 kDa). Particle size and molecular weight distribution were determined by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The biodistribution was investigated non-invasively in nude mice using multispectral optical imaging. The most promising polymer conjugate...

  14. Enterococcus faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doun, Stephanie S; Burgner, John W; Briggs, Scott D; Rodwell, Victor W

    2005-05-01

    The six enzymes of the mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis represent potential for addressing a pressing human health concern, the development of antibiotics against resistant strains of the Gram-positive streptococci. We previously characterized the first four of the mevalonate pathway enzymes of Enterococcus faecalis, and here characterize the fifth, phosphomevalonate kinase (E.C. 2.7.4.2). E. faecalis genomic DNA and the polymerase chain reaction were used to clone DNA thought to encode phosphomevalonate kinase into pET28b(+). Double-stranded DNA sequencing verified the sequence of the recombinant gene. The encoded N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged protein was expressed in Escherichia coli with induction by isopropylthiogalactoside and purified by Ni(++) affinity chromatography, yield 20 mg protein per liter. Analysis of the purified protein by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established it as E. faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the kinase exists in solution primarily as a dimer. Assay for phosphomevalonate kinase activity used pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase to couple the formation of ADP to the oxidation of NADH. Optimal activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C. The activation energy was approximately 5.6 kcal/mol. Activity with Mn(++), the preferred cation, was optimal at about 4 mM. Relative rates using different phosphoryl donors were 100 (ATP), 3.6 (GTP), 1.6 (TTP), and 0.4 (CTP). K(m) values were 0.17 mM for ATP and 0.19 mM for (R,S)-5-phosphomevalonate. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 3.9 micromol substrate converted per minute per milligram protein. Applications to an immobilized enzyme bioreactor and to drug screening and design are discussed.

  15. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the comm...

  16. Small-Molecule Carbohydrate-Based Immunostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzabadi, Cecilia H; Franck, Richard W

    2017-02-03

    In this review, we discuss small-molecule, carbohydrate-based immunostimulants that target Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and cluster of differentiation 1D (CD1d) receptors. The design and use of these molecules in immunotherapy as well as results from their use in clinical trials are described. How these molecules work and their utilization as vaccine adjuvants are also discussed. Future applications and extensions for the use of these analogues as therapeutic agents will be outlined.

  17. Crystallisation and crystal forms of carbohydrate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Lorna

    This thesis is focused on the synthesis and solid state analysis of carbohydrate derivatives, including many novel compounds. Although the synthetic chemistry surrounding carbohydrates is well established in the literature, the crystal chemistry of carbohydrates is less well studied. Therefore this research aims to improve understanding of the solid state properties of carbohydrate derivatives through gaining more information on their supramolecular bonding. Chapter One focuses on an introduction to the solid state of organic compounds, with a background to crystallisation, including issues that can arise during crystal growth. Chapter Two is based on glucopyranuronate derivatives which are understudied in terms of their solid state forms. This chapter reports on the formation of novel glucuronamides and utilising the functionality of the amide bond for crystallisation. TEMPO oxidation was completed to form glucopyranuronates by oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of glucosides to the carboxylic acid derivatives, to increase functionality for enhanced crystal growth. Chapter Three reports on the synthesis of glucopyranoside derivatives by O-glycosylation reactions and displays crystal structures, including a number of previously unsolved acetate protected and deprotected crystal structures. More complex glycoside derivatives were also researched in an aim to study the resultant supramolecular motifs. Chapter Four contains the synthesis of aryl cellobioside derivatives including the novel crystal structures that were solved for the acetate protected and deprotected compounds. Research was carried out to determine if 1-deoxycellodextrins could act as putative isostructures for cellulose. Our research displays the presence of isostructural references with 1-deoxycellotriose shown to be similar to cellulose III11, 1-deoxycellotetraose correlates with cellulose IV11 and 1-deoxycellopentose shows isostructurality similar to that of cellulose II. Chapter Five contains

  18. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  19. Effect of carbohydrate-protein supplementation postexercise on rat muscle glycogen synthesis and phosphorylation of proteins controlling glucose storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Daisuke; Morrison, Paul J; Ding, Zhenping; Ivy, John L

    2011-10-01

    To examine whether addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle glycogen synthesis, we compared the muscle glycogen concentrations of rats that had been depleted of their muscle glycogen stores with a 3-hour swim and immediately supplemented with a placebo (Con), carbohydrate (CHO), or carbohydrate plus protein supplement (C+P). Rats were given either 0.9 g carbohydrate per kilogram body mass for the CHO group or 0.9 g carbohydrate + 0.3 g protein per kilogram body mass for the C+P groups. Muscle samples of the red and white quadriceps were excised immediately, 30 minutes, or 90 minutes postexercise. Glycogen concentration of the C+P group was greater than that of the CHO group at 90 minutes postexercise in both red (C+P, 28.3 ± 2.6 µmol/g vs CHO, 22.4 ± 2.0 µmol/g; P Protein kinase B phosphorylation was greater in the C+P-30 group (the number following treatment group abbreviation refers to time [in minutes] of euthanasia following exercise) than the sedentary control and exercised control groups in red quadriceps at 30 minutes and in white quadriceps at 90 minutes postexercise. This difference was not observed in the CHO group. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase was significantly reduced 30 minutes postexercise and returned to baseline levels by 90 minutes postexercise in both CHO- and C+P-supplemented groups, with no difference between supplements. These results demonstrated that the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement will enhance the rate of muscle glycogen restoration postexercise and may involve facilitation of the glucose transport process.

  20. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  1. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and long-term mortality in stable coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Charlotte; Grønning, Bjørn; Køber, Lars;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The level of the inactive N-terminal fragment of pro-brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a strong predictor of mortality among patients with acute coronary syndromes and may be a strong prognostic marker in patients with chronic coronary heart disease as well. We assessed...... the relationship between N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) levels and long-term mortality from all causes in a large cohort of patients with stable coronary heart disease. METHODS: NT-pro-BNP was measured in baseline serum samples from 1034 patients referred for angiography because of symptoms or signs of coronary...... of myocardial infarction, angina, hypertension, diabetes, or chronic heart failure; creatinine clearance rate; body-mass index; smoking status; plasma lipid levels; LVEF; and the presence or absence of clinically significant coronary artery disease on angiography. CONCLUSIONS: NT-pro-BNP is a marker of long...

  2. On B-type open-closed Landau-Ginzburg theories defined on Calabi-Yau Stein manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Babalic, Mirela; Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu; Tavakol, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bulk algebra and topological D-brane category arising from the differential model of the open-closed B-type topological Landau-Ginzburg theory defined by a pair $(X,W)$, where $X$ is a non-compact Calabi-Yau manifold and $W$ has compact critical set. When $X$ is a Stein manifold (but not restricted to be a domain of holomorphy), we extract equivalent descriptions of the bulk algebra and of the category of topological D-branes which are constructed using only the analytic space associated to $X$. In particular, we show that the D-brane category is described by projective matrix factorizations defined over the ring of holomorphic functions of $X$. We also discuss simplifications of the analytic models which arise when $X$ is holomorphically parallelizable and illustrate these analytic models in a few classes of examples.

  3. Prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in surgical palliation of children with single-ventricle congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J G; Askovich, B; Shaddy, R E; Hawkins, J A; Cowley, C G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the prognostic role of perioperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in infants and children with single-ventricle congenital heart disease undergoing Norwood, bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA), or Fontan operation. BNP levels were measured at baseline, after cardiopulmonary bypass, 6 to 12 hours after surgery, and then daily until indwelling vascular catheters were removed. Outcome measures included length of mechanical ventilation, inotropic support, and hospital stay. Twenty subjects underwent 23 surgical procedures (13 Norwood, 5 BCPA, and 5 Fontan). BNP levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing a Norwood procedure compared with a BCPA or Fontan procedure (p extubation was observed in 92% of patients undergoing a Norwood procedure. Early postoperative BNP levels correlate significantly with the ensuing duration of inotropic support and length of hospitalization. An increase in BNP after extubation may be reflective of the degree of underlying cardiopulmonary instability. Further investigation is necessary to define this important relation.

  4. Isolation and Synthesis of Laxaphycin B-Type Peptides: A Case Study and Clues to Their Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bornancin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The laxaphyci’s B family constitutes a group of five related cyclic lipopeptides isolated from diverse cyanobacteria from all around the world. This group shares a typical structure of 12 amino acids from the l and d series, some of them hydroxylated at the beta position, and all containing a rare beta-amino decanoic acid. Nevertheless, they can be differentiated due to slight variations in the composition of their amino acids, but the configuration of their alpha carbon remains conserved. Here, we provide the synthesis and characterization of new laxaphycin B-type peptides. In doing so we discuss how the synthesis of laxaphycin B and analogues was developed. We also isolate minor acyclic laxaphycins B, which are considered clues to their biosynthesis.

  5. Isolation and Synthesis of Laxaphycin B-Type Peptides: A Case Study and Clues to Their Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornancin, Louis; Boyaud, France; Mahiout, Zahia; Bonnard, Isabelle; Mills, Suzanne C; Banaigs, Bernard; Inguimbert, Nicolas

    2015-12-05

    The laxaphyci's B family constitutes a group of five related cyclic lipopeptides isolated from diverse cyanobacteria from all around the world. This group shares a typical structure of 12 amino acids from the l and d series, some of them hydroxylated at the beta position, and all containing a rare beta-amino decanoic acid. Nevertheless, they can be differentiated due to slight variations in the composition of their amino acids, but the configuration of their alpha carbon remains conserved. Here, we provide the synthesis and characterization of new laxaphycin B-type peptides. In doing so we discuss how the synthesis of laxaphycin B and analogues was developed. We also isolate minor acyclic laxaphycins B, which are considered clues to their biosynthesis.

  6. Thermal expansion behavior of A- and B-type amylose crystals in the low-temperature region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kayoko; Kimura, Satoshi; Naito, Philip-Kunio; Togawa, Eiji; Wada, Masahisa

    2015-10-20

    The thermal expansion behaviors of A-type and B-type amylose crystals, which were prepared by recrystallization of short amylose chains synthesized by phosphorylase, were investigated using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction between 100 and 300K. For both types of crystals, the room-temperature phase (RT phase), which is the usually observed phase, transitioned to a low-temperature phase (LT phase), on cooling. The phase transitions took place reversibly with rapid changes in the unit-cell parameters around 200-270K. The differences between the RT and LT phase were investigated using solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, which revealed there were changes in molecular chain conformations. These results suggest that the phase transition of water molecules on the crystalline surfaces affects the thermal behavior and structure of polysaccharide crystals.

  7. The role of B-type natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis and treatment of decompensated heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Gallagher; Peter A. McCullough

    2004-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common disease associated with increasing age. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), is a cardiac neurohormone, and is released as prepro BNP and then enzyrnatically cleaved to the Ntenninal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) and BNP upon ventricular myocyte stretch. Blood measurements of BNP have been used to identify patients with I-IF. The BNP assay is currently used as a diagnostic and prognostic aid in HF. In general, a BNP level below 100 pg/mL excludes acutely decompensated HF and levels > 500 pg/ml indicate decompensation. Recombinant human BNP (hBNP, nesiritide) is an approved intravenous treatment for acute,decompensated -HF. Nesiritide given in supraphysiologic doses causes vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and improved symptoms over the course of a 48-hour infusion. This paper will sort out the literature concerning the use of this peptide both as a diagnostic test and as an intravenous therapy.

  8. The telomeric protein AKTIP interacts with A- and B-type lamins and is involved in regulation of cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Torre, Mattia La; Fratini, Federica; Crescenzi, Marco; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Spitalieri, Paola; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Astrologo, Letizia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Cundari, Enrico; Raimondo, Domenico; Biroccio, Annamaria; Gatti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AKTIP is a shelterin-interacting protein required for replication of telomeric DNA. Here, we show that AKTIP biochemically interacts with A- and B-type lamins and affects lamin A, but not lamin C or B, expression. In interphase cells, AKTIP localizes at the nuclear rim and in discrete regions of the nucleoplasm just like lamins. Double immunostaining revealed that AKTIP partially co-localizes with lamin B1 and lamin A/C in interphase cells, and that proper AKTIP localization requires functional lamin A. In mitotic cells, AKTIP is enriched at the spindle poles and at the midbody of late telophase cells similar to lamin B1. AKTIP-depleted cells show senescence-associated markers and recapitulate several aspects of the progeroid phenotype. Collectively, our results indicate that AKTIP is a new player in lamin-related processes, including those that govern nuclear architecture, telomere homeostasis and cellular senescence. PMID:27512140

  9. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  10. Plant phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Munnik, T.; Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates the D-3 position of phosphoinositides. In Arabidopsis, only one PI3K exists, which belongs to the class-III PI3K subfamily which makes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The single AtPI3K gene is essential for survival, since loss of its

  11. Functional analysis of related CrRLK1L receptor-like kinases in pollen tube reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sharon A; Lindner, Heike; Jones, Daniel S; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    The Catharanthus roseus Receptor-Like Kinase 1-like (CrRLK1L) family of 17 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) has been implicated in a variety of signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, ranging from pollen tube (PT) reception and tip growth to hormonal responses. The extracellular domains of these RLKs have malectin-like domains predicted to bind carbohydrate moieties. Domain swap analysis showed that the extracellular domains of the three members analyzed (FER, ANX1, HERK1) are not interchangeable, suggesting distinct upstream components, such as ligands and/or co-factors. In contrast, their intercellular domains are functionally equivalent for PT reception, indicating that they have common downstream targets in their signaling pathways. The kinase domain is necessary for FER function, but kinase activity itself is not, indicating that other kinases may be involved in signal transduction during PT reception.

  12. Carbohydrate-protein interactions and their biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; Sun, Xue-Long

    2012-04-01

    Carbohydrate recognition is clearly present throughout nature, playing a major role in the initial attachment of one biological entity to another. The important question is whether these prevalent interactions could provide a real suitable alternative to the use of antibodies or nucleic acid for detection and identification. Currently, examples of carbohydrates being employed in biological detection systems are limited. The challenges of using carbohydrate recognition for detection mainly come from the weak affinity of carbohydrate-protein interactions, the lack of versatile carbohydrate scaffolds with well-defined structures, and the less developed high-information-content, real-time, and label-free assay technology. In this review, we focus on discussing the characteristics of carbohydrate-protein interactions in nature and the methods for carbohydrate immobilization based on surface coupling chemistry in terms of their general applicability for developing carbohydrate- and lectin-based label-free sensors. Furthermore, examples of innovative design of multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions for sensor applications are given. We limit our review to show the feasibility of carbohydrate and lectin as recognition elements for label-free sensor development in several representative cases to formulate a flexible platform for their use as recognition elements for real-world biosensor applications.

  13. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker

    2014-05-01

    There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise.

  14. Glycosynapses: microdomains controlling carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senitiroh Hakomori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of microdomains in plasma membranes was developed over two decades, following observation of polarity of membrane based on clustering of specific membrane components. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion with concurrent signal transduction that affect cellular phenotype are termed "glycosynapse". Three types of glycosynapse have been distinguished: "type 1" having glycosphingolipid associated with signal transducers (small G-proteins, cSrc, Src family kinases and proteolipids; "type 2" having O-linked mucin-type glycoprotein associated with Src family kinases; and "type 3" having N-linked integrin receptor complexed with tetraspanin and ganglioside. Different cell types are characterized by presence of specific types of glycosynapse or their combinations, whose adhesion induces signal transduction to either facilitate or inhibit signaling. E.g., signaling through type 3 glycosynapse inhibits cell motility and differentiation. Glycosynapses are distinct from classically-known microdomains termed "caveolae", "caveolar membrane", or more recently "lipid raft", which are not involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion. Type 1 and type 3 glycosynapses are resistant to cholesterol-binding reagents, whereas structure and function of "caveolar membrane" or "lipid raft" are disrupted by these reagents. Various data indicate a functional role of glycosynapses during differentiation, development, and oncogenic transformation.O conceito de microdomínios em membrana plasmática foi desenvolvido há mais de duas décadas, após a observação da polaridade da membrana baseada no agrupamento de componentes específicos da membrana. Microdomínios envolvidos na adesão celular dependente de carboidrato, com transdução de sinal que afeta o fenótipo celular são denominados ''glicosinapses''. Três tipos de glicosinapse foram observados: ''tipo 1'' que possue glicoesfingolipídio associado com transdutores de sinal

  15. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  16. [Malabsorption of carbohydrates in children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C; Escobar, H; Polanco, I; Codoceo, R; Vitoria, J C

    1975-01-01

    Physiological bases of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are reviewed, as a preliminary step, in order to draw a general scheme of its patholophysiology. Clasification of different types of carbohydrate malabsorption is presented. Various exploration methods are discussed in terms of autors' own experiences. Relationship between a sugar screening test, faecal lactic acid contents and a simplified lactose tolerance test, is described in detail. Systematic diagnoses of these diseases are established. Different clinical pictures are reviewed. It is not yet well defined if a starch malabsorption can be caused by either a primary or secondary duodenal amylase deficiency. The clinical forms of congenital sucrose-isomaltose intolerance may be more attenuated than its classical form; incertain cases, secondary sucrose intolerance may also be present due to mucosa anatomic lesions. Maltose malabsorption has no clinical implications. As compared to other alpha-glycosidades, the trehalase activity has been not more affected by not using trehalose in feeding. Primary congenital lactase deficiency is not frequent, whereas secondary forms as much more usual and appear, in primary malabsorption syndromes and in the coeliac disease, very often along with clinical tolerance to lactose. In Spain, lactose nonabsorbers in 16.5% for adults 11.2% for adolescents and 18.3% for children, meaning, that it is being favored by environmental factors in the latter. The unspecified sugar malabsorption during the child's first year is still the most frequent cause of carbohydrate intolerance in children and, although certain progress has been achieved in its diagnosis and therapy, its pathogenic mechanism is not satisfactorily known yet.

  17. Carbohydrate metabolism of rats with biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Hitoshi

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate metabolism of rats with obstructive jaundice caused by bile duct ligation was studied by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT and by liver perfusion. The altered levels of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzyme were examined in relation to the glucose metabolism of the cholestatic rats. In the IVGTT, the rate of fractional glucose removal was increased with increases in plasma insulin and glucagon and with a decrease in non-esterified fatty acid. In liver perfusion, neither the glucose uptake nor insulin extraction by the whole liver of icteric rats was different from the control. The increased rate of glucose removal in IVGTT may be due to enhanced glucose utilization by peripheral tissues resulting from hypersecretion of insulin. In liver perfusate supplemented with glucose, a decrease in the glucose uptake per unit liver weight was observed in relation to the lowered glucokinase activity. Formation of glycogen from glucose and of glucose from lactate was also impaired, indicating inhibition of the gluconeogenic system or relative hyperfunction of the glycolytic system, which may further contribute to the reduction in glycogen content. These metabolic disorders correlated well with the changes in activities of key carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, which showed a characteristic pattern consistent with the loss of differentiated hepatic functions. Uptake of glucose and its conversion to glycogen were reduced in the cholestatic liver in close association with altered activities of some of related enzymes. However, due to increased utilization by the peripheral tissues, the total amount of glucose utilized in the whole rat was not reduced.

  18. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  19. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  20. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Moffatt, Douglas J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-11-08

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm(-1)-3400 cm(-1)), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm(-1)-2970 cm(-1)) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials.

  1. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  2. A high-power carbohydrate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ragnar [SuFuCell AB, Bytaregatan 23, SE 222 21 Lund (Sweden); Folkesson, Boerje [Bronsaaldersvaegen 21, SE-226 54 Lund (Sweden); Spaziante, Placido M. [Cellennium Co., Ltd., 14th Floor Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 539 Sri Ayudhaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Exell, Robert H.B. [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a fuel cell consisting of a vanadium flow battery in which the vanadium ions are reduced by sugar (from a carbohydrate) to oxidation state +3 on one side of a membrane, and are oxidized to state +5 on the other side by oxygen. The theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of the energy in sugar by this method under standard conditions is 54%. We have obtained efficiencies up to 45% in our laboratory tests. This way of using biomass for electricity production avoids the Carnot cycle losses in heat engines. (author)

  3. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Akiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.

  4. Differences among Elite Female Rowers Regarding Carbohydrate Consumption at Rest

    OpenAIRE

    BADAU, Dana; TOMESCU, VALERIU; BADAU, Adela; MARTIN, Ștefan Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Backround: The objective of this study was interpreting the reported differences within carbohydrate consumption at rest, in female rowing groups. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study, on a group of elite rowing athletes, monitoring carbohydrate consumption at rest. 34 subjects, divided in 3 groups of activities (senior, youth, junior) took part in this study being monitored through Cosmed Quark CPET device. Results: The average amount of carbohydrates consumed at rest among the group...

  5. Structure-function relations of carbohydrates by neoglycolipid arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang-Liang; Huang, Hua-Liang; Zhang, Hou-Cheng; Wang, Peng-George

    2006-06-01

    The work presented herein is a new noncovalent glycoarray assembly method for microplates created by simply mixing together a carbohydrate and a tetradecylamine. alpha-D-Mannopyranoside, alpha-D-glucopyranoside, and alpha-D-galactopyranoside were utilized in model studies and product formations were detected by lectin binding. The method can be extended to study the steric hindrance effect of carbohydrate-protein interactions, namely the structure-function relations of carbohydrates.

  6. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  7. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  8. Enterococcus faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Doun, Stephanie S.; Burgner, John W.; Briggs, Scott D.; Rodwell, Victor W.

    2005-01-01

    The six enzymes of the mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis represent potential for addressing a pressing human health concern, the development of antibiotics against resistant strains of the Gram-positive streptococci. We previously characterized the first four of the mevalonate pathway enzymes of Enterococcus faecalis, and here characterize the fifth, phosphomevalonate kinase (E.C. 2.7.4.2). E. faecalis genomic DNA and the polymerase chain reaction were used to clone D...

  9. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karin, Michael (San Diego, CA); Hibi, Masahiko (San Diego, CA); Lin, Anning (La Jolla, CA); Davis, Roger (Princeton, MA); Derijard, Benoit (Shrewsbury, MA)

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  10. High-performance α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B-type nanocomposite magnets fabricated by direct melt spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bai; ZHANG Lei; SHEN Baogen; ZHAO Tongyun; YU Ronghai

    2013-01-01

    High-performance α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B-type nanocomposite magnets based on the compositions of Pr8Fe86B6 microalloyed with Co,Nb and C were fabricated by direct melt spinning.The coercivity was greatly improved from 5.5 kOe for the Pr8Fe86B6 ribbons to 7.4 kOe for the Pr8Fe85NbB5C ribbons.The balanced high coercivity and remanence were obtained in Pr8Fe75Co10NbB5C ribbons due to the Co substitution for Fe,which led to the significant improvement of magnetic properties in these ribbons.A remanence ratio of 0.82,a coercive field of 6.6 kOe and a maximum energy product of 26.2 MGOe in melt-spun Pr8Fe75Co10NbB5C ribbons were obtained at room temperature.

  11. Multiplex detection of B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin I and C-reactive protein with photonic suspension array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Lu

    Full Text Available A novel photonic suspension array has been developed for multiplex immunoassay. The carriers of this array were silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs. The codes of these carriers have characteristic reflection peaks originating from their structural periodicity; therefore they do not suffer from fading, bleaching, quenching or chemical instability. In addition, the fluorescence background of SCCBs is negligible because no fluorescence materials or dyes are involved. With a sandwich method, the proposed suspension array was used for simultaneous multiplex detection of heart failure (HF and coronary heart disease (CAD biomarkers in one test tube. The results showed that the three biomarkers: cardiac troponin I (cTnI, C-reactive protein (CRP and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP could be assayed in the ranges of 0.1-500 ng/ml, 1-500 mg/L and 0.02-50 ng/ml with detection limits of 0.01 ng/ml, 0.36 mg/L and 0.004 ng/ml at 3σ, respectively. There were no significant differences between the photonic suspension array and traditional parallel single-analyte test. This novel method demonstrated acceptable accuracy, high detection sensitivity and reproducibility and excellent storage stability. This technique provides a new strategy for low cost, automated, and simultaneous multiplex immunoassays of bio-markers.

  12. B-type Natriuretic Peptide Assay in Differentiating Congestive Heart Failure from Lung Disease in Patients Presenting with Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Bari, M S; Islam, M N; Bari, M A; Siddique, S R; Islam, M Z; Begum, M S; Ahammed, S U; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. After fulfilling the exclusion & inclusion criteria, B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were measured in a convenience sample of 100 predominantly male (94%) dyspnic patients who got admitted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital from November 2013 to October 2014. The diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) was based on generally accepted Framingham criteria with corroborative information including hospital course (response to diuretics, vasodilators, inotropes or hemodynamic monitoring) and results of further cardiac testing, including echocardiography. Patients with right heart failure from cor pulmonale were classified as having CHF. Pulmonary disease was confirmed by using the following diagnostic tools: i) A chest X-ray without signs of heart enlargement or pulmonary venous hypertension or a chest X-ray with signs of chronic obstructive lung disease, ii) Normal heart function as seen by echocardiography, iii) Abnormal pulmonary function tests or follow-up results and iv) A positive response to treatment with steroids, nebulizers or antibiotics in hospital. Patients with CHF (n=50) had mean BNP level 1146.72pg/ml (range 103 to 5000pg/ml), which is significantly higher than the group of patients with a final diagnosis of pulmonary disease (n=50) whose BNP was 34pg/ml (range 10 to 90pg/ml) (pcongestive heart failure from lung disease in patients presenting with dyspnea.

  13. Improvement of enantioselectivity of the B-type halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yu, Fujio; Ohtaki, Akashi; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    Halohydrin hydrogen-halide-lyase (H-Lyase) is a bacterial enzyme involved in the degradation of halohydrins. This enzyme catalyzes the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a vicinal hydroxyl group in halohydrins, producing the corresponding epoxides. The H-Lyases have been classified into A, B and C subtypes based on amino acid sequence similarities. These enzymes have attracted much attention as industrial catalysts in the synthesis of chiral chemicals from prochiral halohydrins. In the present study, we constructed mutants of B-type H-Lyase from Corynebacterium sp. N-1074 (HheB) displaying higher enantioselectivity by structure-based site-directed mutagenesis and random mutagenesis. A triple mutant of HheB exhibited 98.5% enantioselectivity, the highest ever reported, toward (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-butyronitrile production, with the yield reaching approximately two-fold that of the wild-type enzyme. We discuss the structural basis of the high enantioselectivity and productivity of the mutant by comparing the crystal structures of the mutant HheB and the wild-type enzyme in complex with or without the substrate analogue.

  14. The IACOB project: III. New observational clues to understand macroturbulent broadening in massive O- and B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Simón-Díaz, S; Castro, N; Herrero, A; Aerts, C; Puls, J; Telting, J; Grassitelli, L

    2016-01-01

    We aim to provide new empirical clues about macroturbulent spectral line broadening in O- and B-type stars to evaluate its physical origin. We use high-resolution spectra of ~430 stars with spectral types in the range O4-B9 (all luminosity classes). We characterize the line-broadening of adequate diagnostic metal lines using a combined FT and GOF technique. We perform a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the whole sample using automatic tools coupled with a huge grid of FASTWIND models. We also incorporate quantitative information about line asymmetries to our observational description of the characteristics of the line-profiles, and present a comparison of the shape and type of line-profile variability found in a small sample of O stars and B supergiants with still undefined pulsational properties and B main sequence stars with variable line-profiles. We present a homogeneous and statistically significant overview of the (single snapshot) line-broadening properties of stars in the whole O and B star doma...

  15. The least-cost low-carbohydrate diet is expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of operations research methods to study the minimum possible cost of a low-carbohydrate diet. The study compares this cost to the minimum cost of a diet with no limitation on carbohydrate. The rationale for this study is the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diets and their perceived high cost. The method used was an operations research approach to find a set of least cost diets, varying the required carbohydrate. This method was chosen to avoid potential concerns with real diets that may be nutritionally deficient or could be had for a lower cost. The major finding is that the cheapest possible low-carbohydrate diet costs about triple the cost of the cheapest diet with no constraint on carbohydrate. Furthermore, the minimum cost of a diet low in both carbohydrate and fat is 5 to 10 times the cost of the cheapest diet, depending on the relative amounts of these nutrients. As carbohydrate and fat are constrained, cost increases dramatically and nonlinearly. The study identifies which nutrients had the greatest effect on cost for a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

  16. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  17. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  18. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Törrönen, Riitta; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Pekkinen, Jenna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2010-03-31

    Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  19. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  20. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-06-09

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  1. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  2. Influence of Waterlogging on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Ragi and Rice Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni, S. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different durations of waterlogging (4, 8 and 12 days stress on carbohydrate status and activities of some related enzymes in ragi and rice roots was studied. In both ragi and rice roots there was decrease in starch and total sugar content in response to waterlogging conditions. Activity of α amylase was decrease in ragi roots while opposite trend was noticed in case of rice roots. The activity of pyruvate kinase was markedly increased due to 4, 8 and 12 days waterlogging in ragi roots while such increase was noticed in rice roots due to 12 days stress. Treatment of waterlogging caused enhancement in the activity of alkaline inorganic pyrophosphatase in the roots of both ragi and rice.

  3. The IACOB project . III. New observational clues to understand macroturbulent broadening in massive O- and B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Godart, M.; Castro, N.; Herrero, A.; Aerts, C.; Puls, J.; Telting, J.; Grassitelli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The term macroturbulent broadening is commonly used to refer to a certain type of non-rotational broadening affecting the spectral line profiles of O- and B-type stars. It has been proposed to be a spectroscopic signature of the presence of stellar oscillations; however, we still lack a definitive confirmation of this hypothesis. Aims: We aim to provide new empirical clues about macroturbulent spectral line broadening in O- and B-type stars to evaluate its physical origin. Methods: We used high-resolution spectra of 430 stars with spectral types in the range O4 - B9 (all luminosity classes) compiled in the framework of the IACOB project. We characterized the line broadening of adequate diagnostic metal lines using a combined Fourier transform and goodness-of-fit technique. We performed a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the whole sample using automatic tools coupled with a huge grid of fastwind models to determine their effective temperatures and gravities. We also incorporated quantitative information about line asymmetries into our observational description of the characteristics of the line profiles, and performed a comparison of the shape and type of line-profile variability found in a small sample of O stars and B supergiants with still undefined pulsational properties and B main-sequence stars with variable line profiles owing to a well-identified type of stellar oscillations or to the presence of spots in the stellar surface. Results: We present a homogeneous and statistically significant overview of the (single snapshot) line-broadening properties of stars in the whole O and B star domain. We find empirical evidence of the existence of various types of non-rotational broadening agents acting in the realm of massive stars. Even though all these additional sources of line-broadening could be quoted and quantified as a macroturbulent broadening from a practical point of view, their physical origin can be different. Contrarily to the early- to

  4. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2013-11-01

    Carbohydrate and fat are the two primary fuel sources oxidized by skeletal muscle tissue during prolonged (endurance-type) exercise. The relative contribution of these fuel sources largely depends on the exercise intensity and duration, with a greater contribution from carbohydrate as exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, endurance performance and endurance capacity are largely dictated by endogenous carbohydrate availability. As such, improving carbohydrate availability during prolonged exercise through carbohydrate ingestion has dominated the field of sports nutrition research. As a result, it has been well-established that carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged (>2 h) moderate-to-high intensity exercise can significantly improve endurance performance. Although the precise mechanism(s) responsible for the ergogenic effects are still unclear, they are likely related to the sparing of skeletal muscle glycogen, prevention of liver glycogen depletion and subsequent development of hypoglycemia, and/or allowing high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. Currently, for prolonged exercise lasting 2-3 h, athletes are advised to ingest carbohydrates at a rate of 60 g·h⁻¹ (~1.0-1.1 g·min⁻¹) to allow for maximal exogenous glucose oxidation rates. However, well-trained endurance athletes competing longer than 2.5 h can metabolize carbohydrate up to 90 g·h⁻¹ (~1.5-1.8 g·min⁻¹) provided that multiple transportable carbohydrates are ingested (e.g. 1.2 g·min⁻¹ glucose plus 0.6 g·min⁻¹ of fructose). Surprisingly, small amounts of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise may also enhance the performance of shorter (45-60 min), more intense (>75 % peak oxygen uptake; VO(₂peak)) exercise bouts, despite the fact that endogenous carbohydrate stores are unlikely to be limiting. The mechanism(s) responsible for such ergogenic properties of carbohydrate ingestion during short, more intense exercise bouts has been suggested to reside in the central nervous

  5. The elusive third subunit IIa of the bacterial B-type oxidases: the enzyme from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus.

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    Laurence Prunetti

    Full Text Available The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is catalyzed by complicated membrane-bound metallo-enzymes containing variable numbers of subunits, called cytochrome c oxidases or quinol oxidases. We previously described the cytochrome c oxidase II from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus as a ba(3-type two-subunit (subunits I and II enzyme and showed that it is included in a supercomplex involved in the sulfide-oxygen respiration pathway. It belongs to the B-family of the heme-copper oxidases, enzymes that are far less studied than the ones from family A. Here, we describe the presence in this enzyme of an additional transmembrane helix "subunit IIa", which is composed of 41 amino acid residues with a measured molecular mass of 5105 Da. Moreover, we show that subunit II, as expected, is in fact longer than the originally annotated protein (from the genome and contains a transmembrane domain. Using Aquifex aeolicus genomic sequence analyses, N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometry analysis on entire subunits, we conclude that the B-type enzyme from this bacterium is a three-subunit complex. It is composed of subunit I (encoded by coxA(2 of 59000 Da, subunit II (encoded by coxB(2 of 16700 Da and subunit IIa which contain 12, 1 and 1 transmembrane helices respectively. A structural model indicates that the structural organization of the complex strongly resembles that of the ba(3 cytochrome c oxidase from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the IIa helical subunit being structurally the lacking N-terminal transmembrane helix of subunit II present in the A-type oxidases. Analysis of the genomic context of genes encoding oxidases indicates that this third subunit is present in many of the bacterial oxidases from B-family, enzymes that have been described as two-subunit complexes.

  6. The prognostic value of N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I.; Ho, Chung-Han; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Chao, Chien-Ming; Liu, Wei-Lun; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts the prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Between December 1, 2012, and May 31, 2015, this observational study recruited patients admitted to our tertiary medical center who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS and who had their NT-proBNP measured. The main outcome was 28-day mortality. We enrolled 61 patients who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS: 7 were classified as mild, 29 as moderate, and 25 as severe. The median APACHE II scores were 23 (interquartile range [IQR], 18–28), and SOFA scores were 11 (IQR, 8–13). The median lung injury score was 3.0 (IQR, 2.50–3.25), and the median level of NT-proBNP was 2011 pg/ml (IQR, 579–7216). Thirty-four patients died during this study, and the 28-day mortality rate was 55.7%. Patients who die were older and had significantly (all p < 0.05) higher APACHE II scores and NT-proBNP levels than did patients who survived. Multivariate analysis identified age (HR: 1.546, 95% CI: 1.174–2.035, p = 0.0019) and NT-proBNP (HR: 1.009, 95% CI: 1.004–1.013, p = 0.0001) as significant risk factors of death. NT-proBNP was associated with poor outcomes for patients with ARDS, and its level predicted mortality. PMID:28322314

  7. The evaluation of B-type Natriuretic Peptide and Troponin I in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafija Serdarevic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnostic utility of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP has prompted interest in its use as an aid in the detection of early heart failure and assessment of diseases. The first objective of this study was measurement of BNP and troponin I (TnI blood levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and unstable angina. The second objective of this study was to find a correlation between TnI and BNP in blood.Methods: The concentrations of BNP and TnI in 150 blood levels were determined using CMIA (chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Architect and 2000 (Abbott diagnostics. The retrospective study included 100 patients who were hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo and 50 healthy control. The reference blood range of BNP is 0-100 pg/mL and TnI is 0.00-0.4 ng/mL.Results: In the patients with AMI the mean value of BNP is 764.48 ± 639.52 pg/mL and TnI is 2.50 ± 2.28ng/mL. The patients with unstable angina have BNP 287.18 ± 593.20 pg/mL and TnI 0.10 ± 0.23 ng/mL. Our studies have shown that the correlation between BNP and TnI was statistically significant for p< 0.05 using Student t test with correlation coefficient r = 0.36. Conclusions: BNP and TnI levels can help to identify the patients with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Evaluation of B-type Natriuretic Peptide for validation of a heart failure register in primary care

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    Hughes Elizabeth A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction is difficult on clinical grounds alone. We sought to determine the accuracy of a heart failure register in a single primary care practice, and to examine the usefulness of b-type (or brain natriuretic peptide (BNP assay for this purpose. Methods A register validation audit in a single general practice in the UK was carried out. Of 217 patients on the heart failure register, 56 of 61 patients who had not been previously investigated underwent 12-lead electrocardiography and echocardiography within the practice site. Plasma was obtained for BNP assay from 45 subjects, and its performance in identifying echocardiographic abnormalities consistent with heart failure was assessed by analysing area under receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves. Results 30/217 were found to have no evidence to suggest heart failure on notes review and were probably incorrectly coded. 70/112 who were previously investigated were confirmed to have heart failure. Of those not previously investigated, 24/56 (42.9% who attended for the study had echocardiographic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. A further 8 (14.3% had normal systolic function, but had left ventricular hypertrophy or significant valve disease. Overall, echocardiographic features consistent with heart failure were found in only 102/203 (50.2%. BNP was poor at discriminating those with and without systolic dysfunction (area under ROC curve 0.612, and those with and without any significant echocardiographic abnormality (area under ROC curve 0.723. Conclusion In this practice, half of the registered patients did not have significant cardiac dysfunction. On-site echocardiography identifies patients who can be removed from the heart failure register. The use of BNP assay to determine which patients require echocardiography is not supported by these data.

  9. Water exit pathways and proton pumping mechanism in B-type cytochrome c oxidase from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longhua; Skjevik, Åge A; Han Du, Wen-Ge; Noodleman, Louis; Walker, Ross C; Götz, Andreas W

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a vital enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to water and pumps protons across mitochondrial and bacterial membranes. While proton uptake channels as well as water exit channels have been identified for A-type CcOs, the means by which water and protons exit B-type CcOs remain unclear. In this work, we investigate potential mechanisms for proton transport above the dinuclear center (DNC) in ba3-type CcO of Thermus thermophilus. Using long-time scale, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several relevant protonation states, we identify a potential mechanism for proton transport that involves propionate A of the active site heme a3 and residues Asp372, His376 and Glu126(II), with residue His376 acting as the proton-loading site. The proposed proton transport process involves a rotation of residue His376 and is in line with experimental findings. We also demonstrate how the strength of the salt bridge between residues Arg225 and Asp287 depends on the protonation state and that this salt bridge is unlikely to act as a simple electrostatic gate that prevents proton backflow. We identify two water exit pathways that connect the water pool above the DNC to the outer P-side of the membrane, which can potentially also act as proton exit transport pathways. Importantly, these water exit pathways can be blocked by narrowing the entrance channel between residues Gln151(II) and Arg449/Arg450 or by obstructing the entrance through a conformational change of residue Tyr136, respectively, both of which seem to be affected by protonation of residue His376.

  10. Proton transfer in the K-channel analog of B-type Cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelke, Anna Lena; Wagner, Anke; Galstyan, Gegham; Meyer, Tim; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2014-11-04

    A key enzyme in aerobic metabolism is cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), which catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to water in the mitochondrial and bacterial membranes. Substrate electrons and protons are taken up from different sides of the membrane and protons are pumped across the membrane, thereby generating an electrochemical gradient. The well-studied A-type CcO uses two different entry channels for protons: the D-channel for all pumped and two consumed protons, and the K-channel for the other two consumed protons. In contrast, the B-type CcO uses only a single proton input channel for all consumed and pumped protons. It has the same location as the A-type K-channel (and thus is named the K-channel analog) without sharing any significant sequence homology. In this study, we performed molecular-dynamics simulations and electrostatic calculations to characterize the K-channel analog in terms of its energetic requirements and functionalities. The function of Glu-15B as a proton sink at the channel entrance is demonstrated by its rotational movement out of the channel when it is deprotonated and by its high pKA value when it points inside the channel. Tyr-244 in the middle of the channel is identified as the valve that ensures unidirectional proton transfer, as it moves inside the hydrogen-bond gap of the K-channel analog only while being deprotonated. The electrostatic energy landscape was calculated for all proton-transfer steps in the K-channel analog, which functions via proton-hole transfer. Overall, the K-channel analog has a very stable geometry without large energy barriers.

  11. Oxygen abundance determination of B-type stars with the O I 7771-5 Å lines*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen abundances of 34 B-type stars in the effective temperature range of Teff ˜ 10000-28000 K with diversified rotational velocities (vesin i ˜ 0-250 km s-1) were determined from the O I triplet lines at 7771-5 Å, with an aim of examining whether this O I feature can be a reliable abundance indicator for such high-temperature stars including rapid rotators. It revealed that the required non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance correction is distinctly large (ranging from ˜-0.6 dex to ˜-1.7 dex) and its consideration is indispensable. On the condition that the non-LTE effect is taken into account, this triplet is a useful O abundance indicator (with a precision of ≲ 0.2 dex) up to Teff ≲ 25000 K, since its total equivalent width is sufficiently large ( ≳ 200 mÅ). In contrast, it is not adequate for abundance derivation for stars at Teff ≳ 25000 K, where its strength rapidly drops down toward a hardly detectable level (except for sharp-lined stars) and its sensitivity to Teff or log g becomes considerably large. The resulting non-LTE oxygen abundances turned out to be almost normal (i.e., near-solar around ˜8.7-8.8 within ˜±0.2 dex) for most stars without any dependence upon projected rotational velocity as well as luminosity (or mass), which is consistent with the prediction of recent stellar evolution calculations.

  12. NLTE carbon abundance determination in selected A- and B-type stars and the interpretation of C I emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, S. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2016-10-01

    We constructed a comprehensive model atom for C I-C II using the most up-to-date atomic data available and evaluated the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for C I and C II in classical 1D models representing the atmospheres of A- and late B-type stars. Our NLTE calculations predict the emission that appears at effective temperature of 9250 to 10 500 K depending on log g in the C I 8335, 9405 Å singlet lines and at Teff> 15 000 K (log g = 4) in the C I 9061-9111 Å, 9603-9658 Å triplet lines. A pre-requisite of the emission phenomenon is the overionization-recombination mechanism resulting in a depopulation of the lower levels of C I to a greater extent than the upper levels. Extra depopulation of the lower levels of the transitions corresponding to the near-infrared lines, is caused by photon loss in the UV lines C I 2479, 1930, and 1657 Å. We analysed the lines of C I and C II in Vega, HD 73666, Sirius, 21 Peg, π Cet, HD 22136, and ι Her taking advantage of their observed high-resolution spectra. The C I emission lines were detected in the four hottest stars, and they were well reproduced in our NLTE calculations. For each star, the mean NLTE abundances from lines of the two ionization stages, C I and C II, including the C I emission lines, were found to be consistent. We show that the predicted C I emission phenomenon depends strongly on whether accurate or approximate electron-impact excitation rates are applied.

  13. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  14. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  15. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentration

  16. Carbohydrate-responsive gene expression in adipose tissue of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although obesity is often associated with high fat diets, it can develop from a variety of meal patterns. Excessive intake of simple carbohydrates is one consistent eating behavior leading to obesity. However, the impact of over-consumption of diets with high carbohydrate-to-fat ratios (C/F) on body...

  17. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity measuremen

  18. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  19. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  20. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  1. Dynamic fluctuations of protein-carbohydrate interactions promote protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Voynov

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interactions are important for glycoprotein structure and function. Antibodies of the IgG class, with increasing significance as therapeutics, are glycosylated at a conserved site in the constant Fc region. We hypothesized that disruption of protein-carbohydrate interactions in the glycosylated domain of antibodies leads to the exposure of aggregation-prone motifs. Aggregation is one of the main problems in protein-based therapeutics because of immunogenicity concerns and decreased efficacy. To explore the significance of intramolecular interactions between aromatic amino acids and carbohydrates in the IgG glycosylated domain, we utilized computer simulations, fluorescence analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis. We find that the surface exposure of one aromatic amino acid increases due to dynamic fluctuations. Moreover, protein-carbohydrate interactions decrease upon stress, while protein-protein and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions increase. Substitution of the carbohydrate-interacting aromatic amino acids with non-aromatic residues leads to a significantly lower stability than wild type, and to compromised binding to Fc receptors. Our results support a mechanism for antibody aggregation via decreased protein-carbohydrate interactions, leading to the exposure of aggregation-prone regions, and to aggregation.

  2. Why use DFT methods in the study of carbohydrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) and computer technology allow us to study systems with more than 100 atoms routinely. This makes it feasible to study large carbohydrate molecules via quantum mechanical methods, whereas in the past, studies of carbohydrates were restricted to ...

  3. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  4. A CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae) has a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter R; Schindler, Michael; Howles, Paul; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    Cellulose synthases form rosette terminal complexes in the plasma membranes of Streptophyta and various linear terminal complexes in other taxa. The sequence of a putative CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Floridiophyceae) was deduced using a cloning strategy involving degenerate primers, a cDNA library screen, and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). RACE identified two alternative transcriptional starts and four alternative polyadenylation sites. The first translation start codon provided an open reading frame of 2610 bp encoding 870 amino acids and was PCR amplified without introns from genomic DNA. Southern hybridization indicated one strongly hybridizing gene with possible weakly related genes or pseudogenes. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) upstream of the protein's first predicted transmembrane domain. There are broad similarities in predicted 3D structures of the family 48 modules from CESA, from several glycogen- and starch-binding enzymes, and from protein kinases, but there are substitutions at some residues thought to be involved in ligand binding. The module in G. monilis CESA will be on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane so that it could potentially bind either low molecular weight ligands or starch which is cytosolic rather than inside membrane-bound plastids in red algae. Possible reasons why red algal CESAs have evolved family 48 modules perhaps as part of a system to regulate cellulose synthase activity in relation to cellular carbohydrate status are briefly discussed.

  5. [Carbohydrate absorption and malabsorption (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, W F

    1977-06-01

    Starch is digested intraluminally by alpha-amylase to maltose, maltotriose, and alpha-limit dextrins. These products, as well as the disaccharides sucrose and lactose, undergo enzymatic hydrolysis to monosaccharides at the brush border surface. The monosaccharides enter the absorbing cell by specific transport mechanisms ("carriers"). Primary carbohydrate (CH) intolerance is characterized by the congenital or acquired absence of individual brush border enzymes or of monosaccharide "carriers" without morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal villus: lactose, sucrose and trehalose intolerance and glucose-galactose malabsorption (brush border diseases). Secondary CH intolerance arises when surface digestion and absorption are reduced due to structural changes of the intestinal mucosa: e.g., decrease or absence of villi with sprue and reduction of the absorbing surface with intestinal resection. Watery diarrhea is the lead symptom. Many drugs delay or interfere with CH absorption. This action may be viewed either as an unwanted side effect or as a welcome therapeutic principle.

  6. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  7. Carbohydrate based materials for gamma radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbakh, F.; Babaee, V.; Naghsh-Nezhad, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Due to the limitation in using lead as a shielding material for its toxic properties and limitation in abundance, price or non-flexibility of other commonly used materials, finding new shielding materials and compounds is strongly required. In this conceptual study carbohydrate based compounds were considered as new shielding materials. The simulation of radiation attenuation is performed using MCNP and Geant4 with a good agreement in the results. It is found that, the thickness of 2 mm of the proposed compound may reduce up to 5% and 50% of 1 MeV and 35 keV gamma-rays respectively in comparison with 15% and 100% for the same thickness of lead.

  8. Glycosidases: a key to tailored carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarová, Pavla; Kren, Vladimír

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, carbohydrate-processing enzymes have become the enzymes of choice in many applications thanks to their stereoselectivity and efficiency. This review presents recent developments in glycosidase-catalyzed synthesis via two complementary approaches: the use of wild-type enzymes with engineered substrates, and mutant glycosidases. Genetic engineering has recently produced glucuronyl synthases, an inverting xylosynthase and the first mutant endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. A thorough selection of enzyme strains and aptly modified substrates have resulted in rare glycostructures, such as N-acetyl-beta-galactosaminuronates, beta1,4-linked mannosides and alpha1,4-linked galactosides. The efficient selection of mutant enzymes is facilitated by high-throughput screening assays involving the co-expression of coupled enzymes or chemical complementation. Selective glycosidase inhibitors and highly specific glycosidases are finding attractive applications in biomedicine, biology and proteomics.

  9. Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D

    2016-12-08

    With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density. This problem renders the affected structures unusable in glyco-chemical terms. Bringing structural glycobiology up to 'protein standards' will require a total overhaul of the methodology. Time is of the essence, as the community is steadily increasing the production rate of glycoproteins, and electron cryo-microscopy has just started to image them in precisely that resolution range where crystallographic methods falter most.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P; Zorzano, A

    1997-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been cloned and characterized in a wide range of organisms. PI 3-kinases are activated by a diversity of extracellular stimuli and are involved in multiple cell processes such as cell proliferation, protein trafficking, cell motility, differentiation, regulation of cytoskeletal structure, and apoptosis. It has recently been shown that PI 3-kinase is a crucial second messenger in the signaling of myogenesis. Two structurally unrelated highly specific inhibitors of PI 3-kinase-wortmannin and LY294002-block the morphological and biochemical differentiation program of different skeletal-muscle cell models. Moreover, L6E9 myoblasts overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant of PI 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit (Δp85) are unable to differentiate. Furthermore, PI 3-kinase is specifically involved in the insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-dependent myogenic pathway. Indeed, the ability of IGF-I, des-1,3-IGF-I, and IGF-II to promote cell fusion and muscle-specific protein expression is impaired after treatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitors or in cells overexpressing Δp85. The identification of additional key downstream elements of the IGF/PI 3-kinase myogenic cascade is crucial to a detailed understanding of the process of muscle differentiation and may generate new tools for skeletal and cardiac muscle regeneration therapies. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:198-202). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    concentration than controls with a low alcohol intake (detected between carbohydrate deficient transferrin in artery and liver vein or artery and renal vein, either in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 11) or in controls (n = 8......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns...

  12. Carbohydrate CuAAC click chemistry for therapy and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Peng; Zeng, Ya-Li; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Field, Robert A; Chen, Guo-Rong

    2016-06-24

    Carbohydrates are important as signaling molecules and for cellular recognition events, therefore offering scope for the development of carbohydrate-mimetic diagnostics and drug candidates. As a consequence, the construction of carbohydrate-based bioactive compounds and sensors has become an active research area. While the advent of click chemistry has greatly accelerated the progress of medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, recent literature has seen an extensive use of such approaches to construct functionally diverse carbohydrate derivatives. Here we summarize some of the progress, covering the period 2010 to mid-2015, in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition CuAAC "click chemistry" of carbohydrate derivatives, in the context of potential therapeutic and diagnostic tool development.

  13. Defined presentation of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Mark K; Hütter, Julia; Eriksson, Magdalena; Lepenies, Bernd; Seeberger, Peter H

    2011-12-16

    A new method for the spatially defined alignment of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold is presented. The use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester phosphoramidite along with carbohydrates containing an alkylamine linker allows for on-column labeling during solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. This modification method during solid-phase synthesis only requires the use of minimal amounts of complex carbohydrates. The covalently attached carbohydrates are presented in the major groove of the B-form duplex DNA as potential substrates for murine type II C-type lectin receptors mMGL1 and mMGL2. CD spectroscopy and thermal melting revealed only minimal disturbance of the overall helical structure. Surface plasmon resonance and cellular uptake studies with bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells were used to assess the capability of these carbohydrate-modified duplexes to bind to mMGL receptors.

  14. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... and carbohydrate mimetics. Such polyhydroxylated compounds are conveniently synthesized from carbohydrates, however, due to the scarcity of many sugars from nature, efficient methods for transformation of readily available carbohydrates into valuable chiral building blocks are required. The work presented...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  15. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...... for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon...... sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites...

  16. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  17. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content) ...

  18. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  19. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  20. B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein in the prediction of atrial fibrillation risk: the CHARGE-AF Consortium of community-based cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Sinner (Moritz); K.A. Stepas (Katherine A.); C.B. Moser (Carlee B.); B.P. Krijthe (Bouwe); T. Aspelund (Thor); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); M. Fontes (Michel); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); R.A. Kronmal (Richard); J.W. Magnani (Jared); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.M. Chamberlain (Alanna); S.A. Lubitz (Steven); R. Schnabel (Renate); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran S.); T.J. Wang (Thomas); S.K. Agarwal (Sunil); D.D. McManus (David); O.H. Franco (Oscar); X. Yin (Xiaoyan); M.G. Larson (Martin); G.L. Burke (Greg); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A. Hofman (Albert); D. Levy (Daniel); J.S. Gottdiener (John); S. Kääb (Stefan); D.J. Couper (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara); B.C. Astor (Brad); C. Ballantyne (Christie); R.C. Hoogeveen (Ron); T. Arai (Takashi); E.Z. Soliman (Elsayed Z.); P.T. Ellinor (Patrick); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); M. Pencina (Michael); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); A. Alonso (Alvaro)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. However, their risk stratification abilities in the broad community remain uncertain. We sought to improve risk stratification for AF using biomarker information.METHODS AND RESULTS

  1. Increased B-type natriuretic peptide and decreased proteinuria might reflect decreased capillary leakage and is associated with a better outcome in patients with severe burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Karina; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; Eshuis, Hans; Beerthuizen, Gerard I J M; Janssen, Wilbert M

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is difficult to adjust fluid balance adequately in patients with severe burns due to various physical changes. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is emerging as a potential marker of hydration state. Proteinuria is used as a predictor of outcome in severe illness and might correlate t

  2. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  3. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Riffat I; Schellenberg, John; Henrissat, Bernard; Verbeke, Tobin J; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199) and carbohydrate binding modules (95) were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  4. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  5. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring.

  6. B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein in the prediction of atrial fibrillation risk: the CHARGE-AF Consortium of community-based cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, Moritz F.; Stepas, Katherine A.; Moser, Carlee B.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Aspelund, Thor; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Fontes, João D.; Janssens, A. Cecile J.W.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; McManus, David D.; Franco, Oscar H.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Larson, Martin G.; Burke, Gregory L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hofman, Albert; Levy, Daniel; Gottdiener, John S.; Kääb, Stefan; Couper, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Astor, Brad C.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Arai, Andrew E.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Stricker, Bruno H.C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Heckbert, Susan R.; Pencina, Michael J.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Aims B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. However, their risk stratification abilities in the broad community remain uncertain. We sought to improve risk stratification for AF using biomarker information. Methods and results We ascertained AF incidence in 18 556 Whites and African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC, n=10 675), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS, n = 5043), and Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n = 2838), followed for 5 years (prediction horizon). We added BNP (ARIC/CHS: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; FHS: BNP), CRP, or both to a previously reported AF risk score, and assessed model calibration and predictive ability [C-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI)]. We replicated models in two independent European cohorts: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study (AGES), n = 4467; Rotterdam Study (RS), n = 3203. B-type natriuretic peptide and CRP were significantly associated with AF incidence (n = 1186): hazard ratio per 1-SD ln-transformed biomarker 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.56–1.76], P < 0.0001 and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.11–1.25), P < 0.0001, respectively. Model calibration was sufficient (BNP, χ2 = 17.0; CRP, χ2 = 10.5; BNP and CRP, χ2 = 13.1). B-type natriuretic peptide improved the C-statistic from 0.765 to 0.790, yielded an IDI of 0.027 (95% CI, 0.022–0.032), a relative IDI of 41.5%, and a continuous NRI of 0.389 (95% CI, 0.322–0.455). The predictive ability of CRP was limited (C-statistic increment 0.003). B-type natriuretic peptide consistently improved prediction in AGES and RS. Conclusion B-type natriuretic peptide, not CRP, substantially improved AF risk prediction beyond clinical factors in an independently replicated, heterogeneous population. B-type natriuretic peptide may serve as a benchmark to evaluate novel putative AF risk biomarkers. PMID:25037055

  7. Comparative studies of vertebrate scavenger receptor class B type 1: a high-density lipoprotein binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes RS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Roger S Holmes,1,2 Laura A Cox11Department of Genetics and Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Scavenger receptor class B type 1 protein (SCARB1 plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis and functions in binding high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL in liver and other tissues of the body. SCARB1 also functions in lymphocyte homeostasis and in the uptake of hepatitis C virus (HCV by the liver. A genetic deficiency of this protein results in autoimmune disorders and significant changes in blood cholesterol phenotype. Comparative SCARB1 amino acid sequences and structures and SCARB1 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate SCARB1 sequences shared 50%–99% identity as compared with 28%–31% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, ie, SCARB2 and SCARB3 (also called CD36. At least eight N-glycosylation sites were conserved among most of the vertebrate SCARB1 proteins examined. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues, and conserved predicted secondary structures were also studied, including: cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and exoplasmic sequences; conserved N-terminal and C-terminal transmembrane glycines which participate in oligomer formation; conserved cystine disulfides and a free SH residue which participates in lipid transport; carboxyl terminal PDZ-binding domain sequences (Ala507-Arg/Lys508-Leu509; and 30 conserved proline and 18 conserved glycine residues, which may contribute to short loop formation within the exoplasmic HDL-binding sequence. Vertebrate SCARB1 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human SCARB1 gene contained CpG islands, micro RNA binding sites, and several transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG which may contribute to the high level (13.7 times

  8. Mendelian randomization study of B-type natriuretic peptide and type 2 diabetes: evidence of causal association from population studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pfister

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic and epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in blood and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but the prospective association of BNP with T2D is uncertain, and it is unclear whether the association is confounded. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed the association between levels of the N-terminal fragment of pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP in blood and risk of incident T2D in a prospective case-cohort study and genotyped the variant rs198389 within the BNP locus in three T2D case-control studies. We combined our results with existing data in a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we compared the observed association between rs198389 and T2D to that expected from the NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association and the NT-pro-BNP difference per C allele of rs198389. In participants of our case-cohort study who were free of T2D and cardiovascular disease at baseline, we observed a 21% (95% CI 3%-36% decreased risk of incident T2D per one standard deviation (SD higher log-transformed NT-pro-BNP levels in analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, family history of T2D, history of hypertension, and levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The association between rs198389 and T2D observed in case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.94 per C allele, 95% CI 0.91-0.97 was similar to that expected (0.96, 0.93-0.98 based on the pooled estimate for the log-NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association derived from a meta-analysis of our study and published data (hazard ratio = 0.82 per SD, 0.74-0.90 and the difference in NT-pro-BNP levels (0.22 SD, 0.15-0.29 per C allele of rs198389. No significant associations were observed between the rs198389 genotype and potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for a potential causal role of the BNP

  9. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is involved in vitamin E transport across the enterocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Klein, Alexis; Bietrix, Florence; Gleize, Béatrice; Malezet-Desmoulins, Christiane; Schneider, Martina; Margotat, Alain; Lagrost, Laurent; Collet, Xavier; Borel, Patrick

    2006-02-24

    Although cellular uptake of vitamin E was initially described as a passive process, recent studies in the liver and brain have shown that SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type I) is involved in this phenomenon. As SR-BI is expressed at high levels in the intestine, the present study addressed the involvement of SR-BI in vitamin E trafficking across enterocytes. Apical uptake and efflux of the main dietary forms of vitamin E were examined using Caco-2 TC-7 cell monolayers as a model of human intestinal epithelium. (R,R,R)-gamma-tocopherol bioavailability was compared between wild-type mice and mice overexpressing SR-BI in the intestine. The effect of vitamin E on enterocyte SR-BI mRNA levels was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Concentration-dependent curves for vitamin E uptake were similar for (R,R,R)-alpha-, (R,R,R)-gamma-, and dl-alpha-tocopherol. (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol transport was dependent on incubation temperature, with a 60% reduction in absorption at 4 degrees C compared with 37 degrees C (p < 0.05). Vitamin E flux in enterocytes was directed from the apical to the basal side, with a relative 10-fold reduction in the transfer process when measured in the opposite direction (p < 0.05). Co-incubation with cholesterol, gamma-tocopherol, or lutein significantly impaired alpha-tocopherol absorption. Anti-human SR-BI antibodies and BLT1 (a chemical inhibitor of lipid transport via SR-BI) blocked up to 80% of vitamin E uptake and up to 30% of apical vitamin E efflux (p < 0.05), and similar results were obtained for (R,R,R)-gamma-tocopherol. SR-BI mRNA levels were not significantly modified after a 24-h incubation of Caco-2 cells with vitamin E. Finally, (R,R,R)-gamma-tocopherol bioavailability was 2.7-fold higher in mice overexpressing SR-BI than in wild-type mice (p < 0.05). The present data show for the first time that vitamin E intestinal absorption is, at least in part, mediated by SR-BI.

  10. D-pinitol attenuates the impaired activities of hepatic key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Selvaraj; Subramanian, Sorimuthu P

    2009-09-01

    During diabetes mellitus, endogenous hepatic glucose production is increased as a result of impaired activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, which leads to the condition known as hyperglycemia. D-pinitol, a bioactive constituent isolated from soybeans, has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia in experimental diabetes. We therefore designed this study to investigate the effect of oral administration of D-pinitol (50 mg/kg b. w. for 30 days) on the activities of key enzymes in carbohydrate and glycogen metabolism in the liver tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The efficacy was compared with glyclazide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. Oral administration of D-pinitol to diabetic group of rats showed a marked decrease in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and an increase in plasma insulin and body weight. The activities of the hepatic enzymes such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and hepatic glycogen content were significantly (p pinitol. The results suggest that alterations in the activities of key metabolic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism could be one of the biochemical rationale by which D-pinitol attenuates the hyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats.

  11. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter.

  12. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  13. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  14. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon...... carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...

  15. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    -defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors....

  16. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner....... Subsequently, the immunomodulating substance is also bound in a chemoselective manner, to give a dendrimer conjugate with a well-defined structure and connectivity and containing a precise, pre-determined ratio of carbohydrate to immunomodulating substance. The invention also relates to novel dendrimer...

  17. Carbohydrate – protein complex of the waste of climacoptera obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Seitimova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from Climacoptera obtusifolia family Chenopodiaceae has antidiabetic activity. For the first time carbohydrate-protein complex of the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia was studied. It was found that the quantity of extractive substances with 80% ethanol in aerial part – 52;6% and in the waste – 12;35%. The technique of separation of the carbohydrate-protein complex from the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia is developed by means of classical and physical-chemical methods. The composition of carbohydrate-protein complex was identified: oligosaccharide; polysaccharide and two glycoproteins.

  18. Carbohydrate metabolism and its regulatory hormones in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, R C

    1996-04-16

    Findings of studies of carbohydrate metabolism in anorexia nervosa are reviewed. Topics covered included fasting blood sugar concentrations; serum insulin concentrations, insulin receptor binding activity, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance; plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids; glucose tolerance tests; growth hormone, cortisol, intestinal hormones, and norepinephrine. Metabolic changes reported in anorexia nervosa are similar to those found in human and animal studies of states of caloric and carbohydrate restriction. Restoration of normal body weight is associated with normalization of virtually all measures. It is concluded that published studies offer no conclusive evidence for a syndrome-specific impairment in carbohydrate metabolism in anorexia nervosa.

  19. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  20. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms. Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  1. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, R S; de Graaf, D J; Luxwolda, M F; Muskiet, M H A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2011-09-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in observational cohorts, while replacing SAFA with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with reduced CVD risk. However, replacing a combination of SAFA and trans-fatty acids with n-6 PUFA (notably linoleic acid) in controlled trials showed no indication of benefit and a signal toward increased coronary heart disease risk, suggesting that n-3 PUFA may be responsible for the protective association between total PUFA and CVD. High CHO intakes stimulate hepatic SAFA synthesis and conservation of dietary SAFA . Hepatic de novo lipogenesis from CHO is also stimulated during eucaloric dietary substitution of SAFA by CHO with high glycaemic index in normo-insulinaemic subjects and during hypocaloric high-CHO/low-fat diets in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The accumulation of SAFA stimulates chronic systemic low-grade inflammation through its mimicking of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and÷or the induction of other pro-inflammatory stimuli. The resulting systemic low-grade inflammation promotes insulin resistance, reallocation of energy-rich substrates and atherogenic dyslipidaemia that concertedly give rise to increased CVD risk. We conclude that avoidance of SAFA accumulation by reducing the intake of CHO with high glycaemic index is more effective in the prevention of CVD than reducing SAFA intake per se.

  2. Musa Paradisiaca flower extract improves carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmuga Sundaram.C; Subramanian.S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Musa Paradisiaca, commonly known as plantains have been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. In the absence of an ideal drug to alleviate the primary and secondary complications of diabetes mellitus, search for novel drugs without side effects, preferably from plant origin continues. Recently, we have reported the presence of biologically active phytochemicals as well as the hypoglycemic activity of Musa paradisiaca tepals extract in STZ induced experimental diabetes in rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of tepals, an integrated part of Musa paradisiaca flowers on carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of experimental diabetic rats. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with ethanolic extract of tepals at a concentration of 200mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days. The levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin were estimated. The activities of key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism such as glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in hepatic tissues were assayed. The levels of glycogen in hepatic tissues were also estimated. Results: Oral administration ofMusa paradisiaca tepals extract significantly improved the altered levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin and modulated the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. The glycogen content in hepatic tissues was significantly increased in diabetic rats treated with tepals extract. Conclusions: The results of the present study clearly indicate that the tepals extract plays pivotal role to maintain normoglycemia in diabetes by modulating the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes.

  3. Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REID; Suazette

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types,disease states,protein functions,and developmental states.Carbohydrate"binders"that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents.In this review,we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.Examples are arranged based on disease categories including(1) infectious diseases,(2) cancer,(3) inflammation and immune responses,(4) signal transduction,(5) stem cell transformation,(6) embryo development,and(7) cardiovascular diseases,though some issues cross therapeutic boundaries.

  4. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  5. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; 10.1051/0004-6361/201118158

    2012-01-01

    Aims. A sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived. Methods. High-resolution and high-S/N spectra of early B-type stars are analysed in NLTE. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the hydrogen Balmer lines. Results. Teff is constrained to 1-2% and logg to less than 15% uncertainty. Absolute values for metal abundances are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Conclusions. A present-day cosmic abundance standard is established. Our results i) resolve the discrepancy between a chemical homogeneous local gas-phase ISM and a chemically inhomogeneous young stellar component, ii) facilitate the amount of heavy elements locked up in the interstel...

  6. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongliangZhang; ChenDong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1):20-27.

  7. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongliang Zhang; Chen Dong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  8. Reference Intervals for N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Amniotic Fluid between 10 and 34 Weeks of Gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Merz, Waltraut M.; Christina Leufgen; Rolf Fimmers; Birgit Stoffel-Wagner; Ulrich Gembruch

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adult and pediatric cardiology, n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP) serves as biomarker in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular dysfunction. Elevated levels of circulating nt-proBNP are present in fetal conditions associated with myocardial pressure or volume load. Compared to fetal blood sampling, amniocentesis is technically easier and can be performed from early pregnancy onwards. We aimed to investigate amniotic fluid (AF) nt-proBNP concentration...

  9. B超诊断输尿管结石的价值%Diagnostic value of B type ultrasound in ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of B type ultrasound in ureteral calculi. Methods B type ultrasound examination were performed on 100 cases with ureteral calculi who were confirmed by open surgery, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and comprehensive therapy. Results The diagnostic accuracy was 94. 00% in 100 cases,no false positive was found,and the rate of missed diagnosis was 6.00% (6 cases). Conclusion B type ultrasound has a high application value in the diagnosis of ureteral calculi, which has low false positive rate and can clear display negative stone. It can also afford some accurate clues for diagnosis and clinical treatment in tihe according to abdomenal B type ultrasound and it will be preferred in way for diagnosis of acute nephrite colic especially in basic hospitals.%目的 评价B超在输尿管结石中的诊断价值.方法 对100例经手术取石、体外震波碎石和综合疗法排石证实为输尿管结石患者进行B超检查诊断分析.结果 本组100例输尿管结石患者中,B超诊断正确率为94.00%,无假阳性,漏诊6例,占6.00%.结论 B超诊断输尿管结石假阳性率低,可清晰显示X线阴性结石,有较高的临床应用价值和为临床及时准确地提供诊断和治疗依据,是急性肾绞痛的首选检查方法,特别是在基层医疗单位为首选检查方法.

  10. Sensitive carbohydrate detection using surface enhanced Raman tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Yanney, Michael; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Zou, Sige; Sygula, Andrzej; Zhang, Dongmao

    2010-12-15

    Glycomic analysis is an increasingly important field in biological and biomedical research as glycosylation is one of the most important protein post-translational modifications. We have developed a new technique to detect carbohydrates using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by designing and applying a Rhodamine B derivative as the SERS tag. Using a reductive amination reaction, the Rhodamine-based tag (RT) was successfully conjugated to three model carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, and glucuronic acid). SERS detection limits obtained with a 633 nm HeNe laser were ∼1 nM in concentration for all the RT-carbohydrate conjugates and ∼10 fmol in total sample consumption. The dynamic range of the SERS method is about 4 orders of magnitude, spanning from 1 nM to 5 μM. Ratiometric SERS quantification using isotope-substituted SERS internal references allows comparative quantifications of carbohydrates labeled with RT and deuterium/hydrogen substituted RT tags, respectively. In addition to enhancing the SERS detection of the tagged carbohydrates, the Rhodamine tagging facilitates fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates. Current fluorescence sensitivity of RT-carbohydrates is ∼3 nM in concentration while the mass spectrometry (MS) sensitivity is about 1 fmol, achieved with a linear ion trap electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS instrument. Potential applications that take advantage of the high SERS, fluorescence, and MS sensitivity of this SERS tagging strategy are discussed for practical glycomic analysis where carbohydrates may be quantified with a fluorescence and SERS technique and then identified with ESI-MS techniques.

  11. The role of carbohydrates in infection strategies of enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens.

  12. Comparison of the backbone dynamics of wild-type Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c{sub 552} and its b-type variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozawa, Kaeko; Ferguson, Stuart J.; Redfield, Christina, E-mail: christina.redfield@bioch.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Smith, Lorna J., E-mail: lorna.smith@chem.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cytochrome c{sub 552} from the thermophilic bacterium Hydrogenobacter thermophilus is a typical c-type cytochrome which binds heme covalently via two thioether bonds between the two heme vinyl groups and two cysteine thiol groups in a CXXCH sequence motif. This protein was converted to a b-type cytochrome by substitution of the two cysteine residues by alanines (Tomlinson and Ferguson in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5156–5160, 2000a). To probe the significance of the covalent attachment of the heme in the c-type protein, {sup 15}N relaxation and hydrogen exchange studies have been performed for the wild-type and b-type proteins. The two variants share very similar backbone dynamic properties, both proteins showing high {sup 15}N order parameters in the four main helices, with reduced values in an exposed loop region (residues 18–21), and at the C-terminal residue Lys80. Some subtle changes in chemical shift and hydrogen exchange protection are seen between the wild-type and b-type variant proteins, not only for residues at and neighbouring the mutation sites, but also for some residues in the heme binding pocket. Overall, the results suggest that the main role of the covalent linkages between the heme group and the protein chain must be to increase the stability of the protein.

  13. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, Christel [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, Unite PSH, F- 84914 Avignon (France); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Mazzia, Christophe [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France)], E-mail: mazzia@avignon.inra.fr

    2009-01-15

    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (K{sub m} = 77.2 mM; V{sub max} = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (K{sub m} = 222 mM, V{sub max} = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10{sup -5}-3.80 x 10{sup -8} M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10{sup -5}-2.98 x 10{sup -8} M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposure.

  14. Myopericarditis with predominantly right ventricular involvement with normal B-type natriuretic peptide and cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manautou, Luis; Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Meraz, Manuel; Perez-Garcia, Luis F; Diaz-Cid, Antonio; de la Peña-Almaguer, Erasmo; Avila, Cesar; Sanchez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with a 12-hour history of sudden dyspnea and severe chest pain at rest. Initial findings of physical examination, electrocardiogram and chest radiography showed typical pericarditis and clinical instability. Echocardiogram revealed small pericardial effusion with right ventricle dilatation. The patient was admitted in the ICU; a new echocardiogram revealed moderate pericardial effusion and diagnosis of pericarditis complicated with acute cardiac tamponade was established. The patient transiently improved after pericardial window. In the following hours, the diagnosis of myocarditis with predominantly right ventricular involvement (MPRVI) with severe right heart failure was supported by clinical, chest radiography and echocardiogram data, despite normal B-type natriuretic peptide. On day 2, cardiac troponin I detection was observed. By day 3, B-type natriuretic peptide in the range of ventricular dysfunction was identified. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings supported the diagnosis of MPRVI. A systematic MEDLINE/PubMed from 1993 to 2013 does not identify any cases of MPRVI related to systemic lupus erythematosus. Simultaneous acute MPRVI with normal B-type natriuretic peptide and acute cardiac tamponade heralding the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described.

  15. B类滤毒罐防护磷化氢性能评价探讨%Evaluation of B-Type Canister Protective Performance against Phosphine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东旺; 李泽; 赵鑫华; 尹维东; 李志坚; 元以栋

    2012-01-01

    磷化氢是粮食仓储企业使用效果最好的杀虫剂,是一种剧毒的气体熏蒸剂。所以对于从业人员来讲,安全防护就显得格外重要。长期以来粮食仓储企业一直使用自吸过滤式防毒面具(配套选用B类滤毒罐)为首选器材。近期业内对B类滤毒罐防护磷化氢的有效性提出质疑,为此,本文通过性能评价试验,说明B类滤毒罐防护磷化氢是有效的,并从理论上说明B类滤毒罐防护磷化氢是有科学依据的。%Phosphine is the best pesticides of the grain storage enterprise, and is the toxic gaseous fumigant. For users, it is important for the security. For a long time, the grain storage enterprise uses the serf-absorption filtering gas mask (selecting the B-type canister) . Recently, the protective performance against phosphine of B-type canister is doubted, through the test, this paper will explain the effective and scientific theory of B-type canister.

  16. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.

  17. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides for Pan Anti-Tumor Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKieber-Emmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology which transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience in bringing a tumor-associated carbohydrate mimetic peptide to the clinic. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor associated carbohydrate antigens and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to pan-glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells.

  18. Simulation of carbohydrates, from molecular docking to dynamics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapay, Nicolas; Nurisso, Alessandra; Imberty, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of carbohydrates is particularly challenging because of the variety of structures resulting for the high number of monosaccharides and possible linkages and also because of their intrinsic flexibility. The development of carbohydrate parameters for molecular modeling is still an active field. Nowadays, main carbohydrates force fields are GLYCAM06, CHARMM36, and GROMOS 45A4. GLYCAM06 includes the largest choice of compounds and is compatible with the AMBER force fields and associated. Furthermore, AMBER includes tools for the implementation of new parameters. When looking at protein-carbohydrate interaction, the choice of the starting structure is of importance. Such complex can be sometimes obtained from the Protein Data Bank-although the stereochemistry of sugars may require some corrections. When no experimental data is available, molecular docking simulation is generally used to the obtain protein-carbohydrate complex coordinates. As molecular docking parameters are not specifically dedicated to carbohydrates, inaccuracies should be expected, especially for the docking of polysaccharides. This issue can be addressed at least partially by combining molecular docking with molecular dynamics simulation in water.

  19. Bacterial, plant, and fungal carbohydrate structure databases: daily usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukach, Philip V; Egorova, Ksenia S

    2015-01-01

    Natural carbohydrates play important roles in living systems and therefore are used as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The main goal of glycomics is systematization of carbohydrates and elucidation of their role in human health and disease. The amount of information on natural carbohydrates accumulates rapidly, but scientists still lack databases and computer-assisted tools needed for orientation in the glycomic information space. Therefore, freely available, regularly updated, and cross-linked databases are demanded. Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (Bacterial CSDB) was developed for provision of structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other related information on bacterial and archaeal carbohydrate structures. Its main features are (1) coverage above 90%, (2) high data consistence (above 90% of error-free records), and (3) presence of manually verified bibliographic, NMR spectroscopic, and taxonomic annotations. Recently, CSDB has been expanded to cover carbohydrates of plant and fungal origin. The achievement of full coverage in the plant and fungal domains is expected in the future. CSDB is freely available on the Internet as a web service at http://csdb.glycoscience.ru. This chapter aims at showing how to use CSDB in your daily scientific practice.

  20. Carbohydrate-based nanoparticles for potential applications in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marradi, Marco; García, Isabel; Penadés, Soledad

    2011-01-01

    Although carbohydrates are essential for life, the development of medical tools based on these important biomolecules is significantly slower than those based on proteins or nucleic acids. This chapter deals with the applications of nanoparticles decorated with carbohydrates and discusses the perspectives of their use in the field of medicine. The review is divided into two sections: diagnosis and therapy. Within these topics, the focus will be on two main types of systems: carbohydrate-coated metallic nanoparticles in which the carbohydrate ligands are "covalently" linked to a nanosized metallic cluster and polysaccharide-encapsulated metallic cores. The former glyconanoparticles (GNPs) represent a powerful chemical tool in the field of glycobiology as a specific carbohydrate can be selected to exert a concrete biological function and profile carbohydrate-based interactions. Up to now, these GNPs have been mainly used as potential anti-adhesion agents against pathogens. The opportunity of inserting multifunctionality and changing the nucleus size/material is giving birth to new targeted systems for imaging and therapy. On the other hand, nonmetallic polysaccharide-based nanoparticles have been successfully used as drug delivery carriers in addition to molecular imaging.

  1. Signal Amplification by Glyco-qPCR for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carbohydrates: Applications in Glycobiology**

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Seok Joon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Masuko, Sayaka; Ly, Mellisa; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Robert J Linhardt

    2012-01-01

    Tiny amounts of carbohydrates (ca. 1 zmol) can be detected quantitatively by a real-time method based on the conjugation of carbohydrates with DNA markers (see picture). The proposed method (glyco-qPCR) provides uniform, ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrates, which can be applied to glycobiology, as well as carbohydrate-based drug discovery.

  2. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  3. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kieber-Emmons

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs. To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I, and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  4. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses. PMID:24213131

  5. Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Frank C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium is actively involved in a number of metabolic reactions as an important co-factor, with special emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism. After a brief overview of the regulation of intra- and extracellular magnesium, the present review first describes the regulatory role of magnesium in important metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and glycaemic control. Next the clinical significance of hypomagnesaemic conditions with regard to the management of glucose in prediabetic stages, such as insulin resistance/impaired glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies suggest that a reduced dietary magnesium intake serves as a risk factor for the incidence of both impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms that might be responsible for diabetes-associated hypomagnesaemia are discussed. Furthermore, the role of hypomagnesaemia in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications are addressed. Finally, the available literature on the effects of magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control parameters during prediabetic conditions (preventive approach) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (therapeutic approach) are reviewed systematically. There is considerable evidence that chronic magnesium supplementation may delay the progression from impaired glucose regulation to type 2 diabetes; however, the effects of oral magnesium supplementation as an adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes are quite heterogeneous with respect to the various measures of glycaemic control. The results of this review suggest a requirement for critical consideration of the pros and cons of magnesium replacement therapy, based on variables such as magnesium status, stage of disease and glycaemic control.

  6. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  7. Carbohydrate Supplementation Influences Serum Cytokines after Exercise under Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Venticinque Caris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise performed at the hypoxia equivalent of an altitude of 4200 m is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators and changes in the Th1/Th2 response. By contrast, supplementation with carbohydrates has an anti-inflammatory effect when exercise is performed under normoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on cytokines and cellular damage markers after exercise under hypoxic conditions at a simulated altitude of 4200 m. Methods: Seven adult male volunteers who exercised for 60 min at an intensity of 50% VO2Peak were randomly evaluated under three distinct conditions; normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation. Blood samples were collected at rest, at the end of exercise and after 60 min of recovery. To evaluate hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation, volunteers received a solution of 6% carbohydrate (maltodextrin or a placebo (strawberry-flavored Crystal Light®; Kraft Foods, Northfield, IL, USA every 20 min during exercise and recovery. Statistical analyses comprised analysis of variance, with a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 after exercise and after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05, while in the hypoxia + carbohydrate group, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α after exercise compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Furthermore, under this condition, TNF-α, IL-2 and the balance of IL-2/IL-4 were increased after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that carbohydrate supplementation modified the IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations and shifted the IL-2/IL-4 balance towards Th1 in response without glycemic, glutaminemia and cell damage effects.

  8. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan eGreeff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are surface localized, transmembrane receptors comprising a large family of well-studied kinases. RLKs signal through their transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains with the aid of various interacting partners and downstream components. The N-terminal extracellular domain defines ligand specificity, and RLK families are sub-classed according to this domain. The most studied of these subfamilies include those with 1 leucine rich repeat (LRR domains, 2 LysM domains (LYM and 3 the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L domain. These proteins recognize distinct ligands of microbial origin or ligands derived from intracellular protein/carbohydrate signals. For example, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR AtFLS2 recognizes flg22 from flagellin, and the PRR AtEFR recognizes elf18 from elongation factor (EF-Tu. Upon binding of their cognate ligands, the aforementioned RLKs activate generic immune responses termed pattern triggered immunity (PTI. RLKs can form complexes with other family members and engage a variety of intracellular signaling components and regulatory pathways upon stimulation. This review focuses on interesting new data about how these receptors form protein complexes to exert their function.

  9. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  10. Selectivity switch in the catalytic functionalization of nonprotected carbohydrates: selective synthesis in the presence of anomeric and structurally similar carbohydrates under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Takemoto, Yuki

    2013-03-15

    A catalytic process for the chemo- and regioselective functionalization of nonprotected carbohydrates has been developed. This novel process allows selective thiocarbonylation, acylation, and sulfonylation of a particular hydroxy group in a particular carbohydrate in the simultaneous presence of structurally similar carbohydrates such as anomers. In addition, the chemoselectivity can be switched by regulating only the length of the alkyl chain in the organotin catalyst.

  11. A model for carbohydrate metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum deduced from comparative whole genome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Kroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to the whole genome sequence of a second diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Protein localization to mitochondria was predicted based on identified similarities to mitochondrial localization motifs in other eukaryotes, whereas protein localization to plastids was based on the presence of signal peptide motifs in combination with plastid localization motifs previously shown to be required in diatoms. We identified genes potentially involved in a C4-like photosynthesis in P. tricornutum and, on the basis of sequence-based putative localization of relevant proteins, discuss possible differences in carbon concentrating mechanisms and CO(2 fixation between the two diatoms. We also identified genes encoding enzymes involved in photorespiration with one interesting exception: glycerate kinase was not found in either P. tricornutum or T. pseudonana. Various Calvin cycle enzymes were found in up to five different isoforms, distributed between plastids, mitochondria and the cytosol. Diatoms store energy either as lipids or as chrysolaminaran (a beta-1,3-glucan outside of the plastids. We identified various beta-glucanases and large membrane-bound glucan synthases. Interestingly most of the glucanases appear to contain C-terminal anchor domains that may attach the enzymes to membranes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present a detailed synthesis of carbohydrate metabolism in diatoms based on the genome sequences of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum

  12. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well.

  13. Carbohydrate-Mimetic Peptides for Pan Anti-Tumor Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate–peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. PMID:25071769

  14. GlycoCT-a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, S; Ranzinger, R; Maass, K; Lieth, C-W V D

    2008-08-11

    As part of the EUROCarbDB project (www.eurocarbdb.org) we have carefully analyzed the encoding capabilities of all existing carbohydrate sequence formats and the content of publically available structure databases. We have found that none of the existing structural encoding schemata are capable of coping with the full complexity to be expected for experimentally derived structural carbohydrate sequence data across all taxonomic sources. This gap motivated us to define an encoding scheme for complex carbohydrates, named GlycoCT, to overcome the current limitations. This new format is based on a connection table approach, instead of a linear encoding scheme, to describe the carbohydrate sequences, with a controlled vocabulary to name monosaccharides, adopting IUPAC rules to generate a consistent, machine-readable nomenclature. The format uses a block concept to describe frequently occurring special features of carbohydrate sequences like repeating units. It exists in two variants, a condensed form and a more verbose XML syntax. Sorting rules assure the uniqueness of the condensed form, thus making it suitable as a direct primary key for database applications, which rely on unique identifiers. GlycoCT encompasses the capabilities of the heterogeneous landscape of digital encoding schemata in glycomics and is thus a step forward on the way to a unified and broadly accepted sequence format in glycobioinformatics.

  15. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes. PMID:27907133

  16. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  17. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  18. Supramaximal elevation in B-type natriuretic peptide and its N-terminal fragment levels in anephric patients with heart failure: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting John YC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known about the responses of natriuretic peptides to developing congestive heart failure in ‘anephric’ end-stage kidney disease. Case presentation We present three consecutive cases of surgically-induced anephric patients in a critical care environment: a 28-year-old Caucasian woman (with congestive heart failure, a 42-year-old Caucasian woman (without congestive heart failure, and a 23-year-old Caucasian woman (without congestive heart failure. Our limited study data indicate that cut-off values advocated for B-type natriuretic peptide and its N-terminal fragment to ‘rule out’ congestive heart failure in two of our end-stage kidney disease patients (without congestive heart failure are largely appropriate for anephric patients. However, our index (first patient developed congestive heart failure accompanied by the phenomenon of massive and persistent elevation of these natriuretic levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients from the anephric subclass suffering from congestive heart failure will develop supramaximal elevation of B-type natriuretic peptide and its N-terminal fragment, implying the need for dramatically higher cut-off values with respective magnitudes of the order of 50-fold (B-type natriuretic peptide ~5780pmol/L; 20,000ng/L to 100-fold (N-terminal fragment ~11,800pmol/L; 100,000ng/L higher than current values used to ‘rule in’ congestive heart failure. Further research will be required to delineate those cut-off values. The role of our devised ‘Blood Volume – B-type natriuretic peptide feedback control system’ on ‘anatomical’ and ‘functional’ anephric patients led to significant mathematically-enriched arguments supporting our proposal that this model provides plausible explanations for the study findings, and the model lends support to the important hypothesis that these two groups of anephric patients inflicted with congestive heart failure should effectively

  19. Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Choi, Min-Ah; Ro, Simon Weonsang; Yang, Woo Ick; Cho, Arthur E H; Ju, Hye-Lim; Baek, Sinhwa; Chung, Sook In; Kang, Won Jun; Yun, Mijin; Park, Jeon Han

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD with phytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a

  20. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide.

  1. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    , in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns...... side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least......The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications...

  2. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...

  3. Structure-property relationships and biocompatibility of carbohydrate crosslinked polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Archana; Mehta, Jayen; Thakore, Sonal

    2014-09-22

    Biocompatible and biodegradable polyurethanes (PUs) based on castor oil and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) were prepared using various carbohydrate crosslinkers: monosaccharide (glucose), disaccharide (sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch and cellulose). The mechanical and thermal properties were investigated and interpreted on the basis of SEM study. The advantage of incorporating various carbohydrates is to have tunable mechanical properties and biodegradability due to variety in their structure. The glass transition temperature and sorption behavior were dominated by the type of polyol than by the type of crosslinker. All the PUs were observed to be biodegradable as well as non-cytotoxic as revealed by MTT assay in normal lung cell line L132. The study supports the suitability of carbohydrates as important components of biocompatible PUs for development of biomedical devices.

  4. Carbohydrate mimetics and scaffolds: sweet spots in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; La Ferla, Barbara; Airoldi, Cristina; Zona, Cristiano; Orsato, Alexandre; Shaikh, Nasrin; Russo, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Several glycoprocessing enzymes and glycoreceptors have been recognized as important targets for therapeutic intervention. This concept has inspired the development of important classes of therapeutics, such as anti-influenza drugs inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, anti-inflammatory drugs targeting lectin-sialyl-Lewis X interaction and glycosidase inhibitors against HIV, Gaucher's disease, hepatitis and cancer. These therapeutics are mainly carbohydrate mimics in which proper modifications permit stronger interactions with the target protein, higher stability, better pharmacokinetic properties and easier synthesis. Furthermore, the conformational rigidity and polyfunctionality of carbohydrates stimulate their use as scaffolds for the generation of libraries by combinatorial decoration with different pharmacophores. This mini-review will present examples of how to exploit carbohydrates mimics and scaffolds in drug research.

  5. Derivatization of carbohydrates for GC and GC-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Hernández-Hernández, O; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, M L; Martínez-Castro, I

    2011-05-15

    GC and GC-MS are excellent techniques for the analysis of carbohydrates; nevertheless the preparation of adequate derivatives is necessary. The different functional groups that can be found and the diversity of samples require specific methods. This review aims to collect the most important methodologies currently used, either published as new procedures or as new applications, for the analysis of carbohydrates. A high diversity of compounds with diverse functionalities has been selected: neutral carbohydrates (saccharides and polyalcohols), sugar acids, amino and iminosugars, polysaccharides, glycosides, glycoconjugates, anhydrosugars, difructose anhydrides and products resulting of Maillard reaction (osuloses, Amadori compounds). Chiral analysis has also been considered, describing the use of diastereomers and derivatives to be eluted on chiral stationary phases.

  6. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female...... participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined....... RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...

  7. Neoglycoproteins as carbohydrate antigens: synthesis, analysis, and polyclonal antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerékgyártó, Márta; Fekete, Anikó; Szurmai, Zoltán; Kerékgyártó, János; Takács, László; Kurucz, István; Guttman, András

    2013-08-01

    The analysis and polyclonal antibody response for newly synthesized maltose-BSA conjugate neoglycoproteins is described. In this first proof of concept study, a simple carbohydrate antigen, maltose, was linked to BSA by reductive amination. An aglycone spacer was utilized to conserve the intact annular maltose structure and to promote the accessibility of the carbohydrate immunogen hapten during immunization. The neoglycoproteins were investigated by CGE and the number of conjugated maltose residues was determined by MALDI-TOF MS. The neoglycoproteins were then evaluated by immunization of BALB/c mice and the polyclonal antibody response was tested by ELISA as evidence for the presence of sugar-containing epitope-specific antibodies. Selective antibody binding was demonstrated to the synthesized neoglycoproteins with different (low and high) glycosylation degrees suggesting the possible use of this approach to generate antibodies. Moreover, the polyclonal antibody response was not inhibited by maltose or other simple carbohydrates to confirm presence of the neoglycoprotein-specific antibodies.

  8. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    , in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns......The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications...... side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least...

  9. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.

  10. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-11-01

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed.

  11. Preparation of water-soluble glycoconjugated poly(acrylamide) for NMR analyses of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Trinh Anh; Trung, Phan Nghia; Dinh, Bui Long; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    Oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates are important biopolymers not only as carriers of information in cell-cell interactions but also as markers of cellular differentiation, aging, and malignant alteration. Molecular interactions where carbohydrates are involved are usually considered as weak interactions, so the study and evaluation of these interactions is still in its infancy. The evidences and studies of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions (CCI) will be confirming the importance of this mechanism for specific cell adhesion and communication. Their development will go hand in hand with the development of new and more sensitive techniques to study weak interactions. Recently, synthetic glycopolymers with functions similar to those of such natural carbohydrates and with specific pendant saccharide moieties were used as a solution for enhancement CCI when forming polyvalent interactions. Carbohydrates are ubiquitous components of cell wall membranes and occur as glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and capsular polysaccharides. As such they can participate in forefront intramolecular and intracellular events. Apart from their recognized roles in the physicochemical properties of glycolipids and glycoproteins. In this study, we designed trisaccharide monomers for free radical polymerization. Subsequently, the trisaccharide unit for chemical conjugation was synthesized from galactosamine in good yield. For further NMR analyses of CCI, glycopolymers composed of these sugar derivatives will be provided.

  12. Solvent structure improves docking prediction in lectin-carbohydrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauto, Diego F; Petruk, Ariel A; Modenutti, Carlos P; Blanco, Juan I; Di Lella, Santiago; Martí, Marcelo A

    2013-02-01

    Recognition and complex formation between proteins and carbohydrates is a key issue in many important biological processes. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of such complexes is thus most relevant, but particularly challenging because of their usually low binding affinity. In silico docking methods have a long-standing tradition in predicting protein-ligand complexes, and allow a potentially fast exploration of a number of possible protein-carbohydrate complex structures. However, determining which of these predicted complexes represents the correct structure is not always straightforward. In this work, we present a modification of the scoring function provided by AutoDock4, a widely used docking software, on the basis of analysis of the solvent structure adjacent to the protein surface, as derived from molecular dynamics simulations, that allows the definition and characterization of regions with higher water occupancy than the bulk solvent, called water sites. They mimic the interaction held between the carbohydrate -OH groups and the protein. We used this information for an improved docking method in relation to its capacity to correctly predict the protein-carbohydrate complexes for a number of tested proteins, whose ligands range in size from mono- to tetrasaccharide. Our results show that the presented method significantly improves the docking predictions. The resulting solvent-structure-biased docking protocol, therefore, appears as a powerful tool for the design and optimization of development of glycomimetic drugs, while providing new insights into protein-carbohydrate interactions. Moreover, the achieved improvement also underscores the relevance of the solvent structure to the protein carbohydrate recognition process.

  13. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  14. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching is associated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent that the loss of the cellulose DP (degree ofpolymisation)is strongly affected by the extent of the delignification. A strong linear correlation can be established between the DP of cellulose chains and the residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growth concept and Percolation Theory for heterogenous system can be combined to formulate kinetic models for both the delignification and the degradation of carbohydrate. The models prediction is statistically robust and can be applied to different pulps at different bleaching conditions.

  15. Transgenic Mice Convert Carbohydrates to Essential Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Victor J.; Bin Wang; Xiangyong Li; Lin Wu; Kang, Jing X.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice (named “Omega mice”) were engineered to carry both optimized fat-1 and fat-2 genes from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and are capable of producing essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from saturated fats or carbohydrates. When maintained on a high-saturated fat diet lacking essential fatty acids or a high-carbohydrate, no-fat diet, the Omega mice exhibit high tissue levels of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, with a ratio of ∼1∶1. This study thus presents an in...

  16. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  17. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  18. Carbohydrate nanocarriers in biomedical applications: functionalization and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Biao; Opatz, Till; Landfester, Katharina; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-11-21

    The specific targeting of either tumor cells or immune cells in vivo by carefully designed and appropriately surface-functionalized nanocarriers may become an effective therapeutic treatment for a variety of diseases. Carbohydrates, which are prominent biomolecules, have shown their outstanding ability in balancing the biocompatibility, stability, biodegradability, and functionality of nanocarriers. The recent applications of sugar (mono/oligosaccharides and/or polysaccharides) for the development of nanomedicines are summarized in this review, including the application of carbohydrates for the surface-functionalization of various nanocarriers and for the construction of the nanocarrier itself. Current problems and challenges are also addressed.

  19. Searching for links between magnetic fields and stellar evolution. I. A survey of magnetic fields in open cluster A- and B-type stars with FORS1

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnulo, S; Landstreet, J D; Mason, E; Silaj, J; Wade, G A

    2006-01-01

    About 5% of upper main sequence stars are permeated by a strong magnetic field, the origin of which is still matter of debate. With this work we provide observational material to study how magnetic fields change with the evolution of stars on the main sequence, and to constrain theory explaining the presence of magnetic fields in A and B-type stars. Using FORS1 in spectropolarimetric mode at the ESO VLT, we have carried out a survey of magnetic fields in early-type stars belonging to open clusters and associations of various ages. We have measured the magnetic field of 235 early-type stars with a typical uncertainty of about 100 G. In our sample, 97 stars are Ap or Bp stars. For these targets, the median error bar of our field measurements was about 80 G. A field has been detected in about 41 of these stars, 37 of which were not previously known as magnetic stars. For the 138 normal A and B-type stars, the median error bar was 136 G, and no field was detected in any of them.

  20. Heat resistant reduced activation 12% Cr steel of 16Cr12W2VTaB type-advanced structural material for fusion and fast breeder power reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioltukhovskiy, A. G.; Leonteva-Smirnova, M. V.; Solonin, M. I.; Chernov, V. M.; Golovanov, V. N.; Shamardin, V. K.; Bulanova, T. M.; Povstyanko, A. V.; Fedoseev, A. E.

    2002-12-01

    Heat resistant 12% Cr steels of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type (12Cr-2W-V-Ta-B-0.16C) provide a reduced activation material that can be used as a structural material for fusion and fast breeder reactors. The composition under study meets scientific and engineering requirements and has an optimal base element composition to provide a δ-ferrite content of no more than 20%. It also has a minimum quantity of low melting impurity elements and non-metallic inclusions. Short-term tensile properties for the steel tested to 700 °C are provided after the standard heat treatment (normalization, temper). Rupture strength and creep properties for the steel depending on the initial heat treatment conditions are also given. The microstructural stability of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type steel at temperatures up to 650 °C is predicted to be good, and the properties of the steel after irradiation in BOR-60 are demonstrated.

  1. Heat resistant reduced activation 12% Cr steel of 16Cr12W2VTaB type-advanced structural material for fusion and fast breeder power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioltukhovskiy, A.G. E-mail: iral@bochvar.ru; Leonteva-Smirnova, M.V.; Solonin, M.I.; Chernov, V.M.; Golovanov, V.N.; Shamardin, V.K.; Bulanova, T.M.; Povstyanko, A.V.; Fedoseev, A.E

    2002-12-01

    Heat resistant 12% Cr steels of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type (12Cr-2W-V-Ta-B-0.16C) provide a reduced activation material that can be used as a structural material for fusion and fast breeder reactors. The composition under study meets scientific and engineering requirements and has an optimal base element composition to provide a {delta}-ferrite content of no more than 20%. It also has a minimum quantity of low melting impurity elements and non-metallic inclusions. Short-term tensile properties for the steel tested to 700 deg. C are provided after the standard heat treatment (normalization, temper). Rupture strength and creep properties for the steel depending on the initial heat treatment conditions are also given. The microstructural stability of the 16Cr12W2VTaB type steel at temperatures up to 650 deg. C is predicted to be good, and the properties of the steel after irradiation in BOR-60 are demonstrated.

  2. The chemical composition of the Orion star-forming region. III. C, N, Ne, Mg and Fe abundances in B-type stars revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Early B-type stars are invaluable indicators for elemental abundances of their birth environments. In contrast to the surrounding neutral interstellar matter (ISM) and HII regions their chemical composition is unaffected by depletion onto dust grains and by the derivation of different abundances from recombination and collisional lines. In combination with ISM or nebular gas-phase abundances they facilitate the dust-phase composition to be constrained. Precise abundances of C, N, Mg, Ne, Fe in early B-type stars in the Orion star-forming region are determined in order to: a) review previous determinations using a self-consistent quantitative spectral analysis based on modern stellar atmospheres and recently updated model atoms, b) complement results found in Paper I for oxygen and silicon, c) establish an accurate and reliable set of stellar metal abundances to constrain the dust-phase composition of the Orion HII region in Paper II of the series. A detailed, self-consistent spectroscopic study of a sample of...

  3. A single fission yeast mitotic cyclin B p34cdc2 kinase promotes both S-phase and mitosis in the absence of G1 cyclins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D L; Nurse, P

    1996-02-15

    Deletion of the fission yeast mitotic B-type cyclin gene cdc13 causes cells to undergo successive rounds of DNA replication. We have used a strain which expresses cdc13 conditionally to investigate re-replication. Activity of Start genes cdc2 and cdc10 is necessary and p34cdc2 kinase is active in re-replicating cells. We tested to see whether other cyclins were required for re-replication using cdc13delta. Further deletion of cig1 and puc1 had no effect, but deletion of cig2/cyc17 caused a severe delay in re-replication. Deletion of cig1 and cig2/cyc17 together abolished re-replication completely and cells arrested in G1. This, and analysis of the temperature sensitive cdc13-117 mutant, suggests that cdc13 can effectively substitute for the G1 cyclin activity of cig2/cyc17. We have characterized p56cdc13 activity and find evidence that in the absence of G1 cyclins, S-phase is delayed until the mitotic p34cdc2-p56cdc13 kinase is sufficiently active. These data suggest that a single oscillation of p34cdc2 kinase activity provided by a single B-type cyclin can promote ordered progression into both DNA replication and mitosis, and that the level of cyclin-dependent kinase activity may act as a master regulator dictating whether cells undergo S-phase or mitosis.

  4. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus.

  5. Reciprocal regulation of protein kinase and pyruvate kinase activities of pyruvate kinase M2 by growth signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueliang; Wang, Haizhen; Yang, Jenny J; Chen, Jing; Jie, Jiang; Li, Liangwei; Zhang, Yinwei; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2013-05-31

    Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is an enzyme-catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate in the glycolysis pathway. It was demonstrated that PKM2 interacts with tyrosine phosphopeptide, and the interaction with the tyrosine phosphopeptide affects the pyruvate kinase activity of PKM2. Our experiments suggest that PKM2 is also an active protein kinase (Gao, X., Wang, H., Yang, J. J., Liu, X., and Liu, Z. R. (2012) Mol. Cell 45, 598-609). We report here that growth signals reciprocally regulate the pyruvate kinase and protein kinase activities of PKM2 by different mechanisms. On the one hand, growth signals induce protein tyrosine phosphorylations. The tyrosine-phosphorylated protein(s) regulates the conversion of pyruvate kinase and protein kinase of PKM2 by directly interacting with PKM2. Binding of the tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins at the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-binding site converts the tetrameric PKM2 to a dimer. On the other hand, growth stimulations also lead to PKM2 phosphorylation, which consequently regulates the conversion of protein kinase and pyruvate kinase activities. Growth factor stimulations significantly increase the dimer/tetramer PKM2 ratio in cells and consequently activate the protein kinase activity of PKM2. Our study suggests that the conversion between the pyruvate kinase and protein kinase activities of PKM2 may be an important mechanism mediating the effects of growth signals in promoting cell proliferation.

  6. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  7. Anticancer Alkaloid Lamellarins Inhibit Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Meijer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamellarins, a family of hexacyclic pyrrole alkaloids originally isolated from marine invertebrates, display promising anti-tumor activity. They induce apoptotic cell death through multi-target mechanisms, including inhibition of topoisomerase I, interaction with DNA and direct effects on mitochondria. We here report that lamellarins inhibit several protein kinases relevant to cancer such as cyclin-dependent kinases, dualspecificity tyrosine phosphorylation activated kinase 1A, casein kinase 1, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and PIM-1. A good correlation is observed between the effects of lamellarins on protein kinases and their action on cell death, suggesting that inhibition of specific kinases may contribute to the cytotoxicity of lamellarins. Structure/activity relationship suggests several paths for the optimization of lamellarins as kinase inhibitors.

  8. Inhibitors of protein kinase C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shiying; JIANG Yuyang; CAO Jian; LIU Feng; MA Li; ZHAO Yufen

    2005-01-01

    Protein kinase catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphoryl group from ATP to the hydroxyl groups of protein side chains, which plays critical roles in signal transduction pathways by transmitting extracellular signals across the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane to the destination sites in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a superfamily of phospholipid-dependent Ser/Thr kinase. There are at least 12 isozymes in PKC family. They are distributed in different tissues and play different roles in physiological processes. On account of their concern with a variety of pathophysiologic states, such as cancer, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorder, and cardiac diseases, the inhibitors, which can inhibit the activity of PKC and the interaction of cytokine with receptor, and interfere signal transduction pathway, may be candidates of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, intense efforts have been made to develop specific protein kinase inhibitors as biological tools and therapeutic agents. This article reviews the recent development of some of PKC inhibitors based on their interaction with different conserved domains and different inhibition mechanisms.

  9. Deferasirox in pyruvate kinase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Deeren, Dries

    2008-01-01

    Deferasirox in pyruvate kinase deficiency phone: +32-51-237437 (Deeren, Dries) (Deeren, Dries) Department of Haematology, Heilig-Hartziekenhuis Roeselare-Menen vzw - Wilgenstraat 2 - B-8800 - Roeselare - BELGIUM (Deeren, Dries) BELGIUM Registration: 2008-09-10 Received: 2008-09-05 Accepted: 2008-09-10 ePublished: 2008-09-23

  10. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides to their corresponding monophosphate compounds. dNks also phosphorylate deoxyribonucleoside analogues that are used in the treatment of cancer or viral infections. The study of the mammalian dNKs has therefore always been of gr...

  11. Renal targeting of kinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M. E. M.; Fretz, M. M.; Segers, Gj. W.; Lacombe, M.; Prakash, J.; Storm, G.; Hennink, W. E.; Kok, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of proximal tubular cells by fibrotic and inflammatory mediators is an important hallmark of chronic kidney disease. We have developed a novel strategy to intervene in renal fibrosis, by means of locally delivered kinase inhibitors. Such compounds will display enhanced activity within tub

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies Against Xenopus Greatwall Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Ling; Fisher, Laura A.; Wahl, James K.; Peng, Aimin

    2011-01-01

    Mitosis is known to be regulated by protein kinases, including MPF, Plk1, Aurora kinases, and so on, which become active in M-phase and phosphorylate a wide range of substrates to control multiple aspects of mitotic entry, progression, and exit. Mechanistic investigations of these kinases not only provide key insights into cell cycle regulation, but also hold great promise for cancer therapy. Recent studies, largely in Xenopus, characterized a new mitotic kinase named Greatwall (Gwl) that pla...

  13. Syntheses of Novel Highly Symmetric Carbohydrates Bearing Diacylhydrazine Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; ZHANG Shu-sheng; LI Hui-xiang; LI Ji-zhi; JIAO Kui

    2005-01-01

    Several novel highly symmetric carbohydrates bearing a diacylhydrazine framework have been synthesized via a five-step procedure by utilizing D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose as the starting materials, respectively. The target compounds have been characterized with IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis.

  14. Science Study Aids 3: Carbohydrates - Nature's Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the third of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 12. It is concerned with the role of carbohydrates as important nutrients for consumers. This guide will enable…

  15. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    - The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes invol

  16. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. lactose ...

  17. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions

  18. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, Audrey G.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Michael G.; Tissue, David T.; Baggett, Scott L.; Adams, Henry D.; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R.L.; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S.; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W.; Dickman, Turin L.; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S.; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E.; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G.; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G.; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Joanis, Brigitte Saint; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A.; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R.; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent lite

  19. Protease-induced solubilisation of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faulds, C.B.; Collins, S.; Robertson, J.A.; Treimo, J.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Buchert, J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of microbial proteases on the release of carbohydrates from BSG was studied. The proteases were able to release the non-cellulosic glucose, a portion of feruloylated arabinoxylan and over 50% of the protein from brewers' spent grain (BSG) after 24 h hydrolysis. The non-cellulosic glucose

  20. Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain by Carbohydrate Degrading Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssell, P.; Kontkanen, H.; Schols, H.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Treimo, J.; Robertson, J.A.; Waldron, K.W.; Faulds, C.B.; Buchert, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work four commercial cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with 5,00

  1. Transporter’s evolution and carbohydrate metabolic clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Titia H.; Does, Chris van der; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The yiaQRS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Clustering of homologous genes was found throughout several unrelated bacteria. Strikingly, all four bacterial transport protein classes were found, conserving transport function but not mechanism. It appears that dur

  2. Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZy

  3. Carbohydrate Staple Food Modulates Gut Microbiota of Mongolians in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hou, Qiangchuan; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Haiyan; Sun, Zhihong; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota is a determining factor in human physiological functions and health. It is commonly accepted that diet has a major influence on the gut microbial community, however, the effects of diet is not fully understood. The typical Mongolian diet is characterized by high and frequent consumption of fermented dairy products and red meat, and low level of carbohydrates. In this study, the gut microbiota profile of 26 Mongolians whom consumed wheat, rice and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each consecutively was determined. It was observed that changes in staple carbohydrate rapidly (within a week) altered gut microbial community structure and metabolic pathway of the subjects. Wheat and oat favored bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifodobacteriumbifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis); whereas rice suppressed bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and wheat suppresses Lactobaciilus, Ruminococcus and Bacteroides. The study exhibited two gut microbial clustering patterns with the preference of fucosyllactose utilization linking to fucosidase genes (glycoside hydrolase family classifications: GH95 and GH29) encoded by Bifidobacterium, and xylan and arabinoxylan utilization linking to xylanase and arabinoxylanase genes encoded by Bacteroides. There was also a correlation between Lactobacillus ruminis and sialidase, as well as Butyrivibrio crossotus and xylanase/xylosidase. Meanwhile, a strong concordance was found between the gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome and the intestinal virome. Present research will contribute to understanding the impacts of the dietary carbohydrate on human gut microbiome, which will ultimately help understand relationships between dietary factor, microbial populations, and the health of global humans. PMID:28377764

  4. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You probably have also heard talk about the glycemic index. The glycemic index classifies carbohydrate-containing foods according to their potential ... sugar level. Weight-loss diets based on the glycemic index typically recommend limiting foods that are higher on ...

  5. DFT solvation studies of carbohydrates: implicit and explicit solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvents play a role in carbohydrate structure. Therefore, it is important to include solvation effects in calculations to allow a more realistic comparison with experimental data. A possible way to include solvation effects is to use implicit solvation models such as COSMO and PCM. Another avenu...

  6. Polysaccharide Biocatalysis : From Synthesizing Carbohydrate Standards to Establishing Characterization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Petrovic, Dejan M.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, and cellulose are all around us. They are eaten and used on a daily basis but they are not understood completely. Even though these carbohydrates are simple, concerning their repeating unit, they are hard to characterize. In order to try to understand as much as possible about thei

  7. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who p...

  8. [Carbohydrate metabolism in the brain in comatose states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khapiĭ, Kh Kh; Gruzman, A B

    1990-01-01

    The article confirms an earlier discovered phenomenon that during comas and in post-coma periods the brain releases glucose and consumes lactate. It is suggested that the phenomenon is based on glucogenesis taking place in the brain from non-carbohydrate glucose precursors, which is phylogenetically predetermined and biologically expedient.

  9. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together wi

  10. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  11. Differences in carbohydrate profiles in batch culture grown planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata Wm. Sm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    modes of growth, the concentration of total carbohydrates, carbohydrate fractions, neutral carbohydrates, uronic acids and amino sugars in planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata were measured. The results showed that the distribution...

  12. Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibits the Transcriptional Activity of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Human Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Sandrine; Huaman Samanez, Carolina; Dehondt, Hélène; Ploton, Maheul; Briand, Olivier; Lien, Fleur; Dorchies, Emilie; Dumont, Julie; Postic, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The glucose-activated transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) induces the expression of hepatic glycolytic and lipogenic genes. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear bile acid receptor controlling bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. FXR negatively regulates hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis in mouse liver. The aim of this study was to determine whether FXR regulates the transcriptional activity of ChREBP in human hepatocytes and to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms. Agonist-activated FXR inhibits glucose-induced transcription of several glycolytic genes, including the liver-type pyruvate kinase gene (L-PK), in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) and HepaRG cell lines. This inhibition requires the L4L3 region of the L-PK promoter, known to bind the transcription factors ChREBP and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). FXR interacts directly with ChREBP and HNF4α proteins. Analysis of the protein complex bound to the L4L3 region reveals the presence of ChREBP, HNF4α, FXR, and the transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP at high glucose concentrations. FXR activation does not affect either FXR or HNF4α binding to the L4L3 region but does result in the concomitant release of ChREBP, p300, and CBP and in the recruitment of the transcriptional corepressor SMRT. Thus, FXR transrepresses the expression of genes involved in glycolysis in human hepatocytes. PMID:23530060

  13. The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Iizuka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase, fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase, and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase. ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp−/− mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome.

  14. Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Cummings, J H

    2007-12-01

    The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made available to them. Therefore, for certain carbohydrates, the discrepancies between combustible energy (cEI), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net metabolizable energy (NME) may be considerable. Three food energy systems are in use in food tables and for food labelling in different world regions based on selective interpretation of the digestive physiology and metabolism of food carbohydrates. This is clearly unsatisfactory and confusing to the consumer. While it has been suggested that an enormous amount of work would have to be undertaken to change the current ME system into an NME system, the additional changes may not be as great as anticipated. In experimental work, carbohydrate is high in the macronutrient hierarchy of satiation. However, studies of eating behaviour indicate that it does not unconditionally depend on the oxidation of one nutrient, and argue against the operation of a simple carbohydrate oxidation or storage model of feeding behaviour to the exclusion of other macronutrients. The site, rate and extent of carbohydrate digestion in, and absorption from the gut are key to understanding the many roles of carbohydrate, although the concept of digestibility has different meanings. Within the nutrition community, the characteristic patterns of digestion that occur in the small (upper) vs large (lower) bowel are known to impact in contrasting ways on metabolism, while in the discussion of the energy value of foods, digestibility is defined as the proportion of combustible energy that is absorbed over the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Carbohydrates that reach the large bowel are fermented to

  15. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  16. Water and carbohydrate content at leafs of plants used in medicine during vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhivetev M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of carbohydrate content with cryoprotective function to the end of vegetation period was shown. The accumulation of carbohydrates in plants on Lake Baikal shores region was greater than it in Irkutsk region.

  17. Dietary advices on carbohydrate intake for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roskjær, Ann B; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ronneby, Helle;

    2015-01-01

    of Medicine (IOM) is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general, carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic...... control in type 1 diabetes. A moderately low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40% of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic...... pregnancy. In type 1 diabetes pregnancy, a moderately low carbohydrate diet with 40% carbohydrates has been suggested; however, a minimum intake of 175 g carbohydrate daily is recommended. Despite limited evidence the combination of a low-glycaemic index diet with a moderately low carbohydrate intake, using...

  18. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  19. Nickel-catalyzed proton-deuterium exchange (HDX) procedures for glycosidic linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of non-carbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often de...

  20. Characterization and optimization of carbohydrate production from an indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Huang, Shu-Wen; Chen, Chun-Yen; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, three indigenous microalgae isolates were examined for their ability to produce carbohydrates. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E displayed relatively high cell growth rate and carbohydrate content. The carbohydrate productivity of C. vulgaris FSP-E was further improved by using engineering strategies. The results show that using an appropriate light intensity and inoculum size could effectively promote cell growth and carbohydrate productivity. Nitrogen starvation triggered the accumulation of carbohydrates in the microalga, achieving a carbohydrate content of 51.3% after 4-day starvation. Under the optimal conditions, the highest biomass and carbohydrate productivity were 1.437 and 0.631 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively. This performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Since glucose accounted for nearly 93% of the carbohydrates accumulated in C. vulgaris FSP-E, the microalga is an excellent feedstock for bioethanol fermentation.

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate.

  2. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  4. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only.

  5. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, M.; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  6. Evaluation of certain crop residues for carbohydrate and protein fractions by cornell net carbohydrate and protein system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarulu Swarna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four locally available crop residues viz., jowar stover (JS, maize stover (MS, red gram straw (RGS and black gram straw (BGS were evaluated for carbohydrate and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein (CNCP system. Lignin (% NDF was higher in legume straws as compared to cereal stovers while Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC (% DM followed the reverse trend. The carbohydrate fractions A and B1 were higher in BGS while B2 was higher in MS as compared to other crop residues. The unavailable cell wall fraction (C was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers. Among protein fractions, B1 was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers while B2 was higher in cereal stovers as compared to legume straws. Fraction B3 largely, bypass protein was highest in MS as compared to other crop residues. Acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP (% CP or unavailable protein fraction C was lowest in MS and highest in BGS. It is concluded that MS is superior in nutritional value for feeding ruminants as compared to other crop residues.

  7. Cardiac protein kinases: the cardiomyocyte kinome and differential kinase expression in human failing hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Stephen J.; Osborne, Sally A.; Leonard, Sam J.; Hardyman, Michelle A.; Vaniotis, George; Allen, Bruce G.; Sugden, Peter H.; Clerk, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Protein kinases are potential therapeutic targets for heart failure, but most studies of cardiac protein kinases derive from other systems, an approach that fails to account for specific kinases expressed in the heart and the contractile cardiomyocytes. We aimed to define the cardiomyocyte kinome (i.e. the protein kinases expressed in cardiomyocytes) and identify kinases with altered expression in human failing hearts. Methods and Results. Expression profiling (Affymetrix microarrays) d...

  8. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in pig enterocytes: trafficking from the brush border to lipid droplets during fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte W; Immerdal, Lissi

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is known to mediate cellular uptake of cholesterol from high density lipoprotein particles and is particularly abundant in liver and steroidogenic tissues. In addition, SR-BI expression in the enterocyte brush border has also been reported...... but its role in the small intestine remains unclear. AIM AND METHODS: To gain insight into the possible function of pig SR-BI during uptake of dietary fat, its localisation in enterocytes was studied in the fasting state and during fat absorption by immunogold electron microscopy and subcellular...... fat, SR-BI is endocytosed from the enterocyte brush border and accumulates in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Internalisation of the receptor occurs mainly by clathrin coated pits rather than by a caveolae/lipid raft based mechanism....

  9. The A- and B-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila melanogaster couple to different second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin; Folke, Jonas; Hauser, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine and blocked by several antagonists, among them atropine. In mammals five mAChRs (m1-m5) exist of which m1, m3, and m5 are coupled to members of the Gq...... to classical antagonists such as atropine. Here, we find that the D. melanogaster A-type mAChR is coupled to Gq/11 and D. melanogaster B-type mAChR to Gi/0. Furthermore, by comparing the second and third intracellular loops of all animal mAChRs for which the G protein coupling has been established, we could...

  10. Higher Serum Concentrations of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Associate with Prevalent Hypertension whereas Lower Associate with Incident Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Ibsen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of the natriuretic peptides (NPs) in hypertension is complex. Thus, a higher blood NP concentration is a robust marker of pressure-induced cardiac damage in patients with hypertension, whereas genetically elevated NP concentrations are associated with a reduced risk...... of hypertension and overweight individuals presumably at high risk of hypertension have lower NP concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), used as a surrogate marker for active BNP, and prevalent as well as 5-year incident...... and baseline blood pressure (only incident model), one standard deviation increase in baseline log-transformed NT-proBNP concentrations was on one side associated with a 21% higher risk of PHT (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.30], P

  11. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing to assist the diagnostic evaluation of heart failure in symptomatic primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P.; Collinson, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    When used for the evaluation of symptomatic patients in general practice, amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing is highly sensitive, with an excellent negative predictive value for cost-effective exclusion of the diagnosis of heart failure (HF). Importantly (similar...... to other NP assays), lower values for NT-proBNP are expected among patients with HF in the primary care setting compared with patients with acute dyspnea. Among primary care patients with dyspnea, a noncardiac source of dyspnea is most likely in patients with findings below the recommended age......-stratified NT-proBNP cut points. Conversely, an NT-proBNP result above the age-stratified primary care cut points does not absolutely indicate the presence of HF; a more directed cardiovascular workup is indicated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/4...

  12. Influence of operation factors on brittle fracture initiation and critical local normal stress in SE(B) type specimens of VVER reactor pressure vessel steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Erak, A. D.; Kiselev, A. S.; Bubyakin, S. A.; Bandura, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    A complex of mechanical tests and fractographic studies of VVER-1000 RPV SE(B) type surveillance specimens was carried out: the brittle fracture origins were revealed (non-metallic inclusions and structural boundaries) and the correlation between fracture toughness parameters (CTOD) and fracture surface parameters (CID) was established. A computational and experimental method of the critical local normal stress determination for different origin types was developed. The values of the critical local normal stress for the structural boundary origin type both for base and weld metal after thermal exposure and neutron irradiation are lower than that for initial state due to the lower cohesive strength of grain boundaries as a result of phosphorus segregation.

  13. The Utility of B-type Natriuretic Peptide to Predict Prognosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Complicated With Cardiogenic Shock Treated With Intra-aortic Ballon Counterpulsation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xie; Xian Wang; Chen Tan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in severe AMI patients treated with intra-aortic ballon counterpulsation(IABP).Methods A total of 42 AMI patients with cardiogenic shock were retrospectively studied.BNP plasma level was recorded in the 24th hour and 4th day after myocardial infarction.The different mortality were compared among patients with different BNP levels.Results With aggressive treatment,20 patients survived short term hospitalization.Plasma concentration of BNP in dying patients is much higher than in survivals (1369±353 vs 651±302 pg/ml.P<0.01).Patients with BNP higher than 1474 pg/mL had a mortality of 92.9%.Conclusions Elevated BNP level in AMI patients with cardiogenic shock treated with IABP is highly associated with poor prognosis.

  14. 21 CFR 172.866 - Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of carbohydrates. 172.866 Section 172.866 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates. Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates may be safely used in food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) It shall contain not...

  15. Sports Nutrition for the Primary Care Physician: The Importance of Carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Keith B.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between nutrition and fatigue and how carbohydrates and timing of carbohydrate consumption can affect fatigued athletes. Nutrition plays a significant role in successful training and competition. Key concerns are the specific needs of athletes for carbohydrates before, during, and after exercise. (Author/SM)

  16. Carbohydrate-Loading: A Safe and Effective Method of Improving Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeker, Richard T.; Israel, Richard G.

    Carbohydrate-loading prior to distance events is a common practice among endurance athletes. The purposes of this paper are to review previous research and to clarify misconceptions which may exist concerning carbohydrate-loading. The most effective method of carbohydrate-loading involves a training run of sufficient intensity and duration to…

  17. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21(st) Century: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Antony J

    2015-12-01

    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 (st) Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar-based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  18. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21st Century: Synthesis and Applications†

    OpenAIRE

    Antony J. Fairbanks

    2015-01-01

    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 st Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar‐based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  19. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  20. Randomized clinical trial comparing an oral carbohydrate beverage with placebo before laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Kristiansen, V B; Hjortsø, N C;

    2004-01-01

    .5 per cent carbohydrate-rich beverage the evening before operation (100 g carbohydrate) and another 400 ml (50 g carbohydrate) 2 h before initiation of anaesthesia, or the same volume of a placebo beverage. The primary endpoint was general well-being the day after operation. Patients were evaluated from...

  1. Novel anti-carbohydrate autoantibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: are they useful for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malickova, Karin; Lukas, Milan; Donoval, Robert; Sandova, Petra; Janatkova, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of novel anti-carbohydrate assays in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, namely in Crohn's disease. These carbohydrate assays are based on oligosaccharide chitobioside carbohydrate - anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibodies (ACCA), laminaribioside carbohydrate anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and mannobioside carbohydrate - anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA). We compared these assays with the anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) assay. The results of this study suggest that ASCA are still the best serological marker for Crohn's disease. Further studies are required to explore the clinical utility of ACCA, ALCA and AMCA.

  2. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on delayed onset muscle soreness and reactive oxygen species after contraction induced muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, G; Ashton, T; Cable, T; Doran, D; Noyes, C; McArdle, F; MacLaren, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs after unaccustomed exercise and has been suggested to be attributable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies have shown increased ROS after lengthening contractions, attributable to invading phagocytes. Plasma glucose is a vital fuel for phagocytes, therefore carbohydrate (CHO) status before exercise may influence ROS production and DOMS Objective: To examine the effect of pre-exercise CHO status on DOMS, ROS production, and muscle function after contraction induced muscle damage. Method: Twelve subjects performed two downhill runs, one after a high CHO diet and one after a low CHO diet. Blood samples were drawn for analysis of malondialdehyde, total glutathione, creatine kinase, non-esterified fatty acids, lactate, glucose, and leucocytes. DOMS and muscle function were assessed daily. Results: The high CHO diet resulted in higher respiratory exchange ratio and lactate concentrations than the low CHO diet before exercise. The low CHO diet resulted in higher non-esterified fatty acid concentrations before exercise. DOMS developed after exercise and remained for up to 96 hours, after both diets. A biphasic response in creatine kinase occurred after both diets at 24 and 96 hours after exercise. Malondialdehyde had increased 72 hours after exercise after both diets, and muscle function was attenuated up to this time. Conclusions: Downhill running resulted in increased ROS production and ratings of DOMS and secondary increases in muscle damage. CHO status before exercise had no effect. PMID:16306505

  3. Receptor tyrosine kinases in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface glycoproteins with enzymatic activity involved in the regulation of various important functions. In all-important physiological functions including differentiation, cell-cell interactions, survival, proliferation, metabolism, migration and signaling these receptors are the key players of regulation. Additionally, mutations of RTKs or their overexpression have been described in many human cancers and are being explored as a novel avenue for a new therapeutic approach. Some of the deregulated RTKs observed to be significantly affected in cancers included vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor, RTK-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. These deregulated RTKs offer attractive possibilities for the new anticancer therapeutic approach involving specific targeting by monoclonal antibodies as well as kinase. The present review aimed to highlight recent perspectives of RTK ROR1 in cancer.

  4. Endocytosis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lai Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is the major regulator of signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The canonical model of RTK endocytosis involves rapid internalization of an RTK activated by ligand binding at the cell surface and subsequent sorting of internalized ligand-RTK complexes to lysosomes for degradation. Activation of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of RTKs results in autophosphorylation, which is mechanistically coupled to the recruitment of adaptor proteins and conjugation of ubiquitin to RTKs. Ubiquitination serves to mediate interactions of RTKs with sorting machineries both at the cell surface and on endosomes. The pathways and kinetics of RTK endocytic trafficking, molecular mechanisms underlying sorting processes, and examples of deviations from the standard trafficking itinerary in the RTK family are discussed in this work. PMID:23637288

  5. DMPD: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signalling? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15081522 Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signall...ruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signalling? PubmedID 15081522 Title Bruton...'s tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signalling? Authors

  6. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    phosphorylation. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in bacteria is particular with respect to very low occupancy of phosphorylation sites in vivo; this has represented a major challenge for detection techniques. Only the recent breakthroughs in gel-free high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the systematic...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  7. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  8. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  9. RIP Kinases Initiate Programmed Necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi; Oliver Kepp; Guido Kroemer

    2009-01-01

    Some lethal stimuli can induce either apoptosis or necrosis, depending on the cell type and/or experimental setting. Until recently,the molecular bases of this phenomenon were largely unknown. Now, two members of the receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase (RIP) family, RIP1 and RIP3, have been demonstrated to control the switch between apoptotic and necrotic cell death.Some mechanistic details, however, remain controversial.

  10. Regulation and function of TPL-2,an IκB kinase-regulated MAP kinase kinase kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thorsten Gantke; Srividya Sriskantharajah; Steven C Ley

    2011-01-01

    The IκB kinase(IKK)complex plays a well-documented role in innate and adaptive immunity.This function has been widely attributed to its role as the central activator of the NF-κB family of transcription factors.However,another important consequence of IKK activation is the regulation of TPL-2,a MEK kinase that is required for activation of ERK-1/2 MAP kinases in myeioid cells following Toll-like receptor and TNF receptor stimulation.In unstimulated cells,TPL-2 is stoichiometrically complexed with the NF-κB inhibitory protein NF-κB1 p105,which blocks TPL-2 access to its substrate MEK,and the ubiquitin-binding protein ABIN-2(A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB 2),both of which are required to maintain TPL-2 protein stability.Following agonist stimulation,the IKK complex phosphorylates p105,triggering its K48-1inked ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome.This releases TPL-2 from p105-mediated inhibition,facilitating activation of MEK,in addition to modulating NF-κB activation by liberating associated Rel subunits for translocation into the nucleus.IKK-induced proteolysis of 0105,therefore,can directly regulate both NF-κB and ERK MAP kinase activation via NF-κB1 p105.TPL-2 is critical for production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF during inflammatory responses.Consequently,there has been considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry to develop selective TPL-2 inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of TNF-dependent inflammatory,diseases,such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.This review summarizes our current understanding of the regulation of TPL-2 signaling function,and also the complex positive and negative roles of TPL-2 in immune and inflammatory responses.

  11. Oxidized Form of Creatine Kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希成; 王帆; 邹晓明; 周海梦

    1994-01-01

    The purified rabbit muscle creatine kinase (R-CK) was previously considered homogeneousand without disulfide bonds.By the method of NR/R two-dimensional diagonal SDS-PAGE,two forms of R-CK,designated respectively "oxidized form" of creatine kinase which contained intrachain disulfide bondsand "reduced form" of creatine kinase which did not have any —S—S— bridges,were for the first time sepa-rated.They were found to be the same in amino acid composition,in subunit molecular Weight and in isoelec-tric point,and were almost identical in enzyme activities.Thus it is hard to isolate one from the other bycommon biochemical methods.More extensive studies show that the oxidized form of CK also contains a pair of reactive thiol groupswhich are essential to the enzyme activity,and it has one intrachain disulfide bond per subunit.In the nativestate,this —S—S— bond cannot be reduced by DTT,but by treating the reduced form of CK with some ox-idants,these —S—S— bonds can be formed in vitro.Thus it is presumed that the disulfide bonds are cross-linked through the oxidization of two shallowly buried —SH groups.

  12. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  13. A proteomic approach for comprehensively screening substrates of protein kinases such as Rho-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuki Amano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are major components of signal transduction pathways in multiple cellular processes. Kinases directly interact with and phosphorylate downstream substrates, thus modulating their functions. Despite the importance of identifying substrates in order to more fully understand the signaling network of respective kinases, efficient methods to search for substrates remain poorly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined mass spectrometry and affinity column chromatography of the catalytic domain of protein kinases to screen potential substrates. Using the active catalytic fragment of Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK as the model bait, we obtained about 300 interacting proteins from the rat brain cytosol fraction, which included the proteins previously reported as Rho-kinase substrates. Several novel interacting proteins, including doublecortin, were phosphorylated by Rho-kinase both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method would enable identification of novel specific substrates for kinases such as Rho-kinase with high sensitivity.

  14. Carbohydrates in diversity-oriented synthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, E; Menchi, G; Trabocchi, A

    2016-01-21

    Over the last decade, Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) has become a new paradigm for developing large collections of structurally diverse small molecules as probes to investigate biological pathways, and to provide a larger array of the chemical space. Drug discovery and chemical biology are taking advantage of DOS approaches to exploit highly-diverse and complex molecular platforms, producing advances in both target and ligand discovery. In this view, carbohydrates are attractive building blocks for DOS libraries, due to their stereochemical diversity and high density of polar functional groups, thus offering many possibilities for chemical manipulation and scaffold decoration. This review will discuss research contributions and perspectives on the application of carbohydrate chemistry to explore the accessible chemical space through appendage, stereochemical and scaffold diversity.

  15. Template free synthesis of natural carbohydrates functionalised fluorescent silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Berenjian, Aydin; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Template-assisted synthesis is one of the most recognised techniques for fabrication of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs). However, this process is time consuming, toxic and expensive. In this study, the authors report a completely novel approach for the green and facile synthesis of AgNCs using Matricaria chamomilla, without any additional template. Fluorescent and colloidally stable AgNCs with average particle size of 2.4 nm were successfully produced. They found that carbohydrates from Matricaria chamomilla act as an ideal template to generate fluorescent AgNCs. Moreover, oxygen-bearing functional groups were validated to be the active groups for anchoring and reducing of Ag(+) ions. The novel carbohydrate coating method makes the prepared nanoclusters completely hydrophilic and stable in aqueous matrices.

  16. Carbohydrate-based cancer vaccines: target cancer with sugar bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Cheng; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2012-08-01

    With the booming development of glycobiology and glycochemistry, more and more structures of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are identified. Their broad expression and high specificity in cancer make them important targets to develop cancer vaccines or immunotherapies. However, most of the TACAs are T cell-independent antigens, they cannot elicit a powerful enough immune response to prevent or treat cancer. Immunotolerance and immunosuppression are more easily induced due to their endogenous properties and the declining immunity of the patients. This review summarizes the recent efforts to overcome these obstacles: coupling the carbohydrate antigens to proper carriers such as proteins or some small molecule carriers, and chemically modifying the structures of the TACAs to enhance the immunogenicity of TACAs and break the immunotolerance.

  17. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically......Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, has been studied for decades as a putative ergogenic aid. In the past 2 decades, the information has overwhelmingly demonstrated that it indeed is a powerful ergogenic aid, and frequently theories have been proposed that this is due to alterations in fat...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  18. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    , metabolized and net energy); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality; second, the proportion of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation, and finally, type of starch (types A, B, and C......The main objective of the presentation is to provide insight into the role of polymeric carbohydrates in growth and development of pigs. Polymeric carbohydrates—starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)—quantitatively represent the largest portion of the diets for pigs and are therefore...... by the microflora in the large intestine. Starch degradation leads to the release of glucose which is absorbed by an active absorption process that triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas, whereas the fermentation of NSP to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA: acetate, propionate and butyrate) occurs...

  19. Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors: Pattern Recognition and Involvement of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Porgador

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, expressed by natural killer (NK cells, trigger NK lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells on interaction with cell-surface ligands of these target cells. We have determined that viral hemagglutinins expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells are involved in the recognition by the NCRs, NKp44 and NKp46. Recognition of tumor cells by the NCRs NKp30 and NKp46 involves heparan sulfate epitopes expressed on the tumor cell membrane. Our studies provide new evidence for the identity of the ligands for NCRs and indicate that a broader definition should be applied to pathological patterns recognized by innate immune receptors. Since nonmicrobial endogenous carbohydrate structures contribute significantly to this recognition, there is an imperative need to develop appropriate tools for the facile sequencing of carbohydrate moieties.

  20. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...... maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content...... and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers...

  1. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well......-defined specificity for T, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and blood group H and A variants hereof. The immature Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen structures were expressed in the epithelial ductular structures of the tumors, whereas they were almost absent from normal parotid tissue, indicating aberrant glycosylation with accumulation...

  2. Vaccines based on the cell surface carbohydrates of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycoconjugate vaccines, in which a cell surface carbohydrate from a micro-organism is covalently attached to an appropriate carrier protein are proving to be the most effective means to generate protective immune responses to prevent a wide range of diseases. The technology appears to be generic and applicable to a wide range of pathogens, as long as antibodies against surface carbohydrates help protect against infection. Three such vaccines, against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis Group C and seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, have already been licensed and many others are in development. This article discusses the rationale for the development and use of glycoconjugate vaccines, the mechanisms by which they elicit T cell-dependent immune responses and the implications of this for vaccine development, the role of physicochemical methods in the characterisation and quality control of these vaccines, and the novel products which are under development.

  3. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  4. Low-carbohydrate diets and prostate cancer: how low is "low enough"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Elizabeth M; Thomas, Jean A; Antonelli, Jodi A; Lloyd, Jessica C; Phillips, Tameika E; Poulton, Susan H; Dewhirst, Mark W; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Freedland, Stephen J

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that carbohydrate intake influences prostate cancer biology, as mice fed a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (NCKD) had significantly smaller xenograft tumors and longer survival than mice fed a Western diet. As it is nearly impossible for humans to consume and maintain NCKD, we determined whether diets containing 10% or 20% carbohydrate kcal showed similar tumor growth as NCKD. A total of 150 male severe combined immunodeficient mice were fed a Western diet ad libitum, injected with the human prostate cancer cell line LAPC-4, and then randomized 2 weeks later to one of three arms: NCKD, 10% carbohydrate, or 20% carbohydrate diets. Ten mice not injected were fed an ad libitum low-fat diet (12% fat kcal) serving as the reference in a modified-paired feeding protocol. Mice were sacrificed when tumors reached 1,000 mm(3). Despite consuming extra calories, all mice receiving low-carbohydrate diets were significantly lighter than those receiving a low-fat diet (P Diet did not affect survival (P = 0.34). There were no differences in serum insulin-like growth factor-I or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 at sacrifice among the low-carbohydrate arms (P = 0.07 and P = 0.55, respectively). Insulin was significantly lower in the 20% carbohydrate arm (P = 0.03). LAPC-4 xenograft mice fed a low-carbohydrate diet (10-20% carbohydrate kcal) had similar survival as mice consuming NCKD (0% carbohydrate kcal).

  5. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Early B-type stars are ideal indicators for present-day cosmic abundances since they preserve their pristine abundances and typically do not migrate far beyond their birth environments over their short lifetimes, in contrast to older stars like the Sun. They are also unaffected by depletion onto dust grains, unlike the cold/warm interstellar medium (ISM) or H ii regions. Aims: A carefully selected sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Quantitative spectroscopy is used to characterise their atmospheric properties in a self-consistent way. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived in order to investigate whether a present-day cosmic abundance standard can be established. Methods: High-resolution and high-S/N FOCES, FEROS and ELODIE spectra of well-studied sharp-lined early B-type stars are analysed in non-LTE. Line-profile fits based on extensive model grids and an iterative analysis methodology are used to constrain stellar parameters and elemental abundances at high accuracy and precision. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer lines, and they are confirmed by reproduction of the stars' global spectral energy distributions. Results: Effective temperatures are constrained to 1-2% and surface gravities to less than 15% uncertainty, along with accurate rotational, micro- and macroturbulence velocities. Good agreement of the resulting spectroscopic parallaxes with those from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue is obtained. Absolute values for abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Three sample stars, γ Ori, o Per and θ1 Ori D, are

  6. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.LNguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching isassociated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent thatthe loss of the cellulose DPis strongly affected by(degree ofpolymisation) the extent of thedelignification. A strong linear correlation can beestablished between the DP of cellulose chains andthe residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growthconcept and Percolation Theory for heterogenoussystem can be combined to formulate kinetic modelsfor both the delignification and the degradation ofcarbohydrate. The models prediction is statisticallyrobust and can be applied to different pulps atdifferent bleachin~ conditions.

  7. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Kumar ADAK; Nirmalya GHOSH; Dilip Kumar DASGUPTA; Sudha GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation.It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield.The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose,starch,sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e.non-submerged) condition.The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.However,under normal or control condition,there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.Still,photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield.Finally,plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues.It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles,in this case) as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  8. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B; Bhosle, N.B; Gopalakrishna, V.V

    carbohydrate (TPCHO) and total particulate uronic acids (TPURA). The concentrations of POC, TPCHO and TPURA varied from 4.80 to 29.12, 0.85 to 4.24, 0.09 to 0.91 mu M C, respectively. The TPCHO-C and TPURA-C accounted for 6.6-32.5 % and 0.87-3.65 % of POC...

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, B L; Jelley, S A; Yousten, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus 2362 is pathogenic for mosquito larvae and is being considered for large-scale production as a larvicide. The inability of the bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates requires that they be grown on proteinaceous media. This bacterium was found to be unable to transport glucose or sucrose into the cell, and it lacked glucokinase and hexokinase activity. In addition, it lacked phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are early ...

  10. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne K; Stoll, Barbara; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Buddington, Randal K; Bering, Stine B; Jensen, Bent B; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Siggers, Richard H; Mølbak, Lars; Sangild, Per T; Burrin, Douglas G

    2009-12-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase, and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin- or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be attributed to a 5- to 20-fold higher hydrolytic activity of tissue-specific lactase than maltases. We conclude that carbohydrate maldigestion is sufficient to increase the incidence and severity of NEC in preterm pigs.

  11. Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Emmons, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 REPORT DATE: August 2005 TYPE OF REPORT...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-01-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM...binding affinities of peptide and carbohyd- Hollingsworth, M. A. 1997. Oligosaccharides expressed on MUCl rate with I-A’ will be illuminating. However

  12. Polycations. 17. Synthesis and properties of polycationic derivatives of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marie; Montenegro, Diego; Castaño, Alejandra; Friedman, Laura; Leb, Jay; Huang, Mia Lace; Rothman, Leah; Lee, Heidi; Capodiferro, Craig; Ambinder, Daniel; Cere, Eva; Galante, Jessica; Rizzo, JaimeLee; Melkonian, Karin; Engel, Robert

    2009-09-08

    In our continuing investigation of polycationic salts for purposes of antimicrobial action, ion-channel blocking, and construction of ionic liquids, we have prepared several series of polycationic salts derived from carbohydrate precursors. These salts are currently being investigated for optimal efficacy as antibacterials and antifungals, as well as for other applications. The syntheses of such series of salts are described here along with preliminary antibacterial testing results and a discussion of their properties indicating their potential utility for several purposes.

  13. Glass transition phenomena applied to powdered amorphous food carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ronkart, Sebastien N; Blecker, Christophe; Deroanne, Claude; Paquot, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Glass transition phenomena applied to powdered amorphous food carbohydrates. During these last fifteen years, some food technologists and scientists have become aware of the importance of the glass transition, a thermal property of glassy or amorphous material, in food preparation processes. Recent studies have successfully correlated this fundamental notion to technofunctional changes within the powder. The aim of this paper is to present in a non exhaustive manner the relationship between g...

  14. A randomized trial of preoperative oral carbohydrates in abdominal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sada, Fatos; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hamza, Astrit; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Bicaj, Besnik; Kavaja, Floren

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) have been recommended to attenuate insulin resistance by shortening the preoperative fasting interval. The aim of our study the effect of preoperative oral administration of CRLDs on the well-being and clinical status of patients. Methods A randomized, double blind, prospective study of patients undergoing open colorectal operations (CR) and open cholecyctectomy (CH) was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups: study, placebo, and ...

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Poulsen, Grith Møller; Andersen, Henning K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of selfmanagement education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low...... to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta...... to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from...

  16. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin–cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, Neelamegam; Ashokkumar, Natarajan, E-mail: npashokkumar1@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)–cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. - Highlights: • Diabetic rats are more susceptible to cadmium nephrotoxicity. • Cadmium plays as a cumulative

  17. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin-cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Neelamegam; Ashokkumar, Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)-cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ-Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ-Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats.

  18. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions.

  19. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism of cactus in a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, B G

    1981-09-01

    The concentration of glucan, mucilage, soluble carbohydrates, and malic acid were determined in Opuntia bigelovii Engelm. during a 23-week period. The experiment began during the dry summer by irrigation to stimulate Crassulacean acid metabolism and was followed by 13 weeks of drought. After the 13-week drought period, the plants were irrigated throughout a 10-week period until late December. The maximum level of malic acid determined each day at dawn decreased throughout the drought period and increased after irrigation. High levels of malic acid occurring at dawn are indicative of active Crassulacean acid metabolism. Soluble carbohydrates also decreased during drought and increased after irrigation. Both glucan and mucilage increased slightly for about 9 weeks during the drought period and then began to decrease. Irrigation was accompanied by a further decrease in concentration of glucan and mucilage. Since both glucan and mucilage changed in a similar manner and since their concentrations in the tissue are correlated, it is hypothesized that both function as storage carbohydrates. Whereas glucan is the nocturnal substrate for malic acid synthesis, there are no data to support or refute a similar hypothesis for mucilage.

  1. INFLUENCE OF CHITOSAN ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN EXERCISING MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 黄伟

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of chitosan on carbohydrate metabolism disorder in exercising mice. Methods The animal model of carbohydrate metabolism disorder was established through swimming trainings and the content of blood glucose, muscle glycogen and liver glycogen in mice were all surveyed. Results When quiet, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose of drug-taking group were much higher than those of control group(P<0.05). Compared with control group, the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen of instant drug-taking group after exercises level to a higher degree (P<0.05). The renewing level of liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose in drug-taking group after spending 24 hours on recovery was evidently higher than that of control-group (P<0.05). The exhaustive swimming time of drug-taking group was longer than that of exercise-control group by 33.99%. Conclusion Chitosan takes good effect on improving carbohydrate metabolism disorder resulting from exercises.

  2. Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, Michael; Derler, Karin

    2006-11-30

    The analysis of carbohydrates and amino acids in green coffee is of the utmost importance since these two classes of compounds act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. During the course of the Maillard reaction potentially harmful substances like acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural accrue as well. The carbohydrates were analysed by anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and the amino acids by reversed phase chromatography after derivatization with 6-amino-quinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate and fluorescence detection. Both methods had to be optimized to obtain a sufficient resolution of the analytes for identification and quantification. Sucrose is the dominant carbohydrate in green coffee with a concentration of up to 90 mg/g (mean = 73 mg/g) in arabica beans and significantly lower amounts in robusta beans (mean=45 mg/g). Alanine is the amino acid with the highest concentration (mean = 1200 microg/g) followed by asparagine (mean = 680 microg/g) in robusta and 800 microg/g and 360 microg/g in arabica respectively. In general, the concentration of amino acids is higher in robusta than in arabica.

  3. Carbohydrate as a factor controlling leaf development in cocoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, R.C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Cocoa shows growth periodicity of the shoot apex where periods of active new leaf development (flushing) alternate with periods of dormancy (Interflush). This thesis presents the results of an investigation into the characteristics of leaf growth, and the production and translocation of photosynthate/carbohydrate between source and sink leaves aimed to investigate the possible role of plant carbohydrate status in the control of the intermittent leaf production. The photosynthetic capacity of mature leaves did not increase during the phase of major increase in carbohydrate consumption by developing leaves but rather decreased slightly. Translocation of assimilated /sup 14/carbon from mature leaves was however significantly increased during phase of rapid expansion of the new leaves. Compensatory changes in the /sup 14/carbon-export from a single remaining source leaf after defoliation showed that mature leaves normally operate much below both their maximum photosynthate loading capacity and export potential. Partial removal of developing leaves within one flush resulted in increased /sup 14/C-photosynthate import into the remaining leaf showing that a developing leaf has a greater import and unloading potential than that utilized during its development in one normal flush.

  4. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Prado de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6% or glucose plus fructose (8%–10% beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics.

  5. Prediction of conformationally dependent atomic multipole moments in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-12-15

    The conformational flexibility of carbohydrates is challenging within the field of computational chemistry. This flexibility causes the electron density to change, which leads to fluctuating atomic multipole moments. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) allows for the partitioning of an "atom in a molecule," thus localizing electron density to finite atomic domains, which permits the unambiguous evaluation of atomic multipole moments. By selecting an ensemble of physically realistic conformers of a chemical system, one evaluates the various multipole moments at defined points in configuration space. The subsequent implementation of the machine learning method kriging delivers the evaluation of an analytical function, which smoothly interpolates between these points. This allows for the prediction of atomic multipole moments at new points in conformational space, not trained for but within prediction range. In this work, we demonstrate that the carbohydrates erythrose and threose are amenable to the above methodology. We investigate how kriging models respond when the training ensemble incorporating multiple energy minima and their environment in conformational space. Additionally, we evaluate the gains in predictive capacity of our models as the size of the training ensemble increases. We believe this approach to be entirely novel within the field of carbohydrates. For a modest training set size of 600, more than 90% of the external test configurations have an error in the total (predicted) electrostatic energy (relative to ab initio) of maximum 1 kJ mol(-1) for open chains and just over 90% an error of maximum 4 kJ mol(-1) for rings.

  6. Structure-activity relationships in carbohydrates revealed by their hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Laura; Busch, Sebastian; McLain, Sylvia E; Pardo, Luis Carlos; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2016-12-21

    One of the more intriguing aspects of carbohydrate chemistry is that despite having very similar molecular structures, sugars have very different properties. For instance, there is a sensible difference in sweet taste between glucose and trehalose, even though trehalose is a disaccharide that comprised two glucose units, suggesting a different ability of these two carbohydrates to bind to sweet receptors. Here we have looked at the hydration of specific sites and at the three-dimensional configuration of water molecules around three carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose), combining neutron diffraction data with computer modelling. Results indicate that identical chemical groups can have radically different hydration patterns depending on their location on a given molecule. These differences can be linked with the specific activity of glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose as a sweet substance, as building block of cellulose fiber, and as a bioprotective agent, respectively. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editors: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader.

  7. Shape: automatic conformation prediction of carbohydrates using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Jimmy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed experimental three dimensional structures of carbohydrates are often difficult to acquire. Molecular modelling and computational conformation prediction are therefore commonly used tools for three dimensional structure studies. Modelling procedures generally require significant training and computing resources, which is often impractical for most experimental chemists and biologists. Shape has been developed to improve the availability of modelling in this field. Results The Shape software package has been developed for simplicity of use and conformation prediction performance. A trivial user interface coupled to an efficient genetic algorithm conformation search makes it a powerful tool for automated modelling. Carbohydrates up to a few hundred atoms in size can be investigated on common computer hardware. It has been shown to perform well for the prediction of over four hundred bioactive oligosaccharides, as well as compare favourably with previously published studies on carbohydrate conformation prediction. Conclusion The Shape fully automated conformation prediction can be used by scientists who lack significant modelling training, and performs well on computing hardware such as laptops and desktops. It can also be deployed on computer clusters for increased capacity. The prediction accuracy under the default settings is good, as it agrees well with experimental data and previously published conformation prediction studies. This software is available both as open source and under commercial licenses.

  8. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  9. Predictive Values of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiac Troponin I for Myocardial Fibrosis in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlin Zhang

    Full Text Available Both high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and B-type natriuretic peptide are useful in detecting myocardial fibrosis, as determined by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, in patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, their values to predict myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM remain unclear. We investigated the role of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP and cardiac troponin I (cTnI to identify LGE-CMR in patients with HOCM.Peripheral concentrations of NT-proBNP and cTnI were determined in patients with HOCM (n = 163; age = 47.2 ± 10.8 years; 38.7% females. Contrast-enhanced CMR was performed to identify and quantify myocardial fibrosis.LGE was detected in 120 of 163 patients (73.6%. Patients with LGE had significantly higher levels of NT-proBNP and cTnI than those without LGE (1386.2 [904.6-2340.8] vs. 866.6 [707.2-1875.2] pmol/L, P = 0.003; 0.024 [0.010-0.049] vs. 0.010 [0.005-0.021] ng/ml, P <0.001, respectively. The extent of LGE was positively correlated with log cTnI (r = 0.371, P <0.001 and log NT-proBNP (r = 0.211, P = 0.007. On multivariable analysis, both log cTnI and maximum wall thickness (MWT were independent predictors of the presence of LGE (OR = 3.193, P = 0.033; OR = 1.410, P < 0.001, respectively, whereas log NT-proBNP was not. According to the ROC curve analysis, combined measurements of MWT ≥21 mm and/or cTnI ≥0.025 ng/ml indicated good diagnostic performance for the presence of LGE, with specificity of 95% or sensitivity of 88%.Serum cTnI is an independent predictor useful for identifying myocardial fibrosis, while plasma NT-proBNP is only associated with myocardial fibrosis on univariate analysis. Combined measurements of serum cTnI with MWT further improve its value in detecting myocardial fibrosis in patients with HOCM.

  10. Association of protein kinase Cmu with type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K; Toker, A; Wong, K; Marignani, P A; Johannes, F J; Cantley, L C

    1998-09-04

    Protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu), also named protein kinase D, is an unusual member of the PKC family that has a putative transmembrane domain and pleckstrin homology domain. This enzyme has a substrate specificity distinct from other PKC isoforms (Nishikawa, K., Toker, A., Johannes, F. J., Songyang, Z., and Cantley, L. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 952-960), and its mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. Here we show that PKCmu forms a complex in vivo with a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. A region of PKCmu between the amino-terminal transmembrane domain and the pleckstrin homology domain is shown to be involved in the association with the lipid kinases. Interestingly, a kinase-dead point mutant of PKCmu failed to associate with either lipid kinase activity, indicating that autophosphorylation may be required to expose the lipid kinase interaction domain. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of the PKCmu-associated lipid kinases to the particulate fraction depends on the presence of the amino-terminal region of PKCmu including the predicted transmembrane region. These results suggest a novel model in which the non-catalytic region of PKCmu acts as a scaffold for assembly of enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis at specific membrane locations.

  11. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...... in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several...

  12. Pill formulations and their effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P G

    1984-07-01

    Recent data on oral contraceptives (OCs) employing new low-dose formulations appear to indicate that most of the previously reported metabolic effects are minimized, particularly when a product is neigher ovverly estrogenic nor progestational. Evidence suggests that elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma are correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic students have indicated a correlation between elevation of low denisty lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease, and a correlation between decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and arterial disease. Epidemiologic evidence seems to suggest that combination OCs are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially risks of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. There is some debate as to whether OCs themselves are an independent risk factor or whether they increase the effects of other risk factors. Women using combination OCs have been reported to have higher total serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, related primarily to the estrogen dose. While most of the earlier literature associated estrogens with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, recent studies have increasingly implicated the progestin component. Increasing potencies of progestin have been found to proportionally lower the HDL-cholesterol level. There is a positive association between the estrogen dose and HDL-cholesterol level. Among combination pill users, HDL levels gevverally depend on the relative amounts and potencies of both components. It is generally agreed that there are some high-risk women who should be carefully monitored while using the pill or who should not use it at all. Steroid type and dosage both play a role in affecting carbohydrate metabolism. Ethinyl estradiol (EE), the estrogen component in most OCs, does not seem to have the same biphasic effect on carbohydrate metaolism as most other estrogens. Most of the recent

  13. [Immunoglobulin genes encoding antibodies directed to oncodevelopmental carbohydrate antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenita, K; Yago, K; Fujimoto, E; Kannagi, R

    1990-07-01

    We investigated the immunoglobulin genes which encode the variable region of the monoclonal antibodies directed to the onco-developmental carbohydrate antigens such SSEA-1, fucosyl SSEA-1, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4. The VH region of these antibodies was preferentially encoded by the gene members of the X24, VH7183 and Q52 families, the families which are known to be located at the 3'-end region of the murine germ line VH gene. This result is interesting particularly when considering that the members of the 3'-end VH families are known to be preferentially expressed in embryonic B lymphocytes by an intrinsic genetic program. The comparative study of the nucleic acid sequences of mRNAs encoding these antibodies and the sequences of the corresponding germ line VH genes disclosed that the sequences encoding the antibodies contain no mutation from the germ line VH genes, or contain only a few somatic mutations, which are thought to be insignificant for the reactivity of the antibodies to the nominal antigens. These results imply that some of the embryonic B lymphocytes that express the unmutated germ line VH genes of the 3'-end families can be reactive with embryonic carbohydrate antigens, albeit rearranged with appropriate D-JH gene segments, and coupled with proper light chains. The VH region of the syngenic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies directed to these anti-carbohydrate antibodies were also encoded preferentially by the members of the 3'-end VH families. We propose here that a part of the virgin embryonic B lymphocytes, which express the antibody encoded by the gene members of the 3'-end VH families at the cell surface, will be stimulated by the embryonic carbohydrate antigens which are abundantly present in the internal milieu of the embryo. The clonally expanded B lymphocytes, in turn, will facilitate the proliferation of other populations of embryonic B lymphocytes expressing the corresponding anti-idiotypic antibodies, which are also encoded by the gene members

  14. Substrate Promiscuity of N-Acetylhexosamine 1-Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Cao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available N-Acetylhexosamine 1-kinase (NahK catalyzes the direct addition of a phosphate from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP to the anomeric position of N-acetylhexosamine and shows similar activity towards N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc. Herein we report the cloning, characterization, and substrate specificity studies of two NahKs from Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC15697 and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC55813, respectively. A new capillary electrophoresis assay method has been developed for enzyme activity assays. Both enzymes have a good expression level in E. coli (180–185 mg/L culture and can tolerate diverse modifications at C2 of GlcNAc and GalNAc. Various GlcNAc derivatives with C6, both C2 and C6, as well as both C2 and C3 modifications are tolerable substrates for the newly cloned NahKs. Quite interestingly, despite of their low activities toward glucose and galactose, the activities of both NahKs are much higher for mannose and some of its C2, C4, and C6 derivatives. These NahKs are excellent catalysts for enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates.

  15. Protein Kinase D family kinases: roads start to segregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Christoph; Seufferlein, Thomas; Eiseler, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Highly invasive pancreatic tumors are often recognized in late stages due to a lack of clear symptoms and pose major challenges for treatment and disease management. Broad-band Protein Kinase D (PKD) inhibitors have recently been proposed as additional treatment option for this disease. PKDs are implicated in the control of cancer cell motility, angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. In particular, PKD2 expression is elevated in pancreatic cancer, whereas PKD1 expression is comparably lower. In our recent study we report that both kinases control PDAC cell invasive properties in an isoform-specific, but opposing manner. PKD1 selectively mediates anti-migratory/anti-invasive features by preferential regulation of the actin-regulatory Cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot1L (SSH1L). PKD2, on the other hand enhances invasion and angiogenesis of PDAC cells in 3D-ECM cultures and chorioallantois tumor models by stimulating expression and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinase 7 and 9 (MMP7/9). MMP9 also enhances PKD2-mediated tumor angiogenesis releasing extracellular matrix-bound VEGF-A. We thus suggest high PKD2 expression and loss of PKD1 may be beneficial for tumor cells to enhance their matrix-invading abilities. In our recent study we demonstrate for the first time PKD1 and 2 isoform-selective effects on pancreatic cancer cell invasion, in-vitro and in-vivo, defining isoform-specific regulation of PKDs as a major future issue.

  16. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  17. MAP kinases and histone modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamaki Suganuma; Jerry L. Workman

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways alter the gene expression program in response to extracellular or intracellular cues.Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) govern numerous cellular processes including cell growth,stress response,apoptosis,and differentiation.In the past decade,MAPKs have been shown to regulate the transcription machinery and associate with chromatin-modifying complexes.Moreover,recent studies demonstrate that several MAPKs bind directly to chromatin at target genes.This review highlights the recent discoveries of MAPK signaling in regard to histone modifications and chromatin regulation.Evidence suggesting that further unknown mechanisms integrate signal transduction with chromatin biology is discussed.

  18. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  19. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  20. Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars II: Simulating a Population of LMC early B-type Stars as a Test of Rotational Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Brott, Ines; Hunter, Ian; de Koter, Alex; Langer, Norbert; Dufton, Philip L; Cantiello, Matteo; Trundle, Carrie; Lennon, Danny J; de Mink, Selma E; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Anders, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Rotational mixing in massive stars is a widely applied concept, with far reaching consequences for stellar evolution. Nitrogen surface abundances for a large and homogeneous sample of massive B-type stars in the LMC were obtained by the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars. This sample is the first covering a broad range of projected stellar rotational velocities, with a large enough sample of high quality data to allow for a statistically significant analysis. We use the sample to provide the first rigorous test of the theory of rotational mixing in massive stars. We calculated a grid of stellar evolution models, using the FLAMES sample to calibrate some of the uncertain mixing processes. We developed a new population-synthesis code, which uses this grid to simulate a large population of stars with masses, ages and rotational velocity distributions consistent with those from the FLAMES sample. The synthesized population is then filtered by the selection effects in the observed sample, to enable a direct compar...

  1. B fields in OB stars (BOB): on the detection of weak magnetic fields in the two early B-type stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Morel, T; Langer, N; Briquet, M; Carroll, T A; Hubrig, S; Nieva, M F; Oskinova, L M; Przybilla, N; Schneider, F R N; Scholler, M; Simon-Diaz, S; Ilyin, I; de Koter, A; Reisenegger, A; Sana, H

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60

  2. Is N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) a useful screening test for angiographic findings in patients with stable coronary disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Charlotte; Grønning, Bjørn; Omland, Torbjørn;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful screening tool for angiographic coronary artery disease in patients with angina is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic test performance of NT-proBNP in detecting coronary......). The ability of NT-proBNP in detecting clinically significant coronary disease at angiography was modest, however, with sensitivity of 0.61, specificity 0.60, accuracy 61 (95% CI 58-64), positive likelihood ratio 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.8), negative likelihood ratio 0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.8), and area under the ROC curve...... atherosclerotic lesions, as assessed by coronary angiography. METHODS: We examined 1034 patients referred for diagnostic angiography because of symptoms or signs of coronary artery disease. The diagnostic value of NT-proBNP in predicting clinically significant coronary disease was assessed. RESULTS: In a multiple...

  3. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) -based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-07-14

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as "serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl," "age above 79 years," "without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker," "without taking beta-blocker," "without taking loop diuretics," "with mechanical ventilator support," "with non-invasive ventilator support," "with vasopressors use," and "experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation" were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients.

  4. Cardiac tamponade as an independent condition affecting the relationship between the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minai, Kosuke; Komukai, Kimiaki; Arase, Satoshi; Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kayama, Yosuke; Inada, Keiichi; Tanigawa, Shin-Ichi; Takemoto, Tomoyuki; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Date, Taro; Ogawa, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2013-07-01

    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is finely regulated by the cardiac function and several extracardiac factors. Therefore, the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and the severity of heart failure sometimes seems inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the plasma BNP levels in patients with cardiac tamponade and their changes after pericardial drainage. This study included 14 patients with cardiac tamponade who underwent pericardiocentesis. The cardiac tamponade was due to malignant diseases in 13 patients and uremia in 1 patient. The plasma BNP levels were measured before and 24-48 h after drainage. Although the patients reported severe symptoms of heart failure, their plasma BNP levels were only 71.2 ± 11.1 pg/ml before drainage. After appropriate drainage, the plasma BNP levels increased to 186.0 ± 22.5 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than that before drainage (P = 0.0002). In patients with cardiac tamponade, the plasma BNP levels were low, probably because of impaired ventricular stretching, and the levels significantly increased in response to the primary condition after drainage. This study demonstrates an additional condition that affects the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and cardiac function. If inconsistency is seen in the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and clinical signs of heart failure, the presence of cardiac tamponade should therefore be considered.

  5. Chemical surface inhomogeneities in late B-type stars with Hg and Mn peculiarity I Spot evolution in HD 11753 on short and long time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, H; Briquet, M; Soriano, M Flores; Hubrig, S; Savanov, I; Hackman, T; Ilyin, I V; Eulaers, E; Pessemier, W

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Time series of high-resolution spectra of the late B-type star HD 11753 exhibiting HgMn chemical peculiarity are used to study the surface distribution of different chemical elements and their temporal evolution. Methods: High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra were obtained using the CORALIE spectrograph at La Silla in 2000, 2009, and 2010. Surface maps of YII, SrII, TiII, and CrII were calculated using the Doppler imaging technique. The results were also compared to equivalent width measurements. The evolution of chemical spots both on short and long time scales were investigated. Results: We determine the binary orbit of HD 11753 and fine-tune the rotation period of the primary. The earlier discovered fast evolution of the chemical spots is confirmed by an analysis using both the chemical spot maps and equivalent width measurements. In addition, a long-term decrease in the overall YII and SrII abundances is discovered. A detailed analysis of the chemical spot configurations reveals som...

  6. Attenuation of monocyte chemotaxis--a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of action for the cardio-protective hormone B-type natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezeva, Nadezhda; Collier, Patrick; Voon, Victor; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris; Baugh, John

    2013-08-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a prognostic and diagnostic marker for heart failure (HF). An anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective role for BNP was proposed. In cardiovascular diseases including pressure overload-induced HF, perivascular inflammation and cardiac fibrosis are, in part, mediated by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1-driven monocyte migration. We aimed to determine the role of BNP in monocyte motility to MCP1. A functional BNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) was identified in human monocytes. BNP treatment inhibited MCP1-induced THP1 (monocytic leukemia cells) and primary monocyte chemotaxis (70 and 50 %, respectively). BNP did not interfere with MCP1 receptor expression or with calcium. BNP inhibited activation of the cytoskeletal protein RhoA in MCP1-stimulated THP1 (70 %). Finally, BNP failed to inhibit MCP1-directed motility of monocytes from patients with hypertension (n = 10) and HF (n = 6) suggesting attenuation of this anti-inflammatory mechanism in chronic heart disease. We provide novel evidence for a direct role of BNP/NPRA in opposing human monocyte migration and support a role for BNP as a cardio-protective hormone up-regulated as part of an adaptive compensatory response to combat excess inflammation.

  7. 纯棉织物B型活性印花冷堆固色%Cold print-batch process of cotton fabric with B type reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友波; 唐群; 吴君风

    2012-01-01

    Cotton printing is carried out with cold batching fixation using B-type reactive dyes. In this process, alkaline is first padded into high count polyester fabric, and then the reactive printed cotton fabric is batched and dwelled together with the treated polyester fabric. The factors affecting the printing effects are analyzed, including specifications of polyester fabric, the padder pressure and thickener types. Cold batching fixation and steaming fixation are compared. It is found that the cold batching fixation features high color yield of up to 90% and good color fastness.%纯棉织物用异双活性基的B型活性染料印花后冷堆固色,通过将固色碱液施于经纬密度较高的涤纶布上,再将其与印有活性染料的纯棉织物一起打卷,使该含有碱剂的涤纶织物衬于棉织物之中.通过试验,分析了影响印花效果的因素,包括涤纶的组织规格、轧车压力、糊料种类等;比较了冷堆固色与汽蒸固色的效果,发现B型活性染料采用冷堆固色方法,固色率可达90%,且色牢度好.

  8. Comparative Analysis of A, B Type and Exchange Traded Funds Performances with Mutual Fund Performance Measures, Regression Analysis and Manova Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arslan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate risk- reward relationship and relative performances of the 4 different groups of mutual funds. To this end, daily return data of these 12 mutual funds (3 type variable fund; 3 B type variable fund; 3 A type stock fund and 3 A type Exchange traded fund together with daily market index (imkb100 return and daily return of riskless rate for the period from January 2006 to Feb 2010. The 180-day maturity T-Bill has been selected to represent riskless rate. To determine performances of mutual funds; Sharpe ratio, M2 measure, Treynor index, Jensen index, Sortino ratio, T2 ratio, Valuation ratio has been applied and these indicators produced conflicting results in ranking mutual funds. Then timingand selection capability of the fund manager has been determined by applying simple regression and Quadratic regression. Interestingly all funds found to have positive coefficient, indicating positive election capability of managers; but in terms of timing capability only one fund managers showed success. Finally, to determine extent to which mean returns are differs between mutual funds, market index (imkb100 and riskless rate (180 day TBill results of the analysis revealed that mean returns of individual security returns differs at P≤0,01 level. That shows instability in returns and poor ex-ante forecast modeling capability.

  9. Putative P1B-type ATPase from the bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8 alters Pb2+/Zn2+/Cd2+-resistance and accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Jachym; Kotrba, Pavel; Macek, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    PbtA, a putative P(1B)-type ATPase from the Gram-negative soil bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8 responsible for Pb(2+)/Zn(2+)/Cd(2+)-resistance in Escherichia coli, was heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When present in Zn(2+)- and Pb(2+)/Cd(2+)-hypersensitive S. cerevisiae strains CM137 and DTY168, respectively, PbtA was able to restore Zn(2+)- and Pb(2+)-resistant phenotype. At the same time, the increase of Pb, Zn, and Cd accumulation in yeast was observed. However, Cd(2+)-tolerance of the pbtA-bearing yeasts dramatically decreased. The PbtA-eGFP fusion protein was localized primarily in the tonoplast and also in the plasma membrane and the perinuclear region corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum at later growth stages. This indicates that PbtA protein is successfully incorporated into membranes in yeasts. Since PbtA caused a substantial increase of Pb(2+)/Zn(2+)-resistance and accumulation in baker's yeast, we propose its further use for the genetic modification of suitable plant species in order to obtain an effective tool for the phytoremediation of sites polluted by toxic transition metals.

  10. PCR performance of the B-type DNA polymerase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon Thermococcus aggregans improved by mutations in the Y-GG/A motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, Kristina; Pisani, Francesca M.; Vorgias, Constantinos E.; Frey, Bruno; Sobek, Harald; Rossi, Mosè; Antranikian, Garabed

    2000-01-01

    The effect of mutations in the highly conserved Y-GG/A motif of B-type DNA polymerases was studied in the DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Thermococcus aggregans. This motif plays a critical role in the balance between the synthesis and degradation of the DNA chain. Five different mutations of the tyrosine at position 387 (Tyr387→Phe, Tyr387→Trp, Tyr387→His, Tyr387→Asn and Tyr387→Ser) revealed that an aromatic ring system is crucial for the synthetic activity of the enzyme. Amino acids at this position lacking the ring system (Ser and Asn) led to a significant decrease in polymerase activity and to enhanced exonuclease activity, which resulted in improved enzyme fidelity. Exchange of tyrosine to phenylalanine, tryptophan or histidine led to phenotypes with wild-type-like fidelity but enhanced PCR performance that could be related to a higher velocity of polymerisation. With the help of a modelled structure of T.aggregans DNA polymerase, the biochemical data were interpreted proposing that the conformation of the flexible loop containing the Y-GG/A motif is an important factor for the equilibrium between DNA polymerisation and exonucleolysis. PMID:11024170

  11. NLTE carbon abundance determination in selected A- and B-type stars and the interpretation of C\\ione\\ emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeeva, S A; Mashonkina, L I

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive model atom for C\\ione\\ -- C\\ii\\ using the most up-to-date atomic data available and evaluated the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for C\\ione\\ and C\\ii\\ in classical 1D models representing the atmospheres of A and late B-type stars. Our NLTE calculations predict the emission that appears at effective temperature of 9250 to 10\\,500~K depending on log~$g$ in the C\\ione\\ 8335, 9405\\,\\AA\\ singlet lines and at \\Teff~$>$~15\\,000~K (log~$g$ = 4) in the C\\ione\\ 9061 -- 9111\\,\\AA\\,, 9603 -- 9658\\,\\AA\\, triplet lines. A prerequisite of the emission phenomenon is the overionization-recombination mechanism resulting in a depopulation of the lower levels of C\\ione\\ to a greater extent than the upper levels. Extra depopulation of the lower levels of the transitions corresponding to the near-infrared lines, is caused by photon loss in the UV lines C\\ione\\ 2479, 1930, and 1657\\,\\AA. We analysed the lines of C\\ione\\ and C\\ii\\ in Vega, HD~73666, Sirius, 21~Peg, $\\pi$~Cet,...

  12. Reference intervals for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in amniotic fluid between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltraut M Merz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adult and pediatric cardiology, n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP serves as biomarker in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular dysfunction. Elevated levels of circulating nt-proBNP are present in fetal conditions associated with myocardial pressure or volume load. Compared to fetal blood sampling, amniocentesis is technically easier and can be performed from early pregnancy onwards. We aimed to investigate amniotic fluid (AF nt-proBNP concentrations in normal pregnancies between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Nt-proBNP and total protein (TP was measured in AF by chemiluminescence assay (photometry, respectively. To adjust for a potential dilutional effect, the AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio was analyzed. Reference intervals were constructed by regression modeling across gestational age. RESULTS: 132 samples were analyzed. A negative correlation between AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio and gestational age was observed. Curves for the mean and the 5% and 95% reference interval between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation were established. CONCLUSION: In normal pregnancy, nt-proBNP is present in AF and decreases during gestation. Our data provide the basis for research on AF-nt-proBNP as biomarker in fetal medicine.

  13. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Deletion Leads to Progressive Hypertension, Associated Organ Damage, and Reduced Survival: Novel Model for Human Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch, Sara J; Schreiber, Claire A; Nini, Ryan; Tonne, Jason M; Peng, Kah-Whye; Geurts, Aron; Jacob, Howard J; Burnett, John C; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Altered myocardial structure and function, secondary to chronically elevated blood pressure, are leading causes of heart failure and death. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a guanylyl cyclase A agonist, is a cardiac hormone integral to cardiovascular regulation. Studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between reduced production or impaired BNP release and the development of human hypertension. However, the consequences of BNP insufficiency on blood pressure and hypertension-associated complications remain poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create and characterize a novel model of BNP deficiency to investigate the effects of BNP absence on cardiac and renal structure, function, and survival. Genetic BNP deletion was generated in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Compared with age-matched controls, BNP knockout rats demonstrated adult-onset hypertension. Increased left ventricular mass with hypertrophy and substantially augmented hypertrophy signaling pathway genes, developed in young adult knockout rats, which preceded hypertension. Prolonged hypertension led to increased cardiac stiffness, cardiac fibrosis, and thrombi formation. Significant elongation of the QT interval was detected at 9 months in knockout rats. Progressive nephropathy was also noted with proteinuria, fibrosis, and glomerular alterations in BNP knockout rats. End-organ damage contributed to a significant decline in overall survival. Systemic BNP overexpression reversed the phenotype of genetic BNP deletion. Our results demonstrate the critical role of BNP defect in the development of systemic hypertension and associated end-organ damage in adulthood.

  14. MST kinases in development and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Barry J.; Sahai, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cance...

  15. MST kinases in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barry J; Sahai, Erik

    2015-09-14

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease.

  16. The Mechanism of Phosphoryl Transfer Reaction and the Role of Active Site Residues on the Basis of Ribokinase-Like Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Dyguda

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of ribokinase-like carbohydrate kinases consists in ATP dependent phosphorylation of small molecules containing hydroxymethyl group. Although they differ substantially in structural terms and exhibit a broad substrate specificity, some family-wide conserved features can be distinguished suggesting the common mode of action. 4-methyl-5-β-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase (Thz kinase was chosen as a representative model and the mechanism proposed in X-ray crystal structure paper provided the basis for calculations. In particular, the possible role of several active site residues (Arg121 and Cys198 among others and of the two magnesium ions was examined. Static and dynamic catalytic fields for the reaction were generated revealing the most favourable environment for the preferential transition state stabilization. An attempt to model the phosphoryl transfer reaction as well as to investigate the influence of the cysteine residue on the reaction course at the semiempirical PM3 level of theory was undertaken.

  17. The Arabidopsis kinase-associated protein phosphatase controls internalization of the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, K.; Russinova, E.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Willemse, J.; Vries, de S.C.

    2002-01-01

    The AtSERK1 protein is a plasma membrane-located LRR receptor-like serine threonine kinase that is transiently expressed during plant embryogenesis. Our results show that AtSERK1 interacts with the kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) in vitro. The kinase interaction (KI) domain of KAPP does

  18. Comparison of Peptide Array Substrate Phosphorylation of c-Raf and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parikh, Kaushal; Diks, Sander H.; Tuynman, Jurriaan H. B.; Verhaar, Auke; Lowenberg, Mark; Hommes, Daan W.; Joore, Jos; Pandey, Akhilesh; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2009-01-01

    Kinases are pivotal regulators of cellular physiology. The human genome contains more than 500 putative kinases, which exert their action via the phosphorylation of specific substrates. The determinants of this specificity are still only partly understood and as a consequence it is difficult to pred

  19. Carbohydrate availability and exercise training adaptation: too much of a good thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hawley, John A; Morton, James P

    2015-01-01

    Traditional nutritional approaches to endurance training have typically promoted high carbohydrate (CHO) availability before, during and after training sessions to ensure adequate muscle substrate to meet the demands of high daily training intensities and volumes. However, during the past decade, data from our laboratories and others have demonstrated that deliberately training in conditions of reduced CHO availability can promote training-induced adaptations of human skeletal muscle (i.e. increased maximal mitochondrial enzyme activities and/or mitochondrial content, increased rates of lipid oxidation and, in some instances, improved exercise capacity). Such data have led to the concept of 'training low, but competing high' whereby selected training sessions are completed in conditions of reduced CHO availability (so as to promote training adaptation), but CHO reserves are restored immediately prior to an important competition. The augmented training response observed with training-low strategies is likely regulated by enhanced activation of key cell signalling kinases (e.g. AMPK, p38MAPK), transcription factors (e.g. p53, PPARδ) and transcriptional co-activators (e.g. PGC-1α), such that a co-ordinated up-regulation of both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes occurs. Although the optimal practical strategies to train low are not currently known, consuming additional caffeine, protein, and practising CHO mouth-rinsing before and/or during training may help to rescue the reduced training intensities that typically occur when 'training low', in addition to preventing protein breakdown and maintaining optimal immune function. Finally, athletes should practise 'train-low' workouts in conjunction with sessions undertaken with normal or high CHO availability so that their capacity to oxidise CHO is not blunted on race day.

  20. Novel Library of Selenocompounds as Kinase Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sanmartín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of cancer lie in mutations or epigenic changes at the genetic level, their molecular manifestation is the dysfunction of biochemical pathways at the protein level. The 518 protein kinases encoded by the human genome play a central role in various diseases, a fact that has encouraged extensive investigations on their biological function and three dimensional structures. Selenium (Se is an important nutritional trace element involved in different physiological functions with antioxidative, antitumoral and chemopreventive properties. The mechanisms of action for selenocompounds as anticancer agents are not fully understood, but kinase modulation seems to be a possible pathway. Various organosulfur compounds have shown antitumoral and kinase inhibition effects but, in many cases, the replacement of sulfur by selenium improves the antitumoral effect of compounds. Although Se atom possesses a larger atomic volume and nucleophilic character than sulfur, Se can also formed interactions with aminoacids of the catalytic centers of proteins. So, we propose a novel chemical library that includes organoselenium compounds as kinase modulators. In this study thirteen selenocompounds have been evaluated at a concentration of 3 or 10 µM in a 24 kinase panel using a Caliper LabChip 3000 Drug Discover Platform. Several receptor (EGFR, IGFR1, FGFR1… and non-receptor (Abl kinases have been selected, as well as serine/threonine/lipid kinases (AurA, Akt, CDKs, MAPKs… implicated in main cancer pathways: cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, angiogenesis regulation among them. The obtained results showed that two compounds presented inhibition values higher than 50% in at least four kinases and seven derivatives selectively inhibited one or two kinases. Furthermore, three compounds selectively activated IGF-1R kinase with values ranging from −98% to −211%. In conclusion, we propose that the replacement of sulfur by selenium seems to be