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Sample records for azul litopenaeus stylirostris

  1. Índice de desarrollo y supervivencia de larvas del camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson, 1871), alimentadas con diferentes concentraciones de Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel E Godínez; Arnulfo H Díaz; María del C Gallo

    2005-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo ensayos alimenticios con larvas del camarón azul (Litopenaeus stylirostris) utilizando cuatro diferentes concentraciones de la microalga Chaetoceroscalcitrans (30000, 60000, 90000 y 120000 cél/ml), con una concentración constante por tratamiento de 10000 cél/ml de Tetraselmis suecica y seis nauplios por ml de Artemia franciscana recién eclosionada. El período de prueba se inició a partir del sub estadio zoea 1 y concluyó hasta la aparición de misis 3. En cada ensayo fueron...

  2. Variación temporal en la abundancia de postlarvas y juveniles de camarón azul (Litopenaeus stylirostris) y camarón café (Farfantepenaeus californiensis) en el estuario del Río Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    MS Galindo-Bect; HM Page; RL Petty; JM Hernández-Ayón; EA Aragón-Noriega; H Bustos-Serrano

    2007-01-01

    Se estudió la variación temporal en la abundancia y composición de postlarvas y juveniles de camarones peneidos en uncanal de mareas del estuario del Río Colorado. Se realizaron muestreos cada dos semanas durante flujo y reflujo de mareas demarzo a noviembre de 2000. Las postlarvas del camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris estuvieron presentes a partir de mayo, conmayor densidad durante el flujo de marea a principios de junio. A finales de septiembre se observó un pico de menor densidad, yen ...

  3. Primer registro de la utilización de harinas de Salicornia bigelovii y Scomber japonicus en dietas prácticas para el cultivo súper-intensivo de camarón Litopenaeus stylirostris First record on the use of Salicornia bigelovii and Scomber japonicus fishmeals as feed for Litopenaeus stylirostris under super-intensive farming

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel de J . Acosta-Ruiz; J. Paniagua-Michel; J Olmos-Soto; E Paredes-Escalona

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de las harinas de Salicornia bigelovii (SA) y Scomber japonicus, semiprocesada (HPS) como ingredientes en la formulación de dietas para camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris, en cultivo súper-intensivo. Se formularon tres diferentes dietas isoproteicas (40%) e isocalóricas (6 kcal g-1): (DSA), (DHPS), basal (DBA) y una dieta control (DCO). El peso obtenido con DSA y DHPS (0,9 ± 0,014 y 0,8 ± 0,015 g) fue similar a la dieta comercial DCO (0,9 ± 0,07 g), no existieron difere...

  4. Induction of ovarian maturation and spawning by combined treatment of serotonin and a dopamine antagonist, spiperone in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.; Zuniga, G.; Komen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to develop a reliable technique for inducing ovarian maturation and spawning in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei, as an alternative to the traditional and destructive eyestalk ablation. Two combinations of molecules were evaluated: (a) serotonin (5-HT) at 50 ¿

  5. Probiotic P-acidilactici application in shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris culture subject to vibriosis in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu; Chim, Liet; Pham, Dominique; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Schmidely, P; Mariojouls, C.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of a lactic acid bacterium, Pediococcus acidilactici (strain MA 18/5M, CNCM), as a dietary probiotic on growth performance and some nutritional and microbiological aspects of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. Experimental shrimp culture was carried out over 10 weeks, using floating cages of 14 m(2) each set in earthen ponds, in a New Caledonia farm affected by "Summer syndrome", a septicaemic vibriosis caused by Vibrio nigripulchritudo. The experiment design testing ...

  6. Searching for genetic markers of virulence in Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud, Yann

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, a new pathology seasonally occurs in new caledonian shrimp farms during the warm season. Diseased Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp suffer from a systemic vibriosis which was attributed to highly pathogenic Vibrio nigripulchritudo. At the present time, only two farms among 17 are affected by the so called "summer syndrome". In such a context it appears urgent to develop reliable diagnostic tools to detect V. nigripulchritudo strains and to differentiate highly virulent strains from ...

  7. Reproduction of the hawaiian strain of pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Patrois, Jacques; Goyard, Emmanuel; Maillez, Jean-rene; Broutoi, Francis; Dufour, Robert; Peignon, Jean-marie; Brun, Pierre; Lambert, Christian; Pita, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris was introduced in New Caledonia thirty years ago. Because of its high inbreeding, a SPF strain domesticated in Hawaii, genetically differentiated from the Caledonian strain, had to be imported. The two strains’ reproductive performances were compared at different periods and cross breedings were assessed. The average results show that Caledonian animals give twice as many nauplii than the Hawaiian animals. The best cross breeding is obtained wi...

  8. Effect of dietary protein level on growth and energy utilization by Litopenaeus stylirostris under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gauquelin, F; Cuzon, Gerard; Gaxiola, G.; Rosas, C.; Arena, L.; Bureau, D; Cochard, Jean-claude

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted using a bioenergetics approach to generate information on energy requirement and feed utilization of Litopenaeus stylirostris. Animals (initial mean weight 21 +/- 1 g were fed ad libitum six experimental diets, ranging from 25 to 58% crude protein (CP), for 50 days. Weight gain increased from 21 to 30 g with increasing dietary protein level. Survival rates averaged 80%. Basal metabolism (HeE) and heat increment of feeding (HiE) were monitored using respirometry. HeE...

  9. Effect of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress of Litopenaeus stylirostris under Vibrio nigripulchritudo challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant defences and induced oxidative stress tissue damage of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, under challenge with Vibrio nigriputchritudo, were investigated for a 72-h period. For this purpose, L stylirostris were first infected by immersion with pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain SFn1 and then antioxidant defences: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), Total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathiones and induced tissue damage (MDA and carbon...

  10. Combined effect of external ammonia and molt stage on the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris physiological response

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Justou, Carole

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ambient ammonia and molt stage on the physiological response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris was studied. Shrimps were submitted to 54.6 mg l(-1) ammonia-N (1.76 mg l(-1) NH3-N) for 24 h. Only shrimps in stages C, D-0, D-1 and D-2 were used for the analysis. Haemolymph was assayed for osmoregulatory capacity (OC), magnesium ion (Mg ion), total proteins, oxyhaemocyanin, lactate and glucose. Molt stage had an effect on OC, Mg ion and total proteins in control shrimps, ...

  11. Effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress status of shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2009-01-01

    in this study we evaluated the effects of the probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M on shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (also called Penaeus stylirostris), first on antioxidant defences and secondly on the oxidative stress status in the shrimps' haemolymph and digestive gland. We conducted two experiments with the same protocol in which shrimps were fed two diets for three weeks: a control diet and a probiotic diet containing 1 g of live P. acidilactici MA18/5M kg(-1). In the first exper...

  12. Metal content of the gulf of California blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Izaguirre-Fierro, G; Valenzuela-Quiñonez, F; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; López-López, G; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Castro, W

    2007-08-01

    The blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris is the main target species of the Gulf of California shrimping fleet, and its heavy metal content might be of concern for human health because of the increasing contamination of the Gulf. The Cd content of shrimp caught by commercial trawlers ranged from 0.38 to 1.05 microg/g and the mean value was significantly lower in the northern fishing grounds. Pb ranged from 3.19 to 9.59 microg/g and was significantly higher in the northern area. There were no significant geographic difference in the case of Cu and Zn (respective means = 25.4 and 57.8 microg/g). The mean values of all metals show that none is of particular concern for human health. PMID:17639322

  13. Essai de substitution de l'érythromycine en élevage larvaire de Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Herlin, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Cette fiche biotechnique présente deux expérimentations visant à réduire voire substituer l'usage de l'érythromycine en élevage larvaire de Litopenaeus stylirostris. La première testant la bactérie Roseobacter gallaeciensis comme probiotique, associée ou non à des changements d'eau différents, n'a pas donné de résultats positifs malgré des résultats intéressants de croissance et de survie, obtenus sur des larves de mollusques au Laboratoire de Physiologie des Invertébrés de L'IFREMER de Brest...

  14. Involvement of penaeidins in defense reactions of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris to a pathogenic vibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, M; Vandenbulcke, F; Garnier, J; Gueguen, Y; Bulet, P; Saulnier, D; Bachère, E

    2004-04-01

    The present study reports for the first time the involvement of an antimicrobial peptide in the defense reactions of a shrimp infected by a pathogenic Vibrio, Vibrio penaeicida. New members of the penaeidin family were characterized in the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR from hemocyte total RNAs, and by mass spectrometry detection and immunolocalization of mature peptides in shrimp hemocytes. In infected shrimps, bacteria and penaeidin distribution colocalized in the gills and the lymphoid organ that represented the main infected sites. Moreover, the shrimp immune response to infection involved massive hemocyte recruitment to infection sites where released penaeidin may participate in the isolation and elimination of the bacteria, We show that the ability of the shrimps to circumvent shrimp infections is closely related to a recovery phase based on the hematopoietic process. PMID:15095016

  15. Feasibility of polyculture of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris and goldlined rabbitfish Siganus lineatus in a mesocosm system

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Trung Cong; Hochard, Sebastien; Royer, Florence; Lemonnier, Hugues; Letourneur, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to (1) estimate the effects of polyculture of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris with goldlined rabbitfish Siganus lineatus on production, environmental quality and water and sediment metabolism and (2) to determine if blue shrimp and goldlined rabbitfish polyculture is possible. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks in a mesocosm system that consisted of 12 circular outdoor mesocosm fiberglass tanks (1.7 m2, 1275 L water volume). Shrimp (2.9 g) were randomly s...

  16. Physiological response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris to short-term confinement on a pond bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Lemonnier, Hugues; Legrand, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris was exposed to pond sediment for 48 h and its physiological response was studied in relation to molt stage. Shrimp were maintained in cages within a semi-intensive pond after 4 months of rearing. Hypoosmoregulatory capacity (hypo-OC), magnesium ions (Mg ions), glucose, total proteins and oxyhaemocyanin were assayed in haemolymph. An increase of 370% to 500% in Mg ions concentration and 200% to 266% in glucose concentration, and a decrease in hypo-OC in...

  17. Experimental evaluation of co-culture of juvenile sea cucumbers, Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), with juvenile blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson)

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, S.; Patrois, Jacques; Fraisse, N

    2006-01-01

    The co-culture of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), or 'sandfish', with juvenile blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) was tested by growing groups in co-culture and monoculture for 3 weeks in tanks with enriched sand substratum. Feed was supplied on trays, accessible only to shrimp. Survival of shrimp and sandfish was high in all treatments (73-100%). Growth of shrimp did not differ between monoculture and co-culture, but sandfish grew significantly slower in co-cul...

  18. A soft technology to improve survival and reproductive performance of Litopenaeus stylirostris by counterbalancing physiological disturbances associated with handling stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet; Pham, Dominique; Lemaire, Pierrette; Massabuau, J

    2006-01-01

    The consequences of handling stress (fishing, transfer, eyestalk ablation) on shrimp broodstock are poorly documented. The weakness of farmed shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris, during winter is a major problem in New Caledonia, because of seasonal climate (tropical-sub-temperate). The transfer of broodstock in winter from earthen outdoor ponds to indoor maturation tanks in the hatchery (T=20 degrees C, Salinity=35 parts per thousand, fed shrimp) usually leads, after 48 h, to high mortality (up...

  19. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: laboratory and field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Metian, Marc; Eltayeb, Mohamed M.; Hédouin, Laëtitia; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding gamma-emitting radiotracers (Ag-110m, Cd-109, Co-57, Cr-51, and Zn-65) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepato...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Varela-Romero, Alejandro; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Vega-Heredia, Sarahí; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E; De la Rosa-Vélez, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. Description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in America, but also in Asia. Much less is known about other Pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. We report the complete mitogenomes from these last two Pacific shrimp species. Long DNA fragments were obtained by PCR and then used to get internal fragments for sequencing. The complete F. californiensis and L. stylirostris mtDNAs are 15,975 and 15,988 bp long, containing the 37 common sequences and a control region of 990 and 999 bp, respectively. The gene order is identical to that of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs are proposed and phylogenetic relationships for selected complete crustacean mitogenomes are included. Phylogenomic relationships among five shrimp show strong statistical support for the monophyly of the genus across the analysis. Litopenaeus species define a clade, with close relationship to Farfantepenaeus, and both clade with the sister group of Penaeus and Fenneropenaeus. PMID:20403743

  1. Stylicins, a new family of antimicrobial peptides from the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J L; Abdelouahab, M; Dupont, J; Lefevre, F; Bachère, E; Romestand, B

    2010-03-01

    The present study reports the characterization of Ls-Stylicin1, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris. The predicted mature peptide of 82 residues is negatively charged (theoretical pI=5.0) and characterized by a proline-rich N-terminal region and a C-terminal region containing 13 cysteine residues. The recombinant Ls-Stylicin1 has been isolated in both monomeric and dimeric forms. Both display strong antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum (1.25 microM

  2. Response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris to temperature decrease and hypoxia in relation to molt stage

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Soyez, Claude

    2005-01-01

    The effect of different levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) and a decreased temperature combined with severe hypoxia were studied in the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in relation to molt stage. In the first experiment, shrimps were submitted to DO concentrations of 5 to 1 mg l(-1). Osmoregulatory capacity (OC) was measured in shrimps at molt stage C after 6, 24, or 48 h of exposure. No mortality was recorded but a significant negative effect of DO concentration on hypo-OC was observed for ...

  3. Quality changes during frozen storage of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) with antioxidant, α-tocopherol, under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Zulema Valencia-Perez; Herlinda Soto-Valdez; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Enrique Márquez-Ríos; Wilfrido Torres-Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Fresh blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) muscle was stored with antioxidants under different conditions: ANTIOX 2%, packed in bilayer film of polyamide-low density polyethylene film (PA-LDPE) with 2% α-tocopherol; ANTIOX 4%, packed in PA-LDPE film with 4% α-tocopherol; and ANTIOX-GLAZED, samples stored glazed with 2% α-tocopherol. Shrimps packed in PA-LDPE without α-tocopherol were used as CONTROL. All samples were stored at –20 °C for 120 days. As compared to the CONTROL, the shrimp stor...

  4. Protection of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) against the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) when injected with shrimp lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Wei-jun; Wang, Wei-na

    2010-04-01

    In this study we found that a blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) lysozyme gene (Lslzm) was up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimp, suggesting that lysozyme is involved in the innate response of shrimp to this virus. Shrimp were intramuscularly injected with Lslzm protein to identify how this recombinant protein protects L. stylirostris from WSSV infection and to determine how this protein influences nonspecific cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. Higher survival rates and a lower viral load (compared with controls) were reported for shrimps that were first injected with the Lslzm protein and then infected with WSSV. In addition, the Lslzm expression level and the immunological parameters (including THC, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst activity, phenoloxidase activity and lysozyme activity) were all significantly higher in the WSSV-infected shrimp treated with the Lslzm protein, compared with the controls. These results indicate that lysozyme is effective at blocking WSSV infection in L. stylirostris and that lysozyme modulates the cellular and humoral defense mechanisms after they are suppressed by the WSSV virus. PMID:20074645

  5. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas; Cuzon; Gaxiola; Arena; Lemaire; Soyez; Van Wormhoudt A

    2000-06-28

    The effect of dietary carbohydrates (CBH) on glucose and glycogen, digestive enzymes, ammonia excretion and osmotic pressure and osmotic capacity of Litopenaeus stylirostris juveniles was studied. The increase of CBH, ranging between 1 and 33%, stimulates activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in the hepatopancreas. High levels of glucose in hemolymph and of glycogen in the hepatopancreas were reached at the highest level of dietary CBH; however, the kinetics of accumulation is different. Shrimps fed with low level of CBH needed 3 h to reached glucose peak, whereas only 1 h is necessary for high CBH levels. A saturation curve was observed in glycogen level and alpha-amylase activity with maximum values in shrimp-fed diets containing 21% CBH. This level could be used to be included as a maximum shrimp dietary CBH level. Pre-prandial glycogen levels were observed in shrimp fed a diet containing 1% CBH, indicating an important gluconeogenesis, which affected the protein metabolism. The present results show that a diet containing 10% CBH may not be enough to cover the CBH requirement, which could be satisfied by dietary protein content. The low osmotic capacity observed in shrimp fed on a diet containing 10% CBH coincided with a relatively low post-prandial nitrogen excretion which reflects a low concentration of amino acids circulating in hemolymph, which affected the osmotic pressure and the osmotic capacity. These results reflect the high plasticity of shrimp species to use protein to obtain metabolic energy from food and its limited capacity for processing dietary CBH. PMID:10841934

  6. Primer registro de la utilización de harinas de Salicornia bigelovii y Scomber japonicus en dietas prácticas para el cultivo súper-intensivo de camarón Litopenaeus stylirostris First record on the use of Salicornia bigelovii and Scomber japonicus fishmeals as feed for Litopenaeus stylirostris under super-intensive farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de J . Acosta-Ruiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de las harinas de Salicornia bigelovii (SA y Scomber japonicus, semiprocesada (HPS como ingredientes en la formulación de dietas para camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris, en cultivo súper-intensivo. Se formularon tres diferentes dietas isoproteicas (40% e isocalóricas (6 kcal g-1: (DSA, (DHPS, basal (DBA y una dieta control (DCO. El peso obtenido con DSA y DHPS (0,9 ± 0,014 y 0,8 ± 0,015 g fue similar a la dieta comercial DCO (0,9 ± 0,07 g, no existieron diferencias significativas (P > 0,05 en talla (cm, peso (g y factor de conversión alimenticio (FCA. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que DSA y DHPS son factibles de utilizar en la formulación de dietas para camarón por ser ingredientes de bajo costo que pueden sustituir a la harina de maíz y pescado tradicional, respectivamente sin efectos detrimentales en el crecimiento y supervivencia.The effect of semi-processed fishmeals (HPS made using Salicornia bigelovii (SA and Scomber japonicusas ingredients in the formulation of diets for blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris undersuper-intensive farming was evaluated. Three different isoproteinic (40% and isocaloric (6 kcal g-1 diets were formulated: DSA, DHPS, basal (DBA; a fourth control diet (DCO was also used. The weights obtained with DSA and DHPS (0.9 ± 0.014 and 0.8 ± 0.015 g were similar to those obtained with the commercial diet (DCO; 0.9 ± 0.07 g, and no significant differences (P > 0.05 were found for size (cm, weight (g, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR. The results suggest that the use of DSA and DHPS in the formulation of diets for shrimp is feasibleas these are low-cost ingredients that can be used as substitutes for cornstarch and traditional fishmeal, respectively, without detrimental effects for shrimp growth and survival.

  7. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metian, Marc; Hédouin, Laetitia; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding gamma-emitting radiotracers ((110 m)Ag, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (51)Cr, and (65)Zn) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepatopancreas and intestine concentrated the metals to the highest extent among the blue shrimp organs and tissues. Moulting was found to play a non negligible detoxification role for Co, Cr and, to a lesser extent, Zn. Metal retention by L. stylirostris widely varied (from a few days to several months), according to the element and exposure pathway considered (a given metal was usually less strongly retained when ingested with food than when it was taken up from the dissolved phase). In the field study, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analysed in shrimp collected from a New Caledonian aquaculture pond. Metal concentrations in the shrimp muscles were generally relatively low and results confirmed the role played by the digestive organs and tissues in the bioaccumulation/storage/detoxification of metals in the Pacific blue shrimp. Preliminary risk considerations indicate that consumption of the shrimp farmed in New Caledonia is not of particular concern for human health. PMID:20637480

  8. Salinity tolerance, ontogeny of osmoregulation and zootechnical improvement in the larval rearing of the Caledonian Blue Shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda, Penaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Wabete, Nelly; Boulo, Viviane; Broutoi, Francis; Mailliez, Jean-rene; Peignon, Jean-marie; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The ontogeny of osmoregulationwas investigated in Litopenaeus stylirostris by studying salinity tolerance and osmoregulatory capacity. Shrimp at different larval and postlarval stages were exposed to various salinities and survival was monitored for 24 h. Survival rates exceeded 80% at salinity over 25 ppt (750 mOsm.kg(-1)) at all the stages. At salinities below to 25 ppt, salinity tolerance was higher in nauplii and zoeae than in mysis larvae. Postlarval stages were able to withstand lower s...

  9. Grow-out of sandfish Holothuria scabra in ponds shows that co-culture with shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris is not viable

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, J.; Agudo, N.; Purcell, S.; Blazer, P; Simutoga, M; Pham, Dominique; Della Patrona, Luc

    2007-01-01

    We examined the potential for producing the large numbers of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) needed for restocking programmes by co-culturing juveniles with the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in earthen ponds. Our experiments in hapas within shrimp ponds were designed to detect any deleterious effects of sandfish on shrimp, and vice versa. These experiments showed that a high stocking density of juvenile sandfish had no significant effects on growth and survival of shrimp. However, survival and...

  10. A white spot disease-like syndrome in the Pacific blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) as a form of bacterial shell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Brizard, Raphael; Marteau, Anne-laure

    2000-01-01

    In May 1997, some white lesions evoking the white spot syndrome disease were observed in Litopenaeus stylirostris broodstock in New Caledonia. The occurrence of these lesions was neither associated with mortality, nor with histological evidence of white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV), The evidence suggests that these lesions result from a form of bacterial disease and are associated with an increased bacterial flora on the outer surface of the cuticle, as well as an increased incidence thro...

  11. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in the Pacific blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda, Penaeidae): Deciphering the role of the Na+/K+-ATPase

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Boulo, Viviane; Wabete, Nelly; Ansquer, Dominique; Dauga, Clément; Grousset, Evelyse; Labreuche, Yannick; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    International audience The role of the main ion transporting enzyme Na +/K +-ATPase in osmoregulation processes was investigated in Litopenaeus stylirostris. The development and localization of the osmoregulation sites were studied during ontogenesis by immunodetection of Na+ K+-ATPase using monoclonal antibodies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Osmoregulation sites were identified as the pleurae and branchiostegites in the zoeae and mysis stages. In the subsequent post-metamorp...

  12. Effect of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress of Litopenaeus stylirostris under Vibrio nigripulchritudo challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant defences and induced oxidative stress tissue damage of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, under challenge with Vibrio nigripulchritudo, were investigated for a 72-h period. For this purpose, L. stylirostris were first infected by immersion with pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain SFn1 and then antioxidant defences: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), Total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathiones and induced tissue damage (MDA and carbonyl proteins) were determined in the digestive gland at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (h.p.i.). In the meantime, TAS was also measured in the blood. Infection level of the shrimps during the challenge was followed by determining V. nigripulchritudo prevalence and load in the haemolymph of the shrimps. Changes in all these parameters during the 72-h.p.i. period were recorded for control shrimps and shrimps previously fed for one month with probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M at 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed. Our results showed that immersion with V. nigripulchritudo led to maximal infection level in the haemolymph at 24 h.p.i. preceding the mortality peak recorded at 48 h.p.i. Significant decreases in the antioxidant defences were detected from 24 h.p.i. and beyond that time infection leaded to increases in oxidative stress level and tissue damage. Compared to control group, shrimps fed the probiotic diet showed lower infection (20% instead of 45% at 24 h.p.i. in the control group) and mortality (25% instead of 41.7% in the control group) levels. Moreover, infected shrimp fed the probiotic compared to uninfected control shrimps exhibited very similar antioxidant status and oxidative stress level. Compared to the infected control group, shrimps fed the probiotic sustained higher antioxidant defences and lower oxidative stress level. This study shows that bacterial infection leads to oxidative stress in L. stylirostris and highlighted a beneficial effect of P

  13. Stylicins, a new family of antimicrobial peptides from the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Jean-Luc; Abdelouahab, Mahdia; Dupont, J.; Lefevre, F.; Bachere, Evelyne; Romestand, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports the characterization of Ls-Stylicin1, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the penaeid shrimp, Litopenoeus stylirostris. The predicted mature peptide of 82 residues is negatively charged (theoretical pl=5.0) and characterized by a proline-rich N-terminal region and a C-terminal region containing 13 cysteine residues. The recombinant Ls-Stylicin1 has been isolated in both monomeric and dimeric forms. Both display strong antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum (1....

  14. Does damming of the Colorado River affect the nursery area of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Upper Gulf of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Noriega, E A; Calderón-Aguilera, L E

    2000-12-01

    After damming the Colorado River the freshwater flow was reduced to 1% of its virgin flow to the Upper Gulf of California (UGC). The ecological effects need to be properly documented. The UGC is the nursery area for Litopenaeus stylirostris, the most profitable fishery in the zone. In order to know the relative abundance of L. stylirostris postlarval stage we conducted a sampled survey every 14 days in 1993, 1994 and 1997, plus an intensive sampling during a complete tide cycle in July 1995 and 1996. We did 10 min trawls each hour during the flood tide. Relative abundance of postlarvae was higher (p < 0.05) in those years when freshwater flow reached the UGC. PMID:11487932

  15. Quality changes during frozen storage of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris with antioxidant, α-tocopherol, under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zulema Valencia-Perez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris muscle was stored with antioxidants under different conditions: ANTIOX 2%, packed in bilayer film of polyamide-low density polyethylene film (PA-LDPE with 2% α-tocopherol; ANTIOX 4%, packed in PA-LDPE film with 4% α-tocopherol; and ANTIOX-GLAZED, samples stored glazed with 2% α-tocopherol. Shrimps packed in PA-LDPE without α-tocopherol were used as CONTROL. All samples were stored at –20 °C for 120 days. As compared to the CONTROL, the shrimp stored with the antioxidant showed lower lipid oxidation (0.10-0.14 vs 1.58 mgMA/kg of muscle, lost less firmness and astaxanthin content. ANTIOX 2% and ANTIOX-GLAZED showed the lowest concentrations of formaldehyde (0.081-0.083 μM/g. There were no significant differences in color and sensory properties, but differences in the integrity of the muscle fibers were observed. The treatments with α-tocopherol maintained the shrimp muscle quality during frozen storage. However, no significant differences were found between these treatments.

  16. RAPD markers as predictors of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) resistance in shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizer, Suzanne E; Dhar, Arun K; Klimpel, Kurt R; Garcia, Denise K

    2002-02-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints of two shrimp populations (Litopenaeus stylirostris) were compared to find genetic marker(s) that may be associated with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) resistance or susceptibility. Of the 100 10-mer random primers and 100 intersimple-sequence repeat (ISSR) primers screened, five provided markers specific to the Super Shrimp population and three provided markers specific to the wild caught population. The two populations were further characterized for relative viral load (reported as cycle threshold, CT) using real-time quantitative PCR with primers specific to the IHHNV genome. The beta-actin gene was amplified to serve as a control for normalization of the IHHNV viral load. The mean viral load was significantly lower (C(T) = 34.58; equivalent to 3.3 x 10(1) copies of IHHNV genome/ng DNA) in Super Shrimp than in the wild caught population (CT = 23.49; equivalent to 4.2 x 10(4) copies/ng DNA; P < 0.001; CT values are inversely related to viral load). A preliminary prediction model was created with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) software (Salford Systems, San Diego, Calif.), where the resultant decision tree uses the presence or absence of seven RAPD markers as predictors of the relative viral load. PMID:11908650

  17. Double-stranded RNA confers both preventive and therapeutic effects against Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teerapong; Yasri, Pratchayapong; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

    2011-01-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) infection is found widespread in peneaid shrimp, especially in economically important species such as black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Although effective prevention method for viral diseases is not well established in shrimp, the treatment with viral specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or siRNA has given promising results. In present study, dsRNAs corresponding to non-structural (ORF1 and ORF2 overlapping sequence) and structural (ORF3) genes of PstDNV were investigated for their potency to inhibit PstDNV replication in the shrimp. Periodically injection of either ORF1-2 dsRNA or ORF3 dsRNA at three days interval into L. vannamei resulted in substantial inhibition of PstDNV infection. In addition, a possibility for a therapeutic application of dsRNA in PstDNV-infected shrimp was demonstrated by the efficient suppression of PstDNV replication in L. vannamei when the ORF1-2 dsRNA was delivered into the shrimp within 24h post-PstDNV injection. Hence, our results established both the preventive and therapeutic potency of dsRNA to inhibit PstDNV in L. vannamei that could be applied as a potential treatment of PstDNV infection in shrimp. PMID:20869997

  18. cDNA cloning, expression and antibacterial activity of lysozyme C in the blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Mai; Chaoqun Hu

    2009-01-01

    The gene coding for lysozyme in blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in pET-32a vector. The deduced amino acid sequence of F. Merguiensi lysozyme showed 37-93% similarity with the mouse, human, chicken, and tiger prawn counterparts. The lysozyme was purified to homogeneity and observed as a band of approximately 15 kDa in 15% SDS-PAGE. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that mRNA transcripts of lysozyme could be mainly detected in the tissues of haemocytes, gill, gonad and the lymphoid organ of unchallenged shrimps, whereas the expression of lysozyme transcripts was increased in all the tested tissues after the heat-killed Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. The temporal expression of lysozyme mRNA in haemolymph challenged by Micrococcus luteus and V. Alginolyticus was both up-regulated and reached the maximum level at 8 and 16 h post-stimulation, respec-tively, and then dropped back to the original level. Bacteriolytic activity of the lysozyme against different bacterial cultures was deter-mined by the solid phase and turbidimetric assays. The results demonstrated that the lysozyme we obtained was not only against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but also against shrimp pathogens V. Alginolyticus and V. Parahemolyticus. In addition, the study of the inhibition mechanism revealed that the antibacterial activity of the lysozyme was a result of the bactericidal effect.

  19. Combined effect of exposure to ammonia and hypoxia on the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris survival and physiological response in relation to molt stage

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Zipper, Etienne; Goarant, Cyrille; Lemonnier, Hugues

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ambient ammonia, hypoxia and combination of both on survival and the physiological and immunological response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in relation to molt stage was studied. Shrimp were submitted to 44.0-71.5 mg 1(-1) total ammonia-N corresponding to 2.0 mg 1(-1) unionized ammonia NH3-N and/or to 1.5 mg O-2 1(-1) (4.3 kPa) for 24 hours. Survival was recorded and the molt stages of both dead and surviving shrimp determined. Only shrimp in intermolt and premolt ...

  20. Aspects moléculaires et biochimiques des stylicines, peptides multifonctionnels identifiés chez la crevette bleue du Pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire ont été motivés par l’importance économique de l’élevage de la crevette bleue du pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris dont les fortes mortalités sont principalement dues au développement de maladies bactériennes et virales. Ils ont consisté en la caractérisation des deux premiers membres d’une famille originale de peptides multifonctionnels présents chez les crevettes pénéides, les stylicines. Ces peptides, nommés stylicines 1 et 2, sont des peptides anioni...

  1. Les capacités osmorégulatrices chez la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris, au cours de l’ontogenèse

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    L’étude de l’ontogenèse de l’osmorégulation a été entreprise chez la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’implication des tissus de la cavité branchiale dans la régulation ionique a été déterminée au préalable chez des juvéniles par immunolocalisation de trois transporteurs protéiques d’ions, ( la NKA, le co-transporteur NKCC1 et le CFTR ) et par la détection de ionocytes en microscopie électronique. Le rôle de la NKA a été particulièrement étudié et son implicatio...

  2. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris and Penaeus monodon are susceptible to experimental infection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Poulos, Bonnie T; Redman, Rita M; Lightnere, Donald V

    2005-02-28

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recently found to be the cause of necrosis in the skeletal muscle of farm-reared Litopenaeus vannamei from northeastern Brazil. Nucleic acid extracted from semi-purified IMN virions showed that this virus contains a 7.5 kb RNA genome. A cDNA library was constructed, and a clone, designated as IMNV-317, was labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP and used as a gene probe for in situ hybridization (ISH). This probe specifically detected IMNV in infected tissues. To determine the susceptibility of 3 species of penaeid shrimp (L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, Penaeus monodon) to IMNV infection, juveniles were injected with purified virions and observed for clinical signs of infection and mortality over a 4 wk period. All L. vannamei exhibited typical lesions after 6 d, and lesions were visible in all L. stylirostris by Day 13. The clinical signs of opaque muscle were not seen in P. monodon, due to their highly pigmented exoskeleton precluding visual detection of lesions. Moderate mortality (20%) occurred in infected L. vannamei. No mortalities were observed in either L. stylirostris or P. monodon. Histological examination and ISH indicated that all 3 species are susceptible to IMNV infection. Using ISH, IMNV was detected in tissues including the skeletal muscle, lymphoid organ, hindgut, and phagocytic cells within the hepatopancreas and heart. In all 3 species, skeletal muscle cells produced the strongest ISH reactions. Based on the onset of clinical signs of infection and mortality, L. vannamei appears to be the most susceptible of these 3 species to IMNV infection. PMID:15819442

  3. Cross breeding of different domesticated lines as a simple way for genetic improvement in small aquaculture industries: Heterosis and inbreeding effects on growth and survival rates of the Pacific blue shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Goyard, Emmanuel; Goarant, Cyrille; Ansquer, Dominique; Brun, Pierre; De Decker, Sophie; Dufour, Robert; Galinie, C; Peignon, Jean-marie; Pham, Dominique; Vourey, Elodie; Harache, Yves; Patrois, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Two populations of the Latin American shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus)stylirostris domesticated in Hawaii and in New Caledonia were previously shown to be genetically differentiated and proven highly inbred. In New Caledonia, where different Vibriosis affect shrimp production and antibiotic use is banned in growing ponds, the Hawaiian population was introduced to increase the allelic variability available for local shrimp farmers and start a genetic improvement program. Growth and survival rates ...

  4. Influencia del manejo sobre la regulación del medio interno y canalización de energia del camarón azul Lytopenaeus stylirostris en sistemas de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    Latournerié Cervera, J.R:; R. Cano Rentería; A.R. Estrada Ortega

    2008-01-01

    La determinación precisa y constante de los parámetros en sistemas de producción acuícola, son elementos fundamentales para la definición de criterios que permiten optimizar el manejo de las condiciones en que se desarrollan los organismos y lograr así un crecimiento máximo. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en crear un modelo del desempeño metabólico del camarón azul L. stylirostris ante un cambio de salinidad, acorde a las fluctuaciones de este factor en estanques de crecimiento e...

  5. Influencia del manejo sobre la regulación del medio interno y canalización de energia del camarón azul Lytopenaeus stylirostris en sistemas de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    Latournerié Cervera, J.R:; Cano Rentería, R. | Estrada Ortega,A.R.

    2008-01-01

    La determinación precisa y constante de los parámetros en sistemas deproducción acuícola, son elementos fundamentales para la definición de criterios que permiten optimizar el manejo de las condiciones en que se desarrollan los organismos y lograr así un crecimiento máximo. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en crear un modelo del desempeño metabólico del camarón azul L. stylirostris ante un cambio de salinidad, acorde a las fluctuaciones de este factor en estanques de crecimiento en...

  6. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in the Pacific blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda, Penaeidae): Deciphering the role of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Boulo, Viviane; Wabete, Nelly; Ansquer, Dominique; Dauga, Clément; Grousset, Evelyse; Labreuche, Yannick; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    The role of the main ion transporting enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase in osmoregulation processes was investigated in Litopenaeus stylirostris. The development and localization of the osmoregulation sites were studied during ontogenesis by immunodetection of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase using monoclonal antibodies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Osmoregulation sites were identified as the pleurae and branchiostegites in the zoeae and mysis stages. In the subsequent post-metamorphic stages the osmoregulatory function was mainly located in the epipodites and branchiostegites and osmotic regulation was later detected in the gills. The presence of ionocytes and microvilli in these tissues confirmed their role in ionic processes. The complete open reading frame of the mRNA coding for the α-subunit of Na+K+-ATPase was characterized in L. stylirostris. The resulting 3092-bp cDNA (LsNKA) encodes a putative 1011-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 112.3kDa. The inferred amino acid sequence revealed that the putative protein possesses the main structural characteristics of the Na+K+-ATPase α-subunits. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that LsNKA transcripts did not significantly vary between the different developmental stages. The number of transcripts was about 2.5-fold higher in the epipodites and gills than in any other tissues tested in juveniles. A reverse genetic approach was finally implemented to study the role of LsNKA in vivo. Knockdown of LsNKA expression by gene-specific dsRNA injection led to an increase of shrimp mortality following an abrupt salinity change compared to control animals. These data strongly suggest that LsNKA plays an important role in osmoregulation when the shrimp are challenged by changing salinities. PMID:26827851

  7. Correlation between detection of a plasmid and high-level virulence of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a pathogen of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier; Goarant, Cyrille; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2008-05-01

    Vibrio nigripulchritudo, the etiological agent of Litopenaeus stylirostris summer syndrome, is responsible for mass mortalities of shrimp in New Caledonia. Epidemiological studies led to the suggestion that this disease is caused by an emergent group of pathogenic strains. Genomic subtractive hybridization was carried out between two isolates exhibiting low and high virulence. Our subtraction library was constituted of 521 specific fragments; 55 of these were detected in all virulent isolates from our collection (n = 32), and 13 were detected only in the isolates demonstrating the highest pathogenicity (n = 19), suggesting that they could be used as genetic markers for high virulence capacity. Interestingly, 10 of these markers are carried by a replicon of 11.2 kbp that contains sequences highly similar to those of a plasmid detected in Vibrio shilonii, a coral pathogen. The detection of this plasmid was correlated with the highest pathogenicity status of the isolates from our collection. The origin and consequence of this plasmid acquisition are discussed. PMID:18359828

  8. Elevage de la Crevette Bleue en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Litopenaeus Stylirostris. Bases biologiques et zootechnie

    OpenAIRE

    Della Patrona, Luc; Brun, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    L’ouvrage « Elevage de la Crevette Bleue en Nouvelle-Calédonie – Bases biologiques et zootechnie » est sans aucun doute le document de référence dont la crevetticulture de Nouvelle-Calédonie avait besoin. L’élaboration de cette synthèse des connaissances a été initiée lors du déroulement du projet de recherche Ifremer DESANS (DEfi SANté Stylirostris) construit sur la période 2003-2006 et a été finalisée sous le projet DEDUCTION (DEveloppement DUrable de la Crevetticulture, Traitement de l’Inf...

  9. Development of EST-SSR markers by data mining in three species of shrimp: Litopenaeus vannamei, Litopenaeus stylirostris, and Trachypenaeus birdy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Franklin; Ortiz, Juan; Zhinaula, Mariuxi; Gonzabay, Cesar; Calderón, Jorge; Volckaert, Filip A M J

    2005-01-01

    We report on the data mining of publicly available Litopenaeus vannamei expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to generate simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers and on their transferability between related Penaeid shrimp species. Repeat motifs were found in 3.8% of the evaluated ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 7.8 kb of sequence data. A total of 206 primer pairs were designed, and 112 loci were amplified with the highest success in L. vannamei. A high percentage (69%) of EST-SSRs were transferable within the genus Litopenaeus. More than half of the amplified products were polymorphic in a small testing panel of L. vannamei. Evaluation of those primers in a larger testing panel showed that 72% of the markers fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which shows their utility for population genetic analysis. Additionally, a set of 26 of the EST-SSRs were evaluated for Mendelian segregation. A high percentage of monomorphic markers (46%) proved to be polymorphic by singles-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis. Because of the high number of ESTs available in public databases, a data mining approach similar to the one outlined here might yield high numbers of SSR markers in many animal taxa. PMID:16027992

  10. Influencia del manejo sobre la regulación del medio interno y canalización de energia del camarón azul Lytopenaeus stylirostris en sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latournerié Cervera, J.R:

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La determinación precisa y constante de los parámetros en sistemas deproducción acuícola, son elementos fundamentales para la definición de criterios que permiten optimizar el manejo de las condiciones en que se desarrollan los organismos y lograr así un crecimiento máximo. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en crear un modelo del desempeño metabólico del camarón azul L. stylirostris ante un cambio de salinidad, acorde a las fluctuaciones de este factor en estanques de crecimiento en una granja ubicada en el estado de Chiapas. Se instaló un grupo experimental a 22 unidades prácticas de salinidad (ups y un grupo control a 28 ups. Ambosen condiciones similares al ambiente de cultivo. Se midió el cambio en la concentración del medio interno de los camarones ante el ajuste de salinidad durante un período de 50 horas, así como las tasas respiratoria (QO2 y de excreción de nitrógeno (QN – NH4 de los camarones, en ciclos de 24 horas. Con base en estos registros se evaluó el tiempo requerido por los organismos, para alcanzar una compensación completa en su medio interno, así como los equerimientos de energía en especimenes de distinta talla, empleando calorimetría directa e indirecta.

  11. cDNA Clone of Prophenoloxidase for Litopenaeus Stylirostris and Sequence Structure Analysis%细角滨对虾酚氧化酶原cDNA 克隆及序列结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许尤厚; 胡超群

    2015-01-01

    采用 RT-PCR 原理和长片段扩增技术克隆细角滨对虾酚氧化酶原基因。结果表明,细角滨对虾血淋巴细胞内存在2个 proPO 基因。 proPO gene 1的 cDNA 序列包含有372氨基酸,前190个氨基酸为一个M 家族血蓝蛋白,是一个铜结合位点区域,191-372为一个 C 家族的血蓝蛋白,是一个免疫球蛋白样的区域。proPO gene 2的2个功能位点之间的序列有重叠,proPO gene 2 cDNA 序列的6-935bp 包含了第一个功能位点,928-1464bp 则包含了第二个功能位点。系统进化树比对分析发现2个基因之间的序列差异非常大。细角滨对虾和凡纳滨对虾的 proPO gene 2同处于一个密切相关的群,proPO gene 1则和其他几种对虾的 proPO gene 处于一个群。 proPO gene 2与 proPO gene 1在对虾免疫活动中是否存在不同的功能还有待于进一步的研究。%Prophenoloxidase (proPO) is one of the important factors on humoral immunity of shrimp, so far there are no re-ports for Litopenaeus stylirostris. Depend on techniques of RT-PCR and long fragment amplification cloning, prophenoloxidase gene of L. stylirostris was cloned. The results show that, there are two proPO genes in the lymphocytes of L. stylirostris. ProPO gene 1 cDNA sequence contains 372 amino acids, the first 190 amino acids are a family of M hemocyanin, a copper binding site region, 191-372 is one of the C family of hemocyanin, is an immunoglobulin like region. There are sequence overlap between the 2 functional sites of proPO gene 2, which means that 6-935bp contains the first functional sites, while 928-1464bp contains sec-ond functional sites. The phylogenetic tree alignment analysis showed that sequence structures of two genes is very different. Pro-PO gene 2 of L. stylirostris and L. vannamei was in a closely related group; but proPO gene 1 of L. stylirostris and L. vannamei was in another group with other several shrimp. The function of ProPO gene 2 and proPO gene 1 in shrimp immune

  12. Residual genetic variability in domesticated populations of the Pacific blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Hawaii and some management recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Goyard, Emmanuel; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Vonau, Vincent; Bishoff, Vincent; Mouchel, Olivier; Pham, Dominique; Wyban, Jim; Boudry, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    La crevette d'Amérique latine Litopaenus stylirostris a été introduite dans trois îles du Pacifique (à Tahiti, en Nouvelle-Calédonie via Tahiti, et à Hawaii), et a été ensuite reproduite en écloserie pendant 7 à 25 générations à des fins d'aquaculture. Trois marqueurs microsatellites ont été utilisés pour évaluer les bases génétiques des populations disponibles pour le démarrage d'un programme d'amélioration génétique. L'étude comparative de 8 populations domestiquées (cinq néo-calédoniennes,...

  13. Development of EST-SSR markers by data mining in three species of shrimp: Litopenaeus vannamei, Litopenaeus stylirostris, and Trachypenaeus birdy

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, F; Ortiz, J.; Zhinaula, M.; Gonzabay, C.; Calderón, J.; Volckaert, F.A.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the data mining of publicly available Litopenaeus vannamei expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to generate simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers and on their transferability between related Penaeid shrimp species. Repeat motifs were found in 3.8% of the evaluated ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 7.8 kb of sequence data. A total of 206 primer pairs were designed, and 112 loci were amplified with the highest success in L. vannamei. A high percentage (69%) of EST-SSRs were transfe...

  14. Résistance de la crevette Litopenaeus stylirostris à la bactérie pathogène Vibrio penaeicida : Physiologie, immunologie et pathologie comparées d’une population sélectionnée sur un critère de survie aux épisodes de mortalité et d’une population témoin non sélectionnée.

    OpenAIRE

    De Decker, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    La filière crevette de Nouvelle-Calédonie reposesur la maîtrise de la reproduction contrôlée de la crevette Litopenaeus stylirostris, espèce introduite dans les années 1980. La difficulté majeure que rencontre la filière depuis une dizaine d’années est la récurrence du « Syndrome 93 », qui s’exprime sous forme d’épisodes de mortalités lors des baisses de température aux intersaisons. Ces mortalités sont associées à la bactérie pathogène Vibrio penaeicida Une expérience de sélection sur un cri...

  15. Studies on early development and larval morphology of pond-reared blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris%细角滨对虾的幼体发育及形态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许尤厚; 胡超群; 张吕平; 陈国良; 吴立峰

    2007-01-01

    以细角滨对虾Litopenaeus stylirostris为实验对象,按时间顺序观察了胚胎各期的形态特征.通过解剖从无节幼体到仔虾第1天各期幼体的附肢,对其发育形态及其刚毛着生方式进行了描述和统计.比较研究了细角滨对虾和凡纳滨对虾L.vannamei无节幼体期形态差异以及色素的变化、溞状幼体期眼上棘形态的差异以及大颚齿数目.结果表明,无节幼体期细角滨对虾的色素明显多于凡纳滨对虾;两者溞状幼体期眼上棘的形态存在明显差异;两者在无节幼体至仔虾第1天各期大颚活动齿的数目变化一致.

  16. Floc contribution on spawning performance of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Emerenciano, Mauricio; Cuzon, Gerard; Goguenheim, Jean; Gaxiola, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The floc system has been successfully applied for shrimp grow-out, but little is known about floc contribution on reproductive performance. In a 30-day trial, spawning performance of broodstock was evaluated in floc and earthen ponds. Floc spawners achieved better results (P < 0.05) compared with pond spawners in terms of number of spawns per ablated female (2.9 vs. 1.3), spawns per spawning female (3.6 vs. 2.4) and number of consecutive maturation (average of 3.6 times compared with 2.5 time...

  17. Simple immunoblot and immunohistochemical detection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus using monoclonal antibodies to viral capsid protein expressed heterologously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Hajimasalaeh, Warunee; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2009-12-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), called formerly infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), is an important shrimp pathogen which can cause mortality in the blue shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris and stunting in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the 37kDa capsid protein 3 (CP3) of PstDNV expressed heterologously in the form of a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase called GST-CP3. All MAbs belonged to the IgG2b subclass and could bind to GST-CP3 at 300 pg/spot in immunodot-blot tests. They could detect CP3 in naturally infected shrimp extracts by Western blotting and dot blotting and in shrimp tissues by immunohistochemistry without cross-reactivity to extracts from uninfected shrimps or shrimps infected with several other viruses. Although dot blot assay sensitivity was approximately 1000 times lower than that of one step PCR for PstDNV, it easily detected PstDNV infections in field samples of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. PMID:19654023

  18. Hemolymph analysis and evaluation of newly formulated media for culture of shrimp cells (Penaeus stylirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, C; Shike, H; Klimpel, K R; Burns, J C

    2001-06-01

    Creation of a shrimp cell line has been an elusive goal. This failure may be due to the composition of the cell culture medium, which may be inadequate to support primary cultured cells. Shrimp hemolymph should contain the nutritional components needed to support cell growth and division. We report here the comprehensive biochemical analysis of hemolymph from the blue shrimp, Penaeus stylirostris (Litopenaeus stylirostris) (see Holthuis, L. B. Shrimps and prawns of the world, in: FAO species catalog. Vol. 1. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 1980), for free amino acids (FAAs), carbohydrates, electrolytes, metals, pH, and osmolality. Levels of hemolymph components were compared to 2xL-15 with 20% fetal bovine serum, a commonly used culture medium for crustacean cells. The FAAs, taurine and proline, and the metals, strontium and zinc, were significantly higher in hemolymph than in the 2 x L-15 medium. In contrast, other FAAs were up to 50 times higher in the 2 x L-15 medium than in the hemolymph. To mimic more closely the hemolymph composition, we created two new media based on either the 0.2 x L-15 or the M199 medium. We compared the microscopic appearance of cells cultured in these media and evaluated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein synthesis by 3H-thymidine uptake and 35S-methionine uptake assays. The ovary cells of P. stylirostris cultured in either of the new media formed monolayers, while the cells cultured in 2 x L-15 medium did not. Despite these differences, there was no evidence of sustained DNA or protein synthesis with any of the media. Future studies to establish a shrimp cell line should focus on analysis of the cell cycle and on overcoming the molecular blocks to cell division. PMID:11515962

  19. Contribution à l'amélioration des survies et performances de reproduction de L. stylirostris en saison fraîche en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Wabete, Nelly; Lemaire, Pierrette; Mailliez, Jean-rene; Broutoi, Francis; Chim, Liet

    2008-01-01

    Depuis 1993, la filière crevetticole calédonienne est confrontée aux mortalités de saison froide dont les causes sont multifactorielles. Cette pathologie appelé « Syndrome 93 » affecte non seulement les animaux dans les bassins de grossissement, mais elle touche également les géniteurs après leur transfert en salle de maturation, les pertes pouvant atteindre 35% en 48 heures. A partir de la littérature et d’études physiologiques de la Litopenaeus stylirostris, différentes combinaisons de troi...

  20. Correlation between Detection of a Plasmid and High-Level Virulence of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a Pathogen of the Shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud, Yann; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier; Goarant, Cyrille; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio nigripulchritudo, the etiological agent of Litopenaeus stylirostris summer syndrome, is responsible for mass mortalities of shrimp in New Caledonia. Epidemiological studies led to the suggestion that this disease is caused by an emergent group of pathogenic strains. Genomic subtractive hybridization was carried out between two isolates exhibiting low and high virulence. Our subtraction library was constituted of 521 specific fragments; 55 of these were detected in all virulent isolates...

  1. Viral interference between infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnichon, Valérie; Lightner, Donald V; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2006-10-17

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly virulent and has caused significant production losses to the shrimp culture industry over the last decade. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) also infects penaeid shrimp and, while being less important than WSSV, remains a major cause of significant production losses in Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) and L. stylirostris (also called Penaeus stylirostris). These 2 viruses and their interactions were previously investigated in L. stylirostris. We report here laboratory challenge studies carried out to determine if viral interference between IHHNV and WSSV also occurs in L. vannamei, and it was found that experimental infection with IHHNV induced a significant delay in mortality following WSSV challenge. L. vannamei infected per os with IHHNV were challenged with WSSV at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d post-infection. Groups of naïve shrimp infected with WSSV alone died in 3 d whereas shrimp pre-infected with IHHNV for 30, 40 or 50 d died in 5 d. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the delay correlated to the IHHNV load and that WSSV challenge induced a decrease in IHHNV load, indicating some form of competition between the 2 viruses. PMID:17140141

  2. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms. PMID:12568452

  3. Selection and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria for Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp hatcheries in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Ansquer, Dominique; Chevalier, Anne; Dauga, Clement; Peyramale, Aude; Wabete, Nelly; Labreuche, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In New Caledonia, shrimp hatcheries are confronted with mass mortality in the larval stages, a phenomenon poorly understood as no specific causative agent has been identified. This has resulted in an excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics, although their adverse effects in aquaculture are notorious. The present work was thus aimed at selecting potential probiotic strains for penaeid hatcheries. From a pool of more than 400 marine bacterial isolates sampled from the local marine environ...

  4. THE EFFECT OF LITOPENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS AQUACULTURE ON MACROALGAE GROWTH IN OPUNOHU BAY, MOOREA, FRENCH POLYNESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has many effects on the surrounding landscape. In Mo’orea, the only aquaculture operation is a shrimp farm in Opunohu Bay. To test the effect of shrimp farm runoff into the bay, a macroalgae field survey was conducted at different distances from the Opunohu River, where the effluent outlets. Algae cover was used to indicate nutrient concentration. I found that there is no significant relationship between distance from the shrimp farm outlet and algae cover. The red algae Acanthoph...

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarant, Cyrille; Reynaud, Yann; Ansquer, Dominique; de Decker, Sophie; Saulnier, Denis; le Roux, Frédérique

    2006-11-01

    A collection of 57 isolates of Vibrio nigripulchritudo from either diseased or healthy shrimp and from shrimp farms environment was studied in order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, notably isolated from two distinct shrimp disease complexes. Molecular typing using two different techniques, arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), studied together with experimental pathology data allowed a relevant epidemiological insight into this possibly emerging pathogen. Additionally, results obtained with the two molecular typing techniques were congruent and allowed discriminating the strains associated with the "Summer Syndrome" from strains isolated from other contexts, especially the other shrimp vibriosis "Syndrome 93". These results highlight that the "Summer Syndrome" is most probably caused by an emergent clonal pathogen that therefore deserves surveillance and that AP-PCR can satisfactorily be used for that purpose. PMID:16413158

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Reynaud, Yann; Ansquer, Dominique; De Decker, Sophie; Saulnier, Denis; Leroux, Frederique

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 57 isolates of Vibrio nigripulchritudo from either diseased or healthy shrimp and from shrimp farms environment was studied in order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, notably isolated from two distinct shrimp disease complexes. Molecular typing using two different techniques, arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), studied together with experimental pathology data allowed a relevant epidemiological insight into...

  7. "Summer syndrome" in Litopenaeus stylirostris grow out ponds in New Caledonia: zootechnical and environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemonnier, Hugues; Herbland, Alain; Salery, Lucas; Soulard, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    The "Summer Syndrome", a septicemic vibriosis caused by Vibrio nigripulchritudo, is responsible for one of the two main seasonal mortalities which affect shrimp aquaculture in New Caledonia. It was identified for the first time in December 1997 in an intensive shrimp farm (called farm DF) and has been enzootic ever since. The "Summer syndrome" affects shrimp during warm-season growout. Although the geographic area concerned is limited, it is a potential threat for the industry in that the dis...

  8. Lengua azul: vacunas, inmunomoduladores e inmunidad protectora

    OpenAIRE

    Gayosso, L. M.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, B.; Sánchez-Cordón, P.J.; Molina, V.; Risalde, M.A.; Ruiz-Villamor, E.; Pedrera, M.; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M.; Gómez-Villamandos, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    La Lengua Azul, está producida por un virus ARN del género Orbivirus (familia Reoviridae), considerado como el virus prototipo de este género, del que se conocen al menos 24 serotipos diferentes, no todos patógenos, entre los que no existe inmunidad cruzada, lo que difi culta las estrategias de vacunación. En las dos últimas décadas, y más recientemente desde el verano de 2006, esta enfermedad ha provocado importantes pérdidas económicas, no sólo en las zonas de Europa periódicamente afectada...

  9. Molecular phylogeny of western Atlantic Farfantepenaeus and Litopenaeus shrimp based on mitochondrial 16S partial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, R; Rogers, A D; Maclean, N; D'Incao, F

    2001-01-01

    Partial sequences for the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene were obtained from 10 penaeid shrimp species: Farfantepenaeus paulensis, F. brasiliensis, F. subtilis, F. duorarum, F. aztecus, Litopenaeus schmitti, L. setiferus, and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri from the western Atlantic and L. vannamei and L. stylirostris from the eastern Pacific. Sequences were also obtained from an undescribed morphotype of pink shrimp (morphotype II) usually identified as F. subtilis. The phylogeny resulting from the 16S partial sequences showed that these species form two well-supported monophyletic clades consistent with the two genera proposed in a recent systematic review of the suborder Dendrobranchiata. This contrasted with conclusions drawn from recent molecular phylogenetic work on penaeid shrimps based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI region that failed to support recent revisions of the Dendrobranchiata based on morphological analysis. Consistent differences observed in the sequences for morphotype II, coupled with previous allozyme data, support the conclusion that this is a previously undescribed species of Farfantepenaeus. PMID:11161743

  10. Is it possible to raise, offspring of the 25th generation of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) and 18th generation Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) in clear water to 40 g?

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzon, Gerard; Arena, Leticia; Goguenheim, Jean; Goyard, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Peneid shrimp are commonly reared in clear-water aquaria or tanks for short-term studies of 4-6 weeks during controlled experiments, such as nutrition studies to estimate dietary nutrient requirements. Recently, in line with the genetic program at Centre Oceanologique du Pacifique (COP), experimental clear-water facilities were tested for the first time over a longer rearing period. Environmental conditions used to maintain animal growth in clear-water system using a well-balanced diet were d...

  11. "Summer Syndrome" in Litopenaeus stylirostris in New Caledonia: Pathology and epidemiology of the etiological agent, Vibrio nigripulchritudo

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Ansquer, Dominique; Herlin, Jose; Domalain, David; Imbert, Frederic; De Decker, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    The Summer Syndrome is a new shrimp disease that has been affecting a shrimp growout farm in New Caledonia since end of 1997. It was recognized to be caused by a systemic vibriosis due to Vibrio nigripulchritudo. This new disease turned out almost immediately enzootic in the shrimp farm involved and has affected all its crops ever since. Since the year 2000, V. nigripulchritudo strains have been found in several shrimp farms, although Summer Syndrome is still limited to one particular area, a...

  12. Biological, physiological, immunological and nutritional assessment of farm-reared Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp affected or unaffected by vibriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Justou, Carole; Lemonnier, Hugues; Patrois, Jacques; Ansquer, Dominique; Goarant, Cyrille; Le Coz, Jean-rene

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in New Caledonia is subject to seasonal mortalities during grow-out due to highly virulent Vibrio nigripulchritudo (Vn). To understand the mechanisms affecting shrimp resistance and leading to significant mortality, a shrimp ecophysiology and immunology survey was conducted on two farms, the first considered as a "control" farm (HC), the second affected by the disease (DF). Mortality observed during the survey at DF started 50 days after stocking and was typical of this dis...

  13. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2005-04-01

    A lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) cDNA was cloned from the haemocyte and hepatopancreas of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end RACE method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1101 bp encoding a protein of 367 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature proteins (350 amino acids) is 39.92 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.37. Two putative integrin binding motifs (cell adhesion site), RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a potential recognition motif for beta- (1-->3) linkage of polysaccharides were observed in the LGBP. Sequence comparison showed that LGBP deduced amino acid of L. vannamei has an overall similarity of 95%, 92% and 61% to that of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris LGBP, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon BGBP and crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus LGBP, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that LGBP transcript in haemocyte of L. vannamei increased in 3- and 6-h post Vibrio alginolyticus injection. PMID:15561560

  14. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  15. 76 FR 67253 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL... the vessel ACERO AZUL is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger for hire.'' GEOGRAPHIC...

  16. Amélioration génétique expérimentale de la crevette d'élevage de Nouvelle-Calédonie : Sélection d'une population de L. stylirostris résistante à la bactérie pathogène Vibrio penaeicida. Rapport final pour le Ministère de l'Outre-Mer

    OpenAIRE

    Goyard, Emmanuel; Goarant, Cyrille; Bachere, Evelyne; de Lorgeril, Julien; Mugnier, Chantal; Ansquer, Dominique; Broutoi, Francis; Brun, Pierre; Imbert, Frederic; Justou, Carole; Maillez, Jean-rene; Patrois, Jacques; Pham, Dominique; Peignon, Jean-marie

    2003-01-01

    La filière crevette de Nouvelle-Calédonie repose sur la maîtrise de la reproduction contrôlée de la crevette Litopenaeus stylirostris, espèce introduite dans les années 80. La difficulté majeure que rencontre la filière depuis une dizaine d'années est la récurrence du « syndrome 93 », qui correspond à des épisodes de mortalités lors des baisses de température en avril-mai-juin. Ces mortalités sont associées à la bactérie pathogène Vibrio penaeicida et s'expriment à des niveaux d'intensité var...

  17. Correlation between Detection of a Plasmid and High-Level Virulence of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a Pathogen of the Shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier; Goarant, Cyrille; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio nigripulchritudo, the etiological agent of Litopenaeus stylirostris summer syndrome, is responsible for mass mortalities of shrimp in New Caledonia. Epidemiological studies led to the suggestion that this disease is caused by an emergent group of pathogenic strains. Genomic subtractive hybridization was carried out between two isolates exhibiting low and high virulence. Our subtraction library was constituted of 521 specific fragments; 55 of these were detected in all virulent isolates from our collection (n = 32), and 13 were detected only in the isolates demonstrating the highest pathogenicity (n = 19), suggesting that they could be used as genetic markers for high virulence capacity. Interestingly, 10 of these markers are carried by a replicon of 11.2 kbp that contains sequences highly similar to those of a plasmid detected in Vibrio shilonii, a coral pathogen. The detection of this plasmid was correlated with the highest pathogenicity status of the isolates from our collection. The origin and consequence of this plasmid acquisition are discussed. PMID:18359828

  18. Blue toe syndrome Síndrome do dedo azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a man with blue toe syndrome, who developed bilateral foot ischemia and underwent successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated renal artery stenosis. Blue toe syndrome is characterized by tissue ischemia secondary to embolization of cholesterol crystals or atherothrombotic debris. Microembolization most often occurs in elderly men who undergo an invasive vascular procedure or have an aneurysm.Os autores relatam o caso de síndrome do dedo azul em um homem que apresentou um quadro de isquemia bilateral dos pés e foi submetido ao reparo bem sucedido de um aneurisma da aorta abdominal e de estenose da artéria renal associada. A síndrome do dedo azul é caracterizada pela isquemia tecidual, secundária à embolização de cristais de colesterol ou aterotrombose. A microembolização ocorre mais freqüentemente em homens idosos que têm um aneurisma ou são submetidos a um procedimento vascular invasivo.

  19. Dinámica de la Pesquería de camarón Penaeus californiensis en el litoral sonorense y su relación con algunos parámetros océano atmosféricos.

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, Juana

    2000-01-01

    En Sonora existe una pesquería de camarón de las más productivas de México, dirigida principalmente a dos especies: camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis y camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris; el primero aporta hasta el 70% de la captura de altamar. Esta pesquería tiene como rasgo característico, una alta variabilidad interanual en las capturas, que no ha sido totalmente explicada solo por el esfuerzo pesquero. En este trabajo se evalúan las posibles causas de la variabilidad interanu...

  20. La estrategia del océano azul para emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tula Mendoza Farro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los emprendedores deben tener presente que no siempre la planeación garantiza el logro de los objetivos, sin embargo sin planes es difícil alcanzar metas (1. Alfred Chandler J. define que “la estrategia es la determinación de los objetivos y planes a largo plazo de la empresa, las acciones a emprender y la asignación de recursos necesarios para lograr esto...” (2. Michael Porter sostiene que “la empresa sin estrategia está dispuesta a intentar cualquier cosa” (3. C.K. Prahalad dice que “si queremos escapar de la atracción gravitacional del pasado tenemos que ser capaces de replantear nuestras propias ortodoxias. Debemos volver a generar nuestras estrategias esenciales y replantear nuestras creencias fundamentales sobre cómo vamos a competir” (4. Peter Drucker, en tanto, considera que “la estrategia de la organización es la respuesta a dos preguntas: ¿qué es nuestro negocio? y ¿qué debería ser?” (5. Las concepciones de estrategia en la empresa son diversas, pero todas coinciden en la enorme trascendencia que tiene para la gestión empresarial. Los modelos de estrategia, del mismo modo esencial para la gestión, también son distintos, pero suelen variar en función de la búsqueda de mejores resultados. Un emergente y expectante modelo es hoy la estrategia del océano azul, que alienta la innovación en la apertura de mercados y deja de lado la competencia como modelo estratégico. La estrategia del océano azul, formulada por W. Chan Kim y Renée Mauborgne en su gran best seller del mismo nombre (6, sostiene que las empresas si quieren ser exitosas pueden hacerlo explorando nuevos mercados, nuevas oportunidades y a través de la innovación en valor (innovación con utilidad, precio y costo, sin preocuparse en la competencia. Es un modelo de “no competencia”, de búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades, de intactos escenarios, de aguas tranquilas e inexploradas que simbolizan el océano azul, y que precisamente es una

  1. El ¿retorno? de la ballena azul

    OpenAIRE

    Hucke, R.

    2008-01-01

    Los registros estivales de ballenas azules (Balaenoptera musculus) en latitudes medias y bajas han aumentado en el tiempo en muchos lugares del mundo: en latitudes bajas del Océano Índico (10ºN) durante todo el año; el Domo de Costa Rica (9ºN - 89ºW) durante todo el año; las islas Galápagos (0º) durante el invierno y primavera austral, así como también en las aguas de Perú (10ºS) y latitudes medias del sur de Australia (38.5ºS) durante el verano. En Chile, hay numerosos registros recientes so...

  2. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  3. Experiment on the Artificial Propagation of Litopenaeus stylirostris%细角滨对虾全人工繁育技术试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进光; 梁超雄

    2007-01-01

    通过对细角滨对虾的人工繁育试验,总结其人工繁殖和幼体培育技术;阐述了亲虾培育、暂养促熟,育苗水质管理及生产中的操作方法;讨论了细角滨对虾的繁殖特点,水环境与亲虾繁殖的关系,实行生态育苗的必要性等.

  4. Les installations de quarantaine pour l’importation de sang neuf de Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie : phase préliminaire

    OpenAIRE

    Patrois, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    L’importation de sang neuf dans les meilleures conditions de biosécurité impose que de multiples précautions soient prises afin d’éviter que la présence d’un pathogène, non identifié lors des tests préliminaires à l’importation, puisse se propager à l’ensemble de la filière. L’utilisation d’installations de quarantaine fonctionnant en circuit fermé permet de répondre à ce souci en réalisant l’élevage des crevettes importées, sur une période de plusieurs mois, dans des conditions d’isole...

  5. Biofloc technology applied to rear shrimp Litopenaeus Stylirostris broodstock: An integrated and development research project in New Caledonia and French Polynesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chim, Liet; Cardona, Emilie; Lorgeoux, Benedicte; Gueguen, Yannick; Saulnier, Denis; Goguenheim, Jean; Wantiez, Laurent; Cahu, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Shrimp farming in New-Caledonia faces up to difficulties. A fluctuating quality of broodstock prevents sustainable production of larvae in quantity and quality. The traditional extensive rearing method of broodstock in outdoor earthen ponds used in New Caledonia raises several issues: poor water quality control and biosecurity. Therefore it is fundamental to modify the broodstock culture strategy in order to achieve an easier water quality management and maximal biosecurity. Biofloc technolog...

  6. Influence of oceanographic processes on the early life stages of the blue shrimp ( Litopenaeus stylirostris) in the Upper Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Aguilera, L. E.; Marinone, S. G.; Aragón-Noriega, E. A.

    2003-02-01

    The possible relationship between circulation patterns and the recruitment of early stages of penaeid shrimp in the Upper Gulf of California was explored by collecting postlarvae (mesh size 0.505 mm) simultaneously in two locations, one off the coast of Sonora (Golfo de Santa Clara: 31°44'49ʺN-114°33'12ʺW) and the other off the Baja California peninsula (San Felipe: 31°11'8.3ʺ N-114°53'13.9ʺW) during two complete fortnightly cycles (July 12-27, 1995 and June 30-July 16, 1996). Individuals with cephalothoracic length from 0.8 to 3.91 mm without a clear size-increasing pattern were found throughout the sampling period, suggesting continuous recruitment to the area. The circulation in the study area was simulated with a three-dimensional baroclinic model forced with tides and climatological hydrography at the mouth of the Gulf of California, and winds and heat and freshwater fluxes at the sea-air interface. Spawning stock surveys have shown that maximum concentration of mature females is near the coast of Sonora (mainland Mexico). The model predicts surface currents of about 8 cm s -1 and suggests that postlarvae found off the coast of the peninsula may come from a different reproductive unit than those found off the mainland coast. This may explain why postlarvae found in Golfo de Santa Clara (mainland) are larger (and, presumably, older) than those found in San Felipe (Baja California). Possible relationships among circulation patterns, lunar cycle, former Colorado River runoffs and time of spawning are discussed.

  7. Rearing effect of biofloc on antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional response in Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp facing an experimental sub-lethal hydrogen peroxide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Emilie; Saulnier, Denis; Lorgeoux, Bénédicte; Chim, Liet; Gueguen, Yannick

    2015-08-01

    This study compares the antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional expression of blue shrimps reared according to two different systems, BioFloc Technology (BFT) and Clear sea Water (CW) and their differential responses when facing an experimental sublethal hydrogen peroxide stress. After 30 days of rearing, juvenile shrimps were exposed to H2O2 stress at a concentration of 30 ppm during 6 h. The oxidative stress caused by H2O2 was examined in the digestive glands of the shrimp, in which antioxidant enzyme (AOE) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that rearing conditions did not affect the expression of genes encoding AOEs or AMPs. However, H2O2 stress induced a differential response in expression between shrimps from the two rearing treatments (BFT and CW). Comparative analysis of the expression profiles indicates that catalase transcripts were significantly upregulated by H2O2 stress for BFT shrimps while no change was observed for CW shrimps. In contrast, H2O2 caused down-regulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase transcripts and of the three AMP transcripts studied (penaeidin 2 and 3, and crustin) for CW shrimps, while no effect was observed on BFT shrimp transcript levels. These results suggested that BFT shrimps maintained antioxidant and AMP responses after stress and therefore can effectively protect their cells against oxidative stress, while CW shrimp immune competence seems to decrease after stress. PMID:26052010

  8. Identification of genes that are differentially expressed in hemocytes of the Pacific blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) surviving an infection with Vibrio penaeicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorgeril, Julien; Saulnier, Denis; Janech, Michael G; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2005-04-14

    Considerable progress has been made in the field of invertebrate immunity through the characterization of genes involved in the response to infection and/or stress. However, the mechanisms by which commercially important marine invertebrates can successfully survive an infection remain largely unknown. For the first time in an invertebrate model, we have searched to discover genes involved in the survival capacity of shrimp using the highly pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio penaeicida. In the present study, we applied the technique of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to hemocyte cDNAs from infected and uninfected shrimp, only using samples from individuals that had survived 96 h postinfection. The resulting library contains 260 expressed sequence tagged (EST) cDNA clones potentially representing highly expressed genes in surviving shrimp. Sequence similarity comparisons were made, and putative identities were assigned to clones that were at least 51% identical to known genes. This analysis showed two functional categories that were highly represented: those of genes involved in immune reactions (10.7% of the ESTs) and those involved in proliferation-hematopoiesis (10.3%). Expression pattern profile analyses of selected ESTs at different times postinfection confirmed the differential expression of the genes and efficiency of the SSH method. Differences in gene transcript abundance, for select ESTs encoding antimicrobial effectors, were evidenced by real-time PCR between shrimp that survived acute Vibrio infection and those individuals that did not survive acute Vibrio infection. These results suggest there are basic differences at the level of transcript abundance for genes directly involved in immune and hematopoietic processes from shrimp that survive and do not survive infection. PMID:15728333

  9. Trophic status of earthen ponds used for semi-intensive shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris, Stimpson, 1874) farming in New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Della Patrona, Luc; Beliaeff, Benoit

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated temporal variability in the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter along with variables proxies of water eutrophication (e.g., inorganic nutrient and chlorophyll-a) at two shrimp farms located in the Southern coast of New Caledonia and characterised by clear differences in shrimp feeding practices and levels of initial trophic conditions. The results of our study reveal that the trophic status of the water column increased during the rearing cycle at both sites, determining a general, though moderated, eutrophication. However, the water column trophic descriptors did not allow to discriminate differences in the trophic status among the investigated sites or between sites in the same farming plant, even if they were subjected to different feeding practices and largely different initial characteristics of the sediment. Temporal variations in biopolymeric C and phytopigment sedimentary contents (used as proxies of benthic eutrophication) varied inconsistently among sites. The multivariate analyses did not identify significant temporal patterns in the benthic trophic status, but allowed discriminating the four investigated sites. The semi-intensive shrimp farming significantly contributed to changing the water column and sediments trophic status of the earthen ponds, but the extent of those changes was not consistently observed in all ponds. In any of the investigated ponds the trophic status exceeded concerning thresholds over which hypoxia or anoxia could occur. We conclude that the established semi-intensive practices adopted so far for shrimp farming activities in the earthen ponds of New Caledonia are able to maintain the status of the ponds below the eutrophication levels over which dystrophic crises could sharply abate most of the reared biomass. PMID:21880358

  10. Biosorption of Pb (II) by Agave tequilana Weber (agave azul) biomass

    OpenAIRE

    J. Romero-González; F. Parra-Vargas; I. Cano-Rodríguez; E. Rodríguez; J. Ríos-Arana; R. Fuentes-Hernández; J. Ramírez-Flores

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the biomass produced from the industrial residues and agricultural waste of Agave tequilana Weber (Agave azul) generated in the production of tequila, demonstrated a high potential for Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution. The biosorption capacity of Agave azul leaves biomass was evaluated in batch experiments. These experiments included pH profile, time dependence, and the determination of adsorption capacity. Time profile experiments indicated that the adsorption of Pb ions ...

  11. Sensory quality of frozen shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Barbosa Nunes Queiroga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory quality of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown and stored in a freezer. A sensory analysis consisted of the Quality Index Method (MIQ to review the raw shrimp and Descriptive Analysis (AD in cooked shrimp in samples stored for a period of 90 days, using eight previously trained panelists. Accommodation comprising shrimp filet (100-120 pieces / kg samples were subjected to freezing in liquid nitrogen (- 86 °C, Freezing Tunnel (- 35 °C and Domestic Freezer (- 18 °C. At 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage in these freezing systems, determination of pH, water holding capacity (WHC, weight loss during cooking (WLC, shearing force, color, total volatile bases (TVB and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were performed. The attributes manual firmness and softness showed better results in rapid freezing. The color parameters (a *, b * and L *, WHC and WCL were higher at 90 days of storage, no significant losses were observed. Highlighted the strength of greater shear in slowly frozen samples at 90 days, confirming the results reported by the sensory panel. At 90 days of storage, the frozen shrimp showed good sensory quality and physical and chemistry characteristics. The shelf life of this shrimp could be set at about 90 days.

  12. Complete nucleic acid sequence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2011-06-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of shrimp, recently been classified as Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). The complete nucleic acid sequence of PstDNV from India was obtained by cloning and sequencing of different DNA fragment of the virus. The genome organisation of PstDNV revealed that there were three major coding domains: a left ORF (NS1) of 2001 bp, a mid ORF (NS2) of 1092 bp and a right ORF (VP) of 990 bp. The complete genome and amino acid sequences of three proteins viz., NS1, NS2 and VP were compared with the genomes of the virus reported from Hawaii, China and Mexico and with partial sequence available from isolates from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis of shrimp, insect and vertebrate parvovirus sequences showed that the Indian PstDNV isolate is phylogenetically more closely related to one of the three isolates from Taiwan (AY355307), and two isolates (AY362547 and AY102034) from Thailand. PMID:21402111

  13. DURABILIDAD DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND BLANCO ADICIONADO CON PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El pigmento Azul Ultramar (AU es un aluminosilicato polisulfurado de sodio que reacciona con el aluminato tricálcico (C3A y con el óxido de calcio (CaO del cemento Pórtland blanco en presencia de agua, generando cantidades considerables de etringita a edad temprana y en menor proporción de tobermorita. Esta etringita primaria se presenta en forma de fibras no orientadas mejorando el desempeño mecánico de los morteros, y al mismo tiempo dejando pocas cantidades de C3A disponible para la formación de etringita secundaria. En esta investigación se evalúa la durabilidad a diferentes edades de curado en morteros de cemento Portland blanco sustituidos por 0%, 10% y 20% de AU en peso, mediante pruebas de succión capilar y evaluación del cambio longitudinal de morteros expuestos a una solución de sulfato de sodio con una concentración del 5% (ASTM C1012. Los resultados evidencian una mayor resistencia a compresión y a flexión, una significativa disminución de la expansión y una reducción hasta del 800% de la absorción de agua en morteros con AU. Todo esto debido a la formación de las fases minerales adicionales (etringita primaria y tobermorita, las cuales fueron identificadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM.

  14. El virus de la lengua azul como modelo para el estudio de los orbivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, B.; Sánchez-Cordón, P.J.; Gómez-Villamandos, J.C.; Pedrera, M.; Risalde, M.A.; Molina, V.; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M.; Ruiz-Villamor, E.

    2008-01-01

    Al género Orbivirus pertenecen tres virus transmitidos a través de vector, que afectan al ganado domestico y a animales de vida libre (Lengua Azul, Peste Equina Africana y Enfermedad Hemorrágica Epizoótica de los Ciervos), y que han causado en las dos últimas décadas, especialmente el virus de la Lengua Azul (vLA), pérdidas económicas cuantiosas en prácticamente toda Europa y en los países del sur y el este del Mediterráneo. Es importante, por tanto, profundizar en el conocimiento sobre los m...

  15. Influence of blue light spectrum filter on short-wavelength and standard automated perimetries Influência de filtro para o espectro azul da luz na perimetria computadorizada branco-branco e azul-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of a blue light spectrum filter (BLSF, similar in light spectrum transmittance to the intraocular lens Acrysof NaturalTM, on standard automated perimetry (SAP and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP. METHODS: Twenty young individuals (OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de um filtro para o espectro azul da luz, semelhante à lente intra-ocular Acrysof Natural®, nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão (branco-no-branco e de comprimento de onda curto (azul-no-amarelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes jovens sem alterações oculares (20 olhos realizaram seqüência de 4 exames de campo visual: perimetria automatizada padrão e azul-no-amarelo com e sem o filtro para o espectro azul da luz. Os índices de limiar foveal (FT, desvio médio (MD e desvio-padrão (PSD obtidos em todos os exames e a diferença causada pela excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo foram analisados. Variabilidade interindivíduos (desvio-padrão dos pontos testados foi calculada. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução estatisticamente significante no desvio médio (p<0.001 e no limiar foveal (p<0.001 medidos pela perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz comparado quando realizado sem o filtro. Nenhum outro índice avaliado apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão ou azul-no-amarelo. Foi notado aumento da variabilidade interindivíduos com a excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com e sem o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz, assim como a diferença de sensibilidade entre os hemisférios inferior e superior (hemisfério inferior menos superior, mas não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os exames com e sem o uso do filtro. Quando foram comparados os 4 pontos mais inferiores e os 4 pontos mais superiores, a diferença inferior-superior aumentou

  16. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez; Irma G. López-Muraira; Juan F. Goméz-Leyva; Guadalupe Luna-Solano; Rosa I. Ortíz-Basurto; Isaac Andrade-González

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray dryi...

  17. ESTABILIZACIÓN DEL PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR EN CEMENTO PÓRTLAND BLANCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN GUILLERMO MORALES RENDÓN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se prepararon muestras de cemento azul a partir de cemento Pórtland Blanco Tipo III, según Normas Técnicas Colombianas NTC y pigmento Azul Ultramar U-601 adicionado en un 2% en peso del cemento. El cemento se caracterizó químicamente por fluorescencia de rayos X, y físicamente mediante los ensayos típicos según las NTC. Al pigmento y al cemento se les determinaron sus coordenadas cromáticas por espectrofotometría mediante el sistema CIELAB. Se eligieron varios aditivos y adiciones (entre orgánicos, inorgánicos y minerales para ser adicionados al cemento azul en diferentes dosificaciones en peso. Tanto a las muestras de cemento azul sin aditivo como a aquellas con las diferentes dosificaciones de aditivos, se les determinaron sus características físicas de desempeño y coordenadas cromáticas a diferentes edades de curado en agua saturada con cal (1, 3, 7 y 28 días. Adicionalmente se les determinó el color en las mismas edades a especimenes curados a las condiciones ambientales del laboratorio. Se presentó decoloración total en todos aquellos cementos adicionados con aditivos orgánicos, y decoloración parcial en los cementos adicionados con algunos de los aditivos inorgánicos y ciertas adiciones minerales. Tanto los tiempos de fraguado, como las resistencias a la compresión y demás variables de desempeño experimentaron cambios significativos, en algunos casos positivos y en otros negativos, como consecuencia y efecto de las diferentes dosificaciones utilizadas de cada uno de los aditivos.

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0617 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0617 ref|YP_002587081.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Litopenaeus sty...lirostris] gb|ACA47126.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Litopenaeus stylirostris] YP_002587081.1 0.24 22% ...

  19. Enfermedad de la mancha del caparazón en el camarón de cultivo Litopenaeus vannamei - Brown spot disease in aquaculture shrimp litopenaeus vanname.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio Limonta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presencia de manchas color café a negro en el camarón Litopenaeus vannamei constituye un síndrome relacionado con infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas en cutícula, apéndices o branquias, causante de depreciación comercial del producto.AbstractThe presence of brown to black spots on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a syndrome related to bacterial or fungal cuticle, appendages or gills, causing commercial depreciation of the product.

  20. Eimeria azul sp. n. (protozoa: Eimeriidae) from the eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus, in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1979-06-01

    Eimeria azul sp. n. is described from the cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus, in central Pennsylvania. The oval oocysts are 19.5--27.0 micrometer by 15.0--19.0 (mean - 22.9 X 16.7 micrometer). The fusiform sporocysts are 7.8--14.0 micrometer by 3.3--6.5 micrometer (mean = 11.8 X 5.8 micrometer). A Stieda Body is present. There is no micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule. The sporocyst has a residuum which is variable in appearance. The oocysts are characterized by a blue tint when viewed with an apochromatic objective lens. PMID:480068

  1. iPark: Aplicación sobre la zona azul para dispositivos iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Elorz Berástegui, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto ha sido elaborado como respuesta a una necesidad real que ha sido observada en el día a día de un conductor de Pamplona: la complejidad y poca claridad de las Zonas de Estacionamiento Limitado y Restringido (ZEL y ZER); comúnmente conocidas como Zona Azul. La plataforma elegida para el desarrollo ha sido el sistema operativo iOS de Apple para dispositivos móviles. Esto permite que los usuarios dispongan de la aplicación cuando realmente la necesitan, a l...

  2. Characterization of four hemocyanin isoforms in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jingxiang; RUAN Lingwei; LI Zhen; YU Xiaoman; LI Sedong; SHI Hong; XU Xun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the gene encoding hemocyanin subunit L, LvHcL, was cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei and the genomic organization was characterized. This gene was diverse with many SNPs and also had at least four isoforms, while one of them (LvHcL4) only had two exons and the exon2 was missed. Transcription analysis showed that these isoforms of LvHcL were up-regulated after WSSV challenge in WSSV-resistant shrimp, while the transcriptions were decreased constantly in WSSV-susceptible shrimp. It is suggested that the hemocyanin had rich polymorphism and was involved in the antiviral response. These results could extend our previous findings and provide insights into the immune feature of hemocyanin, which would be helpful for further studies aimed at antiviral mechanism in inver-tebrate.

  3. Transformation of primary cultures of shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) lymphoid (Oka) organ with Simian virus-40 (T) antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapay, L M; Lu, Y; Brock, J A; Nadala, E C; Loh, P C

    1995-05-01

    Primary cultures of lymphoid (Oka) organ from Penaeus stylirostris were transformed with naked or Lipofectin-mediated pSV-3 neo, a shuttle vector containing the tumor (T) antigen gene from Simian virus-40. The transformed cells, OKTr-1 and OKTr-23, exhibited the following characteristics: rounded morphology forming grapelike aggregates, loosely adhesive, increased growth rate in Medium-199, resistance to G-418 (a neomycin analog marker in the shuttle vector), cloning efficiencies of 68.7% and 36.7% in soft agarose, respectively, and stability in liquid nitrogen storage. Immunofluorescence staining (IFA) of the transformed cells using a monoclonal antibody against SV-40 tumor antigen showed positive results. In contrast, primary cell cultures exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and formed a tight, adhesive monolayer on the surface of the culture vessel. They were sensitive to G-418, and showed negative results with IFA. To date, OKTr-1 and OKTr-23 have undergone 44 and 18 passages, respectively. Primary cultures of the lymphoid organ have not been successfully passaged beyond the primary stage.

  4. POSICIONAMENTO DA MARCA-PAÍS BRASIL: UMA PROPOSTA DE ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA FERNANDES GALHANONE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O livro Estratégia do Oceano Azul, de Kim e Mauborgne (2005 propõe uma nova visão emestratégia empresarial: mudar radicalmente a proposição de valor oferecida aos consumidores,reinventando os mercados de forma a tornar a concorrência atual irrelevante. O presenteartigo visa, primeiramente, discutir a contribuição do modelo dos autores, com foco naidentificação e entrega aos consumidores de fontes completamente novas de valor. Emseguida, a estratégia é aplicada em um exercício teórico. A proposta é de criação de umOceano Azul para a marca-país Brasil, aplicando os respectivos conceitos. Busca-se, comeste exercício, entender as vantagens e complexidades envolvidas no modelo e, ao mesmotempo, explorar, ainda que teoricamente, o potencial para o país das oportunidades oferecidaspor uma tendência do setor de turismo internacional: o turismo médico.

  5. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  6. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health Center, Department of Molecular Microbial and Structural Biology (United States); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano, E-mail: sirano.dhepaganon@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H., E-mail: carrow@uhnresearch.ca [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 28}-Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two {alpha}-helicies.

  7. IMPACT OF PARASITISM BY GREGARINES (Nematopsis sp) IN FARMING SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz; Roberto Pérez-Castañeda; Gilberto Gutiérrez-Salazar; Pablo González-Alanís; Mario Hernández-Acosta; Jesús G. Sánchez-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Infestation of gregarines from genus Nematopsis in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is commonly associated with a decrease in production and low weight, as well as a possible predisposition to viral infections. The goal of our past research was to evaluate the effect of the Nematopsis sp. gregarine parasitosis on the growth of farm-grown Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Four cages were built with PVC pipes and plastic screens with a 6mm light diameter, 1,7m in height, and 1,5m in width ...

  8. Extenso nevo azul intraoral: relato de caso Extensive intraoral blue nevus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O nevo é uma má-formação congênita pigmentada, raramente encontrado na mucosa bucal. Cerca de 1/3 dos casos localizados nesta região anatômica são do tipo azul, uma variante histológica com considerável tendência à malignização. Este artigo relata o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, tabagista crônico, portador de um nevo azul de 5 cm de diâmetro no palato duro. A excisão da lesão sem biópsia prévia foi a conduta terapêutica de eleição para o caso, uma vez que ainda existe controvérsia na literatura a respeito da realização de biópsia incisional em lesões pigmentadas malignas ou com potencial de malignização. O paciente foi acompanhado por um período de 2 anos, sem sinais de recorrência ou transformação malignaNevus is a congenital pigmented malformation rarely found in the oral mucosa. Around one third of cases located in this anatomical region are of the blue type, a histological variant with considerable tendency to malignancy. This study reports the case of a male patient, chronic smoker, with a blue nevus measuring 5cm in diameter on the hard palate. Since controversy exists in the literature regarding the incisional biopsy of pigmented lesions with malignant or malignant potential, excision without previous biopsy of the lesion was the therapy of choice for this case. The patient was followed-up for two years with no sign of recurrence or malignant transformation

  9. El control de la limpieza de las arenas por medio del ensayo del azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, the main lines of the investigation work developed at LABEIN on the «Influence of the limy and clayey slimes from calcareous crushed sands on concrete properties» are presented. As a consequence of it, new limits are proposed to consideration regarding the admissible content of slime in crushed sands, reaching a limit higher than 15%, controling the slime nature by means of an equivalent of normal sand and specially by Methylene Blue. The second part of the work is devoted to the development of the methodology for the obtention of Methylene Blue, in sands used in the elaboration of concrete which have a little amount of clay, taking as a base the method applied by French normative, duly adapted and with different expression of the results.Se muestran, en la primera parte del artículo, las líneas fundamentales del trabajo de investigación desarrollado en LABEIN, sobre la «Influencia de los finos calizos y arcillosos de arenas calizas de machaqueo, en las propiedades del hormigón». Como consecuencia del mismo, se proponen nuevos límites a considerar respecto al contenido admisible de finos en las arenas calizas de machaqueo, llegando a un límite superior del 15%, controlando la naturaleza de los finos por medio del equivalente de arena a vista, y, sobre todo, por el Azul de Metileno. En la segunda parte del artículo, se desarrolla la metodología utilizada para obtener el Azul de Metileno, en arenas utilizadas en la confección de hormigón, que poseen poca arcilla, basándose en el método aplicado por la normativa francesa, adaptado convenientemente y con diferente expresión de resultados.

  10. Presumptive detection of yellow head virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. stylirostris cultured on the Northwest coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa-Vélez, J; Cedano-Thomas, Y; Cid-Becerra, J; Méndez-Payán, J C; Vega-Pérez, C; Zambrano-García, J; Bonami, J-R

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the presence of yellow head virus (YHV) in shrimp farms along the Pacific coast of Mexico, 39 samples from 26 randomly chosen farms were analysed by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and dot-blot hybridization. Eleven samples were positive for YHV. The disease was reproduced by means of an infectivity bioassay performed with an extract of pleopods from the positive samples. Cumulative mortality reached 50% in 14 days. Four pairs of primers which amplified several YHV genome regions were designed and used to test dead and surviving shrimp from the bioassay by RT-PCR, resulting in positive results for every expected amplicon. The results of this study provide presumptive evidence of the presence of YHV in Mexican shrimp farms at least during 1999-2000. PMID:17169104

  11. Evaluation du probiotique bactérien Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M chez la crevette pénéide Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle- Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Pediococcus acidilacticii MA18/5M est un probiotique bactérien (BACTOCELL®) qui a démontré son efficacité chez plusieurs espèces d'animaux terrestres et aquatiques. Cette thèse avait pour objectif d'investiguer plus en détails les effets de ce probiotique chez les crevettes pénéides d'élevage. Pour cette étude, nous avons choisi une approche globale replaçant la problématique dans un modèle d'interactions entre trois compartiments : la crevette, sa microflore intestinale et le probiotique. Ap...

  12. Evaluation du probiotique bactérien Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M chez la crevette pénéide Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    P. acidilactici MA 18/5M is a dietary probiotic (BACTOCELL®) which has shown its efficiency on several terrestrial and aquatic species. The present thesis aimed to investigate more fully the effects of this probiotic on cultured penaeid shrimps. For this study, we chose a global approach by replacing the problem studied in a model of interactions between three compartments: the shrimp, its intestinal microflora and the probiotic. Having first defined how the probiotic should be administrated,...

  13. Los marsupiales (Mammalia) del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Visconti, G; Montalvo, C. I.; Goin, F J

    2000-01-01

    We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene). Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina), at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these...

  14. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  15. Microstructural analysis and P T conditions of the Azul megashear zone, Tandilia, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisicale, M. C.; Martinez, F. J.; Dimieri, L. V.; Dristas, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    A microstructural analysis was carried out on mylonitic rocks of the Azul megashear zone (AMSZ), Tandilia, which were formed in a range of metamorphic conditions from lower greenschist to amphibolite facies. Tailed porphyroclasts are common and mostly symmetric. Scarce asymmetric rotated porphyroclasts show both sinistral and dextral senses of shear. In sections parallel to the mylonitic foliation, porphyroclasts are round. The AMSZ is probably related to the late Transamazonian orogenic cycle and may be due to NNE-SSW-directed convergence. In weakly deformed protolith and protomylonites, quartz deforms by dynamic recrystallization, mainly subgrain rotation in dislocation creep Regime 2. K-feldspar porphyroclasts and plagioclase show scarce fracturation and deform by dynamic recrystallization along grain boundaries. Quartz microstructures in mylonites indicate predominantly Regime 3 grain boundary migration recrystallization. Feldspar structures indicate recrystallization through the nucleation and growth of new grains at grain boundaries. The temperatures of deformation from mineral assemblages in the CNKFMASH system in four bulk compositions are in the range of 400-450 °C, and the pressures are more than 6 kb.

  16. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  17. Inclusion and Exclusion in Participation Strategies in the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Durand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, community participation has become central in biodiversity conservation initiatives, mainly as a strategy for integrating the needs and interests of the populations living in and around protected areas (PAs, and to enhance local social development. Nevertheless, institutionalised participation is usually conceived as a means to attain the goals of conservation initiatives. Although important efforts have been made to construct participatory processes, these are designed and implemented in ways that produce exclusion. In this study, we analyse the exclusion processes produced in the consultation workshops developed to evaluate and update the Conservation and Management Programme (CMP of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (MABR, and in the Reserve′s Advisory Council (Consejo Asesor meetings. Our analysis is based on the observation of two workshops, the revision of workshop reports, interviews with institutional officials, and the participation of one of us in the Advisory Council of the MABR as a councillor. We show that participatory processes for incorporating local population′s views and perspectives into decision-making processes still face important challenges. We highlight the importance of acknowledging, and attending to, the processes of exclusion generated by the mechanisms themselves, despite being implemented to include local communities.

  18. Evidences of abundant hemocyanin variants in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianliang; Guo, Lingling; Lu, Xin; Lu, Hui; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Mingqi; Chen, Jiehui; Zhang, Yueling

    2016-09-01

    Hemocyanin (HMC) is a multifunctional immune molecule present in mollusks and arthropods and functions as an important antigen non-specific immune protein. Our previous evidences demonstrated that Litopenaeus vannamei HMC might display extensive molecular diversities. In this study, bioinformatics analysis showed dozens of variant sequences of the HMC subunit with higher molecular weight from L. vannamei (LvHMC). Three variant fragments, named as LvHMCV1-3, which shared 85-99% nucleotide identity with that of the classical form of LvHMC (AJ250830.1), were cloned and characterized. Spatial expression profiles showed that LvHMCV1-3 had different tissue-specific distribution, which were affected by stimulation with six pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with each variant fragment showing a specific stress pattern to different bacterial pathogens. Full length cDNA of LvHMCV3 was further cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 92% identity with that of LvHMC, possessed a conserved structure characteristic of the HMC family and could be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod HMC in a phylogenetic tree. In addition, the recombinant protein of LvHMCV3 (rLvHMCV3) showed obvious agglutination activities against three aquaculture pathogenic bacteria including E. coli K12, V. parahaemolyticus and S.aureus at concentrations ranging from 31.25-62.5g/mL. It also showed obvious antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus at concentrations 0.02-0.5mg/mL, and possessed the best inhibitive effects compared with those of rLvHMCV4 and rLvHMC. Co-injection of V. parahaemolyticus and rLvHMCV3 in L. vannamei showed significant decrease of the mortality rate at 24-72h after injection. Therefore, these studies suggested that L. vannamei had abundant HMC variants, which possessed obvious resistance to pathogenic

  19. Optimization of Process Parameters for Litopenaeus vannamei Seafood Sauce using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyue Li; Jianfeng Sun; Xiaopeng Cui; Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in order to determine the optimum formulation of Litopenaeus vannamei seafood sauce, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce on the sensory quality. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The independent parameters of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and the quadratics...

  20. Toxic factors of Vibrio strains pathogenic to shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Herlin, Jose; Brizard, Raphael; Marteau, Anne-laure; Martin, C.; Martin, B.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    Vibriosis is a major disease problem in shrimp aquaculture. 'Syndrome 93' is a seasonal juvenile vibriosis caused by Vibrio penaeicida which affects Litopenaeus stylirostris in grow-out ponds in New Caledonia. This study assessed the toxic activities of extracellular products (ECPs) from V: penaeicida, V. alginolyticus and V, nigripulchritudo using in vivo injections in healthy juvenile L. stylirostris (= Penaeus stylirostris) and in vitro assays on shrimp primary cell cultures and the fish c...

  1. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The

  2. Morro Azul Observatory: A New Center for Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Cardoso de Oliveira, Vladimir

    2002-08-01

    In 1999, the Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) started a project to build an observatory and initiate several astronomy related activities in the city of Limeira and region (São Paulo state) with the aim of teaching and popularizing astronomy. After contracting teachers, a technician and an intern, the Morro Azul Observatory was inaugurated in March 2000 as a part of the geosciences department of ISCA Faculdades. This poster describes the development phases of the Observatory, the activities initiated by the Observatory, and assesses the impact of the project. Several issues will be discussed such as the criteria for choosing the site, buildings, instruments, group visits, and particularly the goals that were reached. The Observatory, as described here, serves as a model for other centers with the same purpose in the country. The achievements of this project include the creation of two astronomical disciplines for the geography course and liaisons with other courses such as tourism, pedagogy, social communication and engineering. New activities were initiated, educational materials created, and the Observatory is now part of the regions teaching network and is in contact with other Brazilian and foreign centers. This poster presents the results from report analyses, visitor records, the local media, goal strategy assessment, and the current state of the project. It concludes with an evaluation of the social commitment of the Observatory, its initiatives for the constant renewal and growth of the project, its policy of maintaining the activities and interchange with other national and international astronomy centers, and the future perspectives in terms of its contribution for the research in science education.

  3. Posicionamento da marca-país Brasil: uma proposta de estratégia do Oceano Azul

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Fernandes Galhanone; Sonia Rosa Arbues Decoster

    2008-01-01

    O livro Estratégia do Oceano Azul, de Kim e Mauborgne (2005) propõe uma nova visão emestratégia empresarial: mudar radicalmente a proposição de valor oferecida aos consumidores,reinventando os mercados de forma a tornar a concorrência atual irrelevante. O presenteartigo visa, primeiramente, discutir a contribuição do modelo dos autores, com foco naidentificação e entrega aos consumidores de fontes completamente novas de valor. Emseguida, a estratégia é aplicada em um exercício teórico. A prop...

  4. Los marsupiales (Mammalia) del Mioceno Superior de la formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de la Pampa, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Goin, Francisco Javier; Montalvo, Claudia; Visconti, G

    2000-01-01

    Se describe la asociación de marsupiales sudamericanos fósiles de edad Huayqueriense (Mioceno tardío) más completa hasta ahora conocida. Los ejemplares fueron exhumados de varias localidades fosilíferas nuevas del centro y norte de la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina central), en sedimentos asignables a la Formación Cerro Azul: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco y Laguna Chillhué. El conjunto de las sedimentitas loessoides analizadas en los diferentes afloramientos de esta formación ind...

  5. Aspectos de la dinámica poblacional de la ballena azul (Balaenoptera musculus) del Pacífico Noreste

    OpenAIRE

    ORTEGA ORTIZ, CHRISTIAN DANIEL

    2009-01-01

    En este estudio se determinaron aspectos de la dinámica poblacional y una estimación preliminar del estado actual de la población de ballena azul (Balaenoptera musculus) del Pacífico Noreste, a partir de datos de longitud total obtenidos con un método fotogramétrico (fotosecuencias) nuevo. Este método consistió en fotografiar de forma secuencial todo el cuerpo visible de la ballena y simultáneamente medir la distancia perpendicular entre la ballena y la embarcación para hacer una escala de me...

  6. Suicidas e foliões: chanchada, carnavalização e realismo no filme Tudo azul, de Moacyr Fenelon (1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Napolitano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O filme Tudo azul (1951, dirigido por Moacyr Fenelon, foi um dos momentos do projeto de um cinema nacional-popular, apoiado por realizadores de esquerda, na tentativa de articular crítica social e diversão. Ao narrar a angústia do "pequeno funcionário" Ananias, compositor inédito e pai de vários filhos que trabalha em uma companhia de seguros mas sonha em ser compositor famoso, Tudo azul representa uma tentativa em conciliar elementos da chanchada carnavalesca e do melodrama com a perspectiva realista.

  7. Limnología básica del lago cárstico turístico Cenote Azul en Quintana Roo, México Basic limnology of the karstic tourist lake Cenote Azul in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cervantes-Martínez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una descripción de la limnología básica del Cenote Azul, un sistema cárstico del sur de Quintana Roo, México. El análisis se realizó a dos niveles, temporal y espacial, en la región limnética. El sistema se clasificó como monomíctico, cálido tropical. Los niveles de concentración de oxígeno disuelto, clorofila a y visibilidad al disco de Secchi, indican condiciones oligotróficas. Las variaciones del pH, de la concentración de oxígeno disuelto superficial (0-30 m y de la temperatura se encuentran dentro de los límites señalados como aceptables en los criterios ecológicos y de calidad del agua para la protección de la vida acuática.A description of the basic limnology of the Cenote Azul, a karstic system from Quintana Roo, Mexico is presented. The analysis was done at temporary and space level, in the limnetic region. The system was recognized as tropical and monomictic. Oligotrophic conditions were found with high dissolved oxygen concentrations, transparency, and low chlorophyll a concentrations. The pH, oxygen concentration at superficial level (0-30 m, and temperature, are within the ecological criteria of water quality for protection of the aquatic life.

  8. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The work studies the origin of

  9. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M.E., E-mail: mzabala@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzano, M., E-mail: marisol.manzano@upct.es [Escuela de Ingeniería de Caminos, Canales y Puertos y de Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, P° de Alfonso XIII 52, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO{sub 3}-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO{sub 4}–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO{sub 2}, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The

  10. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  11. Dietas practicas para el cultivo de Litopenaeus schmitti: una revisión (Practical diets for Litopenaeus schmitti shrimp culture: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Ceballos, Barbarito:

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se resumen los resultados del trabajo desarrollado por investigadorescubanos en el campo de la alimentación y nutrición del camarónblanco Litopenaeus schmitti, referidos a la formulación de alimentosbalanceados para las fases de precría y engorde. Aporta información sobre la respuesta de dicha especie a la inclusión de materias primasconvencionales o no en dietas prácticas, constituyendo una vía deabaratamiento de las mismas mediante el uso de ingredientes nacionales. Además se muestran los resultados obtenidos en cuanto aempleo de aglutinantes, tamaños de partículas e investigaciones básicas aplicadas a esta actividad. Estos estudios han servido de base para la obtención de alimentos comerciales eficientes que sustentan el desarrollo de la camaronicultura en Cuba, propiciando el diseño de alimentos acordes a las necesidades y posibilidades del país, constituye un valioso material para el conocimiento y desarrollo del cultivo en cuanto a Results of the research workdeveloped by Cuban investigators on feeding and nutrition of white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, referred the food formulation for nursery and grow-out phases. It contributes information on the answer of this species to the inclusion of conventional raw materials or not in practical diets, constituting a via to reduce prices trough the use of national ingredients. In addition results obtained as far as use of aglutinantes, sizes of particles and basic investigations applied to this activity are shown. These studies have served as base to obtain efficient commercial diets that have supported the development of shrimp culture in Cuba, facilitating the designof artifitial food according to the necessities and possibilities of the country, constituting a valuable material for the knowledge anddevelopment of the culture as far as feeding and nutrition.H

  12. Priority given to low energy and operating costs at la Cruz Azul Aguascalientes cement plant; Priorite aux faibles couts d`exploitation et d`energie pour la cimenterie la Cruz Azul d`Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Luna, C.A. [La Cruz Azul (Mexico)

    1998-06-01

    The Mexican cement producer LA CRUZ AZUL decided for their third works located in Aguascalientes to design in co-operation with Krupp Polysius a 3,300 tpd production plant with minimum operating costs. This plant will have an energy consumption of less than 90 kWh per ton of cement and a heat consumption of approx. 700 kCal per kg of clinker, because an increase of energy costs is expected in the long term in Mexico. Main basic technical decisions concern material transport by mechanical conveyors, reuse of all hot gases generated for drying and very high automation level. Full-scale production is scheduled for mid-year 1999. (author)

  13. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  14. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen [1]. For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV...

  15. La hora azul en pos de la memoria traumática del Perú

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    Claire Sourp

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La novela del peruano Alonso Cueto (La hora azul, 2005 propone una reflexión sobre las relaciones entre el hombre y las memorias, su memoria personal y la de su país. El encuentro del personaje principal con la amante de su padre –militar que participó en la lucha contra Sendero luminoso en los años 80– le permite indagar su historia personal y metafóricamente, también se da a conocer la historia del trauma reciente de la Guerra sucia. Esa novela se puede leer como una representación estética de la memoria peruana y participa, en el marco de la ficción, al proceso de comprensión de la situación de violencia emprendido con la investigación de los miembros de la Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación. Por consiguiente, el artículo se centra en el testimonio que proporciona el personaje femenino cuyo cuerpo sirve de hito dentro de esta búsqueda de la verdad y de la historia. Un cuerpo inasible, lastimado, a la imagen de la memoria que se intenta reconstruir, un cuerpo que para escapar al peso del pasado y del trauma del conflicto se suicida y le deja al otro la misión de contar, el legado de la memoria.The novel that Alonso Cueto wrote in 2005 is good food for thoughts about the relationship between a particular man and memories : his own memory and the memory of his country. The meeting between the hero and his father’s lover –the father took part in the dirty war against Shining Path in the 1980’s– gives Adrián Ornache the opportunity to discover his own personal history. Metaphorically speaking, the text can be read as an esthetic representation of Peruvian memory. As such, it  will help the reader to better understand the country violent situation. Besides, the book recalls the action of the CVR when the woman tells her own story in order to bear witness of her trauma. In this article our main goal is to try and link both positions. In this novel, truth and history revolve around the woman's body. Indeed, it is a

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR Y GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES CON ENVEJECIMIENTO ACELERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Dur\\u00E1n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del envejecimie nto acelerado en semillas de varie dades criollas de maíz azul. En los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, semillas de cuatro varie dades criollas de maíz azul (Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometie ron a dos tip os de envejecimie nto acelerado: calor húmedo (41°C, 72 horas y 100% h. r. y calor seco (60°C, 48 horas. Se evaluaron: protrusión radicular de 0 a 72 horas de imbibición y, a los sie te días de incubación a 25°C, plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Se obtuvo la caracterización molecular de los tratamie ntos mediante la RA PD y se construyeron los dendogramas respectivos. En plántulas normales provenie ntes de semillas sin envejecimie nto acelerado, las varie dades Oaxaca y Puebla fueron significativamente superiores. El peso seco en las plántulas disminuyó con el deterioro, sie ndo exigua con calor seco. La presencia de plántulas anormales se incrementó con ambos tip os de deterioro en el orden: Oaxaca, Puebla, Cocotitlán y Cuijingo. La diferenciación de los perfiles de bandeo entre semillas testigo y deterioradas ocurrió con la secuencia: Oaxaca (31,6%, Cocotitlán (25,8%, Puebla (19,6% y Cuijingo (18,6%. Estos valores de similitud, a los cuales se ramificaron los perfiles genómicos, se asociaron de manera inversa con el nivel de vigor de las semillas, y directamente con la presencia de anormalidades en las plántulas obtenidas.

  17. Una verdadera "isla en el nuevo sur". Las donaciones condicionadas en el arroyo Azul durante el rosismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Lanteri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del estudio de la política de tierras fiscales implementada por el gobierno de Rosas en la campaña de Buenos Aires, en el presente trabajo nos proponemos enfocar la atención en la modalidad de las donaciones condicionadas, que sólo se hicieron efectivas en un área de la frontera sur, el arroyo Azul, a partir de 1832. De tal forma, comenzaremos estableciendo las particularidades que presentó su proceso colonizador, para luego analizar el impacto local que tuvo la entrega de predios estatales durante el período 1820-1860, con el objeto de establecer con mayor precisión el peso de las donaciones comparado con otras formas de otorgamiento en la ocupación del espacio y en la estructura de la tenencia del recurso en el lugar. Asimismo, en un último apartado estableceremos las características centrales que manifestaron las transacciones entre particulares, para lograr una mayor definición de los procesos abordados.In the context of the study of the policy of fiscal lands implemented by Rosas government in Buenos Aires countryside, this work focuses on the modality known as "conditioned donations", that since 1832 became effective only in an area of the south frontier, the Azul stream. So that, we begin establishing the particularities that the settlement process presented, and then we analyze the local impact that the cessions of fiscal lands had during the period 1820- 1860, in order to find out with more precision the importance of donations compared with other grant forms in space occupation and in the structure of the holding of the resource. Finally, in a last section we establish the central characteristics of transactions among private hands, to attain a more accurate definition of the processes involved.

  18. Los marsupiales (Mammalia del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconti, G.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene. Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina, at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these levels at each one of the new localities led to their correlation in an integrated profile of Cerro Azul Fm. This formation corresponds to «Epecuén Fm.», at least in Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo, and probably also to the upper levels of Arroyo Chasicá Fm. The studied marsupials are representative of almost all major lineages (orders of South American Neogene marsupials. The marmosine didelphid Zygolestes tatei sp. nov. differs from the type species of the genus in its larger size, unreduced third lower premolar, and in the less reduction of the metaconid in the last lower molar. Another marmosine, Thylamys pinei sp. nov., differs from other Marmosini in the twinning of the para- and metaconid in the lower molars, and in the wider talonid of the m4. The Monodelphini marmosines Thylatheridium hudsoni y T. dolgopolae are abundant in several localities of this formation; their study confirms close affinities between this genus and Monodelphis. The didelphines Hyperdidelphys pattersoni and an indeterminate species of Lutreolina are also represented by a few specimens. A mandibular fragment including part of the last molar may represent the oldest record of a Sparassocynidae in central Argentina. The Borhyaenidae and Thylacosmilidae (Sparassodonta are also recorded by a few, fragmentary specimens. Pliolestes venetus sp. nov. (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae differs from the type species of the genus in its smaller size and in the larger, less displaced metaconid in the

  19. Sensitivity of Larvae and Adult and the Immunologic Characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei under the Acute Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially important species of shrimp in the world. In this study, we performed acute hypoxia tests with Litopenaeus vannamei to estimate 12 h median lethal concentration (LC50 values at different life stages. The results indicated that the 12 h LC50 values were significantly different in different life stages of shrimp (P<0.05. The maximum value of 12 h LC50 was 2.113 mg L−1 for mysis III, and the minimum value was 0.535 mg L−1 for adult shrimp with an average total length of 6 cm. The study also determined the hemocyanin concentration (HC and the total hemocyte counts (THC in the conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation. These results showed that the THC decreased and the HC increased under hypoxia, and the THC increased and the HC decreased in the condition of reoxygenation. These results can provide fundamental information for shrimp farming and seedling and also can guide the breeding selection, as well as being very helpful to better understand the hypoxia stress mechanism of shrimp.

  20. Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Roberta Cruz da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers.

  1. Inheritance of resistance to cotton blue disease Herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmério Pupim Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of cotton blue disease resistance by cotton plants. Populations derived from the CD 401 and Delta Opal resistant varieties were evaluated, through a greenhouse test with artificial inoculation by viruliferous aphids. Cotton blue disease resistance is conditioned by one dominant gene, both in CD 401 and Delta Opal varieties.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul. Populações derivadas das variedades resistentes CD 401 e Delta Opal foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio da inoculação de pulgões virulíferos. A resistência à doença-azul do algodoeiro é condicionada por um gene dominante, tanto em 'DC 401' quanto em 'Delta Opal'.

  2. Banco de semillas en ambientes de las sierras de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina con distinta intensidad de disturbios Seed bank in environments of the Azul sierras (Buenos Aires, Argentina with different disturbance intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gianaccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el impacto de la agricultura sobre la flora potencial de pastizales serranos en el Partido de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina, se comparó el banco de semillas en los 20 cm superficiales del suelo entre dos sectores adyacentes en las primeras estribaciones serranas. Uno de ellos está sometido a agricultura permanente y el otro conserva un pastizal natural bajo pastoreo y quemas no programados. Este último sector presentó en promedio una densidad de 70.000 sem m-2 contra 36.720 sem m-2 en el primero. La representación de semillas de especies nativas se redujo notablemente en el ambiente agrícola. Stipa caudata con 31360 sem m-2 resultó la especie más abundante en el pastizal. En el ambiente de cultivo, su densidad se redujo a 9940 sem m-2 y fue superada por Chenopodium album con 10560 sem m-2. La similitud en la composición del banco fue de 55% en términos cualitativos y 27% en términos cuantitativos. Estos resultados evidencian que, en el área de estudio, el reemplazo del pastizal natural por agricultura reduce notoriamente las reservas de semillas y modifica la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del banco con una elevada pérdida en la proporción de especies nativas.In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on the potential flora of grasslands of the sierras of Azul (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, the soil seed bank in the top 20 cm from two adjacent areas on the first foothill spurs were compared. One is submitted to continuous agriculture. The other area has grasslands under grazing and non programmed burning. The latter showed a mean density of 70.000 seeds m-2 against a mean density of 36.720 seeds m-2 in the first area. The proportional representation of native species seeds decreased strongly in the agricultural environment. The most abundant species in the grasslands was Stipa caudata (31.360 seeds m-2. In the agricultural environment, its density decreased to 9940 seeds m-2. It was surpassed by

  3. Efecto de la salinidad sobre la fisiología energética del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Effect of salinity on physiological energetics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Valdez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el balance energético en juveniles de Litopenaeus vannamei, aclimatados a la salinidad como hiperosmóticos (20 ups, isosmóticos (26 ups, o hiposmóticos (32 ups. Además, se calculó la razón atómica O:N. La tasa de ingestión, el consumo de oxígeno, la excreción de amonio y el campo de crecimiento fueron afectados significativamente (p 0.05 en los camarones expuestos a las tres salinidades. Para optimizar las condiciones de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei se recomienda mantener a los juveniles en la salinidad para la cual es isosmótico (26 ups, evitando el estrés ambiental, lo que desde el punto de vista fisiológico se canaliza en una mayor cantidad de energía hacia el campo de crecimiento.The energy balance was determined with in Litopenaeus vannamei, juveniles acclimated to salinity where they were hyperosmotic (20 ups, isosmotic (26 ups, and hypo-osmotic (32 ups. Also O:N atomic ratio was calculated. The ingestion rate, oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion and scope for growth were affected significantly (p 0.05 in the shrimps exposed to the three salinities. We recommend maintaining Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at the salinity level which is isosmotic (26 ups, where they are free of environmental stress, these conditions for white shrimp juveniles would enhance production in the cultivation of this species.

  4. Cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno para diagnóstico de esôfago de Barrett

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    Saporiti Marcela Rocha Loures

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O esôfago de Barrett é uma condição na qual a mucosa escamosa esofágica é substituída por metaplasia intestinal especializada, que predispõe o paciente ao desenvolvimento de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Este é precedido por displasia e carcinoma precoce; o rastreamento dessas lesões faz-se através de endoscopias digestivas periódicas com biopsias randomizadas. A incidência aumentada desse, tem despertado interesse no desenvolvimento de novas técnicas endoscópicas, como a cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno, para melhorar a identificação do esôfago de Barrett e suas complicações. OBJETIVO: Determinar se as biopsias dirigidas pela cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno oferecem vantagem em relação ao método convencional na detecção do esôfago de Barrett. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudaram-se 45 pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de esôfago de Barrett, todos submetidos a dois exames de endoscopia digestiva alta com biopsias, em intervalo de 4 semanas, um convencional e outro com aplicação do corante, no período entre abril e outubro de 2002. RESULTADOS: Os resultados histológicos das biopsias de todos os exames foram comparados. Observou-se sensibilidade de 62,5%, especificidade de 15,4%, valor preditivo positivo de 57,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 18,2%. Não houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de biopsias. O tempo de duração da técnica de cromoendoscopia foi significativamente maior quando comparado ao da técnica convencional. CONCLUSÃO: Não se observou vantagem na utilização da cromoendoscopia em relação à técnica randomizada no diagnóstico do esôfago de Barrett.

  5. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  6. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  8. Influence of Probiotics on the Growth and Digestive Enzyme Activity of White Pacific Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(o)mez R. Geovanny D.; MA Shen

    2008-01-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were de-termined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics (Bacillus spp.) supple-mented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  9. IMPACT OF PARASITISM BY GREGARINES (Nematopsis sp IN FARMING SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of gregarines from genus Nematopsis in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is commonly associated with a decrease in production and low weight, as well as a possible predisposition to viral infections. The goal of our past research was to evaluate the effect of the Nematopsis sp. gregarine parasitosis on the growth of farm-grown Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Four cages were built with PVC pipes and plastic screens with a 6mm light diameter, 1,7m in height, and 1,5m in width and length (2,23 m3, and were installed in a farm-growing area in La Pesca, Tamaulipas. Twenty-nine previously weighed shrimp, L. vannamei, were placed in each cage. These had a “2” (6 to 10 parasites per shrimp degree of infestation severity by Nematopsis sp. The shrimp in 2 cages were fed for 5 days with the farm feed and 6g/kg of sodium monensin. The shrimp in the remaining cages were fed with commercial feed. After 5 days, the shrimp in the 4 cages were fed with a balanced feed for 38 days. After this, the biomass of each cage was recorded. The shrimp in the control cages weighed an average of 7,12g at the beginning of research and 9,27g at the end, and the treated shrimp weighed 7,09g and 9,88g, respectively. The non-treated shrimp gained 2,5g and the treated shrimp gained 2,79g. This present research shows that the negative effect on the shrimp growth caused by Nematopsis sp. infestation can be reversed if the infected shrimp are treated against infestation with sodium monensin, which possesses a therapeutic effect that eliminated the infestation without affecting the shrimp growth.

  10. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na, E-mail: weina63@aliyun.com; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd{sup 2+}. • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd{sup 2+} stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd{sup 2+} stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd{sup 2+}. They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses.

  11. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Tangprasittipap, Amornrat; Srisala, Jiraporn; Chouwdee, Saisunee; Somboon, Montagan; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Srisuvan, Thinnarat; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. ...

  12. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D; Jason E. Sawyer; Charles D Johnson; Dindot, Scott V.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality ...

  13. El secreto del huevo azul, de Catalina González Vilar. Estudio narratológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el estudio narratológico de la obra El secreto del huevo azul , de la escritora Catalina González Vilar, que obtuvo el Premio El Barco de Vapor en el año 2012. Examina los diferentes elementos constitutivos del texto (el enfoque del tema, la caracterización de los personajes, la estructura sintáctica, el tratamiento del lenguaje, la técnica narrativa utilizada... y su aporte al desarrollo de la historia con la finalidad de descubrir los valores estéticos y literarios que aporta a la fábula. Pretende demostrar el adecuado uso de todos ellos dado que favorecen un texto rico en matices, llamativo, sugerente. Cualidades, todas ellas, de gran importancia tanto en creaciones destinadas al público adulto como al infantil y juvenil pues enriquece el valor final de la obra, y por extensión, el bagaje cultural de sus lectores.

  14. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir. PMID:26628226

  15. Argyria mimicking a blue nevis: dermoscopy features Argyria imitando um nevo azul: características dermatoscópicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor Enei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argyria is a rare disease caused by prolonged skin contact with silver. Localized cases have been described regarding the use of topical medications, and trauma with objects containing this metal such as acupuncture needles and jewelry. Clinically, a macule or a patch, round or oval, appears in the infected area, with a characteristic bluey-gray color. To our knowledge this is the first time that this clinical condition has been described through the use of dermoscopy.A argíria é uma doença rara, causada pelo contato prolongado da pele com prata. Foram descritos casos localizados relacionados ao uso de medicamentos tópicos e traumas com objetos que contem esse metal, como agulhas de acupuntura e jóias, por exemplo. Clinicamente, aparecem máculas ou manchas redondas ou ovais na área afetada, com uma característica cor azul-acinzentada. Até onde sabemos esta é a primeira vez que este quadro clínico foi descrito através da dermatoscopia.

  16. The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea, an invader in Argentina La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea, un invasor en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Héctor Luis-Negrete

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea is reported from Argentina (Buenos Aires province. We found C. coerulea in the east central region of Argentina in anthropic environments. The specimens that we found have the characteristic of the species found in others regions; that is, a bluish dorsal surface with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe and eyes forming a single row around the anterior tip, clustered laterally. This is the first record of this species from the Neotropical Region, and together with Bipalium kewense are the only 2 species of exotic terrestrial planarians so far recorded in Argentina.La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea se registra para el centro este de Argentina (provincia de Buenos Aires, en ambientes antropizados. Los ejemplares encontrados presentan las características de la especie registrada en otras regiones, con una superficie dorsal azulada y una hilera medio dorsal amarilla, y ojos formando una hilera alrededor del extremo anterior, agrupados lateralmente. Es la primera vez que se cita dicha especie en la Región Neotropical, y junto a Bipalium kewense son las únicas planarias terrestres exóticas registradas en Argentina.

  17. The benthonic macro invertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Colombia) and their relationship with water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macro invertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Magdalena, Colombia). The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were trichoptera, coleoptera, diptera and ephemeroptera. The most representative families were baetidae, simullidae, perlidae, chironomidae, and hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia) was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone

  18. Polymorphism and methylation patterns in Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants propagated asexually by three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Martínez, Miriam; Nava-Cedillo, Alejandro; Guzmán-López, José Alfredo; Escobar-Guzmán, Rocío; Simpson, June

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variation in three forms of asexually propagated Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants namely offsets, bulbils and in vitro cultured individuals was studied by AFLP analysis. Low levels of variation were observed between mother plants and offsets and a higher level between mother plant and bulbils. Families obtained from commercial plantations showed lower levels of variation in comparison to families grown as ornamentals. No variation was observed between the original explant and four generations of in vitro cultured plants. Epigenetic variation was also studied by analyzing changes in methylation patterns between mother plants and offspring in each form of asexual reproduction. Offsets and bulbils showed an overall decrease in methylation whereas in vitro cultured plants showed patterns specific to each generation: Generations 1 and 4 showed overall demethylation whereas Generations 2 and 3 showed increased methylation. Analysis of ESTs associated with transposable elements revealed higher proportions of ESTs from Ty1-copia-like, Gypsy and CACTA transposable elements in cDNA libraries obtained from pluripotent tissue suggesting a possible correlation between methylation patterns, expression of transposable element associated genes and somaclonal variation.

  19. Suicidio en azul con negra mancha. Breve historia de un balazo en la pintura de Pablo Picasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy C., Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paris 1901: unrequited love drove Carles Casagemas, a close friend of Pablo Picasso’s youth, to commit suicide by shooting himself in the head. This tragic event was a major blow to Picasso, causing him to dwell upon the subject of death and express his “mourning” through his paintings. The “bullet hole” in his friend’s temple symbolically displaced several areas of the young Picasso’s life and became a “deep vacuum” and “melancholy”, permeating various areas in Picasso’s paintings, and marking the start of his famous blue period.París 1901: por el amor de una mujer, se suicida de un balazo en la cabeza Carles Casagemas, amigo íntimo de juventud de Pablo Picasso. Este trágico suceso producirá un gran dolor en el artista, el cual, lo hará internarse en el tema de la muerte y elaborar su “duelo” apoyado en su pintura. El “hoyo a bala” en la sien de su amigo se desplazará simbólicamente a varios espacios de la vida del joven Picasso y devendrá en “vacío profundo” y “melancolía”, permeando diferentes ámbitos dentro de la pintura de Picasso, dando comienzo a su mentado período azul.

  20. Uso de Materiais Alternativos em Processos de Adsorção de Corante Azul de Metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. do Rego

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo empregar materiais alternativos, puros e/ou modificados com 5 ou 10% (m/m de  pentóxido de nióbio (Nb2O5, em processos de remoção de azul de metileno (AM. Entre os materiais alternativos foram utilizadas argila sanitária, argila de resíduo industrial, rochas sedimentares e cinzas de casca de arroz obtida pela queima a 350oC. Estes sólidos foram caracterizados pelas técnicas de difração de raios- X (DRX e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR. Os testes de remoção de AM foram realizados em frascos de 125 mL, sob agitação constante, contendo 100 mL de solução de AM (100mg/L a 2000mg/L e adsorvente (0,1 a 0,6g, sob uma mesa agitadora a 200 rpm, em temperatura ambiente. A quantificação da remoção de AM foi realizada com auxílio de um espectrofotômetro UV-Vis da Varian (Cary 50, coletando 2 mL de amostra nos períodos de 2 à 1440 min. Dados de DRX evidenciaram uma mistura de argilominerais nos sólidos baseados em argilas. Nos ensaios de adsorção os materiais demonstraram eficiência para a remoção do corante, com destaque aqueles modificados com 10% de Nb2O5 exibindo 95% de remoção, no tempo de 120min, em solução de pH de ~6,5.

  1. Historical review of the sanitary filling of Rio Azul and considerations about heavy metals treated in it and the presents in our homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary has been done on the most outstanding events during the history of Rio Azul sanitary landfill by consultating documents and local newspapers. The historical outline starts in 1972, when the Inter municipal Cooperative Agreement (COCIM) was created, until May 27, 2002, when a warning was issued on the possible harmful effects on health due to technological waste disposal. Likewise, the method for estimating the mass of metals deposited in the landfill is disclosed. In this landfill the mass of metals varies between 70000 and 100000 tm. Finally, some considerations on household chemical products are made and recommendations are presented to improve metal waste management. (Author)

  2. Estudio comparativo de la respuesta inmune inducida por dos tipos de vacunas (VLP e inactivada) frente al virus de la lengua azul en el ganado ovino

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Diego Camacho, Ana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    La Lengua azul (LA) es una enfermedad infecciosa, no contagiosa, transmitida por jejenes del género Culicoides que afecta a diferentes especies de rumiantes, tanto domésticos, como silvestres. Los animales que desarrollan la enfermedad son fundamentalmente las ovejas, pudiéndose alcanzar altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. La enfermedad de la LA no afecta al ser humano, pero cobra gran importancia debido a su elevado poder de transmisión y difusión provocando graves consecuencias socioeco...

  3. EFECTO DEL ENVEJECIMIENTO ARTIFICIAL DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES EN SU GERMINACIÓN Y HUELLA GENÓMICA

    OpenAIRE

    Germán F. Gutiérrez-Hernández; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M.; Elpidio García-Ramírez; Marina O. Franco-Hernández; José L. Arellano-Vázquez; Dagoberto Durán-Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Para establecer su huella genómica y estimar su grado de tolerancia al envejecimiento, semillas de cuatro variedades criollas de maíz azul (Zea mays L.), Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometieron a dos tipos de envejecimiento artificial: calor húmedo (CH, 41 0C, 100 % HR, 72 h) y calor seco (CS, 60 0C, 0 % HR, 48 h), con sus respectivos testigos no envejecidos. Las variables de respuesta fueron: protrusión radicular entre 0 y 72 h de imbibición y a 7 d de incubación a 25 0C, número...

  4. EFEITO DO BENEFICIAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE TREMOÇO AZUL SOBRE SUAS QUALIDADES FÍSICA, FISIOLÓGICA E SANITÁRIA

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    As escassas informações, referentes ao beneficiamento de sementes de Lupinus angustifolius (L.), motivaram a avaliação dos efeitos da ação dos equipamentos sobre as qualidades física, fisiológica e sanitária do lote de sementes processado. O estudo, realizado com sementes de tremoço azul cv. IAPAR 24, considerou tratamentos obtidos no processamento, isolado e conjunto, em máquina de ventilador e peneiras e mesa de gravidade. Foram avaliados os rendimentos das máquinas e as qualidades sanitári...

  5. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR), PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA; Agnolín, Federico L.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior), procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable a...

  6. Uso de diferentes fármacos para anestesiar camarones Litopenaeus vannamei Boone en prácticas de acuacultura - The use of different drugs to anesthetize shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in aquaculture practices

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz; González-Alanís, Pablo; Sanchez Martínez, Jesús G; Gutierrez Salazar, Gilberto; Aguirre Guzmán, Gabriel.; Perez-Castañeda, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    ResumenLas prácticas rutinarias en camarón como la ablación ocular, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa, colocación de sistemas de identificación (elastómeros), así como algunos manejos para investigación y transporte se dificultan, producen estrés y riesgo de muerte afectando el bienestar. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar por primera vez el efecto anestésico del Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y el Halothano en el camarónLitopenaeus vannamei como medio para facilit...

  7. Carotenoides totais em resíduos do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se o possível aproveitamento dos resíduos, provenientes do beneficiamento do camarão, realizouse, neste trabalho, a determinação da concentração de carotenoides totais dos resíduos do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei e da farinha obtida após secagem. As análises foram realizadas nos resíduos in natura e na farinha recémprocessada (dia 0 e aos 60, 120 e 180 dias de armazenamento sob congelamento. Os resíduos frescos apresentaram, no dia 0, teores de 42,74 µg/g de carotenoides totais e, a farinha recém-processada, de 98,51 µg/g. Após 180 dias de armazenamento, sob congelamento, os teores de carotenoides totais diminuíram significativamente, quando comparados com os do dia 0 (p < 0,05.

  8. Effects of Hypoxia on Dopamine Concentration and the Immune Response of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Fawen; PAN Luqing; JING Futao

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied. The results showed that hypoxia had significant effects on the concentration of dopamine (DA) in the haemolymph, haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity of haemocytes and bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity in the haemolvmph (P<0.05). The concentration of the dopamine in haemolymph reached its maximum in the 3.0 and 1.5mgL-1 DO groups at 12h and 6h, and then returned to normal after 24h and 12h, respectively. All immune parameters decreased with the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Total haemocyte count (THC), the hyaline cells and semi-granular cells in the 3.0mgL-1 DO group became stable after 12h,while granular cells did so after 24h, The THC and different haemocyte count (DHC) in the 1.5mgL-1 DO group became stable alter 24h. Phenoloxidase activity and bacteriolytic activity in the 3.0 and 1.5mgL-1 DO groups reached their stable levels after 24 h and 12 h respectively, while phagocytic activity and antibacterial activity became stable after 24 and 12, and 36 and 24 It, respec-tively. It was also indicated that the changes of dopamine concentrations in haemolymph, haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activ-ity were obviously related to the exposure time under hypoxic conditions.

  9. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Isolation and Structural Elucidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Hernández, Javier; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco-Javier; Velázquez, Carlos; Ocaño-Higuera, Víctor-Manuel; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15). Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity), suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid. PMID:27006678

  10. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero (P 0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  11. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  12. Modified extensive pond culture of Litopenaeus vannamei for sustainable shrimp culture in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp culture industry provides huge revenues to most aquaculture producing countries,but it is also beset with problems that hamper its sustainability. In the present study, we described amodified extensive pond culture method for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in the Philippines duringthe wet and dry months. One hectare earthen ponds were prepared and added with organic and/orinorganic fertilizers to stimulate natural food production. The ponds were stocked with L. vannameipostlarvae (PL at a density of 4 PL m-2. A zero-water exchange system of pond management was doneduring the first two months of culture followed by a bi-weekly water exchange until harvest. No artificialfeeding was given during the culture period, instead, the ponds were applied with inorganic fertilizerevery month to ensure continuous supply of natural food. During the culture period, the shrimpsappeared healthy and no disease outbreaks were observed. All the physico-chemical parameters of thewater in the pond were within the optimum range required for shrimp farming and the phytoplanktonpopulation was predominantly green microalgae (Chlorophyta. The shrimps were harvested after 3 to3.5 months of culture or when they reached an average body weight of 13-15 g, with moderate to highsurvival rates depending on the prevailing climatic conditions.

  13. Molecular characterization of penaeidins from two Atlantic Brazilian shrimp species, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barracco, Margherita Anna; de Lorgeril, Julien; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2005-09-01

    We report here the molecular cloning of new members of the penaeidin family from two Atlantic penaeids from Brazil, Litopenaeus schmitti and Farfantepenaeus paulensis. The presence of penaeidins in the granular hemocytes of both shrimps was first evidenced by immunofluorescence, using polyclonal antibodies raised against L. vannamei penaeidin Litvan PEN3-1. cDNAs from the hemocytes of both Brazilian species were obtained by reverse transcription and the sequences encoding penaeidins were amplified by PCR, using primers based on penaeidin consensus sequences. Five penaeidin clones were obtained. According to the international penaeidin classification (PenBase, http://www.penbase.immunaqua.com), the deduced amino acid sequences of two clones from L. schmitti and two from F. paulensis belong to the PEN2 subgroup and one clone from L. schmitti to the PEN4 subgroup of penaeidins. Surprisingly, no penaeidin from the PEN3 subgroup was obtained in both shrimp species, even though this subgroup appears to be the most commonly expressed in the hemocytes of penaeids.

  14. Genetic variation in a closed line of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae

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    Eloize Luvesuto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has recently boosted the Brazilian shrimp industry. However, it is well known that selection methods based solely on phenotypic characteristics, a reduced number of breeders and the practice of inbreeding may promote a significant raise in the genetic similarity of the captive populations, leading to greater disease susceptibility and impairing both the growth and final size of the shrimps. We used four microsatellite loci to investigate genetic variation in three generations (F5, F6 and F7 of a closed and reared L. vannamei lineage. Although an accentuated heterozygosis deficit was detected, we also observed that the captive propagation of this lineage did not lead to a significant loss of genetic variability over the three generations studied. One possible reason for this is that the breeding conditions of this lineage were good enough to prevent any significant loss of genetic variability. However, three generations may have been insufficient to produce detectable changes in genetic frequencies in the loci studied. Alternatively, the microsatellite loci may have been non-neutral (biased and related to the conditions in which the shrimps were kept, resulting in a similar allele pool in respect to these four microsatellites over the three generations studied. Any generalizations regarding microsatellite variation in closed shrimp lines may thus be incomplete and should be carefully analyzed.

  15. Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Luciana Trigueiro de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium metabisulfite is the main additive used in the prevention of melanosis in shrimp; however, it has currently been employed with great variation in concentration by producers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion time of the whole shrimp to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in accordance with the limit established by law. For this, solutions of sodium metabisulfite at different concentrations (1%, 2 %, 3 %, 4% and 5% were prepared and samples of L. vannamei shrimp (100g were immersed during 10, 20 or 30 minutes at temperature of 7°C. For all treatment assayed the concentration of SO2 was determined in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (L. vannamei. The results show that for the conditions used in this study, the correlations were linear, with significant increase (P<0.05 in the SO2 concentration in the edible muscle of shrimps both increasing sodium metabisulfite concentration as increasing immersion times, suggesting the immersion of shrimps in a 3% solution for a time of 13 minutes in order to obtain SO2 concentration of 100ppm in its edible muscle in accordance with Brazilian legislation

  16. Comparison of the Respiratory Metabolism of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Seawater and Freshwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin; LI Ying

    2014-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we com-pared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consump-tion rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activi-ties at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The re-sults showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater;while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  17. Comparison of the respiratory metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Li, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we compared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The results showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater; while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  18. Evaluation of different lipid sources in diet of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity

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    Ke Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei (1.98 ± 0.28 g were fed diets containing soybean oil (SBO, beef tallow (BFT, fish oil (FIO, linseed oil (LNO, and an equal combination of SBO + BFT + FIO (SBF or SBO + BFT + LNO (SBL as dietary lipid source respectively for 8 weeks at low salinity of 3‰. The shrimp fed the SBL diet had the highest weight gain and survival rate. The whole body fatty acid composition including the EPA and DHA of L. vannamei generally reflected the composition of dietary fatty acids with the highest DHA and EPA found in L. vannamei fed FIO. The activities of fatty acid synthetase, acyl-CoA, diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2, elongase of long-chain fatty acids family member 6, Δ5 and Δ6 fatty acid desaturases of shrimp fed SBL were significantly lower than those fed BFT. The results indicated that fish oil could not be the only lipid source for L. vannamei cultured at low salinity, and the shrimp fed non-fish oil diet with a suitable proportion of PUFAs could obtain the same growth and survival rate as those fed diets with fish oil.

  19. Effect of salinity on regulation mechanism of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Wang, Lin; Miao, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The effects of low salinity (transferred from 31‰ to 26‰, 21‰, and 16‰) on the regulation pathways of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network were investigated in Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that the hormones (corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone) and biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine) concentrations in lower salinity groups increased significantly within 12 h. The gene expression of biogenic amine receptors showed that dopamine receptor D4 and α2 adrenergic receptor in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h, whereas the 5-HT7 receptor significantly increased within 1d. The second messenger synthetases (adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C) and the second messengers (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate) of lower salinity groups shared a similar trend in which adenylyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate reached the maximum at 12 h, whereas phospholipase C and cyclic guanosine monophosphate reached the minimum. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, crustin expression, antibacterial activity, C-type lectin expression, hemagglutinating activity) in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h. Except for the total hemocyte count, all the parameters recovered to the control levels afterwards. Therefore, it may be concluded that the neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network plays a principal role in adapting to salinity changes as the main center for sensing the stress and causes immune response in L. vannamei. PMID:26766179

  20. Transcriptome analysis of the unfolded protein response in hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hong; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Bi, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wen, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, Litopenaeus vannamei was injected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against L. vannamei immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (LvBip) to activating UPR in the hemocytes, shirmps injected dsRNA against enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) as control group. And genes expression in hemocytes of then were analyzed using Illumina Hiseq 2500 (PE100). By comparing the analyzed results, 1418 unigenes were significantly upregulated, and 596 unigenes were significantly down-regulated upon UPR. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes against known databases indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the upregulated and down-regulated genes were substantially different. A total of 208 genes of UPR system were obtained, and 69 of them were differentially expressed between the two groups. Results also showed that L. vannamei UPR was involved in various metabolic processes, such as glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism. In addition, UPR was emgaged in immune-assicoated signaling pathways, such as NF-κB signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Hippo signaling pathway, p38 MAPK signaling pathway and Wnt signaling pathway in L. vannamei. These results improved our current understanding of the L. vannamei UPR, and highlighted its importance in cell homeostasis upon environmental stress. PMID:26497095

  1. Black gill disease of Paciifc white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) byAspergillus lfavus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naresh Kumar Dewangan; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan; Daniel Kannan; Narayanasamy Shettu; Ramakrishna Rajkumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturingLitopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in India. Methods:The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannameiin potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. FungalDNA was amplified byITS4 andITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by usingMEGA 6 software. Results:Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand theeffectof pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannameiculture.

  2. Black gill disease of Pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei by Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Dewangan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturing Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei in India. Methods: The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannamei in potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Fungal DNA was amplified by ITS4 and ITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by using MEGA 6 software. Results: Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand the effect of pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannamei culture.

  3. The Effect of Three Culture Methods on Intensive Culture System of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhen; WAN Rong; SONG Xiefa; GAO Lei

    2013-01-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance.This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84d.The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks,i.e.,outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C),greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M).Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C (P <0.05).In contrast to the other two treatments,mode-M had stable pH after 50d cultivation of shrimps.In the mid-late period,the average concentrations of TAN,NO2-N,DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C (P <0.05).Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments (P >0.05),mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield,survival rate and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05) than other modes.There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments (P<0.05).These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system ofL.vannamei.

  4. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei: Isolation and Structural Elucidation

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    Carmen-María López-Saiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp. and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15. Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp. and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity, suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid.

  5. The cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: molecular cloning and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Anduro, Gracia A; Barillas-Mury, Carolina-V; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Gupta, Lalita; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Manganese containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) is normally a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme in eukaryotic organisms; however, a cytoplasmic manganese SOD (cMnSOD) was found in crustaceans that use hemocyanin as oxygen carrier. The complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a cMnSOD from Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. The coding sequence predicts a 287 residues protein with a unique 61 amino acids extension at the N-terminus and lacking a mitochondrial-targeting sequence. Phylogenetic analysis clusters cMnSODs and mitochondrial MnSODs in two separate groups. cMnSOD transcripts were detected in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, intestine, nervous system, muscle, pleopods and gills. Since hemocytes are key defense cells and their reactions produce superoxide radicals, the infection by white spot syndrome virus on the cMnSOD transcript levels were investigated and found to increase transiently 1h post-infection and then decrease as the viral infection progressed to levels significantly lower than uninfected controls by 12h post-infection. PMID:16504292

  6. Catalase from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei: molecular cloning and protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Sánchez, Olga L; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia A; Felipe-Ortega, Ximena; Islas-Osuna, Maria A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2004-08-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that plays a very important role in the protection against oxidative damage by breaking down hydrogen peroxide. It is a very highly conserved enzyme that has been identified from numerous species including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, but the information about catalase in crustaceans is very limited. A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence for catalase from the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei was sequenced and the mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in selected tissues. Catalase was detected in hepatopancreas crude extracts by Western blot analysis with anti-human catalase polyclonal antibodies. The nucleotide sequence is 1692 bp long, including a 72-bp 5'-UTR, a coding sequence of 1515 bp and a 104-bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to 505 amino acids with high identity to invertebrate, vertebrate and even bacterial catalases and contains the catalytic residues His71, Asn144, and Tyr354. The predicted protein has a calculated molecular mass of 57 kDa; which coincides with the size of the subunit (approximately 55 kDa) and the tetrameric protein (approximately 230 kDa) detected in hepatopancreas extracts under native conditions. Catalase mRNA level was higher in hepatopancreas, followed by gills and was not detected in muscle. PMID:15325332

  7. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  8. A Comparative Study on the Nonspecific Immunity of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever Inhabiting Freshwater and Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xuying; DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin

    2014-01-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly (P<0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater;whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater (P<0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  9. Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1).

  10. A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-06-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P < 0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  11. A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( P<0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  12. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  13. Patógenos introducidos al Perú en post larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Guevara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El comercio internacional de animales acuáticos es uno de los factores más importantes en la introducción involuntaria de patógenos a una región libre de estos. Los patógenos introducidos han sido causa de enormes pérdidas económicas en organismos bajo cultivo y daños ecológicos en poblaciones silvestres. En este trabajo, utilizando la técnica de la PCR se analizaron postlarvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas desde Ecuador para ser utilizada en los cultivos de langostinos en Tumbes. La finalidad fue detectar patógenos como el virus de la mancha blanca (WSV, virus de la cabeza amarilla (YHV, virus de la necrosis hipodérmica y hematopoyética infecciosa (IHHNV, Baculovirus penaei (BP, virus del síndrome de Taura (TSV y la bacteria de la hepatopancreatitis necrotizante (NHPB. Se analizaron 177 muestras de postlarvas en el año 2009 y 274 en el 2010. En el año 2009 se encontraron cuatro patógenos infecciosos en las postlarvas analizadas, siendo más frecuente el IHHNV (9,60%. En el año 2010 la frecuencia de aparición de postlarvas infectadas con IHHNV fue mayor (16,79%. Tanto en el 2009 como en el 2010 se encontraron postlarvas positivas a NHPB, BP y TSV

  14. Chemical-mineralogical characterization and Moessbauer spectroscopy of aquamarine from Pedra Azul, Northeast of Minas Gerais; Caracterizacao quimico-mineralogica e espectroscopia Moessbauer de agua-marinha da regiao de Pedra Azul, nordeste de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Rubia Ribeiro; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: rubia@degeo.ufop.br; hanna@degeo.ufop.br; Costa, Geraldo Magela da [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: magela@iceb.ufop.br

    2001-03-01

    Aquamarines from three pegmatites located the vicinities of the Pedra Azul city, Minas Gerais state, were investigated in terms of chemical composition, physical properties and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The small lenticular pegmatite bodies are usually less than 5 m wide and exhibit a conspicuous mineralogical and textural zoning. The last thermal event in these pegmatites, determined by K-Ar method in muscovite, is of Neo proterozoic age, coincident with the late stages of the Brasiliano tectono- metamorphic cycle. Chemical analyses showed that sodium is the alkali with higher contents in the aquamarines, thus enabling their classification as sodic beryls. In zoned samples there is an increase of Fe as well as Mn from center to border, while no systematic variation could be detected for other elements. The specific gravity of 2.72 to 2.80 g/cm{sup 3} is higher than the values determined for samples from other pegmatites of Minas Gerais. The refraction indices are ne=1.569 - 1.579 and NW= 1.573 - 1.581 and the birefringence varies from 0.002 to 0.008. The refraction indices increase with the Be O content. The color of aquamarines varies from medium to light blue, sometimes greenish blue. Moessbauer spectra obtained at room temperature and at 80 K show that Fe{sup 2+} is the main chromophore-ion and suggest that the iron is present in octahedral sites as well as in the structural channels. Moessbauer spectra also indicate that the incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} may cause a shift from deep blue to light blue colors. Based on their aquamarine composition the pegmatites were classified as barren, poor in rare alkalis (Li, Rb, Cs) and therefore little differentiated. The relatively simple mineralogy and the lack of lithium minerals such as lepidolite and spodumene confirm this classification. Thus, the composition of beryl can be used as a tracer for the prospection of pegmatites with different degrees of differentiation and consequently with different types of

  15. Comparative studies of hemolymph physiology response and HIF-1 expression in different strains of Litopenaeus vannamei under acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Li, Yuhu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei has a high commercial value and is the primary cultured shellfish species globally. In this study, we have compared the hemolymph physiological responses between two L. vannamei strains under acute hypoxia. The results showed that hemocyanin concentration (HC) of strain A6410 was significantly higher than strain Zhengda; Total hemocyte counts (THC) decreased significantly in both strains under hypoxic stress (p  0.05), but in the gills and hepatopancreas under hypoxia for 12 h (p selective breeding process of hypoxia tolerance in L. vannamei. PMID:27016815

  16. Physicochemical, Proximate Composition, Microbiological and Sensory Analysis of Farmed and Wild Harvested White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 Tissues

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    M. García-ulloa Gomez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical, proximate composition, microbiological and sensory analysis of farmed and wild harvested white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei muscle were compared. The cultured white shrimp were obtained of two farms, whereas the wild shrimp were collected off the coasts of Sinaloa and Nayarit, Mexico. Both, the farmed and wild white shrimp muscle, supplied a good source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The physicochemical composition, microbiological and sensory properties could be associated to their origin and handling. The wild shrimp tended to have a better proximate composition than the farmed shrimp, due to the availability of a greater diet variety in their environment.

  17. Nitrogen dynamics model in zero water exchange, low salinity intensive ponds of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at Colima, Mexico

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    Francisco A Castillo-Soriano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model based on differential equations describing the dynamics of nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, NO3- and organic nitrogen in phytoplankton in ponds of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, with low salinity and zero turnovers, from planting to harvest. The model predicts the results of commercial production in three ponds. We show that this culture system, without replacement, retains the nitrogen and shrimp produced a lower feed conversion in comparison with systems with replacement. The model can be used to define strategies for improved performance.

  18. Análisis litoestratigráfico de la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior en la provincia de La Pampa

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    Graciela Visconti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Cerro Azul fue definida en 1980 para incluir a las sedimentitas continentales pliocenas (limolitas arenosas y areniscas limosas que afloran de manera discontinua en casi todo el ámbito de la provincia de La Pampa. No obstante, varias investigaciones paleontológicas realizadas a partir de la segunda mitad de la década del 80' han permitido ubicar geocronológicamente a la unidad en el intervalo 10 Ma a 5,8-5,7 Ma. El objetivo del trabajo es realizar un análisis de las características litoestratigráficas de la Formación Cerro Azul de acuerdo al Código Argentino de Estratigrafía. Se propone un lectoestratotipo para la unidad, consistente en el perfil de Algarrobo del Águila y un perfil auxiliar en cerro El Morro. También se establecieron las relaciones estratigráficas con otras formaciones. Se interpreta un paleoambiente depositacional de llanura, donde alternan depósitos de loess con numerosos paleosuelos, detectándose escasos depósitos lacustres en la base y pocos cursos fluviales.

  19. Agave azul y el desarrollo sustentable en la cuenca baja del río Ayuquila, Costa Sur de Jalisco (1994-2004

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    Peter R.W. Gerritsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber es un cultivo nuevo para la cuenca del río Ayuquila en la Costa Sur de Jalisco, y es importante para su progreso agropecuario. Sin embargo, se observan efectos socioambientales negativos. Desde 2003 se han estudiado las condiciones del cultivo y su expansión, así como alternativas posibles. Los resultados muestran un crecimiento acelerado desde su introducción, a mitad de la década de 1990. Se destaca una concentración de propietarios privados y a través de contratos. Si bien sembrar esta planta puede ser redituable, las tendencias cíclicas de sobreproducción y escasez han originado una falta de incentivos para hacerlo y un deterioro de la capacidad productiva. Se discuten las perspectivas del avance agropecuario basado en el cultivo del agave azul, y se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones para fomentar la sustentabilidad de su sistema de producción comercial.

  20. Levantamento das Cianobactérias Psâmicas em Sedimentos Superficiais Marginais da Lagoa Azul, Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro.

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    Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of the Rio de Janeiro State presents a series of lagoons, dune fi elds and strand plains, which are the result of thepaleogeographical evolution during Neogene. The lagoa Azul is situated at 22o56’52”S and 42o04’62”W in the Arraial do Cabo, locatedabout 160 km far the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a natural hypersaline coastal aquatic body which, parallel to Atlantic Ocean. The presentwork focused on the identifi cation of psammic cyanobacteria in the surface sediments of the lagoa Azul. The samples were obtained byusing plastic tubes and were later aconditiones in opaque plastic containers and conserved in a 4% solution of formaldehyde. With thematerial obtained, permanent slides were prepared so as to characterize them phycologically. Qualitative analysis showed the presenceof 14 species and the occurrence of the families Chroococcaceae Nägeli 1849 (5 sp., Phormidiaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988(4 sp., Synechococcaceae Komárek & Anagnostidis 1995 (2 sp., Nostocaceae Kützing 1843 (1 sp., Oscillatoriaceae Gomont 1892(1 sp. and Pseudanabaenaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988 (1 sp.. The incidence of these species is also recorded in other lagoons(Araruama, Pernambuco, Pitanguinha and Vermelha in the northeast of Rio de Janeiro coast, such as the frequency of cyanobacteriais justifi ed by the harsh environment, without predation, with high salinity, elevated temperature and low concentration of oxygen.

  1. Genomics, Molecular Epidemiology and Diagnostics of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P.; Krabsetsve, Kjersti; La Fauce, Kathy; Owens, Leigh; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-01-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is one of the major viral pathogens of penaeid shrimps worldwide, which has resulted in severe mortalities of up to 90 % in cultured Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris from Hawaii and hence designated Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). IHHNV is distributed in shrimp culture facilities worldwide. It causes large economic loss to the shrimp farming industry. Our knowledge about the natural reservoirs of IHHNV is still scarce....

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic on survival, growth, immune responses, and gut microbiota of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by wei...

  4. Erratum to: Response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farafidy ANDRIANTAHINA; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    The original version of the title of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.The spelling of the [ZResponese]was incorrect.The title should read:Response to selection,heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei.The publishing companies apologize to the authors.

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic Previda on survival, growth, immune responses and gut microbiota of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by we...

  6. Biodegradación del Colorante Azo Azul Disperso 79 en un Reactor Discontinuo Secuencial Bajo Ambientes Anaerobios/Aerobios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Melgoza-Alemán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biodegradación del colorante mono azo azul disperso 79 (AD79 en un reactor discontinuo secuencial (SBR con biomasa suspendida, combinando ambientes anaerobios/aerobios en un solo tanque, mediante fases de no aireación y aireación respectivamente. El objetivo fue obtener agua para ser reutilizada en el proceso textil o bien para riego agrícola. El colorante AD79 es uno de los colorantes azo que más aplicación tiene en la industria textil y se ha observado que por sí mismo no es tóxico, pero en ambientes reductores se biotransforma a aminas aromáticas que se ha comprobado son carcinogénicas a los microorganismos y al hombre. Los resultados mostraron que el proceso anaerobio/aerobio discontinuo secuenciado fue muy eficiente en la remoción del colorante AD79. La biomasa se aclimató a la degradación de colorante a los 45 días de operación. Los tiempos de reacción disminuyeron de 11 a 4 días, con fases de reacción anaerobia de 9 a 3 días y fases de reacción aerobia de 48 a 24 h. La eficiencia de remoción global del colorante en el reactor fue de 92 %. En la etapa anaerobia la eficiencia de biotransformación a aminas fue de 65 %. La mineralización de las aminas producidas por la ruptura del enlace azo fue de 96 %. Se observó un incrementó de la toxicidad después de la fase reductiva, sin embargo después del tratamiento anaerobio/aerobio secuenciado, la toxicidad fue eliminada a niveles no detectados en el efluente, lo que demostró la eficacia del proceso anaerobio/aerobio para eliminar la toxicidad del agua residual.

  7. Estudio de la fracción lipídica de los quesos azules artesanales del Principado de Asturias

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    Alonso, L.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available A study concerning the lipidic fraction in relation to esterified fatty acids composition, free fatty acids contents, triglyceride analysis and gross composition characteristics from artisanal blue cheeses made in the Principado de Asturias was carried out. Gas chromatography with capilar column and flow splitter was used for the esterified and free fatty acids analysis and flow splitter with programmed temperature vaporation (PTV for the triglyceridic study. The results obtained for the esterified fatty acids, free fatty acids and triglycerides showed differences in each variety of cheese studied. In Cabrales and Gamonedo cheese were more deepen. Those differences found it could be to the milk and rennet used and the manufacture method of the curd and metabolic activity of the Penicillum roqueforti which it influenced by the ripening conditions (temperature and moisture of the cheeses.

    En este trabajo se ha abordado un estudio de la fracción lipídica, referente a la composición en ácidos grasos esterificados, cuantificación de los ácidos grasos libres, análisis de los triglicéridos, así como las características de composición de la grasa de los quesos azules artesanales comerciales elaborados en el Principado de Asturias. Se ha empleado la cromatografía de gases equipada con columna capilar de sílice fundida e inyección en splitter para el estudio de los ácidos grasos esterificados y ácidos grasos libres, e inyección en splitter con temperatura programable (PTV para la determinación de los triglicéridos. Los resultados obtenidos tanto para los ácidos grasos esterificados, ácidos grasos libres y triglicéridos mostraron diferencias entre cada una de las variedades de queso analizadas siendo más acusada para los quesos Cabrales y Gamonedo. Estos cambios encontrados se deben al tipo de leche y cuajo empleado así como al método de elaboración de la cuajada y la actividad metabólica del

  8. FONTES E NÍVEIS DE VITAMINA C PARA O CAMARÃO Litopenaeus vannamei NA FASE DE RECRIA

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    Neyva Ribeiro Ferraz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of different sources and levels of vitamin C was evaluated on growth, survival, protein retention and health of Litopenaeus vannamei with initial weight of 5.90 ± 0.57 g. Five hundred and forty individuals were distributed in 27 cages in a completely randomized design in a 4x2 factorial scheme (four sources and two levels (n = 3. The sources used were ascorbic acid crystal, coated ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid monophosphate and ascorbic acid PEG (polyethylene glycol with two levels: 180 and 260 mg kg-1. No influence was observed (P>0.05 from the source, level of vitamin C nor interaction of these factors on growth, survival, retention of protein and parameters of health of the shrimp. Necrosis was observed in the abdomen of all animals. The use of vitamin C in sources and levels estimated for the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei weighing over 5 g shows no improvement in growth, survival, protein retention and health of shrimp.

  9. Evaluation of coexposure to inorganic arsenic and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Lucas; Müller, Larissa; Gelesky, Marcos A; Wasielesky, Wilson; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José Marìa; Ventura-Lima, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) that occur concomitantly in the aquatic environment with other contaminants such as arsenic (As) is little known in crustaceans. The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether coexposure to nTiO2 can influence the accumulation, metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters induced by arsenic exposure in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Organisms were exposed by dissolving chemicals in seawater (salinity = 30) at nominal concentrations of 10 μg/L nTiO2 or As(III), dosed alone and in combination. Results showed that there was not a significant accumulation of As in either tissue type, but the coexposure altered the pattern of the metabolism. In the hepatopancreas, no changes were observed in the biochemical response, while in the gills, an increase in the glutamate-cysteine-ligase (GCL) activity was observed upon exposure to As or nTiO2 alone, an increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was observed upon exposure to As alone, and an increase in the total antioxidant capacity was observed upon exposure to nTiO2 or nTiO2 + As. However, these modulations were not sufficient enough to prevent the lipid damage induced by nTiO2 exposure. Our results suggest that coexposure to nTiO2 and As does not alter the toxicity of this metalloid in the gills and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei but does alter its metabolism, favoring its accumulation of organic As species considered moderately toxic.

  10. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  11. Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptome using the next-generation DNA sequencing technique.

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    Chaozheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, the major species of farmed shrimps in the world, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. The now available transcriptome data of L. vannamei are insufficient for research requirements, and have not been adequately assembled and annotated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is the first study that used a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique, the Solexa/Illumina GA II method, to analyze the transcriptome from whole bodies of L. vannamei larvae. More than 2.4 Gb of raw data were generated, and 109,169 unigenes with a mean length of 396 bp were assembled using the SOAP denovo software. 73,505 unigenes (>200 bp with good quality sequences were selected and subjected to annotation analysis, among which 37.80% can be matched in NCBI Nr database, 37.3% matched in Swissprot, and 44.1% matched in TrEMBL. Using BLAST and BLAST2Go softwares, 11,153 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG categories, 8171 unigenes were assigned into 51 Gene ontology (GO functional groups, and 18,154 unigenes were divided into 220 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. To primarily verify part of the results of assembly and annotations, 12 assembled unigenes that are homologous to many embryo development-related genes were chosen and subjected to RT-PCR for electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing analyses, and to real-time PCR for expression profile analyses during embryo development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The L. vannamei transcriptome analyzed using the next-generation sequencing technique enriches the information of L. vannamei genes, which will facilitate our understanding of the genome background of crustaceans, and promote the studies on L. vannamei.

  12. Polyculture of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and Mugil platanus mullet in earthen ponds

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    Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the mullet Mugil platanus in earthen ponds (200 m² located in the Laboratory of Continental Aquaculture of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, in both polyculture and monoculture systems. The study consisted of three replicates, as follows: shrimp monoculture (SM, shrimp and mullet polyculture (PO and mullet monoculture (MM. The stocking density was 10 post-larvae shrimp (PL m−2 and 0.67 mullet m−2. Fish and shrimp were fed commercial shrimp meal (38% crude protein once a day. Initially, the amount of feed to shrimp was 20% of their total biomass which was later reduced to 5%. Mullets were fed at 5% of their stocked biomass. The experiment lasted 79 days during the summer of 2007/2008. At harvest, shrimp in monoculture had weight gain (15.59 g, specific growth rate (8.40% day−1, apparent feed conversion (0.88, survival (91% and production (1.454 kg ha−1 significantly higher than in polyculture (1.039 kg ha−1. Mullets in polyculture had significantly better weight gain (42.72 g and specific growth rate (3.99 % day−1 than those in monoculture (31.04 g and 3.69% day−1, respectively, while the mullet condition factor was significantly smaller in polyculture (1.06 than in monoculture (1.13. The apparent feed conversion of the mullets did not present significant differences between monoculture (2.50 and polyculture (2.40. The physical and chemical water parameters were not significantly different in any of the experiments, except for the transparency, which was higher in earthen ponds with mullet monoculture. Polyculture of shrimp and mullet reared together in earthen ponds negatively affects the shrimp production and favors the production of mullets.

  13. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) from Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Onofre, C R E; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-02-01

    In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g-1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg-1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= -0.70), Mn-Cu (r= -0.74), Se-Cu (r= -0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera. PMID:26909636

  14. Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaoling; ZHANG Yue; WEI Song; HUANG Jie

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei.PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations.A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp.The composition,concentration,and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed.Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6-31 of the experiment.The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h,and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme.SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods.Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes.In addition,the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV,whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG.These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

  15. Litopenaeus vannamei immunestimulated with Macrocystis pyrifera extract:improving the immune response against Vibrio campbellii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Noemi Snchez Campos; Fernando Daz Herrera; Ana Denisse Re Araujo; Manuel de Jess Acosta Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine the immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei after different treatments with a hot water extract of Macrocystis pyrifera (M. pyrifera) and a subsequent challenge with Vibrio campbellii (V. campbellii). Methods: A total of 184 adult white shrimp that were infected with V. campbellii (1í106 CFU/shrimp) were immunostimulate by the hot-water extract from M. pyrifera via either injection (10 µg) or immersion (350 mg/L), the experimental controls were injected with either saline solution or V. campbellii (1í106 CFU/shrimp). The bacterial DNA depuration rate, antimicrobial activity and total hemocyte count were evaluated in hemolymph samples at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. Results:Injected shrimp (10 µg M. pyrifera extract) demonstrated the best clearance of bacterial infection, with 82% survival at 72 h post-infection (cellular response). Hemolymph from the immersed organisms had the best antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli growth;specifically, the most efficient antimicrobial activity was observed at 24 h post-infection. Both types of immunostimulated shrimp had similar total hemocyte counts at 24 h post-infection (1.63-1.59 million/mL);however, after 72 h, injected shrimp had higher total hemocyte counts than immersed animals (2.59 v.s. 0.56 million/mL). Conclusions: The injection of the M. pyrifera hot-water extract facilitated a more efficient response to V. campbellii infection due to the stimulation of the hemocytes of the shrimp. In other words, the cellular immune response was more efficient to eliminate bacterial infection than the humoral response in shrimp.

  16. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRIANTAHINA Farafidy; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2013-01-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei,which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations.Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model.Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families.Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials.The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW),and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits.Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97),although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83).Across generations,BW and size traits increased,while selection response and heritability gradually decreased.Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits.Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits.All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments.To conclude,the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L.vannamei.A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  17. Using microsatellite markers to identify heritability of Pacific whiteleg shrimpLitopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRIANTAHINA Farafidy; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao

    2015-01-01

    Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an economically relevant shrimp species in many Asian countries. The specific objective of the current research was to assess microsatellite markers in screening the fast-growth of domesticatedL. vannamei stocks to establish a founder population for breeding-selection plans. The postlarvae produced by the reproduction of second generation broodstock were cultured in the same conditions throughout a five months growing period. Ninety juvenile shrimp were selected from the slow-, medium- and the fast-growth groups, and ten microsatellite markers were used to investigate their genetic diversity, and to understand the improvement of a breeding-selection scheme. Ten polymorphic loci (markers) (M1–M10) were produced at ten loci in this sample, among them Primer M8 was the highest polymorphic locus and M7 was the lowest one. A specific locus was found in the fast-growth group using Primer M5. The longest genetic distance (0.481) was determined between the fast- and medium-growth groups and the shortest (0.098) was between the slow- and medium-growth groups; therefore, the largest genetic identity (0.946) was observed between the slow-and medium-growth groups and the smallest (0.667) was observed between the medium- and fast-growth groups. The Unweighted Paired Group with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic distances provided two different groups; the first consist of the slow- and medium-growth groups and the second the fast-growth group. Selection response and realized heritability for growth were 11.55% and 31.26%, respectively. Therefore, this set of microsatellite markers would provide a useful tool in shrimp breeding schemes.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Acute Ammonia Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Dai, Ping; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which usually brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens, reducing growth, decreasing osmoregulatory capacity, increasing the molting frequency, and even causing high mortality. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-challenged and control groups from the same family of L. vannamei to identify the key genes and pathways response to ammonia stress. The comparative transcriptome analysis identified 136 significantly differentially expressed genes that have high homologies with the known proteins in aquatic species, among which 94 genes are reported potentially related to immune function, and the rest of the genes are involved in apoptosis, growth, molting, and osmoregulation. Fourteen GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were identified to be significantly changed by ammonia stress. In these GO terms, 13 genes have been studied in aquatic species, and 11 of them were reported potentially involved in immune defense and two genes were related to molting. In the significantly changed KEGG pathways, all the 7 significantly changed genes have been reported in shrimp, and four of them were potentially involved in immune defense and the other three were related to molting, defending toxicity, and osmoregulation, respectively. In addition, majority of the significantly changed genes involved in nitrogen metabolisms that play an important role in reducing ammonia toxicity failed to perform the protection function. The present results have supplied molecular level support for the previous founding of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp, which is a prerequisite for better understanding the molecular

  19. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  20. Molecular characterization of an adiponectin receptor homolog in the white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Ran; Alam, Md Jobaidul; Yoon, Tae-ho; Lee, Soo Rin; Park, Hyun; Kim, Doo-Nam; An, Doo-Hae; Lee, Jae-Bong; Lee, Chung Il

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ) and its receptors (AdipoRs) are strongly related to growth and development of skeletal muscle, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism in vertebrates. Herein we report the identification of the first full-length cDNA encoding an AdipoR homolog (Liv-AdipoR) from the decapod crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei using a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis. The full-length Liv-AdipoR (1,245 bp) encoded a protein that exhibited the canonical seven transmembrane domains (7TMs) and the inversed topology that characterize members of the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family. Based on the obtained sequence information, only a single orthologous AdipoR gene appears to exist in arthropods, whereas two paralogs, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have evolved in vertebrates. Transcriptional analysis suggested that the single Liv-AdipoR gene appears to serve the functions of two mammalian AdipoRs. At 72 h after injection of 50 pmol Liv-AdipoR dsRNA (340 bp) into L. vannamei thoracic muscle and deep abdominal muscle, transcription levels of Liv-AdipoR decreased by 93% and 97%, respectively. This confirmed optimal conditions for RNAi of Liv-AdipoR. Knockdown of Liv-AdipoR resulted in significant changes in the plasma levels of ammonia, 3-methylhistine, and ornithine, but not plasma glucose, suggesting that that Liv-AdipoR is important for maintaining muscle fibers. The chronic effect of Liv-AdipoR dsRNA injection was increased mortality. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 804 contigs were upregulated and 212 contigs were downregulated by the knockdown of Liv-AdipoR in deep abdominal muscle. The significantly upregulated genes were categorized as four main functional groups: RNA-editing and transcriptional regulators, molecular chaperones, metabolic regulators, and channel proteins. PMID:27478708

  1. Estudo do linfonodo sentinela no câncer do colo uterino com azul patente Sentinel node study with patent blue in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabas Carlos Vieira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a identificação do linfonodo sentinela em pacientes com carcinoma do colo uterino submetidas a histerectomia radical e linfadenectomia pélvica através do mapeamento linfático com o corante azul patente. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e um pacientes com carcinoma do colo uterino estádio I e II da Figo submeteram-se a histerectomia radical e linfadenectomia pélvica. O corante azul patente foi injetado em torno do tumor antes do início da cirurgia. No momento da linfadenectomia pélvica, os linfonodos claramente corados foram separados do restante do espécime da linfadenectomia. RESULTADOS: Em 32 das 51 pacientes foram identificados linfonodos sentinela. Foram observados quatro casos de falso negativo. A especificidade foi de 38,6%, a sensibilidade 42,8%, o valor preditivo positivo 10% e o valor preditivo negativo foi de 80.9%. CONCLUSÕES: A identificação do linfonodo sentinela em câncer do colo uterino é exeqüível com o corante azul patente. Entretanto, um estudo com maior número de casos é necessário para estabelecer a validade do conceito do linfonodo sentinela em câncer do colo uterino.OBJETIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of sentinel node identification in patients with invasive cervix cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy using intraoperative lymphatic mapping with patent blue dye. METHODS: Fifty one patients wtih Figo I and II cervical cancer were submitted to radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The patent blue V was injected around the tumor before beginning surgery. At the time of pelvic lymphadenectomy, lymph nodes with obvious uptake of the dye were separated from the remainder of the lymphadenectomy specimen. RESULTS: Sentinel nodes were detected in 32 of the 51 patients. Four cases of false negative were observed. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 38

  2. Técnicas de empleo del azul de metileno para la caracterización de finos en materiales de ingeniería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Rodríguez González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elempleo del azul de metileno en ingeniería se inició en  Francia  a  finales  de  los  años  ochenta,  con  la finalidad de caracterizar la actividad y naturaleza de los  finos  contenidos  en  las  arenas  y gravas  que  se empleaban  en  la  fabricación  de  concretos; posteriormente  se  desarrollaron  variantes  de  dicho empleo  para determinar  la  presencia  de  arcillas  en los finos de tamaños inferiores a 400 micras, para su empleo en materiales de bases, subbases y mezclascomplemento  al  ensayo  de  equivalente  de  arena,asfálticas.  En Colombia  existe  actualmente  una tendencia al uso del ensayo de azul de metileno para evaluar  las  características  de  las  partículas  finas contaminantes o nocivas en un suelo;  los diferentes procedimientos consisten, básicamente, en medir  la capacidad de adsorción de azul de metileno por una muestra  de  suelo,  capacidad  representada  como  la cantidad  de  colorante  requerido  para  recubrir  las superficies específicas de las moléculas de los finos. En nuestro país su aplicación se ha limitado a ser un dentro  de  las  especificaciones  INVIAS  y  como exigencia en las normas IDU.

  3. Estratigrafía, ambientes deposicionales e icnología del Paleozoico inferior en el área de Azul Pampa, provincia de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Such

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Azul Pampa, Cordillera Oriental de Jujuy los depósitos cambro-ordovícicos se encuentran ampliamente representados. La columna estratigráfica se inicia con el Grupo Mesón (Cambrico Inferior - Medio, el cual registra sedimentación en un ambiente marino somero dominado por mareas. Este incluye las Formaciones Lizoite, Campanario y Chalhualmayoc. Las Formaciones Lizoite y Chalhualmayoc contienen depósitos de barras submareales similares a aquellas descriptas anteriormente hacia el sur en la región de la quebrada de Humahuaca y en las áreas circundantes. La Formación Campanario incluye depósitos de canales y planicies intermareales, representando un máximo regresivo para el Grupo Mesón. Sobreyacente al Grupo Mesón se sucede un intervalo cámbrico superior-arenigiano referido previamente como Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. Los estudios integrados, tanto sedimentológicos, paleontológicos como estratigráficos secuenciales, indican que ambas unidades son litológicamente similares y temporalmente equivalentes a la Formación Santa Rosita (Cámbrico Superior - Tremadociano y a la Formación Acoite (Arenigiano, respectivamente, las cuales son ampliamente aceptadas en las áreas adyacentes, por lo que se recomienda el abandono de la nomenclatura Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. El intervalo inferior de la Formación Santa Rosita está representado por depósitos de estuarios dominado por mareas del Miembro Pico de Halcón. El intervalo superior se incluye dentro del Miembro Alfarcito y consiste en depósitos marino someros dominados por el oleaje, variando desde shoreface superior hasta offshore inferior, representando una serie de ciclos transgresivos-regresivos. La Formación Acoite registra un episodio de máximo transgresivo a escala de cuenca y se encuentra dominada por depósitos de plataforma con depósitos subordinados de offshore. Los análisis icnológicos revelan la ausencia o la escasez de

  4. Métodos de coloração de Roeser (1972: modificado - e Kropp (1972 visando a substituição do azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX Staining methods of modified Roeser (1972 and Kropp (1972, aiming at substituing the astra blue by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Luque

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Em folhas de Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica e Nymphaea mexicana foram testados métodos de coloração baseados em Roeser (1972 modificado e Kropp (1972, visando a substituição do corante azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA, desidratadas em série butílica terciária e incluídas em parafina. Os cortes histológicos transversais foram corados segundo diferentes baterias de coloração, modificadas quanto ao tipo de corante usado, diferenciador e série de desidratação. As lâminas permanentes foram preparadas com bálsamo-do-canadá sintético. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o método de Roeser (1972 modificado é melhor que o de Kropp (1972, nas condições deste experimento. O azul de astra pode ser substituído por azul de alcião 8GX e a desidratação pode ser em série isopropílica ou etílica, sem grande diferença entre elas. São discutidos os resultados provenientes das diferentes colorações.Staining methods based on modified Roeser (1972 as well as that of Kropp (1972 were done with leaves of Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica and Nymphaea mexicana aiming at substituing the astra blue stain by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX. Samples were fixed in FAA, dehydrated in teit-butyl alcohol series and embedded in paraffin. The histological transversal sections were stained in different staining batteries, modified according to the type of stains and differentiators, and the series of dehydration. Permanent slides were prepared with synthetic Canada balsam. The results obtained indicate that the modified Roeser method (1972 is better than that of Kropp (1972 under present experimental conditions. The astra blue can be substituted by alcian blue 8GX and dehydration can be isopropylic or ethylic, with little difference between them. The results obtained with the different staining techniques used are discussed.

  5. Mecanismos de deformación en la transición milonitas/striped gneiss y milonitas/ ultramilonitas en las sierras de Azul, cratón del Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires Deformation mechanisms in the mylonite/striped gneiss and mylonite/ultramylonite transition in Sierras de Azul, Río de la Plata craton, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Frisicale

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En el extremo occidental de la megacizalla de Azul se identificaron una serie de rocas miloníticas que presentan un grado de deformación variable e incluyen protomilonitas, milonitas, ribbon mylonites, striped gneisses y ultramilonitas. Se examinaron en forma detallada los mecanismos de deformación actuantes sobre los minerales principales de estas rocas, como feldespatos, cuarzo, anfíboles y piroxenos. El análisis de los mecanismos de deformación permitió realizar una estimación del grado metamórfico alcanzado en este sector de la zona de cizalla. Así se reconocen claramente dos áreas con diferente grado metamórfico, una en la que la deformación se habría producido en facies de anfibolita a granulita (temperaturas superiores a 600° y que se reconoce en los afloramientos del sector norte, cerro Negro y manantiales de Pereda; y una segunda área, que incluye los afloramientos de las estancias La Manuela y La Chiquita, donde la deformación, de menor intensidad, se desarrolló bajo condiciones de facies de esquistos verdes. Asimismo se analizaron los indicadores cinemáticos macro y microscópicos tales como estructuras S-C, granos rígidos fragmentados, porfiroclastos rotados y estructuras del tipo mineral-fish, con la finalidad de determinar el sentido de movimiento de las masas rocosas en esta área particular, y compararlo con los resultados existentes para el resto de la megacizalla de Azul.At the western sector of the Azul Megashear, mylonitic rocks with variable deformation that includes protomylonites, mylonites, ribbon mylonites, striped gneiss and ultramylonites were identified. A detailed examination of deformation mechanisms acting on main minerals like feldspar, quartz, amphibole and pyroxene was done. The analysis of deformation mechanisms allowed to establish the metamorphic degree reached in this sector of the shear zone. Thus, two areas with different metamorphic conditions were recognized. One of them, that involve

  6. Visibilidad y enunciabilidad en la larga duración de la violencia política: La sombra azul de Sergio Schmucler

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    Graciana Vásquez Villanueva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Una historia de vida, eje fundamental de un film, es la discursividad que hemos indagado para percibir sentidos nuevos en la relación cine, memoria y violencia en la zona amplia de los discursos producidos sobre el terrorismo de estado en Argentina. La sombra azul, con guión y dirección de Sergio Schmucler, irrumpe para desbaratar conciencias. Nuestro trabajo, filiado en el Análisis del Discurso, se ha detenido en la indagación de tres dispositivos: las visibilidades, las enunciabilidades y las temporalidades, superpuestas, fragmentarias a veces, otras omnipresentes, deslizadas en la larga duración de una memoria social. Estos dispositivos, elaborados por Foucault para blandir discursividades exasperantes de órdenes impuestos, constituyen un camino privilegiado para llegar, a través de su desgranamiento, a una verdad intolerable forjada en este film. En La sombra azul la larga duración de la violencia de estado, la impunidad de los represores durante la democracia y, fundamentalmente, un sobreviviente —a la tortura, la prisión, el exilio, perteneciente a la fuerza policial de una de las provincias más castigadas por la dictadura— son cincelados, en la heteroglosia, en el diálogo y en el antagonismo, con otras voces. Este sobreviviente, devenido en re-viviente señala cómo un marco ético, capaz de valorar la tragedia humana, lo erige en un don para dotar de verdad, para esclarecer a una sociedad que, en muchos espacios, aún permanece en sombra. Este recorrido discursivo señala cómo, desde la indecibilidad original de un sujeto doliente, irrumpen visibilidades y enunciabilidades capaces de decir verdad y así proseguir con una memoria que nunca cesa.

  7. Combustión espontánea de las harinas de pescado azul: Factores de influencia y peligrosidad en el transporte

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    San José, M. J.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal production characteristics and treatment are described, together with a detailed explanation of the international regulations for its maritime transport, as well as of the requirements for its stabilization to avoid its spontaneous combustion. Experience with this kind of transport, as well as Intensive research carried out over several years, has shown that the high fat content in several kinds of fish and the environmental humidity and temperature have a great influence and transform this kind of cargo into dangerous goods. Knowledge of proper stowage and cargo distribution in the holds greatly decreases the dangers during maritime transport. Good transport practice and stabilization of the meal with antioxidants together with the conclusions reached after research, make maritime transport of these cargoes safer.

    Se detallan las características de la fabricación y tratamiento de la harina de pescado azul, junto con un amplio desarrollo de las disposiciones internacionales para su transporte por vía marítima, así como la necesidad de estabilizar la harina de pescado para evitar la combustión espontánea. La experiencia en este transporte, además de las investigaciones realizadas durante varios años, ha puesto de manifiesto que el contenido de grasa en el pescado azul, la humedad y la temperatura, tienen una gran influencia y convierten a estos cargamentos en mercancías peligrosas. El conocimiento de una buena estiba o distribución de la carga dentro de las bodegas reduce considerablemente la peligrosidad en su transporte por mar. Esta práctica en el transporte y su estabilización con antioxidantes, junto con las conclusiones aportadas en la investigación, determinan un viaje más seguro en el transporte de estas mercancías.

  8. CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DO CAMARÃO BRANCO DO PACIFÍCO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 EM DIFERENTES SALINIDADES GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 IN DIFFERENT SALINITIES

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    Carlos Henrique dos Anjos dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei cultivadas em diferentes salinidades. Realizou-se o experimento no Centro de Tecnologia em Aquicultura da Universidade Federal do Ceará, durante o período de 1.o de setembro de 2006 a 31 de outubro de 2006. Em vinte aquários com volume útil de 30L foram distribuídos, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, cinco tratamentos (controle – 35%, 30‰, 20‰, 10‰ e 0‰ com quatro repetições cada. Foi utilizada a densidade de trinta indivíduos/aquário. As pós-larvas, em fase de PL 10, apresentavam peso e comprimento médio total inicial de 0,008 ± 0,001g e 11,00 ± 0,05mm, respectivamente. Os animais foram, gradativamente, aclimatados nas salinidades experimentais. Para as análises estatísticas, aplicou-se a análise de variância (ANOVA e, posteriormente, caso se verificassem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos, o teste Tukey de separação de médias (? = 0,001. Os parâmetros de qualidade de água analisados mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para o cultivo da espécie. As pós-larvas cultivadas em 0‰ apresentaram os melhores valores de peso final, incremento em peso, incremento relativo diário de biomassa e taxa de sobrevivência (P<0,001. Todavia, os animais cultivados em 10% mostraram os melhores valores de comprimento total e incremento em comprimento (P<0,001. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que pós-larvas de L. vannamei apresentam taxas similares de crescimento e sobrevivência quando cultivadas em diferentes salinidades.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Gradiente salino, laboratório Litopenaeus vannamei, osmorregulação.
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the development of Litopenaeus vannameiat post-larvae (PL at different salinities. This experiment was carried out at the “Centro de Tecnologia em Aqüicultura/UFC” at the period from 01/09/2006 to 31/10/2006. Twenty

  9. Efecto de la salinidad sobre la fisiología energética del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Effect of salinity on physiological energetics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Valdez; Fernando Díaz; Ana Denisse Re; Elizabeth Sierra

    2008-01-01

    Se determinó el balance energético en juveniles de Litopenaeus vannamei, aclimatados a la salinidad como hiperosmóticos (20 ups), isosmóticos (26 ups), o hiposmóticos (32 ups). Además, se calculó la razón atómica O:N. La tasa de ingestión, el consumo de oxígeno, la excreción de amonio y el campo de crecimiento fueron afectados significativamente (p < 0.05) cuando los organismos fueron aclimatados a 20, 26 y 32 ups. La mayor cantidad de energía ingerida contenida en el alimento se determinó en...

  10. Regulation of water quality and growth characteristics of indoor raceway culture of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Weiling; YANG Ming; DAI Xilin; HOU Wenjie; LIU Yongshi; DING Fujiang

    2009-01-01

    Two modes of regulating the water quality of experimental ponds in indoor raceway culture of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated using simple water treatment facilities. A self-made water purifying net, aeration stone, composite microbe preparation, and Ceratophyllum demersum were placed in the experimental ponds and the culture water was circulated along the raceway inside the pond using a paddle wheel aerator. In addition, the water quality in the experimental pond was improved by draining effluent from the pipeline at the bottom of ponds 7 and 8 (mode I) and exchanging the circulating water in pond 10 (mode II) with the reservoir water in pond 9 using a pump and pipeline. The water quality in the experimental ponds was similar in response to regulation using mode I or mode II. Water quality parameters in the experimental ponds were controlled within a suitable range by simple facilities during culture period without using any chemical treatments. The rich content of dissolved oxygen was maintained by the circular flow and continuous aeration of the pond water. The respective average values of the main water parameters in experimental ponds 7 and 10 in response to regulation of the water quality using modes I and II were as follows: pH 8.17 and 7.99; DO 5.16 mg/L and 5.97 mg/L; CODMn 18.45 and 12.61 mg/L; TAN (NH_3-N) 0.854 mg/L (0.087 mg/L) and 0.427 mg/L (0.012 mg/L); NO_2-N 0.489 mg/L and 0.337 mg/L. Moreover, the average body length and body weight of harvested shrimp of pond 7 and pond 10 were 7.56 cm and 8.99 cm, 5.10 g and 8.33 g, respectively. Furthermore, the survival rate, average biomass yield and average condition factor of the shrimp harvested were 70% and 60%, 2.54 kg/m~2 and 2.14 kg/m~2, and 0.675 g/cm and 0.927 g/cm, respectively. Linear equations describing the relationship between body length and culture time and cubic or power functions describing the relationship between body weight and body length were obtained based on evaluation of the

  11. PRODUCTOS NATURALES COMO ESTIMULADORES DEL SISTEMA INMUNOLÓGICO DE Litopenaeus vannamei, INFECTADO CON Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica de Litopenaeus vannamei con manano-oligosacáridos (T1, ajo (T2 y un compuesto de extractos de plantas (T3 después de ser infectados con Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Se realizaron dos bioensayos con una duración de seis (1x106 UFC y catorce (3x106 UFC días en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica durante el 2011. Para esta investigación se extrajeron 120 camarones para cada periodo experimental de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya. Al finalizar la dosificación de los productos se evaluó la ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia. Luego de la infección con V. parahaemolyticus se realizaron hemogramas, coagulación, bacteriología de hemolinfa y mortalidad acumulada. Los parámetros inmunológicos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas (P>0,05 entre tratamientos en ningún periodo, sin embargo a los seis días T1 mostró los mejores resultados con 41,07x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,40 s y 4,44x103 UFC/ ml. En el periodo de catorce días T2 obtuvo los mejores valores (55,76x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,20 s y15,4x103 UFC/ml. La mortalidad acumulada se presentó a las diez horas de inoculación, hubo menor cantidad de muertes en T1 y T3 (76,2% a los seis días, mientras que a los catorce días fue para T1 (93,2%. La ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia resultaron con diferencias estadísticas (P<0,05 solo para el bioensayo que se extendió por seis días, donde T2 presentó una biomasa de 54,3 g, un incremento en la ganancia de peso de 19,3% y una conversión alimenticia de 1,4.

  12. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  13. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (Pnitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae can improve productivity of white shrimp by increasing the biomass and maintaining a stable water quality especially ammonium concentration.

  14. Steroid hormone "cortisone" and "20-hydroxyecdysone" involved in the non-specific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Ching-Hsu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of two steroid hormones on phenoloxidase activity, O2(-) production in the haemocytes, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity, and plasma cholesterol concentrations in white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). Phenoloxidase activity, THC and plasma cholesterol concentration in shrimps treated with cortisone and 20-hydroxyecdysone were found to be lower when compared with the control groups. In the observation of O2(-) production, treatment of cortisone and hydroxyecdysone were reducing the activity in the 1st day, but to be undiversified with the elapsed time. By contrast, SOD activity in the hepatopancreas, plasma GOT activity, and GPT activity were significantly increased when compared with the control groups. PMID:27403594

  15. Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards.

  16. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  17. Management measures to control diseases reported by tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farmers in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Culture of tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has intensified during the last decade in China with increased production, meanwhile it has also brought some problems, including diseases, increased use of antimicrobials and other chemicals for disease control...... and pond water quality management. This study investigated the knowledge, practices and challenges of tilapia and whiteleg shrimp farmers when preventing and controlling diseases through the use of antimicrobials and other compounds in Guangdong province, which is the most important shrimp and tilapia...... in recent years. Shrimp farms (30) mainly experienced outbreaks of red body disease (19) and white spot syndrome (5), both viral diseases, and so-called “secret death disease” (5) which farmers controlled by application of a variety of disinfectants, probiotics and vitamins. Most of the farmers reported...

  18. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xingqiang; MA Shen; DONG Shuanglin

    2006-01-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 ℃, 27℃ and 32℃) and dietary carbohydrate (CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  19. A ten-month diseases survey on wild Litopenaeus setiferus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río-Rodríguez, Rodolfo Enrique; Pech, Daniel; Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia Araceli; Gomez-Solano, Monica Isela; Sosa-lopez, Atahualpa

    2013-09-01

    The development of shrimp aquaculture in Mexican coasts of the Gulf of Mexico began to be explored using the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the mid 90's. Many concerns over the risk of disease transmission to the economically important native penaeids, have been the main deterrent for the aquaculture of L. vannamei in the region. Concurrently, more than 10 years of research experience on the aquaculture suitability of the native Litopenaeus setiferus from the Terminos Lagoon, in the Yucatán Peninsula, have been accumulated. The aim of this study was then to determine the seasonal variations of the naturally acquired diseases and the possible detection of exotic pathogens. For this, random subsamples (n-60) of juveniles L. setiferus were collected from monthly captures. In order to detect the widest range of pathogens, including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome (WSSV) viruses, both histopathological and molecular methods were employed. Monthly prevalence (%) was calculated for every finding. We were able to detect a total of 16 distinct histological anomalies, most of which the presumptive aetiological agent was readily identified. PCR results for viruses were negative. For some pathogens and symbionts, the prevalence was significantly different between the adult and juvenile populations. Prevalence of diseases tended to be higher in juvenile shrimp than in adults. The results of this study indicated that L. setiferus carry a wide variety of pathogens and symbionts that seem to be endemic to penaeids of the Gulf of Mexico, and those juveniles were more conspicuous to acquire pathogens and symbionts than adults. PMID:24027916

  20. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Junfang Zhou; Wenhong Fang; Xianle Yang; Shuai Zhou; Linlin Hu; Xincang Li; Xinyong Qi; Hang Su; Layue Xie

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge test...

  1. Characterization of a primary cell culture from lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei and use for studies on WSSV replication

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W.; N. Thao; Corteel, M.; Dantas-Lima, J.J.; Thuong, K.V.; V. V. Tuan; Bossier, P.; Sorgeloos, P.; Nauwynck, H.

    2014-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is a booming agro-industry worldwide. Due to intensification of shrimp farming, pathogens emerge. Control of these pathogens especially viral pathogens is essential for a further expansion of this industry. Until now, the lack of shrimp cell lines has limited research on shrimp viral pathogens. In this context, a primary culture from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei was developed and standardized as a platform for further research on white spot syndrome virus (WSS...

  2. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI, the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52% and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%.Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlin azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes, de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI, fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52% y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%.

  3. Análisis socioeconómico e interrelación de las pesquerías de sardina y atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de las engordas de atún aleta azul en las costas de Baja California cambió el destino de las capturas de sardina, ya que antes se destinaban al mercado de congelados y a la elaboración de harina de pescado, y en la actualidad se utilizan como alimento para el atún aleta azul. Esto generó un efecto socioeconómico positivo para los armadores y pescadores de pelágicos menores, ya que la llegada de grandes capitales foráneos para el desarrollo de las engordas de atún mejoró los precios de la sardina, e hizo más rentable su pesquería.

  4. 凡纳对虾溶菌酶基因的克隆与性质研究%Gene Cloning and Characterization of Lysozyme Gene in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 王建英

    2013-01-01

      凡纳对虾先天免疫系统中的抗菌肽效应分子是发挥抗菌作用的关键分子,其中,溶菌酶分子在对抗细菌的侵染过程中,发挥着重要的清除细菌的作用。以凡纳对虾溶菌酶基因作为研究对象,通过进行基因克隆、氨基酸序列比对、系统进化关系分析以及分子结构的初步预测,推测该溶菌酶基因在凡纳对虾先天免疫系统中发挥着重要的抗菌作用。%  Antimicrobial peptide effectors played the key and important antibacterial role in the Litopenaeus vannamei innate immunity system. And the lysozyme also played an important part in the clearance of bacteria during the bacteria infection process. In this paper , Litopenaeus vannamei lysozyme gene was the research object. And the gene cloning, the amino acids sequence alignment, the phylogenetic relationship analysis, and the preliminary forecasts for molecular structure were done. We speculated that the lysozyme gene played an important part in the antibacterial function in the Litopenaeus vannamei innate immunity system.

  5. Estudio epidemiológico de lengua azul y enfermedad hemorrágica epizoótica en ecosistemas mediterráneos del sur de España

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Montes, Antonio José

    2013-01-01

    La lengua azul (LA) y la enfermedad hemorrágica epizoótica (EHE), son dos enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes de declaración obligatoria, causadas por virus pertenecientes al género Orbivirus. Ambas virosis infectan generalmente a rumiantes domésticos y silvestres, siendo los mosquitos del género Culicoides, los vectores principalmente implicados en la transmisión de estas enfermedades, particularmente C. imicola, considerado como el principal vector competente en l...

  6. Perimetria azul-amarelo em usuários de tabaco-álcool Blue-on-yellow perimetry in tobacco and alcohol consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando de Carvalho Júnior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações de campo visual em usuários crônicos de tabaco e álcool por meio da perimetria azul-amarelo estratégia 10-2. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois olhos de vinte e um voluntários usuários de tabaco e álcool, todos do gênero masculino, foram selecionados após exame oftalmológico completo e normal, sendo submetidos a perimetria azul-amarelo estratégia 10-2. Quinze voluntários participaram do grupo controle. A análise dos dados foi realizada mediante gráfico da profundidade do defeito e número de pontos alterados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 40 olhos (95,3% dos usuários crônicos de tabaco e álcool, apresentaram maior freqüência de alterações no gráfico de profundidade do defeito (>10dB e 27 olhos (64,3% apresentaram número de pontos alterados (>10 pontos, (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the visual field changes in blue-on-yellow perimetry (B/Y strategy 10-2 in alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers. METHODS: Forty-two eyes of twenty-one users were studied. Fifteen individuals were used as a control group. All volunteers were males. After normal ophthalmologic examinations, central 10-2 (B/Y was performed in both eyes. Analysis of the results was performed through the alterations in the depth graph defect and number of altered points. RESULTS: It was found that the majority of the chronic alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers had a greater frequency of alterations in the depth graph defect; 40 eyes (95.3%, (>10dB, and 27 eyes (64.3% showed a number of altered points, (>10 points, (p<0.0001. All those who were used as a control group showed alterations in the depth graph defect and number of altered points, but had less than 10dB and 10 altered points, respectively. CONCLUSION: A higher number of abnormal points and depth graph defects and number of altered points were observed in alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers reflecting a higher number of alterations in the cells of the parvocellular system, responsible

  7. Uso de diferentes fármacos para anestesiar camarones Litopenaeus vannamei Boone en prácticas de acuacultura - The use of different drugs to anesthetize shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in aquaculture practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Sáenz, Francisco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas prácticas rutinarias en camarón como la ablación ocular, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa, colocación de sistemas de identificación (elastómeros, así como algunos manejos para investigación y transporte se dificultan, producen estrés y riesgo de muerte afectando el bienestar. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar por primera vez el efecto anestésico del Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y el Halothano en el camarónLitopenaeus vannamei como medio para facilitar la práctica médica y el manejo de rutina. Se utilizaron camarones Litopenaeus vannamei de 15 a 20 g de peso, en agua marina con parámetros fisicoquímicos controlados. Se realizaron las pruebas en contenedores con 40 L, uno para cada lote de 5 camarones, probando por separado Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y Halothano a diferentes concentraciones en inmersión, midiendo el tiempo de sedación y anestesia general (AG a diferentes dosis. Para verificar el estado anestésico se utilizaroncomo parámetros, el nado, movimientos, respuesta a la agitación del agua y al contacto físico. Al detectar el estado de anestesia general, se procedió a realizar ablaciones oculares, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa y colocación de elastómeros. Después los camarones se regresaron a sus contenedores originales con una aireación continua y recambio de agua para establecer el tiempo de recuperación. En base a los resultados, se concluye queel anestesiar camarones con las sustancias propuestas, permite realizar los manejos anteriormente señalados con mayor facilidad y menor riesgo de daño o muerte de los mismos mejorando el bienestar animal. SummaryRoutine experiments on shrimp, such as ocular ablation, artificial insemination, haemolymph sampling, placement of identification systems (elastomeres, and some investigation and transport handling, may become difficult, create stress and a high death risk for the animal, affecting its

  8. Fermentación de los fructanos del Agave tequilana Weber Azul por Zymomonas mobilis y Saccharomyces cerevisiae en la producción de bioetanol Fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber Azul fructans by Zymomonas mobilis and Sacchamomyces cerevisiae in the production of bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Montañez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructanos contenidos en las bases de las hojas del agave fueron extraídos y utilizados como fuente de carbono a varias concentraciones para la producción de bioetanol. Se usaron dos microorganismos etanolgénicos: la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDBB-L-331 y la bacteria Zymomona mobilis CDBB-B-603. Las hojas del agave tequilero ( Agave tequilana Weber Azul constituyen los residuos agrícolas del cultivo y a pesar de su alto contenido de azúcares reductores totales (ART y a los grandes volúmenes que anualmente se generan, actualmente no se utilizan. Los resultados muestran que la bacteria Zymomona mobilis es capaz de crecer a mayores concentraciones de ART, produce mayor cantidad de etanol y tolera mayores concentraciones del mismo. El rendimiento en la producción de etanol, la eficiencia de conversión y la productividad volumétrica también fueron mayores cuando la fermentación se llevó a cabo con Zymomona mobilis a una concentración de 20% de ART.Fructans contained in the base of agave leaves were extracted, hydrolyzed and used as carbon source at several concentrations for the production of bioethanol through two different ethanolgenic microorganisms: the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDBB-L-331 and the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis CDBB-B-603. The leaves of agave tequilana ( Agave tequilana Weber Azul constitute the agricultural crop residues and despite its high content of total reducing sugars (TRS and the large volumes generated each year, they are not currently used. The results show that Zymomonas mobilis is able to grow to higher levels of TRS produces more ethanol and tolerate higher concentrations of it. The yield in ethanol production, conversion efficiency and volumetric productivity were also higher when fermentation was carried out with Zymomonas mobilis at a concentration of 20% of TRS.

  9. Estratigrafía, ambientes deposicionales e icnología del Paleozoico inferior en el área de Azul Pampa, provincia de Jujuy Stratigraphy, Depositional Environments and Ichnology of the Lower Paleozoic in the Azul Pampa Area - Jujuy Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Such

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Azul Pampa, Cordillera Oriental de Jujuy los depósitos cambro-ordovícicos se encuentran ampliamente representados. La columna estratigráfica se inicia con el Grupo Mesón (Cambrico Inferior - Medio, el cual registra sedimentación en un ambiente marino somero dominado por mareas. Este incluye las Formaciones Lizoite, Campanario y Chalhualmayoc. Las Formaciones Lizoite y Chalhualmayoc contienen depósitos de barras submareales similares a aquellas descriptas anteriormente hacia el sur en la región de la quebrada de Humahuaca y en las áreas circundantes. La Formación Campanario incluye depósitos de canales y planicies intermareales, representando un máximo regresivo para el Grupo Mesón. Sobreyacente al Grupo Mesón se sucede un intervalo cámbrico superior-arenigiano referido previamente como Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. Los estudios integrados, tanto sedimentológicos, paleontológicos como estratigráficos secuenciales, indican que ambas unidades son litológicamente similares y temporalmente equivalentes a la Formación Santa Rosita (Cámbrico Superior - Tremadociano y a la Formación Acoite (Arenigiano, respectivamente, las cuales son ampliamente aceptadas en las áreas adyacentes, por lo que se recomienda el abandono de la nomenclatura Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. El intervalo inferior de la Formación Santa Rosita está representado por depósitos de estuarios dominado por mareas del Miembro Pico de Halcón. El intervalo superior se incluye dentro del Miembro Alfarcito y consiste en depósitos marino someros dominados por el oleaje, variando desde shoreface superior hasta offshore inferior, representando una serie de ciclos transgresivos-regresivos. La Formación Acoite registra un episodio de máximo transgresivo a escala de cuenca y se encuentra dominada por depósitos de plataforma con depósitos subordinados de offshore. Los análisis icnológicos revelan la ausencia o la escasez de

  10. Uso do metabissulfito de sódio no controle de microorganismos em camarões marinhos Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Use of sodium metabisulfite to control microorganism’s population in shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Lílian Maria Nery de Barros Góes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O camarão cultivado destaca-se como um dos principais itens responsáveis pelo superávit da balança comercial do pescado brasileiro. Seu escoamento tem sido realizado para a América do Norte e Europa, onde as exigências de qualidade, especialmente quanto àcarga microbiana no camarão, são extremamente altas. Dadas as exigências dos importadores, objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do conservante metabissulfito de sódio como agente antimicrobiano na carcinicultura. Camarões Litopenaeus vannamei de classificação 81/100 foram submetidos a 10 concentrações do metabissulfito de sódio (de 1% a 10%, durante 10 e 20 minutos. Foram realizadas contagens de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas, sendo as colônias isoladas submetidas ao teste bacterioscópico pelo método de Gram e a provas bioquímicas. Foram isoladas sete espécies de víbrio e observou-se que o número deunidades formadoras de colônias decresceu em função do uso de metabissulfito, ficando demonstrada a sua ação inibitória sobre as bactérias mesófilas aeróbias em todas as concentrações utilizadas.The cultivated shrimp comes if highlighting as one of the main responsible items for the superavit of the Brazilian’s fish trade balance. Its drainage has been accomplished for North America and Europe, where the quality demands is extremely high, especially for microbial load existent at shrimp. Given the demands of importers, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of conservator sodium metabisulfite as an antimicrobial agent in the shrimp culture. Shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei classified as 81/100 (10 to 12 g were submitted to 10 concentrations of sodium metabisulfite (from 1 to 10%, during 10 and 20 minutes. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria were counted and the isolated colonies were submitted to a bacterioscopic test using the Gram method and biochemical tests. It was observed that the number of colony-former units decreased due to metabisulfite use, thus demonstrating

  11. QUALITY OF THE WATER IN SHRIMP FARM Litopenaeus vannamei WITH SYSTEM OF PARTIAL RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA EM FAZENDA DE CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei COM SISTEMA DE RECIRCULAÇÃO PARCIAL.

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    Luiz Otávio Brito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aim to characterize the quality of the water affluent and effluent of a shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farm , which operates with system of partial recirculation system. The samples were accomplished during the low water and high tide periods of the day. The analyzed variables were: dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate. They samples were seven points, distributed strategically in way to characterize the water from the entrance going by the inside of the to your exit farm. ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0,05 were used in statistical analysis. Was observed the pH and dissolved oxygen stayed presenting averages of 7.72 and 6.58mg.L-1, respectively. The final averages went from 1.40 mg.L-1 to ammonia, 0.76 mg.L-1 for nitrate, 0.08 mg.L-1 for nitrite and 1.63 mg.L-1 for the phosphate.

    KEY WORDS: Quality of the water, recirculation, shrimp, vannamei.
    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a qualidade da água afluente e efluente de uma fazenda de camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei, que opera com sistema de recirculação parcial de água. As coletas foram realizadas durante os períodos de baixamar e preamar, diurnas, nos dias de lua. Analisaram-se as seguintes variáveis: oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade, amônia, nitrato, nitrito e fosfato. Escolheram-se sete pontos de coleta, distribuídos estrategicamente, de modo a caracterizar a água desde a entrada, passando pelo interior da fazenda até sua saída. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Observou-se que o pH e o oxigênio dissolvido apresentaram uma média de 7,72 e 6,58mg.L-1, respectivamente. As médias finais foram de 1,40mg.L-1 para amônia, 0,76mg.L-1 para nitrato, 0,08mg.L-1 para nitrito e 1,63mg.L-1 para o fosfato.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Camarão, vannamei, qualidade da água, recirculação

  12. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption

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    Roberto Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 , amonio (N-NH4- y nitrato (N-NO3 fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%, turbidez (97,1% sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%, clorofila-a (99,1%, amonio (54,1%, nitrito (58,0%, nitrato (69,2% y fosfato (52,9%, presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

  13. Captura de atún aleta azul en Baja California, México: ¿pesquería regional o maquiladora marina?

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    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El atún aleta azul, capturado por la flota mexicana en las costas de la península de Baja California, se destinaba al enlatado local, para ofrecer a los consumidores nacionales un producto barato y con valor nutritivo alto. Sin embargo, esto cambió en la última década con la llegada de inversionistas, sobre todo japoneses. Ahora el atún se captura, engorda y exporta a los mercados japonés y estadounidense, que pagan un precio elevado, para satisfacer su demanda de sashimi. Esto tiene repercusiones positivas en el orden social y económico en México y Japón; determinadas a partir del trabajo de campo directo e indirecto realizado en el marco de esta investigación. Además, se identificaron algunas similitudes entre el comportamiento de las empresas estudiadas y la industria maquiladora de exportación, lo que abrió un debate sobre el tema.

  14. Detección de capas de desechos con métodos geoeléctricos: caso Relleno Sanitario Río Azul, Costa Rica

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    Jorge Suárez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Relleno Sanitario Río Azul, recibió por 34 años desechos de diversas zonas de la Gran Área Metropolitana, y por tres décadas fue operado con una disposición de residuos poco planificada. El objetivo del estudio es identificar las zonas con mayores potenciales de almacenamiento de lixiviados a través de 25 SEV’s (Sondeos Eléctricos Verticales, cuya profundidad de prospección efectiva fue alrededor de 65 m. El modelo geofísico planteado consta de cuatro capas: la primera corresponde a una cobertura de material compactado (20 Ωm - 54 Ωm; la segunda capa contiene desechos no saturados (11 Ωm - 18 Ωm; la tercera (1 Ωm - 5,4 Ωm es de desechos saturados con lixiviados y la cuarta (49 Ωm - 360 Ωm el basamento sobre el cual se instaló el relleno sanitario. Por tanto, la geoeléctrica permitió determinar los espesores y distribución de los materiales de cobertura, desechos, desechos saturados con lixiviados y la profundidad del techo del basamento.

  15. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

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    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  16. Caso clínico. Aspergiloma traqueal en guacamayo azul y amarillo (Ara ararauna - Tracheal aspergilloma in a Blue and Gold Macaw (Ara ararauna.

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    Dra. Rossana Raineri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo expone el caso clínico de un Guacamayo azul y amarillo (Ara ararauna atendido como emergencia por un cuadro de disnea intensa estableciéndose una metodología de atención por etapas, logrando la estabilización inicial de los signos vitales del ave en un primer tiempo para luego determinar la causa y extirpar por mínimo acceso, gracias a la endoscopía, un gran fragmento de aspergiloma que obstruía la traquea, lográndose la confirmación del diagnostico por métodos de laboratorio e indicándose un tratamiento especifico para este tipo de patologías.Summaryin this paper we present a clinical case of a Blue and Gold Macaw (Araararauna treated in emergency with symptoms of severe dyspnea. Weapproached the case achieving the stabilization of vital signs of the bird in a first time. Then we determined the cause of dyspnea by minimal access, by endo-tracheal endoscopic examination, and we removed a large aspergilloma that was obstructing the trachea. We obtained the confirmation of the diagnosis by laboratory methods and decided a specific treatment for the disease.

  17. Efectividad del Caldo Lactosado con Azul de Bromotimol en el control bacteriológico de las desinfecciones profilácticas en instalaciones bovinas

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    Cepero Rodríguez, Omelio:

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar la efectividad del medio de cultivo CaldoLactosado con Azul de Bromotimol (CLAB en el control bacteriológico de las desinfecciones profilácticas se realizó un estudio en unidades bovinas cuyos resultados se compararon en paralelo con los obtenidos con el medio de Heifetz Modificado (HM, establecido en Cuba para esta actividad. Previa limpieza mecánica se aplicaron las soluciones desinfectantes mediante una unidad móvil y después de tres horas de exposición se realizó el muestreo mediante hisopaje de pisos, comederos, bebederos y paredes, procediéndose posteriormente a la inoculación en los medios de cultivos. La lectura de los resultados se realizó transcurridas 8, 12 y 18 horas de incubación a 37 °C, posteriormente se evaluaron estadísticamente según un análisis de varianza de clasificación simple. En las condiciones del estudio se constató la efectividad CLAB y el HM para el control bacteriológico de las desinfecciones profilácticas en unidades pecuarias, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas, aunque existen ventajas favorables al CLAB relacionadas con su menor complejidad y frecuencia de contaminación que indudablemente repercuten en un menor costo.

  18. Activación mecánica del caolín como vía para la fabricación de azul ultramar

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    Oscar Jaime Restrepo Baena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La molienda del caolín en molinos de anillos causa una destrucción progresiva de la estructura cristalina original. Los estudios granulométricos demuestran que la molienda de los granos de caolín se produce por fuerzas de cizalladura, ocasionando un deslizamiento de los planos que conforman las partículas, distorsionándolas y aglomerándolas. El estudio de rayos X de mostró una pérdida casi completa de la estructura cristalina. Los análisis de DTA y TGA mostraron que la pérdida del agua de composición interna se produce desde el momento que comienza el calentamiento. Los estudios de microscopía electrónica de barrido muestran granos de forma y tamaño irregular que difieren notablemente de la muestra original. Con las muestras de caolín activado mecánicamente, se fabricó el pigmento Azul Ultramar utilizando un horno de tubo, los resultados obtenidos muestran un producto de características de calidad comparables a los conseguidos utilizando el caolín calcinado (10. Este estudio muestra que la activación mecánica del caolín, puede convertirse en una alternativa a la calcinación, proceso que actualmente se realiza a nivel industrial.

  19. Efecto de ensilados de pescado e hígado de tiburón en el crecimiento de Litopenaeus schmitti, en sustitución de la harina y el aceite de pescado(Effect of fish silage and liver of sharks in the growth of Litopenaeus schmitti in place of fish meal and fish oil

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    Fraga-Castro, Iliana E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDos diseños experimentales completamente aleatorizado se desarrollaron durante 6 semanas, para evaluar el efecto de dietas con ensilados de pescado (EP e hígado de tiburón (EHT, en el crecimiento de juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus schmitti (peso inicial 1.3 ± 0.12 g. El EP con desechos de tilapia se incluyó en las dietas a niveles de 0, 16.5, 27.5 y 31 %, en sustitución de la harina de pescado.AbstractIn order to evaluate the effect of diets with fish silage (EP and shark liver (EHT, the growth of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti (mean initial weight 1.3 ± 0.12, developed a laboratory scale two completely randomized design for 6 weeks.

  20. Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

  1. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  2. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  3. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

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    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  4. Application of Wet Waste from Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with or Without Sea Mud to Feeding Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; HU Chaoqun; RENChunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) (P>0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no sig-nificant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments (P>0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  5. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  6. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

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    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  7. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-04-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance (P < 0.05). However, salinity fluctuation of 10 only resulted in a significant variation in MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control (P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  8. Predictive ability of genomic selection models for breeding value estimation on growth traits of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-10-01

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to accelerate genetic improvement by shortening the selection interval. The successful application of GS depends largely on the accuracy of the prediction of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study is a first attempt to understand the practicality of GS in Litopenaeus vannamei and aims to evaluate models for GS on growth traits. The performance of GS models in L. vannamei was evaluated in a population consisting of 205 individuals, which were genotyped for 6 359 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and phenotyped for body length and body weight. Three GS models (RR-BLUP, BayesA, and Bayesian LASSO) were used to obtain the GEBV, and their predictive ability was assessed by the reliability of the GEBV and the bias of the predicted phenotypes. The mean reliability of the GEBVs for body length and body weight predicted by the different models was 0.296 and 0.411, respectively. For each trait, the performances of the three models were very similar to each other with respect to predictability. The regression coefficients estimated by the three models were close to one, suggesting near to zero bias for the predictions. Therefore, when GS was applied in a L. vannamei population for the studied scenarios, all three models appeared practicable. Further analyses suggested that improved estimation of the genomic prediction could be realized by increasing the size of the training population as well as the density of SNPs.

  9. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  10. Hypoxia drives apoptosis independently of p53 and metallothionein transcript levels in hemocytes of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martínez-Quintana, José A; Arenas-Padilla, Marina; Mata-Haro, Verónica; Gómez-Jiménez, Silvia; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2016-10-01

    The cellular mechanisms used by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to respond to hypoxia have been studied from the energetic metabolism and antioxidant angles. We herein investigated the participation of p53 and metallothionein (MT) in the apoptotic process in response to hypoxia in shrimp hemocytes. The Lvp53 or LvMT genes were efficiently silenced by injection of double stranded RNA for p53 or MT. The effects of silencing on apoptosis were measured as caspase-3 activity and flow cytometry in hemocytes after 24 and 48 h of hypoxia (1.5 mg DO L(-1)). Hemocytes from unsilenced animals had significantly higher apoptosis levels upon both times of hypoxia. The apoptotic levels were diminished but not suppressed in dsp53-silenced but not dsMT-silenced hemocytes after 24 h of hypoxia, indicating a contribution of Lvp53 to apoptosis. Apoptosis in normoxia was significantly higher in dsp53-and dsMT-silenced animals compared to the unsilenced controls, pointing to a possible cytoprotective role of LvMT and Lvp53 during the basal apoptotic program in normoxia. Overall, these results indicate that hypoxia augments apoptosis in shrimp hemocytes and high mRNA levels of Lvp53 and LvMT are not necessary for this response. PMID:27459156

  11. Dextrose as carbon source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in a zero exchange system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Suita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT. Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+ ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic biometry. After 30 days, survival, final biomass, and feeding conversion rate (FCR were determined. Dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, floc volume, total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and microorganisms (qualified by groups, were measured every three days. Water quality variables remained within acceptable levels throughout the experimental period, except for nitrite, which reached higher levels than recommended for this species. The use of dextrose resulted in higher water transparency, which influenced the remaining centric diatoms. A superior shrimp performance was observed at this treatment, presumably because of variations on the microbial community. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of dextrose results in a superior growth performance of L. vannamei when cultured in BFT systems.

  12. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-10-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance ( P < 0.05). However, salinity fluctuation of 10 only resulted in a significant variation in MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control ( P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  13. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism.

  14. Effect of Salinity on the Biosynthesis of Amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the Expression of Gill Related Ion Transporter Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; LIU Hongyu; ZHAO Qun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKAα-subunit and V-ATPaseβ-subunit gene was significantly influ-enced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner;whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKAα-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKAα-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKAα-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time-and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, sug-gesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  15. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  16. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farafidy ANDRIANTAHINA; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the response to selection,heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei,the body weight (BW),total length (TL),body length (BL),first abdominal segment depth (FASD),third abdominal segment depth (TASD),first abdominal segment width (FASW),and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspring were measured by calculating seven body measurings of offspring produced by a nested mating design.Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L.vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire,and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis.The results show that heritabilities among various traits were high:0.515+0.030 for body weight and 0.394+0.030 for total length.After one generation of selection,the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth.In the 5th month,the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspring generation.Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable.The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied during breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly,simultaneously with increased production.

  17. Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyi Tang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL. Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT and at lower (WLT temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry.

  18. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey B Schock

    Full Text Available Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc. The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  19. Effect of culture intensity and probiotics application on microbiological and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Muralidhar, M; Solanki, Haresh G; Patel, Pretesh P; Patel, Krishna; Gopla, Chavali

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the complex interaction among stocking density and extent of probiotic use with production and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds to suggest suitable management strategies. The study was conducted inL. vannamei culture ponds with stocking density of 35 nos sq m(-1) (Group I) and 56 nos sq m(-1) (Group II) and probiotic application @16.5 kg ha(-1) and 157 kg ha(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference noted between the two groups of ponds in respect to ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in water samples, whereas significantly higher levels of AOB in water samples of high intensity culture ponds (Group II) and NOB in sediment samples of Group I were observed. The levels of sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphur reducing bacteria (SRB) in Group I pond water and in Group II sediment were significantly higher than their corresponding levels in the other group. In both the groups, ammonia, nitrite and sulphide concentrations were below toxic limits prescribed for shrimp farming. Comparing the production parameters at harvest revealed that low intensity culture ponds (Group I) had higher growth rate, average body weight and significantly lower FCR and higher survival rate than high intensity culture ponds (Group II). The results indicated that application of microbial products in higher quantities did not benefit significantly, and there is a need to regulate quantum and schedule of biological product usage for economically sustainable shrimp culture. PMID:26930856

  20. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  1. Evaluación in vivo del efecto cicatrizante de un gel a base de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón blanco litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Heimy Franceline Martínez Sánchez; Amada Yerén Escobedo Lozano; Evaristo Méndez-Gómez; Alfredo Emmanuel Vázquez; Manuel de Jesús Sol Hernández; Anahí Elizabeth Osuna Lizárraga

    2014-01-01

    Healing effect of a chitosan-based gel obtained from the exoskeleton of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its evaluation in vivoTítulo corto: Evaluación del quitosano como cicatrizanteResumen:  En México alrededor del 62 % de la población sufre de accidentes causantes de alteraciones en la piel como quemaduras, heridas y diabetes principalmente. Para atender esta problemática, se propone el uso de un gel de quitosano, obtenido del exoesqueleto de camarón ya que presenta actividad antimicr...

  2. Producción de 1,4-androstadien-3,17-diona a partir de colesterol por Mycobacterium sp., empleando azul de metileno como aceptor electrónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Falero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación de AD y ADD a partir de colesterol en microorganismos involucra la participación de diferentes enzimas. Cada una de ellas tiene sus propios requerimientos específicos. El primer paso en la degradaci ón del colesterol es la oxidación del grupo OH que está situado en posici ón 3 del anillo A de la estructura química. Posteriormente ocurre una isomerización del doble enlace en posición 5 del anillo B a posición 4 del anillo A, para formar el 3-ceto-D4-esteroide correspondiente. En la oxidaci ón intervienen deshidrogenasas NAD+ dependientes y oxidasas, siendo el oxígeno molecular el aceptor final de la reacción. Se ha demostrado que la insaturación del esteroide ocurre mediante la eliminación de los hidrógenos 1 y 2 del anillo A. Este paso está mediado por la enzima esteroide-1,2- deshidrogenasa. Esta enzima es inducible y se encuentra en bacterias asociada a membrana. Para su funcionamiento normalmente necesita de aceptores electrónicos externos. Para estos fines, se han utilizado aceptores electrónicos artificiales tales como: menadiona, metasulfato de fenacina, 2,6-diclorofenolindofenol y azul de metileno. En este trabajo se aportan los resultados de la utilización del azul de metileno en la cepa NRRL B-3683 Mycobacterium sp. Si el aceptor electrónico se añade al inicio de la reacci ón, la biotransformación disminuye drásticamente. Sin embargo, se observa un incremento notable en la cantidad de ADD formado, si el azul de metileno es añadido a las 72 h de iniciada la reacción.

  3. Avaliação da capacidade de adsorção do corante azul de metileno em soluçãoes aquosas em caulinita natural e intercalada com acetato de potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de adsorção do corante azul de metileno em soluções aquosas em caulinita natural proveniente da região de Bom Jardim de Goiás, GO e na sua forma intercalada com o composto orgânico acetato de potássio. As amostras natural e intercalada foram caracterizadas por difração e fluorescência de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e infravermelho. O processo de intercalação resultou em um aumento do espaçamento basal (d001 na estrutura do argilomineral, que pode ser verificado pela difração de raios X. A habilidade das amostras para remover o corante azul de metileno de soluções aquosas foi investigada através do método de batelada, cujos dados foram calculados pelo método não-linear através dos modelos de Langmuir, Freundlich e Sips. O modelo que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais foi o de Sips, para ambas as amostras. Para o estudo cinético três modelos foram testados, pseudo-primeira ordem, pseudo-segunda ordem e Avrami. Para ambas as amostras o modelo de Avrami foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais. A capacidade máxima de adsorção atingida pela amostra intercalada foi de 79,34 mg.g-1 e para natural foi de 72,14 mg.g-1. Estes valores mostram que as amostras de caulinita natural e intercalada podem ser consideradas como bons adsorventes, na remoção do corante azul de metileno em meios aquosos.

  4. Análisis simultáneo de la remoción de azul brillante y rojo 40 mediante espectrofotometría de derivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurany Villada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los efluentes de industrias como la alimentaria y textil contienen induda - blemente una mezcla de colorantes. No obstante, la evaluación de estos sistemas multicomponentes ha sido poco explorada debido a la comple - jidad para su cuantificación. Como una aproximación más cercana a la contaminación de estos vertimientos, se evaluó la adsorción de la mezcla de colorantes rojo 40 ( R40 y azul brillante ( AB sobre corteza de coco bajo sistema discontinuo, considerando las variables p H , concentración inicial de los colorantes, dosificación de adsorbente y temperatura. Para su cuan - tificación se utilizó el modelo de las primeras derivadas, haciendo uso de un espectrofotómetro UV-V is Lambda 35. Bajo las mejores condiciones, se alcanzó una remoción máxima del 76,5% para la mezcla de R40 y AB a p H ácido (p H = 2.0, dosificación de 20 g/ L , concentraciones iniciales de 10 mg/L y temperatura de 55 °C. El porcentaje de error promedio total encontrado para el modelo de cuantificación fue de 1,35% para R40 y 1,10% para AB , lo que señala la validez del método. Además, en la mezcla binaria, el AB experimentó un menor efecto antagonista por la presencia del R40 , con un porcentaje de adsorción 3,7 veces mayor que el obtenido para el R40 .

  5. Magnetic petrology of the Água Azul and Água Limpa granodiorites, southern portion of the Carajás Domain – Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleilson Oliveira Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Água Azul and Água Limpa granodiorites (AAGrd and ALGrd, respectively outcrop in the extreme southern of the Carajás Domain as two elongated bodies following the EW regional trend and were previously included in the Xingu Complex. The ALGrd consists mainly of biotite-amphibole granodiorites and muscovite-biotite granodiorites, with subordinate amphibole-biotite tonalites; the AAGrd contains dominant epidote-amphibole-biotite granodiorites, epidote-amphibole-biotite tonalite and restricted (amphibole-epidote-biotite monzogranites. These rocks show geochemical signatures like of archaean sanukitoids. The magnetic susceptibility (MS values obtained in the ALGrd (average 17.54 × 10-4 SIv and AAGrd (average 4.19 × 10-4 SIv are relatively low. The main opaque minerals are magnetite and hematite, and ilmenite is lacking in these rocks. The ALGrd contains titanite associated with magnetite, while the AAGrd contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, and goethite. In the ALGrd, magnetite is more developed and large than in the AAGrd, justifying its highest values of MS. The oxidation of magnetite (martitization and the alteration of sulfides to goethite, occurred at low temperatures. The positive correlation between MS values and the modal content of opaque, amphibole, epidote + allanite and quartz + K-feldspar, as well as the negative correlation of MS with biotite and mafic observed in these units, reveal a trend of MS increasing in the direction: amphibole tonalites/amphibole granodiorites à biotite granodiorites/biotite monzogranites. The geochemical data confirm this fact, with a negative correlation between the MS values and Fe2O3T, FeO, and MgO, reflecting, for the two units, an upward trend in MS values parallel to magmatic differentiation. The geochemical and mineralogical affinities between these rocks and sanukitoids of the Rio Maria Domain suggest conditions of the oxygen fugacity between HM and FMQ buffers for the studied granitoids

  6. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  7. Influências da Guerra Fria no discurso nacionalista argentino. O retrato dos conflictos internacionais no Semanário Nacionalista Azul y Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valeria Galvan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As notícias sobre as guerras internacionais desencadeadas no marco da Guerra Fria têm sido utilizadas pela discursividade nacionalista em pós do seu programa político próprio, mais vinculado ao contexto local do que ao internacional.O semanário político dos anos cinqüenta e sessenta, Azul y Blanco, virou testemunha disso. Este, embora tenha-se concentrado principalmente na política nacional, deixou filtrar em suas páginas notícias internacionais que expunham as problemáticas mais importantes da Guerra Fria nesses anos, desde uma óptica nacionalista que ia mais longe das identidades nacionais para construir um “nós” geograficamente mais amplo. Assim, apesar da maior relevância da Revolução Cubana nas páginas da revista, a situação do bloco oriental europeu e a Guerra do Vietnã foram também importantes na secção internacional. Essas notícias eram escritas por correspondentes e editores argentinos e estrangeiros. Ambos argentinos e estrangeiros tiveram posicionamentos políticos e ideológicos que ficaram comprometidos com seus respectivos cenários locais. Assim, eles contribuíram especialmente para as transformações que atravessava o discurso nacionalista local. Nesse sentido, as redefinições ideológicas e políticas do nacionalismo argentino desses anhos nutriram-se também de aqueles olhares.

  8. APLICAÇÃO DA ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL PARA DEFINIÇÃO DAS MELHORIAS ADVINDAS DE SUA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO EM UMA EMPRESA DO RAMO DE FITNESS PARA MULHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Corazza Miguens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A situação econômica mundial atual é de intensa competição, onde muitos setores lutam para obter lucros, às vezes pequenos, em "batalhas sangrentas" com seus concorrentes. Esse ambiente de disputa é chamado de Oceano Vermelho por estudiosos de uma nova visão estratégica, a Estratégia do Oceano Azul, na qual se almeja atrair um mercado previamente não explorado e explorá-lo, eliminando a concorrência e maximizando os lucros obtidos. Este trabalho monográfico tem como objetivo estudar uma das empresas que se enquadram na estratégia e possui uma franquia localizada na municipalidade de Campos dos Goytacazes, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, visando averiguar se seu sucesso se enquadra às propostas da matriz e às da estratégia do Oceano Azul. Com isso pretendemos validar a estratégia, pois a mesma é de recente publicação, principalmente quando comparada às mais famosas estratégias. Na metodologia da pesquisa será utilizada a aplicação de questionário e entrevista para realizar o levantamento de dados, analisando-os e verificando os resultados para que se possa concluir se existe ou não uma conexão entre o sucesso obtido pela academia Alpha e os fundamentos conceituais da Estratégia do Oceano Azul. Foi constatado que os fatores que a empresa transformou em diferencial realmente atraem e fidelizam as clientes, tendo os quesitos avaliados bem vistos pelas clientes. Com base no estudo foi possível concluir que a estratégia utilizada traz frutos, apesar se ser bastante arriscada. Além de trazer diferenciais e barreiras de mercado que evitam no curto e médio prazo que a competição chegue ao seu Oceano Azul.

  9. APLICAÇÃO DA ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL PARA DEFINIÇÃO DAS MELHORIAS ADVINDAS DE SUA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO EM UMA EMPRESA DO RAMO DE FITNESS PARA MULHERES

    OpenAIRE

    André Corazza Miguens; Jefferson Machado do Couto; Fernando Wagner Peixoto Pessanha; Frederico Muylaert Margem

    2011-01-01

    A situação econômica mundial atual é de intensa competição, onde muitos setores lutam para obter lucros, às vezes pequenos, em "batalhas sangrentas" com seus concorrentes. Esse ambiente de disputa é chamado de Oceano Vermelho por estudiosos de uma nova visão estratégica, a Estratégia do Oceano Azul, na qual se almeja atrair um mercado previamente não explorado e explorá-lo, eliminando a concorrência e maximizando os lucros obtidos. Este trabalho monográfico tem como objetivo estud...

  10. Estrategias de control y competencia vectorial de las especies de Culicoides vectores del virus de la Lengua Azul en Península Ibérica y Baleares

    OpenAIRE

    Río López, Ricardo del

    2012-01-01

    Se exponen los trabajos realizados sobre especies del género Culicoides, vectores del virus de la lengua azul. Durante el desarrollo de la tesis se presentan estudios de comparación de trampas, en los que se llevó a cabo la captura de los vectores e indicaron que las trampas Onderstepoort o mini-CDC, dependiendo de la época del año, fueron las más adecuadas para la captura de estos insectos. Se realizaron ensayos insecticidas con deltametrina para intentar controlar las poblaci...

  11. La Marcha del Silencio: movilización colectiva, acción política y percepción del delito : El caso de Azul en 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Galar, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los sentidos, prácticas y representaciones que se construyeron alrededor de lo que hemos conceptualizado como una crisis de inseguridad ciudadana que produjo -y fue producida por- una masiva movilización colectiva llevada a cabo en la ciudad bonaerense de Azul, el 25 de mayo de 2007, después del asesinato de un joven. El artículo consta de tres partes. En la primera se aborda de manera breve y esquemática el discurso público y la práctica política co...

  12. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas; Dana Arizmendi-Rodríguez; Napoleón Gudiño-González; Felipe Galván-Magaña

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI), the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52%) and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%).Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en e...

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSICA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE RAZAS DE MAÍZ DE GRANO AZUL/MORADO DE LAS REGIONES TROPICALES Y SUBTROPICALES DE OAXACA

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Aragón Cuevas; Carmen Ybarra Moncada; Jessica Aguilar Villarreal; Bernabé Altunar López; Yolanda Salinas Moreno; Eliseo Sosa Montes

    2013-01-01

    En este estudio se caracterizó física y químicamente el grano de 61 colectas de maíz ( Zea mays L.) azul/morado asociadas a 10 razas procedentes de regiones tropicales y subtropicales del Estado de Oaxaca, México. Las variables físicas fueron: humedad, peso hectolítrico (PH), peso de cien granos (PCG), color, dureza (índice de flotación, IF) y porcentajes relativos de pedicelo, pericarpio y germen. Las químicas fueron proteína, aceite y contenido de antocianinas totales (CAT). Se util...

  14. Uso do azul de metileno no tratamento de choque anafilático durante anestesia: relato de caso Uso del azul de metileno en el tratamiento de choque anafiláctico durante anestesia: relato de caso Methylene blue to treat anaphylaxis during anesthesia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mestriner Stocche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: No período peri-operatório, o risco de anafilaxia deve sempre ser considerado. A incidência de reações alérgicas em anestesia é controversa, variando entre 1/3000 a 1/20.000, com mortalidade entre 3% e 9 %. Neste caso, relata-se o uso do azul de metileno como coadjuvante ao tratamento do choque anafilático refratário à terapêutica tradicional. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, submetido a herniorrafia inguinal sob raquianestesia. No final do procedimento, ao receber dipirona (1,5 g, por via venosa, o paciente imediatamente apresentou broncoespasmo, cianose, diminuição da SpO2 e da PAS, culminando com parada cardiorrespiratória. Foi iniciada reanimação cardiorrespiratória com massagem cardíaca externa, seguida de IOT e injeção de adrenalina (1 mg, atropina (1 mg, restabelecendo-se FC de 150 bpm, porém sem pulso palpável. Administrou-se mais 1 mg de adrenalina além de 1 g de hidrocortisona, com restabelecimento de pulso central (8 minutos. Apesar de receber dopamina (20 µg.kg-1.min-1, o paciente manteve-se hipotenso (60 mmHg até 80 minutos. Administraram-se 100 mg de azul de metileno por via venosa, quando houve aumento da PAS para 85 e 105 mmHg, após a segunda dose. Seguiu-se da diminuição da dose de dopamina de 20 para 10, 7, 5 e, finalmente, 2 µg.kg-1.min-1. CONCLUSÕES: A anafilaxia tem como principal mediador a liberação de histamina, que induz a produção de óxido nítrico (NO, com conseqüente aumento da guanilato ciclase que promove vasodilatação arteriolar por aumento do GMP cíclico. O azul de metileno pode ser útil nestas situações, pois inibe a guanilato ciclase e conseqüentemente a vasodilatação, o que resulta em melhora hemodinâmica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: En el período peri-operatorio, el riesgo de anafilaxis siempre debe ser considerado. La incidencia de reacciones alérgicas en anestesia es polémica, variando entre 1/3000 a 1/20.000, con

  15. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei =Toxicidade aguda de pirazossulfurom-etílico e permethrin em juvenis de camarão branco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Giovanni Lemos de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: SiriusR 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and TalcordR insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 } 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ƒÊg L-1 SiriusR 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ƒÊg L-1 TalcordR. The TalcordR LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 ƒÊg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No SiriusR 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50%of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide TalcordR is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide SiriusR 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a CL50 (96h dos agroquimicos SiriusR 250 SC, herbicida a base de pirazossulfurom-etilico, e TalcordR, inseticida a base de permethrin, em juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei, bem como avaliar possiveis alteracoes fisiologicas por meio da contagem total de hemocitos (CTH dos camaroes. Juvenis de L. vannamei (5,0 } 0,5 g foram expostos as seguintes concentracoes dos agroquimicos: SiriusR 250 SC, 0; 0,1; 1; 10; 100 e 1.000 ƒÊg L-1, e TalcordR, 0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 ƒÊg L-1. A CL50 (96h do inseticida TalcordR foi de 0,00933 ƒÊg L-1 ou 9,33 ng L-1. Nao houve alteracoes significativas da CTH entre as medias dos grupos

  16. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bezerra dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, emum sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parceladaem duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliadosnas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at08:00 and

  17. Desempeño reproductivo de dos líneas de reproductores de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei introducidos en Cuba - Reproductive behaviour of broodstocks from lines of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei introducing in Cuba

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    Lic. Missael Guerra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los mayores problemas en los laboratorios de producción depostlarvas es el “inbreeding”, el que puede afectar las características reproductivas de los animales y tener un impacto negativo en la producción. En este trabajo se evaluaron los registros reproductivos de los progenitores de dos introducciones (I1 e I3 de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei provenientes del mismo lugar mantenidos en ciclo de producción cerrado. Para el estudio se tomaron los resultados del número de hembras maduras diarias (Mad/día; Porciento de cópula (% Cop y nauplios por desove (Nau/Des. Todos estos indicadores fueron comparados entre meses y entre introducciones. El número de hembras maduras fue el único que mostró una distribución normal variando de 119 a 178 y de 43 a 70 para cada una de las introducciones respectivamente. Se observó que existen diferencias significativas entre los meses en todos para los indicadores. Se observó un comportamiento similar de loscaracteres reproductivos, el segundo y tercer mes fueron los mejoresdurante el período de producción. No existieron diferencias significativas en el porciento de cópula ni en el número de nauplios por desoves, pero en el número de hembras maduras si hubo diferencias mostrando valores de 160 para I1 y de 62 para I3; esto probablemente se debe a problemas de manejo, el número de animales que se encontraban en la nave o a condiciones ambientales. Estos parámetros son muy importantes para la diferenciación genética entre líneas, además de ser muy útiles en un posible tratamiento de loci cuantitativo (QTL, por sus siglas en ingles que permitan mejoras los caracteres reproductivos y así obtener reproductores más eficientes.SummaryOne of the major concerns in hatcheries is inbreeding, which can affect fitness-related traits, and may have a significant negative impact on production. We present the analysis of reproductive records for broodstocks from two different

  18. Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in heterotrophic medium with zero water exchange Consumo de oxigênio de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei em meio heterotrófico sem renovação de água

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    Luis Vinatea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at determining the dissolved oxygen consumption rate of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles maintained in a microbial biofloc raceway system at high density with no aeration. Three 4 L bottles were filled for each treatment, sealed hermetically, and placed in an enclosed greenhouse raceway system. Four shrimp (13.2±1.42 g were assigned to two sets of the bottles, which underwent the following treatments: light conditions with no shrimp; dark conditions with no shrimp; light conditions with shrimp; and dark conditions with shrimp. Dissolved oxygen content was measured every 10 min for 30 min. A quadratic behavior was observed in dissolved oxygen concentration over time. Significant differences for oxigen consumption were observed only at 10 and 20 min between shrimp maintained in the dark and those under light conditions. At 10 min, a higher value was observed in shrimp maintained under light, and at 20 min, in the dark. Significant differences between 10 and 20 min and between 10 and 30 min were observed when oxygen consumption was analyzed over time in the presence of light. Under dark conditions there were significant differences only between 20 and 30 min. Lethal oxygen concentration (0.65 mg L-1 would be reached in less than one hour either under light or dark conditions with no aeration.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o consumo de oxigênio dissolvido (OD de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei mantidos em sistema de cultivo de bioflocs bacterianos em alta densidade e ausência de aeração. Três garrafas de 4 L foram preenchidas para cada tratamento, fechadas hermeticamente e colocadas em sistema de cultivo fechado. Quatro camarões (13,2±1,42 g foram colocados em dois dos conjuntos de garrafas. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: luminosidade, sem camarões; escuro, sem camarões; luminosidade, com camarões; escuro, com camarões. A concentração de oxigênio dissolvido foi determinada a cada 10 min durante 30 min. Foi

  19. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Formulated Diets Containing Different Levels of Poultry by-Product Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Shuyan; TAN Beiping; MAI Kangsen; ZHENG Shixuan

    2009-01-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture ofLitopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower (P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  20. Sequencing and de novo analysis of the hemocytes transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size = 520 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3% genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 14,941 (63.4% unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

  1. Cloning, identification and functional analysis of a β-catenin homologue from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Shi, Lili; L, Kai; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-07-01

    Wnt signaling is known to control multiple of cellular processes such as cell differentiation, communication, apoptosis and proliferation, and is also reported to play a role during microbial infection. β-catenin is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling cascade. In the present study, we cloned and identified a β-catenin homologue from Litopenaeus vannamei termed Lvβ-catenin. The full-length of Lvβ-catenin transcript was 2797 bp in length within a 2451 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a protein of 816 amino acids. Lvβ-catenin protein was comprised of several characteristic domains such as an N-terminal region of GSK-β consensus phosphorylation site and Coed coil section, a central region of 12 continuous Armadillo/β-Catenin-like repeat (ARM) domains and a C-terminal region. Real-time PCR showed Lvβ-catenin expression was responsive to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Dual-reporter analysis showed that over-expression of Lvβ-catenin could induce activation of the promoter activities of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as shrimp PEN4, suggesting that Lvβ-catenin could play a role in regulating the production of AMPs. Knockdown of Lvβ-catenin enhanced the sensitivity of shrimps to V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV challenge, suggesting Lvβ-catenin could play a positive role against bacterial and viral pathogens. In summary, the results presented in this study provided some insights into the function of Wnt/β-catenin of shrimp in regulating AMPs and the host defense against invading pathogens. PMID:27036405

  2. A Dicer-1 gene from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: expression pattern in the processes of immune response and larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuemei; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Dong, Chaohua; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Limei; Shi, Yaohua; Zhao, Jianmin; Bi, Yongkun

    2010-10-01

    Dicer is a member of the RNAase III family which catalyzes the cleavage of double-stranded RNA to small interfering RNAs and micro RNAs, and then directs sequence-specific gene silencing. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of Dicer-1 was cloned from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvDcr1). It was of 7636 bp, including a poly A tail, a 5' UTR of 136 bp, a 3' UTR of 78 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 7422 bp encoding a putative protein of 2473 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence comprised all recognized functional domains found in other Dicer-1 homologues and showed the highest (97.7%) similarity to the Dicer-1 from tiger shrimp Penaeus mondon. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the tissue distribution of LvDcr1 mRNA, and its expression in shrimps under virus challenge and larvae at different developmental stages. The LvDcr1 mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with the highest expression level in hemocyte, and was up-regulated in hemocytes and gills after virus injection. These results indicated that LvDcr1 was involved in antiviral defense in adult shrimp. During the developmental stages from fertilized egg to postlarva VII, LvDcr1 was constitutively expressed at all examined development stages, but the expression level varied significantly. The highest expression level was observed in fertilized eggs and followed a decrease from fertilized egg to nauplius I stage. Then, the higher levels of expression were detected at nauplius V and postlarva stages. LvDcr1 expression regularly increased at the upper phase of nauplius, zoea and mysis stages than their prophase. The different expression of LvDcr1 in the larval stages could provide clues for understanding the early innate immunity in the process of shrimp larval development.

  3. Efecto de Debaryomyces hansenii en la respuesta antioxidante de juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    María Pacheco M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la respuesta antioxidante [actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD y catalasa (CAT] así como la cuenta total de hemocitos (CTH y el contenido de proteínas (CP en camarones (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes dosis y cepas de la levadura Debaryomyces hansenii (DH5, DH6, LL1, y un inmunoestimulante comercial (LAM. Materiales y métodos. Las levaduras fueron cultivadas y suministradas diariamente en concentraciones diferentes (104 – 106 UFC/mL directamente a los tanques de cultivo de los camarones (8 ± 0.2 g mientras que LAM fue aplicado una vez a la semana (0.5 mg/L. Los organismos fueron mantenidos bajo condiciones de laboratorio (28°C, 35%, 80% de recambio diario de agua, dieta comercial para camarón ad libitum. Los tratamientos fueron distribuidos por duplicado y los resultados evaluados a los 15 días con un análisis de varianza y una prueba de Tukey. Resultados. Se registró un CTH significativo (p<0.05 en los tratamientos con DH6 y LL1 (106 UFC/mL comparada con el control, mientras que las cepas DH5 y DH6 revelaron un incremento significativo (p<0.05 de CP con la dosis de 104 UFC/mL. Los camarones tratados con LAM incrementaron significativamente (p<0.05 los valores de SOD y CAT. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que D. hansenii incrementa la respuesta antioxidante y CTH en camarones.

  4. Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

    2013-12-01

    The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores.

  5. Hemolymph cells apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran, exposed to white spot virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeliha Selamoglu Talas; Mehmet Fuat Gulhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To show hemolymph apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran. Methods: One hundred and eighty shrimps [(7.98±0.54) g] which were collected from a research shrimp farm located in Heleh site in north of Bushehr Province were distributed equally to 6 glass aquariums (50 cmí50 cmí60 cm) as group A in triplicate (imported batch in 2011, without crossing with other generations) with well clean aerated sea water (100 L per aquarium), salinity of 40 ‰ and temperature of 29 °C. Shrimps of group B (produced by crossing the adults of imported batches in 2009 up to 2011) were distributed also among 6 aquariums with the same conditions. Both shrimp groups were injected with concentration of LD50=1í105.4 white spot virus.Results:exposure and reached 100% after 36 h but no mortality was occurred up to 15 d in shrimps of group B. The slide evaluation of hemolymph of group B showed an increasing trend of apoptosis occurrence in all three types of hemolymph cells, hyalinocytes, semi-granulocytes and granulocytes from 24 h to 72 h in contrary to group A that not any apoptosis was observed during the course of the study (15 d). The results showed that in group A, the mortality began approximately 24 h after Conclusions: It is concluded that crossing among the specific pathogen free generations could induce the increasing immunity level through apoptosis to protect them against white spot disease.

  6. Injected phage-displayed-VP28 vaccine reduces shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mortality by white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Lucero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández-López, J; Ascencio, F

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen for the global shrimp industry causing mass mortalities with huge economic losses. Recombinant phages are capable of expressing foreign peptides on viral coat surface and act as antigenic peptide carriers bearing a phage-displayed vaccine. In this study, the full-length VP28 protein of WSSV, widely known as potential vaccine against infection in shrimp, was successfully cloned and expressed on M13 filamentous phage. The functionality and efficacy of this vaccine immunogen was demonstrated through immunoassay and in vivo challenge studies. In ELISA assay phage-displayed VP28 was bind to Litopenaeus vannamei immobilized hemocyte in contrast to wild-type M13 phage. Shrimps were injected with 2 × 10(10) cfu animal(-1) single dose of VP28-M13 and M13 once and 48 h later intramuscularly challenged with WSSV to test the efficacy of the vaccine against the infection. All dead challenged shrimps were PCR WSSV-positive. The accumulative mortality of the vaccinated and challenged shrimp groups was significantly lower (36.67%) than the unvaccinated group (66.67%). Individual phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assayed on 8 and 48 h post-vaccination. No significant difference was found in those immunological parameters among groups at any sampled time evaluated. For the first time, phage display technology was used to express a recombinant vaccine for shrimp. The highest percentage of relative survival in vaccinated shrimp (RPS = 44.99%) suggest that the recombinant phage can be used successfully to display and deliver VP28 for farmed marine crustaceans.

  7. Fraccionamiento del aceite de hígado de tiburón azul (Prionace glauca y su estabilización con antioxidantes

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    Pacheco, M. T. B.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil was obtained by boiling (75°C /15 min mashed livers of the blue shark (Prionace glauca. The crude oil was dry fractionated and the oxidative stability of both the crude oil and it's fractions (olein and stearin was evaluated using the Rancimat method (80°C; 2.5 g sample; 20L/h air flow. The efficiency of the following antioxidants, Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT, Tertiary Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ, Ascorbil Palmitate (PA, ANTRACINE 220 (TBHQ + citric acid. TOCOMIX D (α and γ tocopherols and RENOXAN A (Ascorbil Palmitate + Lecitin + α tocopherol, were tested in various concentrations. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 28% in the whole crude oil; 24% in the stearin fraction and 33% in the olein; the oxidative stability was inversely related to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. TBHQ was the most efficient antioxidant in crude oil as well as in the fractions. Treatment with the natural antioxidant RENOXAN A was also highly efficient, though less so than TBHQ.

    Hígados triturados de tiburón azul (Prionace glauca fueron sometidos a cocimiento (75°C x 15 min para obtención del aceite crudo. El aceite fue caracterizado y fraccionado por cristalización en seco. La concentración de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados fue del 28% en el aceite crudo, 24% en la estearina y 33% en la oleina. En el aceite y sus fracciones se determinó la estabilidad oxidativa por el método Rancimat (80°C, 2,5g muestra y 20L/h aire. La eficiencia del BHT, TBHQ, Ascorbil palmitato puros y los antioxidantes comerciales formulados Antracine 220, Tocomix D y Renoxan A fue determinada a diversas concentraciones. El antioxidante TBHQ fue el más eficiente entre los sintéticos. Renoxan A (antioxidante natural mostró alta eficicencia, pero menor que el TBHQ.

  8. Evaluación del ADN espermático de llamas utilizando azul de toluidina Evaluation of llama sperm dna using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I Carretero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El colorante azul de toluidina (AT se une al ADN permitiendo diferenciar espermatozoides de acuerdo al grado de condensación de la cromatina. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: poner a punto una técnica que evalúe la condensación de la cromatina espermática de llama, determinar los patrones de condensación para la especie mediante la tinción con AT y determinar si es posible utilizar ditíotreitol (DTT como control positivo de la tinción. Se ensayaron 2 tiempos de fijación de las muestras con etanol 96 º (2 y 30 minutos y 3 tiempos de incubación con DTT al 1% (30 seg, 1,5 min y 3 min. Los patrones de coloración observados fueron: coloración celeste (negativos, sin alteración en la condensación normal de la cromatina, violeta claro (intermedios, algún grado de descondensación, violeta oscuro (positivos, alto grado de descondensación. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de fijación tanto en las muestras con y sin DTT. En conclusión, se logró simplificar la técnica de AT y determinar los diferentes patrones en espermatozoides de llama. Se comprobó que la incubación con DTT se puede utilizar como control positivo de la técnica y para evaluar la susceptibilidad de cada individuo a la descondensación in vitro.Toluidine blue stain (TB binds to DNA, allowing differentiation of spermatozoa according to the degree of chromatin condensation. The objectives of this study were to adapt a technique for evaluating sperm chromatin in llamas, determine chromatin condensation patterns in llamas using TB and determine if it is possible to use dithiothreitol (DTT as a positive control for the stain. Two fixation times with ethanol 96° (2 and 30 minutes and 3 incubation times with 1% DTT (30 s, 1.5 min and 3 min were studied. Staining patterns observed were: light blue (negative, without alteration in the normal chromatin condensation, light violet (intermediate, some degree of decondensation, dark violet

  9. Lanteri, Sol, Un vecindario federal. La construcción del orden rosista en la frontera sur de Buenos Aires (Azul y Tapalqué, Centro de Estudios Históricos “Prof. Carlos S. A. Segreti”-CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina, 2011, 351 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Martirén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lanteri, Sol, Un vecindario federal. La construcción del orden rosista en la frontera sur de Buenos Aires (Azul y Tapalqué, Centro de Estudios Históricos “Prof. Carlos S. A. Segreti”-CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina, 2011, 351 pp.

  10. Acesso ao alimento artificial e enchimento do trato digestivo de juvenis do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae durante as fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Artificial food access and digestive tract filling of juvenil marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae during light and dark phases in 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento alimentar do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 com relação ao alimento artificial ofertado em bandejas poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, resultando no desperdício da ração, no aporte desnecessário de nutrientes, e conseqüente aumento dos custos com a alimentação e da poluição ambiental potencial desta atividade. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram realizados estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01g, mantidos em densidade populacional de 33 m², submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, em ciclo invertido, para observação durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi ofertada em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se posteriormente através de método focal contínuo: a latência para chegada à bandeja, b latência para consumo do alimento e c Índice de Enchimento do Trato Digestivo. Os animais foram mais rápidos para chegar à bandeja e também para iniciar o consumo do alimento nos horários da fase clara. O enchimento do trato digestivo mostrou-se superior na meia hora subsequente à oferta do alimento, especialmente nos horários da fase clara.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to feed offer in trays can result inadequate feeding by the animal, feed wastage and unnecessary nutrient input, increasing feed costs and potential environmental pollution of that culture. In order to provide tools for improved feed management methods in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was conducted, using 64 Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01g, one animal per 33 m². They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register behavior during light and dark phases. The following variables were registered (continuous sampling after feed exposition: a latency to access the

  11. Biorremediación de los efluentes de cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 utilizando tapetes microbianos en un sistema de recirculación Bioremediacion of effluents ones of the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 using microbial mats in a recirculating system

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    Carlos Lezama-Cervantes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un sistema de recirculación (SR integrando el cultivo del camarón con tapetes microbianos buscando mitigar los impactos ambientales de los subproductos del cultivo del camarón y avanzar hacia la biorremediación del agua de cultivo. Los consorcios microbianos obtenidos de ambientes naturales (TaM estuvieron constituidos por bacterias (55,6%, cianófitas (18,4%, diatomeas (9%, nemátodos (5,6% y clorófitas (1,4%, entre los grupos taxonómicos principales. La remoción de nutrientes y sólidos se evaluó en un SR (2 ciclos/hora conteniendo (n = 3 60 y 120 ind m-2 de Litopenaeus vannamei. Los resultados demostraron que los TaM redujeron los niveles de nitrógeno amoniacal por encima del 71% diariamente; la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno (DBO5 se redujo más de 68% y los sólidos suspendidos (SST hasta en 62% al compararse con los sistemas control (p 0,05. El agua bio-remediada tiene un efecto positivo en el cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, y promueve el crecimiento y sobrevivencia en presencia de TaM en el SR.We developed a recirculating system integrating shrimp culture with microbial mats aiming to mitigate the environmental impacts of by-products from shrimp culture and to advance toward the bioremediation of the shrimp culture water. The microbial consortia collected from natural environments (TaM was constituted by bacteria (55.6%, Cyanophyte (18.4%, diatoms (9%, nematods (5.6% and Chlorophyte algae (1.4% among the major taxonomic groups. The removal of nutrients and solids by these mats was assessed in a recirculating system (2 cycles/hour (n = 3 containing 60 and 120 ind m-2 of Litopenaeus vannamei. Results showed that the microbial mat reduces daily up to 71% of ammonia nitrogen, decreases around 68% of the biochemical oxygen demand (DBO5 and up to 62% of suspended solids (SST when comparing to the control systems (p 0.05. The Bioremediated culture water had a positive effect on the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei, and

  12. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem = Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (pLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, withdifferent concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p<0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  13. Los macroinvertebrados bentónicos de pozo azul (Cuenca del río Gaira, Colombia y su relación con la calidad del agua The Benthonic Macroinvertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Colombia and their Relationship with Water Quality

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    Manjarrés-Hernández Ana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En julio de 2002 se realizó el estudio de algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y la estructura de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados bentónicos asociados a cuatro coriotipos (piedra, hojarasca, sedimento y macrófitas en el sector de Pozo Azul sobre la cuenca del río Gaira (Magdalena, Colombia. Se discute la relación entre la estructura de la comunidad y la calidad del agua del sector. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos estuvieron determinados en gran medida por las características geográficas del sistema. El agua se caracterizó por estar saturada de oxígeno y por la ausencia de compuestos intermedios de la estabilización de la materia orgánica como nitritos y amonio. Se colectaron 588 individuos distribuidos en 11 órdenes y 38 familias. Los órdenes más representativos fueron Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera y Ephemeroptera, siendo el último de ellos el más abundante. Las familias más representativas fueron Baetidae, Simullidae, Perlidae, Chironomidae e Hydropsychidae, en ese mismo orden de abundancia. Para la relación de la estructura de la comunidad con la calidad del agua se calculó el índice BMWP, adaptado por la Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia, que estableció para este caso un agua de óptima calidad y oligosapróbita, según la ecología sapróbita, estado alcanzado luego de la estabilización frente a pequeñas alteraciones inducidas por las actividades del cultivo del café en la zona.On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macroinvertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Magdalena, Colombia. The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were

  14. Inibição da guanilato ciclase pelo azul de metileno no choque circulatório causado por pancreatite aguda necrosante: uma palavra de cuidado embasada em modelo suíno

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    Caroline Floreoto Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar o uso terapêutico do bloqueio da guanilato ciclase pelo azul de metileno em um modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em suínos. MÉTODOS: a pancreatite aguda necrotizante foi induzida em porcos anestesiados por infusão ductal pancreática retrógrada de 1ml/kg de taurocolato de sódio a 5% e 8U/kg de enteroquinase. Três grupos foram estudados (n=5: controle (C, pancreatite (PA, "bolus" de azul seguido por pancreatite (AM+PA. Os dados incluíram enzimas séricas e do líquido abdominal, variáveis hemodinâmicas, hemogasometria arterial, volume de líquido abdominal, marcadores inflamatórios plasmáticos, nitrito/nitrato e mieloperoxidase e malondialdeído plasmático. Aplicou-se a análise de variância seguida do pós-teste de Bonferroni (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: os valores de amilase e lipase foram três e dez vezes mais elevados no grupo PA. A atividade da mieloperoxidase foi 50% superior no grupo PA. Os dados hemodinâmicos indicaram choque hipovolêmico precoce seguido de choque cardiogênico. Observou-se grave translocação de líquidos para a cavidade peritoneal. A nitrito/nitrato plasmática permaneceu inalterada. O grupo AM+PA teve aumento de cinco vezes do mieloperoxidase em comparação com o grupo C. CONCLUSÕES: a utilização de azul de metileno em suínos com pancreatite não demonstrou efeitos significativos sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas e inflamatórias. Seu uso terapêutico na pancreatite necro-hemorrágica pode ser inadequado e extremo cuidado deve ser tomado dado o aumento da peroxidação lipídica evidenciado pelo aumento dos valores do malondialdeído.

  15. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Swimming Ability and Physiological Response to Swimming Fatigue of Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yan; ZHANG Xiumei; LIU Xuxu; Dhanrajsingh N. Thakur

    2014-01-01

    The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was exam-ined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v1, v2, v3, v4 and v5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (ν·tb=a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI= 90000∫ vdt (cm) , can be described as SAI=27.947 DO0.137 (R2=0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v1, v2, and v3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose con-tent increased significantly at v3, v4 and v5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to under-standing the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its

  16. Real time PCR quantification of WSSV infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to antiviral nucleotide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Badhul Haq; K Kalai Priya; R Rajaram; R Vignesh; M Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) to specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in laboratory captivity condition in relation to PCR detection, histopathological observation and viral genome sequence. Methods: Viral DNA was isolated from purified virions by treatment with proteinase K (0.2 mg/mL) and Sarkosyl (1%). The purity and concentration of the DNA were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moribund and dead shrimp were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis. Histological observation of infected L. vannamei shrimps were revealed by the degenerated cells which were characterized by intranuclear inclusions in the tissues of WSSV infected mid-gut gland, lymphoid organ, gill lamellae and gut epithelium. Total DNA was extracted, from shrimp hemolymph and tissues, with a High Puree PCR template preparation kit. WSSV-DNA was detected using a commercial 2-step PCR detection kit. Results:The present study compares the real-time PCR results with SYBR Green I concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.7×. The positive standard was used in the range of 102, 104 106, 108 and 1010 copies/ng of DNA in general. The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band of 848 bp. Moderate and severe levels were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 & 2 000 copies) in various transmission routes. The WSSV content in moribund shrimp of all the experimental species (L. vannamei) approximately ranged in nucleotide application by quantification method from 0.000 001 WSSV copies/μg of total DNA. In whole moribund infection animal, approximately 0.02 WSSV copies/μg of DNA was detected in nucleotide applied animal. Conclusion: These results indicate that wild brood stock and native culture shrimp P. monodon may be infected with WSSV and can get transferred into the SPF L. vannamei farming

  17. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhengfu; DONG Chaohua; WANG Linlin; HU Yanjiang; ZHU Wei

    2013-01-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg),and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated.Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg.The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%,2.11%,and 1.70% of total diet),and three Arg levels (1.41%,1.80%,and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested.Pacific white shrimp,with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g,were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days.After the feeding trial,the growth performance,survival,feed conversion rate (FCR),body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined.The results show that weight gain (WG),specific growth rate (SGR),FCR,body protein,body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg (P<0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,respectively.Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Therefore,according to our results,the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp,L.vannamei,were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,respectively,and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  18. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei por sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae Treatment of Litopenaeus vannamei farming effluents by sedimentation and oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A escala de laboratorio se evaluaron las eficiencias de remoción del material particulado y nutrientes disueltos desde efluentes de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, utilizando un sistema combinado de dos fases, sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae, empleando tres tiempos de retención hidráulica (TRH del efluente, 6, 12 y 24 h. En la fase de sedimentación, se emplearon estanques de 100 L en los cuales fueron colocados 90 L de efluente. En la fase de filtración, se utilizaron estanques de 50 L en los cuales se colocaron 20 L del efluente sobrenadante correspondiente a cada TRH de la fase de sedimentación. Cada unidad experimental de la fase de filtración fue sembrada con 15 ejemplares adultos de ostras con un peso promedio de 80 g manteniendo una biomasa de 1.200 g estanque-1 . Se utilizó un estanque control para cada TRH, conteniendo solamente conchas de ostras sin animal. Los resultados indicaron que en la fase de sedimentación el mejor desempeño fue alcanzado en el tiempo de 24 h, con 56,1% de remoción para la turbidez, 36,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales, la DB0(5 con 31,0% y el amonio con 21,4%. En la fase de filtración, la mayor eficiencia de remoción fue alcanzada en el tiempo de 6 h, con valores de 62,1% para la turbidez, 69,4% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 35,4% para los sólidos volátiles totales, 100% para la clorofila a y 17,2% para la DB0(5, en relación a los valores del estanque control. En esta fase, el amonio presentó un aumento en su concentración en todos los TRH. Calculadas las eficiencias de remoción con las dos fases integradas: sedimentación y filtración, en el tiempo de 6 h, en relación al efluente bruto, el desempeño mejoró significativamente alcanzando valores de 69,3% para la turbidez, 69,0% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 41,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales y 100% para la clorofila a.Efficiency in removing particulate matter and dissolved

  19. Amazônia Azul

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Em 2004 era empregada, pela primeira vez, a expressão “Amazônia Azul” para designar parte da área marítima no Atlântico Sul sob domínio soberano do Brasil, estabelecida em conformidade com os preceitos da “III Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre o Direito no Mar”. Esta convenção deu origem ao mais importante documento que rege, no âmbito da ordem mundial, a questão dos direitos e deveres relacionados ao mar. A expressão “Amazônia Azul” foi concebida pela Marinha do Brasil, com o propós...

  20. A hemocyte-expressed fibrinogen-related protein gene (LvFrep) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Expression analysis after microbial infection and during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Barreto, Cairé; Silveira, Amanda da Silva; Vieira, Graziela Cleusa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria

    2016-09-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprise a large family of microbial recognition proteins involved in many biological functions in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. By taking advantage of publicly accessible databases, we have identified a FREP-like homolog in the most cultivated penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFrep). The obtained sequence showed a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and displayed significant similarities to FREP-like proteins from other invertebrates and to ficolins from crustaceans. The expression of LvFrep appeared to be limited to circulating hemocytes. Interestingly, LvFrep gene expression was induced in shrimp hemocytes only in response to a Vibrio infection but not to the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, LvFrep transcript levels were detected early in fertilized eggs, suggesting the participation of this immune-related gene in the antimicrobial defenses during shrimp development. PMID:27380968

  1. A hemocyte-expressed fibrinogen-related protein gene (LvFrep) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Expression analysis after microbial infection and during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Barreto, Cairé; Silveira, Amanda da Silva; Vieira, Graziela Cleusa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria

    2016-09-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprise a large family of microbial recognition proteins involved in many biological functions in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. By taking advantage of publicly accessible databases, we have identified a FREP-like homolog in the most cultivated penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFrep). The obtained sequence showed a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and displayed significant similarities to FREP-like proteins from other invertebrates and to ficolins from crustaceans. The expression of LvFrep appeared to be limited to circulating hemocytes. Interestingly, LvFrep gene expression was induced in shrimp hemocytes only in response to a Vibrio infection but not to the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, LvFrep transcript levels were detected early in fertilized eggs, suggesting the participation of this immune-related gene in the antimicrobial defenses during shrimp development.

  2. First report on White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV infection in white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae under semi intensive culture condition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunalan Balakrishnan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly inAndrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Continuous success of shrimp culture was affected by mass mortalities ofcultured shrimp in 1994. Thereafter disease infection on survival and production of shrimps get itsimportance in culture. The present study is the first report on WSSV (white spot syndrome virusinfection in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in India. WSSV infection was observed on 70thdays of culture due to cross contamination of white spot infected shrimp from the neighboring farmbecause of birds. Due to this infection within two days the mortality ratio has gone up to 25% in pond 1and 12% in pond 2. So this present study strongly recommends to every shrimp farmers to go for birdfencing & crab fencing to avoid horizontal contamination, before stocking the good quality seed, thenthey will have the risk free WSSV culture.

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DA REFRIGERAÇÃO NA PRESERVAÇÃO DO NÚMERO TOTAL DE HEMÓCITOS DE CAMARÕES MARINHOS Litopenaeus vannamei CULTIVADOS UTILIZANDO-SE CITRATO DE SÓDIO

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    Andréa Christianne Gomes Barretto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For carrying out blood cell count, the use anti-coagulants is necessary, and in the specific case of the hemolymph in shrimp, there is still no standard solution to avoid its coagulation. Sodium citrate is frequently used as anti-coagulant, because it has been previously proven to be efficient in the preservation of the hemocytes of the sea shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In 140 samples of hemolymph with sodium citrate (10% in the ratio of 1:1, collected at 2 stages of cultivation, in dry and wet season, were examined for HTC immediately after collection and then again after storage in the refrigerator. All data were analyzed using modeling mathematics formulas (P < 0.05. After storage in the refrigerator, the number of cells decreased considerably. Therefore, the anticoagulant sodium citrate only preserved the hemolymph of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei for HTC when the count was done immediately after collection.

  4. Pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela em câncer gástrico com o corante azul patente Sentinel lymph node mapping in gastric cancer using patent blue dye

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    Márcio Fernando Boff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a factibilidade e os resultados de uma técnica pouco invasiva para a pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela (LFNsn com o uso do corante vital azul patente. MÉTODO: A pesquisa do LFNsn foi realizada em 12 pacientes portadores de adenocarcinoma gástrico que não apresentavam linfonodos suspeitos de metastases durante o estadiamento clínico pré-operatório. Injetou-se nos quatro quadrantes do tumor, 0,5 ml de corante vital azul patente. Os linfonodos que se coraram de azul foram classificados como LFNsn e foram obtidos após a gastrectomia com linfadenectomia D2. Utilizou-se a coloração HE para avaliação anatomopatológica dos LFNsn, e nos casos com LFNsn negativo para HE, foi realizada imuno-histoquímica com pan-citoqueratinas AE1/AE3. RESULTADOS: Dos 12 pacientes, oito eram mulheres, com média de idade de 64,5 (48-87 anos. Identificaram-se em média 3,25 (2-6 LFNsn por paciente. A factibilidade da técnica foi de 100%. A acurácia do método foi de 91,6% . Em 11 de 12 casos foi possível predizer as características linfonodais regionais pela concordância da análise anatomopatológica entre os LFNsn e não sentinelas(LFNñsn. CONCLUSÃO: A pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela em câncer gástrico é factível com o uso da técnica do corante azul patente. O método mostrou ser promissor como técnica minimamente invasiva para estadiar tumores gástricos, nesta casuística inicial.BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the feasibility of using vital blue dye to map sentinel lymph nodes (SLN in gastric cancer using a minimally invasive technique. METHODS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed on 12 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma that did not have metastatic lymph nodes during clinical staging. Vital blue dye was injected around four quadrants of the tumor, 0.5 ml in each quadrant. The lymph nodes that stained blue 5 minutes after dye injection were classified as SLN. Histopathological analysis of the sentinel lymph

  5. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com dexametasona e azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collares Edgard Ferro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O óxido nítrico pode estar envolvido no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico produzido pelo lipopolissacarídio bacteriano. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré-tratamento com a dexametasona, bloqueadora da indução do óxido nítrico-sintetase induzida e com o azul de metileno, que bloqueia a guanilato-ciclase, inibe as óxido nítrico-sintetases e inativa o óxido nítrico, sobre o retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio em ratos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos, ''specific patogen free'', após 24 horas de jejum alimentar. No pré-tratamento foram empregadas, via intravenosa, soluções de dexametasona (3 e 6 mg/kg, azul de metileno (2 mg/kg e veículo estéril. O tratamento constou da administração, via intravenosa, de lipopolissacarídio (50 mig/kg e veículo. O intervalo entre o pré-tratamento e o tratamento foi de 10 minutos, exceto no estudo com dexametasona 6 mg/kg, que foi de 1 hora. O intervalo entre a administração do lipopolissacarídio e a avaliação do esvaziamento gástrico foi de 1 hora, exceto nos dois estudos com dexametasona 3 mg/kg que foram de 2 e 8 horas. O esvaziamento gástrico foi avaliado, indiretamente, através da determinação da percentagem de retenção gástrica de solução salina marcada com fenol vermelho. RESULTADOS: Os valores de retenção gástrica, nos animais pré-tratados com dexametasona ou azul de metileno e tratados com veículo, não diferiram significativamente dos observados nos que receberam veículo nos dois momentos. Os animais pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com lipopolissacarídio apresentaram valores de retenção gástrica significativamente mais elevados que nos controles. O pré-tratamento com dexametasona não interferiu no aumento da retenção gástrica determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio, nas primeiras 2 horas após administração da endotoxina. Oito horas após a administração da endotoxina, foi

  6. La última baja de la División Azul (de la metralla al hepatocarcinoma The last casualty of 250 Wehrmacht Division (Blue Division (from shrapnel to liver carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lisbona Gil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí el caso clínico y evolución de un cabo de la División Azul, que habiendo sido herido en el frente ruso, sector de Nitlikino, por metralla, el 5 de diciembre de 1941, falleció cincuenta y un años más tarde como consecuencia probablemente de dicha herida.We present the case of a corporal belonging to 250 Wehrmacht Division (Blau Division, that after he was hurt by shrapnel in the Russia front during the II World War, fifth of December 1941, he died fifty one years later, owing probably to that wound.

  7. Size-composition of Annual Landings in the White Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, Fishery of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1960–2006: Its Trend and Relationships with Other Fishery-dependent Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Nance, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The potential for growth overfishing in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, fishery of the northern Gulf of Mexico appears to have been of limited concern to Federal or state shrimp management entities, following the cataclysmic drop in white shrimp abundance in the 1940’s. As expected from surplus production theory, a decrease in size of shrimp in the annual landings accompanies increasing fishing effort, and can eventually reduce the value of the landings. Growth overfishing can exa...

  8. Mecanismos de deformación en la transición milonitas/striped gneiss y milonitas/ ultramilonitas en las sierras de Azul, cratón del Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Frisicale

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En el extremo occidental de la megacizalla de Azul se identificaron una serie de rocas miloníticas que presentan un grado de deformación variable e incluyen protomilonitas, milonitas, ribbon mylonites, striped gneisses y ultramilonitas. Se examinaron en forma detallada los mecanismos de deformación actuantes sobre los minerales principales de estas rocas, como feldespatos, cuarzo, anfíboles y piroxenos. El análisis de los mecanismos de deformación permitió realizar una estimación del grado metamórfico alcanzado en este sector de la zona de cizalla. Así se reconocen claramente dos áreas con diferente grado metamórfico, una en la que la deformación se habría producido en facies de anfibolita a granulita (temperaturas superiores a 600° y que se reconoce en los afloramientos del sector norte, cerro Negro y manantiales de Pereda; y una segunda área, que incluye los afloramientos de las estancias La Manuela y La Chiquita, donde la deformación, de menor intensidad, se desarrolló bajo condiciones de facies de esquistos verdes. Asimismo se analizaron los indicadores cinemáticos macro y microscópicos tales como estructuras S-C, granos rígidos fragmentados, porfiroclastos rotados y estructuras del tipo mineral-fish, con la finalidad de determinar el sentido de movimiento de las masas rocosas en esta área particular, y compararlo con los resultados existentes para el resto de la megacizalla de Azul.

  9. - Bacillus anthracis, utilización de un Sistema de Información Geográfico (SIG, para el análisis espacio temporal de 54 brotes de carbunclo rural en el partido de Azul, Bs. As., Argentina (Bacillus anthracis, use of a Geographical infoormation Service (GIS, for the temporary space analysis of 54 outbreaks of rural anthax in the county of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez P.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El objeto de este trabajo es utilizar un Sistema de Información Geográfico (SIG para el análisis epidemiológico del Carbunclo Rural aplicado a un ecosistema ganadero, integrado por 618.000 bovinos, distribuidos en 1.350 establecimientos del partido de Azul, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Esto permitió estudiar hechos epidemiológicos de una enfermedad de antigua data como es el Carbunclo Rural. Su agente causal el Bacillus anthracis, posee la característica de formar esporos que permite mantenerse durante decenas de años en el ambiente com capacidad de transmitir la enfermedad a otrois animales susceptibles. Se describe la metodología para su diagnóstico y los distintos elementos que integran el Sistema de Información Geográfico. Los 54 brotes identificados entre los años 1989 / 2005 fueron georreferenciados para posteriormente relacionarlos con las vías de avenamiento de aguas del partido de Azul, lãs características de sus suelos y la ubicación de las poblaciones de las poblaciones rurales que comparten la zona de isorriesgo. Se plantea un sistema de alerta epidemiológico temprano para establecimientos ganaderos que comparten vías de avenamiento de agua en común con el brote de Carbunclo diagnosticado. El 93 % de los brotes ocurrieron en establecimientos que comparten vías de avenamiento, mientras que el 7 % restante en establecimientos ganaderos ubicados fuera del área de influencia de estas vías Summary. The objjective of this study was the use of a Geographical Information Service (GIS for the epidemiologiacal analysis of rural Anthrax applied to a catle ecosystem, which includes 618.000 cattle, distributed on 1.350 farms in the county of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This allowed studying long past epidemiological occurrences of a disease such as rural carbuncle Its causing egent is Bacillus anthracis, which has the property of forming spores That permit being maintained dozens of years in

  10. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei);Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama e de refrigeracao na conservacao do camarao-branco-do-pacifico (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-07-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g{sup -1} for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found

  11. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g-1 for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found in

  12. Conteúdo estomacal dos tubarões azul (Prinace glauca) e anequim (Isurus oxyrinchus) em águas oceânicas no sul do Brasil Stomach content of blue sharks (Prinace glauca) and anequim (Isurus oxyrinchus) from oceanic waters of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    TEODORO VASKE-JÚNIOR; GETÚLIO RINCÓN-FILHO

    1998-01-01

    Os tubarões azul e anequim são as duas principais espécies de elasmobrânquios pelágicos que foram capturadas com freqüência pelos barcos atuneiros nacionais que operaram no sul do Brasil durante o segundo e terceiro trimestres, e que utilizam o espinhel como arte de pesca. Foram coletados 68 estômagos de tubarão azul e 32 estômagos de anequim entre agosto de 1990 e junho de 1991. Os resultados das análises dos conteúdos são apresentados na forma de diagramas IRI (Índice de Relativa Importânci...

  13. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry Efeito das lentes intraoculares asféricas e com pigmentação amarela na campimetria azul-amarelo

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    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possibilidade de efeitos na sensibilidade ao contraste e nos resultados da campimetria azul-amarelo com implante de uma lente intraocular (LIO asférica ou de pigmentação amarela. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-mascarado, envolvendo 52 pacientes portadores de catarata senil bilateral, divididos em dois grupos; 25

  14. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  15. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  16. Genetic improvement strategy in small aquaculture industries : the new caledonian shrimp experience

    OpenAIRE

    Goyard, Emmanuel; Goarant, Cyrille; Brun, Pierre; Herlin, Jose; Pham, Dominique; Beliaeff, Benoit; Harache, Yves; Loubersac, Lionel; Patrois, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Shrimp farming in New Caledonia relies on the culture of a domesticated strain of Litopenaeus stylirostris introduced from Mexico at a time when genetic principles were of little or no consideration. Since then, advances in agriculture and for some aquatic species of importance led caledonian shrimp farmers to reconsider the appropriateness of a genetic improvement strategy adapted to local biotechnical and economical constraints. This questioning involves many different and interrelated aspe...

  17. Virulence of an emerging pathogenic lineage of Vibrio nigripulchritudo is dependent on two plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, Frédérique; Labreuche, Yannick; Davis, Brigid M.; Iqbal, Naeem; Mangenot, Sophie; Goarant, Cyrille; Mazel, Didier; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Vibrioses are the predominant bacterial infections in marine shrimp farms. Vibrio nigripulchritudo is an emerging pathogen of the cultured shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in New Caledonia and other regions in the Indo-Pacific. The molecular determinants of V. nigripulchritudo pathogenicity are unknown; however, molecular epidemiological studies have revealed that recent pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo isolates from New Caledonia all cluster into a monophyletic clade and contain a small...

  18. Quantification of Vibrio penaeicida, the etiological agent of Syndrome 93 in New Caledonian shrimp, by real-time PCR using SYBR Green I chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Merien, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a small but growing industry in New Caledonia. Since 1993, "Syndrome 93" has been affecting New Caledonian shrimp farming industry every cold season, causing severe epizootic mortalities in grow-out ponds and significant losses. Highly pathogenic strains of Vibrio penaeicida are considered the etiological agent of the disease in Litopenaeus stylirostris. On one hand, studies demonstrated that healthy shrimp may carry V penaeicida for weeks with a high overall prevalence, reg...

  19. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    González-Galaviz José Reyes; Rodriguez-Anaya Libia Zulema; Molina-Garza Zinnia Judith; Ibarra-Gámez José Cuauhtémoc; Galaviz-Silva Lucio

    2013-01-01

    White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV) isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris), crabs (Callinectes arcuatus) and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei) in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and s...

  20. Proteinaceous exotoxins of shrimp-pathogenic isolates of Vibrio penaeicida and Vibrio nigripulchritudo

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre-Guzman, Gabriel; Labreuche, Yannick; Ansquer, Dominique; Espiau, Benoit; Levy, Peva; Ascencio, Felipe; Saulnier, Denis

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two V. penaeicida strains, AM101 and KH-1, with different geographic origin, and V. nigripulchritudo strain AM102, were investigated in juvenile blue shrimp species Litopenaeus stylirostris. Alive bacteria and protein fractions (PFs) obtained from cell-free supernatants (CFS) were used in experimental challenges. Strains AM102, AM101, and KH-1 produced respectively 60, 54 and 12% mortality at 96h after infection using 104 cfu mL-1 of bacterial suspension. Exocellular toxi...

  1. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerl...

  2. Rapid and sensitive PCR detection of Vibrio penaeicida, the putative etiological agent of syndrome 93 in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Saulnier, Denis; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Le Moullac, Gilles; Ansquer, Dominique; Levy, Peva; Vonau, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Experimental infections of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris were performed with a Vibrio penaeicida strain (AM101) isolated in New Caledonia from Syndrome 93 diseased shrimp. Cumulative mortalities resulting from intramuscular injection or immersion of shrimp in bacterial suspensions demonstrated high virulence for this bacterial strain and suggested that V. penaeicida could be the etiological agent of Syndrome 93. The median lethal dose (LD50) for AM101 was 1.3 x 104 CFU (colony forming un...

  3. Evaluation of floating cages as an experimental tool for marine shrimp culture studies under practical earthen pond conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chim, Liet; Castex, Mathieu; Pham, Dominique; Brun, Pierre; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Schmidely, P; Mariojouls, C.

    2008-01-01

    The New Caledonia blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris is commercially produced under semi-intensive rearing conditions. The size of the farming earthen ponds (5–10 ha) and the subsequent production constraints make it difficult to use them as experimental units for random experiments. Moreover, since every pond has its own characteristics, ponds' effects cannot be ruled out, thus making it hard to define true replicates. In order to design future experiments under conditions resembling those...

  4. Effect of water exchange on effluent and sediment characteristics and on partial nitrogen budget in semi-intensive shrimp ponds in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Lemonnier, Hugues; Faninoz, Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in six earthen ponds with 20 shrimps m(-2) Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) during the warm season in New Caledonia to study the dynamics of wastes in relation with water exchange rate (WER). The nitrogen budget was established, taking into account the different forms of nitrogen in the water, sediment, feed and shrimp. Data from a wide range of treatments applied in unreplicated ponds were treated using regression analysis to establish the relationship between ...

  5. An ecosystem modelling approach to deriving viable harvest strategies for multispecies management of the Northern Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Lecardi, Diego; Arreguín Sánchez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    An ecosystem analysis was developed focusing on resource exploitation and biodiversity conservation for the Northern Gulf of California. The main tools employed were a trophic ecosystem model and time dynamic simulations. The ecosystem was represented by an Ecopath model that included 34 functional groups, from primary producers to top predators. It included relevant species in the area such as commercially important shrimp (e.g. Litopenaeus stylirostris) and highly endangered species (Phocoe...

  6. Evaluación del crecimiento y supervivencia en larvas de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei usando como fuente de alimento microalgas vivas y congeladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifonso Isiordia Pérez:

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen matraces de 1.5 litros de capacidad con 5 El objetivo del presente rabajo fue evaluar el eplicas cada tratamiento. La densidad de efecto de una dieta monoalgal a base de dos microalgas a suministrar fue de 50,000 células presentaciones Tetraselmis sp. (vivas y / mililitro. Conforme mudaban de estadio se congeladas:producto comercial: INLAND hacía conteo de organismos vivos y se media Seafarm® en la supervivencia y crecimiento longitud El mayor porcentaje de supervivencia en larvas de camarón blanco Litopenaeus y crecimiento se registró en las larvas vannamei en estadios larvales desde limentadas con Tetraselmis sp. vivas (97.3 Protozoea 1 (PZ1 a Protozoea 3 (PZ3. El ±4.6 en PZI, 94.1 ± 2.13 en PZ2 y 30.7±12.6 experimento se realizó en las instalaciones del en PZ3. Sin embargo este resultado no es Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y comparable a los obtenidos con otras especies Desarrollo (CIAD, Unidad Mazatlán Sinaloa. El de microalgas como Chaetoceros muelleri e estudio se realizó bajo condiciones controladas Isochrysis galbana. de temperatura (28°C, salinidad (35‰ y fotoperiodo (12 h luz / oscuridad. Se sembraron 150 organismos en nauplio V en

  7. EFEITO DAS ALTAS DENSIDADES DE ESTOCAGEM NO CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Litopenaeus vannamei NA FASE FINAL DE ENGORDA, CULTIVADOS EM SISTEMAS DE BIOFLOCOS (BFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high stocking densities on survival, growth and feed conversion rates of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, in final growout phase, in a Biofloc Technology (BFT culture system, keeping the same water parameters for all treatments. Shrimps (11.96 ± 1.14 g were stocked in microcosms (0.50/m2 tanks, connected to a BFT system raceway. The study was carried out for 45 days. The shrimp were stocked at densities of 150, 300, 450 and 600 shrimp/m2. Bioflocs were collected for analysis of proximate composition. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA, and differences were compared by Tukey test (α = 0.05. In T300 and T450, growth and survival were not affected by high stocking densities. The highest biomass reached (T450 was 5.1kg/m² and the best feed conversion rate was 1.54 in T150. The results of this study indicate that stocking densities in the proposed system can be high, but not exceeding 450 shrimp/m². Furthermore, even maintaining the same water parameters for all treatments, there was a negative effect between density and shrimp growth, confirming that this effect is behavioral.

  8. Use of oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion to evaluate the sublethal toxicity of cadmium and zinc on Litopenaeus schmitti (Burkenroad, 1936, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison

    2007-06-01

    Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In Brazil, Litopenaeus schmitti (L. schmitti) is a important commercially exploited species and is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of cadmium and zinc to L. schmitti and investigate their effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion, investigations that have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity of cadmium and zinc to L. schmitti 24, 48, 72, and 96-hour medium lethal concentration was examined, which resulted in the following values: 0.98, 0.54, 0.32, and 0.18 mg/L for cadmium and 1.64, 1.22, 0.86, and 0.31 mg/L for zinc. Furthermore, we also found that exposure of shrimp to cadmium and zinc caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 55.92 and 44.09%, respectively, relative to the control. However, after separate exposure to cadmium and zinc, elevations in ammonium excretion were obtained, which were 174.28 and 162.5% higher than the control, respectively.

  9. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  10. Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

    2011-11-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/μg of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/μg in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/μg in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/μg in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

  11. Effect of addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yllana Ferreira-Marinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange systems. Four treatments were considered: zero water exchange (ZWE; ZWE with the addition of feed (ZWE-F; ZWE with the addition of Navicula sp. (ZWE-N and ZWE with the addition of feed and Navicula sp. (ZWE-FN, all in triplicate. Shrimp of 17.7 ± 0.02 mg were stocked at a density of 2500 shrimp m-3 and microalgae added on the 1st, 5th and 15th day at a density of 5x10(4 cell mL-1. The shrimp were fed a commercial feed composed by 42% crude protein four times a day except in the ZWE treatment. For data analysis we used Cochran, Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, Tukey and Student-t tests (P < 0.05. The most frequent genera were: Anabaena, Arcella, Asplanchma, Bosmina, Brachionus, Cylindrotheca, Daphnia, Fragilaria, Hemiaulus, Keratella, Orthoseira, Oscillatoria, Phymatodocis, Rhabdonema, Skeletonema, Sckizothrix and Ulothrix. Significant differences between treatments were observed for TAN, NO2-N, alkalinity, final weight, weight gain, final biomass, biomass gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and survival. The ZWE-FN treatment showed better production parameters, indicating the benefits of the addition of Navicula sp. as a natural food source for L. vannamei postlarvae in zero water exchange systems.

  12. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  13. Comparison of immune response in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after knock down of Toll and IMD gene in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjie; Song, Lei; Sun, Yuhang; Liu, Tao; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways are essential for inducing immune related genes during invasion of pathogens. In the present study, transcripts of eight pathway-related genes in Litopenaeus vannamei, including Toll, IMD, Pelle, IAP1, TRAF6, ALF, Crustin and Penaeidin3 were analyzed to further understand the potential relationship between Toll and IMD pathway. The high transcription levels of TRAF6, Pelle, Toll, IMD and IAP1 in selected tissues indicates their functional roles in Toll and IMD pathways. The increased mRNA expression of Toll and IMD detected in the early stage might suggest the inducible role of Toll and IMD upon bacterial infection. Moreover, the continuous increase of IMD and the high level of Pelle and TRAF6 in Vibrio anguillarum challenged group indicated that Gram-negative bacterium can activate both the Toll and IMD signaling pathway. Silencing of Toll by a dsRNA-mediated RNAi strongly increased the transcripts of IMD, Pelle, TRAF6, IAP1 and Akirin, knocking down of IMD also markedly increased the transcripts of Toll, Pelle, IAP1 and Akirin. Furthermore, ALF expression was significantly increased in response to V. anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge, while the transcripts of Crustin and Pen3 in hemocytes were significantly reduced in V. anguillarum group, but rose significantly following M. lysodeikticus infection. In summary, we speculate that Toll and IMD pathway are not independent in shrimp, but linked to defense against bacterial infection. PMID:26855014

  14. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  15. A Study on the Meat and Bone Meal and Poultry By-product Meal as Protein Substitutes of Fish Meal in Practical Diets for Litopenaeus vannamei Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Baigang; WANG Fuzhen; YU Yu

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal(MBM)and poultry by-product meal(PBM)as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients(ADC)of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain(WG,%), body length gain(BLG,%)and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  16. Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

    2011-11-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/μg of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/μg in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/μg in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/μg in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills.

  17. RNA-Seq reveals the dynamic and diverse features of digestive enzymes during early development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), with high commercial value, has a typical metamorphosis pattern by going through embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae during early development. Its diets change continually in this period, and a high mortality of larvae also occurs in this period. Since there is a close relationship between diets and digestive enzymes, a comprehensive investigation about the types and expression patterns of all digestive enzyme genes during early development of L. vannamei is of considerable significance for shrimp diets and larvae culture. Using RNA-Seq data, the types and expression characteristics of the digestive enzyme genes were analyzed during five different development stages (embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae) in L. vannamei. Among the obtained 66,815 unigenes, 296 were annotated as 16 different digestive enzymes including five types of carbohydrase, seven types of peptidase and four types of lipase. Such a diverse suite of enzymes illustrated the capacity of L. vannamei to exploit varied diets to fit their nutritional requirements. The analysis of their dynamic expression patterns during development also indicated the importance of transcriptional regulation to adapt to the diet transition. Our study revealed the diverse and dynamic features of digestive enzymes during early development of L. vannamei. These results would provide support to better understand the physiological changes during diet transition.

  18. 贮藏过程中凡纳滨对虾生物胺的变化%Changes of biogenic amines in Litopenaeus vannamei during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰; 薛长湖; 赵庆喜; 李兆杰; 薛勇

    2007-01-01

    以邻苯二甲醛(OPA)为柱后衍生化试剂,采用反相HPLC法测定凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)中的酪胺(Tyr)、腐胺(Put)、尸胺(Cad)、组胺(His)、胍丁胺(Agm)、精胺(Spe)和亚精胺(Spd)等7种生物胺.结合虾的感官分析、pH值和T-VBN值测定等方法评价凡纳滨对虾的品质,分析了凡纳滨对虾在不同贮藏温度和贮藏时间下的生物胺种类及含量的变化.结果表明,在0和4℃两种贮藏温度下,尸胺和腐胺发生的变化均最显著,可以其作为凡纳滨对虾新鲜程度的参考指标,确定最长贮藏时间分别为8 d和6 d.

  19. Innate immune-stimulating and immune genes up-regulating activities of three types of alginate from Sargassum siliquosum in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudiati, Ervia; Isnansetyo, Alim; Murwantoko; Ayuningtyas; Triyanto; Handayani, Christina Retna

    2016-07-01

    The Total Haemocyte Count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, Phagocytic Activity/Index and Total Protein Plasma (TPP) were examined after feeding the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with diets supplemented with three different types of alginates (acid, calcium and sodium alginates). Immune-related genes expression was evaluated by quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results indicated that the immune parameters directly increased according to the doses of alginates and time. The 2.0 g kg(-1) of acid and sodium alginate treatments were gave better results. Four immune-related genes expression i.e. LGBP, Toll, Lectin, proPO were up regulated. It is therefore concluded that the supplementation of alginate of Sargassum siliquosum on the diet of L. vannamei enhanced the innate immunity as well as the expression of immune-related genes. It is the first report on the simultaneous evaluation of three alginate types to enhance innate immune parameters and immune-related genes expression in L. vannamei. PMID:26993614

  20. Effect of Dietary Potassium on Growth, Nitrogen Metabolism, Osmoregulation and Immunity of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Reared in Low Salinity Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyu; ZHANG Xinjie; TAN Beiping; LIN Yingbo; CHI Shuyan; DONG Xiaohui; YANG Qihui

    2014-01-01

    An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physio-logical acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+and Cl-were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05), but a reverse trend was observed for their gill Na+/K+-ATPase. Moreover, the shrimps fed with 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet were the highest in hemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

  1. The effects of feeding commercial feed formulated for semi-intensive systems on Litopenaeus vannamei production and its profitability in a hyper-intensive biofloc-dominated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Braga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the production of Litopenaeus vannamei in a high density biofloc-dominated system using two commercial feeds; a less expensive feed (US$0.99 kg−1 formulated for semi-intensive systems and the more expensive (US$1.75 kg−1 which was designed for hyper-intensive systems. A 67-days study was conducted in six 40 m3 lined with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer membrane raceways (RWs filled with mixture of seawater (22 m3, and biofloc-rich water (18 m3. Each RW was stocked (500 shrimp m−3 using juveniles (2.66 g produced from Taura-Resistant and Fast-Growth breeding lines. The study was composed of two feed treatments with three replicates each; the cheaper feed (SI-35 contained 35% crude protein (CP, 7% lipid and 4% fiber while the more expensive one (HI-35 had the same levels of CP and lipid but only 2% fiber. The SI-35 treatment required more solids removal, oxygen, and bicarbonate supplementation than the HI-35 treatment. Weekly growth, total biomass, yield were significantly lower in the SI-35 treatment, whereas feed conversion ratio was higher. The economic analysis indicates that both feeds would be commercially viable, nevertheless, the less-expensive feed financially underperformed the other.

  2. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

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    Pei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs. Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  3. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Cesar Marcial Escobedo-Bonilla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV. Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa, batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa, respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

  4. The protection of CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against White spot syndrome virus infection

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    Q Yi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The white spot syndrome is one of the most serious disease which has caused high mortalities and huge economic losses to shrimp culture. In the present study, the oral administrations with CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 (rVP28-yl as dietary supplement for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were conducted to evaluate their protective effects against WSSV. After feeding for 15 days, the cumulative mortality and the copy number of WSSV in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps were significantly lower when they were challenged by WSSV, compared with those in control shrimps (p < 0.05. The caspase-3 activity was suppressed in rVP28-yl feeding shrimps but ascended in CpG feeding shrimps after WSSV challenge. Besides, the PO activity in CpG feeding shrimps was significantly increased after feeding trial, and kept increasing post WSSV challenge (p < 0.05. While the increased NO production was observed both in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps after feeding trial and WSSV challenge. In addition, increased mRNA expression levels of STAT and Dicer were observed in CpG group post WSSV challenge. These results together indicated that oral feeding of CpG ODNs and rVP28-yl could enhance the innate non-specific immune responses especially antiviral immunity of shrimps in varying degrees, and increase their resistance against WSSV infection

  5. Genome survey and high-density genetic map construction provide genomic and genetic resources for the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhao, Yongzhen; Huang, Long; Zheng, Hongkun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-10-27

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the dominant crustacean species in global seafood mariculture. Understanding the genome and genetic architecture is useful for deciphering complex traits and accelerating the breeding program in shrimp. In this study, a genome survey was conducted and a high-density linkage map was constructed using a next-generation sequencing approach. The genome survey was used to identify preliminary genome characteristics and to generate a rough reference for linkage map construction. De novo SNP discovery resulted in 25,140 polymorphic markers. A total of 6,359 high-quality markers were selected for linkage map construction based on marker coverage among individuals and read depths. For the linkage map, a total of 6,146 markers spanning 4,271.43 cM were mapped to 44 sex-averaged linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 0.7 cM. An integration analysis linked 5,885 genome scaffolds and 1,504 BAC clones to the linkage map. Based on the high-density linkage map, several QTLs for body weight and body length were detected. This high-density genetic linkage map reveals basic genomic architecture and will be useful for comparative genomics research, genome assembly and genetic improvement of L. vannamei and other penaeid shrimp species.

  6. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05), while crude lipid content of the whole body fed Diet 5 or 6 was significantly higher than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05). Protein digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P < 0.05). Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  7. Dietary supplementation of probiotic Bacillus PC465 isolated from the gut of Fenneropenaeus chinensis improves the health status and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peng-Cheng; Song, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Guo-Fu; Xu, Hua; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study conducted a 30-day feeding trial and a subsequent 20-day anti-virus infection trial to determine the effects of probiotic Bacillus PC465 on the growth, health status, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp samples were fed with three practical diets prepared from shrimp feed containing varying probiotic doses [0 (control), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU g(-1)]. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the weight gain and survival of L. vannamei (p digestive enzymes, such as amylase, protease, and lipase, in the shrimp mid-gut significantly increased in the probiotic-fed groups on days 15 and 30, except lipase on day 30. The influence of 10(9) CFU g(-1) on enzyme activities was also greater than that of 10(7) CFU g(-1). Scanning electron microscopy revealed folds and large ravines across the interior surface of the mid-gut, and the number of these folds and ravines increased significantly after the probiotic was administered. The probiotic treatment significantly (p digestion, and nutrient absorption of L. vannamei. Probiotic treatment also enhances the microbial structures in the gut, promotes the immune status of shrimp, and provides protection against viral infection. The supplementation with 10(9) CFU g(-1) can also improve the growth and survival of L. vannamei. PMID:27177431

  8. Effect of the diet traditional and non-traditional on the respiration and excretion in larvae of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    María Alejandra Medina-Jasso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. It was studied the respiration and ammoniacal excretion of zoeas and mysis of Litopenaeus vannamei fed with the diet used traditionally (of microalgae and nauplios of artemia and another alternative (not traditional of microalgae with rotifers. Materials and methods. After four hours the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in BOD bottles with 60 larvae (closed respirometers was estimated. The concentrations of O2 and NH4 + were measured with an electrode polarográfico in the first case and with the indophenol blue technique for the second. Results. In zoea, oxygen consumption increased with development and showed statistical differences (p=0.023. In mysis, the oxygen consumption were significance in the traditional diet, whereas no differences were alternative (p=0.003. In both stages for the ammoniacal excretion increased development stage and there were detected statistical difference (p<0.001, although to the diets were not noticed significant differences. Conclusions. A higher energy absorption for zoea (I, II y III what mysis (I, II y III larvae was obtained, this is likely an interaction between rates of respiration and excretion caused by variations in the efficiency of absorption by the larvae. The weights obtained in both larvae were not supplied with differences between diets.

  9. Síndrome del histiocito azul marino en relación a nutrición parenteral domiciliaria Sea-blue histiocyte syndrome associated with home parenteral nutrition

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    N. Egaña

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de un varón de 55 años con Enfermedad de Crohn de larga evolución con mala respuesta al tratamiento médico y múltiples fístulas al que se le inició nutrición parenteral domiciliaria (NPD tras su última resección intestinal. Presentaba hepatopatía crónica no filiada y pancitopenia leve. Tras 9 meses de soporte nutricional parenteral se produce un empeoramiento de la función hepática y la pancitopenia. Se realizó biopsia de médula ósea que mostró histiocitos azul marino. La evolución fue tórpida falleciendo a consecuencia de un fallo multiorgánico.A case of a 55 years-old male with long-term Crohn's disease without response to medical treatment and many intestinal fistula is presented. After the last bowel resection, home parenteral nutrition was started. He presented chronic hepatopathy and pancytopaenia. After 9 months of home parenteral nutrition hepatic function and pancytopaenia began to deteriorate. Bone marrow examination revealed an infiltrate of sea-blue histiocytes. He made insatisfactory progress and died due to a multiorganic failure.

  10. Escenario discursivo y significados implícitos en una guía 'para los verdaderos viajeros': el caso de la Guía Azul de Zaragoza

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    Giovanni Garofaloi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se centra en las estrategias manipulatorias empleadas en la 'construcción' del destino turístico, poniendo en evidencia la evolución de algunos mitos señalados por Barthes (catolicismo, pasado imperial, concepto de 'nación española'. En efecto, en algunas guías más recientes se vislumbra la afi rmación de una nueva mitología, en la que ocupa un lugar privilegiado el particularismo local y el anhelo de autogobierno. Como muestra de este enfoque crítico, se describen los procedimientos discursivos de la Guía Azul de Zaragoza. Tras esbozar la¿escenografía¿ o modelo de representación, el análisis propuesto apunta a demostrar que la imagen del lugar y la memoria discursiva se refl ejan en el texto mediante signifi cados implícitos como las presuposiciones y la ironía.

  11. Variation of monthly inventories of {sup 7}Be fallout in the soils of the sub-basins 3 and 4 in Mato Frio river, a tributary of Serra Azul river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Alexander D., E-mail: alexander.esquivel@utp.ac.pa [Centro de Investigaciones Hidráulicas e Hidrotécnicas (CIHH / UTP – PA), Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá (Panama); Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this study 72 soil samples collected right at the surface were analyzed. They were collected at two work parcels located within the basin of the Mato Frio Creek (total drainage area = 10.6 km²) located in the municipality of Itauna, except for a small fraction in its northern part, which is located in the municipality of Serra Azul. Both municipalities are in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sampling period covers the time span from May 2014 to May 2015, with the purpose of observing on a monthly basis the variation in the activity of the radionuclide Beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be, Eγ = 477.6 keV) along a one year hydrologic cycle, stressing the dry and rainy seasons. The objective of this investigation was to establish a baseline for the alteration pattern of the {sup 7}Be content in the soil in order to use these results for future estimates of rates of erosion or accreation in areas of interest within this basin. In order to measure the {sup 7}Be activity in the collected samples, a gamma spectrometer was used, composed of a hyperpure germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 50%. The results indicate a net trend towards a marked variation in the activity of {sup 7}Be in relative to the period of year within which the samples were collected, which in turn results in a reduction or increase in the values of the {sup 7}Be monthly inventory in the topsoil. (author)

  12. Utilização de zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinza de carvão para remoção de azul de metileno em água

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    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A adsorção de azul de metileno de solução aquosa foi realizada usando-se zeólitas de cinza de carvão como adsorventes de baixo custo. A amostra de cinza de carvão foi convertida em zeólitas por tratamento hidrotérmico usando parâmetros de síntese diferentes. Os materiais foram caracterizados por análise físico-química e estudos de DRX e MEV. As isotermas de adsorção ajustaram-se ao modelo de Freundlich. Os valores da capacidade de adsorção foram similares para os adsorventes. Estudos cinéticos indicaram que a adsorção seguiu o modelo de pseudo-segunda-ordem./////////// The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution was carried out using zeolites synthesized from coal ash as low-cost adsorbents. The coal ash sample was converted to zeolites by hydrothermal treatment using different synthesis parameters. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, XRD and SEM studies. The adsorption isotherms can be fitted by Freundlich model. The values of the adsorption capacity of adsorbents were similar for adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  13. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of Chaetoceros muelleri Schütt (Chaetocerotales: Chaetocerotaceae and Isochrysis sp. (Isochrysidales: isochrysidaceae grown outdoors for the larval development of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Rodríguez Erika O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biomass, proximal composition and fatty acid profile of Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros muelleri and their mixture, grown under greenhouse conditions, were evaluated. The nutritional value of both species supplied as the monoalgal (Chaetoceros muelleri: Diet I, and Isochrysis sp. Diet II and mixed diet (Diet III for larval Litopenaeus vannamei was also assessed on the basis of the development and biochemical composition of the larvae. The highest protein levels were obtained in Diets I and II (40% and 35%, respectively. No significant differences in larval survival were found among the diets; however, larvae fed on Diet II had the lowest mean larval length.

  14. Ensayo para el cultivo del camarón marino litopenaeus vannamei Pérez-Farfante y Kensley, 1997, a baja salinidad en la estación del Mariel

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Machado, J.E.; Jaime Ceballos, B.; Galindo López, J.

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar el cultivo del camarón marino Litopenaeus vannamei a baja salinidad, se ensayaron diferentes modificaciones del agua de pozo de una localidad cercana al río Mosquito (Mariel, La Habana, Cuba), previo análisis de su composición iónica. Se desarrolló un diseño completamente aleatorizado a escala de laboratorio, durante 14 días, utilizando postlarvas (PL20). Al agua se le realizaron las siguientes modificaciones: I) agua de pozo + sal bruta + sulfato de mag...

  15. An in vitro study of alkaline phosphatase sensitivity to mixture of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in the hepatopancreas of coastal lagoon wild and farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Acosta, Jesús A; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Ezquerra-Brauer, J Marina

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the combined effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on wild Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with that of farmed shrimp. AP activity in hepatopancreas extract was confirmed by several specific inhibitor assays. AP activity of wild shrimp was higher than that of farmed shrimp (p mycotoxins concentrations used in the study, AP from farmed L. vannamei was sensitive to the presence of both mycotoxins; however, AP is more sensitive to the combination of AFB1 + FB1 suggesting a possible synergistic or potentiating inhibitory effect. PMID:27040818

  16. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668 Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leonardo da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5 dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (p Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, with different concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from 40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p < 0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  17. 凡纳对虾penaeidin2抗菌肽基因的克隆与性质研究%Gene Cloning and Characterization of Penaeidin 2 in Litopenaeus Vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 王建英

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides directly play the immunity functions in the innate immunity system of the invertebrate. They play an important role in defending against the bacteria infection. In this paper, the Litopenaeus vannamei penaeidin 2 antibacterial peptides gene is the research object. And the gene cloning,amino acids sequences alignment, phylogenetic relationship analysis, and preliminary forecast for the molecular structure are mainly done. The results show that the Lva-pen 2 gene is an immunity response relevant gene. And it plays an important role in the innate immunity system of the Litopenaeus vannamei.%抗菌肽分子是无脊椎动物先天免疫系统中,直接发挥免疫效应的分子;它在对抗病原细菌侵染的过程中发挥着重要的功能.本文以凡纳对虾对虾素抗菌肽基因penaeidin2作为研究对象,系统地进行了基因克隆、氨基酸序列比对、分子进化关系以及分子结构的初步预测等研究.研究结果显示:Lva-pen2基因是一个免疫反应相关基因,它在凡纳对虾的先天免疫系统中发挥着重要功能.

  18. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 marine shrimp farms - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Ferreira Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 µm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997. The results show that the densities of Diatoms were of 16.65, 10.47 and 7.57 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic, intensive and semi intensive cultivations, respectively. As for cyanobacteria, the average figures were 42.06 cel. 103 mL-1 for semi intensive 17.27 cel. 103 mL-1, in the intensive cultivation and 6.11 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic cultivation system. The dinoflagellates had the highest cellular density in the phytoplankton community analyzed with 61.9 cel. 103 mL-1 in the intensive cultivation, 0.33 and 0.03 cel. 103 mL-1 for both semi intensive and organic cultivation systems respectively. Euglenas presented the results of 4.98 and 14.86 cel. 103 mL-1 only for semi intensive and intensive cultivations. It was then concluded that all cultivations presented average rates below recommended for such studied systems.The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 µm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997. The results show that the densities of Diatoms were of 16.65, 10.47 and 7.57 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic, intensive and semi intensive cultivations

  19. Sequence and Expression Analysis of COPE Gene from Litopenaeus vannmei%凡纳滨对虾COPE基因序列及低温表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金霞; 蒋小珍; 房振峰; 殷勤; 韦嫔媛; 陈晓汉

    2013-01-01

    The cloning of cold tolerant COPE gene was studied in order to provide basis for the molecular mechanism study of Litopenaeus uan-namei cold tolerance characters. By using the homology cloning and RACE-PCR technology for Litopenaeus vannamei COPE gene (Lv-COPE) full-length cDNA sequencing, the bioinformatics analysis was conducted and the fluorescence quantitative PCR expression and Lo-COPE gene expression in tissues under low temperature stress was studied. Results showed that the LvCOPE cDNA length wasl217bp, which contained an 888 bp ORF which encoded a 296 Aa peptide. A conserved TPR region was found in the peptide, and the phylogenetic tree constructed by COPE protein reflected the evolutionary level of the species. The real-time PCR showed that the LvCOPE mRNA express in all tissues were mainly expressed in muscle. The LvCOPE mRNA was downwards regulated in the hepatocirrhosis, heart, gill, and muscle areas of shrimp treated under low temperature. Therefore, LvCOPE was conserved in gene structure and evolution relationship, and the downwards regulation of mRNA under low temperature may related to its cold tolerance function.%通过对已知耐寒候选基因-COPE基因的克隆和研究,为凡纳滨对虾耐寒性状的分子机理研究提供依据.运用同源克隆和RACE-PCR技术获得凡纳滨对虾COPE基因(LvCOPE)全长cDNA序列,对其进行了生物信息学分析,采用荧光定量PCR研究了LvCOPE基因的组织表达谱及其在低温胁迫下表达量的变化.结果显示,LvCOPEcDNA全长1217 bp,包含888 bp开放阅读框,编码296个氨基酸残基,具有保守的TPR结构域.各物种COPE蛋白序列构建的系统进化树能准确反映各物种间的进化关系.IvCOPE mRNA在各组织中呈遍在表达,在肌肉组织中表达量最高.低温表达谱分析显示,bCOPE mRNA在低温处理对虾的肝胰腺、心、鳃、肌肉等组织中均呈下调表达,随着处理温度由15℃降至11℃度,其在肝胰腺中表达量逐渐降

  20. Seleção de variáveis em modelos matemáticos dos parâmetros de cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei Selection of variables in mathematical models of culture parameters of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Ady Marinho Bezerra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar as variáveis de manejo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei que mais influenciaram nas variáveis-respostas ao cultivo (produção, produtividade, peso final e taxa de sobrevivência, em modelos matemáticos. O banco de dados foi composto por 83 cultivos, realizados no período de 2003 a 2005, obtidos de uma fazenda comercial localizada no litoral sul de Pernambuco. Para estimar os parâmetros dos modelos, utilizou-se a técnica dos mínimos quadrados. A seleção das variáveis foi realizada com o processo "backward elimination" associado ao método de transformação de Box e Cox. A adequação das equações e os pressupostos de normalidade e homocedasticidade, para os erros, foram analisadas com base na análise de variância e análise de resíduo. É possível relacionar essas variáveis e estabelecer predições com as equações.The objective of this work was to select management variables of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that most influenced culture variable responses (production, productivity, final weight and survival rate, in mathematical models. The database was composed of 83 cultures in the period of 2003 to 2005, obtained from a shrimp farm located in the South coast of Pernambuco. To estimate the parameters of the models it was used the technique of least square. The selection of variable was carried through the backward elimination process associated to the Box and Cox transformation. The adequacy of the equations and the hypothesis of normality and homogeneous variance for the errors were analyzed based on the analysis of variance and on the analysis of residuals. It is possible to correlate those variables and to establish predictions with the equations.

  1. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Karla Patrícia Brito de Araújo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo foidesenvolvido com a finalidade de observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados com diferentesmétodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado aométodo sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention ofhigher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  2. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário = Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture

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    Ugo Lima Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p The effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p < 0.05 than the 0M (428.6 mg treatment. Shrimp survival was high in all treatments (77.9 to 90.0%, but without significant difference (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore, the 15 and 25:1 C:N ratios showed an increased growth performance of nursery phase L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  3. Evaluación de la actividad enzimática y contenido de proteína en larvas de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei alimentadas con diferentes dietas (Evaluation of the enzymatic activity and protein content in larvae of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed with different diets

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    Isiordia-Pérez E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El alimento vivo para el cultivo de camarón requiere especial atención. Los alimentos comúnmente empleados en esta industria, se han seleccionado principalmente por la facilidad de su cultivo más que por sus propiedades nutricionales. El presente trabajo compara el uso de copépodos (Tisbe monozota vivos y muertos y una dieta microligada y microparticulada como alternativa alimenticia de nauplios de Artemia para larvas de camarón evaluando la actividad enzimática y contenido de proteínas de las misma. El estudio se realizó en estadios larvales de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (28°C, salinidad (35‰ y fotoperiodo (12 h luz / 12h oscuridad. En ambos experimentos el mayor contenido proteico se obtuvo en larvas alimentadas con la dieta experimental y con Artemia viva. a diferencia de la actividad enzimática que fue mayor al utilizar copépodos tanto vivos como muertos. Los resultados demostraron que no hay diferencia significativa en contenido proteico y en actividad de tripsina al usar copépodos (vivos o muertos y nauplios de Artemia , y sugieren a la dieta experimental como buena fuente alternativa en los primeros estadios larvales de camarón blanco L. vannamei The live food for the shrimp culture requires special attention. The food commonly used in this industry, have been selected mainly for the feasibility of their culture rather than their nutritional properties. This present work include alive and dead copepods (Tisbe monozota and a microparticulate microbound diet as alternative live food to Artemia nauplii for shrimp larvae, evaluating their enzymatic activity and protein content. The study was made with larval stages of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under control culture conditions: temperature (28°C, salinity (35% and photoperiodo (12 h light/12h dark. In both experiments the higher protein content was obtained in larvae fed with the microdiet and Artemia nauplii

  4. Comportamento de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae em função da oferta do alimento artificial nas fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in relation to artificial food offer along light and dark phases in a 24 h period

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    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 relacionado ao alimento artificial ofertado em comedouros poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, aumentando a relação custo/benefício e os impactos ambientais potenciais do seu cultivo. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram desenvolvidos estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de L. vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01 g, submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, metade deles em ciclo invertido, para observação das suas atividades durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi oferecida em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se antes e depois da oferta: exploração, natação, alimentação e inatividade (focal instantâneo. A natação ocorreu preferencialmente durante a fase escura. A alimentação foi mais elevada na primeira meia hora posterior à oferta, com ênfase nos horários da fase clara. O alimento artificial atuou, em ambas as fases, como um indutor da exploração do substrato, tornando os camarões mais ativos em todos os horários posteriores à sua oferta.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to artificial food offer in feeding trays may result an inadequate feeding by the animal, increasing the cost/benefit relation in shrimp culture and its potential environmental impact. In order to provide tools for optimizing feeding management in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was developed, using 64 L. vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01 g. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register their behavior during light and dark phases. In established intervals, the following activities were registered before and after food exposition: exploration, swimming, feeding and inactivity (instantaneous sampling. Swimming occurred mostly during the dark phase. Feeding time was higher in

  5. A preliminary evaluation of the San Pedro daisy (Lasianthaea podocephala tuber powder, as a feed additive on the intensive culture of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory conditions

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    Marcel Martínez-Porchas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaeapodocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg-1 [T2] in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g-1 and glutamine (3.36 mg g-1 the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2 compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed.

  6. Metabolic enzyme activities, metabolism-related genes expression and bioaccumulation in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

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    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on metabolic detoxification system and bioaccumulation of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed for 21 days at four different concentrations of 0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3μg/L. Detoxification enzyme activities of phase I (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH)) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT)) were determined, and results showed that all the detoxification enzyme activities increased in a dose-dependent manner except for the low BaP exposure. Transcription of genes was detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day six BaP increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, GST, SULT visa aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of BaP that disrupt the detoxification system. The consistency of their responses to BaP exposure implies that AhR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation. Additionally, BaP bioaccumulation increased rapidly first and showed an incoming plateau. Besides, the enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in the gills. These results will not only provide information on BaP metabolic mechanism for this species, but also scientific data for pollution monitoring. PMID:24636950

  7. Effects of biofloc promotion on water quality, growth, biomass yield and heterotrophic community in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 experimental intensive cultures

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    Irasema E. Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Six 1.2-m3 tanks were stocked with an initial biomass of 500 g m-3 of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (individual weight: 1.0±0.3 g, to evaluate the effect of biofloc promotion on water quality and on shrimp growth and production, and to identify the dominant taxa in the heterotrophic communities present in experimental closed cultures. Feeding was ad libitum twice daily with 35% protein shrimp feed. Three tanks were managed as biofloc technology (BFT systems, adding daily an amount of cornmeal equivalent to 50% of the shrimp feed supplied. The remaining three received only shrimp feed and served as controls. Experiment lasted 21 days. The mean concentrations of P-PO4 3- and inorganic dissolved N species (TAN, N-NO2 -, N-NO3 - were significantly lower (P<0.5 in BFT than in the control. The individual final weight, increase in biomass, food, and protein conversion rates were significantly better in BFT than in the control (P<0.05. The mean N content of the shrimp biomass gained in the BFT cultures was equivalent to 45.7% of the protein-N added as feed, and was significantly higher than the 34.7% recycled into shrimp biomass in the control cultures. Bacterial concentrations were not significantly different. Vibrionaceae dominated in both systems; in both some isolates were potential pathogens, and diversity was higher in the control than in the BFT treatment. The advantages of BFT technology are confirmed by the significantly lower TAN and N-NO2 - concentrations, as well as by the better shrimp performance in terms of growth, biomass yield, and food and protein conversion efficiency.

  8. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.

  9. Immunity enhancement with administration of Gracilaria corticata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to gamma irradiation in expose to WSSV in shrimp, in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei: A comparative study.

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    Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Kakoolaki, Shapour; Mohammadidost, Mehrdad

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the efficacy of Gracilaria corticata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and gamma irradiation WSSV as immunostimulants to white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven hundred and twenty healthy shrimp SPF L. vannamei subadult with average weight of 10 ± 1.02 g were collected and divided into 8 groups. The first group (T1) was fed with commercial pellet, the second group (T2) fed with S. cerevisiae (2 g/kg), the third group (T3) fed with G. corticata powder mixed with shrimp feed (2 g/kg) and, finally, the fourth group (T4) was fed with commercial pellet and injected intramuscularly gamma irradiant WSSV (1 μl/gbw) for 10 days. The shrimps were then injected with WSSV and maintained for 25 days. The positive control group for each treatment was maintained in the same manner but without injection with WSSV. Moreover, survival rate and immune parameters such as total hemocyte count (THC), total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and phenoloxidase activity (PO) were determined. Results indicated that the survival rates for groups T4, T3 T2 and T1 were 57.05 ± 3.52%, 22.5 ± 0.5%, 15 ± 1.05% and 00.0 ± 0%, respectively. Ultimately, at the end of the study the shrimp group T4 showed higher hematological data: THC, TPP, SOD, POD and PO. The study concluded that gamma irradiant WSSV is effective immunostimulants in shrimp L. vannamei and the immunity has better performances than those of the G. corticata and S. cerevisiae.

  10. An immersion of Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract improves the immunity and survival of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

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    Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chang-Che; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2011-12-01

    The innate immunity and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received the Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract were examined. Shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 0 (control), 400 and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h were challenged with WSSV at 2 × 10(4) copies shrimp(-1). Shrimp not exposed to the extract and not received WSSV challenge served as unchallenged control. The survival rate of shrimp immersed in 400 mg L(-1) or 600 mg L(-1) extract was significantly higher than that of challenged control shrimp over 24-120 h. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 6, 6, 6, 6, and 6-24 h post-challenge. In another experiment, shrimp which had received 3 h immersion of 0, 400, 600 mg L(-1) extract were challenged with WSSV. The shrimp were then received a booster (3 h immersion in the same dose of the extract), and the immune parameters were examined at 12-120 h post-challenge. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract, and then received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 12-48 h post-challenge. In conclusion, shrimp which had received the extract exhibited protection against WSSV as evidenced by the higher survival rate and higher values of immune parameters. Shrimp which had received the extract and infected by WSSV showed improved immunity when they received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h post-WSSV challenge. The extract treatment caused less decrease in PO activity, and showed better performance of lysozyme activity and antioxidant response in WSSV-infected shrimp.

  11. Dietary administration of a Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract enhances the immune response and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirustananun, Nuttarin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Li-Li; Sim, Su Sing; Chiew, Siau Li

    2011-12-01

    The haemogram, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, lysozyme activity, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue (HPT) were examined after the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the hot-water extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-35 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with the amount of extract and time, but slightly decreased after 35 days. RBs, SOD activity, and GPx activity reached the highest levels after 14 days, whereas PO and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 28 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei, which had been fed diets containing the extract for 14 days, were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 2 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. The survival rate of shrimp fed the extract-containing diets was significantly higher than that of shrimp fed the control diet at 72-144 h post-challenge. We concluded that dietary administration of the G. tenuistipitata extract at ≤1.0 g kg(-1) could enhance the innate immunity within 14 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters and mitotic index of HPT in shrimp and their enhanced resistance against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. Shrimp fed the extract-containing diets showed a higher and continuous increase in the humoral response indicating its persistent role in innate immunity.

  12. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

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    Ke Chen

    Full Text Available The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control to 3 practical salinity units (psu for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

  13. Efecto de la inulina y del ácido fúlvico en la supervivencia, crecimiento, sistema inmune y prevalencia de WSSV en Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Anayeli Gutiérrez-Dagnino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del prebiótico inulina y ácido fúlvico, adicionados en el alimento, sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia, prevalencia de WSSV y sistema inmune de Litopenaeus vannamei. Para esto, se realizó un bioensayo, con tratamientos por triplicado, donde se probaron diferentes concentraciones de los aditivos. Se hizo un análisis de WSSV en organismos infectados con una carga viral relativamente alta utilizando la PCR sencilla y anidada. Al final del bioensayo se extrajo la hemolinfa y se estudió el sistema inmune en hemocitos a nivel bioquímico y genético (PCR cuantitativo. El peso final fue similar en todos los tratamientos y la supervivencia estuvo entre 66,7% y 93,3%. La prevalencia de WSSV disminuyó un 13% respecto al control. El número de hemocitos, la actividad de la fenoloxidasa y la concentración de anión superóxido fueron similares en todos los tratamientos. Los aditivos modularon la expresión de los genes transglutaminasa, superóxido dismutasa y profenoloxidasa, pero no la del receptor Toll. Los aditivos no afectan negativamente el crecimiento y protegen al camarón contra WSSV en organismos infectados con una carga viral relativamente alta. No se observó efecto de los aditivos en los efectores del sistema inmune estudiados a nivel bioquímico pero si modularon la expresión de algunos genes relacionados con el sistema inmune en L. vannamei.

  14. Rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of Vibrio harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Kanittada Thongkao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A comparatively small number of species, e.g., Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, cause disease in both aquatic animals and humans. V. harveyi is marine animal pathogen and rarely causes infections in humans; however, it might become a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria forms and virulence genes. Aims: 1 to develop rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus by using vhhP2, tl, and rpoS genes as the respective target genes and 2 to evaluate specificity and determined detection of multiplex PCR technique. Materials and Methods: The multiplex PCR assay was developed and evaluated for specificity on 36 isolates of V. harveyi, 30 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus, and 14 isolates of V. vulnificus, along with other species of Vibrio and non-Vibrio bacterial isolates. Sensitivity of test was described as detection limit of pathogens in lowest amount of sample (CFU/mL or CFU/g was determined by diluted DNA extracts of the pure cultures and spiked pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei samples Results: This developed multiplex PCR was proved as an accurate method, which was specific for three Vibrio species. The detection limits of V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus in pure cultures and spiked shrimp samples ranged 1.05-4.8 × 103 CFU/mL and 1.9-7 × 104 CFU/g, respectively. Conclusions: This rapid multiplex PCR assay can decrease amount and process of sample preparation, which was time-consuming, and had preferable accuracy. This developed technique will be suitable and useful for food-borne pathogen detection in shrimp and horizontal gene transfer study among different Vibrio species in aquatic animals.

  15. Immunity enhancement with administration of Gracilaria corticata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to gamma irradiation in expose to WSSV in shrimp, in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Kakoolaki, Shapour; Mohammadidost, Mehrdad

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the efficacy of Gracilaria corticata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and gamma irradiation WSSV as immunostimulants to white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven hundred and twenty healthy shrimp SPF L. vannamei subadult with average weight of 10 ± 1.02 g were collected and divided into 8 groups. The first group (T1) was fed with commercial pellet, the second group (T2) fed with S. cerevisiae (2 g/kg), the third group (T3) fed with G. corticata powder mixed with shrimp feed (2 g/kg) and, finally, the fourth group (T4) was fed with commercial pellet and injected intramuscularly gamma irradiant WSSV (1 μl/gbw) for 10 days. The shrimps were then injected with WSSV and maintained for 25 days. The positive control group for each treatment was maintained in the same manner but without injection with WSSV. Moreover, survival rate and immune parameters such as total hemocyte count (THC), total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and phenoloxidase activity (PO) were determined. Results indicated that the survival rates for groups T4, T3 T2 and T1 were 57.05 ± 3.52%, 22.5 ± 0.5%, 15 ± 1.05% and 00.0 ± 0%, respectively. Ultimately, at the end of the study the shrimp group T4 showed higher hematological data: THC, TPP, SOD, POD and PO. The study concluded that gamma irradiant WSSV is effective immunostimulants in shrimp L. vannamei and the immunity has better performances than those of the G. corticata and S. cerevisiae. PMID:27377028

  16. Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( Pcontrol (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

  17. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvALF): a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Enrique; O'Leary, Nuala A; Shockey, Jessica E; Robalino, Javier; Payne, Caroline; Browdy, Craig L; Warr, Gregory W; Gross, Paul S

    2008-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an essential component of the innate immune system of most organisms. Expressed sequence tag analysis from various shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) tissues revealed transcripts corresponding to two distinct sequences (LvALF1 and LvALF2) with strong sequence similarity to anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), an antimicrobial peptide originally isolated from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Full-length clones contained a 528bp transcript with a predicted open reading frame coding for 120 amino acids in LvALF1, and a 623bp transcript with a predicted open reading frame coding for 93 amino acids in LvALF2. A reverse genetic approach was implemented to study the in vivo role of LvALF1 in protecting shrimp from bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the LvALF1 message resulted in a significant reduction of LvALF1 mRNA transcript abundance as determined by qPCR. Following knockdown, shrimp were challenged with low pathogenic doses of Vibrio penaeicida, Fusarium oxysporum or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the resulting mortality curves were compared with controls. A significant increase of mortality in the LvALF1 knockdown shrimp was observed in the V. penaeicida and F. oxysporum infections when compared to controls, showing that this gene has a role in protecting shrimp from both bacterial and fungal infections. In contrast, LvALF1 dsRNA activated the sequence-independent innate anti-viral immune response giving increased protection from WSSV infection.

  18. Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) → Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) → Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) → Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products. PMID:21082317

  19. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.

  20. Respuesta inmunomoduladora de la superóxido dismutasa en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a inmunoestimulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunomoduladora de la manganeso superóxido dismutasa (MnSOD en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes inmunoestimulantes. Organismos cuyo peso varió entre 0.7 y 1.0 g fueron inmersos durante 6 h en soluciones de β-glucano, lipopolisacárido (LPS, fucoidán, y Vibrio penaeicida muerto por calor. Se determinó la actividad enzimática de la MnSOD en los organismos para evaluar si los diferentes inmunoestimulantes utilizados eran capaces de inducir actividad antioxidante. Los inmunoestimulantes probados activaron el sistema inmune de los camarones, mostrando un incremento generalizado en la respuesta antioxidante 48 h después del ensayo. El mayor incremento en la actividad de la enzima (3.2 veces superior al grupo control se registró cuando se utilizó la bacterina. Se expusieron los camarones a V. penaeicida 10 días después de la exposición a los inmunoestimulantes, obteniendo un incremento en la actividad antioxidante de los camarones expuestos previamente a β-glucano, LPS y fucoidán. La respuesta enzimática más alta se obtuvo con los organismos estimulados con β-glucano (2.5 veces superior al control. Este estudio demostró la capacidad de los juveniles de camarón para mejorar la respuesta antioxidante después de ser expuestos a inmunoestimulantes y a una bacteria patógena.

  1. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

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    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  2. Identification of a novel C-type lectin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its role in defense against pathogens infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhan; ZHANG Jiquan; LI Fuhua; ZHANG Xiaojun; LIU Chengzhang; XIANG Jianhai

    2011-01-01

    Acting as one of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs),C-type lectin is believed to mediate pathogen recognition and plays an important role in the clearance of pathogens as part of the innate immune system.In this work,a novel C-type lectin gene (named LvLecl) was cloned from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.The ORF of LvLecl is 510 bp,encoding 169 amino acids.The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids at the N-terminal and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) at the C-terminal.LvLecl was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the level of LvLecl transcripts significantly changed in the hepatopancreas after the shrimp were artificially challenged with LPS,Micrococcus lysodeikticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).RNAi-based silencing of LvLecl resulted in increases in mortality when the shrimp were challenged with WSSV,and the median lethal time was reduced compared with controls.Although there was no characteristic “EPN” (Glu-Pro-Ser) or “QPD” (Gln-Pro-Asp) motif,the recombinant LvLecl,expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3),could also agglutinate M.lysodeikticus and Vibrio anguillarum.The agglutinating activities were calcium-dependent and could be inhibited by D-mannose,D-glucose,D-galactose and N-Acetyl-D-mannose.These results suggest that LvLecl might be involved in the immune response against WSSV and bacterial infections and contribute to non-self recognition as a pattem recognition receptor in the innate immune system of the shrimp L.vannamei.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) bind to seaweed polysaccharides and activate the prophenoloxidase system in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Yong-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Gong, Hong-Yi; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2016-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-1,3-glucan (βG), known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and subsequently trigger innate immunity. Several seaweed polysaccharides and seaweed extracts increase immune parameters and resistance to pathogens. Here, we constructed the expression vector pET28b-LvLGBP and transferred it into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression and to produce the recombinant protein LGBP (rLvLGBP) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. We examined the binding of rLvLGBP with seaweed-derived polysaccharides including alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE), and Sargassum duplicatum extract (SDE), and examined the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and each polysaccharide. We also examined the binding of rLvLGBP with LPS and βG, and the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS (rLvLGBP-LPS) or a mixture of rLvLGBP and βG (rLvLGBP-βG). An ELISA binding assay indicated that rLvLGBP binds to LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE with dissociation constants of 0.1138-0.1770 μM. Furthermore, our results also indicated that the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE significantly increased by 328%, 172%, 200%, 213%, 197%, 194%, 191%, and 197%, respectively compared to controls (cacodylate buffer). We conclude that LvLGBP functions as a PRP, recognizes and binds to LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE, and subsequently leads to activating innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:26522339

  4. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. PMID:25600509

  5. Differential regulation of hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression by two putative molt-inhibiting hormones (MIH1/2) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xing; Chen, Ting; Zhong, Ming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-06-01

    Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide member of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family, is commonly considered as a negative regulator during the molt cycle in crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis of CHH family peptides in penaeidae shrimps suggested that there is no significant differentiation between MIH and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH, another peptide member of CHH family), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean vitellogenesis known. Thus, MIH may also play a role in regulating vitellogenesis. In this study, two previously reported putative MIHs (LivMIH1 and LivMIH2) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further confirmed by western blot. Regulation of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression by recombinant LivMIH1 and LivMIH2 challenge was performed by both in vitro hepatopancreatic primary cells culture and in vivo injection approaches. In in vitro primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 administration could improve the mRNA expression of VTG. In in vivo injection experiments, similarly, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 could stimulate hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression and induce ovary maturation. Our study may provide evidence for one isoform of MIH (MIH2 in L. vannamei) may serve as one of the mediators of the physiological progress of molting and vitellogenesis. Our study may also give new insight in CHH family peptides regulating reproduction in crustaceans, in particular penaeidae shrimps.

  6. Respuesta inmune y expresión de genes en el camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei inducida por inmunoestimulantes microbianos

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    Antonio Luna-González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un bioensayo de 26 días para evaluar el efecto inmunoestimulante de bacterias ácido lácticas y levaduras (MI, adicionadas en el alimento, en Litopenaeus vannamei. Los tratamientos del bioensayo se realizaron por triplicado: I dieta control (Camaronina®; II MI en alimento, diario; III MI en alimento, cada tres días y; IV MI en alimento, cada seis días. Los camarones sólo eran libres de WSSV. Para el estudio del sistema inmune se hizo un conteo total de hemocitos, se determinó bioquímicamente la concentración de anión superóxido, y la actividad de la fenoloxidasa. También se estudió la expresión semicuantitativa de seis genes del sistema inmune, utilizando la técnica de RT-PCR. No hubo aumento significativo en el crecimiento y la supervivencia, el conteo total de hemocitos, la concentración de la proteína total en plasma y hemocitos, y la concentración del anión superóxido. La actividad de la fenoloxidasa en plasma en el tratamiento IV fue significativamente mayor que en los tratamientos I, II y III. La fenoloxidasa del SLH (proFO en el tratamiento IV fue significativamente mayor que en los tratamientos I y III. La MI provocó una sobreexpresión significativa de los genes que codifican para la profenoloxidasa (tratamiento IV, lisozima (tratamiento III y transglutaminasa (tratamiento II, con respecto a los animales no tratados (control. La mezcla de inmunoestimulantes microbianos puede aumentar la resistencia de L. vannamei contra patógenos en los cultivos.

  7. Polyculture of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and milkfish, Chanos chanos as a strategy for efficient utilization of natural food production in ponds

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    Bessie Joy G. Elle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both shrimps and milkfish are important aquaculture species in the Philippines. In the presentstudy, we described a modified extensive polyculture method for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannameiand miklkfish, Chanos chanos in ponds during the wet months. This particular culture system uses two ormore species in a particular production area with the purpose of maximizing the utilization of theavailable natural food present in the system. Two 1-hectare earthen ponds were prepared and addedwith organic and/or inorganic fertilizers to enhance natural food production. The ponds were stocked withwhite shrimp postlarvae (PL at a density of 1 PL m-2 and milkfish at 750 juveniles ha-1. There was nowater exchange during the first two months of culture followed by a bi-weekly water exchange untilharvest. No artificial feeding was provided during the culture period, instead, the ponds weresupplemented with inorganic fertilizers every month to ensure stable production of natural food. Bothshrimps and milkfish appeared healthy and no disease outbreaks were observed during the productioncycle. The physico-chemical parameters of the water in the ponds were within the optimum levels thatare required for both shrimp and milkfish farming. The phytoplankton population was stable andpredominantly composed of Chlorella sp., a green microalga (Chlorophyta. The cultured stock wereharvested after 100 days of culture at sizes of 13-15 for white shrimp and > 250 g for milkfish. Therewas high survival rate of milkfish but low for white shrimps, and this could be affected by the prevailingclimatic condtions during culture and the age and size of the species during stocking.

  8. Activating transcription factor 4 and X box binding protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptional regulated white spot syndrome virus genes Wsv023 and Wsv083.

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    Xiao-Yun Li

    Full Text Available In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4 which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR-like ER kinase, (PERK]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2α] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE. Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1, has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1 - (XBP1] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE. These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection.

  9. The anesthetic efficacy of eugenol and the essential oils of Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla in post-larvae and sub-adults of Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Thaylise V; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; de Souza, Diego M; Martins, Átila Clivea; Garcia, Luciano de O; Wasielesky, Wilson; Monserrat, José María; Schmidt, Denise; Caron, Braulio O; Heinzmann, Berta; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthesia induction and recovery times of sub-adult and post-larvae white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were treated with eugenol and the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla. Oxidative stress parameters in the hemolymph of this species were also analyzed. The concentrations of eugenol, A. triphylla EO and L. alba EO recommended for anesthesia were 200, 300 and 750 μL L(-1) for sub-adults and 175, 300 and 500 μL L(-1) for post-larvae, respectively. The concentrations studied during the transport of sub-adults were between 20 and 50 μL L(-1) eugenol, 20-30 μL L(-1)A. triphylla EO and 50 μL L(-1)L. alba EO. For post-larvae, the optimal concentrations for transport were 20 μL L(-1) eugenol and between 20 and 50 μL L(-1)A. triphylla EO. The white shrimp sub-adults that were exposed to A. triphylla EO (20 μL L(-1)) showed increases in their total antioxidant capacities (150%), catalase (70%) and glutathione-S-transferase (615%) activity after 6 h. L. alba EO (50 μL L(-1)) and eugenol (20 μL L(-1)) also increased GST activity (1292 and 1315%) after 6 h, and eugenol (20 μL L(-1)) decreased the total antioxidant capacity (100%). Moreover, concentrations above 30 μL L(-1) for the EOs of A. triphylla and L. alba and 20 μL L(-1) eugenol were effective at inducing anesthesia and improving the antioxidant system against reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 6 h. PMID:22198554

  10. Dietary supplementation of short-chain fructooligosaccharides influences gastrointestinal microbiota composition and immunity characteristics of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Burr, Gary S; Gatlin, Delbert M; Hume, Michael E; Patnaik, Susmita; Castille, Frank L; Lawrence, Addison L

    2007-12-01

    Supplementation of prebiotic compounds, including short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) has been shown to confer benefits on nutrient utilization, growth, and disease resistance of various animal species through improved gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota. However, potential uses of prebiotics for shrimp have not been defined. A 6-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating system to determine the effects of scFOS supplementation on growth performance, immune functions, and GI microbiota composition of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). scFOS was supplemented in a nutritionally complete diet (35% crude protein) at 0.025, 0.0500, 0.075, 0.100, 0.200, 0.400, and 0.800% by weight. After 6 wk of feeding, shrimp fed 0, 0.1, and 0.8% scFOS were sampled for assays of immune function and GI microbiota. Dietary supplementation of scFOS did not improve weight gain, feed conversion ratio, or survival of shrimp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the basal diet was different from that of shrimp fed the scFOS diets [similarity coefficient (SC) = 74.9%)], although the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the scFOS-supplemented diets was very similar (SC = 92.3%). All the bacterial species contributing to the GI microbial differences were identified, although most of them are uncultured species. Both total hemocyte count and hemocyte respiratory burst increased (P < 0.05) by incremental dietary supplementation of scFOS (0-0.8%). This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary scFOS can selectively support growth of certain bacterial species in the GI tract of shrimp and enhance immunity, which may facilitate development of alternative strategies, including novel probiotics and synbiotics, for shrimp growth and health management. PMID:18029496

  11. Alterações anatômicas em algodoeiro infectado pelo vírus da doença azul Anatomical alterations in blue disease infected cotton plant

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    Juliana K. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A doença azul do algodoeiro está associada a um vírus ainda pouco conhecido em suas características morfológicas e moleculares, tanto quanto a sua patologia e epidemiologia. O tipo de transmissão circulativa pelo afídeo vetor Aphis gossypii Glover, associado a recentes relatos de estudos moleculares, sustentam ser o agente etiológico uma espécie membro da família Luteoviridae. No presente trabalho, estudos anatômicos comparativos em plantas sadias e infectadas foram realizados com a finalidade de conhecer aspectos estruturais da interação vírus-espécie hospedeira, com potencial aplicação na área de diagnose e melhoramento genético. Os estudos anatômicos foram realizados em folhas de plantas infectadas, com área foliar reduzida, nervuras cloróticas e margem foliar voltada para baixo. O encurtamento dos entrenós, que resultam em um agrupamento de folhas, flores e frutos, e conseqüente redução da altura da planta, do número e tamanho dos frutos, são expressões fenotípicas da planta de algodão infectada, a qual serviu para o presente estudo. Nas plantas infectadas com o agente da doença azul havia maior acúmulo de calose e de cristais de oxalato de cálcio, cloroplastos íntegros distribuídos na região periférica das células do mesofilo e aparente alteração química no interior das células do parênquima paliçádico. Inclusões nos vasos do floema e, ocasionalmente no xilema, também foram observadas. O acúmulo de calose e a presença de inclusões no floema podem indicar uma relação ou preferência do vírus por esse tecido.Cotton blue disease is caused by a virus whose morphological and molecular characteristics is not well known and so demanding information its phytosanitary and epidemiological characteristics. Evidences of an aphid borne (Aphis gossypii Glover circulative (persistent type of transmission, associated with a recent molecular report, sustain for a virus species belonging to the

  12. Avaliação biomecânica do cimento ortopédico combinado com antibiótico e azul de metileno Biomechanical evaluation of orthopaedic cement combined with antibiotic and methylene blue

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    Marcos Felipe Marcatto de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O cimento acrílico é utilizado há anos nas cirurgias ortopédicas, especialmente nas artroplastias do joelho, merecendo atenção também quando utilizado com o acréscimo de antibióticos (para tratamento de infecções ou corantes (para facilitação de uma possível retirada. Neste estudo procurou-se avaliar diferenças mecânicas entre o cimento ortopédico puro e quando misturado com antibiótico e/ou corante. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados cimento acrílico ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker, vancomicina em pó e azul de metileno e as misturas submetidas a testes físicos e mecânicos de acordo com a norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833. Avaliou-se: tempo para a formação de massa, capacidade de intrusão, resistência à compressão, resistência ao dobramento (tensão e temperatura máxima atingida pelas misturas. RESULTADOS: As misturas avaliadas foram aprovadas quanto ao tempo de preparação da mistura, temperatura máxima alcançada, profundidade da intrusão e resistência à compressão. Somente aquela contendo apenas cimento puro foi aprovada no ensaio de flexão. CONCLUSÃO: O acréscimo de vancomicina e/ou azul de metileno ao cimento ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker reduz a resistência da mistura à flexão, sendo reprovada pela norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833.OBJECTIVE: Acrylic cement has been used for years on orthopaedic surgeries, especially on knee arthroplasties, deserving special attention when added to antibiotics (for treatment of deep bone infections or stains (to facilitate its removal. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate potential mechanical differences between the orthopaedic cement itself and when this is added to antibiotic and/or stains. METHODS: Surgical bone cement Simplex®P Stryker, vancomycin and methylene blue were used, and the mixtures were submitted to physical and mechanical tests according the ABNT NBR ISO 5833 rule. The parameters studied here were: time for mass formation

  13. Estudo experimental de linfonodo sentinela na mama da cadela com azul patente e Tecnécio Tc99m Experimental study of the sentinel lymph node in the dog breast using blue dye and technetium Tc99m

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    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Linfonodo Sentinela (LS tem se mostrado efetiva na avaliação axilar nas portadoras de neoplasia mamária. O LS negativo torna desnecessário o esvaziamento axilar. OBJETIVO: Identificar o LS da região subareolar da mama em cadelas utilizando corante azul patente (AP, Tecnécio Tc99m ou a associação de ambas as técnicas e compará-las quanto à sensibilidade na detecção do linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas dezessete cães fêmeas. Um total de 55 mamas foram analisadas. Utilizou-se AP (2,5%/0,5 ml e/ou Tc99m (1,0 mC/0,8ml para identificação do LS. A aplicação do Tc99m era realizada duas horas antes da realização do experimento. O AP era injetado na região subareolar da mama. Localizado o LS, realizava-se sua exérese. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 linfonodos em que se utilizou AP, pôde-se verificar que 40 estavam corados (90,90%. Dos 48 linfonodos em que se utilizou Tc99m, 47 linfonodos estavam radioativos (97,91% (p=0.18; k= - 0.067. Nas 37 mamas em que se associou AP ao Tc99m, apesar de 02 linfonodos não estarem corados, todos estavam radioativos (AP vs AP+Tc: p=0.12; k=0.083; Tc vs AP+Tc: p=1.0; k=0.018. CONCLUSÃO: O Tc99m e o corante azul patente, isolados ou associados, prestam-se à identificação do LS da mama do animal.The sentinel lymph node research (SLN has been effective in the evaluation of nodal status in patients with breast cancer. A negative SLN makes an axillary lymphadenectomy unnecessary. PURPOSE: To identify the SLN of the subareolar region in female dog breasts using blue dye (BD, Technetium (Tc99m or the association of both techniques and to compare their sensibility in the detection of the SLN. METHODS: Seventeen female dogs were studied. 55 breasts were analyzed. DB and/or Tc99m were used for the identification of SLN. Tc99m was introduced two hours before the experiment. BD was introduced some minutes before the procedure. Once the SLN was localized its dissection was performed. RESULTS

  14. El secreto del huevo azul, de Catalina González Vilar. Estudio narratológico. The secret of the blue egg, by Catalina González Vilar. Narratological study

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    Miguel Sánchez-García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a narratological study of the literary work The secret of the blue egg, by the writer Catalina Gonzalez Vilar, that won El Barco de Vapor prize in 2012. It examines the different constitutive elements of the text (topic approach, prominent figures, syntactic structure, narrative technique… and his contribution to the development of the story with the purpose of discovering the aesthetic and literary values that contribute to the fable. It aims at demonstrating the proper use of them all as they shape a text rich in nuances, striking, suggestive. All these qualities of great importance both in creations aimed at adults as well as at children and young people because they enrich the final value of the work, and by extension, the cultural background of their readers.Este trabajo aborda el estudio narratológico de la obra El secreto del huevo azul, de la escritora Catalina González Vilar, que obtuvo el Premio El Barco de Vapor en el año 2012. Examina los diferentes elementos constitutivos del texto (el enfoque del tema, la caracterización de los personajes, la estructura sintáctica, el tratamiento del lenguaje, la técnica narrativa utilizada… y su aporte al desarrollo de la historia con la finalidad de descubrir los valores estéticos y literarios que aporta a la fábula. Pretende demostrar el adecuado uso de todos ellos dado que favorecen un texto rico en matices, llamativo, sugerente. Cualidades, todas ellas, de gran importancia tanto en creaciones destinadas al público adulto como al infantil y juvenil pues enriquece el valor final de la obra, y por extensión, el bagaje cultural de sus lectores.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DO GANHO DE PESO DE PÓS-LARVAS DO CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, ALIMENTADOS COM PEIXES DA FAUNA ACOMPANHANTE DO CAMARÃO MARINHO EVALUATION OF WEIGHT GAIN IN POST-LARVAE OF MARINE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 FED ON FISH SPECIES WHICH COMPOSE THE MARINE SHRIMP FISHERIES BYCATCH

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    Henrique José Mascarenhas dos Santos Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar o desenvolvimento inicial de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei em água doce utilizando como alimento peixes da fauna acompanhante da pesca do camarão marinho. Cultivaram-se 48 pós-larvas com peso e comprimento médio total iniciais de 0,008±0,001 g e 11,0±0,5 mm, respectivamente. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados, como alimento, ração comercial (RC para camarão marinho com 45% de proteína bruta, Opisthonema oglinum (OO (sardinha bandeira e Chloroscombus chrysurus (CC (palombeta, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A densidade de estocagem consistiu de quatro camarões por aquário. Durante os 75 dias de experimento, a alimentação foi administrada ad libitum. Registrou-se a temperatura média final de 27,1±0,8ºC para os três tratamentos e o pH médio final de 7,68±0,27 para os camarões alimentados com RC e 7,66±0,22 para os indivíduos alimentados com OO e CC, respectivamente. Os pesos médios finais foram de 0,560±0,096 g, 0,495±0,091 g e 0,500±0,101 g e os comprimentos totais finais de 62,1±0,9 mm, 57,0±0,8 mm e 56,2±0,9 mm para os tratamentos com RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Os resultados do peso e comprimento final mostraram que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos testados. A sobrevivência final foi de 87,5±14,4%, 68,8±12,5% e 62,5±14,3% para o RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização de ração para camarão marinho e os peixes marinhos O. oglinum e C. chrysurus como alimento para pós-larvas de camarão marinho apresentam desenvolvimento semelhante. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Camarão marinho, dietas, Chloroscombus chrysurus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Opisthonema oglinum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early development of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae in freshwater fed on fish species that compose the shrimp fisheries bycatch. Forty eight post

  16. BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES DETECTIONS IN SHEEP FROM ARAÇATUBA REGION –SAO PAULO, BRAZIL DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS CONTRA O VÍRUS DA LÍNGUA AZUL EM OVINOS NA REGIÃO DE ARAÇATUBA – SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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    Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Bluetongue (BT is an infectious, insect-born viral disease of ruminants. The causative agent of BT is bluetongue virus (BTV that belongs to the family Reoviridae genus Orbivirus. Insect vectors in the genus Culicoides transmit this virus. BT affects domestic and wild ruminants, however small ruminants are considered the most affected specie. The aim of the study was to detect antibodies against BTV in commercial sheep farms, of the Northeastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 1002 sera samples collected from adult sheep (above 1 year-old, comprising a total of 31 farms, were screened for the presence of BTV antibodies, by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID and ELISA-CFS (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay – competitive solid phase, both produced by Pan American Center of FMDV. From a total of 1002 samples, 651 (65% were positive by AGID and 742 (74.1%, were positive by ELISA-CFS. These results suggest that the BTV is widespread among farms, probably causing subclinical infections.

    KEY WORDS: AGID, bluetongue virus, ELISA-CFS, seroepidemiological survey.

    A língua azul é uma doença viral, cujo agente etiológico pertence à família Reoviridae, gênero Orbivirus, transmitida por um vetor (artrópode hematófago, do gênero Culicoides. Os animais acometidos são ruminantes domésticos e selvagens, porém os pequenos ruminantes são os mais afetados. O estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de anticorpos para língua azul em ovinos da região de Araçatuba, por possuir um rebanho expressivo e condições climáticas favoráveis à multiplicação de insetos. Foram analisadas 1.002 amostras de soros ovinos, provenientes de 31 cabanhas, pelas provas de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar (AGID e ELISA (Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay de competição da fase sólida (ELISA CFS, provenientes do Centro Panamericano de Febre Aftosa. Desses soros, 651 (65% foram

  17. Evaluación in vivo del efecto cicatrizante de un gel a base de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Heimy Franceline Martínez Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Healing effect of a chitosan-based gel obtained from the exoskeleton of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its evaluation in vivoTítulo corto: Evaluación del quitosano como cicatrizanteResumen:  En México alrededor del 62 % de la población sufre de accidentes causantes de alteraciones en la piel como quemaduras, heridas y diabetes principalmente. Para atender esta problemática, se propone el uso de un gel de quitosano, obtenido del exoesqueleto de camarón ya que presenta actividad antimicrobiana e inmunológica acelerando la cicatrización. Se evaluó el efecto sinérgico sobre la velocidad de cicatrización, aplicándolo en heridas de 1 cm2 infringidas a 48 ratones albinos, agrupados en cuatro tratamientos; Quitosano 0.15 y 0.30 %, producto cicatrizante (Ketanserina al 2 % y blanco (testigos sin tratamiento. El tiempo para la cicatrización sin tratamiento y el producto comercial fue 14 días, teniendo el control un efecto cicatrizante del 0 %, mientras que los geles de quitosano 0.15 y 0.30 % cicatrizaron en 7 días (P> 0.05 con efecto cicatrizante del 58 % para el quitosano 0.15 y 64 % para el quitosano 0.30.Palabras clave: piel, heridas, gel, quitosano, cicatrización.Abstract: Skin problems in Mexico have steadily increased (62 % by burns, wounds and diabetes mainly. To solve this problem, chitosan can be implemented; this polysaccharide has an antimicrobial and immunology activity against bacteria and fungi, accelerating healing. Therefore, synergistic effect of chitosan gel on the rate of healing, obtained from the exoskeleton of shrimp was evaluated. This was tested by applying it 1 cm2 over inflicted wounds of 48 albino mice, of 45 days old and between 23 to 26 g of weight, during 14 days, and grouped into four treatments: 1 0.15 % chitosan 2 0.30 % chitosan, 3 commercial product 2 % Ketanserin and 4 A batch of untreated controls. The time required for healing without treatment was 14 days, and with the utilization of 0

  18. Influência de duas dietas na qualidade da água dos tanquesberçário, utilizados no cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Adriano Prysthon da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivos experimentais com pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de berçário, foram realizados em uma fazenda de camarão, objetivando avaliar a influência da utilização de duas dietas na qualidade físico-química das águas residuais. As dietas foram formuladas à base de ração comercial e náuplios de artêmia, denominadas MAC e MAA, respectivamente. Foram utilizadas pós-larvas no estágio (PL19, estocadas a 16PL/L em dois tanques-berçário de 60 m3. Ao final de 10 dias de cultivo, as concentrações dos compostosnitrogenados (amônia, nitrito e nitrato e fosfatados (fósforo total e ortofosfatos dos tanquesberçário foram menores na dieta MAA do que na MAC (pExperiments were carried out in a commercial marine shrimp farm in order to evaluate the use of two diets in Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae, during nursery phase, on physiochemical wastewater quality. Two feeding methods were adopted: Commercial Feeding Method (MAC and Artemia Feeding Method (MAA. The nursery tanks (60 m3 were provided with 19 days post-larvae (PL19 with a stocking density of 16PL/liter. After 10 days of culture, the concentrations of nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate and phosphorus compounds (total phosphorus and orthophosphate in the nursery tank were smaller for MAC, rather than MAA treatment (p<0.05. Consequently, MAA treatment induced low levels of daily compounds increment,thus contributing to a significant reduction of the nutrients that caused water eutrophication.

  19. The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation = Impacto do consumo de oxigênio do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei em relação ao peso corporal, temperatura, salinidade na aeração do viveiro: uma simulação

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    Luis Vinatea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by thecombination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was observed at 30°C, salinities of 25 and 37 ppt, and shrimp of 15 and 20 g. Baseado em estudos de respiração de Litopenaeus vannamei (mg O2 camarão-1 h-1, comportamento do Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate (SOTR, kg O2 h-1 de aeradores mecânicos em função da salinidade, assim como as taxas de respiração da água e do solo (mg O2 L-1 h-1, uma simulação foi realizada a fim de determinar o impacto que estas três variáveis juntas têm sobre a aeração de viveiros (1, 10, 50 e 100 ha, estocados com diferentes densidades (10, 40 e 120 camarões m-2 em salinidades de 1, 13, 25 e 37 ppm, temperaturas de 20, 25 e 30°C e peso úmido dos camarões de 5, 10, 15 e 20 g. Os resultados mostraram que em salinidades mais baixas, com animais maiores e maiores densidades de estocagem, maior será a quantidade de aeradores de 2 cvnecessários para manter o oxigênio dissolvido acima de 50% da saturação. Igualmente, em baixas salinidades e com camarões de 5 e 10 g, independente da densidade de estocagem, mais aeradores

  20. 凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei) F0-ATP合酶b链全长cDNA的克隆及组织分布%cDNA Cloning and Study on Tissue Distribution of F0-ATP Synthase b-chain ofLitopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓东; 刘庆慧; 关广阔; 李倩; 李晨; 黄倢

    2015-01-01

    采用RACE方法克隆得到了凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)的F0-ATP合酶b链基因的全长cDNA序列.生物信息学分析显示,该基因开放阅读框744 bp,编码248个氨基酸,分子量为28.2 kDa.Blast比对结果显示,克隆得到的cDNA序列所编码的氨基酸序列与海虱(Caligus clemensi) F0-ATP合酶β亚基的同源性为50%,与黑腹果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster) F0-ATP合酶β亚基的同源性为60%.免疫组化实验及流式细胞分析表明,F0-ATP合酶b链广泛分布于对虾鳃组织中,并且在对虾血细胞表面有分布.%White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major fatal pathogen to shrimp. It is known that the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase plays a key role in the synthesis of ATP in all living organisms. Evidence from our previous research indicated that the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase ofLitopenaeus vannamei was involved in WSSV infection. However the full-length sequence of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase in L. vannamei has not been available yet. In this study we cloned the full cDNA using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the amino acid sequence and the secondary and space structure of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase. We also mapped the homology and phylogenic tree using ClustalX 1.83 and MEGA 4.02. Immuno-histochemical and flow cytometry analysis were carried out to detect the tissue distribution of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase in L. vannamei. The results showed that the 1129 bp full length cDNA was successfully cloned. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the full length cDNA had an open reading frame (ORF) of 744 bp that encoded 248 amino acids, and that the predicted molecular weight of the mature peptide was 28.2 kDa. The homology analysis of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase between species demonstrated that there was a higher similarity betweenL. vannamei andCaligus clemensi (50%), and Drosophila melanogaster

  1. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134 Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134

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    Fúlvio Aurélio Morais Freire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, em um sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parcelada em duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliados nas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at 08

  2. Culture of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with zero water exchange and no food addition: an eco-friendly approach Cultivo de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 sin recambio de agua y sin adición de alimento formulado: un sistema amigable con el ambiente

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    Juan Manuel Audelo-Naranjo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juveniles (3.5 ± 0.3 g of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were grown during 40 days with no water exchanges, no food addition and four initial densities (25, 50, 75 and 100 g m-3, corresponding to between 8 and 32 shrimp m-2, to determine growth rates, which could be achieved using the periphyton growing on artificial substrates as the only food source. The experimental culture units were 12 polyethylene 1 m³ cylindrical tanks with 4.8 m² of total submerged surface (bottom and walls, provided with 7.2 m² of artificial substrate (Aquamats™. There were no significant differences in the ammonia and nitrite concentrations determined in the four treatments (0.17-0.19 and 0.10-0.11 mg L-1, respectively, which remained below the respective levels of concern for shrimp cultures. Mean survival was similar, and ranged from close to 91 to 97%, whereas there were significant differences in mean individual weight, which ranged from 11.9-10.6 g shrimp-1 for the two low initial densities (25 y 50 g m-3, to 8.3-7.7 g shrimp-1 for the other treatments. However, because of the high survival and of the higher initial density, the best biomass yield was with 100 g m-3. The final nitrogen contents of sediment and water were lower than the initial values, and between 36 and 60% of the difference was converted into shrimp biomass.Durante 40 días se cultivaron juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei con un peso individual de 3,5 ± 0,3 g y biomasas iniciales de 25, 50, 75 y 100 g m-3 (equivalente a 8-32 ind m-2, sin cambios de agua y adición de alimento, para determinar la tasa de crecimiento usando como única fuente de alimentación el perifiton desarrollado en sustratos artificiales. Se utilizaron estanques cilíndricos de polietileno de 1 m³ con tres réplicas por tratamiento, con una superficie de 4,8 m² (paredes y fondo y 7,1 m² de sustrato artificial (Aquamats™. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones

  3. Effect of hydrosoluble polysaccharides of Macrocystis pyrifera on physiological and metabolic responses of Litopenaeus vannamei infected with Vibrio campbellii Efecto de polisacáridos hidrosolubles de Macrocystis pyrifera sobre las respuestas fisiológicas y metabólicas de Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio campbellii

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    Liliana Noemi Sánchez Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei between 23 and 32 g of wet weight were injected or submerged in a hydrosoluble polysaccharides extract from Macrocystis pyrifera and infected with Vibrio campbellii. The infection decreased the oxygen consumption rate to 24 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 w.w., in shrimps of the control group, which were only infected with V. campbellii. Immunestimulated shrimps did not decrease their oxygen consumption rate at any hour p.i. (46 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 w.w. maintaining it similar to the pre-injection group. Glucose level in the hemolymph of V. campbellii infected shrimps at two hours p.i. was significantly higher (p > 0.05 than the level of the pre-injection group. L. vannamei injected with the extract showed a significant decrease (p > 0.05 in their glucose level at 12 hours p.i., but at 24 hours p.i. it returned to normal level. Shrimps submerged in the extract showed no significant glucose level difference (p 0.05 immunoestimulated shrimps showed an increase in their total proteins levels. This study concluded that administration of extract of M. pyrifera via injection and immersion in adult white shrimp can be used for immunostimulation purposes.Adultos de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei de entre 23 y 32 g de peso húmedo fueron inyectados o sumergidos en un extracto de polisacáridos hidrosolubles de Macrocystis pyrifera e infectados con Vibrio campbellii. La infección disminuyó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno a 24 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 p.h. en los camarones del grupo control infectados con V. campbellii. Los camarones inmunoestimulados vía inyección e inmersión, mantuvieron una tasa de consumo de oxígeno de 46 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 p.h., similar a los camarones control. La concentración de glucosa en la hemolinfa de los adultos infectados con V. campbellii a las dos horas p.i. fue significativamente más alto (p > 0.05 que la del grupo control de pre-inyección. Los inyectados con el extracto e infectados con V. campbellii

  4. Un estudio de caso en el análisis de la distribución de frecuencias de tallas de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 mediante el uso de estimadores de densidad por Kernel A case study of length frequency distribution analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 using kernel density estimators

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    Gustavo Rivera-Velázquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el uso del estimador de densidad por Kernel (EDK, como una herramienta moderna para analizar la distribución de frecuencia de tallas de Litopenaeus vannamei en su etapa estuarina. Los datos fueron obtenidos en 22 sitios de muestreo dentro del sistema lagunar-estuarino Carretas-Pereyra, a intervalos mensuales entre marzo 2004 y agosto 2005 abarcando las dos épocas del año; estío y precipitación. El camarón fue capturado con atarraya (esparavel de cuatro metros de diámetro y malla de 10 mm. La distribución de cada muestra fue analizada mediante EDKs, usando la función ponderal gaussiana y la amplitud de banda bootstrap. Los valores de las modas dominantes en el tiempo fueron ajustados a la función de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy. Los resultados sugieren un reclutamiento continuo al área de pesca pero con pulso bimodal. La tasa media de crecimiento del camarón fue igual en ambas estaciones climáticas. Los parámetros estimados son similares a los registrados en investigaciones previas por otros autores para la especie en sistemas cercanos. El estudio muestra como el uso de los EDKs seguidos por un método de análisis del crecimiento (en este caso se empleo el análisis de la progresión modal, es un camino objetivo y preciso para el estudio de la distribución de frecuencias de tallas y su aplicación en la estimación de parámetros importantes en la dinámica poblacional de especies de importancia pesquera.This paper, introduces the use of kernel density estimators (EDK's as a modern tool for examining the length-frequency distribution of Litopenaeus vannamei in its estuarine stage. The data were obtained monthly at 22 sampling sites in the Carretas-Pereyra lagoon-estuarine system, from March 2004 to August 2005, covering both seasons of the year: dry and rainy. Shrimp were caught with a 4 m diameter cast net of 10 mm mesh size. The size distribution of each sample was analyzed by means of EDK's, using the Gaussian

  5. Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

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    Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC, dehulled (DC, cooked (CC, germinated (GC and extruded (EXC. The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC, decorticado (DC, cocido (CC, germinado (GC y extruido (EXC. Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorim

  6. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 marine shrimp farms = Composição fitoplanctônica em três sistemas de cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931

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    Michelle Pereira Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 ƒÊm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997. The results show that the densities of Diatoms were of 16.65, 10.47 and 7.57 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic, intensive and semi intensive cultivations, respectively. As for cyanobacteria, the average figures were 42.06 cel. 103 mL-1 forsemi intensive 17.27 cel. 103 mL-1, in the intensive cultivation and 6.11 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic cultivation system. The dinoflagellates had the highest cellular density in the phytoplankton community analyzed with 61.9 cel. 103 mL-1 in the intensive cultivation, 0.33 and 0.03 cel. 103 mL-1 for both semi intensive and organic cultivation systems respectively. Euglenas presented the results of 4.98 and 14.86 cel. 103 mL-1 only for semi intensive and intensive cultivations. It was then concluded that all cultivations presented average rates below recommended for such studied systems.Conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar as diferentes composicoes fitoplanctonicas em tres sistemas de cultivo para o camarao marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominados de organico, intensivo e semiintensivo. As amostragens foram realizadas quinzenalmente, onde o fitoplancton foi coletado atraves de uma rede de plancton, com malha de 65 ƒÊm, sendo filtrado um volume de agua total de 100 litros, que foram preservadas em solucao de formol a 4% e identificadas segundo a metodologia de Cordeiro et al. (1997. Os resultados mostram que as densidades de diatomaceas foram de 16,65; 10,47 e 7,57 cel. 103 mL-1, respectivamente

  7. Uso do azul de metileno na reversão de vasoplegia refratária ao uso de catecolaminas após bypass aortobifemoral Use of methylene blue in the reversal of vasoplegia refractory to the use of catecholamines after aortobifemoral bypass

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    Mariana Raphaela Garcia de Araújo dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que o óxido nítrico (NO tem importância na vasodilatação associada a reações vasoplégicas. O objetivo deste relato de caso é documentar um caso de vasoplegia refratária ao uso de catecolaminas após bypass aortobifemoral revertida com o uso de azul de metileno. Mulher, 50 anos, submetida a bypass aortobifemoral. Sem comorbidades. Saiu de sala cirúrgica extubada, estável e com pulsos distais presentes. Duas horas após a cirurgia, evoluiu com choque circulatório. Iniciada noradrenalina e investigadas causas de choque. Manteve-se com necessidades crescentes de aminas e parâmetros estáveis. No sexto dia pós-operatório, com a hipótese de vasoplegia refratária, optou-se pelo uso do azul. Resposta imediata, com queda nos níveis de aminas, sendo desligada a noradrenalina no dia seguinte. O azul de metileno inibe a guanilato ciclase, produtora de guanosina monofosfato cíclico. Especula-se que haja um sinergismo entre essas drogas, já que a sua associação permite a atuação do sistema adenosina monofosfato.There is evidence that the nitric oxide plays an important role in the vasodilation associated with vasoplegic reactions. The objective of this case report is to document a case of catecholamine-refractory shock after aortobifemoral bypass treated with methylene blue. A 50-year-old woman was admitted for aortobifemoral bypass graft surgery. She did not present with any comorbidities. At the end of the surgery, she was breathing spontaneously, with palpable pedal pulses. Two hours later, the patient presented shock. Noradrenaline infusion was initiated and the causes of shock were investigated. She required increasing doses of amines and her parameters were stable. On the sixth day after surgery, methylene blue was administered due to the hypothesis of refractory vasoplegia. There was immediate response, with decrease in the catecholamine infusion levels until its withdrawal on the next day. Methylene blue

  8. Una cálida luz azul

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrígeuz López, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Comentarios libres a los textos de Steffan Hessel sobre el 15M Tras sentir el rumor de la muchedumbre indignada por las calles de toda España, extenderse por las plazas y acampar bajo el sol, la luna y las estrellas, durante días y noches, escuchando que una nueva era humana se está descolgando y desenrollando en nuestro mundo, donde gentes de todas las edades y clases, han invocado que esto tienen que cambiar, pues no quieren perder lo conquistado y no quieren tampoco que se alejen de la ...

  9. 凡纳滨对虾幼虾的缬氨酸需要量%Valine Requirement of Juvenile Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vanname

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周歧存; 王用黎; 黄文文; 霍雅文; 王猛强

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary valine content on growth per-formance, common nutrient composition and amino acid metabolic enzyme activities of juvenile Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vanname ) , and in order to determine the valine requirementof juvenile Pacific white shrimp. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets ( crude protein content was about 40.0%, and crude lipid content was about 7. 5%) were formulated with fish meal and soybean meal as main protein sources,and the measued values of valine content ( dry matter basis) in those diets were 1. 56%, 1.64%, 1.72%, 1.82%, 1.90% and 1.96%, respectively. A total of 540 juvenile Pacific white shrimp with the body weight was about 0.3 g were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates per group ( diet) and 30 juven-iles per replicate. The results showed that the weight gain rate, specific growth rate, protein retention rate and feed efficiency were firstly increased and then decreased with dietary valine content increasing, and the biggest values of them were found when dietary valine content was 1.82%. When dietary valine content was 1.72%, the crude protein content of whole body had the highest value, and it was decreased in different degree with di-etary valine content further increasing. The crude protein content of muscle had the highest value when dietary valine content was 1. 96%, and it was significantly higher than when dietary valine content was 1. 56% or 1.72% ( P0.05) . The highest values of alanine aminotransferase activ-ity in serum and hepatopancreas were all found in the group with the highest content of valine ( the group with the valine content was 1.96%) , and the highest values of alanine aminotransferase activity in muscle and alka-line phosphatase activity in hepatopancreas were all found in the group with the valine content was 1.90%. Di-etary valine content had no significant effect on aspartate aminotransferase activity in

  10. Biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by ligninolytic enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus Biodegradação do azul brilhante de remazol R pelo complexo enzimático ligninolítico produzido por Pleurotus ostreatus

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    Kátia Maria Gomes Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" is produced in Brazil on a commercial scale using various lignocellulosic residues. Efforts have been made to reuse the culture residue to obtain products of greater aggregate value such as enzymes or in processes of bioremediation. We evaluated the Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR degradation potential of extracts from solid substrate colonized by P. ostreatus and extracts from residue of the "shimeji" mushroom yield. Colonized substrates and residue were provided by Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extraction was performed with sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 4.6. RBBR decolorization was monitored at 592 nm and peroxidase and laccase activities were measured by monitoring the oxidation of ABTS. Horseradish peroxidase was used as reference. The time of growth of P. ostreatus influenced RBBR degradation and peroxidase and laccase activities. Concentration of 1 mM H2O2 and pH 4.0 were the best for RBBR decolorization. Complete RBBR decolorization was obtained with the addition of only one aliquot of 50 µL of 1 mM H2O2. The stability of the extracts was higher when they were kept under refrigeration than when stored frozen. The potential application of the ligninolytic complex derived from P. ostreatus and mushroom residue for xenobiotic degradation was demonstrated.Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" é produzido no Brasil em escala comercial empregando-se vários resíduos lignocelulósicos. Esforços têm sido feitos para reaproveitamento do resíduo do cultivo em produtos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas ou sua aplicação em processos de biorremediação. Foi feita avaliação do potencial de degradação do azul brilhante de remazol (RBBR por extratos obtidos de substratos sólidos colonizados por P. ostreatus e por extratos do resíduo da produção do cogumelo "shimeji". Substratos colonizados e o resíduo foram fornecidos pela Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extração foi feita com tampão acetato de sódio (50 mM, pH 4

  11. DEGRADATION OF CAFFEINE AND METHYLENE BLUE BY ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOPs = DEGRADAÇÃO DE CAFEÍNA E AZUL DE METILENO POR PROCESSOS OXIDATIVOS AVANÇADOS (POA

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    Enelton Fagnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of two compounds of pharmaceutical interest, caffeine (CAF and methylene blue (MB, was studied using physical process (photolysis-UV254nm, chemical process (peroxidation-H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes: photoperoxidation (UV/H2O2, Fenton's reagent (Fe(II/H2O2, photo-Fenton (Fe(II/H2O2/UV and heterogeneous photocatalysis (UV/TiO2. The aqueous samples were recirculated in the photoreactor and the processes were monitored using scanning spectrophotometry in the UV-Vis region and analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The advanced oxidation processes were more effective in modifying the structure of molecules and the reduction of DOC than the physical or chemical processes. The photo-Fenton process (120 min was the most efficient and the DOC reduction was about 75, 85, and 81% for CAF, MB, and CAF/MB solution, respectively. Thus, the photo-Fenton process was the most efficient in the degradation of substances assayed, followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis. = No presente trabalho foi feita uma avaliação da degradação de dois compostos de interesse farmacêutico, a cafeína (CAF e o azul de metileno (AZM, por vários processos: físico (fotólise-UV254nm; químico (peroxidação-H2O2 e oxidativos avançados, empregando-se a fotoperoxidação (UV/H2O2, o reagente de Fenton (Fe (II /H2O2, o foto-Fenton (Fe (II /H2O2/UV e a fotocatálise heterogênea (UV/TiO2. As amostras aquosas foram recirculadas em um fotorreator de bancada e o monitoramento de cada um dos processos foi realizado usando-se a espectrofotometria de varredura na região do UV-Vis e a análise de carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD. Os processos oxidativos avançados foram mais eficientes na modificação da estrutura de ambas as moléculas e na redução da concentração de COD. Em 120 min. de ensaio com o processo foto-Fenton, o mais eficiente, houve uma redução de COD de 75, 85, e 81% para a CAF, AZM, e a solução composta por ambos, respectivamente

  12. Distribution of mercury in adult penaeid shrimps from Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoon (SE Gulf of California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; García-Rosales, S B; Páez-Osuna, F

    2004-12-01

    The Altata-Ensenada del Pabellon lagoon system is located in the central part of Sinaloa state, NW Mexico. The major sources of pollution are represented by the waste effluents from the intensive agriculture and the urban sewage from the cities of Culiacán (population of 750000) and Navolato (population of 50000). In this lagoon system diverse penaeid shrimps occur; the crystal shrimp Farfantepenaeus brevirostris, the brown shrimp F. californiensis, the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, the white shrimp L. vannamei and the Pacific seabob Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. With the purpose of knowing distribution and relative concentrations of Hg in the main tissues of penaeid shrimps, levels of Hg in five species from Altata-Enesenada del Pabellón lagoon on the SE Gulf of California were determined. Analysis were carried out by reducing mercury compounds after acid digestion reduction with SnCl(2) and detection by cold vapour atomic absorption. In general, hepatopancreas was the tissue where Hg was mostly accumulated, followed by muscle and exoskeleton. The sequence of Hg concentrations in the five species studied here for every tissue was: hepatopancreas L. vannamei>F. californiensis>L. stylirostris>F. brevirostris>X. kroyeri; muscle L. stylirostris>F. brevirostris>L. vannamei>F. californiensis=X. kroyeri and exoskeleton F. brevirostris>F. californiensis>L. vannamei>L. stylirostris>X. kroyeri. PMID:15519411

  13. 超高压结合酶法消减南美白对虾虾肉中的过敏原%Allergen Elimination from Litopenaeus vannamei Meat by Ultra-high Pressure Treatment Coupled with Papain Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹丹; 胡志和; 薛璐; 张博洋

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of ultra-high pressure treatment and papain hydrolysis on allergen elimination from the meat of Litopenaeus vannamei. Fresh Litopenaeus vannamei was homogenized after removing the head, tail, shell, and catgut. Three methods, ultra-high pressure treatment, ultra-high pressure treatment followed by papain hydrolysis and simultaneous ultra-high pressure treatment and papain hydrolysis were used to eliminate allergens from the Litopenaeus vannamei homogenate. Indirect ELISA was used to evaluate the results of allergen elimination and the optimal conditions for allergen elimination were explored. The results showed that the optimal conditions for allergen elimination by ultrahigh pressure treatment were 200 MPa, 35 min and 40 ℃. Under these conditions, the optical density at 492 nm (OD492m) after the reaction between antibody and treated Litopenaeus vannamei homogenate was 0.1986. The optimal conditions for ultra-high pressure treatment followed by papain hydrolysis were substrate concentration of 10 g/mL, hydrolysis temperature of 60℃ and enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 1:200, resulting in an OD492nm of 0.0487. The optimal conditions for simultaneous ultra-high pressure treatment in the presence of papain were 300 MPa, 35 min and 40 ℃, which revealed an OD492nm of 0.0516. Based on the above studies, ultra-high pressure treatment is effective for allergen elimination from Litopenaeus vannamei, but inferior to ultra-high pressure treatment followed by papain hydrolysis and ultra-high pressure treatment in the presence of papain.%以虾肉为原料,研究超高压对酶法消减南美白对虾虾肉过敏原的强化作用。将南美白对虾去头、去尾、去壳、去肠线后用匀浆机匀浆,制成虾肉酱,分别采用超高压法、超高压处理后再用木瓜蛋白酶水解、超高压条件下直接酶解的方法消减其过敏原,用间接酶联免疫吸附法检测过敏原消减

  14. 不同贮藏温度对凡纳滨对虾理化性质的影响%Effects of different storage temperature on the physical and chemical properties of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 代文婷; 金新文

    2016-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei were stored at -5 ℃,-1 8 ℃,-35 ℃ and -60 ℃ respectively,the changes of shrimp freshness,thawing loss rate and textural properties were analyzed to study the effects of differ-ent storage temperature on the physical and chemical properties of Litopenaeus vannamei.The thawing loss rate of shrimp was low,and the texture property was better when stored at -5 ℃,-35 ℃ and -60 ℃,but the shelf-life was short when stored at -5 ℃,and it became inedible when stored for 30 days.When stored at -1 8 ℃, the freshness was good,but after thawing,the juice loss was serious,and the texture property of shrimp decreased obviously.When stored at -35 ℃ and -60 ℃,the shrimp quality was not much difference,the shrimp freshness could be kept for a long time.The equipment and operation requirements are very high,and the energy consump-tion is large when stored at -60 ℃.Therefore,-35 ℃ was the ideal storage temperature for Litopenaeus van-namei.%将凡纳滨对虾分别在-5℃、-18℃、-35℃、-60℃进行贮藏,分析虾肉新鲜度、解冻损失率、质构性能的变化,研究不同贮藏温度对凡纳滨对虾理化性质的影响。结果表明:在-5℃、-35℃、-60℃下贮藏,虾肉解冻损失率低,质构性能保持较好,但-5℃保鲜期短,30 d 已不可食用。在-18℃下冷冻贮藏,新鲜度保持良好,但解冻后汁液流失严重,虾的质构性能下降较明显。在-35℃与-60℃下贮藏,虾肉品质差异不大,均能够长时间保持虾新鲜度。由于在-60℃下贮藏对设备和操作要求都很高,且能耗大,因此凡纳滨对虾在-35℃下贮藏较为理想。

  15. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  16. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437 Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Oliveira Galvez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo teve como finalidade observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados diferentes métodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado ao método sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in em>Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention of higher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  17. The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7018 The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7018

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    Rafael Arantes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by the combination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was observed at 30°C, salinities of 25 and 37 ppt, and shrimp of 15 and 20 g.A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by the combination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was

  18. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496 Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496

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    Diogo Bessa Neves Spanghero

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p L. vannamei cultivadas na fase berçário sem renovação de águaThe effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  19. Evidence of multiple retrotransposons in two litopenaeid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizer, S E; Tamulis, W G; Robertson, L M; Garcia, D K

    2008-08-01

    Retrotransposons encompass a specific class of mobile genetic elements that are widespread across eukaryotic genomes. The impact of the varied types of retrotransposons on these genomes is just beginning to be deciphered. In a step towards understanding their role in litopenaeid shrimp, we have herein identified nine non-LTR retrotransposons, among which several appear to exist outside the standard defined clades. Two Litopenaeus stylirostris elements were discovered through degenerate PCR amplification using previously defined non-LTR degenerate primers, and through primers designed from a RAPD-derived sequence. A third genomic L. stylirostris element was identified using specific priming from an amplification protocol. These three PCR-derived sequences showed conserved domains of the non-LTR reverse transcriptase gene. In silico searching of genome databases and subsequent contig construction yielded six non-LTR retrotransposons (both genomic and expressed) in the Litopenaeus vannamei genome that also exhibited the highly conserved domains found in our PCR-derived sequences. Phylogenetic placement among representatives from all non-LTR clades showed a possibly novel monophyletic group that included five of our nine sequences. This group, which included elements from both L. stylirostris and L. vannamei, appeared most closely related to the highly active RTE clade. Our remaining four sequences placed in the CR1 and I clades of retrotransposons, with one showing strong similarity to ancient Penelope elements. This research describes three newly discovered retrotransposons in the L. stylirostris genome. Phylogenetic analysis clusters these in a monophyletic grouping with retrotransposons previously described from two closely related species, L. vannamei and Penaeus monodon. PMID:18557973

  20. Risco de contaminação do corante azul de tripano após primeira utilização Risk of contamination of trypan blue dye after first use

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    João Baptista Nigro Santiago Malta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o potencial risco de contaminação do frasco de azul de tripano (AT depois de utilizado pela primeira vez e estocado em diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade, assim como identificar os possíveis fatores de contaminação, microrganismos mais freqüentemente envolvidos e simultaneamente avaliar as propriedades bacteriostáticas e bactericidas do corante. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo experimental, prospectivo, em que 30 frascos de AT foram divididos em três grupos (A: controle, B: armazenamento em geladeira e C: armazenamento em armário. O corante era aspirado e semeado em placas de ágar sangue e tubo de ágar Sabouraud. No grupo A o AT foi semeado apenas logo após a abertura dos frascos (tempo zero - T0, nos grupos B e C ocorreu semeadura nos T0, T1 (1 dia, T2 (2 dias, T7 (7 dias e T10 (10 dias após abertura dos frascos. No 10º dia os frascos dos grupos B e C também foram submetidos a um raspado do lado interno do frasco após abertura. Concomitantemente foi realizado teste de ação inibitória do corante AT para estudo da atividade bacteriostática e bactericida. RESULTADOS: As semeaduras realizadas no T0 não apresentaram contaminação. Entre os T1 e T10 mais o raspado houve apenas 1 frasco contaminado armazenado em geladeira. O microrganismo encontrado foi o Aspergillus niger. Foi comprovado que o corante não apresenta ação bactericida e bacteriostática para as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições do estudo não houve contaminação dos frascos armazenados em armário e 1 frasco (10% armazenado em geladeira apresentou contaminação após abertura e uso inicial. A fonte de contaminação talvez seja o lado externo do produto. O AT não apresenta propriedades bactericidas e bacteriostáticas para as bactérias testadas e na concentração utilizada.PURPOSE: To determine the potential risk of contamination of a trypan blue bottle (TB after first use and after being stored under different

  1. 凡纳滨对虾肠道微生物宏基因组 Solexa 测序及其初步分析%Solexa sequencing and analysis of the intestinal microorgan-isms metagenome in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严雪平; 袁剑波; 刘斌

    2012-01-01

      CTAB-酚/氯仿法提取新鲜凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)肠道微生物宏基因组 DNA.结果表明: CTAB-酚/氯仿法提取总 DNA 的浓度达到92.5 ng/μL,半定量 PCR 法检测微生物基因组相对含量为69.9%.凡纳滨对虾肠道微生物宏基因组用于 Solexa 测序,生物信息学分析结果显示宏基因数据中64.1%的数据属于未知序列,35.5%属于真核生物,而已知的微生物和病毒序列所占比例仅有0.4%

  2. An in vitro study of alkaline phosphatase sensitivity to mixture of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in the hepatopancreas of coastal lagoon wild and farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Acosta, Jesús A; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Ezquerra-Brauer, J Marina

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the combined effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on wild Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with that of farmed shrimp. AP activity in hepatopancreas extract was confirmed by several specific inhibitor assays. AP activity of wild shrimp was higher than that of farmed shrimp (p shrimp was inhibited when incubated with AFB1 and FB1. The greatest inhibition occurred when AP was incubated with a mixture of AFB1 and FB1. The IC50 for AFB1 on AP activity of wild and farmed shrimp hepatopancreases was 0.790 and 0.398 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of FB1 was 0.87 μg/mL for wild shrimp and 0.69 μg/mL for farmed shrimp. These results suggest that, at the mycotoxins concentrations used in the study, AP from farmed L. vannamei was sensitive to the presence of both mycotoxins; however, AP is more sensitive to the combination of AFB1 + FB1 suggesting a possible synergistic or potentiating inhibitory effect.

  3. A influência do azul de metileno na prevenção da lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal The role of the methylene blue as a lung protector after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

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    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ação do azul de metileno como supressor da produção de radicais livres de oxigênio, atuando como receptor alternativo de elétrons na enzima xantina oxidase. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia divididos em 2 grupos de 16 animais, os quais foram denominados grupos: experimento e controle. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e oclusão da artéria mesentérica cranial por 60 minutos. A reperfusão foi confirmada por meio da verificação do reaparecimento da pulsação na arcada mesentérica. Foi então administrado no grupo experimento 2 ml de azul de metileno 1 % estéril intraperitonealmente, enquanto que no grupo controle foi administrado solução salina isotônica estéril em mesmo volume e pela mesma via de administração. Após 4 horas de reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados. Amostras dos pulmões foram obtidas para: análise histopatológica, avaliação do edema e para determinação da atividade da xantina oxidase. RESULTADOS: O dano pulmonar encontrado no grupo controle foi superior ao encontrado no grupo experimento. Observou-se uma maior formação de edema nos pulmões do grupo controle. A atividade da xantina oxidase foi semelhante em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O azul de metileno diminui a lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal.PURPOSE: To study the role of methylene blue as an inibitor of superoxide production by xantine oxidase. METHODS: Thirty two Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups of 16 animals: the control group and the experimental group. All the animals were submitted to a laparotomy for the occlusion of the cranial mesenteric artery during 60 minutes. The reperfusion was confirmed by the 'pulsation of the artery after releasing the temporary ligature. In the animals of the control group, 2 ml of saline were injected in the peritoneal cavity and in the animals of the experimental group 2 ml of methylene

  4. Estudo clínico, prospectivo, aberto, randomizado e comparativo para avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul versus peróxido de benzoíla 5% no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III A prospective, randomized, open and comparative study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of blue light treatment versus a topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grade II and III

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    Lúcia H. F. de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Muitos pacientes relatam melhora da acne com a exposição à luz solar, e vários estudos demonstram que a luz azul é efetiva no tratamento da acne. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul (espectro eletromagnético de 407 a 420 nm no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III, comparada à terapêutica tópica com peróxido de benzoíla a 5%. MÉTODOS: O estudo avaliou 60 pacientes em cinco visitas: uma de seleção, uma com 7, 14 e 28 dias de tratamento e uma última de seguimento, 14 dias após o término do tratamento. Trinta foram randomizados para luz azul (oito sessões, duas vezes por semana, e outros 30, para peróxido de benzoíla a 5%, duas vezes ao dia, diariamente. A avaliação foi por meio da contagem das lesões e fotografias. RESULTADOS: A redução no número médio de lesões foi semelhante com os dois tratamentos, independente do tipo de lesão (p 0,05, porém o tratamento com a luz azul apresentou menos efeitos colaterais. CONCLUSÕES: A luz azul foi um tratamento tão eficaz quanto o peróxido de benzoíla a 5% para o tratamento da acne graus II e III, mas com menos efeitos adversos.BACKGROUND: Many acne patients improve after exposure to sunlight and there are many reports about the efficacy of blue light phototherapy on acne lesions. OBJECTIVES - The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of blue light treatment versus topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grades II and III. METHODS - Sixty volunteers with facial acne were included and evaluated in 5 visits: the first one for screening, another 3 held on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment, and the last one after 14 days of the end of treatment. Thirty of them were irradiated with Blue Light (8 times, twice a week and the other thirty were treated with topical Benzoyl Peroxide 5% formulation, auto-applied twice a day, every day. We assessed the severity of acne by counting the lesions and

  5. L’élevage de la crevette bleue en Nouvelle -Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Della Patrona, Luc; Brun, Pierre; Peignon, Jean-marie

    2009-01-01

    Ce poster présente l'ouvrage homonyme qui représente une somme de connaissances considérable sur l’élevage de la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Les différents aspects de l’élevage y sont détaillés avec de nombreux exemples très concrets et une iconographie abondante, 320 pages,101 figures, 49 photos, 85 tableaux, près de 500 références bibliographiques. Cet ouvrage satisfera naturellement les professionnels de la crevetticulture en Nouvelle-Calédonie et au delà...

  6. Prevalencia y distribución de los principales agentes etiológicos que afectan los langostinos silvestres en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Alfaro Aguilera; Mervin Guevara Torres; Isaías Gonzales Chávez

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la prevalencia y distribución de diferentes agentes patógenos en langostinos silvestres, en la zona de esteros de la Región Tumbes - Perú, entre marzo y diciembre de 2009. Los canales de marea considerados en este estudio fueron: Boca del Río Tumbes, El Alcalde, Jelí, El Bendito, Envidia, Soledad y Algarrobo. Se colectó un total de 1926 langostinos entre juveniles y pre-adultos de las especies Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris y Farfantepenaeus californiensis. Utilizando la t...

  7. Desenvolvimento e caracterização de sensor de acúmulo de dose de radiação azul polimérico Development and characterization of a polymer sensor based on the accumulation of blue light dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia K. B. de Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho as propriedades ópticas do poli[2-metóxi,5-(2'etil-hexiloxi-p-fenilenovinileno] - MEH-PPV foram estudadas sob efeito de luz azul proveniente de super LEDs utilizada no tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal (ou icterícia. Os resultados mostraram que o MEH-PPV apresenta uma mudança de cor do vermelho-alaranjado para o incolor, passando por diversas tonalidades de amarelo, bem como uma diminuição da intensidade dos espectros de absorção e de fotoluminescência (PL em função do tempo de exposição à radiação. Essas mudanças foram usadas para projetar um sensor de acúmulo de dose de radiação azul, tipo indicador de cores, para avaliar a dose de radiação recebida por recém-nascidos durante o tratamento da icterícia neonatal.In this work we investigated the optical behavior of poly[2-methoxy-5(2'-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV under the effect of blue-light LED source applied in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia treatment. There is a visible response that covers the electronic absorption of bilirubin (350-500 nm, and hence this material is applicable for controlling the radiation doses in the treatment of jaundice of neonates, which is one of the most common reasons for hospital readmission of newborn infants. The results show that the material presents a gradation of color from orange-red to yellow and quenching on the absorption and photoluminescent (PL spectra with the radiation exposure time. The rate of these changes can be altered by manipulations of organic solution concentration, suggesting these color and emission/absorption changes can be used to design an indicator-dosimeter that is readily associated with the radiation exposure time used in treating neonatal jaundice.

  8. Cruz azul y escudo azul, centro de servicio - Carolina del Norte – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odell, -

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available This building is situated at the Chapel Hill-Durham road and contains the installations of two important merged insurance companies. The shape has not been chosen at random but is subject to certain conditions, such as protection from sun rays and strong winds. Neither should it be forgotten that this type of construction has a certain public relations mission to fulfill. Further, there was a great need for isolation from the noise of the traffic in the area. Metal structure, installations of all kinds and greatest consideration for the surrounding nature and the trees were dominant design factors.Este edificio está situado junto a la carretera Ciiapel Hill-Durliam y alberga las instalaciones de dos importantes compañías de seguros fusionadas. Su forma no es caprichosa, sino que obedece a motivaciones de tipo estructural, como protección de los rayos solares y de los vientos dominantes, sin olvidar la misión de reclamo publicitario que suele ser característica de este tipo de construcciones, así como lograr un cierto aislamiento del ruido que produce el tráfico rodado de la carretera próxima. Estructura metálica, cerramientos de muros - cortina, toda suerte de modernas instalaciones y máximo respeto del entorno natural y arbóreo existente.

  9. 密度胁迫对凡纳滨对虾稚虾免疫指标及生长的影响%Effects of stocking density on immune parameters and growth of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华军; 李卓佳; 张家松; 张晓阳; 曹煜成; 文国樑; 程开敏

    2012-01-01

    将体长为(3.59±0.26)cm的凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)按1800尾·m-3、1 500尾·m-3和1200尾·m-3的密度分别饲养在注水0.3 m3的圆形玻璃纤维桶(容量为0.5 m3)中30 d,检测了基本水质因子、对虾肝胰腺和肌肉组织中的酚氧化酶(PO)活力、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力、抗菌活力(Ua)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活力、体质量增长和成活率,研究了不同放养密度对凡纳滨对虾稚虾免疫指标及生长的影响.统计分析发现,试验过程中水体理化因子均在适宜范围,各处理间水质因子的差异不显著;对虾的PO活力、Ua和AKP活力均随着密度的增加而降低,SOD活力则反之;对虾的体质量增长、体质量特定增长率和成活率随着密度的增加而降低,成活率差异显著(P<0.05).结果表明,凡纳滨对虾(体长<4.8 cm或体质量<1.2g)在密度为1 200~1 800尾·m-3时,密度胁迫可明显影响其免疫指标和生长.%In order to investigate the effects of different stocking density on the immune parameters and growth of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei, we cultured the shrimps [ body length (3. 59 ± 0. 26) cm ] in 0. 3 m3 fiberglass tanks ( water volume 0. 5 m3 ) at 1800 ind ·m-3, 1500 ind·m-3 and 1200 ind·m-3, respectively, for 30 d to determine the phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) activity, antibacterial activity (Ua) , alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity in hepatopancreas and muscle, as well as weight gain, survival and basic water quality factors. It is showed that the physical and chemical factors vary within suitable range with no significant difference. The PO activity, Ua and AKP activity in the muscle of shrimp reduce while SOD activity increases with the increase of stocking density. The weight gain, special weight growth rate ( SGRw ) and survival reduce with the increasing stocking density with significant difference in survival (P<0. 05 ). The results indicate that stocking density may obivously

  10. Dieta natural do siri-azul Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Natural diet of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Patos Lagoon estuary area, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveir

    Full Text Available Na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, o siri-azul Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1869 é o mais abundante dentre as espécies do gênero. Apesar do siri-azul exercer influência sobre as comunidades bentônicas, por ser considerado um predador do topo da cadeia alimentar, não existem muitos estudos sobre aspectos ecológicos, inclusive sobre a composição e variabilidade sazonal de sua dieta natural, neste estuário. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a composição da dieta do siri-azul, evidenciando possíveis relações com a comunidade bentônica da região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos. O período de estudo foi de março de 2003 a março de 2004, com coletas bimestrais. Os organismos foram coletados com auxílio de rede de arrasto de fundo, com malha de 13 mm entre nós opostos. Ainda em campo os animais foram fixados em formol 10%. Após a coleta os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo, medidos (largura e comprimento da carapaça - cm e pesados (peso - g. Após a triagem, os animais foram dissecados e os intestinos retirados e pesados. As análises dos conteúdos alimentares dos siris demonstraram que os hábitos alimentares são diversificados, constituindo-se principalmente de invertebrados bentônicos. O item encontrado com maior freqüência foi Detrito, seguido pelo molusco filtrador Erodona mactroides Bosc, 1802 (Erodonidae. Crustáceos da classe Ostracoda e grãos de areia foram importantes componentes dos conteúdos dos intestinos anteriores, sendo que areia não foi considerada como item alimentar, propriamente dito. Também foram encontradas cerdas e mandíbulas de poliquetos, além de sementes das macrófitas Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogatonaceae e Zannichellia palustris L. (Potamogatonaceae. Este estudo serve como subsídio para medidas de proteção e conservação da população do siri-azul, bem como caracteriza relações tróficas com comunidades bentônicas do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos.The Southern

  11. REMOCIÓN DE AZUL DE METILENO EN MEDIO ACUOSO MEDIANTE EL USO DE BAGAZO DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR Y RASTROJO DE MAÍZ MODIFICADOS CON IONES SO4-2 Y PO4-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la modificación química del bagazo de caña de azúcar (B.C. y el rastrojo de maíz (R.M. mediante el uso de H2SO4, HCl y H3PO4. Estos materiales fueron probados en la remoción de azul de metileno en un medio acuoso, a una concentración de 10 ppm en un reactor batch con agitación continua y 1 g/L de material absorbente. Se tomaron muestras cada 10 minutos durante 1 hora y se midió su absorbancia en un espectrofotómetro UV-Vis Cary 50 Varian a 665 nm. En los resultados se observa que el R.M. y el B.C. son absorbentes utilizándolos con H3PO4 al 80 %, ya que remueven un 98.6 % en comparación con materiales sin modificar que tienen un 92 %. Los materiales modificados poseen una absorción de 98.6 % comparado con 60.8 % del carbón activado. Estos materiales son una nueva alternativa para la remoción de colorantes en un medio acuoso.

  12. Efecto del fotoperiodo y la razón camarón:macroalga en la remoción de nitrógeno amoniacal total por Gracilaria vermiculophylla, en cultivo con Litopenaeus vannamei, sin recambio de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sánchez-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del fotoperiodo y la relación de biomasa camarón:macroalga en la remoción de nitrógeno amoniacal total (NAT, por la macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, en cultivo con camarón Litopenaeus vannamei, sin recambio de agua. Se evaluaron cuatro fotoperiodos: 12:12, 14:10, 16:08 y 24:00 h de luz:oscuridad y dos relaciones de biomasa camarón:macroalga, 1:4 y 1:8. El diseño experimental fue factorial de 4x2 con cuatro réplicas por tratamiento. Las menores concentraciones de NAT (0,55 ± 0,17 mg L-1, N-NO² (0,145 ± 0,29 mg L-1 y N-NO3 (3,13 ± 0,73 mg L-1 se registraron en la relación 1:8. Las mayores tasas de crecimiento de la macroalga (3,07 ± 1,44% día-1 se obtuvieron con fotoperiodo de 24:00 h y relación de biomasa 1:8. La mayor tasa de incorporación de N en la macroalga (0,31 ± 0,12 mg N L-1 día-1 ocurrió en las mismas condiciones. El crecimiento del camarón fue similar al reportado en sistemas tradicionales de recirculación. La integración de G. vermiculophylla en el sistema sin recambio, fue capaz de mantener los niveles de compuestos nitrogenados tóxicos en niveles favorables para el crecimiento de L. vannamei.

  13. Comparative analysis of water quality in Litopenaeus vannamei ponds and nutritional quality of shrimp muscle%凡纳滨对虾池塘水质及对虾肌肉品质的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世凯; 江敏; 戴习林; 刘利平; 胡伟国; JAMES S. DIANA

    2012-01-01

    From May to September in 2010,water quality parameters such as water temperature,total dissolved salt,dissolved oxygen,pH,transparency,nitrite nitrogen,ammonia nitrogen,nitrate nitrogen,total nitrogen,reactive phosphorus,total phosphorus,chlorophyll-a and biochemical oxygen demand were analyzed in 22 Litopenaeus vannamei ponds with different culturing methods in Fengxian District,Shanghai.Water used for Farm No.1 was natural fresh water which had been precipitated before being introduced to the ponds.Mixed salt were added to the fresh water for culturing shrimp in Farm No.2.Results were as follows: water temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH didn't change dramatically and could match the demand of Litopenaeus vannamei.The proportion of nitrate nitrogen in ponds to TIN was the highest,the ratio of ammonia nitrogen to TIN increased with time extension,and that of nitrite nitrogen to TIN increased obviously in the later period of culture cycle.Contents of reactive phosphorus decreased gradually while the total phosphorus increased in the whole process of culture.Biochemical oxygen demand and chlorophyll-a also increased gradually with the shrimp growing up.Muscle nutritional quality of Litopenaeus vannamei from the two farms were analyzed and the results were as follows: contents of crude protein and crude fat of shrimp muscle in Farm No.1 were 16.30% and 1.42% respectively,lower than those in shrimp muscle from Farm No.2 which were 18.30% and 1.61%.Content of total amino acids in shrimp from Farm No.1was 23.27%,and the essential amino-acid was 9.09%.While those in shrimp from Farm No.2 were 27.52% and 10.74%.Contents of flavor amino acids in shrimp from Farms No.1 and 2 were 8.52% and 10.16% respectively.%2010年5-9月期间,对上海奉贤区两个养殖场采取不同养殖方式的22个凡纳滨对虾养殖塘的水温(T)、总溶解盐(TDS)、溶解氧(DO)、pH、透明度(SD)、亚硝酸盐氮(NO2-N)、总氨氮(TAN)、硝酸盐氮(NO3-N

  14. Degradação luminosa e retenção foliar dos corantes azul brilhante FDC-1 e amarelo tartrasina FDC-5 utilizados como traçadores em pulverizações Luminous degradation and foliage retention of dyes FD&C Blue no. 1 and FD&C yellow no. 5 used as spray tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Marchi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Três estudos foram conduzidos no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia (NUPAM pertencente à UNESP/FCA - campus de Botucatu-SP, com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade dos corantes Azul Brilhante FDC-1 e Amarelo Tartrasina FDC-5 quanto a diferentes períodos de exposição à luz solar e contato com folhas de Eichhornia crassipes. No primeiro estudo, soluções de 0,3125, 0,625, 1,25, 2,5, 5, 10 e 20 ppm dos corantes Azul Brilhante FDC-1 e Amarelo Tartrasina FDC-5 foram acondicionadas em tubos de quartzo hermeticamente fechados e submetidos a 0, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 6 e 10 horas de exposição à luz solar e ao escuro. Ao final de cada período, amostras de 10 mL foram retiradas dos tubos e analisadas. No segundo estudo, os tratamentos foram dispostos no esquema fatorial 2x7: duas condições luminosas (escuro e pleno sol e sete períodos de exposição (0, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 6 e 10 horas, com seis repetições. Com o auxílio de micropipeta, oito gotas de 5 µL das soluções Azul Brilhante e Amarelo Tartrasina a 4.000 ppm foram depositadas em placas de Petri de vidro. Após o término dos períodos de exposição, as placas foram lavadas com 50 mL de água destilada, com o objetivo de extrair o corante depositado sobre elas. No terceiro estudo, adotaram-se os mesmos tratamentos do segundo experimento, com quatro repetições, porém as soluções foram depositadas sobre as folhas de plantas de Eichhornia crassipes. Foram adotados também os mesmos procedimentos de extração dos corantes após o término dos períodos de exposição. As soluções finais obtidas nos três estudos foram submetidas à leitura óptica de absorbância em espectrofotômetro UV-visível nos comprimentos de onda de 630 e 427 nm, para os corantes Azul Brilhante FDC-1 e Amarelo Tartrasina FDC-5, respectivamente. As várias concentrações das soluções de ambos os corantes não sofreram degradação pela luz solar quando submetidas aos vários períodos de incid

  15. Toxic factors of Vibrio strains pathogenic to shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarant, C; Herlin, J; Brizard, R; Marteau, A L; Martin, C; Martin, B

    2000-03-14

    Vibriosis is a major disease problem in shrimp aquaculture. 'Syndrome 93' is a seasonal juvenile vibriosis caused by Vibrio penaeicida which affects Litopenaeus stylirostris in grow-out ponds in New Caledonia. This study assessed the toxic activities of extracellular products (ECPs) from V. penaeicida, V. alginolyticus and V. nigripulchritudo using in vivo injections in healthy juvenile L. stylirostris (= Penaeus stylirostris) and in vitro assays on shrimp primary cell cultures and the fish cell line epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC). Toxic effects of ECPs were demonstrated for all pathogenic Vibrio strains tested both in vivo and in vitro, but for shrimp only; no effect was observed on the fish cell line. ECP toxicity for New Caledonian V. penaeicida was found only after cultivation at low temperature (20 degrees C) and not at higher temperature (30 degrees C). This points to the fact that 'Syndrome 93' episodes are triggered by temperature drops. The assays used here demonstrate the usefulness of primary shrimp cell cultures to study virulence mechanisms of shrimp pathogenic bacteria. PMID:10782343

  16. Determinação e análise de isotermas de adsorção do corante azul 5G em leito fixo de carvão ativado=Mathematical model of the adsorption column, in activate Carbon, used in the renovation of blue-colorant 5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Lopes Dal Piva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visando o desenvolvimento de um processo de tratamento de efluentes têxteis, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o processo de adsorção do corante reativo azul 5G de um efluente sintético em carvão ativado. As isotermas de adsorção, com seus respectivos parâmetros ajustados, em sistema batelada foram obtidas para as temperaturas de 30, 40 e 60C (com pH controlado na faixa de 6,0 a 8,0 e também com tempo de contato entre o sistema corante-carvão de 90 horas segundo os modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich. A partir daí estes parâmetros foram colocados em função da temperatura, apresentando bons resultados frente aos dados experimentais.This work, to looking for the development of process for wastes textile treatment, had the objective to study the adsorption process of the blue reactive dyes 5G from the synthetic effluent in coal activated. The isotherms of adsorption in batch system was made for temperatures of 30, 40 and 60C (the pH was controlled in 6.0 until 8.0 and the time of contact between the system dye-coal was 90 hours with posterior adjustment of the models for Langmuir and Freundlich equations. After, these parameters were put in function of temperature, with good results when compared to the experimental data.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Extracellular Enzyme-Producing Bacteria from the Intestinal Tract of Litopenaeus vannamei%具有多种胞外酶的对虾肠道黏附菌的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧玲; 罗鹏; 杨世平; 李广聪; 莫嘉文; 王蔚

    2012-01-01

    用对虾饲料培养基从健康凡纳滨对虾肠道分离出500株黏附细菌,以产淀粉酶、脂肪酶和蛋白酶能力为指标,筛选出产该3种消化酶的细菌90株,占总菌株的18%.对其中生长较快的69株进行16SrDNA基因测序,确定其分类地位.结果显示,69株菌分别属于不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)、假交替单胞菌属(Pseudoalteromonas)、气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)、嗜盐单胞菌属(Halomonas)、利斯顿氏菌属(Listonella)、莫拉氏菌属(Moraxella)等,其中数量最多是芽胞杆菌属,占鉴定细菌总数的53.62%,数量最少是气单胞菌属和嗜盐单胞菌属,均占鉴定细菌总数的2.90%.表明对虾肠道黏附菌群中具有较多能分泌多种消化酶的细菌,可进一步开发为促进对虾消化功能的益生菌.%500 strains adhesive bacteria were isolated from the intestinal tract of Litopenaeus vannamei by using shrimp-feed abstraction medium. All bacterial strains were screened for producing capability of protease, amylase and lipase. There were 90 strains that could produce three extracellular enzymes, 18.0% of the total intestinal adhesive bacterial populations. 69 strains with rapid growth were identified according to homology analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. They were grouped into eight genera as follows: Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Pseudoalteromonas, Aeromonas, Halomonas, Listonella, Moraxella, respectively. The dominant genus was Bacillus, which account for 53.62% of the total identified strains. There were least number strains belong to Aeromonas and Halomonas, which account for 2.90% of the total identified isolates, respectively. The results indicate that there are plentiful extracellular enzyme-producing bacterium adhered to intestine of shrimp with the potential to be promising probiotic of promoting digestion.

  18. 在不同盐度下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的急性毒性效应研究%Study on the Acute Toxicity of Cypermethrin on Litopenaeus vannamei in Different Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勇; 严峰; 曾嶒; 熊泽泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为不同盐度下氯氰菊酯的使用和调控提供科学依据.[方法]采用静水生物法,研究了不同盐度下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的急性毒性效应.[结果]在盐度20和5下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的24、48、72、96h半致死浓度(LC50)分别为0.767、0.440、0.383、0.038 2 μg/L和0.437、0.313、0.203、0.170 μg/L.在中、低盐度下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的安全浓度(SC)分别为0.038 2和0.017 0μg/L.[结论]极低浓度的氯氰菊酯农药残留就可能会威胁凡纳滨对虾的养殖安全,应尽可能减少在虾塘及附近使用氯氰菊酯.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide scientific basis for the use and control of cypermethrin in different salinity. [ Method] U-sing static bioassay test, the acute toxicity effect of cypermethrin on Litopenaeus vannamei in different salinity were studied. [ Result ] 24, 48, 72, 96 h LCX of cypermethrin to L vannamei in the salinity of 20 and 5 were 0.767, 0.440, 0.383, 0.038 2 |xg/L and 0.437,0.313,0. 203 and 0.170 fig/L respectively. In medium and low salinity, the safe concentration of cypermethrin to L. vannamei was 0.038 2 and 0.017 0 p.g/L respectively. [Conclusion] Very low concentrations of cypermethrin pesticide residues might threaten the safety of L. vannamei culture, so the use of cypermethrin should be reduced as possible in shrimp pond and its surrounding area.

  19. 凡纳滨对虾对虾素3a基因的克隆与序列分析%Gene Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Penaeidin 3a in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial peptide molecules are the main immunity effectors in the innate immunity system of the low invertebrate. They play an important part in preventing pathogens invasion. In order to explore the antibacterial peptides molecular diversity and the molecular structure association, we took Litopenaeus vannamei as the study object. Gene cloning and structure analysis of penaeidin 3a antibacterial peptides gene were done. The results indicated that penaeidin 3a molecular possessed classic shrimp penaeidin domain. And there was a spherical structure that formed by eight conserved cysteine residues. Especial-ly , there was a pro-rich motif which played an important role in forming the special molecular function. This study could provide the theoretical basis for the next functional research of penaeidin molecular.%抗菌肽分子是无脊椎动物先天免疫系统中的主要免疫效应分子,在防止病原菌入侵方面,发挥着重要作用.为了探索先天免疫系统中抗菌肽分子的多样性以及分子结构之间的关联,本文以凡纳滨对虾为研究对象,对其enaeidin 3a抗菌肽基因进行了基因克隆和生物信息学分析.研究结果表明penaeidin 3a分子具有经典的对虾素结构域,而且存在着一个由8个保守的半胱氨酸残基形成的球状实体结构,尤其是分子中存在富含脯氨残基的结构基序,对于分子功能的形成具有重要作用.本研究可为下一步对虾素分子功能的研究提供理论基础.

  20. 凡纳滨对虾全同胞家系的建立及生长比较%Full-sib families construction and their growth comparison of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吕平; 吴立峰; 沈琪; 杜少波; 胡超群

    2009-01-01

    全同胞家系是遗传分析的重要材料.采用自然交配法建立了62个凡纳滨对虾第一代全同胞家系,对其中17个家系进行了比较研究.结果表明,各家系的孵化率、出苗率与雌性亲本的大小相关性不显著.17个家系中有7个家系显示生长优势,其大小顺序依次是A02>A11>A01>A17>A06>A08>A16;7个家系在40周内的生长速度较17个家系的平均值高23.2%.在所有家系中,A01、A02、A11等3个家系的体重显著大于其它家系(P A11 > A01 > A17 > A06 > A08 > A16. These seven faster families are 23.2% higher than the mean value of all 17 families in growth rate (g/week) during the 40 weeks traits (P <0. 05). By comparison of each family, families A01, A02 and All are 25.5% , 31.6% and 31. 0% larger than the mean value of the seventeen families respectively. Moreover, these three families display the smaller coefficient of variation (CV), and the CV values in the middle of growth period are 11. 58% , 9.95% and 8.48% respectively. The CV values of the three families are <5% in the later growth period. Therefore the results indicate that they are three families with excellent economic properties. These results are helpful for further selective breeding of fast-growth line of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  1. Gene expression profiles of Litopenaeus vannamei in response to carbonate alkalinity stress%碳酸盐碱度胁迫下凡纳滨对虾基因的差异表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    么宗利; 应成琦; 周凯; 王慧; 来琦芳

    2012-01-01

    以广盐性养殖的凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)为研究对象,采用抑制消减杂交(suppression subtractive hybridization,SSH)和定量PCR的方法,研究其在高碳酸盐碱度胁迫下转录组水平的基因表达差异,以期从基因组水平研究对虾对高碳酸盐碱度胁迫的适应机制.结果表明,以高碳酸盐碱度(20 mmol/L)胁迫第4天凡纳滨对虾鳃组织和低碱度(2mmol/L)对照组鳃组织为材料,通过斑点杂交筛选,发现鳃组织中有158个克隆子表达上调,291个克隆子表达下调.挑选150个高表达差异的克隆子进行测序,获得100个序列,其中50个得到成功注释.经过GO分析,这些注释的差异基因主要分为8大类群,其中碳酸酐酶基因(CA)、Na+-K+-ATPase基因(NKA-α)等与离子调控相关的基因表达量上调,而溶菌酶基因等与先天免疫相关的基因表达量下调,这些结果表明高碳酸盐碱度胁迫下,凡纳滨对虾以增加离子调控的方式进行酸碱平衡的调控,同时其免疫功能受到抑制.此外,还对CA和NKA-α两个基因在鳃和触角腺中的时空表达规律进行了研究,发现高碳酸盐碱度胁迫9d过程中,两个基因在鳃组织中的表达均呈现先高表达后回落的现象,而在触角腺中NKA-α基因则一直维持较高表达水平,说明CA和NKA-α基因在凡纳滨对虾高碳酸盐碱度适应离子调控中起着关键作用,同时还发现除了鳃组织之外,触角腺同样参与了调控.本研究从转录水平初步筛选了高碳酸盐碱度胁迫下凡纳滨对虾的表达差异基因,探索了凡纳滨对虾的耐盐碱机制,对培育适于盐碱地水产养殖的优良品种有着重要的意义.%Saline-alkali water-bodies are common in China. Alkalinity stress is considered to be one of the primary stressors for shrimp in saline-alkali water. Thus, an improved understanding of the molecular response to alkalinity stress is critical for advancing the sustainability of shrimp culture

  2. Box-Behnken design for optimizing the acid blue dye adsorption on flower wastes Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Jaramillo Madrid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we identified the best conditions for the removal of Acid Blue 9 dye (AB9 using ower wastes (FW as an adsorbent were determined using a full factorial 23 and a Box-Behnken design for further optimization. Adsorbent dose (D, dye concentration (C and contact time (t, were the assessed variables. The dye content was quantied by UV-Vis spectrometry. The statistical model presented an adequate adjustment coecient (R2 = 99,18%, allowing to achieve a removal of 98,5% with a dosage of 7,8 gL-1, dye concentration of 7,11 mgL-1 and contact time of 104 min. These results suggest that owers wastes are an alternative and potential adsorbent material for the treatment of dissolved acid dyes. En este artículo se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la remoción del colorante Azul Ácido 9 (AA9 a través de un diseño factorial completo 23 y su posterior optimización mediante un diseño de superficie Box-Behnken utilizando tallos de flores (TF como material adsorbente. Las variables evaluadas fueron dosis de adsorbente (D, concentración de colorante (C y tiempo de contacto (t. El contenido del colorante se cuantificó por espectrometría UV-Vis. El modelo estadístico presentó un adecuado coeficiente de ajuste (R2 = 99,18 %, permitiendo alcanzar una remoción del 98,5% con una dosificación de 7,8 gL-1, concentración de colorante de 11,7 mgL-1 y tiempo de contacto de 104 min. Estos resultados sugieren que los residuos de flores constituyen un material adsorbente alternativo y potencial para el tratamiento de colorantes ácidos disueltos.

  3. Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity analysis of a Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain from Litopenaeus vannamei%一株凡纳滨对虾病原菌的分离、鉴定及其致病力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝存; 刘飞; 边慧慧; 刘杰; 潘鲁青; 黄倢

    2012-01-01

    A pathogenic bacterium strain 20100612001 was isolated from the hepatopan-creas tissue of diseased white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.The LD50 challenge assay was performed and the LD50 value was found to be 1.44 ×106CFU/ml.The cell morphotype was observed to be bacilli,coccoid rod or pear-like and some cells could be observed intensely stained at two poles.The strain was Gram-negative) sporeless and had a single polar flagellum.It formed transparent or translucent round colonies on 2216E solid medium but green or blue-green colonies on TCBS medium.It showed the highest identity to V.parahaemolyticus or Vibrio natr-iegenis by using fatty acid analysis and Biolog system.Based on 16S rRNA sequencing,the strain is >98.9% identical to several species in Vibrio genus,and the phylogenetic tree revealed that it is most close to Vibrio parahaemolyticus.Taken together,the pathogenic strain 2010060612001 is identified as V.parahaemolyticus.%从患病凡纳滨对虾肝胰腺中分离出菌株20100612001,经人工感染实验证实,该分离菌株对凡纳滨对虾的半数致死量为1.44×106CFU/ml.形态学观察和革兰氏染色表明,该菌株为革兰氏阴性,无芽孢,有一根端极鞭毛;呈球杆状、球状、棒状或梨状且有两极浓染现象;在2216E培养基上为透明或半透明的圆形菌落,而在TCBS选择性培养基上为绿色或蓝绿色菌落.经Biolog碳源利用反应、脂肪酸气相色谱分析得出,该菌株与副溶血弧菌、需钠弧菌等的生理生化特性最相似;16S rDNA序列测定表明,该菌株与弧菌属中几株痛原菌的同源性均达到98.9%以上.在分子进化树中该菌株与副溶血弧菌Vibrio parahaemol yticus的进化地位最接近.综合上述实验结果分析得出,该细菌分离物为副溶血弧菌.

  4. Características físicas y químicas de dos razas de maíz azul: morfología del almidón Physical and chemical characteristics of blue corn from two races: starch morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Agama-Acevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En México existen regiones donde se cultivan variedades criollas de maíz azul (Zea mays L., que poseen variabilidad de tamaño, densidad y dureza del grano, así como composición química. Estas variables si bien están definidas por el factor genético, también dependen de las prácticas de cultivo, condiciones climáticas y tipo de suelo. Las características físicas del grano de maíz tienen relación con aspectos de producción y rendimiento, mientras que su composición química y la morfología de los gránulos de almidón, ayudan a definir la calidad nutritiva y su uso en la elaboración de alimentos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar las propiedades físicas y químicas del grano maíz azul proveniente de dos razas, y caracterizar morfológicamente los gránulos del almidón de su endospermo. El trabajo se realizó en el Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos del Instituto Politécnico Nacional y en el Campo Experimental Valle de México del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Las muestras fueron colectadas en campo con los productores, seis materiales de la raza Tabloncillo en localidades de Sinaloa y nueve de la raza Chalqueño en localidades de Tlaxcala y Estado de México. Los maíces de la raza Tabloncillo presentaron granos pequeños, mayor dureza y cantidad de almidón dañado, y menores contenidos de antocianinas, que la raza Chalqueño. La cantidad de almidón de ambas razas fue de 0.78-0.89 g g-1 de muestra seca, y por su contenido de amilosa se clasifican como almidones normales. Las formas de los gránulos de almidón fueron esféricas con superficie lisa y una distribución bimodal (gránulos pequeños 2-8 µm y grandes 16-18 µm. Las diferencias principales entre las dos razas fueron su tamaño de grano, índice de flotación y contenido de antocianinas.There are areas in Mexico, where local varieties of blue corn are grown (Zea mays L., which have variability in size

  5. Los espacios vectoriales, el amarillo, el rojo y el azul

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo será el de facilitar a los alumnos la comprensión y memorización del tema de los espacios vectoriales mediante una bella analogía existente a nuestro alrededor. Para tal fin haremos uso de los colores y de la mezcla de sus pigmentos. Aclararemos conceptos como el de combinación lineal de vectores (mezcla de colores), el de dependencia e independencia lineal, el de sistema generador (conjunto de colores con los que se puede pintar un cuadro), el de base (en el cuad...

  6. El arroyo Azul como escenario para el aprendizaje escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Rudzik, Gabriela; Merlos, Cristina; Grosman, Fabián

    2007-01-01

    La Educación Ambiental constituye el pilar básico para una sociedad con alta conciencia ecológica, lo cual se logra con información (Abaca y Vila, 1992). En este marco, la premisa que lo que se conoce se quiere y respeta (Arango et al., 2002), es un principio capital aplicable a nuestro medio natural. Conforma una importante y determinante herramienta para promover la participación del ciudadano en el desarrollo armónico; de allí la relevancia de su inclusión en las currículas educativas en t...

  7. A arara-azul-de-Lear, Anodorhynchus leari Bonaparte, 1856

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    Helmut Sick

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of the Indigo, or Lear's Macaw, Anodorhynchus leari, is unique in South American ornithology. The species, although described more than 100 years ago, was known only through very few living specimens, which entered occasionally the bird trade, without any indication of their origins. It was presumed "probably some part of Brazil" (Salvadori, 1891. The last speculation was that it was unlikely, though not impossible, that the Indigo Macaw might not be an independem species, but rather, a hybrid between the two other well known blue macaws, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus and A. glaucus (Voous, 1965.

  8. A arara-azul-de-Lear, Anodorhynchus leari Bonaparte, 1856

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Sick; Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga; Dante Martins Teixeira

    1986-01-01

    The case of the Indigo, or Lear's Macaw, Anodorhynchus leari, is unique in South American ornithology. The species, although described more than 100 years ago, was known only through very few living specimens, which entered occasionally the bird trade, without any indication of their origins. It was presumed "probably some part of Brazil" (Salvadori, 1891). The last speculation was that it was unlikely, though not impossible, that the Indigo Macaw might not be an independem species, but rathe...

  9. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

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    Kátia M. G. Machado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%; 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. chrysosporium used as reference. Extracellular extracts of 35 selected fungi grown on solid medium with sugar cane bagasse (BGS were evaluated for RBBR decolorization and peroxidase activity. All fungi showed peroxidase activities, but 5 of those were unable to decolorize the RBBR. Different patterns of ligninolytic enzymes were detected in 12 fungi extracts. Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP was produced by Peniophora cinerea, Psilocybe castanella, three strains of Trametes villosa, T. versicolor, Melanoporia nigra and Trichaptum byssogenum. All 12 fungi had laccase activity. Trogia buccinalis showed the highest RBBR decolorization and did not produce MnP activity. RBBR decolorization without MnP production was also observed for three strains of Lentinum tested. Higher levels of peroxidase and laccase cannot be related to high RBBR decolorization. RBBR decolorization by extracellular extract was also detected during the growth of P. castanella, L. crinitus, P. cinerea and two strains of T. Villosa in pentachlorophenol- and hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soils. These fungi showed higher RBBR decolorization when grown in the presence of organochlorine compounds than when in non contaminated soil.O corante azul brilhante Remazol R (RBBR foi usado como substrato para avaliar 125 fungos basidiomicetos isolados de ecossistemas tropicais brasileiros quanto a atividade ligninolítica. A descoloração do RBBR por extratos obtidos do crescimento de fungos em meio sólido e

  10. Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradação do corante Azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar Chitosan/Fe spheres on the Blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light

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    Kely V. de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação dos recursos hídricos é um dos maiores problemas ambientais da atualidade. Dentre as várias fontes poluidoras, destacam-se as indústrias têxteis, por serem fontes geradoras de grandes volumes de efluentes, muitas vezes tratados de maneira ineficiente. A principal causa do grande impacto ambiental decorrente deste descarte é a presença dos corantes, tais como os compostos do tipo azo, que podem gerar subprodutos de caráter carcinogênico e/ou mutagênico, ou como os de base antraquinona, que são muito resistentes à degradação natural e portanto persistem no efluente por um longo tempo. O objetivo do presente trabalho consiste na utilização de processos foto-Fenton assistidos por luz artificial e solar, utilizando ferro imobilizado em esferas de quitosana reticulada com glutaraldeído, para promover a degradação do corante reativo Azul QR-19, de base antraquinona, em solução aquosa. As esferas obtidas apresentaram tamanho regular com diâmetro de 4,0 mm. Os resultados demonstraram 90% de descoloração do sistema em 180minutos e redução de 60% do teor de carbono orgânico total (COT, para o sistema foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial. Para o sistema fotoassistido com luz solar, a descoloração foi integralmente obtida em 120 minutos com 70% de redução do teor de COT. Foi observado que o ferro permaneceu na matriz após o tratamento, possibilitando sua reutilização.The contamination of water resources is one of the greatest environmental problems today. Among the polluting sources are the textile industries due to the production of large volumes of effluent, often treated inefficiently. The main reason for the environmental impact of the rejected materials is the presence of dyes such as azo reactive compounds that can generate by-products with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. They may also include anthraquinone type compounds, which are highly resistant to degradation and persist in the effluent for a

  11. Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree

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    Alexandre O. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.. O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos.The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important microclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the plants and

  12. Utilização do azul de metileno no tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica após cirurgia cardíaca Methylene blue administration in the treatment of the vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery

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    José Carlos S. de Andrade

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a restauração da resistência vascular sistêmica com o uso do azul de metileno (AM em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com e sem circulação extracorpórea. Todos os pacientes apresentaram no pós-operatório imediato quadro de taquicardia, oligúria, manutenção da perfusão periférica e importante hipotensão arterial sistêmica, retrataria a grandes doses de catecolaminas. As avaliações hemodinâmicas pela técnica de termodiluição com cateter de Swan-Ganz monstraram padrão compatível com síndrome vasoplégica, com índice de resistência vascular sistêmica média de 868 dina. s. cm5, sem resposta a drogas vasoativas. À semelhança do choque endotóxico, a síndrome foi interpretada como decorrente da estimulação da enzima óxido nítricosintetase com conseqüente formação de óxido nítrico (NO pelas células endoteliais. Utilizou-se então AM, como bloqueador do NO no sistemaguanililciclase/guanino-monofosfatociclase, na dose de 1,5 mg/kg peso, em infusão intravenosa por uma hora. O restabelecimento do tônus vascular sistêmico (IRVS = 1693 dina. s. cm5 com normalização da pressão arterial e do quadro clínico, foi efetivo e rápido, mostrando ser o AM uma promissora droga na diminuição da morbi-mortalidade da síndrome vasoplégica.The restoration of the systemic vascular resistance employing methylene blue (MB in 6 patients after cardiac surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass is reported. All patients presented, during the immediate postoperative period, tachycardia, oligury, good peripheral perfusion and important systemic arterial hypotension not responsible to large doses of catecholamines infusion. The hemodynamic analysis, using the Swan-Ganz thermodilution technique, showed a profile compatible with vasoplegic syndrome, with the mean index of systemic vascular resistance of 868 dyne.s.cm5, similarly to the endotoxic shock this syndrome was assumed to be caused by nitric oxide

  13. 超高压联合高密度 CO2处理钝化对虾多酚氧化酶%Inactivation of polyphenol oxidase from Litopenaeus vannamei treated by ultra high pressure combined dense phase carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓倩琳; 刘书成; 刘蒙娜; 刘媛; 郭明慧; 吉宏武; 李承勇; 高静

    2016-01-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) and dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processes are effective non-thermal pasteurization methods that have gained increasing attention in inactivation of undesired enzymes and microorganisms in food industry. The advantage of UHP is to process foods that are already packaged and therefore are not liable to post-process contamination. Although UHP effectively eliminates microorganisms, it does not inactivate some key enzymes that reduce the product quality. For example, UHP may increase the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at lower pressure. As a continuous operation, DPCD needs aseptic filling to containers, but can inactivate enzymes. Therefore it is logical to combine these technologies to benefit from their individual advantages. The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the sample medium might create a more acidic environment and synergistically interact with pressure to damage or alter the structures of enzymes and microbial cells. In order to make up for the disadvantage of UHP in inactivating PPO and use the advantage of DPCD in inactivating PPO, the inactivation effect of PPO from Litopenaeus vannamei treated by UHP combined with CO2 (UHP+CO2) was studied, and the feasibility of developing new shrimp products by UHP+CO2 was explored. The crude PPO extracts of 2 mL were treated with 2% CO2 (v/v) package alone, or UHP alone, or UHP + 2% CO2 (v/v). The treatment temperature was 30±2 ℃. The treatment pressure was 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa, respectively. The treatment time was 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min, respectively. The results showed that: The PPO was inactivated more effectively by UHP+CO2 than CO2 treatment and UHP treatment alone. Treated at 100 MPa for 30 min by UHP+CO2, PPO activity dropped to 18.92%±1.52%. At 200 MPa for 10 min by UHP+CO2, PPO activity dropped to 10.91%±1.08%. At 300 MPa for 10 min by UHP+CO2, 95% PPO was inactivated. At 400 MPa for 5 min by UHP+CO2, the residual activity of PPO was less than 3

  14. Effects of Dietary Cornstarch Levels on Fat Metabolism of Hepatopancrease in Litopenaeus vannamei%不同玉米淀粉水平对凡纳滨对虾肝胰腺脂肪代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冉; 刘永坚; 田丽霞; 夏辉; 王家庆

    2011-01-01

    采用8周的生长实验研究了以玉米淀粉为糖源的不同淀粉水平(w为10%、15%、20%、25%、30%、35%)对初始体质量为(0.96±0.02)g凡纳滨对虾的生长、体营养成分组成、肝胰脏显微结构和肝胰腺脂肪合成酶的影响.实验饲料中w(蛋白质)为38%;w(脂肪)=5%.实验在室内循环水族箱内进行,实验用水为天然咸淡水(盐度:6‰~14‰),6组饲料每组设3个重复,每箱30尾虾,饱食量投喂.实验结果表明:w(淀粉)=15%实验组对虾的增质量率、SGR最高,分别为453.62%和3.06,与w(淀粉)=10%和w(淀粉)=20%组无显著性差异,但明显高于其他各组;w(淀粉)=10%组的对虾成活率最高(96.67%),w(淀粉)=25%组最低(66.67%);w(淀粉)在25%~35%时,对虾的增质量率、成活率、SGR显著低于w(淀粉)为10%、15%和20%组(P<0.05).w(淀粉)=20%组的体蛋白含量最低(72.24%),w(淀粉)=30%组最高(75.27%),其余各组没有显著性差异;高淀粉组体脂肪含量相对较高.从凡纳滨对虾的肝胰脏组织学切片观察到,饲料w(淀粉)为10%~35%的范围内,肝胰脏脂肪无异常积累.肝胰腺中脂肪合成酶活性很低,苹果酸脱氢酶活性随饲料淀粉含量的增加而升高.总之,在饲料蛋白含量为w=38%左右时,凡纳滨对虾饲料适宜的淀粉含量(w)为10%~20%.%The ability of Litopenaeus vannamei (initial mean weight: (0. 96 ±0. 02) g) to utilize different levels of cornstarch was examined in terms of growth indices, body composition, microscopic structure and lipogenic enzyme of the hapetopancreas. Six isonitrogenous semipurified diets were fed to shrimp to satiation for 8 weeks in triplicate tanks (30 shrimps per tank) connected to a natural brackish water ( salinity: 6‰ ~ 14‰) recirculating system. Diets contained different levels of cornstarch (w, 10%、 15%、20%、 25%、 30%、 35% ) as the source of carbohydrate. Weight gain (WG), survival rate and SGR were considerably affected by cornstarch

  15. Isolation and Preliminary Identification of Five Suspicious Pathogenic Bacteria from Aquatic Water of White-leg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei%南美白对虾养殖水体5株疑似病原菌的分离与初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽; 张玉婷; 孙晓红; 戴习林; 潘迎捷; 赵勇

    2008-01-01

    应用TCBS(硫柠胆蔗琼脂)培养基从上海金山区南美白对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)养殖水体中分离筛选出5株优势疑似病原菌(编号为S1、S2、S3、S4、S5),应用ARDRA图谱分析、ERIC-PCR分析结合16S rDNA的PCR扩增与测序等多相分子生物学方法对其进行了鉴定.结果表明,S1为Pseudomonas属细菌;S2为Leclercia属细菌;S3为Exihuobacterium属细菌;S4为Jeotgalibacillus属细菌,S5为Staphylococcus属细菌.GenBank登录号为EU251039~EU251043.其中S2、S3、S4是首次从南美白对虾养殖水体中分离出来的疑似病原菌.结果还表明,TCBS培养基并非专一性选择培养弧菌的培养基,其他疑似病原菌也可以在该培养基中生长.

  16. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES CAPRINOS DILUÍDOS E CONGELADOS EM MEIO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO EM PÓ (ACP-101 OU TRIS, CORADOS POR EOSINA-NIGROSINA E AZUL DE BROMOFENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Alencar de Araripe Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This aims of the work were: to evaluate in vitro the goat semen frozen in diluents media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 and TRIS and, compare the bromophenol blue stain efficiency with the eosin-nigrosin stain. The ejaculateds were divided and diluted into PCW-101 and TRIS, frozed and thawed after 30 days. Spermatic morphology was evaluated, through semen smears stained by eosin-nigrosin (EN and bromophenol blue (BB. The morphologic parameters evaluated were: normal spermatozoa (N, head alteration (HA, intermediary piece alteration (IPA, tail alteration (TA, proximal citoplasmic drop (PCD, distal citoplasmic drop (DCD, and detached head (DH. There wasn’t significant difference in the observation of N between media, staining and their interactions after 5 minutes of thermo resistance test. After 120, the N was significantly influenced by media, where the TRIS presented better results. The incubation period of 120 minutes at 37ºC affect the spermatic morphology, increasing the HA percentages. The media based on TRIS promoted better protection from the cryoinjuries on frozen goat spermatozoa. BB staining was efficient on the fresh and post-thaw goat semen evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: Bromophenol blue, goat, powder coconut water; TRIS, spermatozoa.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a morfologia de espermatozoides caprinos frescos e congelados em meios à base de água de coco em pó (ACP-101 e TRIS, bem como comparar a eficiência dos corantes azul de bromofenol (AB e eosina-nigrosina (EN. Cada ejaculado foi dividido, diluído em ACP-101 e TRIS, congelado e, após trinta dias, descongelado. Analisou-se a morfologia espermática por esfregaços corados por EN e AB. Os parâmetros morfológicos foram: espermatozoides normais (N, alterações de cabeça (AC, de peça intermediária (API, de flagelo (AF, gotas citoplasmáticas proximal (GCP e distal (GCD e cabeça destacada (CD. Não se verificou diferença de N entre

  17. Nucleotide Mixture Supplementation Affects Non-specific Immune and Antioxidant Indices of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei%饲料中添加核苷酸混合物对凡纳滨对虾幼虾非特异性免疫和抗氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹丹; 黄燕华; 曹俊明; 蓝汉冰; 王国霞; 张荣斌; 陈晓瑛; 严晶

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究外源核苷酸混合物对凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)幼虾非特异性免疫和抗氧化指标的影响.选取960尾初始体重为(0.43±0.01)g的凡纳滨对虾,随机分为8组(每组设3个重复,每个重复40尾虾),分别投喂在基础饲料中添加0(对照)、0.1、0.2、0.4、0.6、0.8、1.0和1.2g/kg核苷酸混合物(5'-腺苷酸:5'-胞苷酸:5'-尿苷酸二钠:5'-肌苷酸二钠:5'-鸟苷酸二钠=1:1:1:1:1,质量比)的试验饲料,养殖期为5周.结果表明,饲料中添加0.4~1.2g/kg核苷酸混合物可显著或极显著提高凡纳滨对虾幼虾血细胞总数(THC)(P<0.05或P<0.01).与对照组相比,0.6和0.8/kg组血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性显著升高(P<0.05).0.4g/kg组血清总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)与对照组相比提高了51.0%(P>0.05),并显著高于1.2g/kg组(P<0.05).各组肝胰腺SOD活性和T-AOC随饲料中核苷酸混合物添加量的增加先升高后降低,均在0.4g/kg组达到最高值.各组血清和肝胰腺过氧化物酶(POD)和碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活性均无显著差异(P>0.05).饲料中添加0.2~1.2g/kg核苷酸混合物可显著降低对虾肝胰腺丙二醛(MDA)含量(P<0.05),而各组血清MDA含量差异不显著(P>0.05).0.2、0.4和0.6g/kg组肌肉抗超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)活性显著高于1.0和1.2g/kg组(P<0.05),其他各组间差异不显著(P>0.05).结果提示,饲料中添加一定量的核苷酸混合物能提高凡纳滨对虾幼虾的非特异性免疫和抗氧化能力,建议添加量为0.4~0.6g/kg.%A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary nucleotides on non-specific immune and antioxidant indices of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 960 shrimp with an average body weight of (0.43 ±0.01) g were randomly allocated into 8 groups with 3 replicates per group and 60 shrimp per replicate. The control group were fed with the basal diet, while the other 7 groups were fed with the basal diets added

  18. Salinité et confort physiologique - Application pratique en élevage larvaire

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Mailliez, Jean-rene; Peignon, Jean-marie; Broutoi, Francis; Marteau, Anne-laure; Wabete, Nelly

    2011-01-01

    La crevette bleue calédonienne Litopenaeus stylirostris est au deuxième rang des produits exportés en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’industrie crevetticole calédonienne est basée sur 19 fermes de production mais également 4 écloseries, 2 provendiers et 2 usines de conditionnement. La production maximale a été atteinte en 2005 avec 2400 tonnes. La fourniture de juvéniles par les écloseries est le point crucial de la chaîne de production car cette espèce n’est pas présente dans le milieu naturel. Les ré...

  19. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down. PMID:18457129

  20. L'élevage larvaire de crevettes en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L'Oxytétracycline et l'association Triméthoprime - Sulfadiazine en tant qu'alternatives à l'emploi de l'Erythromycine en écloserie

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Cyrille

    2003-01-01

    L'aquaculture de la crevette Pénéide occupe une position majeure au sein des productions animales. La Nouvelle-Calédonie y participe activement grâce au développement de l'élevage de la crevette bleue du Pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris. En l’état actuel de nos connaissances, l’élevage larvaire de crevettes ne peut être mené sans l’utilisation d’antibiotique Les expériences menées au Laboratoire Aquacole Calédonien (LAC IFREMER Saint-Vincent) ont conduit à la mise au point de deux plans d’a...

  1. Sécurisation des souches de crevettes d’élevage en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Résultats de la quarantaine et du conservatoire expérimental. Eléments pour la définition d’une stratégie de sécurisation des souches de crevettes en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Patrois, Jacques; Goyard, Emmanuel; Peignon, Jean-marie; Dufour, Robert; Ansquer, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Afin de disposer d’une plus forte diversité génétique exploitable, des producteurs calédoniens ont, en relation avec l’Ifremer, récemment introduit d’Hawaii une autre souche de crevette de l’espèce Litopenaeus stylirostris, domestiquée et garantie exempte de pathogènes. Malgré cette garantie sanitaire, les crevettes ont été maintenues en observation dans une quarantaine tertiaire pendant cinq mois avant la sortie et l’élevage d’une moitié de l’effectif en bassins terre extérieurs. L’autre ...

  2. DEDUCTION : A research project for shrimp farming sustainability in New-Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Beliaeff, Benoit; Chim, Liet; Della Patrona, Luc; Goyard, Emmanuel; Herlin, Jose; Labreuche, Yannick; Walling, Emilie; Ansquer, Dominique; Brun, Pierre; Castex, Mathieu; Coatanea, Denis; Courties, Claude; de Lorgeril, Julien; Dufour, Robert; Frappier, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Les études de faisabilité de l'aquaculture de crevettes ont débuté en Nouvelle-Calédonie dans les années soixante dix. Aujourd'hui environ 2000 tonnes de Litopenaeus stylirostris, introduite en 1978, sont produites chaque année de façon semi-intensive. Depuis quinze ans la production a été impactée par deux vibrioses : le syndrome d'été provoqué par Vibrio nigripulchritudo en relation avec la qualité de la tranche d'eau et des fonds de bassins et le syndrome d'hiver provoqué par Vibrio penaei...

  3. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  4. Phénomène des branchies orange dans les élevages de crevettes en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Lemonnier, Hugues; Barri, Kiam; Pham, Dominique; Wabete, Nelly; Boulo, Viviane; Lignot, Jean-herve; Royer, Florence; Hubert, Morgane; Blockmans, Bernard; Pierrot, Thomas; Laugier, Thierry; Tostin, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    L'aquaculture est une activité importante du paysage économique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie., La crevette Bleue du Pacifique, Litopenaeus stylirostris est aujourd’hui l’espèce cible, élevée en semi-intensif, dans des bassins de terre de 4 à 10 hectares. Une coloration orange prononcée au niveau des branchies, comparable à celle observée suite à un stress hypoxique alors qu’aucun déficit en oxygène n’est constaté, est apparue récemment engendrant une décote du produit à la vente et donc un risque...

  5. An Experimental Study on Optimization for Polyculture of Portunus trituberculatus with Litopenaeus vannamei, Ruditapes philip pinarum and Gracilaria lichevoides%三疣梭子蟹、凡纳滨对虾、菲律宾蛤仔和江蓠混养结构优化的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班文波; 田相利; 董双林; 张凯; 高明亮; 张东旭; 奉杰; 张庆起

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed and conducted to optimize the structure of polyculture for Portunus trituberculatus ,Litopenaeus vannamei ,Ruditapes philippinarum and Gracilaria lichevoides ,and to compare their water quality parameters .Crabs ,shrimps and clams were mixed with Gracilaria lichev‐oides ,six treatments were designed respectively was C ,CS ,CSB ,CSBJ1 ,CSBJ2 ,CSBJ3 (C :crab ;S :shrimp;B :clam ;J :Gracilaria lichevoides) .The result showed that the individual specifications of crabs in different treatments were not significantly different(P>0 .05);The highest yield of crab were 3255 .24 kg/hm2 for the treatment of CSBJ2 ;The body weight ,sgr and survival rate of CSBJ1 and CS‐BJ2 were significantly higher than other treatments(P0 .05);During the period of culturing ,there were significantly lower NO2 -N in CSBJ2 than in other treatments on the whole(P<0 .05);The treatments which mixed with Gracilaria lichevoides could significantly reduce the concentration of ammonia nitrogen(P< 0 .05) . Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration of CSBJ1 and CSBJ2 were significantly lower than other treatments in the middle and late cultivation(P<0 .05) .In this study , Portunus trituberculatus system mixed with Gracilaria lichevoides in suitable density could improve water quality ,reduce the concentration of total nitrogen ,total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen ,nitrate nitrogen and improve the production and survival rate of Portunus trituberculatus and Litopenaeus vannamei .Under the condition of this research ,the treatment giving the best culturing benefit was crabs at 6 ind/m2 , shrimps at 45 ind/m2 and clams at 45 ind/m2 ,Gracilaria lichevoides at 0 .36 kg/m2 .%利用海水陆基实验围隔优化了三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)、凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus van‐namei)、菲律宾蛤仔(Ruditapes philippinarum)和菊花江蓠(Gracilaria lichevoides)的混养结构。实验设6个处理组,分别为蟹-虾(CS)、蟹-虾

  6. 几株肠道益生菌对凡纳滨对虾非特异免疫力和抗病力的影响%Effects of probiotics from the shrimp intestine on the non-specific immunity and antiviral capacity of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂英; 宋晓玲; 孙艳; 麦康森; 谢国驷; 黄倢

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics on the non-specific immunity and antiviral capacity of Lito-penaeus vannamei. We fed groups of shrimp (body weight 3.2 g±0.26 g) a diet supplemented with either l.0×108 CFU/g Bacillus firmus (live) plus 1 % Photobacterium damsela (inactivated), 1 .0× 108 CFU/g Bacillus firmus (live), or l.0×108 CFU/g Bacillus firmus (live) plus 1% Vibrio alginolyticus (inactivated). The control groups were fed a non-supplemented diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 60 shrimp that were reared in aquaria. We randomly selected 10 shrimp per group every 5 d and measured a range of humoral immune parameters (superoxide dismutase SOD, acidic phosphatase ACP, alkaline phosphatase AKP, nitric oxide synthase NOS and lysozyme UL) in each individual. The shrimp were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) after two weeks. We then calculated the cumulative mortality of each experimental group. Supplementation with bacteria significantly increased serum SOD, ACP, AKP, and NOS compared with the controls. There was significantly lower cumulative mortality in shrimp that were fed the probiotics diet (10.7%, 39.3% and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the control (64.28%). Our results suggest that supplementing the diet with shrimp intestine probiotics improves immunity and the antiviral capacity of Litopenaeus vannamei.%以基础饲料为对照组,在基础饲料中分别添加坚强芽孢杆菌活菌(Bacillus firmus)、坚强芽孢杆菌活菌(1.0×108 CFU/g)+美人鱼发光杆菌(Photobacterium damsela)灭活菌(1%)、坚强芽孢杆菌活菌(1.0×108 CFU/g)+溶藻弧菌(Vibrio alginolyticus)灭活菌(1%)配制3种免疫饲料.每组3个重复,对个体质量为(3.2±0.26)g的凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)进行了为期30d的养殖实验.每5d取样,以血清中的酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和溶菌酶(UL)活性为免疫指标,探讨了肠道益生

  7. Prevalencia y distribución de los principales agentes etiológicos que afectan los langostinos silvestres en Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alfaro Aguilera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia y distribución de diferentes agentes patógenos en langostinos silvestres, en la zona de esteros de la Región Tumbes - Perú, entre marzo y diciembre de 2009. Los canales de marea considerados en este estudio fueron: Boca del Río Tumbes, El Alcalde, Jelí, El Bendito, Envidia, Soledad y Algarrobo. Se colectó un total de 1926 langostinos entre juveniles y pre-adultos de las especies Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris y Farfantepenaeus californiensis. Utilizando la técnica de la PCR, se detectó la presencia de los patógenos NHPB (0,62%, IHHNV (0,31%, BP (1,61% y WSV (2,75%; no se encontró infección por TSV. Las tres especies en estudio fueron positivas a WSV y BP, presentándose la mayor prevalencia de infección por WSV (2,98% en la especie L. stylirostris y por BP (2,66% en L. vannamei. La NHPB fue detectada en las especies L. vannamei y L. stylirostris con 0,77% y 0,43% de prevalencia respectivamente. Se obtuvo una prevalencia de 0,52% para IHHNV en L. vannamei. Las más altas prevalencias de las infecciones por WSV, BP, NHPB e IHHNV se registraron en los canales de marea El Alcalde (10,79%, Algarrobo (4,51%, Envidia (2,26% y Jelí (5,05%. Los datos señalan la presencia constante de diversos patógenos virales y bacterianos en diferentes especies de peneidos y su amplia distribución a lo largo del litoral tumbesino, lo que constituye un riesgo potencial para el desarrollo de la acuicultura en la región, y podría afectar las poblaciones naturales de langostinos.

  8. Genomics, Molecular Epidemiology and Diagnostics of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P; Krabsetsve, Kjersti; La Fauce, Kathy; Owens, Leigh; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-09-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is one of the major viral pathogens of penaeid shrimps worldwide, which has resulted in severe mortalities of up to 90 % in cultured Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris from Hawaii and hence designated Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). IHHNV is distributed in shrimp culture facilities worldwide. It causes large economic loss to the shrimp farming industry. Our knowledge about the natural reservoirs of IHHNV is still scarce. Recent studies suggest that there is sufficient sequence variation among the isolates from different locations in Asia, suggesting multiple geographical strains of the virus. Four complete genomes and several partial sequences of the virus are available in the GenBank. Complete genome information would be useful for assessing the specificity of diagnostics for viruses from different geographical areas. Comparisons of complete genome sequences will help us gain insights into point mutations that can affect virulence of the virus. In addition, because of unavailability of shrimp cell lines for culturing IHHNV in vitro, quantification of virus is difficult. The recent progress in research regarding clinical signs, geographical distribution, complete genome sequence and genetic variation, transmission has made it possible to obtain information on IHHNV. A comprehensive understanding of IHHNV infection process, pathogenesis, structural proteins and replication is essential for developing prevention measures. To date, no effective prophylactic measure for IHHNV infection is available for shrimp to reduce its impact. This review provides an overview of key issues regarding IHHNV infection and disease in commercially important shrimp species. PMID:23997444

  9. 不同形式蛋氨酸对凡纳滨对虾肝胰腺蛋氨酸腺苷转移酶活性的影响%Effect of different methionine on methionine adenosyl transferase activities of hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟淑艳; 谭北平; 杨奇慧; 董晓慧; 刘泓宇

    2012-01-01

    试验在低鱼粉饲料中添加不同形式蛋氨酸[晶体蛋氨酸(MET)、邻苯二甲酸醋酸纤维素包被蛋氨酸(CAP)、棕榈酸甘油酯包被蛋氨酸(TPA)、树脂包被蛋氨酸(RES)和羟基蛋氨酸(MHA)],评价对凡纳滨对虾肝胰腺蛋氨酸腺苷转移酶活性的影响.配制5种等氮、等能饲料饲喂凡纳滨对虾,以晶体蛋氨酸为对照组进行50 d的养殖试验.分别在第28 d和50 d时,取对虾肝胰腺测定蛋氨酸腺苷转移酶活性.结果表明,微胶囊化对晶体蛋氨酸在肠道有一定的缓释作用,可以改善晶体蛋氨酸和蛋白质结合态蛋氨酸的吸收效率.%This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation of crystalline methionine or coated methionine in low fishmeal diets of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) on methionine adenosyl transferase activities (MAT). Five iso- nitrogen and iso- caloric diets were prepared in which diets were supplemented with cellulose- acetate- phthalate (CAP), tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol (TPA), acrylic resin(RES) coated L-methionine, hydroxyl-melhionine calcium (MHA) and crystalline L-methionine diet (MET, control), respectively. Hepatopancreas was taken for determination of MAT activity at 28 d and 50 d, respectively. The results indicated that the microencapsulation was the better way to delay the release rate for crystalline methionine in the intestine of shrimp and could improve the absorption efficiency of the crystalline amino acids and protein-bound amino acids.

  10. 氨氮胁迫下凡纳滨对虾对副溶血弧菌的易感性%The Immune Response of Litopenaeus vannamei and Its Susceptibility to Vibrio parahaemolyticus Under Stress Caused by Ammonia Nitrogen at Different Concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红星; 李健; 陈萍; 梁忠秀; 任海; 李东利

    2014-01-01

    Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome (AHPNS), also know as Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), was officially reported in China in 2010 and has caused large-scale die-offs of cultivated shrimp in several Asian countries. A research team of the University of Arizona has identified that the pathogen is Vibrio parahaemolyticus which is a strain of a bacterium commonly found in brackish coastal waters around the globe. Because V. parahaemolyticus is a conditioned pathogen, it is very important to study the effects of ammonia nitrogen on the toxicity of this pathogen to Litopenaeus vannamei. To evaluate the effects of total ammonia nitrogen during the outbreak of AHPNS in L. vannamei, we examined the susceptibility to the pathogen, the non-specific immunity and the expression of LvLT mRNA in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp. Shrimp underwent the ammonia stress for 20 days with different ammonia nitrogen concentrations:2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L, 7.5 mg/L, 10.0 mg/L and the control concentration. After the exposure to V. parahaemolyticus, the death rate of shrimp perked in 6–24 h. The accumulative mortality rates of the treated groups were 0, 8%, 12%, 20%and 36%respectively at 120 h. The activities of phenoloxidase (PO) reached the lowest at 12 h in the control, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/L groups, and at 24 h in the 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at first and then gradually declined, and lysozyme (LSZ) exhibited the same trend. The expression of LvLT mRNA in the hepatopancreas increased at 6 h in all groups and was significantly higher in the control, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/L group than that in the 10.0 mg/L group. The LvLT mRNA expression reached the maximum at 12 h and then declined gradually at 24 h. The results indicated that high ammonia nitrogen could cause depression in the immunity of L. vannamei, and subsequently increase their susceptibility to V. parahaemolyticu and the resultant mortality rate. Therefore it is crucial to regulate

  11. 凡纳滨对虾半集约化养殖池塘浮游微藻优势种变动规律及其对养殖环境的影响%Change of dominant species of planktonic microalgae in Litopenaeus vannamei' s semi -intensive culture ponds and its impact on the culture environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭聪聪; 李卓佳; 曹煜成; 刘孝竹; 胡晓娟

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the microalgae community were conducted in Litopenaeus vannamei' s semi-intensive culture ponds.The variation about dominant species of microalgae in shrimp ponds were identified ,moreover,their relationships with culture environment and culture efficiency were analysised.The results showed that a total of 16 dominant species of microalgae were identified.The dominant species in initial phase were Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Nitzschia closteriu and Peridinium pusillum; the ones in the mid-phase were Cyclotella operculata, Lyngbya gardnari, Oscillatoria chlorine, K.microscopica Nygaard, C.kessleri, Cylindrospermum muscicola , C.kuetzingiana, O.salina, Chroococcus cohaerens and O.willei; the ones in the final phase were O.neglecta, O.angustissima and C.pyrenoidosa.Microalgae in initial phase were rare and low density,but Dinophyta occupied the dominant position in pond 2 and pond 4,which caused the low survival rate of their shrimp.The succession of Microalgae in the mid-phase was more frequent by weather interference.But due to undesirable algae in pond 1 and pond 2 ,their resistance to severe weather was weaker than the one in pond 3 and pond 4.In the final phase,the dominant species'number reduced and their dominance was prominent,and Oscillatoria bloom well,but the shrimp in pond 1 fell sick.The result showed that the algae composed by excellent dominant species could play a positive role in stabilizing the environment,and effectively resisted the interference by the weather interference,eventually.The shrimp grow health and culture efficiency was good.However,the algae composed by the undesirable microalgae could bring stress to the shrimp growth,increased the risk of culture, and reduced the culture efficiency.%研究了凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)滩涂土池半集约化养殖池塘浮游微藻优势种的变动规律,并结合养殖环境质量进行了分析.共检出微藻优势种16种,养殖前期优势

  12. 饲料中添加两株乳酸菌及其发酵上清液对凡纳滨对虾消化酶活性的影响%Effects of two lactic acid bacteria species and the corre-sponding supernatants on the activities of digestive enzymes in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙玉杰; 王雷; 孙国琼; 刘梅; 王宝杰

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of probiotics and the corresponding supernatants on the activities of digestive enzymes in Litopenaeus vannamei, several groups of L. vannamei (approximately 3.5 g) were reared at a tempera-ture of 30 ± 2°C in an aquaria for 4 weeks. The following four trials (three treated and one control) were conducted:T1, shrimp fed with a commercial diet + strain Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (1×107CFU/g feed); T2, shrimp fed with a commercial diet + strain Enterococcus faecium NRW-2 (1×107-CFU/g feed); T3, shrimp fed with a commer-cial diet + the supernatant of strain L. pentosus HC-2 (the corresponding supernatant of 1×107CFU/g feed of L. pentosus HC-2); and T4, shrimp fed with a commercial diet alone as a control. The results demonstrated that the protease activities were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the intestines of three treatment groups compared with those in the control group, but they were not significantly increased in the hepatopancreas. The amylase and lipase activities were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the intestines and hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with E. faecium NRW-2 compared with those in the control group. The amylase and lipase activities were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the hepatopancreas and intestines, respectively, in the group of shrimp fed with L. pentosus HC-2, whereas the protease and amylase activities were just increased significantly in the intestines of shrimp fed with the supernatant of L. pentosus HC-2. This study suggested that the activities of digestive enzymes in L. vannamei can increase by NRW-2, HC-2, and the corresponding supernatant but vary in different tissues. These results provide a solid foundation for the application of probiotics in aquaculture.%为了探讨前期实验获得的益生菌及其发酵上清液对凡纳滨对虾消化功能的影响,将初始体质量3.5 g ±0.06 g 的凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)在30℃±2℃环境下于水族箱中养殖4周。以基

  13. 铬对凡纳滨对虾生长性能、血清生化指标及非特异性免疫酶活性的影响%Effects of Chromium on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Indices and Non-Specific Immune Enzyme Activities of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奇慧; 谭北平; 董晓慧; 迟淑艳; 刘泓宇; 王凤美

    2013-01-01

    本试验旨在研究铬对凡纳滨对虾生长性能、血清生化指标及非特异性免疫酶活性的影响.试验配制7种等氮等能饲料,其铬(吡啶甲酸铬形式)添加水平分别为0、0.4、0.8、1.2、1.6、2.0和5.0 mg/kg.选择初始体重为(0.310±0.00l)g的凡纳滨对虾虾苗840尾,随机分配到21个0.38 m3的玻璃纤维钢桶中,每桶40尾虾,每3桶饲喂1种饲料.试验期为56 d.结果表明:以1.6 mg/kg组增重率和特定生长率最高,饲料系数最低,显著高于或低于0、0.4和5.0 mg/kg组(P<0.05),与1.2 mg/kg组差异不显著(P>0.05).蛋白质效率和蛋白质沉积率均以2.0 mg/kg组最高,但与1.6 mg/kg组差异不显著(P>0.05).饲料铬添加水平对凡纳滨对虾全虾水分、粗脂肪和粗灰分含量有显著影响(P<0.05),但对全虾粗蛋白质含量无显著影响(P>0.05).凡纳滨对虾血清总蛋白、葡萄糖和总胆固醇含量分别在铬添加水平为5.0 mg/kg、1.2~1.6 mg/kg、0.4 mg/kg时显著升高(P<0.05).血清碱性磷酸酶、总超氧化物歧化酶、酚氧化物酶活性均以1.6 mg/kg组为最高,血清谷草转氨酶活性以1.2 mg/kg组为最高,血清谷丙转氨酶活性以2.0 mg/kg组为最高,并均显著高于0 mg/kg组(P<0.05).饲料铬添加水平对凡纳滨对虾血清甘油三酯含量和酸性磷酸酶活性未产生显著影响(P>0.05).综合考虑生长性能、血清生化指标以及非特异性免疫酶活性,对于0.31~8.50 g的凡纳滨对虾,在饲料中以吡啶甲酸铬形式添加1.2~1.6 mg/kg的铬为宜.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of chromium on growth performance, serum biochemical indices and non-specific immune enzyme activities of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were prepared with the chromium (the form of chromium picolinate) supplemental levels of 0, 0.4, 0. 8, 1. 2, 1. 6, 2. 0 and 5. 0 mg/kg, respectively. A total of 840 shrimp with an initial body weight of (0

  14. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. PMID:21885268

  15. Effect of antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 produced by Bacillus natto on fresh-keeping of Litopenaeus vannamei at low temperature%纳豆菌抗菌肽APNT-6对凡纳滨对虾的低温保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 孙力军; 王雅玲; 刘唤明; 徐德峰; 邓楚津; 杜焕妍; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    A new biological preservative—antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 produced by Bacillus natto NT-6 and purified by column chromatography will be applied in the fresh-keeping of Litopenaeus vannamei. Bacillus antimicrobial peptides are a series of lipopeptides substances produced by represented Bacillus strains of B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. natto, which include surfactin, iturin, fengycin, subtilin and so on. Numerous studies show that Bacillus antimicrobial peptides have a startling range of antimicrobial activities that can include action against most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, enveloped viruses, and eukaryotic parasites. Recently, our research group isolated a highly antibiotic activity and largely antimicrobial spectrum strain—B. natto NT-6 from the Chinese traditional food—lobster sauce. According to the mass spectrometry (ESI /MS /CID) analysis,we know the mainly antimicrobial substances produced by this strain is Bacillus antimicrobial peptides, mainly including surfactin, fengycin, and iturin(called after APNT-6). Through oral acute toxicity in mice we found that its LDso greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight, indicating that antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 has high food safety. In this paper, the antibacterial activities of antimicrobial peptide on spoilage organisms were determined by Oxford cup assay. Then the quality changes of L vannamei during storage at (4±1) ℃ were investigated, including the pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory assessment. The results showed that antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 can effectively inhibit 8 strains of spoilage organisms isolated from L. vannamei. During storage at (4±1) ℃, with the extension of storage time, the gradually increasing values of pH, TVB-N and APC of L.vannamei were observed during the 7 days storage. However, incubated 0.5 mg/mL antimicrobial peptide can effectively slow down the value increasing, which extends the shelf-life of L

  16. IMMUNE-RELATED GENES EXPRESSION AND PHAGOCYTOSIS AGAINST WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS AFTER ORAL DELIVERY OF VP28 USING BACILLUS SUBTILIS AS VEHICLES IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI%以枯草芽孢杆菌递呈VP28对南美白对虾免疫相关基因表达和细胞特异性吞噬的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晶; 王彦波; 傅玲琳

    2013-01-01

    以枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)为活载体口服递呈对虾白斑综合征病毒(WSSV)囊膜蛋白 VP28,评价其抗病毒感染能力、对南美白对虾免疫相关基因表达以及血淋巴细胞对病毒特异性吞噬的影响。经口服免疫枯草重组菌株B. subtilis-VP28攻毒后,对虾的相对存活率达83.3%。为探讨重组菌株的抗病机理,比较研究了免疫相关基因-proPO(酚氧化酶原)、Peroxinectin(PE)和脂多糖-β-1,3-葡聚糖结合蛋白(LGBP)基因的表达差异,并进一步分析了血淋巴细胞吞噬活性和特异性。结果表明, B. subtilis-VP28菌液能显著提高(P<0.05)对虾proPO、PE和LGBP mRNA的表达水平和血细胞对WSSV的吞噬活性, B. subtilis组对免疫相关基因也有一定的激活作用,而B. subtilis-VP28发酵上清液则能增加血细胞吞噬活性;此外, B. subtilis-VP28菌液组血细胞对WSSV具有特异性吞噬作用。研究为枯草重组菌株B. subtilis-VP28抗WSSV感染作用及其作为特殊功能水产微生态制剂的应用提供了一定的科学依据。%The regulation of immune-related genes expression and phagocytosis of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) were evaluated by oral delivery of VP28 using Bacillus subtilis as vehicles in Litopenaeus vannamei. In our initial ex-periment, by oral delivery of B. subtilis spores harboring VP28 (B. subtilis-VP28) to L. vannamei, the extremely high survival (Relative Percent Survival:83.3%) upon challenge with WSSV can be observed. The differences of genes ex-pression levels of proPO, Peroxinectin (PE) and lipopolysaccharide-and beta-1, 3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) were demonstrated among experimental groups of B. subtilis-VP28 bacterial spores, B. subtilis-VP28 supernatants, B. subtilis and control. The result showed that immune-related genes (proPO, PE and LGBP) were significantly (P<0.05) upregu-lated in both B. subtilis-VP28 bacterial spores and B. subtilis feeding groups compared to B. subtilis-VP28

  17. 凡纳滨对虾引进群体和2个养殖群体遗传变异的微卫星分析%Microsatellite analysis on genetic variation of imported Litopenaeus vannamei population and cultured stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春艳; 马洪雨; 马凌波; 杨柯

    2011-01-01

    Eight microsatellite DNA markers were used to assess genetic diversity of three generations of