WorldWideScience

Sample records for azul litopenaeus stylirostris

  1. Bacterial community characterization of water and intestine of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in a biofloc system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Emilie; Gueguen, Yannick; Magré, Kevin; Lorgeoux, Bénédicte; Piquemal, David; Pierrat, Fabien; Noguier, Florian; Saulnier, Denis

    2016-07-19

    Biofloc technology (BFT), a rearing method with little or no water exchange, is gaining popularity in aquaculture. In the water column, such systems develop conglomerates of microbes, algae and protozoa, together with detritus and dead organic particles. The intensive microbial community presents in these systems can be used as a pond water quality treatment system, and the microbial protein can serve as a feed additive. The current problem with BFT is the difficulty of controlling its bacterial community composition for both optimal water quality and optimal shrimp health. The main objective of the present study was to investigate microbial diversity of samples obtained from different culture environments (Biofloc technology and clear seawater) as well as from the intestines of shrimp reared in both environments through high-throughput sequencing technology. Analyses of the bacterial community identified in water from BFT and "clear seawater" (CW) systems (control) containing the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris revealed large differences in the frequency distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Four out of the five most dominant bacterial communities were different in both culture methods. Bacteria found in great abundance in BFT have two principal characteristics: the need for an organic substrate or nitrogen sources to grow and the capacity to attach to surfaces and co-aggregate. A correlation was found between bacteria groups and physicochemical and biological parameters measured in rearing tanks. Moreover, rearing-water bacterial communities influenced the microbiota of shrimp. Indeed, the biofloc environment modified the shrimp intestine microbiota, as the low level (27 %) of similarity between intestinal bacterial communities from the two treatments. This study provides the first information describing the complex biofloc microbial community, which can help to understand the environment-microbiota-host relationship in this rearing system.

  2. Does damming of the Colorado River affect the nursery area of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda: Penaeidae in the Upper Gulf of California?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alberto Aragón-Noriega

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available After damming the Colorado River the freshwater flow was reduced to 1 % of its virgin flow to the Upper Gulf of California (UGC. The ecological effects need to be properly documented. The UGC is the nursery area for Litopenaeus stylirostris, the most profitable fishery in the zone. In order to know the relative abundance of L. stylirostris postlarval stage we conducted a sampled survey every 14 days in 1993, 1994 and 1997, plus an intensive sampling during a complete tide cycle in July 1995 and 1996. We did 10 min trawls each hour during the flood tide. Relative abundance of postlarvae was higher (pEl represamiento del Río Colorado ha ocasionado que el flujo de agua dulce sobre el Alto Golfo de California (AGC se haya reducido hasta el 1 % del flujo original. Se ha documentado el efecto de la reducción de agua dulce sobre las condiciones hidrográficas del AGC, pero las repercusiones ecológicas no se han descrito apropiadamente. El AGC ha sido área de crianza para especies comerciales como el camarón Litopenaeus stylirostris. Se hicieron recolectas de postlarvas de L. stylirostris en el AGC durante cinco años consecutivos. Los muestreos fueron catorcenalmente en los años de 1993, 1994 y 1997 y se realizó una recolecta diaria durante 15 días consecutivos en los años 1995 y 1996. Para ello se arrastró una red de plancton de 505 µ durante 10 min cada hora durante el flujo de marea. La abundancia relativa de las postlarvas de camarón en esta zona viaria considerablemente en años cuando el flujo de agua dulce incrementa. La abundancia es mayor hasta en un 200 % (p < 0.05 cuando existe descarga de agua dulce al AGC.

  3. Relative contribution of natural productivity and compound feed to tissue growth in blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) reared in biofloc: Assessment by C and N stable isotope ratios and effect on key digestive enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Emilie; Lorgeoux, Benedicte; Geffroy, Claire; Richard, Pierre; Saulnier, Denis; Gueguen, Yannick; Guillou, Gael; Chim, Liet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative contribution of natural productivity and compound food to the growth of the juvenile blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris reared in a biofloc system. Two experiments were carried out based on the same protocol with three treatments: clear water with experimental diet (CW), biofloc with experimental diet (BF) and biofloc unfed (BU). Shrimp survival was significantly higher in biofloc rearing than in CW rearing. The contribution of the biofloc to...

  4. variedad azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Corona González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra un estudio del efecto del pH, la temperatura y la concentración de polifructosas de Agave tequilana weber variedad azul sobre la producción de inulinasas, con una cepa de Saccharomyces sp. en un reactor de 16 litros. Las condiciones óptimas del proceso se obtuvieron al aplicar un diseño factorial 23 en el cual temperatura, pH y concentración de azúcares de Agave tequilana se probaron con dos niveles 15 y 30°C, 4 y 5.5 y 20 y 30 g/L respectivamente. Las condiciones con las que se alcanzó la concentración más alta de inulinasas (240.6 U/ml fueron: temperatura 30°C, pH 5.5 y 30 g/L de polifructosas de Agave tequilana

  5. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms.

  6. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  7. Parasitosis en camarones reproductores litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio, Bertha; Cedeño, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Parasitosis en Camarones Reproductores Litopenaeus vannamei En las últimas semanas se han reportado mortalidades en reproductores de camarón superiores a las normalmente registradas en los sistemas de maduración de la Península de Santa Elena.

  8. Azul, blanco, rojo. Homenaje a Lavoisier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Ángeles García Liarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una experiencia de Química en la que un líquido incoloro, que se muestra en una botella transparente, se vierte en tres vasos en apariencia vacíos, apareciendo de forma sucesiva los colores azul, blanco y rojo. El líquido incoloro no es otro que amoníaco, y los vasos que parecían no llevar nada en su interior contenían cantidades inapreciables de sulfato de cobre (II 5-hidrato para formar el color azul, nitrato de plomo (II para el color blanco y fenolftaleína para el color rojo. La coincidencia de estos tres colores con los de la bandera de Francia nos servirá de pretexto para un breve comentario sobre la figura de Lavoisier. Posteriormente, el contenido de los tres recipientes se vierte en la que, aparentemente, es la misma botella transparente, con lo cual los colores, tal y como han aparecido, desaparecerán formando una disolución incolora. Además de la descripción del procedimiento, en el artículo se analizan aspectos relacionados con los procesos que se han producido en el transcurso de la experiencia y proporciona algunas orientaciones didácticas.

  9. Influence of oceanographic processes on the early life stages of the blue shrimp ( Litopenaeus stylirostris) in the Upper Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Aguilera, L. E.; Marinone, S. G.; Aragón-Noriega, E. A.

    2003-02-01

    The possible relationship between circulation patterns and the recruitment of early stages of penaeid shrimp in the Upper Gulf of California was explored by collecting postlarvae (mesh size 0.505 mm) simultaneously in two locations, one off the coast of Sonora (Golfo de Santa Clara: 31°44'49ʺN-114°33'12ʺW) and the other off the Baja California peninsula (San Felipe: 31°11'8.3ʺ N-114°53'13.9ʺW) during two complete fortnightly cycles (July 12-27, 1995 and June 30-July 16, 1996). Individuals with cephalothoracic length from 0.8 to 3.91 mm without a clear size-increasing pattern were found throughout the sampling period, suggesting continuous recruitment to the area. The circulation in the study area was simulated with a three-dimensional baroclinic model forced with tides and climatological hydrography at the mouth of the Gulf of California, and winds and heat and freshwater fluxes at the sea-air interface. Spawning stock surveys have shown that maximum concentration of mature females is near the coast of Sonora (mainland Mexico). The model predicts surface currents of about 8 cm s -1 and suggests that postlarvae found off the coast of the peninsula may come from a different reproductive unit than those found off the mainland coast. This may explain why postlarvae found in Golfo de Santa Clara (mainland) are larger (and, presumably, older) than those found in San Felipe (Baja California). Possible relationships among circulation patterns, lunar cycle, former Colorado River runoffs and time of spawning are discussed.

  10. Síndrome del pañal azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayelin Escalona Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome del pañal azul es una enfermedad caracterizada por un defecto hereditario que impide la absorción del triptófano, lo que provoca hipercalciuria y nefrocalcinosis. Se presenta el caso de una transicional de 16 meses de edad, perteneciente al consultorio médico de la familia (CMF #12 del municipio Puerto Padre, con antecedentes de poca ganancia de peso, manteniéndose por meses consecutivos con el mismo peso y un llamativo color azul en la orina. La paciente fue estudiada y diagnosticada con el síndrome del pañal azul. Se presenta el caso por su rareza y ante la escasez de referencias encontradas en la literatura, devenido en un caso meritorio de socializar con los profesionales de la salud

  11. An improved validated SYBR green-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection of the Penaeus stylirostris densovirus in penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-García, Trinidad; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Luken-Vega, Leonardo; Vichido-Chávez, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2015-02-01

    The Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV) (also known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, IHHNV), one of the major shrimp pathogens, has a worldwide distribution in farmed and wild shrimp populations. Outbreaks of IHHNV have been associated with substantial economic losses which are accompanied by a negative social impact. Current diagnostic PCR tests may result in false-positive results as several parts of PstDV genome may be endogenized in the nuclear genome of the shrimp P. stylirostris. A one-step qPCR SYBR-Green based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect different isolates of the IHHNV in shrimp samples was developed. The detection limit of the assay was 81 viral copies of targeted DNA per reaction. The specificity of the assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the IHHNV product generated a single melt peak at 81.4±0.044°C. The assay was more sensitive than conventional PCR. The standardized PCR was shown to be highly sensible, specific, robust, and reproducible, which makes it an economical and powerful tool for both diagnostic applications and general research of IHHNV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensory quality of frozen shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Barbosa Nunes Queiroga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory quality of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown and stored in a freezer. A sensory analysis consisted of the Quality Index Method (MIQ to review the raw shrimp and Descriptive Analysis (AD in cooked shrimp in samples stored for a period of 90 days, using eight previously trained panelists. Accommodation comprising shrimp filet (100-120 pieces / kg samples were subjected to freezing in liquid nitrogen (- 86 °C, Freezing Tunnel (- 35 °C and Domestic Freezer (- 18 °C. At 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage in these freezing systems, determination of pH, water holding capacity (WHC, weight loss during cooking (WLC, shearing force, color, total volatile bases (TVB and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were performed. The attributes manual firmness and softness showed better results in rapid freezing. The color parameters (a *, b * and L *, WHC and WCL were higher at 90 days of storage, no significant losses were observed. Highlighted the strength of greater shear in slowly frozen samples at 90 days, confirming the results reported by the sensory panel. At 90 days of storage, the frozen shrimp showed good sensory quality and physical and chemistry characteristics. The shelf life of this shrimp could be set at about 90 days.

  13. Blue toe syndrome Síndrome do dedo azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a man with blue toe syndrome, who developed bilateral foot ischemia and underwent successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated renal artery stenosis. Blue toe syndrome is characterized by tissue ischemia secondary to embolization of cholesterol crystals or atherothrombotic debris. Microembolization most often occurs in elderly men who undergo an invasive vascular procedure or have an aneurysm.Os autores relatam o caso de síndrome do dedo azul em um homem que apresentou um quadro de isquemia bilateral dos pés e foi submetido ao reparo bem sucedido de um aneurisma da aorta abdominal e de estenose da artéria renal associada. A síndrome do dedo azul é caracterizada pela isquemia tecidual, secundária à embolização de cristais de colesterol ou aterotrombose. A microembolização ocorre mais freqüentemente em homens idosos que têm um aneurisma ou são submetidos a um procedimento vascular invasivo.

  14. La estrategia del océano azul para emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tula Mendoza Farro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los emprendedores deben tener presente que no siempre la planeación garantiza el logro de los objetivos, sin embargo sin planes es difícil alcanzar metas (1. Alfred Chandler J. define que “la estrategia es la determinación de los objetivos y planes a largo plazo de la empresa, las acciones a emprender y la asignación de recursos necesarios para lograr esto...” (2. Michael Porter sostiene que “la empresa sin estrategia está dispuesta a intentar cualquier cosa” (3. C.K. Prahalad dice que “si queremos escapar de la atracción gravitacional del pasado tenemos que ser capaces de replantear nuestras propias ortodoxias. Debemos volver a generar nuestras estrategias esenciales y replantear nuestras creencias fundamentales sobre cómo vamos a competir” (4. Peter Drucker, en tanto, considera que “la estrategia de la organización es la respuesta a dos preguntas: ¿qué es nuestro negocio? y ¿qué debería ser?” (5. Las concepciones de estrategia en la empresa son diversas, pero todas coinciden en la enorme trascendencia que tiene para la gestión empresarial. Los modelos de estrategia, del mismo modo esencial para la gestión, también son distintos, pero suelen variar en función de la búsqueda de mejores resultados. Un emergente y expectante modelo es hoy la estrategia del océano azul, que alienta la innovación en la apertura de mercados y deja de lado la competencia como modelo estratégico. La estrategia del océano azul, formulada por W. Chan Kim y Renée Mauborgne en su gran best seller del mismo nombre (6, sostiene que las empresas si quieren ser exitosas pueden hacerlo explorando nuevos mercados, nuevas oportunidades y a través de la innovación en valor (innovación con utilidad, precio y costo, sin preocuparse en la competencia. Es un modelo de “no competencia”, de búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades, de intactos escenarios, de aguas tranquilas e inexploradas que simbolizan el océano azul, y que precisamente es una

  15. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  16. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  17. Evaluation du probiotique bactérien Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M chez la crevette pénéide Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Castex , Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    P. acidilactici MA 18/5M is a dietary probiotic (BACTOCELL®) which has shown its efficiency on several terrestrial and aquatic species. The present thesis aimed to investigate more fully the effects of this probiotic on cultured penaeid shrimps. For this study, we chose a global approach by replacing the problem studied in a model of interactions between three compartments: the shrimp, its intestinal microflora and the probiotic. Having first defined how the probiotic should be administrated,...

  18. Evaluation du probiotique bactérien Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M chez la crevette pénéide Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle- Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Pediococcus acidilacticii MA18/5M est un probiotique bactérien (BACTOCELL®) qui a démontré son efficacité chez plusieurs espèces d'animaux terrestres et aquatiques. Cette thèse avait pour objectif d'investiguer plus en détails les effets de ce probiotique chez les crevettes pénéides d'élevage. Pour cette étude, nous avons choisi une approche globale replaçant la problématique dans un modèle d'interactions entre trois compartiments : la crevette, sa microflore intestinale et le probiotique. Ap...

  19. Prevalence, diversity and co-occurrence of the white spot syndrome virus, monodon baculovirus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus in wild populations of Penaeus monodon in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Fredmoore L; Lluisma, Arturo O

    2017-08-09

    The farming of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in the Philippines relies on wild broodstock. PCR was thus used to determine the prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV) in a total of 178 shrimp from 6 geographically disparate locations where broodstock are captured for use in hatcheries. PCR amplicons were also sequenced to identify phylogenetic relationships of the virus haplotypes detected. Shrimp from southeastern Luzon (Camarines Norte) had the highest prevalence of each of the 3 viruses and were frequently co-infected with 2 or more viruses. No viruses were detected in shrimp from northwestern Luzon (Pangasinan). MBV was most prevalent and PstDV strains displayed the most genetic diversity. WSSV was detected at 3 sites, and a VP28 gene sequence examined was invariant and consistent with strains found in many countries, including Thailand, China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Iran, Brazil and Mexico. WSSV open reading frame 94 gene sequence analysis identified location-specific repeat types. MBV sequences were dissimilar to haplotypes detected in India. PstDV sequences were diverse and included 2 lineages detected either in Australia or in the United States, Ecuador, Taiwan, China and Vietnam. The PCR data confirmed that WSSV, MBV and PstDV are endemic in P. monodon in the Philippines but that populations at some locations might remain free of infection.

  20. DURABILIDAD DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND BLANCO ADICIONADO CON PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El pigmento Azul Ultramar (AU es un aluminosilicato polisulfurado de sodio que reacciona con el aluminato tricálcico (C3A y con el óxido de calcio (CaO del cemento Pórtland blanco en presencia de agua, generando cantidades considerables de etringita a edad temprana y en menor proporción de tobermorita. Esta etringita primaria se presenta en forma de fibras no orientadas mejorando el desempeño mecánico de los morteros, y al mismo tiempo dejando pocas cantidades de C3A disponible para la formación de etringita secundaria. En esta investigación se evalúa la durabilidad a diferentes edades de curado en morteros de cemento Portland blanco sustituidos por 0%, 10% y 20% de AU en peso, mediante pruebas de succión capilar y evaluación del cambio longitudinal de morteros expuestos a una solución de sulfato de sodio con una concentración del 5% (ASTM C1012. Los resultados evidencian una mayor resistencia a compresión y a flexión, una significativa disminución de la expansión y una reducción hasta del 800% de la absorción de agua en morteros con AU. Todo esto debido a la formación de las fases minerales adicionales (etringita primaria y tobermorita, las cuales fueron identificadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM.

  1. CONTROL BIOLÓGICO DE LA MANCHA AZUL EN MADERA DE PINO RADIATA

    OpenAIRE

    NAVARRETE ARAYA, JOSE A.

    2013-01-01

    Los hongos de la mancha azul producen una decoloración inaceptable en madera libre de defectos (clear) o de alta calidad que ocasiona importantes pérdidas por venta a menor precio,rechazo del embarque en el puerto de destino y/o pérdida de credibilidad del vendedor. En la protección de la madera aserrada contra los hongos de la mancha azul se han utilizado sustancias químicas, entre las cuales el pentaclorofenato de sodio (PCPNa) ha destacado por su eficiencia y bajo costo. A pesa...

  2. Influence of blue light spectrum filter on short-wavelength and standard automated perimetries Influência de filtro para o espectro azul da luz na perimetria computadorizada branco-branco e azul-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of a blue light spectrum filter (BLSF, similar in light spectrum transmittance to the intraocular lens Acrysof NaturalTM, on standard automated perimetry (SAP and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP. METHODS: Twenty young individuals (OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de um filtro para o espectro azul da luz, semelhante à lente intra-ocular Acrysof Natural®, nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão (branco-no-branco e de comprimento de onda curto (azul-no-amarelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes jovens sem alterações oculares (20 olhos realizaram seqüência de 4 exames de campo visual: perimetria automatizada padrão e azul-no-amarelo com e sem o filtro para o espectro azul da luz. Os índices de limiar foveal (FT, desvio médio (MD e desvio-padrão (PSD obtidos em todos os exames e a diferença causada pela excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo foram analisados. Variabilidade interindivíduos (desvio-padrão dos pontos testados foi calculada. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução estatisticamente significante no desvio médio (p<0.001 e no limiar foveal (p<0.001 medidos pela perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz comparado quando realizado sem o filtro. Nenhum outro índice avaliado apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão ou azul-no-amarelo. Foi notado aumento da variabilidade interindivíduos com a excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com e sem o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz, assim como a diferença de sensibilidade entre os hemisférios inferior e superior (hemisfério inferior menos superior, mas não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os exames com e sem o uso do filtro. Quando foram comparados os 4 pontos mais inferiores e os 4 pontos mais superiores, a diferença inferior-superior aumentou

  3. Heavy metal contents in sediments of rivers and adjacent streams to the filling of Rio Azul, Rio Azul, San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Amador, Raul Alberto

    2003-01-01

    In Costa Rica there are no studies that have documented the concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments, caused by point sources of pollutants, such as the deposits sites of solid waste. The potential source of heavy metals concentrations in the study area, is an active landfill, known as Relleno Sanitario de Rio Azul, which is located southeast of the city of San Jose, in Distrito de Rio Azul de La Union. The site where the landfill Rio Azul is located is composed by a sequence of volcanic materials, which could have been affected by local faulting. This fact would mean a serious threat of contamination of groundwater in the region, geological faults are therefore a highly permeable, able to get in touch the fill pollutants with some aquifer. The mass of metal deposited on the site, from 1978 to date, has been estimated between 70000-100000 tm, which it becomes environmental concern in a first order. The results of X-ray fluorescence show the presence of elements such as vanadium, chromium, magnesium, copper, zinc, rubidium, strontium, potassium, calcium, iron, titanium and yttrium, which show a trend towards more high Concentrates in the fine fraction (d [es

  4. Content of heavy metals in the sediments of the rivers and adjacent gullies to Relleno de Rio Azul, Rio Azul, San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Amador, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    In Costa Rica it is not had studies that have documented heavy the fluvial sediment metal concentrations, caused by point sources of polluting agents, as they are the sites of I deposit of been accustomed to remainders. The potential source of heavy metal concentrations in the study area, it is an active sanitary filling, known like Sanitary Landing Azul River, which is located to the Southeastern of the city of San Jose, in the District of Azul River, Corner of the Union. The site where this made up of a sequence of materials of volcanic origin is located to the filling of Azul River, which could be affected by local fault, this fact would mean a serious threat of contamination of underground waters of the region, then the geological faults constitute very permeable means, able to put in contact the polluting agents of the water-bearing filling with some. The mass of metals deposited in the site, from 1978 to date, metric ton has calculated between 70000 to 100000, which turns it an environmental preoccupation of first order. The results of x-rays fluorescence show the presence of elements like vanadium, chromium, manganese, it receives, zinc rubidium, strontium, potassium, calcium, iron, titanium and yttrium, which show a tendency to present/display high concentrations but in the fine fraction (d [es

  5. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C.; Velarde-Montes, Germán J.; García-de la Parra, Luz M.; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F.; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment. PMID:24967441

  6. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Bautista-Covarrubias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12 of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment.

  7. Administration of co-expressed Penaeus stylirostris densovirus-like particles and dsRNA-YHV-Pro provide protection against yellow head virus in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnuengnong, Rapee; Attasart, Pongsopee; Smith, Duncan R; Panyim, Sakol; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

    2018-02-10

    The activation of the innate RNA interference pathway through double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) is one of the approaches to protecting shrimp from viruses. Previous studies have shown that injection of specific dsRNAs can successfully inhibit viral infection in shrimp. However, inhibition requires high levels of dsRNA and dsRNA stability in shrimp is limited. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been applied to deliver nucleic acids into host cells because of the protection of dsRNAs from host endonucleases as well as the target specificity provided by VLPs. Therefore, this study aimed to develop Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) VLPs for dsRNA deliver to shrimp. The PstDNV capsid protein was expressed and can be self-assembled to form PstDNV VLPs. Co-expression of dsRNA-YHV-Pro and PstDNV capsid protein was achieved in the same bacterial cells, whose structure was displayed as the aggregation of VLPs by TEM. Tested for their inhibiting yellow head virus (YHV) from infecting shrimp, the dsRNA-YHV-Pro-PstDNV VLPs gave higher levels of YHV suppression and a greater reduction in shrimp mortality than the delivery of naked dsRNA-YHV-Pro. Therefore, PstDNV-VLPs are a promising vehicle for dsRNA delivery that maintains the anti-virus activity of dsRNA in shrimp over a longer period of time as compared to native dsRNAs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detección de restricciones en la producción de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul mediante percepción remota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ceja Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul se utiliza, principalmente, para la producción del Tequila; una bebida espirituosa. El estado de Jalisco, México, contribuye con el 90% de la producción; esto constituye un importante apoyo a la economía del Estado. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la superficie ocupada por agave azul, que presentó restricciones en su producción en la región Valles, correspondiente a los municipios de Tequila, Amatitán y El Arenal, en el estado de Jalisco, México, por medio de percepción remota. Se utilizó una imagen adquirida por el satélite LANDSAT 5 el 2 de abril de 2011, la cual se procesó para su calibración radiométrica, corrección atmosférica y georreferenciación. La interpretación digital se hizo a través del proceso de clasificación supervisada utilizando la opción de máxima probabilidad. Los campos de entrenamiento se seleccionaron de información de campo y de la base de datos del Consejo Regulador del Tequila (CRT. Los resultados se plasmaron en mapas temáticos; distribución de agave y no agave y distribución de agave con restricciones. El 45% del área ocupada por el cultivo presentó restricciones relacionadas con: aspectos económicos (restricción tipo 1, plagas y enfermedades (restricción tipo 2 y efectos por exceso de humedad del suelo (restricción tipo 3. Para evaluar la precisión de estos datos se aplicó una matriz de error que reportó una precisión general del 73%. Este valor es aceptable considerando la resolución a 30 m del sensor (LANDSAT 5 y la peculiaridad del cultivo. El uso de imágenes LANDSAT por su resolución espectral y radiométrica es aceptable para el estudio del cultivo del agave azul según lo observado en campo y lo expresado por el procesamiento de la imagen.

  9. Optimization study of fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aarón SALAZAR-LEYVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Agave tequilana Weber azul variety is a valuable source of fructans. In this study, a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction yield of fructans from agave pines. A Box Behnken factorial design was applied to evaluate the effects of several conditions such as extraction temperature, water raw material ratio and extraction time on extraction yield. Under the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature of 79.1 °C, water raw material ratio of 5.13 mL/g, and extraction time of 1.48 h fructans extraction yield was 83.12%. The chromatographic profile of the agave crude extract presented four peaks, out of which fructans were the most preponderant (~87%. The obtained results suggest that the response surface methodology is adequate to optimize fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety.

  10. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  11. Enfermedades en camarones penaeidos: microsporidiosis en penaeus (litopenaeus) vannamei (parte i)

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio, Bertha

    2007-01-01

    ENFERMEDADES EN CAMARONES PENAEIDOS: Microsporidiosis en Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Parte I) El virus de la “mancha blanca” ha sido sin duda la enfermedad mas severa que ha sufrido la industria camaronera del Ecuador en los últimos 20 años de producción.

  12. Relation on phitoplankton community with Litopenaeus vannamei productivity in biocrete pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTManagement of phytoplankton is generally conducted by controlling the concentration of organic matter, fertilization and water exchange.  Organic materials are from uneaten feed and excretion of shrimp.  By using post facto method it was found four class of phytoplankton in biocrete pond at one cycle rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei.  Population at early rearing period was dominated by Bacillariophyceae (50.4%; 13 species and Cyanophyceae (42.41%; 1 species, followed by Dynophyceae (6.2%; 5 species and Chlorophyceae (1.3%; 1 species.  Increment in phytoplankton density was followed by increment in chlorophyll-a and oxygen from photosynthesis, and productivity was 2132 kg/pond.Keywords: phytoplankton, white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, biocrete pond ABSTRAKPengelolaan fitoplankton umumnya dilakukan dengan mengoptimalkan bahan organik serta pemupukan dan pergantian air. Bahan organik berasal dari pakan buatan yang tidak terkonsumsi (sisa pakan dan ekskresi dari udang. Dengan menggunakan metode post facto selama satu siklus pemeliharaan udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei pada tambak biocrete diperoleh empat kelas fitoplankton. Dominasi Bacillariophyceae (50,4%; 13 jenis, Cyanophyceae (42,41%; 1 jenis terjadi pada awal pemeliharaan yang diiukuti oleh Dynophyceae (6,2%; 5 jenis dan Chlorophyceae (1,3%; 1 jenis. Peningkatan kelimpahan fitoplankton secara keseluruhan diikuti oleh peningkatan kandungan klorofil-a dan oksigen hasil fotosintesis total sehingga produktifitasnya mencapai 2132 kg/petakKata kunci: fitoplankton, udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei, tambak biocrete

  13. Characterization of vitellin from the ovaries of the banana shrimp Litopenaeus merguiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auttarat, Jongruk; Phiriyangkul, Pharima; Utarabhand, Prapaporn

    2006-01-01

    Vitellin (Vt) was purified from ovary extracts of mature females of the banana shrimp Litopenaeus merguiensis using DEAE-Sephacel and Superdex 200 columns. Native Vt had an apparent molecular mass of 398 kDa as determined by native PAGE and by gel filtration chromatography. Under reducing and denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE), Vt is composed of two major subunits of 87 and 78 kDa, although some faint bands were also detected. The N-terminal 10 amino acids sequence of the 78 kDa subunit is identical to that of Litopenaeus vannamei Vt and very similar to that of Litopenaeus japonicus vitellogenin (Vg) as well as Litopenaeus semisulcatus Vt, with an identity of 89%. Anti-Vt polyclonal antibody raised against purified Vt shows a high specificity with only ovarian Vt and hemolymph Vg of vitellogenic shrimps in double immunodiffusion and Western blot assays. Vg and Vt concentrations in hemolymph, hepatopancreas and ovaries were measured by ELISA. Vg concentrations increased in the hemolymph in the early stages of ovarian development and declined in the maturation stages. As there were undetectable concentrations of Vg in the hepatopancreas while an elevation of Vg levels occurred in the hemolymph, during the time that Vt was accumulating in the ovaries during oogenesis, this would suggest that the contribution of Vg synthesized by the hepatopancreas only might be not sufficient for adequate development of the oocytes in the banana shrimp L. merguiensis during vitellogenesis.

  14. Las nuevas características de las operaciones de cascos azules de las Naciones Unidas

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Unceta, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Las operaciones de cascos azules, diseñadas al margen de lo previsto expresamente en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas en los años cincuenta, se han desarrollado durante el período de guerra fría cumpliendo los requisitos de consentimiento de las partes, imparcialidad en la controversia o conflicto y ausencia de uso de la fuerza. Sin embargo, desde 1990, estas características, hasta entonces consideradas como consustanciales a estas operaciones, se han modificado considerablemente, alterando su...

  15. Choque anafilático com exantema azul durante cirurgia da mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Pires

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de uma doente de 60 anos, que foi submetida a tumorectomia da mama esquerda por carcinoma ductal invasor. Dez minutos após administração periareolar (Figura 1 de 1,5ml de Azul Patente V, desenvolveu um quadro de exantema cutâneo, de cor azulada (Figura 2, com repercussão cardiovascular e ventilatório. Assumido choque anafilático, foi suspensa a cirurgia e efetuou-se tratamento com hidrocortisona e adrenalina em perfusão.

  16. Biossorção de azul de metileno utilizando resíduos agroindustriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa C. Honorato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a capacidade de adsorção do corante azul de metileno nos resíduos da palha de milho e da bainha do palmito pupunha in natura. A caracterização dos resíduos foi determinada utilizando-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho a qual indicou a presença de grupos carboxílicos, hidroxila e carbonila. O tempo necessário para que o sistema atingisse o equilíbrio para ambos os resíduos foi de 240 min, seguindo uma cinética descrita pelo modelo de pseudo-segunda ordem. A capacidade máxima de adsorção foi de 102,8 mg g-1 para o resíduo da palha de milho, seguindo o modelo de isoterma de Langmuir e 50,9 mg g-1 para o resíduo de palmito pupunha, sendo que o modelo que melhor se ajusta foi Freundlich. Desta forma, esses resíduos são promissores para a adsorção do corante azul de metileno em efluentes.

  17. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health Center, Department of Molecular Microbial and Structural Biology (United States); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano, E-mail: sirano.dhepaganon@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H., E-mail: carrow@uhnresearch.ca [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 28}-Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two {alpha}-helicies.

  18. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda; Bezsonova, Irina; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2011-01-01

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X 4 -Cys-X 4 -Cys-X 28 -Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two α-helicies.

  19. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón Bello, Jorge Alejo

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  20. A estratégia Oceano Azul como proposta de valor: o caso dos ginásios/health clubs portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Elsa Regina Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Metaforicamente, Kim e Mauborgne (2005) referem que o mercado é constituído por dois oceanos, o vermelho e o azul. O oceano vermelho representa todas as indústrias que existem hoje. O oceano azul considera todas as indústrias que ainda não existem, representa assim, o mercado não explorado, onde se pode criar a procura e onde existem oportunidades de elevado crescimento e rentabilidade. A esta abordagem Kim e Mauborgne (2005) chamam Estratégia Oceano Azul. Esta tese tem como objetivo geral de...

  1. Síndrome de nevos azules ahulados: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. López-Ugalde

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de nevos azules ahulados (SNAA es un síndrome poco frecuente, que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples malformaciones vasculares en piel y tracto gastrointestinal. También pueden verse afectados otros órganos con diferentes manifestaciones clínicas tales como artralgias, epistaxis, hemoptisis, hematuria, hemotórax, trombocitopenia leve, coagulopatía por consumo y deformaciones óseas, entre otras. Se presenta el caso en un niño de nueve años de edad con SNAA, con manifestaciones clínicas características, tales como lesiones cutáneas puntiformes de color violáceo con tamaño variable y malformaciones vasculares gastrointestinales con sangrado de tubo digestivo.

  2. El control de la limpieza de las arenas por medio del ensayo del azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, the main lines of the investigation work developed at LABEIN on the «Influence of the limy and clayey slimes from calcareous crushed sands on concrete properties» are presented. As a consequence of it, new limits are proposed to consideration regarding the admissible content of slime in crushed sands, reaching a limit higher than 15%, controling the slime nature by means of an equivalent of normal sand and specially by Methylene Blue. The second part of the work is devoted to the development of the methodology for the obtention of Methylene Blue, in sands used in the elaboration of concrete which have a little amount of clay, taking as a base the method applied by French normative, duly adapted and with different expression of the results.Se muestran, en la primera parte del artículo, las líneas fundamentales del trabajo de investigación desarrollado en LABEIN, sobre la «Influencia de los finos calizos y arcillosos de arenas calizas de machaqueo, en las propiedades del hormigón». Como consecuencia del mismo, se proponen nuevos límites a considerar respecto al contenido admisible de finos en las arenas calizas de machaqueo, llegando a un límite superior del 15%, controlando la naturaleza de los finos por medio del equivalente de arena a vista, y, sobre todo, por el Azul de Metileno. En la segunda parte del artículo, se desarrolla la metodología utilizada para obtener el Azul de Metileno, en arenas utilizadas en la confección de hormigón, que poseen poca arcilla, basándose en el método aplicado por la normativa francesa, adaptado convenientemente y con diferente expresión de resultados.

  3. Effect of some organophosphorus pesticides on oxygen consumption of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, José Guillermo; Dalla-Venezia, Luisella; Lazcano Alvarez, Maria Guadalupe

    2002-06-01

    Oxygen consumption was measured in adult specimens of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps from a coastal lagoon of Sinaloa, Mexico, during exposure to sublethal concentrations of the organophosphorus pesticides, Diazinon, Folidol, and Gusathion. Each individual was used as a control of itself, to avoid differences between treatments being masked by individual variability. In all three treatments with pesticides, respiration rate, measured by a polarographic electrode, was significantly lower than in controls. This may, at least partly, explain the decrease in shrimp production observed in recent years in the coastal lagoons of Sinaloa. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  5. Sperm quality of Litopenaeus vannamei broostock injected by PMSG and antidopamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The important role in determining the productivity of shrimp was the quality and quantity of shrimp sperm. The decreasing of hatching rate was predicted as the effect of the decreasing quality of sperm. It then could  influence  the number and quality of naupli produced. Hormonal induction of maturation is one of alternative solution that can improve shrimp sperm quality. This study was conducted to examine the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG and antidopamine (AD injection on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei sperm quality. This research consisted of six treatments which were treatment without eyestalk ablation, eyestalk ablation, and premix PMSG hormone, and AD at the dose  of 0.1 mL/kg, 0.25 mL/kg, 0.5 mL/kg, and 1 mL/kg. The observed parameters were sperm count and percentage of normal and abnormal sperm. The results showed that PMSG hormone and AD injection could improve sperm quality of L. vannamei shrimp. Hormone at the dose of 0.25 mL/kg and 0.5 mL/kg were the optimal doses to increase sperm count and the percentage of normal sperm, also to lower the percentage of abnormal sperm. Keyword: PMSG, AD, sperm quality, Litopenaeus vannamei  ABSTRAK Kuantitas dan kualitas sperma udang jantan sangat berperan penting dalam menentukan produktivitas udang. Terjadinya penurunan daya tetas telur udang diduga karena terjadinya penurunan kualitas sperma. Hal ini berpengaruh terhadap jumlah dan kualitas nauplius yang diproduksi. Induksi maturasi secara hormonal merupakan salah satu alternatif yang dapat meningkatkan kualitas sperma udang. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penyuntikan pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG dan antidopamin (AD terhadap kualitas sperma udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian terdiri atas enam perlakuan, yaitu perlakuan tanpa ablasi mata, ablasi mata, dan injeksi dengan premix hormon PMSG dan AD dosis 0,1 mL/kg, 0,25 mL/kg, 0,5 mL/kg, dan 1 mL/kg. Parameter yang diamati

  6. Quality of antimicrobial products used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Kim Chi; Tran, Minh Phu; Phan, Thi Van

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobials are important to treat diseases in aquaculture and the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of antimicrobial products commonly used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam. A total of 25 antimicrobial products were obtained from 20....... The documented poor quality of antimicrobial products and inadequate labelling has negative impacts on effective disease treatment; contribute to development of antimicrobial resistance, and the use of such products is associated with food safety and occupational health hazards. There is an urgent need...

  7. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen [1]. For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV...

  8. Suicídio e o jogo da Baleia Azul analisados na perspectiva de Anomia de Émile Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Francisco Barreto Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma síntese das principais ideias de Durkheim, representante da sociologia positivista. São revisitados os conceitos de fato social, solidariedade e anomia com o intuito de analisar os suicídios ocorridos no ano de 2017 e associados ao jogo da Baleia Azul, fenômeno mundial da internet e da Sociedade da Informação. O conceito de anomia pode ser compreendido como ausência de normas, que decorre de grande turbulência social, heteronomia, perda dos laços sociais e de solidariedade. Nessa perspectiva, o artigo problematiza a associação entre o conceito de suicídio anômico e as mortes associadas ao jogo da Baleia Azul.

  9. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  10. TRATAMENTO CONTRA O ADENOCARCINOMA MAMÁRIO HUMANO POR MEIO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA UTILIZANDO O AZUL DE METILENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Prado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A terapia fotodinâmica (TFD é um método alternativo para o tratamento contra o câncer, possui baixa toxicidade sistêmica podendo ter ação localizada. O seu mecanismo de ação é baseado na combinação de um fotossensibilizador, luz e o oxigênio presente nos tecidos. Com o trabalho avaliou-se a ação do fotossensibilizador azul de metileno (AM no tratamento contra o adenocarciona mamário humano por meio da TFD. As células foram cultivadas utilizando o meio de cultura Leibovitz’s complementado com 10% de soro fetal bovino e mantidas em estufa para crescimento. O tratamento via TFD foi realizado utilizando o fotossensibilizador AM em três diferentes concentrações sendo irradiadas com LEDs 660 nm. A viabilidade celular foi realizada utilizando o método de exclusão Azul de Tripan. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o azul de metileno apresenta grande potencial, pois possibilitou uma redução da taxa de viabilidade celular sob irradiação e baixa citotoxicidade quando não irradiando.

  11. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  12. Sensitivity of Larvae and Adult and the Immunologic Characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei under the Acute Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially important species of shrimp in the world. In this study, we performed acute hypoxia tests with Litopenaeus vannamei to estimate 12 h median lethal concentration (LC50 values at different life stages. The results indicated that the 12 h LC50 values were significantly different in different life stages of shrimp (P<0.05. The maximum value of 12 h LC50 was 2.113 mg L−1 for mysis III, and the minimum value was 0.535 mg L−1 for adult shrimp with an average total length of 6 cm. The study also determined the hemocyanin concentration (HC and the total hemocyte counts (THC in the conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation. These results showed that the THC decreased and the HC increased under hypoxia, and the THC increased and the HC decreased in the condition of reoxygenation. These results can provide fundamental information for shrimp farming and seedling and also can guide the breeding selection, as well as being very helpful to better understand the hypoxia stress mechanism of shrimp.

  13. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Roberta Cruz da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers.

  15. Assessing parent material uniformity of Phaeozems in the Azul Sierras landscape: preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Núria; Rodríguez, Javier; Pazos, Mabel Susana

    2014-05-01

    South of Azul Co. (Argentina) there is an area with Precambrian and Paleozoic gneiss and migmatite outcrops that conform the wider system of Pampian Sierras, with slopes and intermountain areas covered by loess. The Phaeozems distribution in the Azul Sierras is complex and their genesis either being derived from a uniform parent material or a lithologic discontinuity is not known. The objective of this study was to confirm whether pedological processes or a lithologic discontinuity may be responsible for the textural contrast within soil profiles. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was used to determine elemental concentrations in various soil fractions. Three landscape units were defined: a) rocky, b) side slope and c) intermountain plain. Rocky area: 8-10 % slope, soils develop in between rock outcrops, are rather shallow with high organic matter content, coarse texture and gravely. They include: Endoleptic Phaeozems, Haplic Phaeozems (Pachic) and (Pachic Arenic). Sideslope: coarse textured soils with abundant gravels and lime free close to the rocky area; OC is high up to 50 cm depth; incipient clay illuviation is observed as coatings on pebbles. Half slope a petrocalcic horizon (tosca) appears at variable depth, coarse fragments diminish with increasing distance from the rock outcrops, OC remains high in the first 50 cm. All soil profiles have mollic horizon and argic horizon less than 20 cm thick. The petrocalcic horizon has a minimum depth of 50 cm. Soils classify as Luvic Phaeozem (Skeletic), Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem (Endoskeletic) and Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem. Intermountain plains: soils are deep, with clay accumulation, no coarse fragments nor rock outcrops, and gentle sloping. The mollic horizon reaches 53 cm thick and there is a well developed argic horizon. These soils classify as Luvic Phaeozems. Results showed that all indicators of parent material uniformity, i.e., depth distribution curves of Zr and Y in various fractions and Y:Zr ratio showed

  16. STUDIES OF CHARACTERIZATION AND CONCENTRATION OF COMPACT ITABIRITE OF THE SERRA AZUL COMPLEX, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio Vasconcelos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lagoa das Flores Mine is an important iron ore deposit located at the Serra Azul complex in the Northwestern border of the Ferriferous Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, where other important mines also occur, such as Arcelor Mittal, Usiminas, MBL and MMX. Presently 2.2 Mt/year of waste are generated; 70% of this waste is comprised by compact itabirite whose mineral resource is of the order of 370 Mt. The goals are to perform a mineralogical characterization and the development of process routes for this ore type by bench scale testing. The latter was carried out by work index and abrasion index determinations and magnetic concentration, desliming and flotation testing. The ore was composed by quartz, martitic hematite and minor magnetite; the average iron content was 34.3% and the quartz liberation degree was 92% below 0.075 mm. The best processing route are grinding to –0.15 mm, followed by medium and high strength field magnetic concentration, regrinding to –0.053 mm and reverse cationic flotation. Therefore, a final concentrate with 67.8% Fe, 1.84% SiO2 contents and metallic recovery of 83% is obtained.

  17. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  18. TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA COM AZUL DE METILENO SOBRE CEPA DE Staphylococcus aureus RESISTENTE À METICILINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Alves Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available S. aureus é o agente etiológico de maior importância associado às infecções adquiridas tanto em âmbito comunitário ou hospitalar, devido a sua capacidade de desenvolver resistência às terapias convencionais. A Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD surge como alternativa a ser utilizada no controle de cepas resistentes aos antibioticos. O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos da TFD com Azul de Metileno (AM sobre cepas de S. aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA. As amostras foram diluídas em PBS estéril de acordo com a escala 0,5 de MacFarland. Os grupos foram compostos com diferentes concentrações de AM, incubados no escuro durante 15 minutos e irradiados por LED Biopdi/Irrad-Led5 em 660nm com fluência de 10 J/cm². Posteriormente, foram semeadas e incubadas à 37ºC por 24 horas. A contagem de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFCs demonstrou que a TFD foi eficaz na menor concentração testada de AM sobre cepas de MRSA.

  19. The Benthonic Macroinvertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Colombia and their Relationship with Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guerrero-Bolaño

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macroinvertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Magdalena, Colombia. The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Ephemeroptera. The most representative families were Baetidae, Simullidae, Perlidae, Chironomidae, and Hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone.

  20. LAHAN BASAH BUATAN SEBAGAI MEDIA PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamaei BERSALINITAS RENDAH (Constructed Wetland for Remediation of Brackish Wastewater from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamaei Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Raharjo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Air limbah budidaya udang berjumlah relatif banyak dan mengandung bahan pencemar yang berpotensi mencemari lingkungan. Di sisi lain, air limbah tersebut dapat diolah dan diresirkulasi dalam sistem budidaya udang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menyelidiki kemampuan sistem lahan basah buatan-aliran air permukaan (LBB-AAP yang ditanami dengan rumput vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides, L dalam menghilangkan pencemar (NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ dan PO43- dari air limbah budidaya udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamaei kondisi mesohaline dan mengevaluasi kinerja sistem tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem LBB-AAP mampu mengeliminasi parameter NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ dan PO43- secara signifikan. Rumput vetiver mampu tumbuh pada kondisi mesohaline dan dapat melakukan remediasi air limbah tersebut. Serapan rumput vetiver dalam sistem LBB-AAP untuk NO3-, NH4+ dan PO43-adalah 28, 63 dan 83 %. Desain konstruksi LBB-AAP tipe Hidroponik menunjukkan kinerja terbaik dalam pengendalian air limbah budidaya udang vaname dibandingkan dengan tipe emergent, kombinasi hidroponik dan emergent. ABSTRACT The amount of wastewater shrimp cultivation is relatively/too much, contains a variety of pollutants and potentially pollute the environment. In other side, The wastewater can be treated and also recirculated in shrimp cultivation systems. The purpose of research is to investigate the ability of flow water surface-constructed wetland system (FWS-CWs that planted vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides, L that removes of pollutants (NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ and PO43- from wastewater vaname shrimp cultivation (Litopenaeus vannamaei on conditions mesohaline and with the aim of evaluating the performance of the system. The results of the research indicate that FWS-CWs able to eliminate the parameters significantly of NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ and PO43-. Vetiver grass could grow on mesohaline conditions and it can perform remediation of the wastewater. Uptake of

  1. Effects of methamidophos on acetylcholinesterase activity, behavior, and feeding rate of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de la Parra, L M; Bautista-Covarrubias, J C; Rivera-de la Rosa, N; Betancourt-Lozano, M; Guilhermino, L

    2006-11-01

    The toxicity of methamidophos on the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, behavior, and feeding rate as effect criteria. The biochemical characterization of the soluble cholunesterase (ChE) present in both muscle and eye tissues of L. vannamei was performed in a first phase of the study. In both tissues, almost full inhibition of enzyme activity by eserine sulfate was found, indicating that the measured activity is mainly from ChE and not from other esterases. The highest rate of substrate hydrolysis was found when acetylthiocholine was used as substrate. To evaluate the effects of methamidophos on L. vannamei AChE, behavior, and feeding rate, shrimps were exposed for 24h to several sublethal concentrations of methamidophos. Significant effects of the pesticide on behavior and AChE were found, with behavior being a more sensitive endpoint than AChE inhibition. Feeding rate was not a sensible endpoint under conditions tested.

  2. Computational analysis and structure predictions of CHH-related peptides from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, G Purna Chandra; Kumari, N Siva; Prasad, G L V; Naik, B Reddya; Borst, D W

    2011-03-01

    The crustaceans produce several related peptides that belong to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family. While these peptides have similar amino acid sequences, they have diverse biological functions that must arise, in part, from differences in the 3D shape of these peptides. However, it is generally accepted that peptides with a high degree of sequence similarity also have a similar 3-D structure. We used the solution structure of one peptide in the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family, the molt-inhibiting hormone of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus), to predict the shape of the five known peptides related to CHH in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The high similarity of the 3-D structures of these peptides suggests a common fold for the entire family. Nevertheless, minor differences in the shape of these peptides were observed, which may be the basis for their different biological properties.

  3. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  4. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  5. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  6. Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity is dependent on dodecameric structure in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ke-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocyanin (Hc is a multifunctional protein in both mollusks and arthropods. Phenoloxidase (PO activities are the most important physiological functions for Hcs after conversion. In shrimp, Hc occurs as two oligomer forms, dodecamers and hexamers. Differences in the transport oxygen capacity and agglutination activity between the two oligomers of shrimp Hc have been found. In the present study, we investigated the differences in the Hc-derived PO activity between the dodecameric and hexameric Hc forms of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The two oligomers were separated by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, converted by trypsin cleavage and their PO activities were determined by oxidation of L-DOPA. The dodecamers exhibited PO activity after enzymatic conversion while the hexamers did not exhibit PO activity. This result provides new insight into the structural/functional relationships of Hcs.

  7. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The

  8. Efeitos da infusão de azul de metileno em equinos após a administração de lipopolissacarídeo

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, José Henrique Saraiva [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    A endotoxemia é um distúrbio grave na clínica veterinária, sendo uma das principais causas de mortalidade em equinos.Trabalhos recentes relatam a eficácia do azul de metileno na prevenção dos danos impostos pelo óxido nítrico. Este estudo foi concebido com o fito de avaliar os efeitos do azul de metileno sobre as respostas clínica, celular e bioquímica, na endotoxemia experimental em equinos. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos. LPS+AM recebeu LPS e foi tratado com 3mg/kg de azul de met...

  9. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Morro Azul Observatory: A New Center for Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Cardoso de Oliveira, Vladimir

    2002-08-01

    In 1999, the Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) started a project to build an observatory and initiate several astronomy related activities in the city of Limeira and region (São Paulo state) with the aim of teaching and popularizing astronomy. After contracting teachers, a technician and an intern, the Morro Azul Observatory was inaugurated in March 2000 as a part of the geosciences department of ISCA Faculdades. This poster describes the development phases of the Observatory, the activities initiated by the Observatory, and assesses the impact of the project. Several issues will be discussed such as the criteria for choosing the site, buildings, instruments, group visits, and particularly the goals that were reached. The Observatory, as described here, serves as a model for other centers with the same purpose in the country. The achievements of this project include the creation of two astronomical disciplines for the geography course and liaisons with other courses such as tourism, pedagogy, social communication and engineering. New activities were initiated, educational materials created, and the Observatory is now part of the regions teaching network and is in contact with other Brazilian and foreign centers. This poster presents the results from report analyses, visitor records, the local media, goal strategy assessment, and the current state of the project. It concludes with an evaluation of the social commitment of the Observatory, its initiatives for the constant renewal and growth of the project, its policy of maintaining the activities and interchange with other national and international astronomy centers, and the future perspectives in terms of its contribution for the research in science education.

  11. IMPACT OF PARASITISM BY GREGARINES (Nematopsis sp IN FARMING SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of gregarines from genus Nematopsis in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is commonly associated with a decrease in production and low weight, as well as a possible predisposition to viral infections. The goal of our past research was to evaluate the effect of the Nematopsis sp. gregarine parasitosis on the growth of farm-grown Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Four cages were built with PVC pipes and plastic screens with a 6mm light diameter, 1,7m in height, and 1,5m in width and length (2,23 m3, and were installed in a farm-growing area in La Pesca, Tamaulipas. Twenty-nine previously weighed shrimp, L. vannamei, were placed in each cage. These had a “2” (6 to 10 parasites per shrimp degree of infestation severity by Nematopsis sp. The shrimp in 2 cages were fed for 5 days with the farm feed and 6g/kg of sodium monensin. The shrimp in the remaining cages were fed with commercial feed. After 5 days, the shrimp in the 4 cages were fed with a balanced feed for 38 days. After this, the biomass of each cage was recorded. The shrimp in the control cages weighed an average of 7,12g at the beginning of research and 9,27g at the end, and the treated shrimp weighed 7,09g and 9,88g, respectively. The non-treated shrimp gained 2,5g and the treated shrimp gained 2,79g. This present research shows that the negative effect on the shrimp growth caused by Nematopsis sp. infestation can be reversed if the infected shrimp are treated against infestation with sodium monensin, which possesses a therapeutic effect that eliminated the infestation without affecting the shrimp growth.

  12. Osmoregulatory capacity of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at different temperatures and salinities, and optimal culture environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernando Bückle

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmoregulation in Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in a factorial experiment at four temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32 °C and six salinities (10, 16, 22, 28, 34 and 40 ‰. The isosmotic related points for 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C were 754, 711, 822, and 763 mmol/kg, respectively. This species hyperregulates between at salinities of 10 and 20 ‰ and hyporegulates between 20 and 40 ‰. The isosmotic point in L. vannamei exposed to constant salinities changed in relation to temperature from 717 to 823 mmol/kg. For these experimental conditions, the T-S combination of 32 °C and 28 ‰ produced the best growth. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 745-753. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.La respuesta osmorreguladora de Litopenaeus vannamei se estudió en un experimento factorial con cuatro temperaturas (20, 24, 28 y 32 ºC y seis salinidades (10, 16, 22, 28, 34 y 40 ‰. Los puntos isosmóticos relacionados para 20, 24, 28, y 32 ºC fueron 754, 711, 822, y 763 mmol/kg, respectivamente. Esta especie hiperregula dentro del intervalo de 10 y 20 ‰ e hiporegula entre 20 y 40 ‰. El punto isosmótico de L. vannamei expuesto a salinidades constantes cambia en relación a la temperatura desde 717 a 823 mmol/kg. Para estas condiciones experimentales, la combinación T-S de 32 ºC y 28 ‰ produjo el mejor crecimiento.

  13. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd 2+ induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd 2+ . • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd 2+ stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd 2+ stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd 2+ . They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses

  14. Enhancement of non-specific immune response, resistance and growth of (Litopenaeus vannamei by oral administration of nucleotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nonspecific immune responsse, resistance, and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei fed nucleotide diet. Shrimp juveniles (mean weight 5.39±0.56 g were reared in two groups of glass aquaria, each with three replications. Shrimps in group one and group two were fed nucleotide diet and basal diet each for four weeks. Total haemocyte count (THC and PO activity were evaluated at the end of feeding while growth was measured at two weeks interval. At the end of feeding trial, the shrimps were intramuscularly injected with Vibrio harveyi 0.1x106 cfu.shrimp-1. THC of shrimp fed nucleotide diet significantly increased (P-1 diet showed positive effect on the enhancement of nonspecific immune responsse, resistance, and growth of L. vannamei.  Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, nucleotide, THC, PO activity, resistance   ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi respons imun non-spesifik dan resistensi udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei yang diberi pakan nukleotida.  Juvenil (5,39±0,56 g dipelihara dalam dua kelompok akuarium kaca masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan.  Udang dalam dalam kelompok pertama diberi pakan nukleotida sedangkan udang dalam kelompok kedua diberi pakan standar selama 4 minggu. Total haemocyte count (THC dan aktivitas phenoloxidase (PO diukur pada akhir pemberian pakan sedangkan pertumbuhan udang diukur setiap dua minggu. Pada akhir periode pemberian pakan perlakuan, udang diuji tantang secara injeksi intramuskular dengan bakteri Vibrio harveyi 0,1x106 cfu.udang-1. THC udang yang diberi pakan nukleotida meningkat secara signifikan (P-1 pakan selama 4 minggu memberi pengaruh positif terhadap peningkatan respons imun non-spesifik, resistensi dan pertumbuhan udang vaname. Kata kunci: Litopenaeus vannamei, nukleotida, THC, aktivitas PO, resistensi

  15. Growth and immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei fed on β-(1, 3 glucan and poly-β hydroxybutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sarmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was aimed to examine the growth performance and non-specific immune response of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei fed on the diet supplemented with β-(1,3 glucan (BG and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB as feed additives. Shrimp juvenile at an initial body weight of 2.06±0.03 g was randomly distributed into 12 units of aquaria at a density of 20 shrimps/tank and reared for 42 days. The treatments applied in this study were control (without feed additives, 1.5 g/kg BG, 10 g/kg PHB and 1,5 g/kg BG+10 g/kg PHB. Results showed that shrimp fed on 1.5 /kg BG-supplemented feed had significantly higher growth performance and non-specific immune response. Keywords: growth, shrimp, non-specific immune response, Litopenaeus vannamei  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja pertumbuhan dan respons imun nonspesifik udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei yang diberi pakan dengan penambahan feed additive berupa β-(1,3 glukan (BG dan poli-β-hidroksibutirat (PHB. Juvenil udang 2,06±0,03 g dipelihara pada 12 unit akuarium dengan empat perlakuan dan tiga ulangan, serta padat tebar 20 ekor/tank selama 42 hari pemeliharaan. Perlakuan yang diberikan dalam penelitian ini yaitu penambahan BG (1,5 g/kg, PHB (10 g/kg, dan BG (1,5 g/kg+PHB (10 g/kg, serta kontrol (tanpa penambahan feed additive. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa udang yang diberi 1,5 g/kg BG memiliki kinerja pertumbuhan dan respons imun nonspesifik yang terbaik. Kata kunci: pertumbuhan, udang, respons imun nonspesifik, Litopenaeus vannamei

  16. Transcriptome analysis on the exoskeleton formation in early developmetal stages and reconstruction scenario in growth-moulting in Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Gao; Jiankai Wei; Jianbo Yuan; Xiaojun Zhang; Fuhua Li; Jianhai Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology...

  17. Biodegradación del Colorante Azo Azul Disperso 79 en un Reactor Discontinuo Secuencial Bajo Ambientes Anaerobios/Aerobios.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa María Melgoza-Alemán; Germán Buitrón

    2005-01-01

    Se estudió la biodegradación del colorante mono azo azul disperso 79 (AD79) en un reactor discontinuo secuencial (SBR) con biomasa suspendida, combinando ambientes anaerobios/aerobios en un solo tanque, mediante fases de no aireación y aireación respectivamente. El objetivo fue obtener agua para ser reutilizada en el proceso textil o bien para riego agrícola. El colorante AD79 es uno de los colorantes azo que más aplicación tiene en la industria textil y se ha observado que por sí mismo no es...

  18. Efectos de la luz azul y del acetileno sobre la actividad nitrato reductasa de hojas de espinaca (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Muñoz, María de los Ángeles

    1983-01-01

    La nitrato reductasa purificada de hojas de espinaca en presencia de un reductor adecuado se inactiva de forma específica por acetileno. Dicha inactivación afecta solo a su actividad terminal. El sitio de acción del acetileno en la enzima parece estar estrechamente relacionado con el sitio activo para el nitrato. La nitrato reductasa inactivada por acetileno se reactiva específicamente por la luz azul tanto en aerobiosis como en anaerobiosis. El propio FAD de la enzima actúa como fotosensi...

  19. Estudo da variação individual no grito de alerta da arara-azul-grande Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Yoshikazu Cristofoli Ueno

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A Arara-azul-grande Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus é uma ave ameaçada de extinção, portanto sua individualização em campo é de grande interesse. Suas características gregárias, ausência de dimorfismo sexual e monogamia criam uma disposição natural à existência de reconhecimento individual entre co-específicos. Para que haja reconhecimento individual é preciso que exista variação inter-individual. O grito de alerta em Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus se apresenta como valiosa fonte de estudos...

  20. Isolamento de Salmonella Braenderup em arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) Salmonella Braenderup isolation in Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangela Costa Allgayer; Sérgio José de Oliveira; Vanessa Daniele Mottin; Márcia Regina Loiko; Fernanda Abilleira; Neiva Maria Robaldo Guedes; Daniel Thompsen Passos; Tania de Azevedo Weimer

    2009-01-01

    O monitoramento sanitário de populações de arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) de vida livre visa a permitir ajustes de manejo em ambiente natural alterado. Para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em filhotes dessa espécie, foram coletados swabs de cloaca no Pantanal de Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp. foi isolada e sorotipada como Salmonella Braenderup. Devido ao alto potencial zoonótico desse microrganismo, é...

  1. Planeamiento estratégico mediante el modelo del Océano Azul, para una cadena de farmacias

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Alfaro, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas con énfasis en Gerencia, 2010 El objetivo general del trabajo es desarrollar un plan estratégico para una cadena de farmacias en Costa Rica, aplicando la metodología de la Estrategia del Océano Azul, para participar en nuevos mercados donde la competencia se convierte en un factor sin importancia. La organización investigada se d...

  2. Juan Ramón Jiménez y Rubén Darío: recorrido de un arte azul

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliana, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende llamar la atención sobre algunos puntos de la trayectoria del color azul desde la época modernista bajo la influencia dariana hasta Diario de un poeta reciencasado (1916) a través de un repaso de la presencia del color azul en la poesía modernista como representación de varios símbolos (la melancolía, el sueño, etc.) o un color heredado de la poesía francesa romántica y simbolista hasta la metamorfosis literaria en el Diario, como renovación literaria hacia la poe...

  3. Isolamento de Salmonella Braenderup em arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Salmonella Braenderup isolation in Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Costa Allgayer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento sanitário de populações de arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus de vida livre visa a permitir ajustes de manejo em ambiente natural alterado. Para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em filhotes dessa espécie, foram coletados swabs de cloaca no Pantanal de Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp. foi isolada e sorotipada como Salmonella Braenderup. Devido ao alto potencial zoonótico desse microrganismo, é importante o controle sanitário de psitacídeos em vida livre. Na literatura pesquisada não foi encontrado relato sobre o isolamento dessa bactéria em arara-azul, tanto em vida livre, como em cativeiro.The sanitary monitoring of free-living Hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus allows adjusting the management in altered natural habitat. To evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. it was collected cloacal swabs of this nestlings species, in the Pantanal wetlands, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One Salmonella-like colony was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Braenderup. Due to the high zoonotical potential of this microorganism, it is important an effective sanitary control of wildlife psittacines. In the literature searched it was not found any report on isolation of this bacterium in Hyacinth macaw for both free-living and captive animals.

  4. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M.E., E-mail: mzabala@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzano, M., E-mail: marisol.manzano@upct.es [Escuela de Ingeniería de Caminos, Canales y Puertos y de Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, P° de Alfonso XIII 52, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO{sub 3}-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO{sub 4}–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO{sub 2}, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The

  5. The involvement of bacterial quorum sensing in the spoilage of refrigerated Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suqin; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-02

    Quorum-sensing signals in refrigerated shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) undergoing spoilage were examined using bioreporter assays, thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the results revealed the presence of three types of autoinducers including acetylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) (i.e., N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone), autoinducer-2, and cyclic dipeptides (i.e., cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe)). Autoinducer-2, rather than any AHL, was detected in extracts from pure cultures of the specific spoilage organisms (SSO), i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens (SS01) and Shewanella baltica (SA02). As for the cyclic peptides, only SA02 was determined to produce cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu). According to the transcription levels of LuxR (the master quorum-sensing regulator) in the SSO in response to exogenous autoinducers, the SSO could sense AHLs and cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu), rather than autoinducer-2, cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). In accordance with the results of LuxR expression, the production of biofilm matrixes and extracellular proteases in the SSO was regulated by exogenous AHLs and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), rather than 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the autoinducer-2 precursor), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). Exogenous N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) increased the growth rates and population percentages of the SSO in shrimp samples under refrigerated storage, and interestingly, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione also increased the population percentages of the SSO in vivo by inhibiting the growth of the competing bacteria. However, according to the levels of TVB-N and the volatile organic components in the shrimp samples, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione did not accelerate the shrimp spoilage process as N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) did. In summary, our results suggest that

  6. Aquacultural importance of the integumental pore pattern in postlarval whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Cabrera-Jiménez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of integumental pore pattern has identified two intraspecific groups of postlarval shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931, a species of which three to five natural populations or groups are expected to be found from Mexico to Peru. Natural distribution and man-made redistributions have not been typified on a population basis in any penaeid, but it is important to do so in this commercially significant group. Important factors to be defined on a geographic population or group basis include differences in domesticity (eg resistance to pathological agents; food conversion indexes and food preferences; growth indices; tolerance to stress of various origins and other attributes useful in aquaculture. This consideration is valid not only for L. vannamei but also for any other shrimp species that has been the object of artificial redistribution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 707-709. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Mediante el análisis del patrón de poros tegumentarios ha sido posible caracterizar a dos grupos intraespecíficos en dos estadios postlarvales del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei. Se estima que se podrán encontrar entre tres y cinco grupos o poblaciones naturales en el área de distribución natural desde México hasta Perú. En ningún peneido se ha tipificado a los grupos o poblaciones naturales, lo cual es muy importante no solamente en relación con las poblaciones en su medio natural, sino también en relación a las redistribuciones hechas por el ser humano. Esto se debe a las implicaciones acuiculturales y a las diferencias en domesticidad, como la resistencia o sensibilidad a enfermedades virales y a otros agentes patógenos, el factor de conversión y las preferencias alimenticias, el índice de crecimiento, la tolerancia al estrés de diversos orígenes y otros atributos útiles en la acuicultura, todos los cuales no están definidos aún sobre la base de grupos o poblaciones geográficas. Esta consideración es válida no solamente

  7. Estudio de aislamientos nacionales y desarrollo de una vacuna a subunidad, direccionada a células presentadoras de antígenos, para el Virus de la Lengua Azul

    OpenAIRE

    Legisa, Danilo Mario

    2014-01-01

    La Lengua Azul es una enfermedad que afecta principalmente rumiantes salvajes y doméstico, y representa una importante barrera para el comercio internacional de animales y sus subproductos. El Virus de la Lengua Azul es el causante etiológico de la enfermedad y es transmitido por insectos hematófagos del género Culicoides. El Virus de la Lengua Azul , es el miembro prototipo del género Orbivirus dentro de la familia Reoviridae. El virión está compuesto por una doble capa proteica desnuda que ...

  8. Litopenaeus vannamei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Control groups were consisted of i) shrimp fed diet with commercial probiotic as positive control, and ii) shrimp fed ... quality, survival rate and digestive enzyme activities was investigated at .... Effect of basal diet supplemented with B. subtilis and commercial probiotics on growth performance of. L. vannamei ...

  9. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  10. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  11. Nutritional value of various ray fish liver oils to the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Velazquez, Martin; González-Félix, Mayra L; Navarro-García, Gerardo; Valenzuela-Escalante, Erasmo

    2008-11-01

    A 32-day comparative feeding trial was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of four different ray fish liver oils to the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four feeds were prepared with liver oil extracted from Dasyatis brevis, Rhinoptera steindachneri, Aetobatus narinari, and R. bonasus. A control feed was prepared with Menhaden fish oil. Ray fish liver oils were mainly composed of poly- and highly unsaturated fatty acids and contained levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 comparable in magnitude to those of Menhaden fish oil, except for A. narinari liver oil, which had moderately low concentrations of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 but showed a particularly high level of 20:4n-6, more than six times greater than that of Menhaden fish oil. Dietary fatty acids significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle tissue, e.g., the diet with Menhaden fish oil elicited significantly higher shrimp muscle DHA level than diets with oil from D. brevis, and A. narinari, but not than diets with oil from R. steindachneri and R. bonasus. In spite of these differences, all four ray fish liver oils evaluated were as efficient in promoting growth and survival of L. vannamei as Menhaden fish oil, an ingredient known for its adequate nutritional quality to shrimp and fish. This study demonstrated one of the many possible applications of a locally-available resource that is currently being wasted.

  12. Patógenos introducidos al Perú en post larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Guevara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El comercio internacional de animales acuáticos es uno de los factores más importantes en la introducción involuntaria de patógenos a una región libre de estos. Los patógenos introducidos han sido causa de enormes pérdidas económicas en organismos bajo cultivo y daños ecológicos en poblaciones silvestres. En este trabajo, utilizando la técnica de la PCR se analizaron postlarvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas desde Ecuador para ser utilizada en los cultivos de langostinos en Tumbes. La finalidad fue detectar patógenos como el virus de la mancha blanca (WSV, virus de la cabeza amarilla (YHV, virus de la necrosis hipodérmica y hematopoyética infecciosa (IHHNV, Baculovirus penaei (BP, virus del síndrome de Taura (TSV y la bacteria de la hepatopancreatitis necrotizante (NHPB. Se analizaron 177 muestras de postlarvas en el año 2009 y 274 en el 2010. En el año 2009 se encontraron cuatro patógenos infecciosos en las postlarvas analizadas, siendo más frecuente el IHHNV (9,60%. En el año 2010 la frecuencia de aparición de postlarvas infectadas con IHHNV fue mayor (16,79%. Tanto en el 2009 como en el 2010 se encontraron postlarvas positivas a NHPB, BP y TSV

  13. A metabolic study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei response to white spot syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract White spot syndrome virus (WSSV cause great harm in shrimp aquaculture. To understand the impact of viral infection on the shrimp metabolism, we monitored the culture farms of Litopenaeus vannamei and collected the samples on different stages of WSSV infection. The hepatopancreas of shrimp were separated, and then used gas chromatography mass spectrometry to detect the metabolites. Through the mass spectrometric analysis combined with multivariate data analysis, including PCA and OPLS models, metabolism of the shrimp was significantly changed by WSSV infection. The data indicated that in the early stage of WSSV infection, the glycolysis changed significantly, the contents of glucose and lactate increased distinctly. The metabolites of TCA cycle did not show up obviously regularity. The organism of fatty acids showed the same situation with glycolysis. At the early stage of infection, 14 amino acids metabolism were up-regulated, and glycine still increased at later stage of infection and the concentration was increased twice. The data of this study may provide some information to further research of viral disease mechanism.

  14. Carotenoides totais em resíduos do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se o possível aproveitamento dos resíduos, provenientes do beneficiamento do camarão, realizouse, neste trabalho, a determinação da concentração de carotenoides totais dos resíduos do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei e da farinha obtida após secagem. As análises foram realizadas nos resíduos in natura e na farinha recémprocessada (dia 0 e aos 60, 120 e 180 dias de armazenamento sob congelamento. Os resíduos frescos apresentaram, no dia 0, teores de 42,74 µg/g de carotenoides totais e, a farinha recém-processada, de 98,51 µg/g. Após 180 dias de armazenamento, sob congelamento, os teores de carotenoides totais diminuíram significativamente, quando comparados com os do dia 0 (p < 0,05.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Chen

    Full Text Available Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp.

  16. Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-03-01

    Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince.

  17. Glycosylation of hemocyanin in Litopenaeus vannamei is an antibacterial response feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehui; Wang, Fan; Chen, Chuandao; Zheng, Zhou; Aweya, Jude Juventus; Zhang, Yueling

    2017-12-01

    Hemocyanin is an important multifunctional non-specific immune molecule. In this study, we purified lectin binding and non-lectin binding hemocyanin from Litopenaeus vannamei using Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin affinity chromatography (designated HMC-C and HMC-NC, respectively). Analysis of the carbohydrate content showed that HMC-C had about 20 times as much carbohydrate as HMC-NC. 54 and 42 peaks were observed in HMC-C and HMC-NC by HPLC, which reduced to 49 and 6 peaks, respectively, when digested with trypsin and repurified with ConA lectin column. Further, the agglutinative activity of HMC-C against two pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fluvialis, was about 8-fold and 4-fold, respectively, to that of HMC-NC. While the antibacterial activity of HMC-NC was about 30% lower compared with HMC-C. Similarly, when HMC was deglycosylated using O-glycosidase, its agglutinative activity reduced about 4-8 fold. Most importantly, when shrimps were challenged with V. alginolyticus or V. fluvialis, the glycan content of hemocyanin increased dramatically and remained high at the earlier time points (24-72h) post infection, only decreasing after 96 hpi. Taken together, these results suggest that hemocyanin glycosylation plays an important role in its antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Trigueiro de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium metabisulfite is the main additive used in the prevention of melanosis in shrimp; however, it has currently been employed with great variation in concentration by producers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion time of the whole shrimp to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in accordance with the limit established by law. For this, solutions of sodium metabisulfite at different concentrations (1%, 2 %, 3 %, 4% and 5% were prepared and samples of L. vannamei shrimp (100g were immersed during 10, 20 or 30 minutes at temperature of 7°C. For all treatment assayed the concentration of SO2 was determined in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (L. vannamei. The results show that for the conditions used in this study, the correlations were linear, with significant increase (P<0.05 in the SO2 concentration in the edible muscle of shrimps both increasing sodium metabisulfite concentration as increasing immersion times, suggesting the immersion of shrimps in a 3% solution for a time of 13 minutes in order to obtain SO2 concentration of 100ppm in its edible muscle in accordance with Brazilian legislation

  19. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  20. Structural insights from a novel invertebrate triosephosphate isomerase from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Ramirez-Aguirre, Claudia D.; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Benitez-Cardoza, Claudia G.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Diaz-Quezada, Corina; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM; EC 5.3.1.1) is a key enzyme involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glycolysis is one of the most regulated metabolic pathways, however little is known about the structural mechanisms for its regulation in non-model organisms, like crustaceans. To understand the structure and function of this enzyme in invertebrates, we obtained the crystal structure of triosephosphate isomerase from the marine Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, LvTIM) in complex with its inhibitor 2-phosphogyceric acid (2-PG) at 1.7 Å resolution. LvTIM assembles as a homodimer with residues 166-176 covering the active site and residue Glu166 interacting with the inhibitor. We found that LvTIM is the least stable TIM characterized to date, with the lowest range of melting temperatures, and with the lowest activation enthalpy associated with the thermal unfolding process reported. In TIMs dimer stabilization is maintained by an interaction of loop 3 by a set of hydrophobic contacts between subunits. Within these contacts, the side chain of a hydrophobic residue of one subunit fits into a cavity created by a set of hydrophobic residues in the neighboring subunit, via a "ball and socket" interaction. LvTIM presents a Cys47 at the "ball" inter-subunit contact indicating that the character of this residue is responsible for the decrease in dimer stability. Mutational studies show that this residue plays a role in dimer stability but is not a solely determinant for dimer formation. PMID:27614148

  1. Beneficial effects of Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii WF on larval cultivation of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C Q; Xue, M; Liang, H F; Wu, Y; Li, X

    2015-01-01

    To develop high quality probiotics for shrimp larviculture, the effects of a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium WF identified as Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii on survival and development of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae were evaluated in vivo. The larvae exhibited a better survival rate after administration of strain WF compared to the probiotic Rhodopseudomonas palustris. To investigate the effect of dose and dosing frequency, strain WF was added to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to zoea 3, at three different doses and dosing frequencies. Larval treatment with strain WF twice at 10(6) cfu/ml exhibited significantly higher survival compared to the other doses and dosing frequencies as well as the control. The effect on water quality was assessed by applying strain WF to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to postlarvae 1, under conditions of zero water exchange and one-third water exchange. The larvae exhibited higher survival and faster growth when treated under conditions of zero water exchange. No significant difference was detected in the levels of three water quality parameters and in vibrio counts between these two conditions. Therefore, E. shaposhnikovii WF acts both as a bioremediation agent and nutrient source and can benefit shrimp larvae if given at an appropriate dose and dosing frequency. Strain WF, a moderate halophile, shows great promise as a water additive in improving water quality and providing nutrition for shrimp larviculture.

  2. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR Y GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES CON ENVEJECIMIENTO ACELERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Dur\\u00E1n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del envejecimie nto acelerado en semillas de varie dades criollas de maíz azul. En los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, semillas de cuatro varie dades criollas de maíz azul (Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometie ron a dos tip os de envejecimie nto acelerado: calor húmedo (41°C, 72 horas y 100% h. r. y calor seco (60°C, 48 horas. Se evaluaron: protrusión radicular de 0 a 72 horas de imbibición y, a los sie te días de incubación a 25°C, plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Se obtuvo la caracterización molecular de los tratamie ntos mediante la RA PD y se construyeron los dendogramas respectivos. En plántulas normales provenie ntes de semillas sin envejecimie nto acelerado, las varie dades Oaxaca y Puebla fueron significativamente superiores. El peso seco en las plántulas disminuyó con el deterioro, sie ndo exigua con calor seco. La presencia de plántulas anormales se incrementó con ambos tip os de deterioro en el orden: Oaxaca, Puebla, Cocotitlán y Cuijingo. La diferenciación de los perfiles de bandeo entre semillas testigo y deterioradas ocurrió con la secuencia: Oaxaca (31,6%, Cocotitlán (25,8%, Puebla (19,6% y Cuijingo (18,6%. Estos valores de similitud, a los cuales se ramificaron los perfiles genómicos, se asociaron de manera inversa con el nivel de vigor de las semillas, y directamente con la presencia de anormalidades en las plántulas obtenidas.

  4. Los marsupiales (Mammalia del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconti, G.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene. Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina, at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these levels at each one of the new localities led to their correlation in an integrated profile of Cerro Azul Fm. This formation corresponds to «Epecuén Fm.», at least in Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo, and probably also to the upper levels of Arroyo Chasicá Fm. The studied marsupials are representative of almost all major lineages (orders of South American Neogene marsupials. The marmosine didelphid Zygolestes tatei sp. nov. differs from the type species of the genus in its larger size, unreduced third lower premolar, and in the less reduction of the metaconid in the last lower molar. Another marmosine, Thylamys pinei sp. nov., differs from other Marmosini in the twinning of the para- and metaconid in the lower molars, and in the wider talonid of the m4. The Monodelphini marmosines Thylatheridium hudsoni y T. dolgopolae are abundant in several localities of this formation; their study confirms close affinities between this genus and Monodelphis. The didelphines Hyperdidelphys pattersoni and an indeterminate species of Lutreolina are also represented by a few specimens. A mandibular fragment including part of the last molar may represent the oldest record of a Sparassocynidae in central Argentina. The Borhyaenidae and Thylacosmilidae (Sparassodonta are also recorded by a few, fragmentary specimens. Pliolestes venetus sp. nov. (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae differs from the type species of the genus in its smaller size and in the larger, less displaced metaconid in the

  5. ACUICULTURA EPICONTINENTAL DEL CAMARÓN BLANCO DEL PACÍFICO, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Godínez Siordia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una revisión sobre el estatus del cultivo de camarón Litopenaeus vannamei en agua de baja salinidad, presentando características, ventajas, desventajas y medidas de mitigación sobre el impacto ambiental de este sistema de cultivo. Este trabajo aborda aspectos relevantes con la finalidad de trazar un camino hacia la sustentabilidad de esta alternativa de cultivo que se expande rápidamente en México.

  6. Nitrogen dynamics model in zero water exchange, low salinity intensive ponds of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Castillo-Soriano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model based on differential equations describing the dynamics of nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, NO3- and organic nitrogen in phytoplankton in ponds of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, with low salinity and zero turnovers, from planting to harvest. The model predicts the results of commercial production in three ponds. We show that this culture system, without replacement, retains the nitrogen and shrimp produced a lower feed conversion in comparison with systems with replacement. The model can be used to define strategies for improved performance.

  7. Production and valuation of foods for animal monogástricos, with biological silage of remains of the prawn prosecution (Litopenaeus vannamei) fermented with lactobacillus

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Héctor; Ochoa, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    This study allowed the valuation of diets using biological silage of residuals of the prosecution of (Litopenaeus vannamei) EB, fermented inoculum of commercial organisms (Lactobacillos acidofilos) or isolated from the digestive tract of the pig (Enterococcus hirae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Pediococcus pentosaceus) single use in piglets; EB preparation, cooking residues, milling, mixing (molasses and inoculum) and incubation; diet formulation according sp. and physiologi...

  8. The effect of phytase levels in the diet on the digestibility and growth performance of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammmad Agus Suprayudi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phytase levels in the diet on the digestibility and growth performance of white shrimp Litopenaeus vanname. White shrimp were used in the trial with initial body weight of 3.8±0.01 g were reared in  aquarium (60×40×50 cm3 and filled with 60L treated sea water at a density of ten individu. Experimental diet were formulated in isonitrogeneous (36% protein and isocaloric (3960 kcal/kg to contain four levels of phytase: 0 iu/kg (diet A, 500 iu/kg (diet B, 750 iu/kg (diet C, and 1000 iu/kg(diet D. All diets were supplied with 0.5% of Cr2O3 as an indicator for digestibility measurement shrimp fed three times daily at satiation levelfor how many days of rearing. A factorial completely randomized experimental design was selected consisted of four treatments and triplicates. The result showed that the phytase addition improved the digestibility of protein, calcium, and phosphor as well as improve growth performance of white shrimp. Based on evaluation of those parameters, it is concluded that phytase level of500 IU support the best growth performance ofjuvenile white shrimp. Keywords: phytase, feed digestibility, growth,Litopenaeus vannamei

  9. FONTES E NÍVEIS DE VITAMINA C PARA O CAMARÃO Litopenaeus vannamei NA FASE DE RECRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyva Ribeiro Ferraz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of different sources and levels of vitamin C was evaluated on growth, survival, protein retention and health of Litopenaeus vannamei with initial weight of 5.90 ± 0.57 g. Five hundred and forty individuals were distributed in 27 cages in a completely randomized design in a 4x2 factorial scheme (four sources and two levels (n = 3. The sources used were ascorbic acid crystal, coated ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid monophosphate and ascorbic acid PEG (polyethylene glycol with two levels: 180 and 260 mg kg-1. No influence was observed (P>0.05 from the source, level of vitamin C nor interaction of these factors on growth, survival, retention of protein and parameters of health of the shrimp. Necrosis was observed in the abdomen of all animals. The use of vitamin C in sources and levels estimated for the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei weighing over 5 g shows no improvement in growth, survival, protein retention and health of shrimp.

  10. Primeiro registro de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de arara azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus na região sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n3p219 Este estudo visou registrar o parasitismo gastrintestinal por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em arara azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus na região sul do Brasil. Amostras de fezes de dois exemplares deste psitacídeo mantidos em cativeiro no estado do Rio Grande do Sul foram analisados pelas técnicas de centrífugo flutuação com sulfato de zinco, exame direto e Kinyoun para pesquisa de parasitos. Nas araras observou-se uma infecção mista por ovos de Capillaria, cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. Este caso refere-se ao primeiro registro destes protozoários em arara azul.

  11. Comparison of some reproductive characteristics of farmed and wild white shrimp males Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rendón Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We rated some reproductive characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 males using 46 farmed individuals (weighing 21.42±0.56 g and 40 wild individuals (weighing 36.10±0.72 g. In farmed shrimps, spermatophore mean weight was 8.94±0.51 mg; total mean sperm count was 3.90±0.27 x 10(6 in each spermatophore; and mean percentage of normal sperm was 86.9±0.37 %. In wild individuals, the respective values were 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; and 62.1±3.56 %. In both groups, the differences between right and left spermatophore were not significant (pResumen Se evaluaron características reproductivas como peso del espermatóforo, número de espermatozoides y porcentaje de espermatozoides normales en 86 organismos de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. de éstos, 46 individuos provinieron de estanques de cultivo con un peso de 21.42±0.56 g y el resto, 40, silvestres con un peso de 36.10±0.72 g. En los camarones cultivados, el peso de los espermatóforos fue de 8.94±0.51 mg; el número total de espermatozoides en cada espermatóforo fue de 3.90±0.27 x 10(6; y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales fue de 86.9±0.37 %. En los silvestres, los valores respectivos fueron de 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; y 62.1±3.56 %. En ambos grupos, las diferencias entre los espermatóforos derecho e izquierdo no fueron estadísticamente diferentes (p<0.01. Las diferencias en el peso de los espermatóforos y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales, entre los camarones cultivados y silvestres, fueron significativas (p<0.01; sin embargo, en el número de espermatozoides tales diferencias no fueron significativas (p<0.01. La relación entre el peso del espermatóforo (Ws y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue Ws (mg=1.23(Wo-17.34 (r²=0.89, en camarones cultivados; y Ws (mg=2.57(Wo-60.04 (r²=0.64, en los silvestres. En organismos cultivados, la relación entre el número de espermatozoides (Cs y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue

  12. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found on survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR); 2) the whole-body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Acute Ammonia Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Dai, Ping; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which usually brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens, reducing growth, decreasing osmoregulatory capacity, increasing the molting frequency, and even causing high mortality. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-challenged and control groups from the same family of L. vannamei to identify the key genes and pathways response to ammonia stress. The comparative transcriptome analysis identified 136 significantly differentially expressed genes that have high homologies with the known proteins in aquatic species, among which 94 genes are reported potentially related to immune function, and the rest of the genes are involved in apoptosis, growth, molting, and osmoregulation. Fourteen GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were identified to be significantly changed by ammonia stress. In these GO terms, 13 genes have been studied in aquatic species, and 11 of them were reported potentially involved in immune defense and two genes were related to molting. In the significantly changed KEGG pathways, all the 7 significantly changed genes have been reported in shrimp, and four of them were potentially involved in immune defense and the other three were related to molting, defending toxicity, and osmoregulation, respectively. In addition, majority of the significantly changed genes involved in nitrogen metabolisms that play an important role in reducing ammonia toxicity failed to perform the protection function. The present results have supplied molecular level support for the previous founding of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp, which is a prerequisite for better understanding the molecular

  14. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES. The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g–1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg–1g dry weight. The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= –0.70, Mn-Cu (r= –0.74, Se-Cu (r= –0.68, Se-Mn (r= 0.82 in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99, Mn-Al (r= 0.62, Mn-Fe (r= 0.62, Se-Al (r = 0.88, Se-Fe (r= 0.87, Se-Mn (r= 0.58 in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68, Al-Cu (r= 0.88, Fe-Cu (r= 0.95 and Fe-Al (r= 0.97 in the viscera.

  15. The upregulation of immune responses in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) silenced Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanao, Ratchaneegorn; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2017-02-01

    Catecholamines (CAs) play a crucial role in maintaining physiological and immune homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful conditions. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in CA synthesis. To develop an effective CA-related immunological defense system against stress and pathogen infection, various criteria, were evaluated in TH double-stranded (ds) RNA-injected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Specifically, the relative transcript quantification of TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), and other immune-related genes; TH activity in the haemolymph; and the estimation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), glucose, and lactate levels in the haemolymph were examined. TH depletion revealed a significant increase in the total haemocyte count; granular cells; semigranular cells; respiratory bursts (RBs, release of superoxide anion); superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency; and the expression of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein and peroxinectin, SOD, crustin, and lysozyme genes. In addition, the reduction of TH gene expression and activity was accompanied by a decline of phenoloxidase (PO) activity per granulocyte, lower glucose and lactate levels, and significantly low expression of DBH and CHH genes. However, the number of hyaline cells, activity of PO, RBs per haemocyte, and expression of POI and POII genes were not significantly different in the LvTH-silenced shrimp. Notably, the survival ratio of LvTH-silenced shrimp was significantly higher than that of shrimp injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water and nontargeting dsRNA when challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. Therefore, the depletion of TH can enhance disease resistance in shrimp by upregulating specific immune parameters but downregulating the levels of carbohydrate metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efecto de Vibrio harveyi en la sobre vivencia de larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos acuícolas son de gran relevancia en la alimentación humana, pero crean un medio ambiente artificial que promueve el crecimiento de diferentes especies de bacterias. Las especies del género Vibrio son bacterias de la microflora normal de los camarones peneidos y son también agentes patógenos oportunistas que pueden tomar ventaja de éstos cambios ecológicos generados en los cultivos acuícolas causando diferentes enfermedades, sobrevivencias bajas y pérdidas económicas en la producción de camarón. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la variación en la sensibilidad, de diferentes subestadios larvarios (nauplio, zoea I-III, misis I-III y en el de postlarva 1, del camarón blanco del Pacifico Litopenaeus vannamei al ser expuestos a tres dosis [103, 105, y 107 unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC ml-1] de V. harveyi, mediante infecciones por inmersión (30 min. Esta especie generó una sobrevivencia baja significativa en las larvas (p < 0,05 solamente en las dosis más altas (105 y 107 UFC ml-1, siendo la última dosis la que presentó los valores más bajos de sobrevivencia. Además, se observó que los subestadios larvales y en el de postlarva 1 fueron más resistentes a V. harveyi al aumentar la edad de los mismos. Esta información tiene gran significado para la industria acuícola, ya que les permite generar estrategias que disminuyan los efectos de V. harveyi y que les permita mejorar el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de las larvas y de postlarva 1 del camarón.

  17. Evaluation of coexposure to inorganic arsenic and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Lucas; Müller, Larissa; Gelesky, Marcos A; Wasielesky, Wilson; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José Marìa; Ventura-Lima, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) that occur concomitantly in the aquatic environment with other contaminants such as arsenic (As) is little known in crustaceans. The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether coexposure to nTiO2 can influence the accumulation, metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters induced by arsenic exposure in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Organisms were exposed by dissolving chemicals in seawater (salinity = 30) at nominal concentrations of 10 μg/L nTiO2 or As(III), dosed alone and in combination. Results showed that there was not a significant accumulation of As in either tissue type, but the coexposure altered the pattern of the metabolism. In the hepatopancreas, no changes were observed in the biochemical response, while in the gills, an increase in the glutamate-cysteine-ligase (GCL) activity was observed upon exposure to As or nTiO2 alone, an increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was observed upon exposure to As alone, and an increase in the total antioxidant capacity was observed upon exposure to nTiO2 or nTiO2 + As. However, these modulations were not sufficient enough to prevent the lipid damage induced by nTiO2 exposure. Our results suggest that coexposure to nTiO2 and As does not alter the toxicity of this metalloid in the gills and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei but does alter its metabolism, favoring its accumulation of organic As species considered moderately toxic.

  18. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  19. Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  1. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  2. Identification of cold responsive genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxia; Wei, Pinyuan; Chen, Xiuli; Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiaohan

    2016-01-10

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world. Despite L. vannamei having tropical origins, it is being reared subtropically, with low temperature stress being one of the most severe threats to its growth, survival and distribution. To unravel the molecular basis of cold tolerance in L. vannamei, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) platform was employed to identify cold responsive genes in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Both forward and reverse cDNA libraries were constructed, followed by dot blot hybridization, cloning, sequence analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. These approaches identified 92 cold induced and 48 cold inhibited ESTs to give a total of 37 cold induced and 17 cold inhibited contigs. Some of the identified genes related to stress response or cell defense, such as tetraspanins (TSPANs), DEAD-box helicase, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothionein (MT), which were more abundant in the forward SSH library than in the reverse SSH library. The most abundant Est was a tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) homolog dubbed LvTSPAN8. A multiple sequence alignment and transmembrane domain prediction was also performed for LvTSPAN8. LvTSPAN8 expression was also examined in the gills, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas following cold exposure and showed the highest expression levels in the hepatopancreas. Overall, this study was able to identify several known genes and novel genes via SSH that appear to be associated with cold stress and will help to provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance in L. vannamei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estado, tierra y poblamiento en la campaña sur de Buenos Aires durante la época de Rosas. La frontera del arroyo Azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanteri, María Sol

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to contribute to the knowledge of the land policy developed by the provincial State of Buenos Aires in the first half of the nineteenth century, specially during the Rosas government. Throughout the analysis of the micro-regional impact of the central policy in a case study, the frontier of the Azul brook one, it is discussed the historiographical thesis that has traditionally considered the Rosas government as the forger of an agrarian structure of large entailed estate in the south frontier of Buenos Aires. On the contrary, the study of Azul shows the predominance of rural property and production unities of small and medium size, which have coexisted with others of big one.

    Este trabajo trata de contribuir al conocimiento de la política de tierras desarrollada por el Estado provincial de Buenos Aires en la primera mitad del siglo XIX, especialmente durante el gobierno de Rosas. A través del análisis del impacto micro-regional de la política central en un estudio de caso, el de la frontera de Azul, se discute la tesis historiográfica que tradicionalmente consideró al rosismo como el creador de una estructura agraria latifundista en la frontera sur bonaerense. Por el contrario, el estudio de Azul muestra el predominio de unidades de propiedad y de producción rurales de pequeñas-medianas dimensiones que coexistieron con otras de gran tamaño.

  4. Cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno para diagnóstico de esôfago de Barrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saporiti Marcela Rocha Loures

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O esôfago de Barrett é uma condição na qual a mucosa escamosa esofágica é substituída por metaplasia intestinal especializada, que predispõe o paciente ao desenvolvimento de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Este é precedido por displasia e carcinoma precoce; o rastreamento dessas lesões faz-se através de endoscopias digestivas periódicas com biopsias randomizadas. A incidência aumentada desse, tem despertado interesse no desenvolvimento de novas técnicas endoscópicas, como a cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno, para melhorar a identificação do esôfago de Barrett e suas complicações. OBJETIVO: Determinar se as biopsias dirigidas pela cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno oferecem vantagem em relação ao método convencional na detecção do esôfago de Barrett. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudaram-se 45 pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de esôfago de Barrett, todos submetidos a dois exames de endoscopia digestiva alta com biopsias, em intervalo de 4 semanas, um convencional e outro com aplicação do corante, no período entre abril e outubro de 2002. RESULTADOS: Os resultados histológicos das biopsias de todos os exames foram comparados. Observou-se sensibilidade de 62,5%, especificidade de 15,4%, valor preditivo positivo de 57,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 18,2%. Não houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de biopsias. O tempo de duração da técnica de cromoendoscopia foi significativamente maior quando comparado ao da técnica convencional. CONCLUSÃO: Não se observou vantagem na utilização da cromoendoscopia em relação à técnica randomizada no diagnóstico do esôfago de Barrett.

  5. Suicidio en azul con negra mancha. Breve historia de un balazo en la pintura de Pablo Picasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy C., Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paris 1901: unrequited love drove Carles Casagemas, a close friend of Pablo Picasso’s youth, to commit suicide by shooting himself in the head. This tragic event was a major blow to Picasso, causing him to dwell upon the subject of death and express his “mourning” through his paintings. The “bullet hole” in his friend’s temple symbolically displaced several areas of the young Picasso’s life and became a “deep vacuum” and “melancholy”, permeating various areas in Picasso’s paintings, and marking the start of his famous blue period.París 1901: por el amor de una mujer, se suicida de un balazo en la cabeza Carles Casagemas, amigo íntimo de juventud de Pablo Picasso. Este trágico suceso producirá un gran dolor en el artista, el cual, lo hará internarse en el tema de la muerte y elaborar su “duelo” apoyado en su pintura. El “hoyo a bala” en la sien de su amigo se desplazará simbólicamente a varios espacios de la vida del joven Picasso y devendrá en “vacío profundo” y “melancolía”, permeando diferentes ámbitos dentro de la pintura de Picasso, dando comienzo a su mentado período azul.

  6. El secreto del huevo azul, de Catalina González Vilar. Estudio narratológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el estudio narratológico de la obra El secreto del huevo azul , de la escritora Catalina González Vilar, que obtuvo el Premio El Barco de Vapor en el año 2012. Examina los diferentes elementos constitutivos del texto (el enfoque del tema, la caracterización de los personajes, la estructura sintáctica, el tratamiento del lenguaje, la técnica narrativa utilizada... y su aporte al desarrollo de la historia con la finalidad de descubrir los valores estéticos y literarios que aporta a la fábula. Pretende demostrar el adecuado uso de todos ellos dado que favorecen un texto rico en matices, llamativo, sugerente. Cualidades, todas ellas, de gran importancia tanto en creaciones destinadas al público adulto como al infantil y juvenil pues enriquece el valor final de la obra, y por extensión, el bagaje cultural de sus lectores.

  7. A new species of semiarboreal toad of the Rhinella festae group (Anura, Bufonidae from the Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Cusi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new semiarboreal species of the Rhinella festae group is described from montane forests of the Cordillera Azul National Park between 1245 and 1280 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Oriental, San Martín region, northern Peru. The new species is morphologically and genetically compared with members of the Rhinella acrolopha group (former genus Rhamphophryne and members of the R. festae group. The new species is characterized by its large size (female SVL 47.1–58.3 mm, n = 4, eight presacral vertebrae, fusion of the sacrum and coccyx, long protuberant snout, snout directed slightly anteroventral in lateral view, cranial crests moderately developed, absence of occipital crest, presence of tympanic membrane, dorsolateral rows of small conical tubercles extending from parotoid gland to groin, hands and feet with long digits, fingers basally webbed and toes moderately webbed. Phylogenetically it is a member of the R. festae group which is most closely related to R. chavin and R. yanachaga from Peru. Morphologically the new species shares similarities with R. tenrec and R. truebae, members of the R. acrolopha group from Colombia.

  8. INFLUENCIA DE LA FAMILIA EN EL PROCESO EDUCATIVO DE LOS MENORES DEL BARRIO COSTA AZUL DE SINCELEJO (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elena Espitia Carrascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La familia es la primera institución educativa, su dinámica media el aprendizaje y desarrollo de sus miembros. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de la familia en la educación de los menores del barrio Costa Azul de Sincelejo (Colombia. Se tuvieron en cuenta las características socioeconómicas, culturales y educativas del entorno familiar y la identificación de prácticas, visiones, significados y expectativas con respecto a la educación de sus hijos. El abordaje fue cualitativo, de corte etnográfico, e incluyó técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Los resultados revelaron que los padres atribuyen importancia a la educación desde sus visiones, expectativas y significados, pero carecen de condiciones necesarias para impulsar el proceso; sus prácticas educativas, recursos, hábitos, tiempo, responsabilidades son limitados, lo cual es un obstáculo para el éxito en el aprendizaje de los hijos.

  9. The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea, an invader in Argentina La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea, un invasor en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Héctor Luis-Negrete

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea is reported from Argentina (Buenos Aires province. We found C. coerulea in the east central region of Argentina in anthropic environments. The specimens that we found have the characteristic of the species found in others regions; that is, a bluish dorsal surface with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe and eyes forming a single row around the anterior tip, clustered laterally. This is the first record of this species from the Neotropical Region, and together with Bipalium kewense are the only 2 species of exotic terrestrial planarians so far recorded in Argentina.La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea se registra para el centro este de Argentina (provincia de Buenos Aires, en ambientes antropizados. Los ejemplares encontrados presentan las características de la especie registrada en otras regiones, con una superficie dorsal azulada y una hilera medio dorsal amarilla, y ojos formando una hilera alrededor del extremo anterior, agrupados lateralmente. Es la primera vez que se cita dicha especie en la Región Neotropical, y junto a Bipalium kewense son las únicas planarias terrestres exóticas registradas en Argentina.

  10. Argyria mimicking a blue nevis: dermoscopy features Argyria imitando um nevo azul: características dermatoscópicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor Enei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argyria is a rare disease caused by prolonged skin contact with silver. Localized cases have been described regarding the use of topical medications, and trauma with objects containing this metal such as acupuncture needles and jewelry. Clinically, a macule or a patch, round or oval, appears in the infected area, with a characteristic bluey-gray color. To our knowledge this is the first time that this clinical condition has been described through the use of dermoscopy.A argíria é uma doença rara, causada pelo contato prolongado da pele com prata. Foram descritos casos localizados relacionados ao uso de medicamentos tópicos e traumas com objetos que contem esse metal, como agulhas de acupuntura e jóias, por exemplo. Clinicamente, aparecem máculas ou manchas redondas ou ovais na área afetada, com uma característica cor azul-acinzentada. Até onde sabemos esta é a primeira vez que este quadro clínico foi descrito através da dermatoscopia.

  11. The benthonic macro invertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Colombia) and their relationship with water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Bolano, Francisco; Manjares Hernandez, Ana; Nunez Padilla, Norbelis

    2003-01-01

    On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macro invertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Magdalena, Colombia). The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were trichoptera, coleoptera, diptera and ephemeroptera. The most representative families were baetidae, simullidae, perlidae, chironomidae, and hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia) was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone

  12. Application of a Box-Behnken design for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Girón, Emmanuel; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul) is an industrially important crop in México since it is the only raw material appropriate to produce tequila, an alcoholic beverage. Nowadays, however, these plants have also a nutritional interest as a source of functional food ingredients, owing to the prebiotic potential of agave fructans. In this study, a Box-Behnken design was employed to determine the influence of temperature, liquid:solid ratio and time in a maceration process for agave fructan extraction and optimization. The developed regression model indicates that the selected study variables were statistical determinants for the extraction yield, and the optimal conditions for maximum extraction were a temperature of 60 °C, a liquid:solid ratio of 10:1 (v/w) and a time of 26.7 min, corresponding to a predicted extraction yield of 37.84%. Through selective separation via precipitation with ethanol, fructans with a degree of polymerization of 29.1 were obtained. Box-Behnken designs are useful statistical methods for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans. A mixture of carbohydrates was obtained from agave powder. This optimized method can be used to obtain fructans for use as prebiotics or as raw material for obtaining functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. A new species of semiarboreal toad of the Rhinella festae group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Juan C.; Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new semiarboreal species of the Rhinella festae group is described from montane forests of the Cordillera Azul National Park between 1245 and 1280 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Oriental, San Martín region, northern Peru. The new species is morphologically and genetically compared with members of the Rhinella acrolopha group (former genus Rhamphophryne) and members of the R. festae group. The new species is characterized by its large size (female SVL 47.1–58.3 mm, n = 4), eight presacral vertebrae, fusion of the sacrum and coccyx, long protuberant snout, snout directed slightly anteroventral in lateral view, cranial crests moderately developed, absence of occipital crest, presence of tympanic membrane, dorsolateral rows of small conical tubercles extending from parotoid gland to groin, hands and feet with long digits, fingers basally webbed and toes moderately webbed. Phylogenetically it is a member of the R. festae group which is most closely related to R. chavin and R. yanachaga from Peru. Morphologically the new species shares similarities with R. tenrec and R. truebae, members of the R. acrolopha group from Colombia. PMID:28769671

  14. Pelacakan Virus Bercak Putih pada Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei di Lombok dengan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (DETECTION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOMBOK ISLAND USING REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Arafani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the most threatening diseases in shrimp and othercrustaceans affecting global shrimp farming. Since firstly detected in Taiwan in 1992, the disease hasspread globally and followed with considerable socio-economic consequences. This research was performedto detect the WSSV infection in shrimp farming in Lombok Island’s (West Nusa Tenggara using real-timepolymerase chain reaction. Samples of vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei were collected from several shrimpfarming in Lombok. Results indicated that the spread of WSSV has reached shrimp farms in Lombok,especially in Lendang Jae, West Lombok. Therefore, a biosurveillance program is strongly recommendedto government to avoid and halt the spread of the disease in East Indonesia region .

  15. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  16. PENGARUH STARVASI RANSUM PAKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, SINTASAN, DAN PRODUKSI UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei DALAM WADAH TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwardi Tahe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik terhadap pertumbuhan, sintasan, produksi, rasio konversi pakan, dan efisiensi pakan pada pemeliharaan udang vanamei dalam wadah terkontrol. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan 12 akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 75 cm x 60 cm dan dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi. Hewan uji adalah pascalarva udang vanamei dengan bobot awal rata-rata 0,18 ± 0,02 g yang ditebar dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/akuarium. Rancangan penelitian adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yang masing-masing perlakuan terdiri atas tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diujikan adalah starvasi (pemuasaan melalui pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik yaitu A pengurangan ransum pakan 75%, B pengurangan ransum pakan 50%, C pengurangan ransum pakan 25%, dan D kontrol (tanpa pengurangan ransum pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik tidak berpengaruh nyata (P > 0,05 terhadap pertambahan bobot biomassa, laju pertumbuhan harian, sintasan, produksi, dan rasio konversi pakan serta mampu meningkatkan efisiensi pakan sekitar 16,04%—21,97%. Penghematan penggunaan pakan untuk udang vanamei dapat dilakukan dengan pengurangan ransum pakan hingga 75% bobot biomassa/minggu. The aim of this study was to know the effect of starvation period by a gradual decrease in feed amounts on the growth, survival rate, productivity, food conversion ration (FCR, and food efficiency rate of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in controlled containers. Twelve of 50 cm x 75 cm x 60 cm aquaria with aeration systems were used in this experiment. In each aquarium, we stocked 50 post larvae (PL with average weight of 0.18 ± 0.02 g. Four treatments, comprising, A a 75% decrease in feed, B a 50% decrease in feed, C a 25% decrease in feed, and D control (without feed reduction with three replications were employed in the experiment following complete randomized design (DSG. The results

  17. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KALIUM PADA MASA ADAPTASI PENURUNAN SALINITAS TERHADAP PERFORMA PASCALARVA UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kalium selama masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas terhadap performa pascalarva udang vanamei. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mendapatkan kadar kalium optimal yang dapat menurunkan tingkat stres dan meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah PL20 udang vanamei. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah penambahan kalium ke air tawar pengencer masing-masing sebanyak 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, dan 75 mg/L (D. Penurunan salinitas dilakukan secara gradual selama 4 hari dari salinitas 25 ppt hingga mencapai 2 ppt. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kalium sebanyak 25 mg/L hingga kadar kalium media menjadi 51 mg/L dapat mengurangi pembelanjaan energi untuk osmoregulasi, tingkat stres, dan laju metabolisme standar sehingga meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas selama 96 jam (4 hari. The objective of this research was to study the effect of potassium addition during salinity acclimatization from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. This experiment was done to determine optimal dosage of potassium which can reduce stress level and increase survival rate of L. vannamei postlarvae after salinity acclimatization. Specimen test used was PL20 of white shrimp (0.001 g. Experimental design used completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications of different potassium addition levels to freshwater: 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, and 75 mg/L (D. Dilution of salinity was done gradually using freshwater during 4 days from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt. The result of this experiment indicated that the addition of 25 mg/L potassium (potassium level in media was 51 mg/L reduced the energy cost for osmoregulation, level of stress and

  18. PRODUCTOS NATURALES COMO ESTIMULADORES DEL SISTEMA INMUNOLÓGICO DE Litopenaeus vannamei, INFECTADO CON Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica de Litopenaeus vannamei con manano-oligosacáridos (T1, ajo (T2 y un compuesto de extractos de plantas (T3 después de ser infectados con Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Se realizaron dos bioensayos con una duración de seis (1x106 UFC y catorce (3x106 UFC días en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica durante el 2011. Para esta investigación se extrajeron 120 camarones para cada periodo experimental de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya. Al finalizar la dosificación de los productos se evaluó la ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia. Luego de la infección con V. parahaemolyticus se realizaron hemogramas, coagulación, bacteriología de hemolinfa y mortalidad acumulada. Los parámetros inmunológicos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas (P>0,05 entre tratamientos en ningún periodo, sin embargo a los seis días T1 mostró los mejores resultados con 41,07x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,40 s y 4,44x103 UFC/ ml. En el periodo de catorce días T2 obtuvo los mejores valores (55,76x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,20 s y15,4x103 UFC/ml. La mortalidad acumulada se presentó a las diez horas de inoculación, hubo menor cantidad de muertes en T1 y T3 (76,2% a los seis días, mientras que a los catorce días fue para T1 (93,2%. La ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia resultaron con diferencias estadísticas (P<0,05 solo para el bioensayo que se extendió por seis días, donde T2 presentó una biomasa de 54,3 g, un incremento en la ganancia de peso de 19,3% y una conversión alimenticia de 1,4.

  19. Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as affected by prior autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senphan, Theeraphol; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-09-15

    Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to autolysis at 60°C for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 120 and 150 min) were investigated. Extraction yield increased from 7.4% to 8.8% as autolysis time increased from 0 to 150 min. Coincidental increase in total carotenoid content was obtained with increasing autolysis time (pautolysis time increased (pautolysis (p>0.05), but subsequently increased up to 150 min. (pautolysis were observed. Lipids extracted contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)). Therefore, prior autolysis at 60°C for 60 min increased the extraction yield without negative effect on lipid quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  1. Dietary Immunogen®modulated digestive enzyme activity and immune gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Mirghaed, Ali Taheri; Hosseini, Marjan; Mazloumi, Nastaran; Zargar, Ashkan; Nazari, Sajad

    2017-11-01

    Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) is an important economical shrimp species worldwide, especially in the Middle East region, and farming activities of this species have been largely affected by diseases, mostly viral and bacterial diseases. Scientists have started to use prebiotics for bolstering the immune status of the animal. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Immunogen ® on growth, digestive enzyme activity and immune related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae. All post-larvae were acclimated to the laboratory condition for 14 days. Upon acclimation, shrimps were fed on different levels of Immunogen ® (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g kg -1 ) for 60 days. No significant differences were detected in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) in shrimp post-larvae in which fed with different levels of Immunogen ® and control diet. The results showed that digestive enzymes activity including protease and lipase increased with different amounts of Immunogen ® in the shrimp diet. Protease activity increased with 1.5 g kg -1 Immunogen ® after 60 days and lipase activity increased with 1 and 1.5 g kg -1 Immunogen ® after 30 and 60 days of the trial respectively (P  0.05). The expression of immune related genes including, prophenoloxidase, crustin and g-type lysozyme increased with diet 1.5 g kg -1 Immunogen ® (P digestive enzymes activity and expression of immune related genes could modulate the Immunogen ® in the innate immune system in L. vannamei in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A ten-month diseases survey on wild Litopenaeus setiferus (Decapoda: Penaeidae from Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Enrique del Río-Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of shrimp aquaculture in Mexican coasts of the Gulf of Mexico began to be explored using the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the mid 90´s. Many concerns over the risk of disease transmission to the economically important native penaeids, have been the main deterrent for the aquaculture of L. vannamei in the region. Concurrently, more than 10 years of research experience on the aquaculture suitability of the native Litopenaeus setiferus from the Terminos Lagoon, in the Yucatán Peninsula, have been accumulated. The aim of this study was then to determine the seasonal variations of the naturally acquired diseases and the possible detection of exotic pathogens. For this, random subsamples (n~60 of juveniles L. setiferus were collected from monthly captures. In order to detect the widest range of pathogens, including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHNv and white spot syndrome (WSSv viruses, both histopathological and molecular methods were employed. Monthly prevalence (% was calculated for every finding. We were able to detect a total of 16 distinct histological anomalies, most of which the presump- tive aetiological agent was readily identified. PCR results for viruses were negative. For some pathogens and symbionts, the prevalence was significantly different between the adult and juvenile populations. Prevalence of diseases tended to be higher in juvenile shrimp than in adults. The results of this study indicated that L. setiferus carry a wide variety of pathogens and symbionts that seem to be endemic to penaeids of the Gulf of Mexico, and those juveniles were more conspicuous to acquire pathogens and symbionts than adults.

  3. Composicion y variabilidad espacialdel banco de semillas de malezas en un area agricolade azul (Argentina Composition and spatial variation of a weed seed bank on an agricultural area in Azul, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Requesens

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No Distrito Azul, zona central da província de Buenos Aires (Argentina, encontram-se ambientes de planície na parte norte e ambientes serranos na parte sul. Esta última, constituí-se numa área predominantemente agrícola, onde a cultura de trigo, principal atividade agrícola, se alterna com culturas de verão como milho, girassol e soja. Com o objetivo de caracterizar globalmente o banco de sementes da área agrícola, foram analisados o conteúdo de sementes, a composição de espécies, a distribuição e variabilidade espacial das espécies que o compõem. A informação básica foi obtida aplicando-se a técnica da emergência em amostras de solo correspondentes a 20 locais alinhados numa faixa de 14 km. A densidade de sementes nos locais de amostragem variou entre 1.173 e 44.000 sem/m2. Na totalidade, foram detectadas 33 espécies. Digitaria sanguinalis foi claramente a espécie dominante, aportando com quase 43 % do banco, seguida de Polygonum aviculare com um aporte de 15 %. As duas espécies, juntamente com Anagallis arvensis e Setaria viridis completam70 % do banco de sementes. A composição específica completa-se com um grupo de 29 espécies, os quais contribuem, cada um delas, com menos de 5%. A distribuição espacial das espécies ao longo da faixa estudada mostrou um grau de agregação variável, sendo encontrada uma correlação positiva significativa entre o tamanho do banco e a relação variância/média. Demonstrou-se, assim, que as espécies mais abundantes em média, apresentaram grande variabilidade espacial. Nelas, foram observados diferentes padrões de distribuição espacial.Azul, in the center of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina, includes flat environments in the north and hill environments in the south. Last constitutes a predominantly agricultural area where the wheat crop, principal activity, alternates with summer crops as corn, sunflower and soybean. The objetive of the present paper is to

  4. MICROPROGAPACIÓN DE AGAVE (Agave tequilana Weber. var. Azul A TRAVÉS DE YEMAS AXILARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Angeles-Espino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, se le conoce comúnmente como “Agave Azul o Agave Tequilero”. La planta de agave es un producto económicamente importante de México debido a que es el ingrediente base del Tequila, el cual es una bebida popular destilada. La micropropagación es una técnica importante para la multiplicación masiva en agave y la respuesta a los reguladores de crecimiento debe considerarse en el desarrollo de cada protocolo. El objetivo del trabajo fue obtener plántulas de agave a partir del cultivo de meristemos in vitro. Se colectaron hijuelos de seis meses en plantaciones de 3 años de edad. Los meristemos se lavaron y desinfestaron con alcohol al 70% y una solución de hipoclorito al 3% por 15 minutos y se dio triple enjuague en condiciones de asepsia en la cámara de flujo laminar. Los explantes se sembraron en el medio Murashige y Skoog (MS, suplementado con 24.6 µM de AIB y 46.46 μM de Cinetina, 30 g/L de sacarosa y 8 g/L de agar para su solidificación. El medio se vertió en frascos de 100 mL de capacidad a razón de 25 mL y se esterilizó en autoclave por 15 min a 121°C. Se sembró un explante por frasco y se colocaron en la cámara de crecimiento a 27°C con 16 horas luz. La inducción de los brotes se presentó a partir de la cuarta semana posterior a la siembra. Los brotes obtenidos se multiplicaron transfiriéndose a medio MS suplementado con 0.1 mg L-1 de AIB y 46.46 μM de Cinetina. El desarrollo de las plántulas se obtuvo a la cuarta semana después del inicio de la inducción de los brotes. La micropropagación de plántulas de agave a partir de yemas axilares, se completó en un lapso de 10 semanas a partir de la siembra de los meristemos. Al considerar el tiempo requerido para la obtención de vitroplántulas de agave, se confirmó que la técnica de micropropagación es un proceso eficiente para la obtenci

  5. Uso de Materiais Alternativos em Processos de Adsorção de Corante Azul de Metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. do Rego

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo empregar materiais alternativos, puros e/ou modificados com 5 ou 10% (m/m de  pentóxido de nióbio (Nb2O5, em processos de remoção de azul de metileno (AM. Entre os materiais alternativos foram utilizadas argila sanitária, argila de resíduo industrial, rochas sedimentares e cinzas de casca de arroz obtida pela queima a 350oC. Estes sólidos foram caracterizados pelas técnicas de difração de raios- X (DRX e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR. Os testes de remoção de AM foram realizados em frascos de 125 mL, sob agitação constante, contendo 100 mL de solução de AM (100mg/L a 2000mg/L e adsorvente (0,1 a 0,6g, sob uma mesa agitadora a 200 rpm, em temperatura ambiente. A quantificação da remoção de AM foi realizada com auxílio de um espectrofotômetro UV-Vis da Varian (Cary 50, coletando 2 mL de amostra nos períodos de 2 à 1440 min. Dados de DRX evidenciaram uma mistura de argilominerais nos sólidos baseados em argilas. Nos ensaios de adsorção os materiais demonstraram eficiência para a remoção do corante, com destaque aqueles modificados com 10% de Nb2O5 exibindo 95% de remoção, no tempo de 120min, em solução de pH de ~6,5.

  6. PROPAGACIÓN ASEXUAL DE AZUL DE MATA (Justicia tinctoria (OERST. D. N. GIBSON, FAM. ACANTHACEAE POR MEDIO DE ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dosis de ácido indolbutírico (0, 500, 1000 o 1500 ppm, la posición de donde se toma la estaca (basal, medial o terminal, el tamaño de la estaca (6, 10 o 14 cm, la ausencia o presencia de hojas, y el tipo de sustrato (arena de río, fibra de coco o carbón de granza de arroz, sobre el enraizamiento de estacas de azul de mata bajo ambiente protegido. Las variables evaluadas fueron el porcentaje de brotación y de enraizamiento, número de brotes, cantidad y longitud de raíces. Las estacas terminales presentaron los mayores valores para todas las variables, excepto porcentaje de enraizamiento: mayor número de brotes (17,5, longitud (0,17 y cantidad de raíces (0,65 que las estacas mediales y basales, lo que estaría asociado a una mayor velocidad de enraizamiento. Las dosis de AIB 1000 y 1500 ppm indujeron una mayor cantidad de raíces por estaca (8,40 y 9,24 respectivamente que las dosis menores. Hubo mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento con 1000 ppm de AIB (69% que sin ese compuesto (41%. Al utilizar estacas sin hojas aumentó la magnitud de cada una de esas variables. Con arena se obtuvo una mayor brotación aérea (96%, enraizamiento (92% y longitud de raíz (5,1 cm que con los otros sustratos. Las estacas de 14 cm presentaron consistentemente, mayor número de brotes (3,71, raíces más largas (3,56 cm y en mayor número (10,71 que las de 10 y 6 cm.

  7. Uso do corante azul de metileno a 2% na localização do linfonodo axilar em cadelas (Canis familiaris – Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábata Maués

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A biopsia de linfonodo sentinela (LS é cada vez mais utilizada para a determinação do estadiamento clínico tumoral. O acometimento de linfonodos em animais com doença oncológica possui forte valor prognóstico no tumor da glândula mamária. Em medicina veterinária faltam diretrizes bem estabelecidas para a avaliação do LS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do corante azul de metileno a 2% na identificação do linfonodo axilar em cadelas com lesões mamárias. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 101 cadelas, portadoras de lesões mamárias, submetidas à mastectomia radical unilateral ou bilateral. Antes do início da cirurgia, aplicou-se, por via intradérmica, na área ao redor da mama torácica cranial, solução de azul de metileno a 2% estéril. O corante foi eficaz na identificação do linfonodo axilar em 76,27% das cadeias mamárias. Obtiveram-se estruturas coradas em azul, semelhantes a linfonodos em 78,81% dos casos. Dessas estruturas, 96,77% foram confirmadas ao exame histopatológico como linfonodos. Dada a importância prognóstica do comprometimento de linfonodos em alguns tumores, a avaliação do LS deve ser incorporada à rotina clínica, de modo a permitir um estadiamento mais preciso das cadelas com neoplasia mamária.

  8. Historical review of the sanitary filling of Rio Azul and considerations about heavy metals treated in it and the presents in our homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Chinchilla, Rolando; Mora Amador, Raul

    2003-01-01

    A summary has been done on the most outstanding events during the history of Rio Azul sanitary landfill by consultating documents and local newspapers. The historical outline starts in 1972, when the Inter municipal Cooperative Agreement (COCIM) was created, until May 27, 2002, when a warning was issued on the possible harmful effects on health due to technological waste disposal. Likewise, the method for estimating the mass of metals deposited in the landfill is disclosed. In this landfill the mass of metals varies between 70000 and 100000 tm. Finally, some considerations on household chemical products are made and recommendations are presented to improve metal waste management. (Author) [es

  9. Primeiro registro de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de arara azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) na região sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Hillard Farret; Vinicius da Rosa Fanfa; Luisa Ragagnin; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n3p219 Este estudo visou registrar o parasitismo gastrintestinal por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em arara azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) na região sul do Brasil. Amostras de fezes de dois exemplares deste psitacídeo mantidos em cativeiro no estado do Rio Grande do Sul foram analisados pelas técnicas de centrífugo flutuação com sulfato de zinco, exame direto e Kinyoun para pesquisa de parasitos. Nas araras observou-se uma infecção mista p...

  10. A ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA EMPRESA DE SERVIÇOS NA CIDADE DE CAMPINA GRANDE – PB

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Leandro Correia; Parque Tecnológico da Paraíba (PaqTec/PB); Barbosa, Robson Fernandes; Universidade Federal de campina Grande - UFCG; Sousa, Jackson Epaminondas de; Universidade Federal de Campina Grande - UFCG; Barbosa, Diego Fernandes; INFRAERO; Alexandre, Stefane Nogueira; UFCG

    2015-01-01

    As empresas se utilizam de estratégias e atitudes para chegar a um determinado objetivo, observando os pontos fortes e fracos do ambiente interno e externo da organização. Assim, têm-se a teoria do trade-off (valorXcusto) no qual as empresas sempre optam por um de dois caminhos: agregar valor ao produto para cobrar mais, ou o cobrar menor preço com um produto menos diferenciado. Hoje, emerge no mundo científico um novo paradigma, a estratégia do oceano azul, a qual afirma que é possível as em...

  11. Frequência de anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em ovinos do estado do Ceará, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,R.R.; Souza,T.S.; Feitosa,A.L.V.L.; Aragão,M.A.C.; Lima,C.C.V.; Costa,J.N.; Andrioli,A.; Teixeira,M.F.S.; Brito,R.L.L.

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de ovinos soropositivos para o vírus da língua azul (VLA) no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, e analisar as proteínas imunogênicas das cepas virais circulantes nesses rebanhos. O teste de imunodifusão em gel de agarose (IDGA) foi utilizado para pesquisar 271 amostras de soro oriundas de 16 rebanhos. Os resultados demonstraram que 27,3% (74/271) das amostras analisadas apresentaram anticorpos contra o agente e 68,8% (11/16) das propriedades tiveram an...

  12. Detección de capas de desechos con métodos geoeléctricos: caso Relleno Sanitario Río Azul, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Suárez; Héctor Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    El Relleno Sanitario Río Azul, recibió por 34 años desechos de diversas zonas de la Gran Área Metropolitana, y por tres décadas fue operado con una disposición de residuos poco planificada. El objetivo del estudio es identificar las zonas con mayores potenciales de almacenamiento de lixiviados a través de 25 SEV’s (Sondeos Eléctricos Verticales), cuya profundidad de prospección efectiva fue alrededor de 65 m. El modelo geofísico planteado consta de cuatro capas: la primera corresponde a una c...

  13. Determinación del agente causal de la pudrición del cogollo del Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul en el estado de Jalisco.

    OpenAIRE

    Cen Caamal, Julio César

    2012-01-01

    En los últimos años la superficie cultivada de Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul en el estado de Jalisco ha disminuido, debido a la presencia de una enfermedad cuyos síntomas se manifiestan como pudrición blanda del cogollo y muerte de la planta. El objetivo principal fue determinar el agente causal de esta enfermedad. Para ello se realizaron aislamientos, pruebas bioquímicas y moleculares mediante la amplificación del fragmento 16S DNAr y pruebas de patogenicidad con resultados positivos. El p...

  14. Turismo e capital social : a experiência de desenvolvimento local sustentável no Distrito de Morro Azul, Litoral Norte do R. S.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Caroline Teixeira da Silva Colodzeiski

    2007-01-01

    O tema dessa investigação trata do capital social como prática de incentivo ao desenvolvimento do turismo. Dentro desta perspectiva são consideradas para o estudo variáveis associadas à oferta e demanda turística e aos impactos na comunidade-anfitriã. O objetivo principal é contribuir com reflexões que aproximem o fenômeno do turismo das práticas de capital social. Foi selecionado como objeto de estudo o Litoral Norte do Rio Grande do Sul, tendo como recorte o Distrito de Morro Azul, municípi...

  15. Análisis socioeconómico e interrelación de las pesquerías de sardina y atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de México

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek; Juan Guillermo Vaca-Rodríguez; María del Carmen Alcalá Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    El establecimiento de las engordas de atún aleta azul en las costas de Baja California cambió el destino de las capturas de sardina, ya que antes se destinaban al mercado de congelados y a la elaboración de harina de pescado, y en la actualidad se utilizan como alimento para el atún aleta azul. Esto generó un efecto socioeconómico positivo para los armadores y pescadores de pelágicos menores, ya que la llegada de grandes capitales foráneos para el desarrollo de las engordas de atún mejoró los...

  16. Isolation and characterization of infectious Vibrio sinaloensis strainsfrom the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Flores-Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9±1.1g, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1 saline solution (control group; (2 2×10(5CFU/shrimp; (3 4×10(5CFU/shrimp; (4 2×10(6CFU/shrimp; (5 4×10(6CFU/shrimp, and (6 8×10(6CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178×10(5CFU/g body weight. V. sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 567-576. Epub 2012 June 01.Las enfermedades de etiología infecciosa, especialmente las causadas por patógenos bacterianos y virales ocasionan graves pérdidas en el cultivo de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei. En este estudio se caracterizo: la actividad enzimática y hemolítica; hidrofobicidad; crecimiento e identificación molecular de vibrios aislados del intestino y hepatopancreas de camarones estresados, obtenidos de una granja comercial, en medio Agar Tiosulfato Citrato Bilis Sacarosa. Además, se realizaron tres infecciones experimentales para confirmar la patogenicidad de las cepas bacterianas

  17. QUALITY OF THE WATER IN SHRIMP FARM Litopenaeus vannamei WITH SYSTEM OF PARTIAL RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA EM FAZENDA DE CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei COM SISTEMA DE RECIRCULAÇÃO PARCIAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Otávio Brito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aim to characterize the quality of the water affluent and effluent of a shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farm , which operates with system of partial recirculation system. The samples were accomplished during the low water and high tide periods of the day. The analyzed variables were: dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate. They samples were seven points, distributed strategically in way to characterize the water from the entrance going by the inside of the to your exit farm. ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0,05 were used in statistical analysis. Was observed the pH and dissolved oxygen stayed presenting averages of 7.72 and 6.58mg.L-1, respectively. The final averages went from 1.40 mg.L-1 to ammonia, 0.76 mg.L-1 for nitrate, 0.08 mg.L-1 for nitrite and 1.63 mg.L-1 for the phosphate.

    KEY WORDS: Quality of the water, recirculation, shrimp, vannamei.
    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a qualidade da água afluente e efluente de uma fazenda de camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei, que opera com sistema de recirculação parcial de água. As coletas foram realizadas durante os períodos de baixamar e preamar, diurnas, nos dias de lua. Analisaram-se as seguintes variáveis: oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade, amônia, nitrato, nitrito e fosfato. Escolheram-se sete pontos de coleta, distribuídos estrategicamente, de modo a caracterizar a água desde a entrada, passando pelo interior da fazenda até sua saída. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Observou-se que o pH e o oxigênio dissolvido apresentaram uma média de 7,72 e 6,58mg.L-1, respectivamente. As médias finais foram de 1,40mg.L-1 para amônia, 0,76mg.L-1 para nitrato, 0,08mg.L-1 para nitrito e 1,63mg.L-1 para o fosfato.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Camarão, vannamei, qualidade da água, recirculação

  18. Agave azul y el desarrollo sustentable en la cuenca baja del río Ayuquila, Costa Sur de Jalisco (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R.W. Gerritsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber es un cultivo nuevo para la cuenca del río Ayuquila en la Costa Sur de Jalisco, y es importante para su progreso agropecuario. Sin embargo, se observan efectos socioambientales negativos. Desde 2003 se han estudiado las condiciones del cultivo y su expansión, así como alternativas posibles. Los resultados muestran un crecimiento acelerado desde su introducción, a mitad de la década de 1990. Se destaca una concentración de propietarios privados y a través de contratos. Si bien sembrar esta planta puede ser redituable, las tendencias cíclicas de sobreproducción y escasez han originado una falta de incentivos para hacerlo y un deterioro de la capacidad productiva. Se discuten las perspectivas del avance agropecuario basado en el cultivo del agave azul, y se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones para fomentar la sustentabilidad de su sistema de producción comercial.

  19. Levantamento das Cianobactérias Psâmicas em Sedimentos Superficiais Marginais da Lagoa Azul, Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of the Rio de Janeiro State presents a series of lagoons, dune fi elds and strand plains, which are the result of thepaleogeographical evolution during Neogene. The lagoa Azul is situated at 22o56’52”S and 42o04’62”W in the Arraial do Cabo, locatedabout 160 km far the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a natural hypersaline coastal aquatic body which, parallel to Atlantic Ocean. The presentwork focused on the identifi cation of psammic cyanobacteria in the surface sediments of the lagoa Azul. The samples were obtained byusing plastic tubes and were later aconditiones in opaque plastic containers and conserved in a 4% solution of formaldehyde. With thematerial obtained, permanent slides were prepared so as to characterize them phycologically. Qualitative analysis showed the presenceof 14 species and the occurrence of the families Chroococcaceae Nägeli 1849 (5 sp., Phormidiaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988(4 sp., Synechococcaceae Komárek & Anagnostidis 1995 (2 sp., Nostocaceae Kützing 1843 (1 sp., Oscillatoriaceae Gomont 1892(1 sp. and Pseudanabaenaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988 (1 sp.. The incidence of these species is also recorded in other lagoons(Araruama, Pernambuco, Pitanguinha and Vermelha in the northeast of Rio de Janeiro coast, such as the frequency of cyanobacteriais justifi ed by the harsh environment, without predation, with high salinity, elevated temperature and low concentration of oxygen.

  20. Calidad de agua en un sistema de recirculación con biofiltros para la producción intensiva de postlarvas de camarón litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Arcos Correa, Danny; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Townsend, Soraya

    2002-01-01

    Calidad de agua en un sistema de recirculación con biofiltros para la producción intensiva de postlarvas de camarón Litopenaeus vannamei La industria de la Acuicultura está enfrentando serios cambios técnicos con la finalidad de desarrollar formas económicas y efectivas de mejorar su producción. La producción de postlarvas de camarón Litopenaeus vannamei se realizan con elevados recambios de agua cercanos al 300% del volumen total, para mantener la calidad de la misma.

  1. Daily cycle and body characteristics of mating Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeidae in the wild off southern Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A Calderón-Pérez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior has been described for very few species of penaeoid shrimps. We describe some of the environmental conditions under which mating of Litopenaeus vannamei took place in the ocean, as inferred by the presence of attached spermatophores on the thelycum of females, combined with the presence of mature males with empty ampulla terminalis, both evidence of recent copulation. Out of a total of twelve 24 hr samplings on board the research vessel B/O "EL PUMA", one was selected to examine mating. There were four periods of observation. The highest frequency of females with attached spermatophores were found during the daytime whilst the lowest was registered during the night. Females with attached spermatophore were mostly at stages IV and V of ovarian maturity and fell within the 30 - 50 mm of C.L. range. Copulating male size ranged between 30 and 40 mm of C.L. and there was a close relation between the percentage of mating females and males. Male to female ratio varied throughout the sampling period but it was never 1:1. The female mean size was, in all cases, bigger than the male mean size. Among the environmental factors, salinity and oxygen varied very slightly throughout the sampling period; temperature variation was more pronounced and those changes were attributed to the tidal oscillation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 189-198. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos el apareamiento del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei . La mayoría de las hembras con espermatóforos fueron capturadas durante el día y estaban en las etapas IV y V de desarrollo ovárico (longitud 30 - 50 mm. Los machos apareados midieron entre 30 y 40 mm. La proporción sexual varió pero nunca fue 1:1. Las hembras siempre fueron más grandes que los machos. Durante el muestreo, la salinidad y el oxígeno variaron poco. La temperatura varió más y atribuimos estos cambios a las mareas.

  2. Improvement of survival and development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae by feeding taurine enriched rotifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Jusadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of the present experiment was to study the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers in improving Pacific white shrimp larva Litopenaeus vannamei survival and development. White shrimp larvae at sixth naupliar stage were reared in 12 units of 500 L fibre glass tanks with a stocking density of 125 ind/L. Starting from zoea two stage (Z-2, the larva was provided with rotifers with different taurine enrichment concentration according to the treatments, i.e. 0 mg/L enrichment medium (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L(C, and 100 mg/L (D. The results show that different taurine concentration in the enrichment media increased taurine level in rotifers. Furthermore, the administration of taurine enriched rotifers up to 50 mg/L significantly improved larval survival and may accelerate larval development. The experimental results also concluded that a concentration of 50 mg/L is the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers for the improvement of white shrimp larval survival and developmental stage.Keywords: taurine, rotifer, white shrimp, enrichmentABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji konsentrasi optimum taurin melalui pengayaan pada rotifera terhadap tingkat kelangsungan hidup dan perkembangan stadia larva udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Larva udang vaname stadia naupli-6 dipelihara dalam 12 tangki fiberglass volume 500 L dengan kepadatan 125 ind/L. Dimulai sejak stadia zoea 2 (Z-2 larva diberi rotifera yang diperkaya dengan taurin dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda sesuai dengan perlakuan, yaitu 0 mg/L media pengkaya (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50mg/L (C, dan 100mg/L (D. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengayaan taurin pada konsentrasi yang berbeda menyebabkan peningkatan kandungan taurin rotifera. Sementara pemberian rotifera yang diperkaya taurin hingga 50 mg/L meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup dan mempercepat perkembangan stadia larva udang. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian

  3. Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

  4. Embriões liofilizados e flocos de Artemia no cultivo pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424 Use of freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes in the post-larval culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hercílio de Oliveira Cavalcante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei que receberam embriões liofilizados (EMB e flocos (FLO de Artemia como suplementos alimentares a uma dieta microparticulada (DMP. Nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, os camarões receberam DMP e após 2h, acréscimos de FLO (T1; de EMB (T2; e da mesma DMP, anteriormente, ofertada (T3. No T4, as pós-larvas foram alimentadas com DMP, mas sem suplementações posteriores. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na sobrevivência dos camarões após o período experimental de 21 dias. Por outro lado, o ganho de peso absoluto (mg peso seco das pós-larvas, cuja dieta foi suplementada com BEM, foi significativamente superior (p Artemia e recomendam sua inclusão na dieta pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannameiThe objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed with freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes as feeding supplements to a microparticulate diet (DMP. In treatments T1, T2 and T3, the shrimp were fed with DMP and after 2 hours, received supplements of FLO (T1; EMB (T2; and the same DMP previously offered (T3. In T4, post-larvae were fed with DMP but without additional supplementation. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shrimp survival after the experimental period of 21 days. On the other hand, the absolute weight gain (mg of dry weight of post-larvae whose diet was supplemented with EMB (T2 was significantly higher (p Artemia embryos and recommend their inclusion in the post-larval diet of Litopenaeus vannamei

  5. Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Chookird

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

  6. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  7. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey B Schock

    Full Text Available Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc. The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  8. Evaluation of dietary soybean meal as fish meal replacer for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonho Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Different levels of dietary soybean meal (SBM as a fish meal (FM replacer, with and without amino acid supplementation, for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in the biofloc system was examined in eight weeks of feeding trial. Eight experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 0% FM replacement by SBM provided in clear sea water without biofloc system (S0SW, four diets replacing FM at 0% (S0, 33% (S33, 67% (S67 and 100% (S100 by SBM, and three diets replacing FM at 33% (S33A, 67% (S67A and 100% (S100A by SBM supplemented with amino acids (methionine and lysine in the seawater biofloc system. Results of water quality analyses showed significantly lower total suspended solids and nitrate for S0SW group than all other treatments. Diets S0 and S33A resulted in higher weight gain and specific growth rate among all groups, with no significant differences with S33 group. In addition, whole-body protein and amino acid compositions of shrimp fed S0SW were lower than most biofloc groups. Haemolymph parameters showed significant differences in total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride between groups S0 and S0SW. Also, superoxide dismutase activity showed a decreasing trend with increasing replacement level. In conclusion, based on these results, SBM could replace up to 33% of FM with or without amino acid supplementation in juvenile whiteleg shrimp diets reared in the biofloc system.

  9. Effects of dietary replacement of fishmeal by mealworm meal on muscle quality of farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roseane L; Pinto, Stephanie S; Nóbrega, Renata O; Vieira, Felipe N; Fracalossi, Débora M; Samuels, Richard I; Prudêncio, Elane S; Silva, Carlos P; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition of the experimental diets directly mirrored the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle. The absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in MW composition resulted in a linear decrease in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids in shrimp muscle with increasing levels of MW in the diet. The n-3/n-6 ratio ranged from 0.50 to 0.67. Colour and firmness were unchanged between the treatments. Although the use of MW as a fishmeal substitute in L. vannamei diets has affected the lipid and fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle, from a human nutritional perspective, the lipid content of the shrimps is considered low and the n-3/n-6 ratio remained within the human dietary requirements. Therefore the use of a mealworm diet for shrimp production is a viable alternative to increasingly expensive fishmeal based diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (Pgrowth than probiotic A and controls, indicating Bacillus probiotic composition affects the growth of PL shrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (Pgrowth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro digestibility of specific dsRNA by enzymes of digestive tract of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Álvarez-Sánchez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The digestibility of specific dsRNA by action of the enzymes of digestive tract of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was determined in vitro. Materials and methods. Digestive enzyme activity (amylase, lipase, protease, DNase and RNase was measured in the stomach, digestive gland, and anterior, middle, and posterior intestine of juvenile shrimp, and the digestibility of DNA, RNA and the dsRNA-ORF89, specific to WSSV, was determined by in vitro assays, as well as electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Results. The highest enzymatic activity was found in the digestive gland: amylase (81.41%, lipase (92.60%, protease (78.20%, DNase (90.85%, and RNase (93.14%. The highest digestive capacity against DNA, RNA, and dsRNA was found in the digestive gland (5.11 ng of DNA per minute, 8.55 ng of RNA per minute, and 1.48 ng dsRNA per minute. Conclusions. The highest digestibility of dsRNA-ORF89, specific to WSSV, was found in the digestive gland, whereas the lowest digestibility was observed in the posterior intestine. This is the first report regarding the digestibility of dsRNA-ORF89 by whiteleg shrimp digestive tract enzymes, with potential therapeutic importance in shrimp culture to prevent WSSV disease through balanced feed.

  12. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P 0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  13. Dextrose as carbon source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in a zero exchange system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Suita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT. Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+ ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic biometry. After 30 days, survival, final biomass, and feeding conversion rate (FCR were determined. Dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, floc volume, total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and microorganisms (qualified by groups, were measured every three days. Water quality variables remained within acceptable levels throughout the experimental period, except for nitrite, which reached higher levels than recommended for this species. The use of dextrose resulted in higher water transparency, which influenced the remaining centric diatoms. A superior shrimp performance was observed at this treatment, presumably because of variations on the microbial community. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of dextrose results in a superior growth performance of L. vannamei when cultured in BFT systems.

  14. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  15. Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in the Hepatopancreas Tissue of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Lipid Sources at Low Salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    Full Text Available RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of hepatopancreas in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed three diets with different lipid sources, including beef tallow (BT, fish oil (FO, and an equal combination of soybean oil + BT + linseed oil (SBL for 8 weeks at 3 practical salinity unit (psu. A total of 9622 isogenes were annotated in 316 KEGG pathways and 39, 42 and 32 pathways significantly changed in the paired comparisons of FO vs SBL, BT vs SBL, or FO vs BT, respectively. The pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, fatty acid degradation, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid were significantly changed in all paired comparisons between dietary lipid sources, and the pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism significantly changed in the FO vs SBL and BT vs SBL comparisons. These pathways are associated with energy metabolism and cell membrane structure. The results indicate that lipids sources affect the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity by providing extra energy or specific fatty acids to change gill membrane structure and control iron balance. The results of this study lay a foundation for further understanding lipid or fatty acid metabolism in L. vannamei at low salinity.

  17. Transcriptome analysis on the exoskeleton formation in early developmetal stages and reconstruction scenario in growth-moulting in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Wei, Jiankai; Yuan, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-04-24

    Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and functional annotation of all unigenes gave a better understanding of the exoskeleton developmental process in L. vannamei. As a result, more than six hundred unigenes related to exoskeleton development were identified both in the early developmental stages and adult-moulting. A cascade of sequential expression events of exoskeleton-related genes were summarized, including exoskeleton formation, regulation, synthesis, degradation, mineral absorption/reabsorption, calcification and hardening. This new insight on major transcriptional events provide a deep understanding for exoskeleton formation and reconstruction in L. vannamei. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles cover the entire exoskeleton development from zygote to adult-moulting in a crustacean, and these findings will serve as significant references for exoskeleton developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  18. Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and Trophic Status of Intensive Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Farming Pond in Situbondo East Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Aliviyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the dynamics community structure of Cyanobacteria and trophic status in ponds of intensive shrimp culture (Litopenaeus vannamei in Situbondo based on Trophic Diatom Index (TDI.  The ex post facto research was conducted in situ in the hamlet of Pond Mutiara Mas III Klatakan Situbondo East Java Indonesia.  Observation of Cyanobacteria and Diatoms community structure were done every week during four cycles of shrimp farming ponds.  Cycle of shrimp farming ponds is the times for enlargement process of the shrimps from seed to mature which ranges from 90-120 days.  The dependent variables were the density of Cyanobacteria and Diatoms community, as well as chemical parameters nitrite and orthophosphate.  Trophic status was determined from TDI be counted from data of diatom density.  All of the data were then classified using cluster and biplot analysis program PAST Ver. 3.11 to discribe the profile of ecosystem quality.  The research results showed that there were four taxa of Cyanobacteria during farming cycle which the highest density was found from the genus of Oscillatoria.  Based on the value of TDI, we found that the trophic status of water in shrimps pond during the production process was eutrophic until hyper-eutrophic.  The water quality was decreases along with the length of incubation time.

  19. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  20. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  1. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  2. Daily cycle and body characteristics of mating Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the wild off southern Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Pérez, J A; Rendón-Rodríguez, S; Solís-Ibarra, R

    2007-03-01

    Mating behavior has been described for very few species of penaeoid shrimps. We describe some of the environmental conditions under which mating of Litopenaeus vannamei took place in the ocean, as inferred by the presence of attached spermatophores on the thelycum of females, combined with the presence of mature males with empty ampulla terminalis, both evidence of recent copulation. Out of a total of twelve 24 hr samplings on board the research vessel B/O "EL PUMA", one was selected to examine mating. There were four periods of observation. The highest frequency of females with attached spermatophores were found during the daytime whilst the lowest was registered during the night. Females with attached spermatophore were mostly at stages IV and V of ovarian maturity and fell within the 30-50 mm of C.L. range. Copulating male size ranged between 30 and 40 mm of C.L. and there was a close relation between the percentage of mating females and males. Male to female ratio varied throughout the sampling period but it was never 1:1. The female mean size was, in all cases, bigger than the male mean size. Among the environmental factors, salinity and oxygen varied very slightly throughout the sampling period; temperature variation was more pronounced and those changes were attributed to the tidal oscillation.

  3. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  4. Técnicas de empleo del azul de metileno para la caracterización de finos en materiales de ingeniería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Rodríguez González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elempleo del azul de metileno en ingeniería se inició en  Francia  a  finales  de  los  años  ochenta,  con  la finalidad de caracterizar la actividad y naturaleza de los  finos  contenidos  en  las  arenas  y gravas  que  se empleaban  en  la  fabricación  de  concretos; posteriormente  se  desarrollaron  variantes  de  dicho empleo  para determinar  la  presencia  de  arcillas  en los finos de tamaños inferiores a 400 micras, para su empleo en materiales de bases, subbases y mezclascomplemento  al  ensayo  de  equivalente  de  arena,asfálticas.  En Colombia  existe  actualmente  una tendencia al uso del ensayo de azul de metileno para evaluar  las  características  de  las  partículas  finas contaminantes o nocivas en un suelo;  los diferentes procedimientos consisten, básicamente, en medir  la capacidad de adsorción de azul de metileno por una muestra  de  suelo,  capacidad  representada  como  la cantidad  de  colorante  requerido  para  recubrir  las superficies específicas de las moléculas de los finos. En nuestro país su aplicación se ha limitado a ser un dentro  de  las  especificaciones  INVIAS  y  como exigencia en las normas IDU.

  5. Evitabilidade da mortalidade infantil na região de saúde de Janaúba/Monte Azul, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Leonardo Nogueira da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: após a investigação dos óbitos infantis, a equipe de vigilância de óbitos promove discussões com todos os profissionais atuantes nos cuidados à criança para a amplificação e detalhamento de cada caso, de modo a concluí-los e implementar estratégias de redução desses óbitos por causas evitáveis. Objetivo: analisar a evitabilidade da mortalidade infantil na região de saúde de Janaúba/Monte Azul, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Método: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado no Núcleo de Informação de Epidemiologia da Superintendência Regional de Saúde da macrorregião norte do Estado de Minas Gerais. A região ampliada do norte do Estado de Minas Gerais é subdividida em nove regiões de saúde; sendo assim, a amostra foi composta apenas pelos óbitos da região de saúde de Janaúba/Monte Azul por deter o maior número de casos notificados de modo a compor 48 óbitos infantis investigados durante o ano de 2014. Utilizou-se um formulário de elaboração própria baseado na ficha de investigação de óbitos neonatais e infantis. Resultados: comparativamente, entre os anos de 2010-2014, o maior coeficiente de mortalidade infantil foi no ano de 2013 (15,96% e o menor coeficiente foi em 2011 (10,14%. Houve uma maior concentração de óbitos infantis em crianças no período neonatal precoce, somando-se um total de 28 óbitos (7,25‰. Quanto à evitabilidade, dos 48 óbitos registrados no ano de 2014, 70,8% foram classificados como evitáveis. Conclusão: a maior parte dos óbitos infantis ocorridos na região de Janaúba/Monte Azul seria evitável por ações de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento precoces das infecções e patologias clínicas identificadas durante o pré-natal, parto e nascimento.

  6. A ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA EMPRESA DE SERVIÇOS NA CIDADE DE CAMPINA GRANDE – PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Correia Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As empresas se utilizam de estratégias e atitudes para chegar a um determinado objetivo, observando os pontos fortes e fracos do ambiente interno e externo da organização. Assim, têm-se a teoria do trade-off (valorXcusto no qual as empresas sempre optam por um de dois caminhos: agregar valor ao produto para cobrar mais, ou o cobrar menor preço com um produto menos diferenciado. Hoje, emerge no mundo científico um novo paradigma, a estratégia do oceano azul, a qual afirma que é possível as empresas optarem, de uma só vez, pela diferenciação e pela liderança em preços. Este trabalho visa verificar a relação entre a estratégia do oceano azul com a adotada por uma empresa de serviços de pesquisa e intermediação de compras de mantimentos, que concorre com supermercados, ofertando os mesmos produtos, porém, de forma inovadora com este tipo de comercialização na cidade de Campina Grande-PB, através da compra pela internet. Trata-se de um estudo de caso aplicado aos principais supermercados do município e para tratamento dos dados utilizou-se da abordagem quali-quantitativa. Foi analisada a percepção do cliente e feito a matriz de avaliação de valor, tanto do setor de atuação quanto da empresa estudada. Concluiu-se, que a estratégia adotada está alinhada com a estratégia de oceano azul, pois, igualmente aos supermercados, a empresa estudada supre a necessidade dos clientes, todavia, sem utilizar estoques, com entrega em domicílio e atendimento personalizado, tudo isto sem acrescentar maiores custos ao consumidor final, liderando em preços ao passo que se diferencia da concorrência.

  7. Evaluación in vivo del efecto cicatrizante de un gel a base de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón blanco litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Heimy Franceline; Escobedo Lozano, Amada Yerén; Méndez-Gómez, Evaristo; Vázquez, Alfredo Emmanuel; Sol Hernández, Manuel de Jesús; Osuna Lizárraga, Anahí Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Healing effect of a chitosan-based gel obtained from the exoskeleton of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its evaluation in vivoTítulo corto: Evaluación del quitosano como cicatrizanteResumen:  En México alrededor del 62 % de la población sufre de accidentes causantes de alteraciones en la piel como quemaduras, heridas y diabetes principalmente. Para atender esta problemática, se propone el uso de un gel de quitosano, obtenido del exoesqueleto de camarón ya que presenta actividad antimicr...

  8. Arara-azul-grande (Psittaciformes, Aves): informações genéticas para a conservação e o manejo em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Ribeiro Lima

    2014-01-01

    Os marcadores moleculares tipo microssatélites podem fornecer informações valiosas sobre relações de parentesco, estimativa de diversidade e origem populacional de indivíduos. Esses dados são essenciais para adoção de medidas de conservação in-situ e ex-situ para espécies ameaçadas. No presente estudo obtivemos dados genéticos sobre os indivíduos cativos da espécie Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, arara-azul-grande, considerada em perigo de extinção. Analisamos 10 locos de microssatélite e realiza...

  9. The Paratexts of a «Cuento Extraño» by Rosalía de Castro: El caballero de las botas azules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Iglesias Iglesias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As it had happened among the nineteenth-century critics, Rosalía de Castro’s novel El Caballero de las Botas Azules. «Cuento Extraño» (?The Knight of the Blue Boots. Strange Story?, 1867 still allows nowadays for many varied interpretations. Not only the chapters which form this enigmatic work show semantic ambiguity, but also the paratexts which frame it. The title, the subtitle, and the original prologue of the novel provide important keys for the reader. The purpose of this paper is to offer a bibliographical description of that novel, which is hardly known in the middle nineteenth-century prose fiction, and to analyze its paratextual elements in line with its singularity.

  10. “França, primeira metade do séc. XX: Bartók: O Castelo de Barba-Azul (1911)"

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Herbert Bauer, de nome germânico, nascera em pleno império austro-húngaro, em Agosto de 1884. Quando aos 16 anos publica os seus primeiros poemas, assina-os sob o pseudónimo literário Béla Balázs, reivindicando assim, desde tenra idade, a sua genealogia húngara, a afirmação da sua terra, língua e cultura natal. Poeta, romancista, cineasta, homem de convicções e intervenção política, Béla Balázs escreverá o libreto de O Castelo de Barba Azul e também o argumento do bailado O Príncipe de Pau...

  11. Administración de la pesquería del atún aleta azul en Baja California. Una visión global

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Jesús del Moral Simanek; Juan Guillermo Vaca Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    La administración de la pesquería del atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de nuestro país depende de contar con una visión global sobre este recurso, el cual México comparte, sobre todo, con Japón, cuya flota captura 74 por ciento y consume casi 100 por ciento de la producción total. Es importante considerar que esta especie desova al sur de Japón y que sólo parte del recurso migra hacia las costas mexicanas de la península de Baja California, por lo que el manejo que las autoridad...

  12. Utilização de resíduos de materiais cerâmicos na adsorção de corante azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dominguini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a viabilidade de utilização de resíduos de materiais cerâmicos como agentes de adsorção de corantes utilizados em indústrias têxteis. Resíduos de materiais cerâmicos, oriundos de quebras de tijolos, azulejos e pisos foram selecionados, triturados e moídos a uma granulometria adequada, o que possibilitou o estudo da influência do tipo de material cerâmico (resíduo e da sua granulometria sobre a adsorção do corante azul de metileno. Os resíduos cerâmicos foram separados em três diferentes granulometrias, fina (0,15 mm < Dfino< 0,30 mm, média (0,30 mm < Dmédio< 1,18 mm e grossa (1,18 mm azul de metileno presente na amostra ensaiada. No entanto, os resultados também mostram que a absorção de água do material cerâmico pode não ser somente o fator que influencia na adsorção do corante.

  13. Petrogenesis, U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Furna Azul Migmatite: partial melting evidence during the San Ignacio Orogeny, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Newton Diego Couto do; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Lima, Gabrielle Aparecida de; Matos, Joao Batista; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: newtongeologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabilimagel@gmail.com, E-mail: lafonjm@ufpa.br, E-mail: prof.jmatos@gmail.com, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2016-11-01

    The Furna Azul Migmatite is a ∼10 km{sup 2} complex located in Pontes e Lacerda city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. It belongs to Paragua Terrane, limit with Rio Alegre Terrane, southeast of San Ignacio Province, in Amazon Craton. It consists of transitional metatexites with amphibolite enclaves and dioritic injections. The rocks were divided in residuum rich and leucosome rich; both have three deformation phases marked by folded stromatic layers affected by spaced foliation and metamorphosed in amphibolite facies, represented by garnet, biotite, sillimanite, and by the clinopyroxene in the enclaves. The metamorphic retrograde to greenschist is marked by formation of chlorite, muscovite and prehnite. Residuum-rich metatexites show higher CaO and Na{sub 2}O contents, separating them from K{sub 2}O, Ba and Rb enriched transitional metatexites. U-Pb on zircon and Sm-Nd whole-rocks dating indicates that the residuum-rich metatexite crystallized at 1436 ± 11 Ma, with a T{sub DM} age of 1.90 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.43)} of -0.54, whereas the dioritic injection crystallized at 1341,7 ± 17 Ma with a T{sub DM} age of 1.47 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.34)} of 3.39. These results indicate that the Furna Azul Migmatite protolith was formed during the San Ignacio Orogeny and was reworked during the same orogeny, as basement for collisional to post-magmatic granites from Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  14. Visibilidad y enunciabilidad en la larga duración de la violencia política: La sombra azul de Sergio Schmucler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciana Vásquez Villanueva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Una historia de vida, eje fundamental de un film, es la discursividad que hemos indagado para percibir sentidos nuevos en la relación cine, memoria y violencia en la zona amplia de los discursos producidos sobre el terrorismo de estado en Argentina. La sombra azul, con guión y dirección de Sergio Schmucler, irrumpe para desbaratar conciencias. Nuestro trabajo, filiado en el Análisis del Discurso, se ha detenido en la indagación de tres dispositivos: las visibilidades, las enunciabilidades y las temporalidades, superpuestas, fragmentarias a veces, otras omnipresentes, deslizadas en la larga duración de una memoria social. Estos dispositivos, elaborados por Foucault para blandir discursividades exasperantes de órdenes impuestos, constituyen un camino privilegiado para llegar, a través de su desgranamiento, a una verdad intolerable forjada en este film. En La sombra azul la larga duración de la violencia de estado, la impunidad de los represores durante la democracia y, fundamentalmente, un sobreviviente —a la tortura, la prisión, el exilio, perteneciente a la fuerza policial de una de las provincias más castigadas por la dictadura— son cincelados, en la heteroglosia, en el diálogo y en el antagonismo, con otras voces. Este sobreviviente, devenido en re-viviente señala cómo un marco ético, capaz de valorar la tragedia humana, lo erige en un don para dotar de verdad, para esclarecer a una sociedad que, en muchos espacios, aún permanece en sombra. Este recorrido discursivo señala cómo, desde la indecibilidad original de un sujeto doliente, irrumpen visibilidades y enunciabilidades capaces de decir verdad y así proseguir con una memoria que nunca cesa.

  15. HISTORIA AMBIENTAL DE LOS ARCHIPIÉLAGOS DE LA TRAPANANDA (PATAGONIA SEPTENTRIONAL, CHILE: DESAFÍOS PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA BALLENA AZUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Paillacheo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La reaparición de la ballena azul en el sur de Chile constituye un desafío para las políticas de conservación e invita a repensar la historia del mar austral y, en particular, de la costa aysenina. El paisaje social de este litoral corresponde a un ecosistema de tránsito y marginalizado entre dos regiones conocidas: Chiloé y Patagonia austral. Es ambiente extremo en el que diversas poblaciones humanas han desplegado variadas estrategias adaptativas asociadas al bosque y a los sistemas marinos, documentadas en registros arqueológicos, históricos y etnográficos, los que se procura sintetizar para la reconstrucción de una historia ambiental de la región. Los antecedentes arqueo-históricos dan cuenta de poblaciones canoeras cuya relación con la naturaleza, fundada en un uso extensivo de los recursos, facilitó su integración a los paisajes locales, caracterizados por formaciones archipielágicas. Este patrón se modifica con los procesos históricos desencadenados a partir de la anexión del territorio a los espacios económicos nacionales, situación asociada a sucesivas oleadas poblacionales que se asientan en el litoral de Aysén, modificando las estrategias adaptativas tradicionales. Con la llegada de estas poblaciones se instaura un modelo intensivo y depredador en un paisaje intrínsecamente lábil y, por tanto, agotable. La posibilidad de constituir esta historia en un referente para un adecuado resguardo del área, y, en especial de la ballena azul, especie emblemática cuya presencia se detecta a partir de 2003, es el desafío a que aquí se alude.

  16. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei =Toxicidade aguda de pirazossulfurom-etílico e permethrin em juvenis de camarão branco Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lemos de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: SiriusR 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and TalcordR insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 } 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ƒÊg L-1 SiriusR 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ƒÊg L-1 TalcordR. The TalcordR LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 ƒÊg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No SiriusR 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50%of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide TalcordR is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide SiriusR 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a CL50 (96h dos agroquimicos SiriusR 250 SC, herbicida a base de pirazossulfurom-etilico, e TalcordR, inseticida a base de permethrin, em juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei, bem como avaliar possiveis alteracoes fisiologicas por meio da contagem total de hemocitos (CTH dos camaroes. Juvenis de L. vannamei (5,0 } 0,5 g foram expostos as seguintes concentracoes dos agroquimicos: SiriusR 250 SC, 0; 0,1; 1; 10; 100 e 1.000 ƒÊg L-1, e TalcordR, 0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 ƒÊg L-1. A CL50 (96h do inseticida TalcordR foi de 0,00933 ƒÊg L-1 ou 9,33 ng L-1. Nao houve alteracoes significativas da CTH entre as medias dos grupos

  17. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bezerra dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, emum sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parceladaem duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliadosnas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at08:00 and

  18. Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in heterotrophic medium with zero water exchange Consumo de oxigênio de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei em meio heterotrófico sem renovação de água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vinatea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at determining the dissolved oxygen consumption rate of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles maintained in a microbial biofloc raceway system at high density with no aeration. Three 4 L bottles were filled for each treatment, sealed hermetically, and placed in an enclosed greenhouse raceway system. Four shrimp (13.2±1.42 g were assigned to two sets of the bottles, which underwent the following treatments: light conditions with no shrimp; dark conditions with no shrimp; light conditions with shrimp; and dark conditions with shrimp. Dissolved oxygen content was measured every 10 min for 30 min. A quadratic behavior was observed in dissolved oxygen concentration over time. Significant differences for oxigen consumption were observed only at 10 and 20 min between shrimp maintained in the dark and those under light conditions. At 10 min, a higher value was observed in shrimp maintained under light, and at 20 min, in the dark. Significant differences between 10 and 20 min and between 10 and 30 min were observed when oxygen consumption was analyzed over time in the presence of light. Under dark conditions there were significant differences only between 20 and 30 min. Lethal oxygen concentration (0.65 mg L-1 would be reached in less than one hour either under light or dark conditions with no aeration.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o consumo de oxigênio dissolvido (OD de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei mantidos em sistema de cultivo de bioflocs bacterianos em alta densidade e ausência de aeração. Três garrafas de 4 L foram preenchidas para cada tratamento, fechadas hermeticamente e colocadas em sistema de cultivo fechado. Quatro camarões (13,2±1,42 g foram colocados em dois dos conjuntos de garrafas. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: luminosidade, sem camarões; escuro, sem camarões; luminosidade, com camarões; escuro, com camarões. A concentração de oxigênio dissolvido foi determinada a cada 10 min durante 30 min. Foi

  19. Isolation of Potential Bacteria as Inoculum for Biofloc Formation in Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Culture Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasan, Nor Azman; Ghazali, Nurarina Ayuni; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2017-01-01

    A new green technology to reduce environmental damages while optimizing production of Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was developed known as "Biofloc technology". Microbial communities in biofloc aggregates are responsible in eliminating water exchange and producing microbial proteins that can be used as supplemented feed for L. vannamei. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential bioflocculant-producing bacteria to be used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc. For the purpose of this study, bacterial communities during 0, 30 and 70 days of culture (DOC) of L. vannamei grow-out ponds were isolated and identified through phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic relationships between isolated bacteria were then evaluated through phylogenetic tree analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences of microbial communities at each DOC. Out of 125 bacterial isolates, nine species of bacteria from biofloc were identified successfully. Those bacteria species were identified as Halomonas venusta, H. aquamarina, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus infantis, B. cereus, B. safensis, Providencia vermicola, Nitratireductor aquimarinus and Pseudoalteromonas sp., respectively. Through phylogenetic analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes families under the genera of Halomonas sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp., Providencia sp., Nitratireductor sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp. In this study, bioflocculant-producing bacteria were successfully identified which are perfect candidates in forming biofloc to reduce water pollution towards a sustainable aquaculture industry. Presence of Halomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. in all stages of biofloc formation reinforces the need for new development regarding the ability of these species to be used as inoculum in forming biofloc rapidly.

  20. Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

    2013-12-01

    The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Monitoring of inland waters for culturing shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: application of a method based on survival and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Castañeda, G; Millán-Almaraz, M I; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Fregoso-López, M G; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of 21 inland waters (16 well waters and 5 surface waters) from Northwest Mexico via short- (48 h) and medium-term (28 days) tests using postlarvae (PL18) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the short test, survival was assessed at 48 h after shrimp were placed in groups of 10 postlarvae into 2-L containers of inland water, to which they had been previously acclimated. The second, medium-term test consisted of four replicates with 10 postlarvae, and each group was placed in 15-L containers with the treatment water. Weights (initial and final) and survival were evaluated weekly for 28 days. In those waters for which the short test was positive and the medium-term test was negative and which also had a deficiency of potassium and/or magnesium, a third test was conducted. These last waters were supplemented with salts, and the shrimp survival and weights (initial and final) were recorded for 28 days. The water samples from San Jose, Mochicahui, Sinaloa River, Caimanero inner Lagoon, La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, Escopama, and Fitmar had >60% survival in the short test. The Caimanero inner Lagoon water had the highest survival (87.5 ± 9.6%) and final mean weight (201.3 ± 86.2 mg). In the third test, it was found that shrimp in the water from La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, and Fitmar exhibited 100% survival for 2 weeks. Finally, in this work, a decision tree to evaluate the suitability of low-salinity water for shrimp farming was proposed, which can be applied in other regions.

  2. Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanting; Ren, Xianyun; Li, Jian; Zhai, Qianqian; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Yang; Ma, Li

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH 3 -N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema E Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B and the commercial probiotic Alibio. The DNA for PCR-SSCP analyses was extracted directly from the guts of shrimps treated for 20 days with the probiotics and injected with 2.5*10(5 CFU g-1 of V. parahaemolyticus one week after suspension of the probiotic treatment. Untreated shrimps served as positive (injected with V. parahaemolyticus and negative (not injected controls Analysis of the bacterial community carried out after inoculation and 12 and 48 h later confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus was present in shrimps of the positive control , but not in the negative control or treated with the probiotic mixtures. A significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between times after infection. The band patterns in 0-12 h were clustered into a different group from that determined after 48 h, and suggested that during bacterial infection the guts of whiteleg shrimp were dominated by gamma proteobacteria represented by Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. Our results indicate that the experimental and the commercial mixtures are suitable to modulate the bacterial community of L. vannamei and could be used as a probiotic to control vibriosis in juvenile shrimp.

  4. Comparison of white spot syndrome virus infection resistance between Exopalaemon carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei under different salinity stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ming; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the important economic shrimp species in China, and can tolerate a wide range of salinities. However, its disease resistance remains to be unclear in comparison with other shrimp species under salinity stress. In this study, the resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of E. carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei was determined by comparing their hemocyanin (Hc) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities under different salinity stresses. In E. carinicauda, the PO activity and Hc gene transcript abundance showed a coherent pattern of increase and decrease while Hc content showed a slightly decrease with Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV infections. For both E. carinicauda and L. vannamei under salinity stress, the PO activity showed a positive correlation with the salinity while the Hc content and expression level of its gene increased significantly in salinities of 5, 15 and 25 g L-1. The survival rate of E. carinicauda with WSSV infection was higher than that of L. vannamei in the first 24 h under different salinity stresses. Drastic mortality of E.carinicauda and L. vannamei appeared at 48 h and 3 h post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, compared with L. vannamei, E. carinicauda displayed higher PO activity, Hc content and abundance of Hc gene mRNA. The results collectively indicated that Hc and PO have obviously functional connection in resisting pathogens and tolerating salinity stress, and PO activity and Hc gene mRNA abundance may reflect the resistance of shrimp to disease. E. carinicauda has higher level of immune potential than L. vannamei, suggesting its greater capacity in resisting pathogens under salinity stresses.

  5. Alterações clínicas e patológicas em ovinos infectados naturalmente pelo vírus da língua azul no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniassi,Nadia A.B.; Pavarini,Saulo P.; Ribeiro,Luiz A.O.; Silva,Mariana S.; Flores,Eduardo F.; Driemeier,David

    2010-01-01

    Língua azul (LA) é uma doença causada pelo vírus da língua azul (VLA) e transmitida por vetores do gênero Culicoides. Estudos sorológicos têm demonstrado a ampla presença do vírus no Brasil; entretanto, informações clínicas da LA na América do Sul são limitadas. Esse trabalho descreve alterações clínico-patológicas em ovinos acometidos pela LA no Sul do Brasil. Em dois surtos, em propriedades distintas, 15 ovinos apresentaram como principais sinais clínicos hipertermia, apatia, aumento de vol...

  6. Análisis socioeconómico e interrelación de las pesquerías de sardina y atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de las engordas de atún aleta azul en las costas de Baja California cambió el destino de las capturas de sardina, ya que antes se destinaban al mercado de congelados y a la elaboración de harina de pescado, y en la actualidad se utilizan como alimento para el atún aleta azul. Esto generó un efecto socioeconómico positivo para los armadores y pescadores de pelágicos menores, ya que la llegada de grandes capitales foráneos para el desarrollo de las engordas de atún mejoró los precios de la sardina, e hizo más rentable su pesquería.

  7. Biorremediación de los efluentes de cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 utilizando tapetes microbianos en un sistema de recirculación Bioremediacion of effluents ones of the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 using microbial mats in a recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lezama-Cervantes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un sistema de recirculación (SR integrando el cultivo del camarón con tapetes microbianos buscando mitigar los impactos ambientales de los subproductos del cultivo del camarón y avanzar hacia la biorremediación del agua de cultivo. Los consorcios microbianos obtenidos de ambientes naturales (TaM estuvieron constituidos por bacterias (55,6%, cianófitas (18,4%, diatomeas (9%, nemátodos (5,6% y clorófitas (1,4%, entre los grupos taxonómicos principales. La remoción de nutrientes y sólidos se evaluó en un SR (2 ciclos/hora conteniendo (n = 3 60 y 120 ind m-2 de Litopenaeus vannamei. Los resultados demostraron que los TaM redujeron los niveles de nitrógeno amoniacal por encima del 71% diariamente; la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno (DBO5 se redujo más de 68% y los sólidos suspendidos (SST hasta en 62% al compararse con los sistemas control (p 0,05. El agua bio-remediada tiene un efecto positivo en el cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, y promueve el crecimiento y sobrevivencia en presencia de TaM en el SR.We developed a recirculating system integrating shrimp culture with microbial mats aiming to mitigate the environmental impacts of by-products from shrimp culture and to advance toward the bioremediation of the shrimp culture water. The microbial consortia collected from natural environments (TaM was constituted by bacteria (55.6%, Cyanophyte (18.4%, diatoms (9%, nematods (5.6% and Chlorophyte algae (1.4% among the major taxonomic groups. The removal of nutrients and solids by these mats was assessed in a recirculating system (2 cycles/hour (n = 3 containing 60 and 120 ind m-2 of Litopenaeus vannamei. Results showed that the microbial mat reduces daily up to 71% of ammonia nitrogen, decreases around 68% of the biochemical oxygen demand (DBO5 and up to 62% of suspended solids (SST when comparing to the control systems (p 0.05. The Bioremediated culture water had a positive effect on the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei, and

  8. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem = Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (pLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, withdifferent concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p<0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  9. Perimetria azul-amarelo em usuários de tabaco-álcool Blue-on-yellow perimetry in tobacco and alcohol consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando de Carvalho Júnior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações de campo visual em usuários crônicos de tabaco e álcool por meio da perimetria azul-amarelo estratégia 10-2. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois olhos de vinte e um voluntários usuários de tabaco e álcool, todos do gênero masculino, foram selecionados após exame oftalmológico completo e normal, sendo submetidos a perimetria azul-amarelo estratégia 10-2. Quinze voluntários participaram do grupo controle. A análise dos dados foi realizada mediante gráfico da profundidade do defeito e número de pontos alterados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 40 olhos (95,3% dos usuários crônicos de tabaco e álcool, apresentaram maior freqüência de alterações no gráfico de profundidade do defeito (>10dB e 27 olhos (64,3% apresentaram número de pontos alterados (>10 pontos, (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the visual field changes in blue-on-yellow perimetry (B/Y strategy 10-2 in alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers. METHODS: Forty-two eyes of twenty-one users were studied. Fifteen individuals were used as a control group. All volunteers were males. After normal ophthalmologic examinations, central 10-2 (B/Y was performed in both eyes. Analysis of the results was performed through the alterations in the depth graph defect and number of altered points. RESULTS: It was found that the majority of the chronic alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers had a greater frequency of alterations in the depth graph defect; 40 eyes (95.3%, (>10dB, and 27 eyes (64.3% showed a number of altered points, (>10 points, (p<0.0001. All those who were used as a control group showed alterations in the depth graph defect and number of altered points, but had less than 10dB and 10 altered points, respectively. CONCLUSION: A higher number of abnormal points and depth graph defects and number of altered points were observed in alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers reflecting a higher number of alterations in the cells of the parvocellular system, responsible

  10. Vibrio communis sp. nov., isolated from the marine animals Mussismilia hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Alves, Nelson; Silva, Bruno Sergio; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2011-02-01

    Eight Vibrio isolates originating from the marine corals Mussismilia hispida and Phyllogorgia dilatata and the zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum and Palythoa variabilis in Brazil and the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Ecuador were studied by means of a polyphasic approach. The novel isolates formed a tight monophyletic group in the genus Vibrio and were closely related to species of the Vibrio harveyi group, to which they showed more than 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Analysis based on concatenated sequences of the following seven genes, 16S rRNA, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB (5633 bp in length), showed clear separation between the isolates and species of the V. harveyi group. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, performed previously, revealed that a representative isolate of this group, LMG 20370, was clearly separate from known Vibrio species (it belonged to the so-called AFLP cluster A31). DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) experiments with representative isolates and type strains of the V. harveyi species group revealed high DDH between the novel isolates (more than 74 %) and less than 70 % DDH towards type strains of related Vibrio species, proving the novel species status of the isolates. Phenotypically, the novel species belongs to the arginine dihydrolase (A)-negative, lysine decarboxylase (L)-positive and ornithine decarboxylase (O)-positive (A-/L+/O+) cluster reported previously. Most species of the V. harveyi group (i.e. Vibrio rotiferianus, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus) also belong to this A-/L+/O+ cluster. However, several phenotypic features can be used for the identification of the novel species. In contrast to its closest phylogenetic neighbours, the novel species exhibits esterase (C4) and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activities, but it does not produce acetoin, does not use citrate, α-ketoglutaric acid or propionic acid and does not ferment melibiose. The novel species can

  11. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V

  12. Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae, cultivated at different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Gucic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD and lipids (ALD were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50psu in 60L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CPdiet which had 74.0% at 50psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35psu, respectively. For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4% at 5psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50psu (97.3 and 94.7%. This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (3: 1201-1213. Epub 2013 September 01.

  13. Genetic diversity within and between broodstocks of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Decapoda, Penaeidae and its implication for the gene pool conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD. Freitas

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within and between fifteen closed broodstock lines of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, reared at different hatcheries in the Brazilian coast, was assessed by RAPD analysis. Fifty two polymorphic loci were identified when a set of five decamer primers was used in PCR. The genetic diversity analysis within lines evidenced genetic variation loss probably related to bottleneck effects and inbreeding. In addition, the genetic divergence values between the different samples appear to reflect the initial founder composition of such stocks, in some cases, sharing a common origin, suggesting a putative importance of interbreeding for the establishment of genetic improvement programs for these broodstocks. The genetic variation monitoring appears to be helpful to the gene pool conservation of this aquaculture species, mainly if considered its exotic status in Brazil and the current impossibility of new introduction of wild individuals.

  14. Captura de atún aleta azul en Baja California, México: ¿pesquería regional o maquiladora marina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El atún aleta azul, capturado por la flota mexicana en las costas de la península de Baja California, se destinaba al enlatado local, para ofrecer a los consumidores nacionales un producto barato y con valor nutritivo alto. Sin embargo, esto cambió en la última década con la llegada de inversionistas, sobre todo japoneses. Ahora el atún se captura, engorda y exporta a los mercados japonés y estadounidense, que pagan un precio elevado, para satisfacer su demanda de sashimi. Esto tiene repercusiones positivas en el orden social y económico en México y Japón; determinadas a partir del trabajo de campo directo e indirecto realizado en el marco de esta investigación. Además, se identificaron algunas similitudes entre el comportamiento de las empresas estudiadas y la industria maquiladora de exportación, lo que abrió un debate sobre el tema.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA COM AZUL DE METILENO EM Leishmania major e Leishmania braziliensis: ESTUDO in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle El Atra Coelho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaníase é uma doença crônica causada pelo protozoário do gênero Leishmania, cujo tratamento é agressivo. A Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD é uma alternativa promissora que combina luz, fotossensibilizador (FS e oxigênio molecular, para causar a morte celular. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, in vitro, a ação da TFD com Azul de metileno (AM em promastigotas de Leishmania, por teste de MTT, curva de crescimento e morfologia do parasito. O teste de MTT demonstrou alteração de ambas as espécies após interação com o AM no escuro e após TFD. A análise das curvas demonstrou que a TFD influenciou o crescimento das espécies. A análise morfológica revelou que o AM no escuro não causou alterações expressivas como a TFD, sendo a cepa de L. braziliensis mais afetada que a cepa de L. major. Pode-se concluir que a TFD com AM foi promissora contra promastigotas de Leishmania, pois foi capaz de diminuir o crescimento e alterar a morfologia dos parasitos em cultura.

  16. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  17. Activación mecánica del caolín como vía para la fabricación de azul ultramar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jaime Restrepo Baena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La molienda del caolín en molinos de anillos causa una destrucción progresiva de la estructura cristalina original. Los estudios granulométricos demuestran que la molienda de los granos de caolín se produce por fuerzas de cizalladura, ocasionando un deslizamiento de los planos que conforman las partículas, distorsionándolas y aglomerándolas. El estudio de rayos X de mostró una pérdida casi completa de la estructura cristalina. Los análisis de DTA y TGA mostraron que la pérdida del agua de composición interna se produce desde el momento que comienza el calentamiento. Los estudios de microscopía electrónica de barrido muestran granos de forma y tamaño irregular que difieren notablemente de la muestra original. Con las muestras de caolín activado mecánicamente, se fabricó el pigmento Azul Ultramar utilizando un horno de tubo, los resultados obtenidos muestran un producto de características de calidad comparables a los conseguidos utilizando el caolín calcinado (10. Este estudio muestra que la activación mecánica del caolín, puede convertirse en una alternativa a la calcinación, proceso que actualmente se realiza a nivel industrial.

  18. Descoloração do corante Azul Brilhante de Remazol R por leveduras isoladas de moluscos do Rio Subaé, no estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Andrade Sande da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar o potencial de descoloração do corante Azul Brilhante de Remazol R (RBBR por cinco isolados de leveduras identificados como OJU2, SJL6, SF5, SJ10 e SJU5, otimizar as condições de crescimento das leveduras e verificar a toxicidade do produto obtido após a descoloração. Para isso, foram realizados ensaios em batelada variando os seguintes parâmetros: pH (2 a 8, concentração de glicose (0 a 3%, concentração do corante (25 a 100 ppm e temperatura (20 a 40ºC. As leveduras mostraram capacidade de descolorir o RBBR com eficiência entre 80 e 93%, depois de 24 horas. A melhor condição para descoloração do RBBR ocorreu em pH ácido, 2% de glicose, 25 ppm do corante e 25ºC. Com os ensaios com Artemia salina, foi observado diminuição da toxicidade após tratamento com os isolados SJ10 e SJU5, depois de 120 horas de incubação.

  19. Los lípidos en la nutrición del abulón azul, molusco con potencial de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Durazo Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tipo y nivel de lípidos en el crecimiento y metabolismo de ácidos grasos en abulón azul. La primera parte del estudio se realizó en una granja comercial, donde se analizaron tres tratamientos de alimentación (alimento formulado, macroalga fresca y la combinación de ambos sobre parámetros biológicos y composición de ácidos grasos de organismos juveniles en un periodo de 329 días. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos de los abulones sugieren su capacidad para sintetizar ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 y n-6 de cadena larga a partir de precursores de cadena más corta. En el segundo experimento se evaluó el efecto de la fuente y nivel de ácidos grasos, con trece tratamientos de alimentación y el uso de cuatro aceites comestibles, sobre el crecimiento y composición de ácidos grasos en tejido muscular. No se determinó una relación significativa entre crecimiento y un determinado tipo o nivel de ácido graso, pero se establecieron requerimientos de ácidos grasos n-3 y n-6.

  20. SEBARAN INFEKSI TAURA SYNDROME, INFECTIOUS MYONECROSIS, DAN Penaeus vannamei NERVOUS VIRUS (TSV, IMNV, DAN PvNV) PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG Litopenaeus vannamei DI JAWA BARAT, JAWA TIMUR, DAN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Isti Koesharyani; Lila Gardenia; Tatik Mufidah

    2015-01-01

    Pada budidaya udang introduksi Litopenaeus vannamei, virus merupakan penyakit yang memberi dampak cukup merugikan dan menimbulkan kematian massal budidaya udang vaname. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sebaran adanya infeksi virus di beberapa daerah budidaya udang L. vannamei, di Jawa Timur (Bangil, Banyuwangi, Situbondo), Bali, dan Jawa Barat (Karawang dan Mauk-Tangerang). Jenis virus yang dianalisis adalah Taura Syndrome (TSV), Infectious Myonecrosis (IMNV), dan Penaeus vanname...

  1. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei);Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama e de refrigeracao na conservacao do camarao-branco-do-pacifico (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-07-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g{sup -1} for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found

  2. Influências da Guerra Fria no discurso nacionalista argentino. O retrato dos conflictos internacionais no Semanário Nacionalista Azul y Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valeria Galvan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As notícias sobre as guerras internacionais desencadeadas no marco da Guerra Fria têm sido utilizadas pela discursividade nacionalista em pós do seu programa político próprio, mais vinculado ao contexto local do que ao internacional.O semanário político dos anos cinqüenta e sessenta, Azul y Blanco, virou testemunha disso. Este, embora tenha-se concentrado principalmente na política nacional, deixou filtrar em suas páginas notícias internacionais que expunham as problemáticas mais importantes da Guerra Fria nesses anos, desde uma óptica nacionalista que ia mais longe das identidades nacionais para construir um “nós” geograficamente mais amplo. Assim, apesar da maior relevância da Revolução Cubana nas páginas da revista, a situação do bloco oriental europeu e a Guerra do Vietnã foram também importantes na secção internacional. Essas notícias eram escritas por correspondentes e editores argentinos e estrangeiros. Ambos argentinos e estrangeiros tiveram posicionamentos políticos e ideológicos que ficaram comprometidos com seus respectivos cenários locais. Assim, eles contribuíram especialmente para as transformações que atravessava o discurso nacionalista local. Nesse sentido, as redefinições ideológicas e políticas do nacionalismo argentino desses anhos nutriram-se também de aqueles olhares.

  3. Diagnosis of the generation, harvesting and leached treatment of the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul and proposal of technological alternatives for its improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Gonzalez, Ileana

    2007-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis was conduced in the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul to evaluate the state of the generation, the harvesting and the leached treatment system. Besides, the corrective measures for each case were determined. The physicochemical characterization of the leached generated has been established through the collection of historical analysis conduced and the implementation of an environmental monitoring plan. As a consequence of said characterization, it was concluded that the leached generated at present possesses the specific characteristics of backfills that are found in mature stage (methanogenic), to know: low relation DBO/DQO, slightly basic pH, low concentration of heavy metals and low biodegradability. Even so these liquids must be treated to fulfill the permissible maximum parameters that establish the Reglamento de Uso y Vertido de Aguas Residuales. A seasonal variation linked with the generation of leached was determined, by effects of infiltration, toward the mass of waste and the combination of pluvial water with leached, mainly due to the absence of adequate infrastructure and unfinished works. The amount of leached that was generated and that will be generated until year 2025 it was managed to consider by means of the modeling a hydric balance. The volume is significant and is due to adopt the respective sanitary measures to guarantee to long term the adapted treatment of the leached and the fulfillment of the effective legislation. A series of improvements are proposed to the leached treatment system that functions at present, as a consequence of the diagnosis carried out to achieve that the quality of the effluent treated comply with the parameters of poured established; such as: filtration of heavy particles, implementation of a physicochemical treatment and treatment of muds. (author) [es

  4. Evaluación de tres métodos de reproducción del penco azul (Agave americana), en la Parroquia Tocachi, Cantón Pedro Moncayo Provincia Pichincha.

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Sánchez, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Parroquia Tocachi, Cantón Pedro Moncayo Provincia Pichincha¨, cuyo objetivo general fue ¨Evaluar tres métodos de reproducción (semillas, hijuelos, esquejes) de penco azul (Agave americana), para mejorar la eficiencia en la producción de plantas destinadas al cultivo extensivo¨ y los objetivos específicos fueron: Contrastar las ventajas y desventajas de los diferentes métodos de reproducción, identificar el método que presente las mejores característi...

  5. Caracterização químico-mineralógica e espectroscopia Mössbauer de água-marinha da região de Pedra Azul, nordeste de Minas Gerais.

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Rúbia Ribeiro; Evangelista, Hanna Jordt; Costa, Geraldo Magela da

    2001-01-01

    Águas-marinhas de três pegmatitos localizados nas imediações da cidade de Pedra Azul, Minas Gerais, foram caracterizadas em termos de propriedades físicas e composição química, incluindo espectroscopia Mõssbauer. Os corpos pegmatíticos têm forma lenticular, ra- ramente ultrapassam 5m de largura e apresentam um pronunciado zonamento mineralógico e textural. Ó último evento termal registrado nes- tes pegmatitos, conforme determinado pelo método K-Ar em moscovita, ocorreu no Neoproterozóico. Est...

  6. Uso do azul de metileno no tratamento de choque anafilático durante anestesia: relato de caso Uso del azul de metileno en el tratamiento de choque anafiláctico durante anestesia: relato de caso Methylene blue to treat anaphylaxis during anesthesia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mestriner Stocche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: No período peri-operatório, o risco de anafilaxia deve sempre ser considerado. A incidência de reações alérgicas em anestesia é controversa, variando entre 1/3000 a 1/20.000, com mortalidade entre 3% e 9 %. Neste caso, relata-se o uso do azul de metileno como coadjuvante ao tratamento do choque anafilático refratário à terapêutica tradicional. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, submetido a herniorrafia inguinal sob raquianestesia. No final do procedimento, ao receber dipirona (1,5 g, por via venosa, o paciente imediatamente apresentou broncoespasmo, cianose, diminuição da SpO2 e da PAS, culminando com parada cardiorrespiratória. Foi iniciada reanimação cardiorrespiratória com massagem cardíaca externa, seguida de IOT e injeção de adrenalina (1 mg, atropina (1 mg, restabelecendo-se FC de 150 bpm, porém sem pulso palpável. Administrou-se mais 1 mg de adrenalina além de 1 g de hidrocortisona, com restabelecimento de pulso central (8 minutos. Apesar de receber dopamina (20 µg.kg-1.min-1, o paciente manteve-se hipotenso (60 mmHg até 80 minutos. Administraram-se 100 mg de azul de metileno por via venosa, quando houve aumento da PAS para 85 e 105 mmHg, após a segunda dose. Seguiu-se da diminuição da dose de dopamina de 20 para 10, 7, 5 e, finalmente, 2 µg.kg-1.min-1. CONCLUSÕES: A anafilaxia tem como principal mediador a liberação de histamina, que induz a produção de óxido nítrico (NO, com conseqüente aumento da guanilato ciclase que promove vasodilatação arteriolar por aumento do GMP cíclico. O azul de metileno pode ser útil nestas situações, pois inibe a guanilato ciclase e conseqüentemente a vasodilatação, o que resulta em melhora hemodinâmica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: En el período peri-operatorio, el riesgo de anafilaxis siempre debe ser considerado. La incidencia de reacciones alérgicas en anestesia es polémica, variando entre 1/3000 a 1/20.000, con

  7. Efecto tóxico de DDT y endosulfan en postlarvas de camarón blanco, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda:Penaeidaede Chiapas,México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Castro-Castro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de conocer la toxicidad del DDT y endosulfan sobre postlarvas de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannaei, se realizaron pruebas de toxicidad aguda en condiciones de laboratorio por 168 h, con temperatura de 29 ± 1 °C, salinidad de 3 ± 1 ‰ y pH en 8 ± 1.Se calculó la concentración letal media (LC50 , la LC50 "incipiente", los tiempos medios de muerte (LT50 , la Máxima Concentración Aceptable del Tóxico (MACT y el "Nivel de Seguridad" (LS; así mismo, en los organismos sobrevivientes se determinó la concentración a la que el crecimiento de los organismos se reduce en un 5 y 50% (CE5 y CE50 . Se evaluaron además las alteraciones en el consumo de oxígeno. El DDT fue 3 veces más tóxico que el endosulfan; sin embargo, los organismos resultaron ser muy sensibles a ambos compuestos. La tasa de crecimiento de las postlarvas disminuyó en un 80 y 50% para el DDT y endosulfan respectivamente. La baja resistencia de las postlarvas al DDT y endosulfan, y las concentraciones de estos compuestos en la laguna, sugieren que si se diera un ingreso adicional de estos plaguicidas al sistema, es muy probable un potencial impacto en la producción de camarón del sistemaToxic efect of DDT and endosulfan in white shrimp postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae from Chiapas, Mexico .We analized acute toxicity in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae exposed to two chlorinated pesticides, DDT and endosulfan, under laboratory conditions during 168 hours, with controlled temperature (29 ± 1°C, salinity (3 ± 1 ‰ and pH (8 ± 1. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 , "incipient" LC50, median lethal time (LT50 the "maximum acceptable concentration of the toxic compound" (MACT and "the safety level" (SL were determined. The concentration of the compounds at which organism growth was reduced by 5 and 50% (EC5 and EC50 , as well as changes in oxygen consumption patterns were determined in the surviving postlarvae.They were very

  8. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  9. Intencificación agrícola y pérdida de servicios ambientales en el partido de Azul (Provincia de Buenos Aires entre 2002-2011 / Agricultural intensification and loss of environmental services in the Azul county, Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina between 2002-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vazquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Argentinean agriculture, especially in the Pampas ecoregion, has undergone a remarkable expansion based on technological development. This process allows increasing productivity but it increases costs in terms of loss of environmental services. This paper aims at analyzing the loss of some support and regulation services in the period 2002-2011, in a representative area of the ecoregion: Azul County. In order to conduct such analysis, two sustainability indicators were used: quality conservation of soil and water (QCSW and biodiversity conservation (BC. Land use changes by processing and classifying satellite images, interviews, and field campaigns were previously analyzed. The results indicate an intensification and expansion of agriculture (13.79% to the detriment of livestock (-5.24% and of the surface covered with water in 2002. These changes are reflected in the loss of environmental services and result in the estimation of the indicators: QCSW indicator decreased by 33.8% and BC by 16.03% . Thus, it is a priority to generate agroproductive strategies contemplating that services provided by ecosystems are essential for the maintenance of the County and the region.

  10. APLICACIÓN DE LOS SIG PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DEL ESTADO DE CONSERVACIÓN DEL HÁBITAT DEL PAUJIL DE PICO AZUL CRAX ALBERTI (AVES: CRACIDAE EN EL NORORIENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Molina

    Full Text Available El paujil de pico azul, Crax alberti, es un ave endémica del norte de Colombia en peligro crítico de extinción, sometida a la pérdida del hábitat y a la cacería de subsistencia como principales amenazas. Se desarrolló una aplicación de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG para comparar el estado de conservación de las áreas de bosque, hábitat del paujil de pico azul, en 15 municipios de la región del nororiente de Antioquia en dos períodos de tiempo diferentes (1986 y 2002. La aplicación desarrollada que incorpora información cartográfica digital permitió clasificar ocho zonas definidas en el área de estudio para realizar un análisis de las prioridades de conservación. Se formularon, además, algunas recomendaciones para futuras aplicaciones de SIG como herramienta para la gestión de la conservación de especies amenazadas en Colombia.

  11. How Pore-Fluid Pressure due to Heavy Rainfall Influences Volcanic Eruptions, Example of 1998 and 2008 Eruptions of Cerro Azul (Galapagos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, F.; Amelung, F.; Gregg, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 30 worldwide seismic studies have shown a strong correlation between rainfall and earthquakes in the past 22 years (e.g. Costain and Bollinger, 2010). Such correlation has been explained by the phenomenon of hydro-seismicity via pore pressure diffusion: an increase of pore-fluid in the upper crust reduces the normal stress on faults, which can trigger shear failure. Although this pore pressure effect is widely known for earthquakes, this phenomenon and more broadly poro-elasticity process are not widely studied on volcanoes. However, we know from our previous works that tensile failures that open to propagate magma through the surface are also pore pressure dependent. We have demonstrated that an increase of pore pressure largely reduces the overpressure required to rupture the magma reservoir. We have shown that the pore pressure has more influence on reservoir stability than other parameters such as the reservoir depth or the edifice loading. Here, we investigate how small pore-fluid changes due to hydrothermal or aquifer refill during heavy rainfall may perturb the conditions of failure around magma reservoirs and, what is more, if these perturbations are enough to trigger magma intrusions. We quantify the pore pressure effect on magmatic system by combining 1) 1D pore pressure diffusion model to quantify how pore pressure changes from surface to depth after heavy rainfall events and 2) 2D poro-elastic numerical model to provide the evolution of failure conditions of the reservoir as a consequence of these pore pressure changes. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to characterize the influence on our results of the poro-elastic parameters (hydraulic diffusivity, permeability and porosity) and the geometry of the magma reservoir and the aquifer (depth, size, shape). Finally, we apply our methodology to Cerro Azul volcano (Galapagos) where both last eruptions (1998 and 2008) occurred just after heavy rainfall events, without any pre-eruptive inflation. In

  12. The evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation for the last 700 years inferred from D/H isotopes in the sedimentary record of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio de Ingles, Maria Jesus; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Sáez, Alberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Gonçalves, Vitor M.; Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo; Sánchez López, Guiomar; Francus, Pierre; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    The δD plant leaf wax variations provide insights on precipitation and evaporation evolution through time. This proxy has been used to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climate mode since this mode rules most of the climate variability in the central North Atlantic area. A total lipid extraction preparation and the correspondent analyses in the IRMS have been done for 100 samples from the uppermost 1.5 m of the sedimentary infill of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal). According to the chronological model, established by 210Pb profile and 4 AMS 14C dates, this record contains the environmental history of the last 730 years. The reconstructed precipitation variations obtained from D/H isotope values, suggest that this area has suffered significant changes in its distribution and intensity rainfall patterns through time. The end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 1100- 1300 AD) is characterized by a progressive enrichmentof D/H isotope values which meant decreasing arid conditions. These rainfalls' increase might be interpreted by a shift from positive to negative dominance of the NAO. The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300 - 1850 AD) was characterized by two humid periods (1300- 1550 AD and 1650 - 1850 AD) separated by a relatively dry period. These precipitation oscillations are clearly visible by marked changes in the D/H isotope values. The LIA was followed by the persistence of the positive NAO mode, exhibited by the depletion of the D/H isotope signal, which indicated an overall decrease of the precipitation in the central North Atlantic area. Surprisingly, the D/H of the last 100 years, characterized by the present global warming and a persistent positive NAO mode, display large fluctuations most possibly linked to an enhancement of the storminess which is in concordance with the data fluctuations observed in the instrumental record for the last 80 years in the archipelago. This climatic evolution is in accordance with

  13. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  14. The effects of feeding commercial feed formulated for semi-intensive systems on Litopenaeus vannamei production and its profitability in a hyper-intensive biofloc-dominated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Braga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the production of Litopenaeus vannamei in a high density biofloc-dominated system using two commercial feeds; a less expensive feed (US$0.99 kg−1 formulated for semi-intensive systems and the more expensive (US$1.75 kg−1 which was designed for hyper-intensive systems. A 67-days study was conducted in six 40 m3 lined with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer membrane raceways (RWs filled with mixture of seawater (22 m3, and biofloc-rich water (18 m3. Each RW was stocked (500 shrimp m−3 using juveniles (2.66 g produced from Taura-Resistant and Fast-Growth breeding lines. The study was composed of two feed treatments with three replicates each; the cheaper feed (SI-35 contained 35% crude protein (CP, 7% lipid and 4% fiber while the more expensive one (HI-35 had the same levels of CP and lipid but only 2% fiber. The SI-35 treatment required more solids removal, oxygen, and bicarbonate supplementation than the HI-35 treatment. Weekly growth, total biomass, yield were significantly lower in the SI-35 treatment, whereas feed conversion ratio was higher. The economic analysis indicates that both feeds would be commercially viable, nevertheless, the less-expensive feed financially underperformed the other.

  15. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  16. Combined use of DGT and transplanted shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to assess the bioavailable metals of complex contamination: implications for implementing bioavailability-based water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaosheng; Zhao, Peihong; Yan, Changzhou; Chris, Vulpe D; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

    2014-03-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) were field deployed alongside the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at seven sites with different levels of contamination to assess the potentially bioavailable and toxic fraction of metal contaminants. After 7 days of exposure, several antioxidant biomarkers were quantified in hepatopancreas of exposed shrimps, and tissue levels as well as the total, dissolved, and DGT-labile concentrations of metal contaminants were determined in the pooled site samples. The results showed that the caged shrimps had high tissue contaminant concentrations and significantly inhibited antioxidant responses at the more contaminated sites. DGT-labile metal concentrations provided better spatial resolution of differences in metal contamination when compared with traditional bottle sampling and transplanted shrimp. The total, dissolved, and DGT-labile metal fractions were used to evaluate the potential bioavailability of metal contaminants, comparing with metal accumulation and further linking to antioxidant biomarker responses in tissues of exposed shrimps. Regression analysis showed the significant correlations between DGT-Cu concentrations and tissue-Cu and activities of some biomarker responses in the shrimp hepatopancreas. This indicated that DGT-labile Cu concentrations provided the better prediction of produced biological effects and of the bioavailability than the total or dissolved concentrations. The study supports the use of methods combining transplanted organisms and passive sampling for assessing the chemical and ecotoxicological status of aqueous environments and demonstrates the capability of the DGT technique as a powerful tool for measuring the bioavailability-based water quality in variable coastal environments.

  17. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  18. Crystallographic studies evidencing the high energy tolerance to disrupting the interface disulfide bond of thioredoxin 1 from white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Acevedo, Adam A; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2014-12-15

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small 12-kDa redox protein that catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins from different biological systems. A recent study of the crystal structure of white leg shrimp thioredoxin 1 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) revealed a dimeric form of the protein mediated by a covalent link through a disulfide bond between Cys73 from each monomer. In the present study, X-ray-induced damage in the catalytic and the interface disulfide bond of LvTrx was studied at atomic resolution at different transmission energies of 8% and 27%, 12.8 keV at 100 K in the beamline I-24 at Diamond Light Source. We found that at an absorbed dose of 32 MGy, the X-ray induces the cleavage of the disulfide bond of each catalytic site; however, the interface disulfide bond was cleaved at an X-ray adsorbed dose of 85 MGy; despite being the most solvent-exposed disulfide bond in LvTrx (~50 Å2). This result clearly established that the interface disulfide bond is very stable and, therefore, less susceptible to being reduced by X-rays. In fact, these studies open the possibility of the existence in solution of a dimeric LvTrx.

  19. Crystallographic Studies Evidencing the High Energy Tolerance to Disrupting the Interface Disulfide Bond of Thioredoxin 1 from White Leg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Campos-Acevedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin (Trx is a small 12-kDa redox protein that catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins from different biological systems. A recent study of the crystal structure of white leg shrimp thioredoxin 1 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx revealed a dimeric form of the protein mediated by a covalent link through a disulfide bond between Cys73 from each monomer. In the present study, X-ray-induced damage in the catalytic and the interface disulfide bond of LvTrx was studied at atomic resolution at different transmission energies of 8% and 27%, 12.8 keV at 100 K in the beamline I-24 at Diamond Light Source. We found that at an absorbed dose of 32 MGy, the X-ray induces the cleavage of the disulfide bond of each catalytic site; however, the interface disulfide bond was cleaved at an X-ray adsorbed dose of 85 MGy; despite being the most solvent-exposed disulfide bond in LvTrx (~50 Å2. This result clearly established that the interface disulfide bond is very stable and, therefore, less susceptible to being reduced by X-rays. In fact, these studies open the possibility of the existence in solution of a dimeric LvTrx.

  20. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  1. Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel red colour-related pigment-binding protein derived from the shell of the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chuang; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Gao, Jialong; Watabe, Shugo

    2018-02-15

    Pigment-binding proteins play important roles in crustacean shell colour change. In this study, a red colour-related pigment-binding protein, designated LvPBP75, was purified from the shell of Litopenaeus vannamei. HPLC and PAGE analysis showed that LvPBP75 was a homogeneous monomer with molecular mass of 75kDa. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed that LvPBP75 belonged to hemocyanin, and the released pigment from heated LvPBP75 showed a λ max at 481nm in acetone. The significant red-colour change temperatures were detected at 30 and 80°C, respectively. Based on the determined amino acid fragments, a full-length cDNA of LvPBP75 was cloned and sequenced. The ORF encodes a protein of 662 amino acids having 80% identity with penaeidae hemocyanin. These results strongly suggest a novel function of hemocyanin, namely binding with pigment, and its involvement in L. vannamei shell colour change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF A LOCAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIUM USING 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE THAT WAS USED FOR FIELD TRIAL TO ENHANCED WHITELEG SHRIMP (Litopenaeus vannamei SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tb. Haeru Rahayu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of local probiotics in the culture of aquatic organisms is increasing with the demand for more environmental-friendly aquaculture practices. The local bacterium isolate considered as a probiotic was added into the water of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture in a field trial. Four rectangular plastic ponds (ca. 20 m x 30 m per pond were used for 100 days experimentation for six consecutive crops in two years experiment. Survival, harvest size, feed conversion ratio (FCR and Vibrio bacterial count was compared with those of shrimp receiving and none of local isolate. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence shown those isolate was Bacillus pumilus strain DURCK14 with 99% homology. Water shrimp pond added a local isolate had significantly higher survival at about 10.0% to 11.7% than shrimp without added the isolate (p<0.05, and better FCR, but no significant different in shrimp harvest size. Vibrio bacterial was undetected by total plate count. Moreover, it shown better projected yields on an annual basis (three crops per year.

  3. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection. PMID:25561847

  4. Effects of dietary inulin and mannan oligosaccharide on immune related genes expression and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Hong; Dai, Xilin; Li, Jingjing; Ding, Fujiang

    2018-02-19

    The effects of inulin and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) at different doses (2.5, 4 and 10 mg/g) in singular or combined diet on growth rate, immune related genes expression, and resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. At the end of 28-day singular feeding experiment, the highest values of specific growth rate (SGR) and the expression of toll-like receptor1, 2 and 3 (TLR1, 2, 3), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), crustin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) as well as prophenoloxidase (proPO) were observed in shrimp individually fed with 5 mg/g dietary inulin or MOS, respectively. Compared with individual treatments, diet containing combined prebiotics (5 mg/g inulin and MOS) significantly improved the expression of TLRs, STAT, proPO, crustin and ALF in L. vannamei after four-week feeding. Additionally, Pacific white shrimp fed with combined dietary prebiotics showed significantly higher expression of immune related genes and lower cumulative mortality in WSSV and Vibrio alginolyticus challenges, compared to the singular feeding groups and control. These results in the present study demonstrated that the combined supplementation of inulin (5 mg/g) and MOS (5 mg/g) remarkably enhanced innate immune response and pathogen resistance of shrimp, and should be considered as a promising immunostimulatory additive for the culture of Pacific white shrimp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of different dietary lipid level on the growth, survival and immune-relating genes expression in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-peng; Li, Jin-feng; Wu, Xiao-chun; Zhong, Wei-jing; Xian, Jian-an; Liao, Shao-an; Miao, Yu-tao; Wang, An-li

    2013-05-01

    Five feeding trials based on the isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing 34% protein, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% or 14% lipid respectively in the circulating water culture system for both 30 and 60 days were conducted to investigate the effect of the dietary lipid level on the growth and immunity in white shirmp, Litopenaeus vannamei adults. The body weight and specific growth rate of white shrimp in different treatments indicated that shrimps fed the diet of 12% lipid level for 30d and 10% lipid level for 60d had the best developmental status. The ability of respiratory burst in hemocytes was improved as the increase of dietary lipid level. The transcripts of LGBP and pPO were sensitive to the dietary lipid in hemocyte and hepatopancreas respectively. The activities of CAT, GPx and AKP were increased to a certain extend according to dietary lipid level. Qualification of MDA showed the lowest level in the sample subjected to 12% lipid level diet, indicating an optimal utilization of the dietary lipid and an efficient clearance of MDA in vivo. These results suggested that dietary lipid level of 10-12% significantly tunes the growth and enhance the immune abilities mainly via ROS pathway of L. vannamei. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Diversity of Vibrios Associated with Vibriosis in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Extensive Shrimp Pond in Kendal District, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjito; Harjuno Condro Haditomo, Alfabetian; Desrina; Djunaedi, Ali; Budi Prayitno, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    Vibriosis out breaks frequently occur in extensive shrimps farming. The study were commenced to find out the clinical signs of white shrimp that was infected by the Vibrio and to identify the bacterial associated with vibriosis in the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Bacterial isolates were gained from hepatopancreas and telson of moribund shrimps that were collected from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal District, Indonesia and cultured on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose Agar (TCBSA). Isolates were clustered and identified using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). Three representative isolates (SJV 03, SJV 05 and SJV 19) were amplified with PCR using primers for 16S rRNA, and sequence for further identification. The clinical signs of shrimps affected by vibrio were pale hepatopancreas, weak of telson, dark and reddish coloration of smouth, patches of red colour in part of the body on the carapace, periopods, pleuopods, and telson. A total of 19 isolates were obtained and belong to three groups of genus Vibrios. Result of the 16S DNA sequence analysis, the vibrio found in this study related to vibriosis in white shrimps from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal were closely related to Vibrio harveyi (SJV 03); V. parahaemolyticus (SJV 05) and V. alginolyticus (SJV 19).

  7. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-05-17

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  8. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-11-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  9. RNA-Seq reveals the dynamic and diverse features of digestive enzymes during early development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), with high commercial value, has a typical metamorphosis pattern by going through embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae during early development. Its diets change continually in this period, and a high mortality of larvae also occurs in this period. Since there is a close relationship between diets and digestive enzymes, a comprehensive investigation about the types and expression patterns of all digestive enzyme genes during early development of L. vannamei is of considerable significance for shrimp diets and larvae culture. Using RNA-Seq data, the types and expression characteristics of the digestive enzyme genes were analyzed during five different development stages (embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae) in L. vannamei. Among the obtained 66,815 unigenes, 296 were annotated as 16 different digestive enzymes including five types of carbohydrase, seven types of peptidase and four types of lipase. Such a diverse suite of enzymes illustrated the capacity of L. vannamei to exploit varied diets to fit their nutritional requirements. The analysis of their dynamic expression patterns during development also indicated the importance of transcriptional regulation to adapt to the diet transition. Our study revealed the diverse and dynamic features of digestive enzymes during early development of L. vannamei. These results would provide support to better understand the physiological changes during diet transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE RAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE JUVENIS DO CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei EM LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIBELE SOARES PONTES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the temporary replacement of shrimp ration (RC by chicken ration (RF in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, juvenils (1.07 ± 0.26 g, were cultivated (52/m2 for 30 days in 50 L boxes, with constant aeration, 0% of water exchange and fed with 10% of its biomass/day at 08:00 and 16:00 h, according to the treatments: (1 RC; (2 1 week RC + 1 week RF, alternate; (3 RF and (4 1 day RF + 1 day RC, alternate; with 5 repetitions each. There was no difference (P <0.05 in the weight of shrimp on the basis of treatments applied at the beginning (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0003, 15 days (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.98 and at 30 days (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.07 to experiment. The Specific Growth Rate (rm ANOVA, P = 0.28 and survival (Friedman, P = 0,34 the animals were significantly similar, indicating that these parameters were not affected by treatments, with the possible replacement of shrimp ration by chicken ration, as a measure of containment of expenditure, for short intervals of time. Studies are needed to validate these results in earth ponds.

  11. Evaluation of the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei estuarine-wild from southern Sinaloa and northern Nayarit by microbiological analysis and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez-Gómez, E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incidence of human poisonings attributed to raw shrimp consumption in southern of Sinaloa and northern of Nayarit in recent years, white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was sampled from three wildestuaries where it’s been captured and one sample was taken from a sale center in order to determine the possible presence of toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, from May to December of 2012. Samples were analyzed by Biochemical test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, they were also tested for the specific an toxicological identification, using molecular oligo nucleotides markers tlh, tdh and trh. The number of positives results were recorded to a table of most probable number (MPN.The number of samples positive for V. parahaemolyticus, weren’t toxigenic and it was demonstrated that they were below the limit established in the Mexican Official Standard NOM-242-SSA1-2009. In conclusion, the present study revealed that consumption of raw shrimp from the dates and sites sampled did not show to be a risk for human gastrointestinal diseases.

  12. Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobedo-Lozano, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitated and characterized. 496 g of demineralized exoskeleton were obtained from 1 kg of shrimp shell; out of these, 376 g corresponded to chitin and 120 g corresponded to protein Total protein content was 33.80 ± 0.34 %. The digestible protein fractions were 26.7 g and 92.1 g were insoluble proteins. Of this latter fraction, the largest proportion belonged to the scleroprotein type. The amino acid profile analysis from the recovered proteins indicated that there were present nine amino acids out of the ten essential ones, being leucine the one with the highest proportion. In vitro digestibility was shown to be up to an 83.7 %. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the recovery of digestibleproteins from shrimp exoskeleton may be useful in diet formulation.

  13. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  14. Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongvarrasopone, Chalermporn; Saejia, Pipop; Chanasakulniyom, Mayuree; Panyim, Sakol

    2011-07-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed to investigate whether knockdown of Rab7 in L. vannamei by dsRNA-PmRab7 could inhibit replication of TSV. RNA interference (RNAi) technology using dsRNA targeting the LvRab7 gene was used to silence the mRNA expression of LvRab7. The silencing of the LvRab7 gene inhibited TSV replication dramatically when compared to groups receiving dsRNA-GFP or NaCl. This is the first demonstration that dsRNA targeting the endogenous shrimp gene LvRab7 strongly reduces TSV replication. It provides further evidence that LvRab7 is involved in the endosomal trafficking pathway of viruses infecting penaeid shrimp.

  15. Total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fillets and shells (in natura or cooked of “Vila Franca” shrimp (Litopenaeus Schmitti in different intervals of storage under freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Macena Lira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Shrimps are sources of carotenoids, astaxanthin is the predominant, responsible for their special and desirable properties, as well as for their instability under heat treatment during the domestic preparation, industrial processing or storage under freezing. These can cause discoloration and reduce the beneficial health properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat treatment and storage under freezing (0, 45 and 90 days on the levels of total carotenoids and stability of the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of fillets and shells, raw and cooked, of the white shrimp (“Vila Franca” Litopenaeus schmitti (Burkenroad, 1938. The antioxidant ability of the extracts was evaluated using the radicals DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and ABTS+• (2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid, as well as by the iron reducing power (FRAP test. The extracts of cooked or in natura shrimps (fillets and shells represent dietary sources of carotenoids, displaying antioxidant activity through all the tested methods, after heat treatment and storage under freezing. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was superior to the one of ascorbic acid, mainly in the cooked fillet and shells. The samples of shrimp shells seemed a valuable source of carotenoids, whose antioxidant activity was verified even 90 days after freezing, and can be used in food products as functional natural supplement, adding value to this waste.

  16. Effect of the diet traditional and non-traditional on the respiration and excretion in larvae of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Medina-Jasso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. It was studied the respiration and ammoniacal excretion of zoeas and mysis of Litopenaeus vannamei fed with the diet used traditionally (of microalgae and nauplios of artemia and another alternative (not traditional of microalgae with rotifers. Materials and methods. After four hours the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in BOD bottles with 60 larvae (closed respirometers was estimated. The concentrations of O2 and NH4 + were measured with an electrode polarográfico in the first case and with the indophenol blue technique for the second. Results. In zoea, oxygen consumption increased with development and showed statistical differences (p=0.023. In mysis, the oxygen consumption were significance in the traditional diet, whereas no differences were alternative (p=0.003. In both stages for the ammoniacal excretion increased development stage and there were detected statistical difference (p<0.001, although to the diets were not noticed significant differences. Conclusions. A higher energy absorption for zoea (I, II y III what mysis (I, II y III larvae was obtained, this is likely an interaction between rates of respiration and excretion caused by variations in the efficiency of absorption by the larvae. The weights obtained in both larvae were not supplied with differences between diets.

  17. 2,3-Di-O-sulfo glucuronic acid: An unmodified and unusual residue in a highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Rômulo S; Brito, Adriana S; Palhares, Lais C G F; Lima, Marcelo A; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Nader, Helena B; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Chavante, Suely F

    2018-03-01

    The occurrence of a natural and unmodified highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate from Litopenaeus vannamei heads (sCS) is herein reported. Its partial digestion by Chondroitinases AC and ABC together with its electrophoretic migration profile revealed it as a highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate despite its average molecular weight being similar to CSA. Using orthogonal 1D/2D NMR experiments, the anomeric signals (δ 4.62/106.0) corresponding to unusual 2,3-di-O-Sulfo-GlcA (∼36%), U3 3S (δ 4.42/84.1, ∼63%) and U2 2S (4.12/80.1, ∼50%) substitutions were confirmed. In addition, non-sulfated GlcA (δ 4.5/106.3) linked to 4-O- (A1 4S , 36%) or 6-O-Sulfo (A1 6S , 28%) GalNAc (δ 4.64/103.5) was observed. Although the biological role of sCS in shrimp is unknown, its influence on hemostasis was also demonstrated. The sCS identification brings to light new questions about the hierarchical model of GAGs biosynthesis and contributes to the better understanding of the subtle relationship between GAGs structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  19. Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2011-09-09

    We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed.

  20. Effect of addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yllana Ferreira-Marinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange systems. Four treatments were considered: zero water exchange (ZWE; ZWE with the addition of feed (ZWE-F; ZWE with the addition of Navicula sp. (ZWE-N and ZWE with the addition of feed and Navicula sp. (ZWE-FN, all in triplicate. Shrimp of 17.7 ± 0.02 mg were stocked at a density of 2500 shrimp m-3 and microalgae added on the 1st, 5th and 15th day at a density of 5x10(4 cell mL-1. The shrimp were fed a commercial feed composed by 42% crude protein four times a day except in the ZWE treatment. For data analysis we used Cochran, Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, Tukey and Student-t tests (P < 0.05. The most frequent genera were: Anabaena, Arcella, Asplanchma, Bosmina, Brachionus, Cylindrotheca, Daphnia, Fragilaria, Hemiaulus, Keratella, Orthoseira, Oscillatoria, Phymatodocis, Rhabdonema, Skeletonema, Sckizothrix and Ulothrix. Significant differences between treatments were observed for TAN, NO2-N, alkalinity, final weight, weight gain, final biomass, biomass gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and survival. The ZWE-FN treatment showed better production parameters, indicating the benefits of the addition of Navicula sp. as a natural food source for L. vannamei postlarvae in zero water exchange systems.

  1. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of Chaetoceros muelleri Schütt (Chaetocerotales: Chaetocerotaceae and Isochrysis sp. (Isochrysidales: isochrysidaceae grown outdoors for the larval development of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Erika O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biomass, proximal composition and fatty acid profile of Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros muelleri and their mixture, grown under greenhouse conditions, were evaluated. The nutritional value of both species supplied as the monoalgal (Chaetoceros muelleri: Diet I, and Isochrysis sp. Diet II and mixed diet (Diet III for larval Litopenaeus vannamei was also assessed on the basis of the development and biochemical composition of the larvae. The highest protein levels were obtained in Diets I and II (40% and 35%, respectively. No significant differences in larval survival were found among the diets; however, larvae fed on Diet II had the lowest mean larval length.

  2. Cultivo de Camarão Branco Litopenaeus Vannamei (Boone, 1931) com a Macro-alga Ulva Lacuata Linneaus (Chlorophyta) no Tratamento de Efluentes em Sistema Fechado de Recirculação

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar, J. R.; Horta Junior, P. A.; Celino, Joil José

    2010-01-01

    p. 117-137 Objetivou-se explorar o potencial da macroalga Ulva lactuca para avaliar o cultivo integrado com Litopenaeus vannamei em sistema fechado de recirculação. U. lactuca foi cultivada em recipientes de Erlenmeyer de 500mL, contendo água de efluentes de uma fazenda de camarões marinhos sob diferentes concentrações de NH4 + e PO4 3-. No sistema de recirculação, utilizaram-se camarões, distribuídos em seis tanques de 500L. As algas foram cultivadas em 3 tanques de 250L...

  3. Efectos combinados de las vitaminas c y e dietéticas en la inmunorespuesta del juvenil litopenaeus vannamei antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, César; Rodríguez, Jenny; Echeverría, Fabrizio

    2001-01-01

    Efectos combinados de las vitaminas C y E dietéticas en la inmunorespuesta del juvenil Litopenaeus vannamei antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos Se considera que el estado nutricional tiene una influencia importante en la salud y en la capacidad de los animales para resistir enfermedades. Estudios relacionando la nutrición con la función inmune han sido mayormente desarrollados en peces sin embargo su rol en la resistencia a enfermedades es pobremente entendido.

  4. Bacillus NP5 Improves Growth Performance and Resistance Against Infectious Myonecrosis Virus in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei (Bacillus NP5 Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan dan Ketahanan Terhadap Infeksi Virus Myonecrosis pada Udang Putih (L. vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widanarni Widanarni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN merupakan salah satu penyakit yang sering menyerang udang vaname. Probiotik banyak digunakan pada budidaya udang karena terbukti mampu mengurangi serangan penyakit pada udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh pemberian probiotik Bacillus NP5 melalui pakan terhadap kinerja pertumbuhan, respons imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV. Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g ekor-1 diberi pakan yang disuplementasi probiotik Bacillus NP5 dengan dosis yang berbeda, 102 CFU.g-1 (A, 104 CFU.g-1 (B, 106 CFU.g-1 (C, dan kontrol tanpa suplementasi probiotik (kontrol negatif, KN; kontrol positif, KP selama 30 hari dan dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing dosis, kemudian KP, perlakuan A, B, dan C diuji tantang secara intramuskular dengan IMNV (100 µl.ekor-1. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa udang vaname yang diberi pakan dengan suplementasi probiotik mempunyai laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH, rasio konversi pakan (RKP, dan respons imun yang lebih tinggi. Udang tersebut juga mempunyai total hemocyte count (THC dan resistensi terhadap IMNV yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol positif. Konsentrasi probiotik 106 CFU.g-1 memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan, respon imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi IMNV. Kata kunci: probiotik, Bacillus NP5, Litopenaeus vannamei, pertumbuhan, IMNV Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN is one of the most prevalent white shrimp diseases. Probiotics are widely used in shrimp cultivation because they have been proven to reduce shrimp disease outbreak. This study aimed to observe the effect of oraly administered probiotic Bacillus NP5 on the white shrimp's growth performance, immune response, and resistance to Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV infection. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g individual-1 were fed with a feed supplemented with different doses of the probiotic Bacillus NP5, i

  5. Farinha dos resíduos do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei: caracterização e utilização na formulação de hambúrguer

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves Damasceno, Karla

    2007-01-01

    O potencial brasileiro para a produção e exportação de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei e o grande volume de resíduo gerado pelo seu beneficiamento motivaram a presente pesquisa com o objetivo de contribuir para o aproveitamento destes e incentivar a utilização da farinha de resíduo de camarão em produtos alimentícios. Foram realizados estudos por meio de planejamento fatorial 23, para definir os parâmetros de fabricação da farinha a partir de resíduos do beneficiamento do camarão ...

  6. Coeficientes de utilización digestiva aparente de materia seca, proteína y aminoácidos esenciales de ingredientes terrestres para el camarón del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Terrazas; Roberto Civera; Lilia Ibarra; Ernesto Goytortúa

    2010-01-01

    Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS), proteína (DAP) y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA) fueron determinados (triplicado) para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g), usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente). Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS), harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA) y porcícolas (HSPP), gluten de maíz (GLM) y trigo (GLT), pas...

  7. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668 Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leonardo da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5 dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (p Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, with different concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from 40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p < 0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  8. Inibição da guanilato ciclase pelo azul de metileno no choque circulatório causado por pancreatite aguda necrosante: uma palavra de cuidado embasada em modelo suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Floreoto Baldo

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar o uso terapêutico do bloqueio da guanilato ciclase pelo azul de metileno em um modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em suínos. MÉTODOS: a pancreatite aguda necrotizante foi induzida em porcos anestesiados por infusão ductal pancreática retrógrada de 1ml/kg de taurocolato de sódio a 5% e 8U/kg de enteroquinase. Três grupos foram estudados (n=5: controle (C, pancreatite (PA, "bolus" de azul seguido por pancreatite (AM+PA. Os dados incluíram enzimas séricas e do líquido abdominal, variáveis hemodinâmicas, hemogasometria arterial, volume de líquido abdominal, marcadores inflamatórios plasmáticos, nitrito/nitrato e mieloperoxidase e malondialdeído plasmático. Aplicou-se a análise de variância seguida do pós-teste de Bonferroni (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: os valores de amilase e lipase foram três e dez vezes mais elevados no grupo PA. A atividade da mieloperoxidase foi 50% superior no grupo PA. Os dados hemodinâmicos indicaram choque hipovolêmico precoce seguido de choque cardiogênico. Observou-se grave translocação de líquidos para a cavidade peritoneal. A nitrito/nitrato plasmática permaneceu inalterada. O grupo AM+PA teve aumento de cinco vezes do mieloperoxidase em comparação com o grupo C. CONCLUSÕES: a utilização de azul de metileno em suínos com pancreatite não demonstrou efeitos significativos sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas e inflamatórias. Seu uso terapêutico na pancreatite necro-hemorrágica pode ser inadequado e extremo cuidado deve ser tomado dado o aumento da peroxidação lipídica evidenciado pelo aumento dos valores do malondialdeído.

  9. La Verbena azul en el tratamiento del niño con salpullido The blue Verbena to treat the child with rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Galiano Piquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la miliaria es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la piel, usualmente conocida como salpullido, es muy frecuente en niños pequeños sobre todo en los meses de verano. Objetivo: valorar la eficacia de la infusión de Verbena azul en el control de la miliaria común. Métodos: se realizó un ensayo clínico fase II, a partir de la preparación de una infusión de hojas frescas o secas molidas, que se vertieron en 12 litros de agua hirviente, se tapó y se separó del fuego después de añadirle la planta, se dejó reposar y se coló. Fue aplicada tibia en todo el cuerpo durante 21 días, en dos secciones, al levantarse, y en la tarde luego del baño diario. El estudio se realizó en 30 lactantes de raza blanca, que acudieron con esta patología a la consulta de Medicina Natural y Tradicional, en el consultorio 6 del poblado de Altagracia, en el periodo entre junio del 2004 y junio del 2005, los cuales pertenecían al Policlínico Comunitario Docente "Carlos J. Finlay" de la Ciudad de Camagüey. Los datos se recogieron mediante una encuesta, confeccionada de acuerdo con los objetivos planteados en la investigación. Resultados: el grupo más afectado fue el de 3 a 6 meses, todos los pacientes fueron blancos, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al sexo. La variedad clínica más frecuente fue la cristalina, y los meses en que más se presentó fueron entre junio y agosto. Conclusiones: este tratamiento presentó una alta eficacia en el control de la sintomatología de la miliaria común; se curaron 9 de cada 10 pacientes.Introduction: miliaria is an skin inflammatory disease known as rash and is very frequent in small children mainly during summer months. Objective: assessing the efficacy of the infusion of blue Verbena in controlling common heat rash. Methods: a phase II clinical trial was conducted from the preparation of an infusion of fresh leaves or dry grinded poured out in 12 liters of boiling water, was covered

  10. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com dexametasona e azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collares Edgard Ferro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O óxido nítrico pode estar envolvido no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico produzido pelo lipopolissacarídio bacteriano. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré-tratamento com a dexametasona, bloqueadora da indução do óxido nítrico-sintetase induzida e com o azul de metileno, que bloqueia a guanilato-ciclase, inibe as óxido nítrico-sintetases e inativa o óxido nítrico, sobre o retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio em ratos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos, ''specific patogen free'', após 24 horas de jejum alimentar. No pré-tratamento foram empregadas, via intravenosa, soluções de dexametasona (3 e 6 mg/kg, azul de metileno (2 mg/kg e veículo estéril. O tratamento constou da administração, via intravenosa, de lipopolissacarídio (50 mig/kg e veículo. O intervalo entre o pré-tratamento e o tratamento foi de 10 minutos, exceto no estudo com dexametasona 6 mg/kg, que foi de 1 hora. O intervalo entre a administração do lipopolissacarídio e a avaliação do esvaziamento gástrico foi de 1 hora, exceto nos dois estudos com dexametasona 3 mg/kg que foram de 2 e 8 horas. O esvaziamento gástrico foi avaliado, indiretamente, através da determinação da percentagem de retenção gástrica de solução salina marcada com fenol vermelho. RESULTADOS: Os valores de retenção gástrica, nos animais pré-tratados com dexametasona ou azul de metileno e tratados com veículo, não diferiram significativamente dos observados nos que receberam veículo nos dois momentos. Os animais pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com lipopolissacarídio apresentaram valores de retenção gástrica significativamente mais elevados que nos controles. O pré-tratamento com dexametasona não interferiu no aumento da retenção gástrica determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio, nas primeiras 2 horas após administração da endotoxina. Oito horas após a administração da endotoxina, foi

  11. EVALUATION OF THE LOSS OF SOILS IN THE BASIN OF RIBEIRÃO SERRA AZUL AND THE DEPOSITION OF SEDIMENTS IN THE RESERVOIR OF THE COMPANY OF SANITATION OF MINAS GERAIS-COPASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira de Carvalho

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a supplying spring should consider, not only you factor as distance of the consuming center, readiness of flows, but also the use form and occupation of the soil of a hydrographic basin.The area object of this work, the basin of Ribeirão Serra Azul, when of the planning adopted to that time for choice of the spring, final of the decade of 70, it counted not only with I aid him of countless organs in different spheres of decisions, but in the innovation in preserving the atmosphere as a result of the first external pressures of the agents backers.On this first moment the Company of Sanitation of Minas General- COPASA, gave an important step in the environmental subject in the State of Minas Gerais, promoting the mitigation of the current impacts of the stage of construction of the reservoir and investing inthe preservation of his/her patrimony and spring.

  12. Prevalência de bovídeos reagentes à prova de imunodifusão para língua azul na região norte do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lúcia Viegas de Abreu

    1982-01-01

    Com o objetivo do determinar a prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da Língua Azul, foram tostados, através da prova de dupla difusão em agar (DDA), 1472 Soros Sanguíneos de bovinos do Território Federal de Roraima, 360 do Estado do Amazonas, 300 do Estado do Pará, 300 soros sanguíneos de bovinos e 141 do bubalinos do Território Federal do Amapá. A prevalência foi de 15,9% no Território federal de Roraima, 25,5% no Estado do Amazonas, 32,5% no Estado do Pará e 21,3% e 19,5%, respectivamente, pa...

  13. Growth, mortality and migratory pattern of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Crustacea, Penaeidae in the Carretas-Pereyra coastal lagoon system, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rivera-Velázquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth, mortality and migration pattern of the population of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone 1931 in the Carretas-Pereyra coastal lagoon system, Mexico, were studied. The shrimp spatial distribution and abundance were analyzed in relation to salinity, water temperature, and substrate. A total of 2 669 shrimps was collected at 22 sites sampled monthly from March 2004 to August 2005. Juvenile shrimps of L. vannamei were present in the coastal lagoon system throughout the year, reaching densities from 0.001 to 0.302 ind/m². The estimated daily growth rate was 0.06 to 0.27 mm carapace length (CL. No significant seasonal differences were appreciated. Weekly total mortality (Z was between 0.04 and 0.34. Recruits, juveniles and sub-adults displayed a bimodal distributional pattern regulated by the prevailing conditions during the dry season. The peak abundance of juvenile stages occurred in December-January and March-May. The abundance presented an inverse correlation with salinity (r=-0.42; pSe estudió el crecimiento, la mortalidad y el patrón de migración del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone 1931 en el sistema lagunar costero Carretas Pereyra, México. La distribución espacial y la abundancia fueron analizadas con relación a la salinidad, temperatura y substrato. De marzo de 2004 a agosto de 2005 se recolectó un total de 2669 camarones con un muestreo mensual en 22 sitios. Los jóvenes se hallaron todo el año en el sistema lagunar costero, con densidades entre 0.001 y 0.302 ind/m². La tasa de crecimiento diaria fue de 0.06 a 0.27 mm longitud del cefalotórax (CL y no se apreciaron diferencias significativas entre estaciones. La mortalidad total (Z semanal estuvo entre 0.04 y 0.34. Reclutas, jóvenes y subadultos presentan un patrón de distribución bimodal regulado por las condiciones prevalecientes durante la estación de estío. Los valores máximos de abundancia de los estadios juveniles se presentan en diciembre-enero y marzo-mayo. La

  14. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Patrícia Brito de Araújo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo foidesenvolvido com a finalidade de observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados com diferentesmétodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado aométodo sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention ofhigher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  15. Comportamento de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae em função da oferta do alimento artificial nas fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in relation to artificial food offer along light and dark phases in a 24 h period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 relacionado ao alimento artificial ofertado em comedouros poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, aumentando a relação custo/benefício e os impactos ambientais potenciais do seu cultivo. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram desenvolvidos estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de L. vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01 g, submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, metade deles em ciclo invertido, para observação das suas atividades durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi oferecida em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se antes e depois da oferta: exploração, natação, alimentação e inatividade (focal instantâneo. A natação ocorreu preferencialmente durante a fase escura. A alimentação foi mais elevada na primeira meia hora posterior à oferta, com ênfase nos horários da fase clara. O alimento artificial atuou, em ambas as fases, como um indutor da exploração do substrato, tornando os camarões mais ativos em todos os horários posteriores à sua oferta.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to artificial food offer in feeding trays may result an inadequate feeding by the animal, increasing the cost/benefit relation in shrimp culture and its potential environmental impact. In order to provide tools for optimizing feeding management in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was developed, using 64 L. vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01 g. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register their behavior during light and dark phases. In established intervals, the following activities were registered before and after food exposition: exploration, swimming, feeding and inactivity (instantaneous sampling. Swimming occurred mostly during the dark phase. Feeding time was higher in

  16. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário = Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Lima Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p The effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p < 0.05 than the 0M (428.6 mg treatment. Shrimp survival was high in all treatments (77.9 to 90.0%, but without significant difference (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore, the 15 and 25:1 C:N ratios showed an increased growth performance of nursery phase L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  17. Seleção de variáveis em modelos matemáticos dos parâmetros de cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei Selection of variables in mathematical models of culture parameters of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Marinho Bezerra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar as variáveis de manejo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei que mais influenciaram nas variáveis-respostas ao cultivo (produção, produtividade, peso final e taxa de sobrevivência, em modelos matemáticos. O banco de dados foi composto por 83 cultivos, realizados no período de 2003 a 2005, obtidos de uma fazenda comercial localizada no litoral sul de Pernambuco. Para estimar os parâmetros dos modelos, utilizou-se a técnica dos mínimos quadrados. A seleção das variáveis foi realizada com o processo "backward elimination" associado ao método de transformação de Box e Cox. A adequação das equações e os pressupostos de normalidade e homocedasticidade, para os erros, foram analisadas com base na análise de variância e análise de resíduo. É possível relacionar essas variáveis e estabelecer predições com as equações.The objective of this work was to select management variables of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that most influenced culture variable responses (production, productivity, final weight and survival rate, in mathematical models. The database was composed of 83 cultures in the period of 2003 to 2005, obtained from a shrimp farm located in the South coast of Pernambuco. To estimate the parameters of the models it was used the technique of least square. The selection of variable was carried through the backward elimination process associated to the Box and Cox transformation. The adequacy of the equations and the hypothesis of normality and homogeneous variance for the errors were analyzed based on the analysis of variance and on the analysis of residuals. It is possible to correlate those variables and to establish predictions with the equations.

  18. Effects of endosulfan exposure and Taura Syndrome Virus infection on the survival and molting of the marine penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumburu, Laxminath; Shepard, Eleanor F; Strand, Allan E; Browdy, Craig L

    2012-03-01

    Molting in crustaceans is an important endocrine-controlled biological process that plays a critical role in growth and reproduction. Many factors can affect this physiological cycle in crustaceans including environmental stressors and disease agents. For example the pathology of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) of shrimp is closely related to molting cycle. Similarly, endosulfan, a commonly used pesticide is a potential endocrine disruptor. This study explores interrelationships between pesticide exposure, virus infection and their interactions with physiology and susceptibility of the shrimp. Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) were challenged with increasing doses of endosulfan and TSV (TSV-C, a Belize reference strain) to determine the respective median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s). The 96-h endosulfan LC(50) was 5.32 μg L(-1), while the 7-d TSV LC(50) was 54.74 mg L(-1). Subsequently, based on their respective LC(50) values, a 20-d interaction experiment with sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (2 μg L(-1)) and TSV (30 mg L(-1)) confirmed a significant interaction (pshrimp. Concurrently, molt-stage of animals, both at the time of exposure and death, was compared with mortality. For animals challenged with TSV, no strong correlation between molt-stage and mortality was observed (p>0.05). For animals exposed to endosulfan, animals in the postmolt stage were shown to be more susceptible to acute toxicity (p<0.05). For animals exposed to both TSV and endosulfan, interference of endosulfan-associated stress lead to increasingly higher susceptibility at postmolt (p<0.05) during the acute phase of the TSV disease cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptomic information from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) ovary and eyestalk, and expression patterns for genes putatively involved in the reproductive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-López, Claudia; Galindo-Torres, Pavel E; Arcos, Fabiola G; Galindo-Sánchez, Clara; Racotta, Ilie S; Escobedo-Fregoso, Cristina; Llera-Herrera, Raúl; Ibarra, Ana M

    2017-05-15

    The increased use of massive sequencing technologies has enabled the identification of several genes known to be involved in different mechanisms associated with reproduction that so far have only been studied in vertebrates and other model invertebrate species. In order to further investigate the genes involved in Litopenaeus vannamei reproduction, cDNA and SSH libraries derived from female eyestalk and gonad were produced, allowing the identification of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) that potentially have a role in the regulation of gonadal maturation. In the present study, different transcripts involved in reproduction were identified and a number of them were characterized as full-length. These transcripts were evaluated in males and females in order to establish their tissue expression profiles during developmental stages (juvenile, subadult and adult), and in the case of females, their possible association with gonad maturation was assessed through expression analysis of vitellogenin. The results indicated that the expression of vitellogenin receptor (vtgr) and minichromosome maintenance (mcm) family members in the female gonad suggest an important role during previtellogenesis. Additionally, the expression profiles of genes such as famet, igfbp and gpcr in brain tissues suggest an interaction between the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS) and methyl farnesoate (MF) biosynthesis for control of reproduction. Furthermore, the specific expression pattern of farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase suggests that final synthesis of MF is carried out in different target tissues, where it is regulated by esterase enzymes under a tissue-specific hormonal control. Finally, the presence of a vertebrate type steroid receptor in hepatopancreas and intestine besides being highly expressed in female gonads, suggest a role of that receptor during sexual maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) previously treated with freezing-point regulators using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zunying; Zhao, Yuanhui; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Yang, Huicheng

    2015-08-01

    Three freezing-point regulators (glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol) were employed to optimize thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were glycine content (0.250-1.250 %), sodium chloride content (0.500-2.500 %) and D-sorbitol content (0.125-0.625 %) and analysis of variance showed that the effects of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol on the thermophysical properties were statistically significant (P freezing point (T i ), unfreezable water mass fraction (W u ), apparent specific heat (C app ) and Enthalpy (H) were 0.896 ~ 0.999. The combined effects of these independent variables on T i , W u , C app and H were investigated. The results indicated that T i , C app and H varied curvilinearly with increasing of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol content whereas W u increased nearly linearly. Based on response plots and desirability functions, the optimum combination of process variables for Pacific white shrimp previously treated with freezing-point regulators were 0.876 % for glycine content, 2.298 % for sodium chloride content and 0.589 % for D-sorbitol content, correspondently the optimized thermophysical properties were T i , - 5.086 °C; W u , 17.222 %; C app , 41.038 J/g °C and H, 155.942 J/g, respectively. Briefly, the application of freezing-point regulators depressed T i and obtained the optimum W u , C app and H, which would be obviously beneficial for the exploitation of various thermal processing and food storage.

  1. Hyperglycemic activity of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone B1 isoform (CHH-B1) of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Aguilar, Manuel B; Re, Ana Denisse; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is the most abundant neuropeptide produced by the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the crustacean eyestalk. CHH plays a principal role in the control of glucose metabolism. The CHH-B1 isoform is produced in the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by alternative splicing of the chhB gene and its cDNA sequence has revealed that this isoform has a non-amidated C-terminal residue (CHH-like peptide). In this work, a recombinant CHH-B1 (rCHH-B1) with a sequence identical to the native hormone was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33 and purified from the culture medium by RP-HPLC. The identity of the purified rCHH-B1 was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by using an anti-CHH-B1 polyclonal antibody. An in vivo assay showed that the hyperglycemic effect was dependant of the dosage of rCHH-B1, and the maximal hyperglycemic response was obtained with 250pmol treatment. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence of the C-terminus and its correct structure are both important for the hyperglycemic activity of naturally occurring non-amidated CHH peptides, such as CHH-B1. CHH-B1 appears to be the first reported CHH-like peptide with significant hyperglycemic activity produced in the sinus gland of a penaeid shrimp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of Probiotic Bacillus spp. in Rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia (Artemia urmiana) Enrichment: Effects on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hadi; Imani, Ahmad; Abdollahi, Daruosh; Roozbehfar, Reza; Isari, Amin

    2015-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of Bacillus probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis, 1:1) on growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. The larvae were fed on Artemia urmiana nauplii and Brachionus plicatilis enriched with the probiotic preparation at 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) rate. The experimental setup was completely randomized design comprised of six treatments, namely solo Artemia nauplii (A) or rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii and rotifer without any enrichment (A + R), Artemia nauplii enrichment with probiotic bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis) (A + B), rotifer enrichment with probiotic bacilli (R + B) and enriched Artemia nauplii and rotifer (A + R + B). All treatments were performed in triplicate. Chemical parameters of rearing water viz. pH, salinity and temperature were 7.5-8, 30-31 ppt and 31-32 °C, respectively. Photoperiod was 16L:8D. Shrimp larvae were fed Artemia nauplii and rotifers at 5-20 and 10-40 individuals per shrimp larvae four times a day, respectively. Growth and survival rate of larvae were determined at MII, MIII, PL1, PL4, PL7 and PL10 stages. Larvae in A + R + B treatment showed the highest total length (10.89 ± 0.51 mm), weight (674 ± 73 μg) and survival rate (65% ± 3.5). Lowest total length, weight and survival rate (7.96 ± 0.63 mm, 493 ± 52 μg and 24.5 ± 2.4%, respectively) were recorded in treatment B larvae. We concluded that Bacillus probiotic can improve growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp larvae without conceivably undesirable effects.

  3. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.

  4. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  5. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.

  6. Application of YHV-protease dsRNA for protection and therapeutic treatment against yellow head virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chinnirunvong, Wanlop; Panyim, Sakol

    2009-04-06

    While farming of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is well established in North and South America, the industry has more recently been introduced to Asia, and the Pacific white shrimp is now the most commonly farmed species in Thailand. However, outbreaks of yellow head virus (YHV) disease in the Pacific white shrimp have caused severe economic losses and currently there is no effective prevention or treatment of YHV infections. The YHV-protease double-stranded RNA (YHV-Pro dsRNA) can act as both a prophylactic agent and as a treatment to inhibit YHV replication in infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The utility of this methodology to other shrimp species has not, however, been established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether YHV-Pro dsRNA can be applied to the Pacific white shrimp. To assess prophylactic efficiency, YHV-Pro dsRNA was injected into juvenile shrimp 24 h prior to challenge with YHV. Subsequent YHV replication was inhibited by YHV-Pro dsRNA as compared with injection of an unrelated dsRNA. For therapeutic treatment of YHV-infected shrimp, shrimp were challenged with YHV before dsRNA injection. Injection of YHV-Pro dsRNA up to 6 h post-infection resulted in the almost complete elimination of YHV replication. These results suggest that YHV-Pro dsRNA can also be broadly applied as a prophylactic agent to inhibit YHV replication and therapeutic treatment of YHV-infected Pacific white shrimp.

  7. Effects of Microencapsulated Synbiotic Administration at Different Dosages against heavy co-infection of White Spot Disease (WSD and Vibrio harveyi in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarty Yunarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White spot disease (WSD is one of infectious disease in shrimp caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. This study aimed to determine the dosage immunological effects and growth performances of microencapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus NP5 and mannan oligosaccharide at different dosages on Pacific white shrimp.  The microencapsulated synbiotic   was administered as feed supplementation  against the co-infection of   WSSV and Vibrio harveyi. Synbiotic was encapsulated by spray drying method, further feed supplemented to Pacific white shrimp for 30 days at a  dosages of 0.5% (A, 1% (B, 2% (C and control treatments, i.e. without any microencapsulated synbiotic administration as positive control (D and negative control (E. The challenge test was performed on day 30 after feeding supplementation, then the experimental shrimps were injected by WSSV intramuscularly   at the infective dosage of 104 copies.-ml-1. Afterwards,   24 hours after WSSV injection the shrimps were immersed in water contained cells suspension of V. harveyi  at the cells population dosage of 106 CFU-.ml-1. All synbiotic treatments showed better results with the values of Total Haemocyte Count (THC, Phenoloxidase (PO and Respiratory Burst (RB, were higher (P<0.05 compared to positive control. The specific growth rates (SGR of A, B and C showed higher than both controls of D and E. The feed conversion ratio (FCR value of synbiotic treatments were lower (P<0.05 than both controls. However, the administration of microencapsulated synbiotic have not been able to prevent heavy impact of WSSV and V. harveyi co-infection due to lower SR and mortality pattern which continued to increase.   Keywords: Synbiotic, Litopenaeus vannamei, WSSV, Vibrio harveyi, co-infection

  8. Effect of Potential Probiotic Lactococcus lactis Subsp. lactis on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbiota, Digestive Enzyme Activities, and Disease Resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis on the growth, intestinal microbiota, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Diets containing four different concentrations of L. lactis (0 [basal diet], 10 6 , 10 7 , and 10 8  CFU g -1 ) were fed to white shrimps L. vannamei (average weight 5.89 ± 0.36 g) for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, shrimps were immersed in Caspian Seawater (10.8 ppt) contaminated with 10 6  CFU ml -1 pathogenic V. anguillarum for 2 h. Results revealed that growth rate, survival, and body protein level were increased with dietary supplementation of L. lactis. The activities of digestive enzymes (cellulose, lipase, amylase, and protease) were significantly higher in the groups fed with diets containing 10 7 or 10 8  CFU g -1 L. lactis than those in the control. The Lactobacillus and Bacillus counts were higher (P lactis-supplemented diets. In addition, higher level of L. lactis supplementation decreased the Vibrio counts. Moreover, L. vannamei fed diet supplemented with 10 8  CFU g -1 of L. lactis exhibited significantly the highest hematocyte count and post-challenge survival rate (79.2 %). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation of L. lactis subsp. lactis at 10 8  CFU g -1 can promote growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of L. vannamei.

  9. Molecular cloning, inducible expression and antibacterial analysis of a novel i-type lysozyme (lyz-i2) in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Ren, Chunhua; Wang, Yanhong; Luo, Peng; Jiang, Xiao; Huang, Wen; Chen, Chang; Hu, Chaoqun

    2016-07-01

    The full-length cDNA coding for a novel invertebrate (i-type) lysozyme was identified in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The newly obtained L. vannamei lysozyme is similar to the Penaeus monodon i-type lysozyme 2, but it is distant from the known L. vannamei c-type lysozyme and i-type lysozyme 1 in protein sequence; therefore, it was defined as L. vannamei i-type lysozyme 2 (lyz-i2). Expression of L. vannamei lyz-i2 transcripts were ubiquitously detected in all tissues we selected, with the highest abundance observed in the hemolymph. Challenge with Vibrio harveyi might elicit L. vannamei lyz-i2 mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas, intestine, muscle, gill and hemolymph. In the themolymph, specifically, the stimulatory effects of Vibrio and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on lyz-i2 transcript levels were durable and transient, respectively; while Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)] treatment did not affect lyz-i2 expression. L. vannamei lyz-i2 recombinant protein was generated in an Escherichia coli system. By lysoplate and turbidimetric assays, the L. vannamei lyz-i2 recombinant protein showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties with high activities against Micrococcaceae lysodeikticus and various Vibrio species and relatively low activity against E. coli. In conclusion, L. vannamei lyz-i2 might be a potent antibacterial protein with a role in innate immunity in Penaeid shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Respuesta inmunomoduladora de la superóxido dismutasa en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a inmunoestimulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunomoduladora de la manganeso superóxido dismutasa (MnSOD en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes inmunoestimulantes. Organismos cuyo peso varió entre 0.7 y 1.0 g fueron inmersos durante 6 h en soluciones de β-glucano, lipopolisacárido (LPS, fucoidán, y Vibrio penaeicida muerto por calor. Se determinó la actividad enzimática de la MnSOD en los organismos para evaluar si los diferentes inmunoestimulantes utilizados eran capaces de inducir actividad antioxidante. Los inmunoestimulantes probados activaron el sistema inmune de los camarones, mostrando un incremento generalizado en la respuesta antioxidante 48 h después del ensayo. El mayor incremento en la actividad de la enzima (3.2 veces superior al grupo control se registró cuando se utilizó la bacterina. Se expusieron los camarones a V. penaeicida 10 días después de la exposición a los inmunoestimulantes, obteniendo un incremento en la actividad antioxidante de los camarones expuestos previamente a β-glucano, LPS y fucoidán. La respuesta enzimática más alta se obtuvo con los organismos estimulados con β-glucano (2.5 veces superior al control. Este estudio demostró la capacidad de los juveniles de camarón para mejorar la respuesta antioxidante después de ser expuestos a inmunoestimulantes y a una bacteria patógena.

  11. AVALIAÇÃO DO GANHO DE PESO DE PÓS-LARVAS DO CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, ALIMENTADOS COM PEIXES DA FAUNA ACOMPANHANTE DO CAMARÃO MARINHO EVALUATION OF WEIGHT GAIN IN POST-LARVAE OF MARINE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 FED ON FISH SPECIES WHICH COMPOSE THE MARINE SHRIMP FISHERIES BYCATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Mascarenhas dos Santos Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar o desenvolvimento inicial de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei em água doce utilizando como alimento peixes da fauna acompanhante da pesca do camarão marinho. Cultivaram-se 48 pós-larvas com peso e comprimento médio total iniciais de 0,008±0,001 g e 11,0±0,5 mm, respectivamente. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados, como alimento, ração comercial (RC para camarão marinho com 45% de proteína bruta, Opisthonema oglinum (OO (sardinha bandeira e Chloroscombus chrysurus (CC (palombeta, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A densidade de estocagem consistiu de quatro camarões por aquário. Durante os 75 dias de experimento, a alimentação foi administrada ad libitum. Registrou-se a temperatura média final de 27,1±0,8ºC para os três tratamentos e o pH médio final de 7,68±0,27 para os camarões alimentados com RC e 7,66±0,22 para os indivíduos alimentados com OO e CC, respectivamente. Os pesos médios finais foram de 0,560±0,096 g, 0,495±0,091 g e 0,500±0,101 g e os comprimentos totais finais de 62,1±0,9 mm, 57,0±0,8 mm e 56,2±0,9 mm para os tratamentos com RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Os resultados do peso e comprimento final mostraram que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos testados. A sobrevivência final foi de 87,5±14,4%, 68,8±12,5% e 62,5±14,3% para o RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização de ração para camarão marinho e os peixes marinhos O. oglinum e C. chrysurus como alimento para pós-larvas de camarão marinho apresentam desenvolvimento semelhante. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Camarão marinho, dietas, Chloroscombus chrysurus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Opisthonema oglinum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early development of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae in freshwater fed on fish species that compose the shrimp fisheries bycatch. Forty eight post

  12. Estudo clínico, prospectivo, aberto, randomizado e comparativo para avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul versus peróxido de benzoíla 5% no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda,Lúcia H. F. de; Kodani,Vanessa; Bastos Filho,Antonio; Mazzaro,Carla Bassanezi

    2009-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: Muitos pacientes relatam melhora da acne com a exposição à luz solar, e vários estudos demonstram que a luz azul é efetiva no tratamento da acne. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul (espectro eletromagnético de 407 a 420 nm) no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III, comparada à terapêutica tópica com peróxido de benzoíla a 5%. MÉTODOS: O estudo avaliou 60 pacientes em cinco visitas: uma de seleção, uma com 7, 14 e 28 dias de tratamento e uma última ...

  13. Effects of the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, on the survival, development, stress tolerance, and immune status of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chiu, Chiu-Hsia; Shiu, Ya-Li; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, isolated from the human health food, natto, was used for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, larvae breeding to improve the larval survival rate and development by adding probiotic to the rearing water at (control), 10(8), and 10(9) cfu L(-1) salt water once every 3 days during the 14 days of breeding experiment. Thereafter, stress tolerance and immune status of postlarvae were evaluated. Shrimp larval development was significantly accelerated after adding the probiotic to the larval rearing water at a level of 10(9) cfu L(-1). The survival rate of larvae was significantly higher in the treatment with 10(9) cfu L(-1) compared to the control and the treatment with 10(8) cfu L(-1) after all larvae had metamorphosed to postlarvae. Adding the probiotic to the shrimp larvae rearing water produced a weak inhibition of bacterial growth by an analysis of the total bacterial count and presumptive Vibrio count. For stress tests, no postlarvae died when they were reared in water in which the temperature was decreased from 30 to 2 degrees C at a rate of 0.1 degrees C min(-1). Postlarvae had significantly lower cumulate mortality in the treatments with 10(8) and 10(9) cfu L(-1) compared to the control when they were suddenly exposed to fresh water and 60 per thousand salt water. A significant decrease in the cumulative mortality of postlarvae treated with the probiotic at a level of 10(9) cfu L(-1) was recorded after the sudden transfer to 300 mg L(-1) nitrite-N compared to the control and treatment with 10(8) cfu L(-1). The analysis of immune-related gene expressions showed that the gene expression of prophenoloxidase I, prophenoloxidase II, and lysozyme of larvae were significantly increased after being reared in probiotic-containing water at the levels of 10(8) and 10(9) cfu L(-1). However, no significant difference in serine proteinase or glutathione peroxidase gene expressions was recorded in this study. It is therefore

  14. Modulation of innate immunity and gene expressions in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei following long-term starvation and re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; C Man, Siti Nursafura; W Morni, Wan Zabidii; N A Suhaili, Awangku Shahrir; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Hsu, Chih-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The survival rate, weight loss, immune parameters, resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ß-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppA), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), integrin ß, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), and extracellular copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) were examined in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (8.18 ± 0.86 g body weight) which had been denied food (starved) for up to 14-28 days. Among shrimp which had been starved for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, 100%, 90%, 71%, and 59% survived, and they lost 3.2%, 7.3%, 9.2%, and 10.4% of their body weight, respectively. Hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), and SOD activity significantly decreased in shrimp which had been starved for 1, 1, 1, 5, 14, and 3 days, respectively. The expression of integrin ß significantly decreased after 0.5-5 days of starvation, whereas the expressions of LGBP, PX, proPO I, proPO II, ppA, and α2-M increased after 0.5-1 days. Transcripts of all genes except ecCuZnSOD decreased to the lowest level after 5 days, and tended to background values after 7 and 14 days. Cumulative mortality rates of 7-day-starved shrimp challenged with V. alginolyticus and WSSV were significantly higher than those of challenged control-shrimp for 1-7 and 1-4 days, respectively. In another experiment, immune parameters of shrimp which had been starved for 7 and 14 days and then received normal feeding (at 5% of their body weight daily) were examined after 3, 6, and 12 h, and 1, 3, and 5 days. All immune parameters of 7-day-starved shrimp were able to return to their baseline values after 5 days

  15. Estimation of genetic parameters and genotype-by-environment interactions related to acute ammonia stress in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles at two different salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Meng, Xianhong; Sui, Juan; Dai, Ping; Luo, Kun; Shi, Xiaoli; Hao, Dengchun; Han, Guomin; Kong, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the deterioration of water quality from intensive culture systems and environmental pollution is a common but troublesome problem in the cultivation of this species. The toxicities that result from deteriorating water quality, such as that from ammonia stress, have lethal effects on juvenile shrimp and can increase their susceptibility to pathogens. The toxicity of ammonia plays an important role in the frequently high mortality during the early stage on shrimp farms. However, little information is available regarding the genetic parameters of the ammonia tolerance of juveniles in the early stage, but this information is necessary to understand the potential for the genetic improvement of this trait. Considering the euryhalinity of L. vannamei and the fact that low salinity can increase the toxicity of ammonia stress, we estimated the heritability of ammonia tolerance in juveniles in 30‰ (normal) and 5‰ (low) salinity in this study using the survival time (ST) at individual level and the survival status at the half-lethal time (SS50) at the family level. In the normal and low salinity conditions and for the merged data, the heritability estimates of the ST (0.784±0.070, 0.575±0.068, and 0.517±0.058, respectively) and SS50 (0.402±0.061, 0.216±0.050, and 0.264±0.050, respectively) were all significantly greater than zero, which indicates that the ammonia-tolerance of shrimp can be greatly improved. So it might provide an alternative method to reduce mortality, help to enhance resistance to pathogens and reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. The significant positive genetic correlation between ST and body length suggested that ammonia is more toxic to shrimp in the early stage. The medium-strength genetic correlations of the ST and SS50 between the two environments (0.394±0.097 and 0.377±0.098, respectively) indicate a strong genotype-by-environment (G×E) interaction for ammonia tolerance

  16. [Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Martín; Civera, Roberto; Ibarra, Lilia; Goytortúa, Ernesto

    2010-12-01

    Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA) profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19 g), using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean paste, sorghum meal, and wheat meal. The experiment consisted of a single-factor, completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. Samples of ingredients, diets and feces were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acids. For amino acid assay, we used reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. To avoid partial loss of methionine and cystine, samples of ingredients, diets, and feces were oxidized with performic acid to methionine sulfone and cysteic acid prior to acid hydrolysis. The apparent dry matter and protein digestive utilization coefficients varied from 68% to 109% and from 70% to 103%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of protein for casein, soy paste, wheat meal and wheat gluten were very high (over 90%), corn gluten and poultry byproducts meal showed high protein digestibility (over 80%), but porcine byproducts meal and sorghum meal had low digestibility (76% and 70%, respectively). There was a reasonable, but not total, correspondence between apparent protein digestibility and average essential amino acid digestibility coefficients, except for arginine in corn gluten, phenylalanine and leucine in sorghum meal, phenylalanine in soy

  17. Coloración de azul de metileno como alternativa para determinar la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis Methylene blue test for the determination of viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Randazzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar si la coloración con azul de metileno, de probada utilidad para demostrar la viabilidad de protoescólices de Echinococcus granulosus, puede evidenciar también la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis. Para ello se utilizaron tres suspensiones de larvas de T. spiralis (M1, M2 y M3, las que fueron expuestas a diferentes condiciones y observadas a distintos tiempos: M1 se expuso a -30 °C y se observó a los 70 días; M2 a 80 °C durante 5 minutos y se observó inmediatamente, y M3 se mantuvo a 4 °C durante todo el experimento, como testigo del 100% de vitalidad. Cada suspensión contenía 500 estadios larvarios libres. Se emplearon 100 μl de solución de azul de metileno 1:10 000 en agua destilada, agregados a igual volumen de suspensión de larvas, y las muestras fueron observadas al microscopio óptico para evaluar la motilidad. Los resultados evidenciaron que cuando las larvas de T. spiralis estaban muertas (M1 y M2, el 100% se coloreaban totalmente de azul en su interior, y las estructuras internas, en relación con la capa quitinosa, aparecían retraídas y algunas fragmentadas. En la suspensión testigo M3 las larvas no se coloreaban, y como prueba adicional de viabilidad se pudo observar su típico movimiento en espiral en el 100% de ellas.The present research was carried out with the purpose of determining whether or not the methylene blue test could also evidence viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis, taking into account its usefulness in the determination of viability of protoscolices in Echinococcus granulosus. To this end, three T. spiralis larval suspensions (M1, M2 and M3 were used, each containing 500 free larval stages. A hundred μl of methylene blue solution 1:10000 in distilled water were added to 100 μl of the larval suspension. Larvae were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate motility. M1 was exposed to -30 °C and could be

  18. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry Efeito das lentes intraoculares asféricas e com pigmentação amarela na campimetria azul-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possibilidade de efeitos na sensibilidade ao contraste e nos resultados da campimetria azul-amarelo com implante de uma lente intraocular (LIO asférica ou de pigmentação amarela. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-mascarado, envolvendo 52 pacientes portadores de catarata senil bilateral, divididos em dois grupos; 25

  19. Influência de duas dietas na qualidade da água dos tanquesberçário, utilizados no cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Prysthon da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivos experimentais com pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de berçário, foram realizados em uma fazenda de camarão, objetivando avaliar a influência da utilização de duas dietas na qualidade físico-química das águas residuais. As dietas foram formuladas à base de ração comercial e náuplios de artêmia, denominadas MAC e MAA, respectivamente. Foram utilizadas pós-larvas no estágio (PL19, estocadas a 16PL/L em dois tanques-berçário de 60 m3. Ao final de 10 dias de cultivo, as concentrações dos compostosnitrogenados (amônia, nitrito e nitrato e fosfatados (fósforo total e ortofosfatos dos tanquesberçário foram menores na dieta MAA do que na MAC (pExperiments were carried out in a commercial marine shrimp farm in order to evaluate the use of two diets in Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae, during nursery phase, on physiochemical wastewater quality. Two feeding methods were adopted: Commercial Feeding Method (MAC and Artemia Feeding Method (MAA. The nursery tanks (60 m3 were provided with 19 days post-larvae (PL19 with a stocking density of 16PL/liter. After 10 days of culture, the concentrations of nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate and phosphorus compounds (total phosphorus and orthophosphate in the nursery tank were smaller for MAC, rather than MAA treatment (p<0.05. Consequently, MAA treatment induced low levels of daily compounds increment,thus contributing to a significant reduction of the nutrients that caused water eutrophication.

  20. The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation = Impacto do consumo de oxigênio do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei em relação ao peso corporal, temperatura, salinidade na aeração do viveiro: uma simulação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vinatea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by thecombination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was observed at 30°C, salinities of 25 and 37 ppt, and shrimp of 15 and 20 g. Baseado em estudos de respiração de Litopenaeus vannamei (mg O2 camarão-1 h-1, comportamento do Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate (SOTR, kg O2 h-1 de aeradores mecânicos em função da salinidade, assim como as taxas de respiração da água e do solo (mg O2 L-1 h-1, uma simulação foi realizada a fim de determinar o impacto que estas três variáveis juntas têm sobre a aeração de viveiros (1, 10, 50 e 100 ha, estocados com diferentes densidades (10, 40 e 120 camarões m-2 em salinidades de 1, 13, 25 e 37 ppm, temperaturas de 20, 25 e 30°C e peso úmido dos camarões de 5, 10, 15 e 20 g. Os resultados mostraram que em salinidades mais baixas, com animais maiores e maiores densidades de estocagem, maior será a quantidade de aeradores de 2 cvnecessários para manter o oxigênio dissolvido acima de 50% da saturação. Igualmente, em baixas salinidades e com camarões de 5 e 10 g, independente da densidade de estocagem, mais aeradores

  1. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 marine shrimp farms = Composição fitoplanctônica em três sistemas de cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pereira Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 ƒÊm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997. The results show that the densities of Diatoms were of 16.65, 10.47 and 7.57 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic, intensive and semi intensive cultivations, respectively. As for cyanobacteria, the average figures were 42.06 cel. 103 mL-1 forsemi intensive 17.27 cel. 103 mL-1, in the intensive cultivation and 6.11 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic cultivation system. The dinoflagellates had the highest cellular density in the phytoplankton community analyzed with 61.9 cel. 103 mL-1 in the intensive cultivation, 0.33 and 0.03 cel. 103 mL-1 for both semi intensive and organic cultivation systems respectively. Euglenas presented the results of 4.98 and 14.86 cel. 103 mL-1 only for semi intensive and intensive cultivations. It was then concluded that all cultivations presented average rates below recommended for such studied systems.Conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar as diferentes composicoes fitoplanctonicas em tres sistemas de cultivo para o camarao marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominados de organico, intensivo e semiintensivo. As amostragens foram realizadas quinzenalmente, onde o fitoplancton foi coletado atraves de uma rede de plancton, com malha de 65 ƒÊm, sendo filtrado um volume de agua total de 100 litros, que foram preservadas em solucao de formol a 4% e identificadas segundo a metodologia de Cordeiro et al. (1997. Os resultados mostram que as densidades de diatomaceas foram de 16,65; 10,47 e 7,57 cel. 103 mL-1, respectivamente

  2. Culture of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with zero water exchange and no food addition: an eco-friendly approach Cultivo de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 sin recambio de agua y sin adición de alimento formulado: un sistema amigable con el ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Audelo-Naranjo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juveniles (3.5 ± 0.3 g of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were grown during 40 days with no water exchanges, no food addition and four initial densities (25, 50, 75 and 100 g m-3, corresponding to between 8 and 32 shrimp m-2, to determine growth rates, which could be achieved using the periphyton growing on artificial substrates as the only food source. The experimental culture units were 12 polyethylene 1 m³ cylindrical tanks with 4.8 m² of total submerged surface (bottom and walls, provided with 7.2 m² of artificial substrate (Aquamats™. There were no significant differences in the ammonia and nitrite concentrations determined in the four treatments (0.17-0.19 and 0.10-0.11 mg L-1, respectively, which remained below the respective levels of concern for shrimp cultures. Mean survival was similar, and ranged from close to 91 to 97%, whereas there were significant differences in mean individual weight, which ranged from 11.9-10.6 g shrimp-1 for the two low initial densities (25 y 50 g m-3, to 8.3-7.7 g shrimp-1 for the other treatments. However, because of the high survival and of the higher initial density, the best biomass yield was with 100 g m-3. The final nitrogen contents of sediment and water were lower than the initial values, and between 36 and 60% of the difference was converted into shrimp biomass.Durante 40 días se cultivaron juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei con un peso individual de 3,5 ± 0,3 g y biomasas iniciales de 25, 50, 75 y 100 g m-3 (equivalente a 8-32 ind m-2, sin cambios de agua y adición de alimento, para determinar la tasa de crecimiento usando como única fuente de alimentación el perifiton desarrollado en sustratos artificiales. Se utilizaron estanques cilíndricos de polietileno de 1 m³ con tres réplicas por tratamiento, con una superficie de 4,8 m² (paredes y fondo y 7,1 m² de sustrato artificial (Aquamats™. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones

  3. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134 Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio Aurélio Morais Freire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, em um sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parcelada em duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliados nas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at 08

  4. Genetics of two marine shrimp hatcheries of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in Pernambuco, Brazil Genética de duas larviculturas de camarão branco do Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Souza de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp industry has grown significantly over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially the farmed production of the exotic Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In 2004, this industry was marked by a productivity crisis, which stirred interest towards genetic improvement of shrimp stocks. Shrimp breeders importation was banned in Brazil by a govern Normative Instruction in 1997, as a sanitary precaution. Since then, broodstock replacement in hatcheries has been based on domestic stocks, raising concerns on the decline of genetic diversity and if the existing diversity would allow effective genetic improvement programs. In the present research, genetic parameters such as number of alleles, effective allele number, expected and observed heterozygosities, inbreeding coefficient, genetic differentiation index and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium have estimated of two important commercial hatcheries in Northeast Brazil, genotyping 5 microsatellite loci. Effective allele number (3 to 10.5 and average observed and expected heterozygosities (0.480 and 0.680 were consistent with those reported for cultured and wild Penaeid populations. However, F IS positive values (0.381 for hatchery A and 0.249 for hatchery B reflected a significant heterozygous deficiency within hatcheries (PA carcinicultura cresceu significativamente no Brasil ao longo dos últimos 10 anos, especialmente a produção do camarão branco do Pacífico, o exótico Litopenaeus vannamei. Em 2004, a atividade foi marcada por uma crise na produção, que despertou interesse na implantação de programas de melhoramento dos estoques de camarão. A importação de crustáceos foi banida do Brasil por uma Instrução Normativa de 1997, como uma medida de precaução sanitária. Desde então, a reposição de matrizes nas larviculturas passou a ser conduzida com estoques domesticados, gerando preocupações sobre o possível declínio da diversidade genética e sobre a

  5. Effect of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in a sequential polyculture system Efecto de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sobre el crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei, en un sistema de policultivo secuencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Hernández-Barraza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out at the Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL, University of Arizona, to assess the effect of the addition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, at different densities, on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth rate and feed conversion of shrimp, both in polyculture and monoculture, were evaluated. Shrimp-tilapia proportions were 20:8 individuals in Treatment One (T1, 20:4 individuals in Treatment Two (T2 and 20:2 individuals in Treatment Three (T3, while in Treatment Four (T4 shrimp were stocked as a control group with a ratio of 20:0. The experiment lasted for four weeks at 10 ppt water salinity. The shrimp and fish were fed once a day with 8% and 3% of their body weight, respectively, using a 35% protein feed. At the end of the experiment, the average individual weight and best feed conversion ratio were obtained in shrimp polyculture treatment with highest tilapia density 6.08 ± 0.18 g and 1.26 ± 0.01 respectively, while the lowest scores were found in the monoculture treatment with 5.14 ± 0.59 g and 1.35 ± 0.01, respectively (P El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Investigación del Medio Ambiente (ERL. de la Universidad de Arizona, para evaluar el efecto de la adición de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus a diferentes densidades, en el desempeno del crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei. La tasa de crecimiento y conversión alimenticia del camarón, tanto en policultivo y monocultivo, fueron evaluados. Las proporciones de camarón y la tilapia fueron de 20:8 individuos en el tratamiento uno (T1, 20:4 en el tratamiento dos (T2 y de 20:2 en el tratamiento tres (T3, mientras que en el tratamiento cuatro (T4, únicamente fueron sembrados camarones, participando como grupo control con una relación de 20:0. El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y agua a 10 ppm de salinidad. Los camarones y

  6. Influência de duas dietas na qualidade da água dos tanquesberçário, utilizados no cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.670 The influence of two diets on the quality of water in nursery tanks used in marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.670

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivos experimentais com pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de berçário, foram realizados em uma fazenda de camarão, objetivando avaliar a influência da utilização de duas dietas na qualidade físico-química das águas residuais. As dietas foram formuladas à base de ração comercial e náuplios de artêmia, denominadas MAC e MAA, respectivamente. Foram utilizadas pós-larvas no estágio (PL19, estocadas a 16PL/L em dois tanques-berçário de 60 m3. Ao final de 10 dias de cultivo, as concentrações dos compostos nitrogenados (amônia, nitrito e nitrato e fosfatados (fósforo total e ortofosfatos dos tanquesberçário foram menores na dieta MAA do que na MAC (p Experiments were carried out in a commercial marine shrimp farm in order to evaluate the use of two diets in Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae, during nursery phase, on physiochemical wastewater quality. Two feeding methods were adopted: Commercial Feeding Method (MAC and Artemia Feeding Method (MAA.0 The nursery tanks (60 m3 were provided with 19 days post-larvae (PL19 with a stocking density of 16PL/liter. After 10 days of culture, the concentrations of nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate and phosphorus compounds (total phosphorus and orthophosphate in the nursery tank were smaller for MAC, rather than MAA treatment (p < 0.05. Consequently, MAA treatment induced low levels of daily compounds increment, thus contributing to a significant reduction of the nutrients that caused water eutrophication.

  7. Estudio arqueométrico comparativo de muestras de pinturas con azul egipcio, procedentes de la tumba de Nefertari siglo XIII a.C. y del Balneum, termas romanas, siglos I a.C., I d.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Portal, A. J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work have studied two samples with the same pigment, Egyptian Blue, but from different sources. The difference between them is caused by the functionality. In the case of Nefertari´s tomb is decorating interior rooms carved into rock in which they would not suffer any damage since it does not accessed to that place anymore. In the case of Balneum´s baths is decorating very warm and humid rooms, and should resist deterioration resulting from human activity during the use of these baths.

    En el trabajo presentado se han estudiado dos muestras de pinturas con el mismo pigmento, azul egipcio, de distinta procedencia. Las diferencias entre ellas vienen causadas por la funcionalidad. En el caso de la tumba de Nefertari se trata de decorar estancias interiores excavadas en roca en las que no sufrirían deterioro alguno, dado que no se accedería a ese lugar nunca más. En el caso del Balneum se trata de pinturas que decoran ambientes muy húmedos y cálidos y que, además, deben resistir el deterioro derivado de la actividad humana en dichas termas.

  8. Utilização de zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinza de carvão para remoção de azul de metileno em água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A adsorção de azul de metileno de solução aquosa foi realizada usando-se zeólitas de cinza de carvão como adsorventes de baixo custo. A amostra de cinza de carvão foi convertida em zeólitas por tratamento hidrotérmico usando parâmetros de síntese diferentes. Os materiais foram caracterizados por análise físico-química e estudos de DRX e MEV. As isotermas de adsorção ajustaram-se ao modelo de Freundlich. Os valores da capacidade de adsorção foram similares para os adsorventes. Estudos cinéticos indicaram que a adsorção seguiu o modelo de pseudo-segunda-ordem./////////// The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution was carried out using zeolites synthesized from coal ash as low-cost adsorbents. The coal ash sample was converted to zeolites by hydrothermal treatment using different synthesis parameters. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, XRD and SEM studies. The adsorption isotherms can be fitted by Freundlich model. The values of the adsorption capacity of adsorbents were similar for adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  9. Variation of monthly inventories of 7Be fallout in the soils of the sub-basins 3 and 4 in Mato Frio river, a tributary of Serra Azul river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Alexander D.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study 72 soil samples collected right at the surface were analyzed. They were collected at two work parcels located within the basin of the Mato Frio Creek (total drainage area = 10.6 km²) located in the municipality of Itauna, except for a small fraction in its northern part, which is located in the municipality of Serra Azul. Both municipalities are in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sampling period covers the time span from May 2014 to May 2015, with the purpose of observing on a monthly basis the variation in the activity of the radionuclide Beryllium-7 ( 7 Be, Eγ = 477.6 keV) along a one year hydrologic cycle, stressing the dry and rainy seasons. The objective of this investigation was to establish a baseline for the alteration pattern of the 7 Be content in the soil in order to use these results for future estimates of rates of erosion or accreation in areas of interest within this basin. In order to measure the 7 Be activity in the collected samples, a gamma spectrometer was used, composed of a hyperpure germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 50%. The results indicate a net trend towards a marked variation in the activity of 7 Be in relative to the period of year within which the samples were collected, which in turn results in a reduction or increase in the values of the 7 Be monthly inventory in the topsoil. (author)

  10. Variation of monthly inventories of {sup 7}Be fallout in the soils of the sub-basins 3 and 4 in Mato Frio river, a tributary of Serra Azul river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Alexander D., E-mail: alexander.esquivel@utp.ac.pa [Centro de Investigaciones Hidráulicas e Hidrotécnicas (CIHH / UTP – PA), Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá (Panama); Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this study 72 soil samples collected right at the surface were analyzed. They were collected at two work parcels located within the basin of the Mato Frio Creek (total drainage area = 10.6 km²) located in the municipality of Itauna, except for a small fraction in its northern part, which is located in the municipality of Serra Azul. Both municipalities are in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sampling period covers the time span from May 2014 to May 2015, with the purpose of observing on a monthly basis the variation in the activity of the radionuclide Beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be, Eγ = 477.6 keV) along a one year hydrologic cycle, stressing the dry and rainy seasons. The objective of this investigation was to establish a baseline for the alteration pattern of the {sup 7}Be content in the soil in order to use these results for future estimates of rates of erosion or accreation in areas of interest within this basin. In order to measure the {sup 7}Be activity in the collected samples, a gamma spectrometer was used, composed of a hyperpure germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 50%. The results indicate a net trend towards a marked variation in the activity of {sup 7}Be in relative to the period of year within which the samples were collected, which in turn results in a reduction or increase in the values of the {sup 7}Be monthly inventory in the topsoil. (author)

  11. Aplicación de modelos lineales mixtos en infecciones experimentales con WSSV en el camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Ramírez-Ruiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la mancha blanca (WSSV es uno de los virus más devastadores en la industria camaronícola. Hasta la fecha no se ha hallado una cura para la enfermedad por lo que es necesario diseñar protocolos experimentales reproducibles y medibles para evaluar fármacos y respuestas fisiológicas de los ejemplares durante la prognosis de la infección. En este estudio se evaluaron dos vías de infección (inyección e inmersión con WSSV (200 copias de ADN a temperatura constante de 26 ± 0,5°C, en juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei (4,8 ± 0,38 g en estado de inter-muda. En la infección por inyección se observó nado errático, letargia y coloración rojiza a partir de las 24 h y la mortalidad fue del 100% a los 2-5 días: en 63% de los ejemplares se observó infección ligera [20 copias de ADN y 1-5 cuerpos de inclusión intranuclear (CAI/200 campos], 21% con infección moderada (200 copias de ADN y 1-2 CAI/20 campos y 16% con infección severa (2000 copias de ADN y más de 10 CAI/campo. No se observó mortalidad en los ejemplares controles. En la infección por inmersión, los signos de la enfermedad se observaron a partir del día 3, en un período de 3-9 días se observó 38% de mortalidad: 25% con infección ligera (20 copias de ADN y 1-2 CAI/20 campos, 5% con infección moderada (200 copias de ADN y 1-2 CAI/ 20 campos y 8% con infección severa (2000 copias de ADN y 1-5 CAI/2 campos. El 62% que sobrevivió, fue PCR positivo, con grado de infección ligera (20 copias de ADN pero sin inclusiones CAI. No se observó mortalidad en el grupo control. Los datos recabados no cumplían con los supuestos de independencia y linealidad requeridos para la aplicación de análisis de varianza por lo que se usaron los modelos lineales mixtos donde se observó mayor precisión y capacidad de predicción. En los ejemplares inyectados la mortalidad tuvo su máximo más alto al día 5 después de la inoculación. Mientras que en los infectados por inmersi

  12. Coeficientes de utilización digestiva aparente de materia seca, proteína y aminoácidos esenciales de ingredientes terrestres para el camarón del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Terrazas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS, proteína (DAP y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA fueron determinados (triplicado para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente. Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS, harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA y porcícolas (HSPP, gluten de maíz (GLM y trigo (GLT, pasta de soya (PS, harinas de sorgo (HS y trigo (HT. La DAMS y DAP variaron entre 68%-109% y 70%-103%, respectivamente. La DAP en CAS, PS, HT y GLT fue mayor al 90%, en GLM y HSPA superior a 80%; HSPP (76% y HS (70% tuvieron menor digestibilidad. Hubo concordancia entre DAP y DAAA, excepto para Arg en GLM, Fen y Leu en HS, Fen en PS y Lis en HT y HSPA. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la DAMS, DAP y DAAA en los ingredientes, lo que debe ser tomado en cuenta al formular alimentos para camarón.Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae. Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean

  13. Avaliação biomecânica do cimento ortopédico combinado com antibiótico e azul de metileno Biomechanical evaluation of orthopaedic cement combined with antibiotic and methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Felipe Marcatto de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O cimento acrílico é utilizado há anos nas cirurgias ortopédicas, especialmente nas artroplastias do joelho, merecendo atenção também quando utilizado com o acréscimo de antibióticos (para tratamento de infecções ou corantes (para facilitação de uma possível retirada. Neste estudo procurou-se avaliar diferenças mecânicas entre o cimento ortopédico puro e quando misturado com antibiótico e/ou corante. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados cimento acrílico ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker, vancomicina em pó e azul de metileno e as misturas submetidas a testes físicos e mecânicos de acordo com a norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833. Avaliou-se: tempo para a formação de massa, capacidade de intrusão, resistência à compressão, resistência ao dobramento (tensão e temperatura máxima atingida pelas misturas. RESULTADOS: As misturas avaliadas foram aprovadas quanto ao tempo de preparação da mistura, temperatura máxima alcançada, profundidade da intrusão e resistência à compressão. Somente aquela contendo apenas cimento puro foi aprovada no ensaio de flexão. CONCLUSÃO: O acréscimo de vancomicina e/ou azul de metileno ao cimento ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker reduz a resistência da mistura à flexão, sendo reprovada pela norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833.OBJECTIVE: Acrylic cement has been used for years on orthopaedic surgeries, especially on knee arthroplasties, deserving special attention when added to antibiotics (for treatment of deep bone infections or stains (to facilitate its removal. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate potential mechanical differences between the orthopaedic cement itself and when this is added to antibiotic and/or stains. METHODS: Surgical bone cement Simplex®P Stryker, vancomycin and methylene blue were used, and the mixtures were submitted to physical and mechanical tests according the ABNT NBR ISO 5833 rule. The parameters studied here were: time for mass formation

  14. Estudo experimental de linfonodo sentinela na mama da cadela com azul patente e Tecnécio Tc99m Experimental study of the sentinel lymph node in the dog breast using blue dye and technetium Tc99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Linfonodo Sentinela (LS tem se mostrado efetiva na avaliação axilar nas portadoras de neoplasia mamária. O LS negativo torna desnecessário o esvaziamento axilar. OBJETIVO: Identificar o LS da região subareolar da mama em cadelas utilizando corante azul patente (AP, Tecnécio Tc99m ou a associação de ambas as técnicas e compará-las quanto à sensibilidade na detecção do linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas dezessete cães fêmeas. Um total de 55 mamas foram analisadas. Utilizou-se AP (2,5%/0,5 ml e/ou Tc99m (1,0 mC/0,8ml para identificação do LS. A aplicação do Tc99m era realizada duas horas antes da realização do experimento. O AP era injetado na região subareolar da mama. Localizado o LS, realizava-se sua exérese. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 linfonodos em que se utilizou AP, pôde-se verificar que 40 estavam corados (90,90%. Dos 48 linfonodos em que se utilizou Tc99m, 47 linfonodos estavam radioativos (97,91% (p=0.18; k= - 0.067. Nas 37 mamas em que se associou AP ao Tc99m, apesar de 02 linfonodos não estarem corados, todos estavam radioativos (AP vs AP+Tc: p=0.12; k=0.083; Tc vs AP+Tc: p=1.0; k=0.018. CONCLUSÃO: O Tc99m e o corante azul patente, isolados ou associados, prestam-se à identificação do LS da mama do animal.The sentinel lymph node research (SLN has been effective in the evaluation of nodal status in patients with breast cancer. A negative SLN makes an axillary lymphadenectomy unnecessary. PURPOSE: To identify the SLN of the subareolar region in female dog breasts using blue dye (BD, Technetium (Tc99m or the association of both techniques and to compare their sensibility in the detection of the SLN. METHODS: Seventeen female dogs were studied. 55 breasts were analyzed. DB and/or Tc99m were used for the identification of SLN. Tc99m was introduced two hours before the experiment. BD was introduced some minutes before the procedure. Once the SLN was localized its dissection was performed. RESULTS

  15. Alterações anatômicas em algodoeiro infectado pelo vírus da doença azul Anatomical alterations in blue disease infected cotton plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana K. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A doença azul do algodoeiro está associada a um vírus ainda pouco conhecido em suas características morfológicas e moleculares, tanto quanto a sua patologia e epidemiologia. O tipo de transmissão circulativa pelo afídeo vetor Aphis gossypii Glover, associado a recentes relatos de estudos moleculares, sustentam ser o agente etiológico uma espécie membro da família Luteoviridae. No presente trabalho, estudos anatômicos comparativos em plantas sadias e infectadas foram realizados com a finalidade de conhecer aspectos estruturais da interação vírus-espécie hospedeira, com potencial aplicação na área de diagnose e melhoramento genético. Os estudos anatômicos foram realizados em folhas de plantas infectadas, com área foliar reduzida, nervuras cloróticas e margem foliar voltada para baixo. O encurtamento dos entrenós, que resultam em um agrupamento de folhas, flores e frutos, e conseqüente redução da altura da planta, do número e tamanho dos frutos, são expressões fenotípicas da planta de algodão infectada, a qual serviu para o presente estudo. Nas plantas infectadas com o agente da doença azul havia maior acúmulo de calose e de cristais de oxalato de cálcio, cloroplastos íntegros distribuídos na região periférica das células do mesofilo e aparente alteração química no interior das células do parênquima paliçádico. Inclusões nos vasos do floema e, ocasionalmente no xilema, também foram observadas. O acúmulo de calose e a presença de inclusões no floema podem indicar uma relação ou preferência do vírus por esse tecido.Cotton blue disease is caused by a virus whose morphological and molecular characteristics is not well known and so demanding information its phytosanitary and epidemiological characteristics. Evidences of an aphid borne (Aphis gossypii Glover circulative (persistent type of transmission, associated with a recent molecular report, sustain for a virus species belonging to the

  16. Estudo da descoloração do corante FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina pelo tratamento combinado do fungo Trametes versicolor e processo de filtração lenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Gonçalves Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de fungos na descoloração de corantes com métodos economicamente viáveis de produção de água bacteriologicamente segura há muito vem sendo descrito por diversos autores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a eficiência da remoção de corante artificial FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina, com uso do fungo de degradação branca Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta. Para a realização dos trabalhos, foram instalados dois protótipos de filtros lentos denominados FL-A e FL-B - no sobrenadante do filtro FL-A foi inoculado o referido fungo, e o filtro FL-B foi utilizado como controle (sem inoculação do microrganismo. O melhor percentual de remoção do corante pelo fungo Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta foi de 44,74% 24 horas após a atividade máxima registrada de lacase. Os resultados mostraram que a filtração lenta combinada com o tratamento com o fungo T. versicolor não apresenta grande potencial para remoção de cor em 21 dias de tratamento, visto que os produtos microbianos gerados interferem no processo de filtração, diminuindo a eficiência do processo físico. Entretanto, restringindo o tempo de tratamento a 24 horas após a atividade enzimática máxima, o tratamento combinado apresentou boa eficiência.

  17. El secreto del huevo azul, de Catalina González Vilar. Estudio narratológico. The secret of the blue egg, by Catalina González Vilar. Narratological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez-García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a narratological study of the literary work The secret of the blue egg, by the writer Catalina Gonzalez Vilar, that won El Barco de Vapor prize in 2012. It examines the different constitutive elements of the text (topic approach, prominent figures, syntactic structure, narrative technique… and his contribution to the development of the story with the purpose of discovering the aesthetic and literary values that contribute to the fable. It aims at demonstrating the proper use of them all as they shape a text rich in nuances, striking, suggestive. All these qualities of great importance both in creations aimed at adults as well as at children and young people because they enrich the final value of the work, and by extension, the cultural background of their readers.Este trabajo aborda el estudio narratológico de la obra El secreto del huevo azul, de la escritora Catalina González Vilar, que obtuvo el Premio El Barco de Vapor en el año 2012. Examina los diferentes elementos constitutivos del texto (el enfoque del tema, la caracterización de los personajes, la estructura sintáctica, el tratamiento del lenguaje, la técnica narrativa utilizada… y su aporte al desarrollo de la historia con la finalidad de descubrir los valores estéticos y literarios que aporta a la fábula. Pretende demostrar el adecuado uso de todos ellos dado que favorecen un texto rico en matices, llamativo, sugerente. Cualidades, todas ellas, de gran importancia tanto en creaciones destinadas al público adulto como al infantil y juvenil pues enriquece el valor final de la obra, y por extensión, el bagaje cultural de sus lectores.

  18. Reação anafilática ao corante azul patente durante a biópsia do linfonodo sentinela em câncer de mama inicial: relato de caso Anaphylactic reaction to patent blue dye during sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Yoriko Shinzato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A biópsia do linfonodo sentinela no tratamento do câncer de mama vem substituindo a linfadenectomia em casos iniciais. Este tratamento pode ser realizado com o corante azul vital e/ou radiofármaco. Há relatos de reações alérgicas ao corante com diferentes graus de severidade. Relata-se um caso de reação anafilática severa após injeção intradérmica do corante azul patente, em paciente com diagnóstico de carcinoma ductal in situ. O corante azul patente, apesar de facilitar a detecção do linfonodo, apresenta risco de desencadear reações anafilactóides. É necessário que a equipe envolvida tenha preparo para diagnosticar e tratar esta complicação.Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the treatment of breast cancer has been replacing lymph node resection in early cases. This treatment may be performed with blue dye and/or radiopharmaceuticals. There are reports of allergic reactions to blue dye with different degrees of severity. A case of severe anaphylactic reaction after intradermal injection of patent blue dye was reported in a patient diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ. The patent blue dye facilitates the detection of the sentinel lymph node, but there is the risk of triggering anaphylactic reactions. It is recommended the team involved to be very knowledgeable and prepared to diganose and treat this complication.

  19. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  20. Molecular characterization and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs of isolated bacterials from shrimps (“Litopenaeus vannamei” Caracterização molecular e susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de isolados bacterianos de camarões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castelo Branco Albinati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to isolate bacteria from gut of shrimps from Litopenaeus vannamei, by biochemical characterization and molecular identification, inhibition activity in vitro of Bacillus cereus and sensitivity pattern determination. The bacterial species isolated were: Aeromonas caviae (n = 7, Alcaligenes denitrificans (n = 1, Bacillus cereus (n = 1 and Enterobacter spp. (n = 3. Bacillus cereus isolated in this study did not have inhibitory activity to other shrimps isolated bacteria evaluated. In the susceptibility to antimicrobial drug test, it were observed 68,7% to erythromycin, 50% to tetracycline, 81,2% to trimethoprim:sulfamethoxazole, neomycin and estreptomycin, 12,5% to lincomycin and ampicillin, 87,5% to enrofloxacin and nitrofurantoin, 93,7% to ceftriaxone, 100% to norfloxacin and nalidix acid. The characterization molecular is important on identifying the microrganisms studied. The nalidixic acid and norfloxacin are antimicrobial drugs with high sensitivity for bacteria isolated from shrimps.Objetivou-se isolar bactérias provenientes do trato intestinal de camarões da espécie Litopenaeus vannamei, por meio da caracterização bioquímica e molecular, atividade de inibição in vitro do Bacillus cereus e perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. As espécies bacterianas identificadas foram Aeromonas caviae (n = 7, Alcaligenes denitrificans (n = 1, Bacillus cereus (n = 1 e Enterobacter spp. (n = 3. Bacillus cereus obtido neste estudo não apresentou atividade de inibição frente às demais bactérias isoladas de camarões. Quanto ao perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, foram observados 68,7% de eritromicina, 50% de tetraciclina, 81,2% de sulfametoxazol/trimetoprina, neomicina e estreptomicina, 12,5% de lincomicina e ampicilina, 87,5% de enrofloxacina e nitrofurantoína, 93,7% de ceftriaxona, 100% de norfloxacina e ácido nalidíxico. A caracterização molecular é útil para identificação dos microrganismos estudados

  1. Inclusion levels of soluble carbohydrate in the diet for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10879 Níveis de inclusão de carboidrato solúvel em dietas para camarão branco do pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyva Ribeiro Ferraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated different inclusion levels of carbohydrates (20, 25, 30 and 35% on the performance of Pacific white shrimp fed isoprotein diets (33% crude protein and isoenergy (4,700 kcal kg -1 diets in a complete randomized design with four treatments (n = 3. The experiment was performed in a pond with 1,200 m 2 and 1.5 m depth, where food intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, and retention rates of crude protein and gross energy and survival rate of shrimp were evaluated. For the different inclusion levels of soluble carbohydrates, there were no differences for feed conversion, and retention rates of crude protein and gross energy and survival rate, resulting in means of 1.22:1, 1.2%, 0.74 and 95.0%, respectively. Inclusion levels of soluble carbohydrate significantly influenced the other variables. It was observed that increasing levels of soluble carbohydrate quadraticaly influenced (p Litopenaeus vannamei weighing more than 9 gForam avaliados diferentes níveis de inclusão de carboidratos (20, 25, 30 e 35% sobre o desempenho do camarão branco do pacífico alimentado com rações isoproteicas (33% de proteína bruta e isoenergéticas (4.700 kcal kg-1 em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (n = 3. O experimento foi executado em um viveiro de 1.200 m 2 e 1,5 m de profundidade, onde foi avaliado o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar aparente, a taxa de eficiência proteica, coeficientes de retenção da proteína bruta e energia bruta e a taxa de sobrevivência do camarão. Para os diferentes níveis de inclusão de carboidrato solúvel, não foram observadas diferenças para conversão alimentar aparente, coeficientes de retenção da proteína bruta e energia bruta e taxa de sobrevivência, obtendo-se médias, respectivamente, 1,22:1; 1,21; 0,74 e 95,00%. Houve influência dos níveis de inclusão de carboidrato solúvel sobre as demais vari

  2. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496 Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Bessa Neves Spanghero

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p L. vannamei cultivadas na fase berçário sem renovação de águaThe effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  3. Effects of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormones rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2 on the osmo-ionic regulation of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Díaz, Fernando; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2018-03-26

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline organism that copes with salinity fluctuations in the environment; therefore, its osmotic and ionic regulation abilities are vital. Osmoregulation may be controlled by the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a neuropeptide mainly expressed in the eyestalks. In L. vannamei, CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 are CHH isoforms isolated from the eyestalks whose expression is influenced by environmental salinity. It has been suggested that they are involved in the response to salinity stress. To clarify this, we investigated the effect of the recombinant peptides, rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2, on the osmo-ionic regulation of shrimp acutely exposed to different salinity conditions (8, 26 and 45‰). Both rCHHs promoted differential effects on the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and the ionoregulatory capacity (IC) for hemolymph Na + and Cl - during iso-osmotic (26‰) and hyper-osmotic (45‰) transfers. These changes were linked to the changes observed in Na + /K + ATPase and carbonic anhydrase gene expression in gills, especially under high salinity conditions, suggesting that the hormones may regulate the expression of these genes. Glucose and protein levels measured during acute salinity transfer suggest their roles as sources of metabolic energy for osmotic regulation or as organic osmolytes. These results taken together suggest that both the CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 peptides are important regulators of the physiological response of L. vannamei to acute salinity fluctuations.

  4. Bactérias entéricas presentes em amostras de água e camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei oriundos de fazendas de cultivo no Estado do Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Sabóia Parente

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados a quantificação de coliformes totais (CT e termotolerantes (CTT, isolamento e identificação de coliformes, e pesquisa de Salmonella em 28 amostras de água e 28 de camarão da espécie Litopenaeus vannamei, oriundas de duas fazendas de cultivo localizadas no Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Nenhuma amostra de água apresentou índice de CTT acima do limite de 2.500/100 mL preconizado pela legislação para águas salobras destinadas ao cultivo de organismos para fins de consumo. O Número Mais Provável (NMP/g de CTT das amostras de camarão variou de <3 a 2,9 x 10(4. A maior frequência de isolamento de coliformes nas amostras de água e camarão foi a da espécie Escherichia coli. Em apenas três (5,35%, das 56 amostras analisadas, foi detectada a presença de Salmonella sorovar Newport e S. Saintpaul. Apesar do baixo índice de CTT e da baixa incidência de salmonela, a presença dessas bactérias entéricas em ambientes de cultivo de peneídeos é preocupante, uma vez que podem provocar infecções em humanos.

  5. Coeficientes de utilización digestiva aparente de materia seca, proteína y aminoácidos esenciales de ingredientes terrestres para el camarón del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Terrazas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS, proteína (DAP y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA fueron determinados (triplicado para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente. Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS, harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA y porcícolas (HSPP, gluten de maíz (GLM y trigo (GLT, pasta de soya (PS, harinas de sorgo (HS y trigo (HT. La DAMS y DAP variaron entre 68%-109% y 70%-103%, respectivamente. La DAP en CAS, PS, HT y GLT fue mayor al 90%, en GLM y HSPA superior a 80%; HSPP (76% y HS (70% tuvieron menor digestibilidad. Hubo concordancia entre DAP y DAAA, excepto para Arg en GLM, Fen y Leu en HS, Fen en PS y Lis en HT y HSPA. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la DAMS, DAP y DAAA en los ingredientes, lo que debe ser tomado en cuenta al formular alimentos para camarón.

  6. AvaliaÃÃo de subprodutos do abate de animais terrestres e de resÃduos do processamento de peixes como fonte de proteÃna em raÃÃes para o camarÃo branco do pacÃfico, Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Henrique Gomes dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Os efeitos da utilizaÃÃo de subprodutos animais em dietas para o camarÃo Litopenaeus vannamei sÃo pouco conhecidos. O presente estudo avaliou o desempenho zootÃcnico e as respostas alimentares de juvenis do camarÃo L. vannamei quando alimentados com dietas contendo subprodutos do abate de animais terrestres e de resÃduos do processamento de peixes como substitutos parciais ou totais da farinha de peixe. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas, uma consistindo do cultivo de camarÃes de 2,03 Â 0...

  7. Efecto de la adición de un extracto acuoso de pionilla Lasianthaea podocephala en el cultivo del camarón blanco del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Villanueva-Gutiérrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dos concentraciones de un extracto acuoso de la raíz de pionilla (Lasianthaea podocephala Gray, sobre las variables de la calidad del agua, condición fisiológica y parámetros de producción del camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, cultivado en condiciones intensivas de laboratorio. Dos tratamientos y un control fueron evaluados por triplicado: T1 (1 mL de extracto por acuario, T2 (3 mL y C (control, 0 mL. No se observó un efecto negativo de los tratamientos sobre los parámetros de la calidad del agua, los cuales estuvieron dentro de rangos aceptables, sin presentar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P < 0,05. Algunos de los parámetros de producción tales como la supervivencia, biomasa final y FCA fueron mejores en los tratamientos en que se utilizó el extracto bajo las condiciones experimentales empleadas. La concentración de metabolitos hemolinfáticos, sugiere que los organismos cultivados en los acuarios con extracto tuvieron mejores condiciones, considerando los niveles mayores de proteína y colesterol en su músculo en relación con el control; además los resultados de expresión de genes indican que el extracto podría tener algún efecto inmunoestimulante sobre los camarones. No obstante, se recomienda efectuar estudios adicionales para evaluar y determinar a nivel molecular los ingredientes activos de los tubérculos de raíz de pionilla, para obtener mayor información sobre el uso potencial de este vegetal en la acuacultura.

  8. A novel CHH gene from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was characterized and found highly expressed in gut and less in eyestalk and other extra-eyestalk tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-López, Claudia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Arcos, Fabiola G; Llera-Herrera, Raúl; Racotta, Ilie S; Ibarra, Ana M

    2016-05-15

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family is an important group of neuropeptides involved in controlling growth, reproduction, and stress response in decapod species. In this study, a new gene containing 4 exons-3 introns flanked by canonical 5'-GT-AG-3' intron splice-site junctions was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei. Two full length transcripts of this CHH were isolated from eyestalk and pericardial tissue of males and females using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Transcripts sequences were 1578bp in length in males pericardial tissues and in males and females eyestalk with 100% identity, but the transcript isolated from females pericardial tissues was shorter (974bp). The differences in transcripts length is a result of two polyadenylation sites present in the 3'UTR resulting in two transcription termination signals. Transcript sequences encoded one unique protein that can be classified as type I CHH subfamily because of the 4 exons and 3 introns structure, although the CPRP region is not-well conserved and there is no amidation in the C-terminal of the deduced amino acid sequence. Furthermore, there is a glycine inserted in the mature peptide not at position 12 as in type II CHHs but after amino acid 31 and the phylogenetic analysis did not group the peptide within type I, but closer to type II CHHs. We demonstrated by endpoint-PCR, qPCR, and in situ hybridization (ISH), that this gene is expressed in neuroendocrine organs known to express CHHs in penaeid shrimp, including X-organ and optic nerve in eyestalk, supraesophageal ganglion (SoG), but it is also expressed in other organs as gill, gut, pericardial cavity, as well as in terminal ampoule or spermatophore and vas deferens of males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning and expression of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoform B2 (rCHH-B2) and its effects on the metabolism and osmoregulation of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Díaz, Fernando; Aguilar, Manuel B; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides ubiquitous in crustaceans. In Litopenaeus vannamei, CHH-B2 is a CHH eyestalk isoform whose expression has been shown to vary with enviromental conditions, suggesting its relevance for ecophysiological performance of shrimp, controlling processes related to metabolism and osmo-ionic regulation. To study the involvement of CHH-B2 in these processes, we cloned and expressed a recombinant version with a free C-terminal glycine (rCHH-B2-Gly) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The rCHH-B2-Gly peptide secreted to the culture medium was purified by RP-HPLC and used for in vivo glucose, triglyceride, and osmoregulation dose-response analyses with juvenile shrimp. The peptide was also amidated at the C-terminus using an α-amidating enzyme to produce rCHH-B2-amide. The shrimp showed a dose-dependent effect of rCHH-B2-Gly to hemolymph glucose and triglyceride levels, inducing maximal increases by injecting 500 and 1000pmol of hormone, respectively. Additionally, 10pmol of hormone was sufficient to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp at 35‰. These findings suggest that CHH-B2 has regulatory roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and a potential involvement in osmoregulation of L. vannamei. Injection of 100pmol of rCHH-B2-amide increased glucose and triglyceride levels by 15 and 28%, respectively in comparison with rCHH-B2-Gly, suggesting an important role for the C-terminal amidation. Additionally, an in silico structural analysis done with the CHH-B1 and rCHH-B2-Gly peptides suggests that the C-terminal region may be relevant for the activity of the L. vannamei isoforms and explain the functional divergence from other crustacean CHH/CHH-like peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efecto del fotoperiodo y la razón camarón:macroalga en la remoción de nitrógeno amoniacal total por Gracilaria vermiculophylla, en cultivo con Litopenaeus vannamei, sin recambio de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sánchez-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del fotoperiodo y la relación de biomasa camarón:macroalga en la remoción de nitrógeno amoniacal total (NAT, por la macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, en cultivo con camarón Litopenaeus vannamei, sin recambio de agua. Se evaluaron cuatro fotoperiodos: 12:12, 14:10, 16:08 y 24:00 h de luz:oscuridad y dos relaciones de biomasa camarón:macroalga, 1:4 y 1:8. El diseño experimental fue factorial de 4x2 con cuatro réplicas por tratamiento. Las menores concentraciones de NAT (0,55 ± 0,17 mg L-1, N-NO² (0,145 ± 0,29 mg L-1 y N-NO3 (3,13 ± 0,73 mg L-1 se registraron en la relación 1:8. Las mayores tasas de crecimiento de la macroalga (3,07 ± 1,44% día-1 se obtuvieron con fotoperiodo de 24:00 h y relación de biomasa 1:8. La mayor tasa de incorporación de N en la macroalga (0,31 ± 0,12 mg N L-1 día-1 ocurrió en las mismas condiciones. El crecimiento del camarón fue similar al reportado en sistemas tradicionales de recirculación. La integración de G. vermiculophylla en el sistema sin recambio, fue capaz de mantener los niveles de compuestos nitrogenados tóxicos en niveles favorables para el crecimiento de L. vannamei.

  11. Avaliação de bacterina e Lactobacillus plantarum frente à infecção experimental por Vibrio harveyi em pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the effect of probiotics and inactivated cells of bacterias such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida and Pasteurella multocida in larvae survival of Litopenaeus vannamei, in stress test and experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. Conic tanks of 30 L, were stocked with 400 post-larvae stage five. Four experimental treatments with triplicates consisted of: 1: commercial feed (control, 2: commercial feed plus bacterin by oral administration in artemia, 3: commercial feed plus bacterin by immersion administration, 4: commercial feed with Lactobacillus plantarum inoculation. Bacterin application was conducted 6h before the infection and stress test, while probiotic administration was for 15 days before challenges. In stress test, post-larvae of treatment 4 (commercial feed supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum with reached the highest survival rate (87,86 ± 2,35% followed by the ones of treatment 3 and 2 (bacterim by immersion and bacterim by oral administration in artemia with 81,54±1,50% and 80,16 ± 2,15%, respectively, which were superior to the control treatment (72,63 ± 3,34%. Next to V. harveyi challenge, animals from treatment 3 presented the highest survival rate (79,60 ± 7,12% followed by treatments 4 (69,60 ± 10,43%, 2 (65,60 ± 5,18% and control (56,4 ± 5,58%. All treatments were different from control. The present results demonstrate the possible use of L. plantarum and bacterin as promoters in survival rates of L. vannamei post-larvae in the stress tests and challenges with Vibrio harveyi.

  12. SEBARAN INFEKSI TAURA SYNDROME, INFECTIOUS MYONECROSIS, DAN Penaeus vannamei NERVOUS VIRUS (TSV, IMNV, DAN PvNV PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG Litopenaeus vannamei DI JAWA BARAT, JAWA TIMUR, DAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada budidaya udang introduksi Litopenaeus vannamei, virus merupakan penyakit yang memberi dampak cukup merugikan dan menimbulkan kematian massal budidaya udang vaname. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sebaran adanya infeksi virus di beberapa daerah budidaya udang L. vannamei, di Jawa Timur (Bangil, Banyuwangi, Situbondo, Bali, dan Jawa Barat (Karawang dan Mauk-Tangerang. Jenis virus yang dianalisis adalah Taura Syndrome (TSV, Infectious Myonecrosis (IMNV, dan Penaeus vannamei Nervous Virus (PvNV dan merupakan golongan RNA virus. Sebanyak 5-10 ekor sampel diambil dari setiap daerah secara individu berupa jaringan insang, pleopod, dan daging, disimpan dalam RNAlater. Selanjutnya sampel sampel tersebut dianalisis di Laboratorium Kesehatan Ikan, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan Budidaya, Jakarta. Metode analisis menggunakan Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR dengan spesifik primer: TSV (230 bp, IMNV-1 (600 bp, PvNV-1 (339 bp. Hasil analisis RT-PCR, menunjukkan bahwa dari 56 sampel, ternyata infeksi TSV diperoleh di lokasi budidaya udang di Bangil, Banyuwangi, dan Bali. Sementara, kasus infeksi IMNV terdapat di Banyuwangi dan Bali, sedangkan infeksi PvNV yang merupakan penyakit baru tidak diperoleh dari semua sampel yang ada. Beberapa sampel uji  menunjukkan multi infeksi secara alami antara TSV-IMNV yang berasal dari budidaya di Banyuwangi. Mengingat, kasus infeksi PvNV belum pernah ada di Indonesia, maka perlu aturan tata cara impor atau pengawasan tentang udang vaname agar tidak terjadi introduksi penyakit virus baru ke Indonesia.

  13. Uso do azul de metileno na reversão de vasoplegia refratária ao uso de catecolaminas após bypass aortobifemoral Use of methylene blue in the reversal of vasoplegia refractory to the use of catecholamines after aortobifemoral bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raphaela Garcia de Araújo dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que o óxido nítrico (NO tem importância na vasodilatação associada a reações vasoplégicas. O objetivo deste relato de caso é documentar um caso de vasoplegia refratária ao uso de catecolaminas após bypass aortobifemoral revertida com o uso de azul de metileno. Mulher, 50 anos, submetida a bypass aortobifemoral. Sem comorbidades. Saiu de sala cirúrgica extubada, estável e com pulsos distais presentes. Duas horas após a cirurgia, evoluiu com choque circulatório. Iniciada noradrenalina e investigadas causas de choque. Manteve-se com necessidades crescentes de aminas e parâmetros estáveis. No sexto dia pós-operatório, com a hipótese de vasoplegia refratária, optou-se pelo uso do azul. Resposta imediata, com queda nos níveis de aminas, sendo desligada a noradrenalina no dia seguinte. O azul de metileno inibe a guanilato ciclase, produtora de guanosina monofosfato cíclico. Especula-se que haja um sinergismo entre essas drogas, já que a sua associação permite a atuação do sistema adenosina monofosfato.There is evidence that the nitric oxide plays an important role in the vasodilation associated with vasoplegic reactions. The objective of this case report is to document a case of catecholamine-refractory shock after aortobifemoral bypass treated with methylene blue. A 50-year-old woman was admitted for aortobifemoral bypass graft surgery. She did not present with any comorbidities. At the end of the surgery, she was breathing spontaneously, with palpable pedal pulses. Two hours later, the patient presented shock. Noradrenaline infusion was initiated and the causes of shock were investigated. She required increasing doses of amines and her parameters were stable. On the sixth day after surgery, methylene blue was administered due to the hypothesis of refractory vasoplegia. There was immediate response, with decrease in the catecholamine infusion levels until its withdrawal on the next day. Methylene blue

  14. Infección por el virus de la Lengua azul: activación de señales celulares que inducen apoptosis Bluetongue virus infection: signaling pathway activated during apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mortola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la Lengua azul (VLA es un ARN virus de doble cadena que induce apoptosis tanto en cultivos celulares como en tejidos blanco. Con el fin de dilucidar el mecanismo de apoptosis en la infección por el VLA, en el presente trabajo examinamos en detalle, por la técnica de Western blot, las señales celulares de caspasas, Bax, citocromo c, Smac/DIABLO y factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB que se activan en la infección viral. Hemos comprobado que luego de la infección in vitro con el VLA, se detectó la activación de la caspasa 8 y con ello el mecanismo extrínseco de la apoptosis. También detectamos por primera vez no sólo la activación de miembros de la familia Bcl-2 (Bax, sino también la liberación del citocromo c y la proteína Smac/DIABLO, confirmando que en la infección por el VLA está involucrado el mecanismo secuencial intrínseco de la apoptosis. Asimismo, demostramos que la infección por el VLA activa el NF-kB y que la apoptosis es sustancialmente reducida mediante la inhibición del mismo. La activación de las señales celulares tales como Bax, citocromo c, Smac/DIABLO y NF-kB presentados en este trabajo, esclarecen los mecanismos apoptóticos durante la infección por el VLA para una mayor comprensión del papel primario que juega la apoptosis en la patogénesis del virus.Bluetongue (BTV is a double-stranded RNA virus that induces apoptosis both in mammalian cell cultures and in target tissues. To elucidate the apoptosis pathways in BTV infection, we have examined in detail the apoptosis mechanism by examination of caspases, Bax, cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and NF-kB signalling pathways. In this report, after cell infection with BTV, the activation of caspase 8 was detected, proving the extrinsic receptor binding apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis followed a sequential pathway involving the detection of activated Bcl-2 family members. Furthermore, its translocation to the mitochondria, as well as the release of cytochrome c and

  15. Alterações de cromatina em espermatozóides de ovinos e caprinos avaliadas por azul de toluidina e alaranjado de acridina Chromatin alterations in ram and goat spermatozoa evaluated by toluidine blue and acridine orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Figueiredo Kamimura

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Reprodutores com espermograma normal podem se comportar como subférteis ou passarem por períodos de subfertilidade. As alterações na cromatina dos espermatozóides são possíveis explicações encontradas para tais comportamentos. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de testar a eficiência de azul de toluidina (AT e do alaranjado de acridina (AA na identificação de alterações na compactação de cromatina em espermatozóides de ovinos e caprinos, além de avaliar a correlação entre essas alterações e as de morfologia espermática. Para tal, foram avaliadas amostras de sêmen de 15 ovinos e de 15 caprinos, com dez repetições para cada método por animal. Calcularam-se a média, o desvio padrão (DP e o coeficiente de variação (CV para cada técnica e animal. Utilizou-se o teste t-Student para avaliar diferença entre as médias obtidas nos dois métodos. Também foram calculados a correlação de Pearson e os coeficientes kappa ponderado e não ponderado para avaliar a concordância entre os métodos com AT e AA. Foi verificado que nem sempre as anomalias morfológicas de cabeça são acompanhadas por alterações na cromatina identificáveis pelos métodos utilizados neste trabalho. O método AT é mais estável e possui maior sensibilidade do que AA para ambas as espécies, sendo o mais indicado para caprinos. Contudo, em razão de apresentar repetibilidade muito baixa, ambos os métodos não são indicados para avaliação espermática em ovinos.Males with normal spermogram can behave as subfertile or pass for periods of subfertility. Chromatin alterations of spermatozoa can account for such behavior. The objective of the present work was to test the efficacy of toluidine blue (TB and acridine orange (AO in the identification of alterations in chromatin compaction in spermatozoa from rams and goats, in addition to evaluate the correlation between those alterations and the ones of spermatic morphology. In order to do that

  16. Biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by ligninolytic enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus Biodegradação do azul brilhante de remazol R pelo complexo enzimático ligninolítico produzido por Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Gomes Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" is produced in Brazil on a commercial scale using various lignocellulosic residues. Efforts have been made to reuse the culture residue to obtain products of greater aggregate value such as enzymes or in processes of bioremediation. We evaluated the Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR degradation potential of extracts from solid substrate colonized by P. ostreatus and extracts from residue of the "shimeji" mushroom yield. Colonized substrates and residue were provided by Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extraction was performed with sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 4.6. RBBR decolorization was monitored at 592 nm and peroxidase and laccase activities were measured by monitoring the oxidation of ABTS. Horseradish peroxidase was used as reference. The time of growth of P. ostreatus influenced RBBR degradation and peroxidase and laccase activities. Concentration of 1 mM H2O2 and pH 4.0 were the best for RBBR decolorization. Complete RBBR decolorization was obtained with the addition of only one aliquot of 50 µL of 1 mM H2O2. The stability of the extracts was higher when they were kept under refrigeration than when stored frozen. The potential application of the ligninolytic complex derived from P. ostreatus and mushroom residue for xenobiotic degradation was demonstrated.Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" é produzido no Brasil em escala comercial empregando-se vários resíduos lignocelulósicos. Esforços têm sido feitos para reaproveitamento do resíduo do cultivo em produtos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas ou sua aplicação em processos de biorremediação. Foi feita avaliação do potencial de degradação do azul brilhante de remazol (RBBR por extratos obtidos de substratos sólidos colonizados por P. ostreatus e por extratos do resíduo da produção do cogumelo "shimeji". Substratos colonizados e o resíduo foram fornecidos pela Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extração foi feita com tampão acetato de sódio (50 mM, pH 4

  17. Performance and immunological resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei fed a β-1,3/1,6-glucan-supplemented diet after per os challenge with the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabry Neto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of a β-1,3/1,6-glucan source on the survival, growth, and immunological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV. The work was conducted in 20 tanks of 500 L with clear water with constant recirculation and aeration. Shrimp weighing 2.6±0.4 g were stocked at 100 animals/m2 and reared for 10 weeks. Viral challenge occurred through oral administration of IMNV positive extract (1.82 £ × 103 copies of IMNV/µL RNA during three consecutive days, twice a day. One treatment and three controls, with five replicatetanks each, were used, as follows: Com - commercial diet fed to non-challenged shrimp (NCS; Ref - lab-manufactured basal diet, deprived of β-1,3/1,6- glucan fed to NCS; IMNV-Ref - basal diet fed to IMNV-challenged shrimp; and, IMNV-BetG - basal diet with 1,000 mg/kg of a β-1,3/1,6-glucan. Per os challenge began on the 29th day of rearing (4.93-g to 6.92-g shrimp. Shrimp were effectively contaminated with IMNV. Animals were highly susceptible to IMNV four weeks after the first day of infection when mortality peaked. Shrimp in the Com treatment (69.5±12.7% reached the highest survival, but it did not differ from the Ref group (57.9±9.21%. Shrimp under the IMNV-Ref treatment achieved the lowest survival (23.2±5.76%. Survival for IMNV-BetG (48.1±8.53% was significantly higher than IMNV-Ref, and similar to the Ref group. Total hemocyte count was significantly affected by treatment and hemolymph sampling time, while serum protein concentration and phenoloxidase activity did not change. Addition of 1,000 mg/kg of β-1,3/1,6-glucan in a diet for L. vannamei enhances shrimp survival when orally exposed to IMNV. No signs of immunological fatigue or detriment in growth are detected when the species is continually exposed to this diet.

  18. Risco de contaminação do corante azul de tripano após primeira utilização Risk of contamination of trypan blue dye after first use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Nigro Santiago Malta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o potencial risco de contaminação do frasco de azul de tripano (AT depois de utilizado pela primeira vez e estocado em diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade, assim como identificar os possíveis fatores de contaminação, microrganismos mais freqüentemente envolvidos e simultaneamente avaliar as propriedades bacteriostáticas e bactericidas do corante. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo experimental, prospectivo, em que 30 frascos de AT foram divididos em três grupos (A: controle, B: armazenamento em geladeira e C: armazenamento em armário. O corante era aspirado e semeado em placas de ágar sangue e tubo de ágar Sabouraud. No grupo A o AT foi semeado apenas logo após a abertura dos frascos (tempo zero - T0, nos grupos B e C ocorreu semeadura nos T0, T1 (1 dia, T2 (2 dias, T7 (7 dias e T10 (10 dias após abertura dos frascos. No 10º dia os frascos dos grupos B e C também foram submetidos a um raspado do lado interno do frasco após abertura. Concomitantemente foi realizado teste de ação inibitória do corante AT para estudo da atividade bacteriostática e bactericida. RESULTADOS: As semeaduras realizadas no T0 não apresentaram contaminação. Entre os T1 e T10 mais o raspado houve apenas 1 frasco contaminado armazenado em geladeira. O microrganismo encontrado foi o Aspergillus niger. Foi comprovado que o corante não apresenta ação bactericida e bacteriostática para as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições do estudo não houve contaminação dos frascos armazenados em armário e 1 frasco (10% armazenado em geladeira apresentou contaminação após abertura e uso inicial. A fonte de contaminação talvez seja o lado externo do produto. O AT não apresenta propriedades bactericidas e bacteriostáticas para as bactérias testadas e na concentração utilizada.PURPOSE: To determine the potential risk of contamination of a trypan blue bottle (TB after first use and after being stored under different

  19. A influência do azul de metileno na prevenção da lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal The role of the methylene blue as a lung protector after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ação do azul de metileno como supressor da produção de radicais livres de oxigênio, atuando como receptor alternativo de elétrons na enzima xantina oxidase. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia divididos em 2 grupos de 16 animais, os quais foram denominados grupos: experimento e controle. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e oclusão da artéria mesentérica cranial por 60 minutos. A reperfusão foi confirmada por meio da verificação do reaparecimento da pulsação na arcada mesentérica. Foi então administrado no grupo experimento 2 ml de azul de metileno 1 % estéril intraperitonealmente, enquanto que no grupo controle foi administrado solução salina isotônica estéril em mesmo volume e pela mesma via de administração. Após 4 horas de reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados. Amostras dos pulmões foram obtidas para: análise histopatológica, avaliação do edema e para determinação da atividade da xantina oxidase. RESULTADOS: O dano pulmonar encontrado no grupo controle foi superior ao encontrado no grupo experimento. Observou-se uma maior formação de edema nos pulmões do grupo controle. A atividade da xantina oxidase foi semelhante em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O azul de metileno diminui a lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal.PURPOSE: To study the role of methylene blue as an inibitor of superoxide production by xantine oxidase. METHODS: Thirty two Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups of 16 animals: the control group and the experimental group. All the animals were submitted to a laparotomy for the occlusion of the cranial mesenteric artery during 60 minutes. The reperfusion was confirmed by the 'pulsation of the artery after releasing the temporary ligature. In the animals of the control group, 2 ml of saline were injected in the peritoneal cavity and in the animals of the experimental group 2 ml of methylene

  20. Estudo clínico, prospectivo, aberto, randomizado e comparativo para avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul versus peróxido de benzoíla 5% no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III A prospective, randomized, open and comparative study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of blue light treatment versus a topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grade II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. F. de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Muitos pacientes relatam melhora da acne com a exposição à luz solar, e vários estudos demonstram que a luz azul é efetiva no tratamento da acne. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul (espectro eletromagnético de 407 a 420 nm no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III, comparada à terapêutica tópica com peróxido de benzoíla a 5%. MÉTODOS: O estudo avaliou 60 pacientes em cinco visitas: uma de seleção, uma com 7, 14 e 28 dias de tratamento e uma última de seguimento, 14 dias após o término do tratamento. Trinta foram randomizados para luz azul (oito sessões, duas vezes por semana, e outros 30, para peróxido de benzoíla a 5%, duas vezes ao dia, diariamente. A avaliação foi por meio da contagem das lesões e fotografias. RESULTADOS: A redução no número médio de lesões foi semelhante com os dois tratamentos, independente do tipo de lesão (p 0,05, porém o tratamento com a luz azul apresentou menos efeitos colaterais. CONCLUSÕES: A luz azul foi um tratamento tão eficaz quanto o peróxido de benzoíla a 5% para o tratamento da acne graus II e III, mas com menos efeitos adversos.BACKGROUND: Many acne patients improve after exposure to sunlight and there are many reports about the efficacy of blue light phototherapy on acne lesions. OBJECTIVES - The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of blue light treatment versus topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grades II and III. METHODS - Sixty volunteers with facial acne were included and evaluated in 5 visits: the first one for screening, another 3 held on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment, and the last one after 14 days of the end of treatment. Thirty of them were irradiated with Blue Light (8 times, twice a week and the other thirty were treated with topical Benzoyl Peroxide 5% formulation, auto-applied twice a day, every day. We assessed the severity of acne by counting the lesions and

  1. Desenvolvimento e caracterização de sensor de acúmulo de dose de radiação azul polimérico Development and characterization of a polymer sensor based on the accumulation of blue light dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia K. B. de Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho as propriedades ópticas do poli[2-metóxi,5-(2'etil-hexiloxi-p-fenilenovinileno] - MEH-PPV foram estudadas sob efeito de luz azul proveniente de super LEDs utilizada no tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal (ou icterícia. Os resultados mostraram que o MEH-PPV apresenta uma mudança de cor do vermelho-alaranjado para o incolor, passando por diversas tonalidades de amarelo, bem como uma diminuição da intensidade dos espectros de absorção e de fotoluminescência (PL em função do tempo de exposição à radiação. Essas mudanças foram usadas para projetar um sensor de acúmulo de dose de radiação azul, tipo indicador de cores, para avaliar a dose de radiação recebida por recém-nascidos durante o tratamento da icterícia neonatal.In this work we investigated the optical behavior of poly[2-methoxy-5(2'-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV under the effect of blue-light LED source applied in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia treatment. There is a visible response that covers the electronic absorption of bilirubin (350-500 nm, and hence this material is applicable for controlling the radiation doses in the treatment of jaundice of neonates, which is one of the most common reasons for hospital readmission of newborn infants. The results show that the material presents a gradation of color from orange-red to yellow and quenching on the absorption and photoluminescent (PL spectra with the radiation exposure time. The rate of these changes can be altered by manipulations of organic solution concentration, suggesting these color and emission/absorption changes can be used to design an indicator-dosimeter that is readily associated with the radiation exposure time used in treating neonatal jaundice.

  2. Dieta natural do siri-azul Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Natural diet of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Patos Lagoon estuary area, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveir

    Full Text Available Na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, o siri-azul Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1869 é o mais abundante dentre as espécies do gênero. Apesar do siri-azul exercer influência sobre as comunidades bentônicas, por ser considerado um predador do topo da cadeia alimentar, não existem muitos estudos sobre aspectos ecológicos, inclusive sobre a composição e variabilidade sazonal de sua dieta natural, neste estuário. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a composição da dieta do siri-azul, evidenciando possíveis relações com a comunidade bentônica da região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos. O período de estudo foi de março de 2003 a março de 2004, com coletas bimestrais. Os organismos foram coletados com auxílio de rede de arrasto de fundo, com malha de 13 mm entre nós opostos. Ainda em campo os animais foram fixados em formol 10%. Após a coleta os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo, medidos (largura e comprimento da carapaça - cm e pesados (peso - g. Após a triagem, os animais foram dissecados e os intestinos retirados e pesados. As análises dos conteúdos alimentares dos siris demonstraram que os hábitos alimentares são diversificados, constituindo-se principalmente de invertebrados bentônicos. O item encontrado com maior freqüência foi Detrito, seguido pelo molusco filtrador Erodona mactroides Bosc, 1802 (Erodonidae. Crustáceos da classe Ostracoda e grãos de areia foram importantes componentes dos conteúdos dos intestinos anteriores, sendo que areia não foi considerada como item alimentar, propriamente dito. Também foram encontradas cerdas e mandíbulas de poliquetos, além de sementes das macrófitas Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogatonaceae e Zannichellia palustris L. (Potamogatonaceae. Este estudo serve como subsídio para medidas de proteção e conservação da população do siri-azul, bem como caracteriza relações tróficas com comunidades bentônicas do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos.The Southern

  3. Methylene blue improves hemodynamic shock but increases lipoperoxidation in severe acute pancreatitis pig model Azul de metileno melhora as condições hemodinâmicas do choque circulatório, mas aumenta a peroxidação lipídica em um modelo suino de pancreatite aguda grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferreira Meirelles Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study hemodynamic pattern and lipoperoxidation during methylene blue (MB treatment on taurocholate - enterokinase induced acute pancreatitis (AP. METHODS: Thirty pigs were equally divided in control group; MB group; AP group; MB previous AP group; and MB after 90 min of induced AP group. MB was given iv in a bolus dose (2mg.kg-1 followed by maintenance dose (2 mg.kg-1.h-1. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded continuously during 180 min by Swan-Ganz catheter. Blood samples were taken every 60 min to determine arterial and venous nitrate, malondialdehyde (MDA and amylase. Pancreatic tissue was removed for histopathologic study. RESULTS: In AP group MBP and CO decreased over time 33% (p0.05 serum MDA when associated to AP. After induced AP, MB did not reverse MBP and CO decrease. There was no difference in serum amylase and necro-hemorrhagic findings with MB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In this taurocholate-induced AP model MB treatment delayed hemodynamic shock and decreases serum nitrate levels but increases serum MDA levels. No volemic replacement was done and it may have been a mitigated factor to a poor tissue perfusion and impairment microcirculation. Further investigations are needed to elucidate MB treatment role during AP treatment.OBJETIVO: estudar o perfil hemodinâmico e a lipoperoxidação durante o tratamento com azul de metileno (AM de pancreatite aguda (PA induzida por taurocolato-enteroquinase. MÉTODOS: Trinta porcos foram igualmente divididos em: grupo controle, grupo AM; grupo PA; grupo AM prévio à PA; grupo AM após 90 minutos após a indução da PA. O AM foi administrado sob a forma de bolus EV (2mg.kg-1 seguido por dose de manutenção (2 mg.kg-1.h-1. Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos foram registrados continuamente durante 180 min com auxílio de cateter de Swan-Ganz. Amostras sanguíneas foram colhidas a cada 60 min para a determinação arterial e venosa de nitrato, malondialdeido (MDA and amilase. Removeu-se tecido

  4. Determinação e análise de isotermas de adsorção do corante azul 5G em leito fixo de carvão ativado=Mathematical model of the adsorption column, in activate Carbon, used in the renovation of blue-colorant 5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Lopes Dal Piva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visando o desenvolvimento de um processo de tratamento de efluentes têxteis, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o processo de adsorção do corante reativo azul 5G de um efluente sintético em carvão ativado. As isotermas de adsorção, com seus respectivos parâmetros ajustados, em sistema batelada foram obtidas para as temperaturas de 30, 40 e 60C (com pH controlado na faixa de 6,0 a 8,0 e também com tempo de contato entre o sistema corante-carvão de 90 horas segundo os modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich. A partir daí estes parâmetros foram colocados em função da temperatura, apresentando bons resultados frente aos dados experimentais.This work, to looking for the development of process for wastes textile treatment, had the objective to study the adsorption process of the blue reactive dyes 5G from the synthetic effluent in coal activated. The isotherms of adsorption in batch system was made for temperatures of 30, 40 and 60C (the pH was controlled in 6.0 until 8.0 and the time of contact between the system dye-coal was 90 hours with posterior adjustment of the models for Langmuir and Freundlich equations. After, these parameters were put in function of temperature, with good results when compared to the experimental data.

  5. The comparison of methylene blue and vitamin E in prevention of abdominal postoperative adhesion formation in rat uterine horn models: Biochemical and histopathologic evaluation Comparação do azul de metileno e vitamina E na prevenção de aderência abdominal pós-operatória em corno uterino de ratos: avalição bioquímica e histopatológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yildiz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effects of vitamin E and 1% methylen blue solutions on prevention of experimentally induced adhesions in rats. Methods: Thirty seven female Spraque Dawley rats were randomized into four groups. First group was kept as sham operated group. An adhesion model was constituted on the left uterine horn of the other groups. The lesion areas of rats from the second, the third and the fourth groups were coated with 2 ml 0.9 % saline solution (C group, 10 mg vitamin E (VE group and 1% methylen blue solutions (MB group, respectively. Results: Histopathologically, adhesion scores, mononuclear cell infiltration, oedema and fibrosis were more prominent in the MB group compared with C and VE groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in tissue glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT activities and glutation (GSH level, these parameters were slightly increased in group with VE supplementation though. The administration of VE and MB significantly decreased NO (PObjetivo: Comparar os efeitos da vitamina E e 1% da solução de azul de metileno na prevenção de aderências induzidas em ratos. Métodos: Trinta e sete ratos fêmeas Spraque Dawley foram distribuídos em quatro grupos. O primeiro grupo foi mantido como grupo sham. O modelo de aderência foi realizado no corno uterino esquerdo nos outros grupos. As áreas da lesão dos ratos do segundo, terceiro e quarto grupos foram revestidas com 2 ml de solução salina 0,9% (Grupo C, 10 mg de vitamina E (Grupo VE e solução de azul de metileno 1% (Grupo MB, respectivamente. Resultados: Histopatologicamente, o escore das aderências, infiltração celular mononuclear, edema e fibrose foram mais proeminentes no grupo MB em comparação aos grupos C e VE. Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos na peroxidase da glutatione do tecido (GPx, atividade da catalase (CAT e o nível de glutation (GSH. Estes parâmetros foram ligeiramente aumentados no grupo com

  6. VALORACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD HIGIÉNICA DE LA LECHE CRUDA EN LA ASOCIACIÓN DE PRODUCTORES DE LECHE DE SOTARÁ - ASPROLESO, MEDIANTE LAS PRUEBAS INDIRECTAS DE RESAZURINA Y AZUL DE METILENO RAW MILK HYGIENIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN THE MILK PRODUCERS ASOCIATION OF SOTARÁ - ASPROLESO, THROUGH INDIRECT TESTS OF REZASURIN AND METHYLENE BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON JAIRO ZAMBRANO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación permitió encontrar la relación entre las dos pruebas colorimétricas empleadas como métodos indirectos en la determinación de la calidad higiénica de la leche cruda, como son la prueba de Resazurina en una hora y el Tiempo de Reducción del Azul de Metileno. Para ello se analizaron 315 muestras por duplicado, conducentes a la realización de ambas pruebas de manera paralela, encontrándose diferencias significativas para los siguientes estadísticos: rangos con signo de Wilcoxon y t-student con PThis investigation allowed to find the relation between the two colorimetric tests used as indirect methods in the determination of the hygienic quality of raw milk, as it is, One hour Resazurin test and Methylene blue reduction time. To do that 315 samples in duplicate were analized, leading to the perform of both tests in a parallel way, allowing to find significant diferences for the next statistics: ranges with Wilcoxon signs and t-student with P<0.001. The obtained samples resulted from the pursuit along 6 months of the raw milk storage process in the milk producers Asociation of Sotara (ASPROLESO, located in Paispamba, Sotara´s town - Department of Cauca. Parallely to this research, raw milk transportation effect in the hygienic quality was determinate, through a comparative between the quality of the delivered milk to gathering vehicles in farms and the quality in the moment of the reception in the storage center (Cooling plant in the municipality of Paispamba. For this assessment 280 samples coming from the 4 production and recolection zones of raw milk (Chapa, Piedra León,Ullocos and Paispamba were analized. The Data obtained were analized by Marginal averages for the fourth routes. The researching allowed to identify that between both tests Resazurin and Methylene blue, Methylene blue reduction time resulted in a wider accuracy degree for the hygienic quality determination particularly because it demands a mayor

  7. Necesidades de aprendizaje relacionados con el cáncer bucal en un círculo de abuelos de Ciudad de La Habana Learning needs related to oral cancer in "Isla Azul" grandparents home, Plaza de la Revolución Municipality. 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda L García Heredia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento en las personas está asociado a la aparición o aumento de afecciones estomatológicas, entre ellas las alteraciones periodontales, disfunción masticatoria y el cáncer bucal, esta última enfermedad es la de mayor incidencia en la población adulta mayor y su prevención ocupa un lugar importante en la atención primaria de salud, por ello se realizó una investigación cuyo objetivo fue determinar las necesidades de aprendizaje relacionadas con el cáncer bucal en el Círculo de Abuelos "Isla Azul" en el año 2007. Se realizó una investigación de desarrollo tecnológico, descriptiva, de corte transversal para el diagnóstico educativo. Se aplicó una encuesta a 26 ancianos y se determinaron las necesidades de aprendizaje mediante el modelo de David Leyva. El 73 % de los encuestados obtuvo calificación deficiente. Se encontró bajo nivel de conocimiento de los factores de riesgo del cáncer bucal, deficiencias en las vías de información educativa, desconocimiento de los síntomas y signos de alarma ante el cáncer bucal. No realizaban adecuadamente el autoexamen bucal, por lo que consideramos que existieron necesidades de aprendizaje sobre prevención del cáncer bucal en todos los aspectos explorados.Aging in persons it is associated with appearance or increase of stomatologic affections including the periodontal alterations, mastication dysfunction and oral cancer, this entity with the great incidence in elderlies and its prevention is a priority in Health Primary Care, thus, we conducted a research in elderlies linked to a grandparent home whose objective was to determine the learning needs related to oral hygiene in above mentioned home in 2007. A technological development, descriptive and cross-sectional research to an educational diagnosis. A survey was applied in 26 elderlies determining the learning needs by David Leyva Form. The 73 % of person polled had a qualification of deficient. In he above mentioned home

  8. Box-Behnken design for optimizing the acid blue dye adsorption on flower wastes Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Jaramillo Madrid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we identified the best conditions for the removal of Acid Blue 9 dye (AB9 using ower wastes (FW as an adsorbent were determined using a full factorial 23 and a Box-Behnken design for further optimization. Adsorbent dose (D, dye concentration (C and contact time (t, were the assessed variables. The dye content was quantied by UV-Vis spectrometry. The statistical model presented an adequate adjustment coecient (R2 = 99,18%, allowing to achieve a removal of 98,5% with a dosage of 7,8 gL-1, dye concentration of 7,11 mgL-1 and contact time of 104 min. These results suggest that owers wastes are an alternative and potential adsorbent material for the treatment of dissolved acid dyes. En este artículo se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la remoción del colorante Azul Ácido 9 (AA9 a través de un diseño factorial completo 23 y su posterior optimización mediante un diseño de superficie Box-Behnken utilizando tallos de flores (TF como material adsorbente. Las variables evaluadas fueron dosis de adsorbente (D, concentración de colorante (C y tiempo de contacto (t. El contenido del colorante se cuantificó por espectrometría UV-Vis. El modelo estadístico presentó un adecuado coeficiente de ajuste (R2 = 99,18 %, permitiendo alcanzar una remoción del 98,5% con una dosificación de 7,8 gL-1, concentración de colorante de 11,7 mgL-1 y tiempo de contacto de 104 min. Estos resultados sugieren que los residuos de flores constituyen un material adsorbente alternativo y potencial para el tratamiento de colorantes ácidos disueltos.

  9. Use of cDNA microarray to isolate differentially expressed genes in White Spot Virus infected shrimp (penaeus stylirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Arun K.; Klimpel, Kurt R.; Bullis, Robert A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the etiologic agent of white spot disease, is currently the most important viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial report, white spot disease has caused losses of catastrophic proportion to shrimp aquaculture globally. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV and developing detection methods, information on the host genes involved in the immune response in shrimp due to WSSV infection is not availabl...

  10. Methylene blue administration in the compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock: hemodynamic study in pigs Administração de azul de metileno no choque anafilático induzido por composto 48/80: estudo hemodinâmico em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Menardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if the methylene blue (MB administration prevents and/or reverses the compound 48/80 (C48/80-induced anaphylactic shock in pigs. METHODS: Female Dalland pigs were anesthetized and had the hemodynamic parameters recorded during the necessary time to administer some drugs and observe their effect. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the five groups: 1 control; 2 MB: the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg followed by continuous infusion of MB (2.66 mg/Kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump; 3 C48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg; 4 C48/80+MB: the animals received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg and 10 minutes after the C48/80 administration the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg followed by continuous infusion of MB (2.66 mg/Kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump; 5 MB+C48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg and 3 minutes later they received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg. RESULTS: The intravenous infusion of MB alone caused no changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP showing that the administered MB dose was safe in this experimental model. The C48/80 was effective in producing experimental anaphylactic shock since it was observed a decrease in both MAP and cardiac output (CO after its administration. The MB did not prevent or reverse the C48/80-induced anaphylactic shock in this model. In fact, the MAP of the animals with anaphylactic shock treated with MB decreased even more than the MAP of the animals from the C48/80 group. On the other hand, the C48/80-induced epidermal alterations disappeared after the MB infusion. CONCLUSION: Despite our data, the clinical manifestations improvement brings some optimism and does not allow excluding the MB as a possible therapeutic option in the anaphylactic shock.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a administração de azul de metileno (AM previne e/ou reverte o choque anafilático induzido por

  11. A arara-azul-de-Lear, Anodorhynchus leari Bonaparte, 1856

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Sick

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of the Indigo, or Lear's Macaw, Anodorhynchus leari, is unique in South American ornithology. The species, although described more than 100 years ago, was known only through very few living specimens, which entered occasionally the bird trade, without any indication of their origins. It was presumed "probably some part of Brazil" (Salvadori, 1891. The last speculation was that it was unlikely, though not impossible, that the Indigo Macaw might not be an independem species, but rather, a hybrid between the two other well known blue macaws, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus and A. glaucus (Voous, 1965.

  12. Purpura, verde, azul...la calidad como un color

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Ramírez, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es explicar, compartir y hacer públicos algunos pensamientos e ideas sobre la Universidad y la cultura del profesorado universitario. Se parte de la idea de que no existe armonía entre la gestión, la técnica y la cultura universitaria. Si como docentes aprendemos de la experiencia y del ambiente de trabajo, entonces cabe preguntarse por nuestras experiencias y por los conocimientos que a travcs de ellas hemos generado, para mantenerlos o rechazar...

  13. Teatro: Un gato blanco, melenudo de ojos azules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pubén

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available La escena se presenta simultáneamente dividida en dos partes: Trata de recrear, ante el público, los dos cuartos de un apartamento. La acción transcurre, a lo largo de toda la obra, en uno u otro cuarto o en ambos simultáneamente. Es el mismo decorado para las tres escenas. Un apartamento con muebles y lámparas con el estilo de la época del art noveau.

  14. Methylene blue for vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery: fifteen years of questions, answers, doubts and certainties Azul de metileno no tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica em cirurgia cardíaca: quinze anos de perguntas, respostas, dúvidas e certezas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence that methylene blue (MB, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, is an excellent therapeutic option for vasoplegic syndrome (VS treatment in heart surgery. The aim of this article is to review the MB's therapeutic function in the vasoplegic syndrome treatment. METHODS: Fifteen years of literature review. RESULTS: 1 Heparin and ACE inhibitors are risk factors; 2 In the recommended doses it is safe (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 3 The use of MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 4 The MB effect appears in cases of nitric oxide (NO up-regulation; 5 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking of the GMPc system it releases the AMPc system, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 6 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus followed by the same continuous infusion because plasmatic concentrations strongly decays in the first 40 minutes; 7 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for the MB's effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no definitive multicentric studies, the MB used to treat heart surgery VS, at the present time, is the best, safest and cheapest option, being a Brazilian contribution for the heart surgeryOBJETIVO: Existem fortes evidências de que o azul de metileno (AM, um inibidor da guanilato ciclase, é uma excelente opção terapêutica para o tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica (SV em cirurgia cardíaca. O objetivo deste artigo é rever o papel terapêutico do AM no tratamento da SV. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura em período de 15 anos. RESULTADOS: 1 A heparina e inibidores da ECA são fatores de risco; 2 Nas doses preconizadas é droga segura (a dose letal é de 40 mg/kg; 3 O AM não causa disfunção endotelial; 4 O efeito do AM só aparece em caso de supra-regulação de óxido nítrico (NO; 5 O AM não é um vasoconstritor, pelo bloqueio do sistema GMPc ele "libera" o sistema AMPc, facilitando o efeito vasoconstritor da noradrenalina; 6 A dosagem mais utilizada é 2

  15. Utilização do azul de metileno no tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica após cirurgia cardíaca Methylene blue administration in the treatment of the vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos S. de Andrade

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a restauração da resistência vascular sistêmica com o uso do azul de metileno (AM em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com e sem circulação extracorpórea. Todos os pacientes apresentaram no pós-operatório imediato quadro de taquicardia, oligúria, manutenção da perfusão periférica e importante hipotensão arterial sistêmica, retrataria a grandes doses de catecolaminas. As avaliações hemodinâmicas pela técnica de termodiluição com cateter de Swan-Ganz monstraram padrão compatível com síndrome vasoplégica, com índice de resistência vascular sistêmica média de 868 dina. s. cm5, sem resposta a drogas vasoativas. À semelhança do choque endotóxico, a síndrome foi interpretada como decorrente da estimulação da enzima óxido nítricosintetase com conseqüente formação de óxido nítrico (NO pelas células endoteliais. Utilizou-se então AM, como bloqueador do NO no sistemaguanililciclase/guanino-monofosfatociclase, na dose de 1,5 mg/kg peso, em infusão intravenosa por uma hora. O restabelecimento do tônus vascular sistêmico (IRVS = 1693 dina. s. cm5 com normalização da pressão arterial e do quadro clínico, foi efetivo e rápido, mostrando ser o AM uma promissora droga na diminuição da morbi-mortalidade da síndrome vasoplégica.The restoration of the systemic vascular resistance employing methylene blue (MB in 6 patients after cardiac surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass is reported. All patients presented, during the immediate postoperative period, tachycardia, oligury, good peripheral perfusion and important systemic arterial hypotension not responsible to large doses of catecholamines infusion. The hemodynamic analysis, using the Swan-Ganz thermodilution technique, showed a profile compatible with vasoplegic syndrome, with the mean index of systemic vascular resistance of 868 dyne.s.cm5, similarly to the endotoxic shock this syndrome was assumed to be caused by nitric oxide

  16. Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradação do corante Azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar Chitosan/Fe spheres on the Blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely V. de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação dos recursos hídricos é um dos maiores problemas ambientais da atualidade. Dentre as várias fontes poluidoras, destacam-se as indústrias têxteis, por serem fontes geradoras de grandes volumes de efluentes, muitas vezes tratados de maneira ineficiente. A principal causa do grande impacto ambiental decorrente deste descarte é a presença dos corantes, tais como os compostos do tipo azo, que podem gerar subprodutos de caráter carcinogênico e/ou mutagênico, ou como os de base antraquinona, que são muito resistentes à degradação natural e portanto persistem no efluente por um longo tempo. O objetivo do presente trabalho consiste na utilização de processos foto-Fenton assistidos por luz artificial e solar, utilizando ferro imobilizado em esferas de quitosana reticulada com glutaraldeído, para promover a degradação do corante reativo Azul QR-19, de base antraquinona, em solução aquosa. As esferas obtidas apresentaram tamanho regular com diâmetro de 4,0 mm. Os resultados demonstraram 90% de descoloração do sistema em 180minutos e redução de 60% do teor de carbono orgânico total (COT, para o sistema foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial. Para o sistema fotoassistido com luz solar, a descoloração foi integralmente obtida em 120 minutos com 70% de redução do teor de COT. Foi observado que o ferro permaneceu na matriz após o tratamento, possibilitando sua reutilização.The contamination of water resources is one of the greatest environmental problems today. Among the polluting sources are the textile industries due to the production of large volumes of effluent, often treated inefficiently. The main reason for the environmental impact of the rejected materials is the presence of dyes such as azo reactive compounds that can generate by-products with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. They may also include anthraquinone type compounds, which are highly resistant to degradation and persist in the effluent for a

  17. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. G. Machado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%; 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. chrysosporium used as reference. Extracellular extracts of 35 selected fungi grown on solid medium with sugar cane bagasse (BGS were evaluated for RBBR decolorization and peroxidase activity. All fungi showed peroxidase activities, but 5 of those were unable to decolorize the RBBR. Different patterns of ligninolytic enzymes were detected in 12 fungi extracts. Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP was produced by Peniophora cinerea, Psilocybe castanella, three strains of Trametes villosa, T. versicolor, Melanoporia nigra and Trichaptum byssogenum. All 12 fungi had laccase activity. Trogia buccinalis showed the highest RBBR decolorization and did not produce MnP activity. RBBR decolorization without MnP production was also observed for three strains of Lentinum tested. Higher levels of peroxidase and laccase cannot be related to high RBBR decolorization. RBBR decolorization by extracellular extract was also detected during the growth of P. castanella, L. crinitus, P. cinerea and two strains of T. Villosa in pentachlorophenol- and hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soils. These fungi showed higher RBBR decolorization when grown in the presence of organochlorine compounds than when in non contaminated soil.O corante azul brilhante Remazol R (RBBR foi usado como substrato para avaliar 125 fungos basidiomicetos isolados de ecossistemas tropicais brasileiros quanto a atividade ligninolítica. A descoloração do RBBR por extratos obtidos do crescimento de fungos em meio sólido e

  18. Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre O. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.. O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos.The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important microclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the plants and

  19. Explotación de la pesquería de arrastre de camarón durante el período 1991-1999 en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid A Tabash Blanco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica, la pesquería del camarón que se lleva a cabo en el Golfo de Nicoya desde 1952 representó una de las más importantes actividades económicas de la región. Sin embargo, la sobrepesca redujo los volúmenes de captura al punto de impedir esta actividad comercial. Con el objetivo de evaluar su evolución durante la pasada década y compararla con los registros históricos de captura, se analizaron las estadísticas pesqueras oficiales comprendidas entre 1991 y 1999 para las especies de camarón que se capturan: dos especies de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus occidentalis y L. stylirostris, el camarón tití (Xiphopenaeus riveti, el camarón café (Farfantepenaeus californiensis, el camarón "pinki" (F. brevirostris y el camarón fidel (Solenocera agassizi. Todas las especies analizadas presentaron un alto nivel de sobre-explotación, lo que provoca un aumento en la demanda de reclutas de camarón requeridos para tratar de reponer a los que son capturados por la flota arrastre. En consecuencia, la edad de primera captura ha disminuido exponencialmente. Se recomienda vedar totalmente la pesca de arrastre del camarón en el Golfo de Nicoya.Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris, the "tití" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti, the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis, the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi. All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over

  20. ICP11 as Biomarker for WSSV Disease in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Kilawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution could directly reduce water quality for shrimp cultivation. This study aims to determine how the environmental quality, shrimp population and genetic characteristics of shrimp that live in polluted waters in shrimp ponds in East Java associated with WSSV disease that often attacks on cultivated shrimp. The method used was a descriptive exploratory. Data collection was collected by observation and interview with farmers on disease history. Water was sampled for water quality study and characterize its suitability for shrimp cultivations. Shrimps were also sampled for morphological and genetical study for its susceptibility of WSSV. All samples were taken every week during shrimp cultivation in Malang ans Gresik. Morphological study using scoring method to determine the disease stages on shrimp, while for genetical study using specific primer for ICP11 for WSSV detection, since ICP 11 is expressed when WSSV infection is occur. Samples were taken from 2 shrimp ponds in South Malang and Gresik. The overall water quality is good, except for NO2 and TOM in both seawater shrimp ponds which higher than the freshwater/estuary shrimp ponds. Light infections of WSSV were detected in all seawater ponds both in morphology and genetics. However, in the freshwater/estuary pond only shrimps from freshwater/estuary Gresik which showing light WSSV infection genetically, but not in the morphological signs. Early disease detection is important to control the disease spread.

  1. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants;Adsorcion de colorantes azul vegetal y azul acuarela por zeolitas naturales modificadas con surfactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz N, M. C., E-mail: teresa.olguin@inin.gob.m [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  2. Adsorción de azul de metileno sobre cascarilla de arroz

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Anderson; Figueroa, Danilo; Hormaza, Angelina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The contamination produced by the download of industrial effluents, especially from textile, food and paint industries, not only affects ecosystems due to its aesthetic degradation, but, above all, to the reduction of photosynthetic processes. Dyes, due to their aromatic structure, are characterized by their difficult and slow degradation, thus generating accumulations and becoming a contamination source that can even be carcinogenic for some molecules. Adsorption on...

  3. Del príncipe azul al exitoso millonario: Cincuenta sombras de Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Montero Fernández

    2016-05-01

    obra; y, a su vez, contrastar si existe una correlación entre este éxito y una tendencia de fantasías sexuales sadomasoquistas que se hayan podido despertar a través de dicha novela. Con una muestra de 102 sujetos, los resultados desvelaron que estos mitos y micromachismos existentes en la sociedad son identificados en la teoría, pero aceptados en la práctica cotidiana; y que el sadomasoquismo no supuso un ingrediente de éxito para la repercusión de Cincuenta sombras de Grey

  4. Structure of fructo-oligosaccharides from leaves and stem of Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praznik, Werner; Löppert, Renate; Cruz Rubio, Josè M; Zangger, Klaus; Huber, Anton

    2013-11-15

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) of a six year old agave plant variety, Agave tequilana, were isolated and fractionated by 2D preparative chromatography (SEC and rpHPLC). Structural analyses of different FOS-fractions were performed by reductive methylation analysis connected to GC/FID identification and NMR-analysis. FOSs from leaves (d.p. 3-8) contain single α-d-Glcp residues as well in terminal as internal position, however (2→1)-linked β-d-Fruf residues only. FOSs from stem, however, contain as well (2→1)- and (2→6)-linked β-d-Fruf residues with branched oligomeric repeating units. These characteristics indicate an enzymatically catalyzed metabolic regulation for the biosynthesis and transformation of fructans in A. tequilana which strongly depends on location and transport activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of indigo blue using clinoptilolite-Fe; Remocion de azul indigo utilizando clinoptilolita-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.; Colin C, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Tollocan esquina Paseo Colon s/n, Toluca 50180, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solache R, M. J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: edithgs77@yahoo.com.mx

    2008-07-01

    The removal of indigo blue from aqueous solutions was evaluated using modified clinoptilolite with Fe (Z-Fe) which was characterized by SEM, EDS analysis and specific area (BET). The process followed the kinetics of pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm. Sorption capacity obtained was 18 mg g{sup -1} and a solid-liquid ratio 10 g L{sup -1}. (Author)

  6. El color azul: dimensión psicológica y educactiva

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Moreno, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    El color está ampliamente relacionado con el hombre y su psicología desde la Antigüedad, y ejerce un gran poder sobre la mente humana. Así pues, la historia de los colores es muy amplia y diversa, y es realmente importante el conocimiento de sus orígenes y del proceso de evolución sociológica y psicológica que se ha ido produciendo a lo largo de la historia. En el presente trabajo, con ayuda de las investigaciones y estudios acerca del color por parte de varios autores influyentes en el tema,...

  7. Bajo un azul dilatado : Ensayo para una estética musical sudamericana

    OpenAIRE

    Menacho, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral acerca de lineamientos desde donde pensar una estética musical de tradición escrita en la música sudamericana compuesta después de 1960. El abordaje de análisis de obras y compositores, sus vinculaciones contextuales y propuestas estéticas a la luz de un pensar sudamericano. Facultad de Bellas Artes

  8. A proposed chemical structure for fructans from blue agave plant (Tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Toriz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una estructura química para las fructanas de agave Tequilana con base en los resultados combinados de las técnicas de permetilación y ruptura reductiva acopladas a cromatografía gas-líquido asi como también a cromatografía de exclusión de tamaños/dispersión de luz.

  9. Inestabilidades pulsacionales en estrellas de la prerrama horizontal azul y extendida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battich, T.; Miller Bertolami, M.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2017-10-01

    The -mechanism is a self-excitation mechanism of pulsations which acts on the regions inside the star where nuclear burning takes place. Due to the strong dependence of nuclear burning rates on temperature, the temperature perturbations induced by pulsations lead to an increase in the oscillation energy at the expense of the thermal energy of the star. Although the mechanism works wherever nuclear reactions are active, the pulsation amplitudes tend to be small in the high temperature layers where nuclear energy is generated so that the -mechanism is usually very weak. To the date there is not confirmation of -mechanism as the responsible of the excitation of pulsations of any star. However, it has been shown that -mechanism can excite pulsations in stellar models that undergo a hot helium-core flash, and the subsequent subflashes, before the star model settles into the stable helium core-burning phase. Moreover, it has been shown that the pulsations of LS IV-14116 could be explained that way. In the present work we aim to extend the study of the -mechanism effects on stellar models appropriate for stars on the blue and extreme pre-horizontal branch, i.e. before the helium core-burning phase. With this aim we perform detailed computations of non-adiabatic non-radial pulsations on such stellar models, adopting different values of metallicity, initial helium abundances and mass of the hydrogen envelope at the time of the main helium flash.

  10. APRESENTAÇÃO (Um pálido ponto azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os Editores da Prometeus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Em meados de abril deste ano tivemos a notícia (cf.http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/index.html de que as naves Voyager 1 e 2, lançadasem 1977, estão nos limites da heliosfera e a ponto de penetrarem no espaço interestelar.Essa informação nos traz à memória Carl Sagan (1934-1996, cientista e astrônomonorte-americano que se dedicou não só à docência (foi professor de astronomia eciências espaciais na Universidade de Cornell e professor visitante no Laboratório dePropulsão a Jato do Insittuto de Tecnologia da Califórnia e à exploração espacial(consultor da NASA desde os anos 50, tomou parte do Projeto Apollo, chefiou osprojetos Mariner e Viking, e participou das missões Voyager e Galileu, mas também seconsagrou à divulgação científica, através de uma série de livros e programastelevisivos, entre os quais se destaca a série (e o livro Cosmos.

  11. Películas fluorescentes azules basadas en derivados de poli-2,7-fluorenofenilideno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallavia, R.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Quaternization of poly-(9,9-bis(6’-bromohexylfluorenephenylene by treatment with trimethylamine gas was used to obtain a water soluble ammonium salt copolymer. The neutral copolymer containing fluorene/phenylene alternating repeating units was obtained by a palladiumcatalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. This strategy could be applied to prepare water soluble conjugated polymers with the ability to change the charge functionality. The polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The neutral polymer was stable to over 300ºC, while the cationic polymer begins to degrade at 120ºC with a progressive loss of mass at 290ºC. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated in solution and solid phases by UV/VIS and fluorescent spectroscopy. Mesoporous silica thin films were prepared as a host matrix for the fluorescent copolymers.

    La cuaternización del poli-(9,9-bis(6’-bromohexilofluorenofenileno por tratamiento de trimetilamina gaseosa se emplea para obtener una sal de amonio del copolímero precursor soluble en agua. El copolímero neutro contiene unidades alternantes repetitivas de fluoreno/ fenilideno obtenidas mediante una acoplamiento de Suzuki con Pd (II. Los polímeros se caracterizaron por cromatografía de permeación (GPC, espectroscopia RMN de 1H y 13C , espectroscopia IR transformada de Fourier y análisis termogravimétrico (ATG. El polímero neutro mantiene la estabilidad hasta los 300ºC, mientras el derivado catiónico comienza a descomponer a 120ºC, con una progresiva perdida de masa hasta los 290ºC. Las propiedades ópticas de los polímeros se estudiaron en disolución y en películas mediante espectroscopias UV/VIS y de fluorescencia. Las películas delgadas de sílice mesoporosa se prepararon como materiales receptores de los copolímeros fluorescentes.

  12. Two sympatric new species of woodlizards (Hoplocercinae, Enyalioides) from Cordillera Azul National Park in northeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Pablo J.; Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Duran, Vilma; de Queiroz, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We report the discovery of two sympatric new species of Enyalioides from a montane rainforest of the Río Huallaga basin in northeastern Peru. Among other characters, the first new species is distinguishable from other Enyalioides by the combination of the following characters: strongly keeled ventral scales, more than 37 longitudinal rows of dorsals in a transverse line between the dorsolateral crests at midbody, low vertebral crest on the neck with vertebrals on neck similar in size to those between hind limbs, projecting scales on body or limbs absent, 96 mm maximum SVL in both sexes, and caudals increasing in size posteriorly within each autotomic segment. The second new species differs from other species of Enyalioides in having strongly keeled ventral scales, scales posterior to the superciliaries forming a longitudinal row of strongly projecting scales across the lateral edge of the skull roof in adults of both sexes, 31 or fewer longitudinal rows of strongly keeled dorsals in a transverse line between the dorsolateral crests at midbody, vertebrals on neck more than five times the size of vertebrals between hind limbs in adult males, projecting scales on body or limbs absent, and caudals increasing in size posteriorly within each autotomic segment. We also present an updated molecular phylogenetic tree of hoplocercines including new samples of Enyalioides rudolfarndti, Enyalioides rubrigularis, both species described in this paper, as well as an updated identification key for species of Hoplocercinae. PMID:23794824

  13. LIXO - PROBLEMÁTICA SOCIOESPACIAL E GERENCIAMENTO INTEGRADO: A EXPERIÊNCIA DE SERRA AZUL (SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Elias Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Na presente investigação foram utilizadas teorias e conceitos que permitiram conhecer a característica, classificação, problemática e estratégias de manejo de tipologias de lixo. Constatou-se que o método de gerenciamento predominante no mundo, e sobretudo no Brasil, destina o lixo bruto no solo, causando, muitas vezes, danos socioespaciais, apesar de o potencial de serventia dos componentes do lixo extrapolar o de inutilidade. Os procedimentos metodológicos da pesquisa se constituíram do pla...

  14. Tela global e oceano azul: cinema 3D, o caso Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A exibição de filmes de longa-metragem em 3D é a nova onda da indústria cinematográfica global. O que está acontecendo no Brasil? Quais problemas da implantação do 3D no país? Tudo ainda é muito recente, mas os resultados desta onda já podem ser percebidos.

  15. Efectos de la luz azul en el ritmo circadiano del sueño

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Arroyo, Coral

    2017-01-01

    El abuso de la luz artificial en periodos correspondientes con oscuridad natural acarrea unas consecuencias para nuestro organismo que se sincronizan el riltmo circadiano de la secreción de la melatonina, disminuyendo los niveles normales durante la noche. Numerosos estudios relacionan estas interrupciones en los ciclos con numerosas enfermedades y numerosos trastornos. Este trabajo pretende hacer una recusión bibliográfica en la que se resumen los conocimientos actuales sobre los efectos de ...

  16. ¿Qué es la Agenda Azul de las Mujeres? 1.

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hilda

    19 Nov 2008 ... Género en las políticas de agua en México. Perspectivas y propuestas. Descentralización, poder local y derechos de las mujeres. 19 de noviembre ... Reconocimiento de las mujeres como usuarias del agua sin condiciones de propiedad. Políticas ambientales y de cambio climático con enfoque de género.

  17. Del príncipe azul al exitoso millonario: Cincuenta sombras de Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Montero Fernández; Ángel Hernando Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación conforma un estudio de género basado en la novela Cincuenta sombras de Grey de E. L. James (2012), dada su gran repercusión como fenómeno de masas a nivel mundial incidiendo, en mayor medida, en el colectivo femenino. Dado que esta novela realiza una apología de la violencia de género, este estudio pretende analizar las claves de su éxito donde se valore la desigualdad de género existente en la sociedad a partir de la aceptación de los mitos del amor rom...

  18. Del príncipe azul al exitoso millonario: Cincuenta sombras de Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Delia Montero; Gómez, Ángel Hernando

    2016-01-01

    Resumen: Este trabajo de investigación conforma un estudio de género basado en la novela Cincuenta sombras de Grey de E. L. James (2012), dada su gran repercusión como fenómeno de masas a nivel mundial incidiendo, en mayor medida, en el colectivo femenino. Dado que esta novela realiza una apología de la violencia de género, este estudio pretende analizar las claves de su éxito donde se valore la desigualdad de género existente en la sociedad a partir de la aceptación de los mitos del amor rom...

  19. Del príncipe azul al exitoso millonario : Cincuenta sombras de Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Fernández, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación conforma un estudio de género basado en la novela Cincuenta sombras de Grey de E. L. James (2012) dada su gran repercusión como fenómeno de masas a nivel mundial incidiendo, en mayor medida, en el colectivo femenino. Dado que esta novela realiza una apología de la violencia de género, este estudio pretende analizar las claves de su éxito mediante una investigación explicativa donde se valore la desigualdad de género existente en la sociedad a parti...

  20. Synchrotron and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-01

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS 2-x C x that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report

  1. Synchroton and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-12

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS{sub 2-x}C{sub x} that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report.

  2. Del rojo al azul : las pantallas de las dos Españas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la guerra civil española (1936- 1939 el cine se convirtió en una de las armas principales de la retaguardia. En la zona republicana se optó por la colectivización o la incautación de las salas de exhibición y de las empresas cinematográficas para convertirlas en el elemento clave de la propaganda plural del gobierno, partidos y sindicatos, así como en una fuente de ingresos. Las más de 400 obras producidas pretendían educar y elevar la moral de los españoles a la vez que solicitar al resto del mundo una ayuda que nunca llegó. Entre tanto, en la zona rebelde, con poco más de la cuarta parte de la producción, se creaba un aparato cinematográfico único, bajo las claras consignas censoras de la Falange que, tras el triunfo franquista, dirigirá las líneas de la producción cinematográfica nacional.Along the Spanish civil war (1936-1939 the cinema became one of the main weapons in the rear. The republican area the theatres and the cinema companies were either collectivized or withheld to turn them into a key element in the government propaganda, political parties and syndicates, as well as an incoming font. The more-than four hundred of titles produced tried to educate and raise the moral of the Spanish while using the films to pledge for the never coming external help. Meanwhile in the rebel area was produced only a quarter of the pieces, but there was created an unique cinematographic machine highly controlled and censored by the Spanish Falangist party which, after the triumph of Franco, would mark the lines of the national cinematographic production.

  3. Pulsed ultraviolet light reduces immunoglobulin E binding to atlantic white shrimp (litopenaeus setiferus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, the only effective method to prevent allergic reactions to shellfish is complete avoidance; however, if processing methods could be employed to minimize shellfish allergens before products reach consumers, illness could be substantially lessened. Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food...

  4. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments.

  5. BUDI DAYA UDANG VANNAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei POLA TRADISIONAL PLUS DI KABUPATEN MAROS, SULAWESI SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan A. Hendarajat

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Udang merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan unggulan dalam program revitalisasi perikanan, di samping rumput laut dan tuna. Pada awalnya, jenis udang yang dibudidayakan di air payau adalah udang windu, namun setelah mewabahnya penyakit terutama WSSV yang mengakibatkan menurunnya usaha budi daya udang windu, pemerintah kemudian mengintroduksi udang vannamei pada tahun 2001 untuk membangkitkan kembali usaha perudangan di Indonesia dan dalam rangka diversifikasi komoditas perikanan. Untuk mengembangkan budi daya udang kedepan, upaya-upaya yang dilakukan pemerintah antara lain: (i Revitalisasi tambak intensif dengan udang vannamei seluas 7.000 ha dengan produktivitas 30 ton/ha/tahun, (ii revitalisasi tambak tradisional seluas 140.000 ha (40% dari tambak tradisional dengan produktivitas 600--700 kg/ha/tahun, (iii impor vannamei SPF/SPR, (iv pengembangan induk SPF vannamei dalam negeri, (v revitalisasi backyard hatchery  (HSRT, (vi penerapan sertifikasi, (vii pengembangan laboratorium, dan (viii pengembangan sarana/prasarana (Nurjana, 2005. Aspek-aspek yang perlu diperhatikan dalam usaha budi daya udang vannamei pola tradisional plus antara lain: persiapan tambak, kualitas benih, teknik penebaran, padat penebaran, manajemen pakan, pemeliharaan kualitas air, dan teknik panen. Tulisan ini menjelaskan secara ringkas mengenai teknologi budi daya udang vannamei pola tradisional plus di Kabupaten Maros, Sulawesi Selatan yang dapat dilakukan oleh pembudi daya udang.

  6. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Antiproliferative Compounds of Lipidic Fractions from White Shrimp Muscle (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Velázquez, Carlos; Hernández, Javier; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco-Javier; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most popular seafood items worldwide, and has been reported as a source of chemopreventive compounds. In this study, shrimp lipids were separated by solvent partition and further fractionated by semi-preparative RP-HPLC and finally by open column chromatography in order to obtain isolated antiproliferative compounds. Antiproliferative activity was assessed by inhibition of M12.C3.F6 murine cell growth using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The methanolic fraction showed the highest antiproliferative activity; this fraction was separated into 15 different sub-fractions (M1–M15). Fractions M8, M9, M10, M12, and M13 were antiproliferative at 100 µg/mL and they were further tested at lower concentrations. Fractions M12 and M13 exerted the highest growth inhibition with an IC50 of 19.5 ± 8.6 and 34.9 ± 7.3 µg/mL, respectively. Fraction M12 was further fractionated in three sub-fractions M12a, M12b, and M12c. Fraction M12a was identified as di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate, fraction M12b as a triglyceride substituted by at least two fatty acids (predominantly oleic acid accompanied with eicosapentaenoic acid) and fraction M12c as another triglyceride substituted with eicosapentaenoic acid and saturated fatty acids. Bioactive triglyceride contained in M12c exerted the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC50 of 11.33 ± 5.6 µg/mL. Biological activity in shrimp had been previously attributed to astaxanthin; this study demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids are the main compounds responsible for antiproliferative activity. PMID:25526568

  7. Selection of proteolytic bacteria with ability to inhibit Vibrio harveyi during white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntinanalert, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of bacteria with high proteolytic activity, isolated from water samples of intensive shrimp ponds in southern Thailand, were selected to test for the ability to control the shrimp pathogen Vibrioharveyi. 70 μl of each culture broth were investigated for their ability to inhibit V. harveyi using an agar well diffusion test but only one isolate W3 gave a reasonable sized inhibition zone of 21.62 mm. This zone wassimilar to that of oxolinic acid (2 μg and sulfamethoxazole (25 μg. The W3 isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Shrimp cultivation in aquaria was conducted to investigate the inhibition of V. harveyi bythe isolate W3. The experiment consisted of a treatment of the shrimp culture with an inoculum of the isolate W3 and V. harveyi (biocontrol set, a positive control set (only inoculation of V. harveyi and a negativecontrol set as without inoculation. No mortality was found in the negative control. Shrimp mortality in the biocontrol set (33% was lower than that in the positive control set (40%; however, it showed no significantdifference (p>0.05. The average numbers of V. harveyi over 12 days of the biocontrol set were lower than those in the positive control set by about 1 log cycle although the numbers were not significantly different(p>0.05. The shrimp growth rate at day 32 of cultivation was in order of the biocontrol treatment (10.17% > the negative control treatment (9.44% > the positive control set (9.28%, but no significant difference (p>0.05 was observed among treatments.

  8. Biofiltration, growth and body composition of oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in effluents from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vieira de Azevedo

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use oyster as biofilter to improve the quality of effluent from shrimp farming and to assess its growth performance and body composition. It was distributed 1,080 oysters into lanterns in fiberglass tanks (170 L in a completely randomized design with three treatments (0, 60 and 120 oysters and six replicates. It was used the effluent from the sedimentation tank. It was measured weekly: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH, and it was analyzed ammonia-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, orthophosphate-P, suspended solids and chlorophyll-α of the input effluent. The control tanks (without oysters were more efficient at removing ammonia-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N and orthophosphate-P. The tanks containing oysters were more efficient at removing suspended solids and chlorophyll-α. Stocking density influenced the height growth of oysters, but not width. Wet and daily weight, condition and yield index were not affected by stocking density, and a significant increase in comparison to the initials values was observed. Body composition was not affected by stocking density, and a significant difference (p0.05. Under the conditions evaluated, the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae improves water quality and presents growth rates and body composition similar to those obtained in traditional crops.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Obtained from Shells of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz Antonino, Rayane Santa Cruz Martins; Lia Fook, Bianca Rosa Paschoal; de Oliveira Lima, Vítor Alexandre; de Farias Rached, Raid Ícaro; Lima, Eunice Paloma Nascimento; da Silva Lima, Rodrigo José; Peniche Covas, Carlos Andrés; Lia Fook, Marcus Vinícius

    2017-05-15

    The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. The procedure involves two 10-minutes bleaching steps with ethanol after the usual demineralization and deproteinization processes. Before deacetylation, chitin was immersed in 12.5 M NaOH, cooled down and kept frozen for 24 h. The obtained chitosan was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscosimetry. Samples of white chitosan with acetylation degrees below 9 % were obtained, as determined by FTIR and UV-first derivative spectroscopy. The change in the morphology of samples was followed by SEM. The ash content of chitosan samples were all below 0.063 % . Chitosan was soluble in 1 % acetic acid with insoluble contents of 0.62 % or less. XRD patterns exhibited the characteristic peaks of chitosan centered at 10 and 20 degrees in 2 θ . The molecular weight of chitosan was between 2.3 and 2.8 × 10 5 g/mol. It is concluded that the procedure developed in the present work allowed obtaining chitosans with physical and chemical properties suitable for pharmaceutical applications.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Obtained from Shells of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane Santa Cruz Martins de Queiroz Antonino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. The procedure involves two 10-minutes bleaching steps with ethanol after the usual demineralization and deproteinization processes. Before deacetylation, chitin was immersed in 12.5 M NaOH, cooled down and kept frozen for 24 h. The obtained chitosan was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD and viscosimetry. Samples of white chitosan with acetylation degrees below 9 % were obtained, as determined by FTIR and UV-first derivative spectroscopy. The change in the morphology of samples was followed by SEM. The ash content of chitosan samples were all below 0.063 % . Chitosan was soluble in 1 % acetic acid with insoluble contents of 0.62 % or less. XRD patterns exhibited the characteristic peaks of chitosan centered at 10 and 20 degrees in 2 θ . The molecular weight of chitosan was between 2.3 and 2.8 × 10 5 g/mol. It is concluded that the procedure developed in the present work allowed obtaining chitosans with physical and chemical properties suitable for pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Potensi sinbiotik lokal terhadap respon imun non spesifik udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Saputri Ramadhani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to examine the exact percentage of prebiotics in sinbiotics, administered through feed, so as to enhance nonspecific immune responses in white shrimp. The sweet potato extract was used as prebiotic, combined with local isolated Bacillus sp. D2.2 as a probiotic applied simultaneously as a synbiotic. The feed was treated with 0% sinbiotic treatment (treatment A / control, 0% prebiotic and 6% probiotics (B treatment, 2% prebiotic and 6% probiotics (treatment C, 4% prebiotics and 6% probiotics (treatment D. Examination of nonspecific immune responses to shrimp included total hemocyte count (THC, phagocytosis activity (AP, phagocytosis index (IP, phenoloxidase activity (PO, and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD. Observation of the non-specific immune response of vaname shrimp after treatment showed that treatment C was the best prebiotic  to increase non-specific immune response in vaname shrimp. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari persentase prebiotik yang tepat dalam sinbiotik, yang diberikan melalui pakan, sehingga dapat meningkatkan respon imun nonspesifik pada udang vaname. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan ekstrak tepung ubi jalar sebagai prebiotik, dikombinasikan dengan isolat lokal Bacillus sp. D2.2 sebagai probiotik yang diaplikasikan secara bersamaan sebagai sinbiotik. Pakan yang diberikan adalah pakan dengan perlakuan 0% sinbiotik (perlakuan A/kontrol, 0% prebiotik dan 6% probiotik (perlakuan B, 2% prebiotik dan 6% probiotik (perlakuan C, 4% prebiotik dan 6% probiotik (perlakuan D. Pemeriksaan respon imun nonspesifik pada udang meliputi total hemocyte count (THC, aktivitas fagositosis (AF, indeks fagositosis (IF, aktivitas phenoloxidase (PO, dan aktivitas superoxide dismutase (SOD. Pengamatan pada respon imun non spesifik udang vaname setelah diberi perlakuan menunjukan bahwa perlakuan C merupakan persentase prebiotik terbaik untuk meningkatkan respon imun non spesifik pada udang vaname.

  12. Characterization of manganese phases in mineral processing products of the Azul Mine, Carajas. Metallurgical implications; Caracterizacao de fases manganesiferas em produtos de beneficiamento da Mina do Azul, Carajas. Implicacoes metalurgicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, G.; Fernandez, O.J.Ch., E-mail: pereiragilcimar@hotmail.co, E-mail: ochoque.fernandez@gmail.co [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, M.L. da, E-mail: mlc@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2010-07-01

    Were characterized the manganese phases of the processing products using ore microscopy and x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute with new data and help the processing operations of the mine. Cryptomelane is the main manganese mineral in products, and pyrolusite and nsutite are in minor proportion. Were observed distinctive textures of the cryptomelane and others manganese phases, it were formed in different geological times and therefore affecting the operations in mineral processing, principally, comminution. The observed mineralogical variations affect too the unit operations when expand the pit. (author)

  13. O novo pleito brasileiro no mar: a plataforma continental estendida e o Projeto Amazônia Azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pereira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa a submissão do Brasil a uma plataforma continental estendida formulada à Comissão de Limites da Plataforma Continental (CLPC. Primeiramente, o trabalho apresenta a evolução dos limites marítimos brasileiros ao longo de sua formação histórica até o momento atual. Posteriormente, examina o conceito jurídico de plataforma continental elaborado pela Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre o Direito do Mar (CNUDM e a atuação da CLPC na fixação dos limites exteriores desse espaço do mar. Na parte final, destaca as implicações das recomendações "definitivas e obrigatórias" dessa instituição internacional sobre os interesses brasileiros na plataforma continental estendida.

  14. Effects of Agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) on Body Fat and Serum Lipids in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Barragán-Álvarez, Carla P; Diaz-Martinez, Nestor E; Rathod, Vineet; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Obesity affects millions of people worldwide, constituting a public health problem associated with premature mortality. Agave fructans decrease fat mass, body and liver weight, and generate satiety in rodents. In the present study the effects of agave fructans on weight control, lipid profile, and physical tolerability were evaluated in obese people. Twenty-eight obese volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, 96 mg/bw of agave fructans was administered for 12 weeks; in the second group, maltodextrin as a placebo was administered for 12 weeks. All participants consumed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal/day. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the study. The body mass index (BMI) of the agave fructans treated group was reduced significantly from the baseline to the final measurements. Hip and waist circumferences decreased statistically in both groups. A decrease of 10% in total body fat was observed in the agave fructans treated group, resulting in a statistically significant difference in the final versus baseline measurements between the Agave fructans treated group and the placebo treated group. Triglycerides were reduced significantly in the agave fructans treated group. Glucose values did not change in either group. Agave fructans intake was safe and well tolerated throughout the study. The results showed that the ingestion of agave fructans enhanced the decrease in BMI, the decrease in total body fat, and the decrease in triglycerides in obese individuals who consume a low-calorie diet.

  15. Fantasmas de rojo y azul. Los saqueos de las tropas chilenas en la guerra del Pacífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rivera Olguín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La guerra del pacifico (1879-1884 se destaca como uno de los conflictos bélicos más feroces de América Latina, el cual dejó un triste y amargo recuerdo en quienes fueron vencidos (Perú y Bolivia y una aureola de triunfo y gloria en quienes vencieron (Chile. Sin embargo, existen numerosos hechos y pasajes omitidos por la historia tradicional del conflicto y que se refieren a los numerosos saqueos cometidos por las tropas chilenas, principalmente en ciudades y pueblos del Perú. Esta investigación presenta datos que verifican la existencia de estos hechos y se aproxima a la explicación de ellos, a través de la revisión de los registros dejados por los protagonistas del conflicto, en un intento de reconstruir la historia de la guerra, desde una perspectiva social.

  16. Granito Azul Sucuru: Caracterização Tecnológica Através do Aproveitamento do Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Flávio Moreira Cavalcanti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study aims to present possibilities for utilization of waste of “Blue Granite Sucuru” obtained in the exploration phase and whose field is disabled, located in the Paraiba Cariri, in the municipality of Sumé, PB. It was determined the physical indices of this material that showed the following values: density 2660 kg / m3 ; porosity and absorption 0.26% 0.10%, and these ratios are consistent with those proposed by NBR 15844 - granites requirements for such coating material. Starting from field visits collect materials from the waste, which were crushed and one hundred selected pieces were measured values of their lengths, thickness and width, analyzed in the light of ISO 9654. The coarse aggregate produced shows high percentage of cubic materials (64% and 36% elongated / lamellar material. Thus, the use of elongated gravel / lamellar in the manufacture of concrete reduces the strength thereof to increase the porosity and the possibility of segregation of the mortar when the density of the material in ways. Therefore, the crushed rock produced from the material even though they have good resistance to weathering actions on account of their mineralogical composition (low content in minerals iron and magnesium oxides and 60% alkali feldspar can used in the manufacture of concrete, provided it has precautions as to and grain size to prevent them from becoming trapped between the steel bars that make up the armor and hinder the consolidation of the concrete, which may cause problems such as segregation of the mixture and the empty forms. However these same britas not lend themselves to constitute ballast railways, as have 36% of elongated / lamellar particles when, in use, the maximum allowed is 10%. Therefore, a better economic and environmental feasibility of the blocks which are not used with ornamental purpose is possible, in which the waste can be availed in the form of crushed stone for the construction industry.

  17. LOS ROJOS Y LOS AZULES. La violencia de la polarizaci?n bipartidista. Pacho (1930-1956).

    OpenAIRE

    Gait?n Barrero, Clara Helena

    2016-01-01

    C?mo cay? Pacho en ?la Violencia?? Estudio sobre el impacto del 9 de abril y ?la Violencia? en Pacho, Cundinamarca. Se analiza c?mo este municipio, ajeno a la violencia bipartidista, se involucr? en esta contienda que viv?a el pa?s. Sugiere la inversi?n de la pregunta: ?Fue el bipartidismo, m?s que la causa, una consecuencia de la violencia?

  18. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue; Viabilidade do dosimetro Fricke dopado com azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  19. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  20. Los sistemas de falla Agua Caliente y Río Azul y relevos compresivos asociados, Valle Central de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Walter; Barahona, Marco; Rojas, Wilfredo; Taylor, Magda

    2006-01-01

    Se han investigado dos zonas sísmicas en la región central de Costa Rica. La primera se localiza del lado oeste y sur de San José y es la que ha mostrado mayor actividad sísmica en tiempos históricos y recientes. El análisis conjunto del fallamiento reciente, la sismicidad y la sismotectónica permiten determinar que ésta se relaciona con el sistema de falla Agua Caliente, el cual incluye la falla siniestral Agua Caliente de rumbo cercano al E-W, la cual se continua al oeste con un relevo comp...

  1. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  2. Silagem ácida do resíduo do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei em rações para tilápia do Nilo = Acid silage of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei waste in Nile tilapia diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nunes Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rações isoproteicas (30% PD e isoenergéticas (3.200 kcal kg-1 foramformuladas, utilizando-se a silagem ácida de resíduo de camarão branco como fonte proteica alternativa em cinco diferentes níveis de inclusão 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16%. Foram utilizados 200 peixes com peso médio de 7,2 ± 0,5 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 20 tanques de 100 L cada, numa densidade de dez peixes tanque-1, em sistema de recirculação de água fechado. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados parâmetros de desempenho produtivo e composição centesimal do tecido muscular em alevinos de tilápia, alimentados três vezes por dia, até a saciedade aparente, durante 60 dias. Foram observados efeito quadrático (p Isoproteic (30% DP and isoenergetic (3,200 kcal kg-1 diets were formulated using acid silage of shrimp waste as alternative protein source at five levels (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16%. Two hundred fish (7.2 ± 0.5 g were randomly distributed in 20 tanks of 100 L at a density of10 fish tank-1 in a closed recirculation water system. The experiment was accomplished in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. Growth performance and proximal composition parameters of the muscular tissue were evaluated to tilapia fed threetimes a day to satiation during sixty days. Quadratic effect (p < 0.05 to weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate, protein retention, and linear effect (p < 0.05 to feed consumption, feed conversion rate and gross lipid in muscular tissue were observed. The acid silage of shrimp L. vannamei waste provide better growth performance, without losses in proximate composition of the muscular tissue, with 2.75% of inclusion in fingerling Niletilapia diets.

  3. Use of TPP and ATPS for partitioning and recovery of lipase from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepethkaew, S; Sangkharak, K; Benjakul, S; Klomklao, S

    2017-11-01

    Lipase recovery from Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas using a three-phase partitioning (TPP) system in combination with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was studied. TPP system was formed with a simultaneous addition of salt directly to crude extract (CE) followed by an organic solvent addition. The various process parameters required for efficient purification of lipase were optimized. The best lipase yield (87.41%) and purification fold (PF) (3.49-fold) were obtained in the interphase of TPP system, which consisted of the CE to t -butanol ratio of 1:1 (v/v) in the presence of 50% (w/v) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Subsequently, TPP fraction was subjected to ATPS. Effects of phase compositions including PEG molecular weight and concentration, types and concentration of salts, NaCl addition and system pH on lipase partitioning were investigated. With the application of 25% (w/w) PEG1000 and 15% (w/w) MgSO 4 , at pH 5.0 was found most appropriate since high lipase PF (5.19-fold) and yield (78.46%) in top phase were obtained. The partitioned enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C and was stable at a temperature range of 0-40 °C and a pH range of 7-10. The partitioned lipase showed high tolerance in the presence of ethanol and methanol. Hence, the combined partitioning systems, TPP-ATPS, were found to be an attractive technique for the recovery and partial purification of lipase from Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas.

  4. Polyculture Engineering technology of larasati red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) based for protease enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidjan, I.; Rachmawati, D.

    2018-04-01

    The objective is polyculture technology of red tilapia larasati fish and white shrimp with different combinations density. The material is saline red tilapia larasati 3.29 ± 0.018 g and white shrimp with initial weight 1.39 ± 0.025 g. Seeds are density of red tilapia larasati larvae 5 and 10 larvae / m2 fish. And white shrimp 5 larvae / m2 and 10 larvae / m2. An artificial feed used enzyme dose of 2.25 g / kg. The experimental using complete randomized design 4 treatments and 3 replications that is given seeds 5 larvae / m2 larvae red tilapia larasati and given 5 larvae / m2 white shrimp (A), 5 larvae / m2 red tilapia) and 10 m2 / m2 of white shrimp (B), 10 m2 larvae and 5 m2 white shrimp (C), 10 m2 larvae and 10 m2 white shrimp (D)). The data were growth of absolute weight, survival rate, FCR, and water quality data (temperature, salinity, pH, O2, NO2, NH3). Data were analyzed of variance (F test). The results showed significantly effect (P <0.01) on the growth. The highest absolute growth in D treatment were red tilapia larasati (185.75 ± 0.50g) and white shrimp (25.25 ± 0.95 g).

  5. Composition, diversity and function of intestinal microbiota in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei at different culture stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzheng Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph to adult stage (75 dph to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity. A total of 2,496 OTUs were obtained, ranging from 585 to 1,239 in each sample. Forty-three phyla were identified due to the classifiable sequence. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. OTUs belonged to 289 genera and the most abundant genera were Candidatus_Xiphinematobacter, Propionigenium, Synechococcus, Shewanella and Cetobacterium. Fifty-nine OTUs were detected in all samples, which were considered as the major microbes in intestine of shrimp. The intestinal microbiota was enriched with functional potentials that were related to transporters, ABC transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, two component system, secretion system, bacterial motility proteins, purine metabolism and ribosome. All the results showed that the intestinal microbial composition, diversity and functions varied significantly at different culture stages, which indicated that shrimp intestinal microbiota depended on culture stages. These findings provided new evidence on intestinal microorganism microecology and greatly enhanced our understanding of stage-specific community in the shrimp intestinal ecosystem.

  6. Bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals produced in an activated sludge system for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabry Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals generated with an activated sludge system using two water sources: wastewater from shrimp experimental culture (BFL-W and, artificially, using clean seawater (BFL-C. The sludge system operated by chemical and organic fertilization three times per week. Sampling of bioflocs occurred every two days during 81 days. To evaluate digestibility, each type of biofloc meal was incorporated into a reference diet (REF at 300 g/kg. Another diet acted as a negative control (NEG by using fish waste meal. The apparent digestibility of bioflocs was estimated by the indirect method using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the inert marker at 10 g/kg of the diet. Juvenile L. vannamei of 5.09±0.79 g (n = 440 were stocked at 10 shrimp/tank in 44 tanks of 61 L each that operated under a water recirculating regime. Biofloc meals contained a high ash content (591.0-649.2 g/kg combined with a low crude protein content (95.9-137.3 g/kg. After 26 days, shrimp achieved a final survival of 93.2±0.8% and a biomass gain of 37.1±1.8 g/tank. Final shrimp body weight ranged from 9.01±0.15 to 9.45±0.13 g. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of crude protein in the biofloc produced from BFL-W, BFL-C and fish waste meal (NEG reached 26.0, 25.7, and 64.1%, respectively. Similarly, the lipid ADC was 78.9, 67.9, and 85.8%, respectively. This study indicated that biofloc meals had a low protein availability for L. vannamei. However, although low levels of lipid were present, it proved to be available for the species. The dietary inclusion of biofloc meal appears to have a growth-promoting effect on shrimp, which may be associated with trace minerals, or other nutrients not identified in this study.

  7. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC ON IMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT IN THE FRY AND SPAWNER PRODUCTION OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanti Haryanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve immune system of Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei from any kinds of diseases, various probiotic agents were tested such as Bacillus sp. BC, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and mixed of both. The probiotics were cultured and added directly to the larval rearing tank (106 cfu/mL equal to 0.5 liter/m3 up to PL-12. In cultured shrimp spawners, probiotic was mixed with feed coated with chitosan, and without adding probiotic as control. In the present experiment, shrimp fry and spawners were reared in tank capacity of 5 m3 and 8 m3. Immunity response was analyzed by quantitative value of the immunity related gene expression with RTqPCR. The results showed that survival rate of shrimp fry cultured with mixed probiotic was 63.16% (PL-8 and 53.46% (PL-12, while control 13.35% (PL-8 and 12.48% (PL-12 respectively. The number of shrimp hemocytes starting from 420 to 530.5 x 104 cells/mL and after challenged with WSSV (for 72 hrs exposure between two treatments of Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and Bacillus cereus BC was not significantly different P>0.05 (402.5 and 432.5 x 104 cells/mL, while in mixed probiotic and control treatments were 391.75 and 229.0 x 104 cells/mL, respectively. The analysis of immunity gene expression revealed that the use of probiotic from larval stages up to spawner has been proved in increasing immunity responses quantified from ProPO activating system (prophenoloxidase/proPO as much as 1.6-2.0 fold, clotting system (transglutaminase, clotting protein of 1.5-2 fold, Antimicrobial Peptide System (anti-LPS factor, crustin, lysozyme, penaiedin2 of 1.5-2.8 fold, and Antioxidant defense mechanism (superoxidase dismutase/SOD, glutathione peroxidase/GPx of 1.8-2.0 fold compared to control.

  8. Management measures to control diseases reported by tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farmers in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    development. Farmers stated lower costs and stricter regulation on antimicrobial usage as reasons for the popularity of probiotics. Farmers also reported the use of herbal extracts for disease control and water quality improvements, partly because of the low number of reported negative side effects...... and pond water quality management. This study investigated the knowledge, practices and challenges of tilapia and whiteleg shrimp farmers when preventing and controlling diseases through the use of antimicrobials and other compounds in Guangdong province, which is the most important shrimp and tilapia...... they did not use antimicrobials to treat shrimp disease. All farmers applied disinfectants and probiotics to control pond water quality although the efficacy of such use was not known. Farmers prepared their own medicated feed through mixing antimicrobial water-based solutions into the feed pellets...

  9. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Elizondo-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1 for wastewater bioremediation, and (2 using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE. Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR compared to the other treatments (p  0.05. In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL. Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 improvement of growth and FCR, and enhanced whole shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  10. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-González, Regina; Quiroz-Guzmán, Eduardo; Escobedo-Fregoso, Cristina; Magallón-Servín, Paola; Peña-Rodríguez, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p   0.05). In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL). Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant ( p  Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  11. OXIDAÇÃO ELETROQUÍMICA DOS CORANTES REATIVOS PRETO 5 E AZUL 19 UTILIZANDO UM ELETRODO DE DIAMANTE DOPADO COM BORO NÃO COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available We have studied the treatment of Reactive Black 5 (RP5 and Blue 19 (RA19, which are respectively azo and anthraquinone textile dyes, by electrochemical oxidation using a non commercial boron doped diamond electrode supported on titanium metallic with a relation between B and C equal to 15,000 ppm. Pt was used as counter electrode and Ag/AgCl(sat was the reference electrode. The variables investigated to optimize the degradation were support electrolyte concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mol L-1 of K2SO4, temperature (25, 35 and 45 ºC and pH (2.5 and 10 by applying a current density of 75 mA cm-2. Total decolorization was observed in all electrochemical conditions studied. The highest rates of mineralization and chromatographic area removal were attained at high support electrolyte concentration due to the increase of conductivity, which caused more generation of hydroxyl radicals. RP5 was degraded at lower electrolysis time than RA19 with smaller requirement of electric charge. The mineralization rate increased in acid medium and at higher temperature since the increase in temperature favors the generation reactions of persulfate. These conditions led to the highest levels of current efficiencies and lower energy consumed.

  12. Study of the electron transfer in analog compounds of the Prussia blue; Estudio de transferencia electronica en compuestos analogos del azul de Prusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero V, S.; Damaso C, L.F. [ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reguera R, E.; Yee M, H.T. [CICATA-IPN, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    As answer to the necessity of the search of new nano structured materials, the present work was carried out that it studies the electron transfer in compound similar of the Prussia blue (CAAP), which are representative molecular materials, because its chromophore, magnetic, and electric properties, depend mainly on the processes that are made in their levels or orbital energy. It is known that these made up with octahedra symmetry that its are presented in form of powders, suffer processes of electron transfer when its are exposed to external stimulation by means of light (embracing the regions from the ultraviolet one until the infrared in the electromagnetic spectrum), because they are made up of mixed valency. To know that types of electronic transfers are those that are made in the study materials, 4 series of CAAP its were synthesized by the method of mixtures of aqueous solutions: M[Fe{sup +3}CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}nH{sub 2}O, M[Cr{sup +3}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}nH{sub 2}O, M[Mn{sup +3}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}nH{sub 2}O y M[Co{sup +3}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}nH{sub 2}O, and later on studied by means of the electron spectroscopy technique with a UV-SENSE spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer) in or n range of work of 250 to 1100 nm. Because to discuss the electronic structures of any compound, it is required the calculation of the energy levels, they took like reference the data tabulated by John Alexander and Harry Gray calculated by the modified theoretical approach of Wolfsberg-Helmhoz. When comparing the obtained spectra with the theoretical data, it was concludes that in the CAAP, its are carried out electronic transfers among orbital molecular metallic of the type d {yields} d, and load transfer (TC) among orbital molecular of the ligand and metal. When being carried out a load transfer in the CAAP that initially are made up of under-spin these its are photoinduced to an excited state of high spin. In consequence it is possible to vary the interactions among the metals of transition of the CAAP and the ligands, allowing the extension of coordinated phenomena (as the magnetism) through the crystalline lattice. This strengthens the idea that these materials are good candidates to be employees as molecular magnets with photoinduced control. (Aut0009h.

  13. Methylene blue adsorption in clay mineral dealt with organic cation; Sorcao de azul de metileno em argila esmectitica tratada com cation organico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.L. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Materiais; Lemos, V.P., E-mail: tls1981@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias

    2011-07-01

    The interaction among organic cations, as the methylene blue (AM) and benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and clay minerals of the group of the smectite they result in the formation of applied materials in the adsorption of organic pollutant presents in waters, soils and you cultivate. In this work they were prepared the adsorbents (organic-clays) smectite - AM and smectite-BTMA. The precursory sample of smectite was collected in Rio Branco-Acre. We were also used an smectite sample collected in Sena Madureira (SM)-Acre already characterized in previous work and a sample of standard smectite Swy-2-Na-Montmorillonite (SWy-2) of Wymong - USA. The organic agents selected for this study they were: Blue of Methylene, denominated AM and Benzyltrimethylammonium, denominated BTMA. They were appraised the capacities adsorptive of the treated samples with BTMA being used AM as adsorbate. The results of these evaluations detected that ran total adsorption of AM (concentrations varying from 1 to 10 ppm) for the treated samples with BTMA. The organic cation, BTMA, interacting with the surfaces of the natural clay was more efficient in the adsorption of AM than the clay without the previous treatment with this salt. (author)

  14. Obtaining multifunctional composites using styrofoam recycling: methylene blue adsorption; Obtencao de compositos multifuncionais utilizando reciclagem de isopor: adsorcao de azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.H. da; Ferreira, B.F.; Faria, E.H. de; Ciuffi, K.J.; Calefi, P.S., E-mail: tiagohonoratosilva@hotmail.com [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    There is high risk of environmental contamination by the textile industry if the generated waste is disposed into water streams and rivers. Another sector responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste is the styrofoam industry, since styrofoam is employed in various areas for packaging production. Therefore, today there is constant search for sustainable economic growth by means of materials recycling and reduction of residual pollutants. In this context, the present work aims to promote styrofoam recycling with its further utilization in the production of a kaolin-styrofoam composite for application as adsorbent of methylene blue originated from textile industry effluents. This adsorption is investigated in a column system, by exploiting the adsorptive properties of kaolin, such as large surface area and chemical and structural characteristics. The obtained materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  15. Blue and gold. The value of a soccer jersey Azul y oro. Las múltiples vidas sociales de una camiseta de fútbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio E. Benzecry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the many circuits under which a football jersey achieves value. First, it shows the transformations of the jersey design process that occur because of technological innovation as well as the influence of a group of Transnational Corpororations (TNCs which have attempted to  control the local sports apparel market. This has resulted in the tension between design convergences, the advertisement on jerseys and, therefore, its perceived authenticity. Second, it shows the uses of jerseys prescribed by a football team, in association with the regulations from national and international federations and the firm that designs them. Third, it explores the uses both players and fans make of the object. The article concludes by showing how many of the tensions at play get solved by the production of vintage replica jerseys made by the TNCs themselves and how advertisements have come to guarantee the authenticity of the jersey.Este artículo presenta y discute los múltiples circuitos en los cuales una camiseta de fútbol adquiere valor. Primero, muestra las transformaciones que ocurren en el proceso de diseño de la camiseta debido a los cambios tecnológicos, así como también a la influencia de un grupo de Corporaciones Transnacionales (TNCs que se propuso controlar el mercado de indumentaria deportiva local. Esto genera una tensión entre las convergencias del diseño, la publicidad de las camisetas y, por consiguiente, la percepción de su autenticidad. Segundo, muestra los usos de las camisetas prescriptos por un equipo de fútbol en relación con las regulaciones de las federaciones nacionales e internacionales y la marca que las diseña. Tercero, explora los usos de la camiseta que hacen los jugadores como los hinchas. El artículo concluye mostrando que muchas de las tensiones en juego se disuelven mediante la producción de camisetas vintage fabricadas por las mismas Corporaciones Transnacionales y la forma en que las publicidades han llegado a garantizar su autenticidad.

  16. Interação alimentar entre palmeiras, besouros bruquíneos e arara-azul no Pantanal do Miranda, MS

    OpenAIRE

    Iara Roberta de Azevedo Niero

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Araras-azuis (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) são especialistas alimentares, sendo que a população que ocorre no Pantanal se alimenta prioritariamente do endosperma de sementes de acuri (Attalea phalerata) e bocaiuva (Acrocomia sp.). Mesmo considerando o alto valor nutricional e energético das sementes, estudos apontam que araras-azuis passariam por períodos de déficit proteico durante o período de muda de penas e oviposição. É comum as araras-azuis se alimentarem destes itens no solo, on...

  17. Energía Azul: generación de potencia a través de la Ósmosis por Presión Retardada (PRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Esteban Aristizabal Alzate

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available La emisión de gases efecto invernadero, causadas por el uso de combustibles fósiles y el crecimiento exponencial de la humanidad, vuelca los esfuerzos hacia la búsqueda de fuentes de energía limpia y sostenible, que satisfagan las necesidades energéticas actuales y futuras. Por lo que es imperativo, investigar y desarrollar tecnologías que aprovechen las energías renovables, una de ellas es la Ósmosis por Presión Retardada (PRO, proceso que aprovecha el gradiente de salinidad entre dos soluciones para generar electricidad, ya que la mezcla de una solución salina de concentración alta con agua fresca disipa más de 2,2 MJ/m3 de agua dulce tratada. A escala industrial, se podría aprovechar la diferencia de salinidad entre ríos y mares, cerca de los estuarios. La aplicación, viabilidad y eficiencia del proceso y la tecnología PRO, dependen de las características de la membrana semipermeable, como la potencia por unidad de área, y las propiedades fisicoquímicas y de superficie de esta. En la actualidad, se utilizan membranas de acetato de celulosa, las cuales dan potencias (1W/m2. Sin embargo, se está investigando con membranas de materiales compuestos, como, por ejemplo, las basadas en grafeno, las cuales permiten un mayor flujo de agua y potencias superiores a 5 W/m2.

  18. Certificação ambiental de habitações: comparação entre LEED for Homes, Processo Aqua e Selo Casa Azul

    OpenAIRE

    Grünberg,Paula Regina Mendes; Medeiros,Marcelo Henrique Farias de; Tavares,Sergio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Visando incentivar mudanças no setor da construção civil para adequação às agendas de sustentabilidade, foram desenvolvidos, em vários países, sistemas de certificação ambiental de edificações. Voltadas principalmente para questões relativas ao consumo de recursos naturais e impactos ao meio ambiente; essas ferramentas também são denominadas selos verdes para edifícios. Com o intuito de identificar a certificação de melhor desempenho a ser utilizada para edificações residenciais no Brasil, us...

  19. Restos de cangrejo rojo (Gecarcinus lateralis y cangrejo azul (Cardisoma guanhumi, en el contexto arqueológico teotihuacano de Teopancazco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodríguez-Galicia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la relación hombre-fauna en el pasado es propia de la línea de investigación arqueozoológica, esta disciplina biológica, pero también antropológica, es un área que ha permitido establecer qué animales fueron aprovechados como fuente de alimento, cuáles eran proveedores de materia prima para actividades rituales, ceremoniales, elaboración de atuendos, vestimentas, comercio, elementos tributarios y/o elementos decorativos. Salvo los reportes e informes de restos de moluscos en el contexto arqueológico teotihuacano, la presencia de fauna costera en esta urbe prehispánica es poco común; sin embargo, en las excavaciones efectuadas en Teopancazco, como parte del proyecto: Teotihuacán: élite y gobierno, coordinado por la Dra. Linda R. Manzanilla, se han podido identificar una alta concentración de huesos de peces, una espina tallada de erizo de mar y diez fragmentos de quelas de dos especies de cangrejos, estos últimos, con una amplia distribución geográfica en la costa del Golfo de México. Lo anterior hace evidente que existió una relación cultural entre las sociedades antiguas del centro de México y los habitantes de esta costa mexicana, que se dio en las fases Tlamimilolpa tardío (300-400 d.C. a Xolalpan tardío (500-600 d.C., es decir, entre el 300 y 600 de nuestra era.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of fructans from agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul at different ultrasound powers and solid-liquid ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel SÁNCHEZ-MADRIGAL

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE at different ultrasound power densities (UPDs; 40, 80, and 120 mW/mL and solid:liquid (S:L ratio (1:2, 1:3, and 1:6 on the extraction of carbohydrates from Agave tequilana plant of different ages were evaluated. Extracts obtained (6- and 7-year-old plant were analyzed in the yield of carbohydrates (YC, fructan (FRU content, simple sugars, fructan profile and the average degree of polymerization (DPn. UPD, S:L ratio, and plant age all affected YC, FRU, and DPn. Maximum YC and FRU were obtained from the older agave with UPD and S:L ratio of 120 mW/mL and 1:6, respectively; while glucose, fructose, and sucrose were highly released from the younger plant. Agave of 7-year-old presented the highest DPn. Fructan degradation occurred at high UPD, increasing the simple sugars and decreasing the DPn. Thermal-traditional extraction without sonication caused more fructan degradation; and overall, ultrasound enhanced fructan extraction and minimized fructan damage, representing a technological alternative for fructan extraction from agave.

  1. Anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em bovinos do sertão da Paraíba

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,C.B.; Oliveira,A.M.; Azevedo,E.O.; Lobato,Z.I.P.; Leite,R.C.

    2000-01-01

    In June of 1997 the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus was between 3.94 and 4.82% in 137 bovine serum samples from 12 herds in Paraiba State, Brazil. This is the first report of antibodies to bluetongue virus in Paraiba State herds.

  2. DESEMPEÑO DE UNA PELÍCULA DE MAÍZ AZUL EN EL ENVASADO DE UN QUESO DE HUMEDAD INTERMEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA ROJAS DE G.

    Full Text Available La PCT/MX2009/000092, describe un método para obtener películas a partir de harina de cereales mediante método de "casting" y empleocomo almohadillas antimicrobianas yenvases termosellables para alimentos secos. Debido a su sensibilidad al agua y baja resistencia mecánica para contener alimentos de humedad intermedia; se reformuló la matriz biopolimérica para mejorar ambos parámetros.La película derivada de la reformulación fue caracterizada mecánicamente (ASTM D1708, se midió el "swelling" y se observó mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido.El desempeño de la película fue evaluado envasando unalimento perecedero: un quesosemimadurado,sometiéndolo a almacenamiento refrigerado durante 2 meses. Control: se emplearon queso del mismo lote envasado al vacío en película alta barrera. Durante los estudios de estabilidad en anaquel se evaluaron parámetros críticos microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos para el alimento envasado.Se observó que si bien las películas activas controlaron la carga microbiana, la integridad del envase se vio alterada debido a absorción de agua por contacto con el alimento, observándose ruptura de la estructura e integridad del biopolímeroy en consecuencia, exposición del producto y término de su vida útil.

  3. Removal of the blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions using ferric zeolite; Remocion del colorante azul 1 de soluciones acuosas utilizando zeolita ferrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo H, S. Y.

    2010-07-01

    Water is essential to all life forms, including humans. In recent years water use has increased substantially, also has been altered in its capacity as a result of various human activities, such as domestic, industrial and agricultural, also by natural activity. Undoubtedly one of the main pollutants today are the waste generated by the food industry, due to the use of dyes for the production of their products. So it is necessary to restore water quality through treatment systems to remove contaminants, and thus prevent disease and imbalance of ecosystems. Due to the above, it is important to conduct research directed towards finding new ways to remove dyes such as blue 1 used in the food industry, using low cost materials and abundant in nature as zeolites. To accomplish the above, the present study has the purpose to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the blue dye 1 in aqueous solutions. To accomplish that objective, the zeolite material was reconditioned to improve its sorption properties of the material and provide the ability to adsorb pollutants such as this dye. The zeolite material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. To evaluate the ability of blue 1 dye sorption the kinetics and sorption isotherms were determined; the experimental results were adjusted to mathematical models such as pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and Elovich to describe the kinetic process, and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich to describe sorption isotherms. The results showed that ferric zeolite surface is a heterogeneous material and has a considerable adsorption capacity, which makes it a potential adsorbent for removing color from aqueous streams. Also the sorption of the dye was evaluated at different ph values; the most sorption was carried out at ph values 1, 3 and 11. We also evaluated the change in mass where the sorption capacities for the blue 1 increase by increasing amount of adsorbent from 10 to 200 mg of adsorbent and 10 ml of solution. Finally there was a column sorption test, obtaining the curve os load vs time of contact, and important design parameters such as the rupture time, it was at 100 minutes, with an initial concentration of 5 mg/L taking final concentration breakpoint of 0.4 mg/L, the results were evaluated with the Thomas model. The results of this work can conclude that it is possible to extend the scope of natural zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants in wastewater, by changing its outer surface with ferric chloride, without a significant effect on their ion exchange properties. (Author)

  4. Las tradiciones revolucionarias y el género policial argentino. Una lectura de Los muros azules, de Juan Carlos Martelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Feuillet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how the detective novel we analyze narrates a revolution, in order to examine central concepts of Marxism (the State, class, the stages of capitalism which guide, in turn, a way of reading the criminal story that underlies the plot. The introduction of espionage through the networks of illegal international trade in the Antilles (where an independent rebellion with socialist elements arises, imposes the search for new tools for reading the detective genre and redefining it. Crime as a branch of social production is the mediating instrument that allows us to read the contradictions in the modes of production, where old forms survive with anticipatory elements that are put in tension in a rebellion traversed by the international configuration of crime.

  5. Contribution from the use of remote sensors as a tool for water and environmental management: A case of Igarape Agua Azul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, E.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the use of remote sensors as a tool for water and environmental management. This article discusses concepts associated with the environmental management taking into consideration the local geology which is supported by the geographic information system. Is important to consider the urbanization processes in relation with the environmental spaces

  6. A suspensão do corpo e a busca da matéria na terra, no vermelho e no azul

    OpenAIRE

    Denise de Barros

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho propõe-se a realizar um estudo sobre a interpretação poética do corpo humano, materializada pelo resgate da memória dos estímulos visuais e táteis experimentados no contato com a anatomia do corpo em cirurgias oncológicas. Apresenta a composição harmoniosa e complementar entre o repertório de relações sensoriais e cognitivas com as linguagens poéticas, expondo as essências do corpo humano através de elementos plásticos e visuais, que permeiam a criação artística das orga...

  7. Photocatalysis of methylene blue contaminated water using titania fiber doped with silicon; Fotocatalise de aguas contaminadas com azul de metileno utilizando fibras de titania dopadas com silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugarteche, C.V.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2009-07-01

    In this work, titania fibers doped with silicon were synthesized by electro spinning methodology, using titanium propoxide, silicon tetra propoxide and a solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone as precursors. The non-tissue material obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the phase and crystallite size, BET method to determine the surface and SEM to analyze the microstructure of the fibers. The photo catalytic activity of the fibers in comparison with the standard TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25 was evaluated using a 20ppm methylene blue solution. The composition containing 30% of silicon kept the anatase phase stable until the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg C. In the other compositions there was a formation of the rutile phase, which is less photoactive. The compositions containing silicon were photo catalytic efficient and some of them were more active that the standard P25. (author)

  8. Estudo eletroquímico do azul de metileno adsorvido sobre sílica gel quimicamente modificada com óxido de nióbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiavo Débora de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue (AM was immobilised on surface of the silica gel modified with niobium oxide. This material was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode, which showed a redox couple in a potential of E= -113 mV vs SCE in KCl solution at pH 7.0. The formal potential, in 0.5 mol L-1 KCl at pH 7.0, shifted about 290 mV towards more positive values compared to those observed for AM solubilized in aqueous solution. The dependence on the formal potential with solution pH between 2 and 7 was much lower than those observed for AM solubilized in aqueous solution.

  9. Sierran affinity (?) metasedimentary rocks beneath the Coast Range Ophiolite of the Sierra Azul block east of the San Andreas fault, Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R. J.; Dumitru, T. A.; Ernst, W. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Loma Prieta slate (LPS) is a Ernst, 2008, GSA Special Paper 438). Weighted mean age calculations indicate a youngest zircon age cluster at about 152.5±2 Ma for the LPS, which indicates its maximum depositional age. The large number of zircons in the youngest LPS age cluster (31 out of 87) may reflect a contemporaneous volcanic source, consistent with the petrography. Zircon data for the MFS indicate earliest possible deposition at about 152 ± 1 Ma. Zircon ages >200 Ma are generally similar in the LPS and MFS, with minor age groupings at roughly 950-1450 and 1750-2100 Ma. As with the MFS, the LPS data suggest a major influence from sources in the Sierra Nevada arc, with minimal influences from sources in the Klamath Mountains and Nevada miogeocline. Available detrital zircon data require Cretaceous or younger maximum depositional ages for metaclastic terranes of the Franciscan Complex. The LPS detrital zircon data thus, are in reasonable agreement with the MFS data and permit interpretation of the LPS as displaced northward by the San Andreas and Hayward-Calaveras faults from the southwestern Great Valley margin.

  10. Evaluation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis and by autohydrolysis in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Lizett González-Félix

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine bioprocessing industry offers great potential to utilize byproducts for fish meal replacement in aquafeeds. Jumbo squid is an important fishery commodity in Mexico, but only the mantle is marketed. Head, fins, guts and tentacles are discarded in spite of being protein-rich byproducts. This study evaluated the use of two jumbo squid byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis (AEH and by autohydrolysis (AH as ingredients in practical diets for shrimp. The hydrolysates were included at levels of 2.5 and 5.0% of the diet dry weight in four practical diets, including a control diet without hydrolysate. Shrimp growth and survival were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Postharvest quality of abdominal muscle was evaluated in terms of proximate composition and sensory evaluation. Significantly higher crude protein was observed in the muscle of shrimp fed the highest hydrolysate levels, AH 5% (204.8 g kg- 1 or AEH 5% (201.3 g kg- 1. Sensory analysis of cooked muscle showed significant differences for all variables evaluated: color, odor, flavor, and firmness. It was concluded that Jumbo squid byproducts can be successfully processed by autohydrolysis or acid-enzymatic hydrolysis, and that up to 5.0% of the hydrolysates can be incorporated into shrimp diets without affecting growth or survival.

  11. Organic carbon source and C/N ratio affect inorganic nitrogen profile in the biofloc-based culture media of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Hanif Azhar; Eddy Supriyono; Kukuh Nirmala; Julie Ekasari

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon source and C/N ratio play an important role in aquaculture system with biofloc technology application. Nitrogen control by adding carbohydrates to the water to stimulate heterotrophic bacterial growth by converting nitrogen into bacterial biomass. The study investigated the effect molasses, tapioca, tapioca by product and rice bran as carbon sources in a biofloc media at three different C/N ratios i.e. 10, 15, and 20 on total ammonia reduction in biofloc media. Five liters of b...

  12. Organic carbon source and C/N ratio affect inorganic nitrogen profile in the biofloc-based culture media of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif Azhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic carbon source and C/N ratio play an important role in aquaculture system with biofloc technology application. Nitrogen control by adding carbohydrates to the water to stimulate heterotrophic bacterial growth by converting nitrogen into bacterial biomass. The study investigated the effect molasses, tapioca, tapioca by product and rice bran as carbon sources in a biofloc media at three different C/N ratios i.e. 10, 15, and 20 on total ammonia reduction in biofloc media. Five liters of biofloc media in a conical tank was prepared for each replicate, which consisted of 500 mL of biofloc suspension collected from a shrimp culture unit with biofloc technology application and 4.5 L seawater. Pacific white shrimp culture was performed in 40L glass aquaria at a shrimp density of 30/aquarium. There was a significant interaction between carbon source and the C/N ratio applied (P<0.05. The use of molasses resulted in the highest reduction rate irrespective to the C/N ratio. Keywords: molasses, tapioca, tapioca by product, rice bran, biofloc, total ammonia nitrogen

  13. Utilização da meiofauna bentônica nomonitoramento do cultivo do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Porchat de Assis Murolo, Priscila

    2005-01-01

    Uma das maiores ameaças ao ecossistema estuarino tem sido o rápido aumento na aqüicultura costeira, e em particular a criação de camarões. O efluente da carcinicultura pode ser a principal fonte de poluição nos estuários. Considerando a sensibilidade da meiofauna à entrada de material antrópico e o grupo Copepoda Harpacticoida como o mais sensível à poluentes, este trabalho teve como objetivo, avaliar a influência da carcinicultura no estuário do rio Botafogo (Itapissuma-PE) utilizando a meio...

  14. Dietary ambon lumut banana stem extract Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton as an immunostimulant for white spot disease prevention in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afriani Ramadhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the dietary ambon lumut banana Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton stem extract on the immune responses, growth, and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp against white spot disease. Ambon banana steam extract was obtained by maceration method using ethanol. The shrimps fed by pellet containing ambon banana stem extracts with different dosages for 29 days, i.e designated as 0.1 (A; 0.3 (B, and 0.5 (C g/kg, the diet treatment without ambon banana stem extract without challenged test (K-, and diet treatment without ambon banana stem extract with challenged test (K+. Each treatment consisted of three replications. Feeding was conducted for 29 days of maintenance (four times a day. The results showed that the immune responses (average total hemocyte count: 45.15×106 cells/mL, phenoloxidase activity 1.03±0.08 OD, respiratory burst 0.95±0.04 OD, phagocytic activity 94.33±1.53%, growth (specific growth rate: 7.79±0.06%/day, feed ratio conversion was 52±0.01, and survival of treatment C (survival rate 100% were higher compared with the treatment K+ (total hemocyte count: 3.83×106 cells/mL, phenoloxidase activity 0.04±0.01 OD, respiratory burst 0.18±0.06 OD,  phagocytic activity 5.67±0.58%, specific growth rate: 2.61±0.08%/day, feed conversion ratio 2.11±0.02, survival rate: 50%. Therefore, banana stem extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg everyday diet can be used to improve growth and nonspecific immune system against white spot disease on Pacific white shrimp. Keywords: Pacific white shrimp, white spot disease, immune response, Ambon banana stem extract  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji dosis optimal ekstrak batang pisang ambon melalui pakan dalam meningkatkan respon imun, pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup udang putih terhadap penyakit white spot. Ekstrak batang pisang ambon lumut Musa cavendishii var. dwarf  Paxton menggunakan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol. Pakan udang yang mengandung ekstrak batang pisang ambon pada dosis yang berbeda selama 29 hari 0,1 (A; 0,3 (B, dan 0,5 (C g/kg, pakan tanpa pemberian ekstrak batang pisang ambon dan tidak diuji tantang (K-, pakan tanpa pemberian ekstrak batang pisang ambon dan diuji tantang (K+. Masing-masing perlakuan terdiri atas tiga ulangan. Frekuensi pemberian pakan empat kali sehari selama 29 hari pemeliharaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan C respons imun (rata-rata jumlah total hemosit: 45,15×106 sel/mL, aktivitas phenoloxydase 1,03±0,08 OD, respiratory burst 0,95±0,04 OD, aktivitas fagositik 94,33±1,53%, pertumbuhan (laju pertumbuhan spesifik: 7,79±0,06%/hari, rasio konversi  pakan 0,52±0,01, dan kelangsungan hidup  (survival rate 100% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan K+ (jumlah total hemosit: 3.83×106 sel/mL, aktivitas phenoloxydase 0,04±0,01 OD, respiratory burst 0,18±0,06 OD, aktivitas fagositik 5,67± 0,58%, laju pertumbuhan spesifik: 2,61±0,08%/hari, rasio konversi pakan 2,11±0,02, nilai kelangsungan hidup: 50%. Jadi, ekstrak batang pisang pada dosis 0,5 g/kg setiap hari pada pakan dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan sistem kekebalan tubuh nonspesifik terhadap penyakit bintik putih pada udang putih.   Kata kunci: udang putih, white spot, respons imun, ekstrak batang pisang ambon

  15. Improvement in the growth performance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by a protease-producing probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, from natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-H; Chiu, C-S; Ho, P-L; Wang, S-W

    2009-09-01

    To isolate and identify a benefic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis E20, from natto (fermented soybeans), and incorporate it into shrimp feed to promote shrimp growth performance. A protease-producing bacterium, E20, isolated from natto was identified as B. subtilis by an API 50 CHB kit and the 16S rDNA sequence. B. subtilis E20 was able to grow at a broad range of temperatures (10-50 degrees C), pH values (5-10), and NaCl levels (0-9%). The best culture conditions for B. subtilis E20 to produce the protease were 40 degrees C, a pH of 6-8 and 0% NaCl. No shrimp died after being injected with B. subtilis E20 [up to 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) per shrimp]. Bacillus subtilis E20 was incorporated in diets at the levels of 0 (control), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) CFU kg(-1) for shrimp grow-out culture, and results showed that after feeding on B. subtilis E20-containing diets (10(8) CFU kg(-1) of diet), shrimp had excellent growth performance and production compared to the control because protease activities in the digestive tract were improved by B. subtilis E20. Bacillus subtilis E20 isolated from natto is a great protease producer and is able to improve shrimp growth performance through increasing the digestibility of food. Results suggest that B. subtilis E20 is a potential candidate for use as a probiotic to improve shrimp growth performance, and consequently reduce feed costs.

  16. MULTI INFEKSI PADA UDANG Litopenaeus vannamei : DIAGNOSIS DENGAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR DAN REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya masalah yang dihadapi seperti pertumbuhan udang yang tidak seragam (ukuran bervariasi, penampakan klinis yang abnormal dan organ yang tidak sempurna. Gejala tersebut akibat dari infeksi penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus. Untuk mengetahui jenis virus yang menyerang udang tersebut, maka dilakukan analisis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR dan Reverse TranscriptasePolymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR menggunakan berbagai jenis spesifik primer WSSV, IHHNV, MBV, TSV, IMNV, dan PvNV. Sampel udang yang secara visual normal dan abnormal diambil lalu disimpan dalam larutan pengawet 90% Ethanol dan RNAlater kemudian dianalisis di laboratorium dengan metode yang sudah dikembangkan oleh Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan Budidaya. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa udang yang tumbuh lambat dan mempunyai rostrum bengkok dan warna otot daging memutih ternyata tidak hanya diserang oleh satu virus namun dua virus IHHNV dan IMNV. Hasil penelitian ini juga mengindikasikan bahwa udang yang terserang IHHNV akan tumbuh lambat walaupun tidak mematikan, sedangkan udang yang diserang IMNV otot daging di tubuh memutih terutama pada bagian punggung dan dapat menimbulkan kematian.

  17. MULTI INFEKSI PADA UDANG Litopenaeus vannamei : DIAGNOSIS DENGAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) DAN REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RT-PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    Isti Koesharyani; Lila Gardenia; Hambali Supriyadi

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya masalah yang dihadapi seperti pertumbuhan udang yang tidak seragam (ukuran bervariasi), penampakan klinis yang abnormal dan organ yang tidak sempurna. Gejala tersebut akibat dari infeksi penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus. Untuk mengetahui jenis virus yang menyerang udang tersebut, maka dilakukan analisis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) dan Reverse TranscriptasePolymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) menggunakan berbagai jenis spesifik primer WSSV, IHHNV, MB...

  18. Decreasing of heterogeneity in black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei broodstocks and their fry produced in hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Widyo Prastowo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestication and genetic improvement of shrimp are required towards production of superior broodstock.  BBPBAP Jepara had performed study on evaluation of genetic diversity of black tiger and white shrimp broodstock and their progenies produced in hatchery, using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP-mtDNA method.  Amplification of black tiger shrimp mtDNA used primers designed based on 16S rDNA sequences, and the products were restricted by Nde II enzyme.  While the primers for white shrimp was based on COIL and COIH sequences, and their PCR products were digested with Nla III.  The results of study showed that heterogeneity of tiger shrimp derived from Aceh waters was 0.1063, while their F1 progeny was 0.0494.  Heterogeneity of male tiger shrimp from Aceh waters and their progeny was 0.2811 and 0.1023, respectively, while of female was 0.1594 and 0.0940, respectively.  Heterogeneity of F1 tiger shrimp from Sunda Strait was 0.0405, while their F2 was homozygous.  Heterogeneity of F1 male and female tiger shrimp from Sunda Strait was 0.0641 and 0.1567, respectively, while of F2 was homozygous for both male and female.  Heterogeneity value of F1 white shrimp from Hawaii was 0.0069, while the F2 was homozygous.  Heterogeneity of F1 male and female white shrimp was 0.0099 and 0.0234, respectively, while of their F2 for both male and female were homozygous.  Homozygous has been found in F1 of white shrimp broodstock from Florida.  Based on the results of study, genetic variation of tiger shrimp and white shrimp broodstock used in hatchery were decrease.  Combination of conventional selective breeding approach and molecular technique may be useful to faster to meet the goal of domestication and quality improvement of penaeid species in Indonesia. Keywords: black tiger shrimp, white shrimp, RFLP, heterogeneity, genetic marker.   ABSTRAK Dalam rangka penyiapan induk-induk udang yang berkualitas unggul, diperlukan usaha untuk domestikasi dan perbaikan mutu genetik udang.  Di BBPBAP Jepara telah dilakukan suatu kajian untuk mengevaluasi keragaman genetik induk udang windu dan udang vaname beserta keturunannya yang dihasilkan dari panti pembenihan dengan metode Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP-mtDNA.  Amplifikasi mtDNA udang windu menggunakan primer yang didisain berdasarkan sekuens 16S rDNA, dan produk PCR dipotong menggunakan enzim Nde II.  Sementara primer untuk udang vaname dibuat berdasarkan sekuens COIL dan COIH, dan produk PCR dipotong dengan enzim Nla III.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai heterogenitas populasi induk udang windu asal Aceh dari alam sebesar 0,1063 dan turunan F1-nya sebesar 0,0494. Populasi induk windu jantan Aceh dari alam sebesar 0,2811 dan turunan F1-nya sebesar 0,1023; sedangkan populasi induk windu betina Aceh dari alam sebesar 0,1594 dan turunan F1-nya sebesar 0,0940.  Nilai heterogenitas populasi induk udang windu asal Selat Sunda turunan F1 sebesar 0,0405 dan turunan F2-nya adalah homozigot. Populasi induk windu jantan Selat Sunda turunan F1 sebesar 0,0641 dan turunan F2-nya adalah homozigot; sedangkan populasi induk windu betina Selat Sunda turunan F1 sebesar 0,1567 dan turunan F2-nya adalah homozigot. Nilai heterogenitas populasi induk udang vaname asal Hawaii turunan F1 sebesar 0,0069 dan turunan F2 adalah homozigot.  Populasi induk vaname jantan Hawaii turunan F1 sebesar 0,0099 dan turunan F2-nya adalah homozigot.  Populasi induk betina Hawaii turunan F1 sebesar 0,0234 dan turunan F2-nya adalah homozigot.  Homozigositas pada induk udang vaname asal Florida telah terlihat pada turunan F1-nya. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan adanya penurunan variasi genetik pada induk udang windu dan udang vaname yang digunakan di panti pembenihan. Kombinasi antara pendekatan selektif breeding konvensional dan aplikasi teknik molekuler mungkin bermanfaat untuk mempercepat tercapainya tujuan domestikasi dan perbaikan kualitas udang penaeid di Indonesia.   Kata kunci : Udang windu, udang vaname, RFLP, heterogenitas, marker genetik

  19. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  20. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding vitellogenin in the banana shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) merguiensis and sites of vitellogenin mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiriyangkul, Pharima; Utarabhand, Prapaporn

    2006-04-01

    In order to determine the primary structure of banana shrimp, Penaeus merguiensis, vitellogenin (Vg), we previously purified vitellin (Vt) from the ovaries of vitellogenic females, and chemically analyzed the N-terminal amino acid sequence of its 78 kDa subunit. In this study, a cDNA from this species encoding Vg was cloned based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the major 78 kDa subunit of Vt and conserved sequences of Vg/Vt from other crustacean species. The complete nucleotide sequence of Vg cDNA was achieved by RT-PCR and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length Vg cDNA consisted of 7,961 nucleotides. The open reading frame of this cDNA encoding a precursor peptide was comprised of 2,586 amino acid residues, with a putative processing site, R-X-K/R-R, recognized by subtilisin-like endoproteases. The deduced amino acid sequence was obtained from the Vg cDNA and its amino acid composition showed a high similarity to that of purified Vt. The deduced primary structure, of P. merguiensis Vg was 91.4% identical to the Vg of Penaeus semisulcatus and was also related to the Vg sequences of six other crustacean species with identities that ranged from 86.9% to 36.6%. In addition, the amino acid sequences corresponding to the signal peptide, N-terminal region and C-terminal region of P. merguiensis Vg were almost identical to the same sequences of the seven other reported crustacean species. Results from RT-PCR analysis showed that Vg mRNA expression was present in both the ovary and hepatopancreas of vitellogenic females but was not detected in other tissues including muscle, heart, and intestine of females or in the hepatopancreas of mature males. These results indicate that the Vg gene may be expressed only by mature P. merguiensis females and that both the ovary and hepatopancreas are possible sites for Vg synthesis in this species of shrimp. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Silagem ácida do resíduo do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei em rações para tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.5097 Acid silage of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei waste in Nile tilapia diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.5097

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Silva Ledo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rações isoproteicas (30% PD e isoenergéticas (3.200 kcal kg-1 foram formuladas, utilizando-se a silagem ácida de resíduo de camarão branco como fonte proteica alternativa em cinco diferentes níveis de inclusão 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16%. Foram utilizados 200 peixes com peso médio de 7,2 ± 0,5 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 20 tanques de 100 L cada, numa densidade de dez peixes tanque-1, em sistema de recirculação de água fechado. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados parâmetros de desempenho produtivo e composição centesimal do tecido muscular em alevinos de tilápia, alimentados três vezes por dia, até a saciedade aparente, durante 60 dias. Foram observados efeito quadrático (p L. vannamei proporciona melhores resultados de desempenho, sem alterações prejudiciais no tecido muscular, quando utilizada em 2,75% de inclusão em rações para alevinos de tilápia do NiloIsoproteic (30% DP and isoenergetic (3,200 kcal kg-1 diets were formulated using acid silage of shrimp waste as alternative protein source at five levels (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16%. Two hundred fish (7.2 ± 0.5 g were randomly distributed in 20 tanks of 100 L at a density of 10 fish tank-1 in a closed recirculation water system. The experiment was accomplished in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. Growth performance and proximal composition parameters of the muscular tissue were evaluated to tilapia fed three times a day to satiation during sixty days. Quadratic effect (p L. vannamei waste provide better growth performance, without losses in proximate composition of the muscular tissue, with 2.75% of inclusion in fingerling Nile tilapia diets

  2. Growth and metabolic responses of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in polyculture fed with potential probiotic microorganisms on different schedules: Crecimiento y respuesta metabólica del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei y tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en policultivo alimentado con microorganismos probióticos potenciales en diferentes frecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Apún-Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and co-culture of shrimp and tilapia are two strategies to improve yield and eco-efficiency of both species. However, only few studies have analyzed the combination of these two strategies. This study analyzes the effect of a mixture of potential probiotics supplied in the diet at different frequencies in a system of shrimp (10 m-2 and tilapia (5 m-2 in a trial lasting 84 days. The probiotics mixture was composed of four lactic acid bacteria and one yeast strain that were supplied either daily, every 5 days, or every 10 days in the diet and compared with a control without any supply of probiotics. At the end of the experiment, blood chemistry and hematology of shrimp and tilapia were analyzed as an index of physiological condition. Water quality did not differ between treatments. The final weight, feed conversion ratio, and yield of shrimp were significantly higher with daily supply of probiotics compared to shrimp that did not receive probiotics supply, with intermediate values for treatments with probiotics supply every 5 or 10 days. However, level of supplementation every 5 days could be considered as optimal because no significant differences with daily supply were observed for any variable, whereas the supply each 10 days resulted in a significantly lower yield. Significantly higher final weight, feed conversion ratio, and yield of tilapia occurred with daily supplements. Blood cholesterol in tilapia significantly decreased with increasing frequency of probiotics supplementation. These results indicate that probiotics supplements for shrimp and tilapia cultivated simultaneously improved yields and physiological condition.

  3. Interferência de diferentes métodos de aclimatação na sobrevivência de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Interference of different acclimation methods on Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 postlarvae survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nilson Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Observou-se o impacto de três métodos de aclimatação na sobrevivência de PL10 de L. vannamei (choque direto, diluição gradativa e gotejamento, utilizando-se águas oligohalina e doce. Para verificar alterações estruturais nas brânquias das PLs aclimatadas por gotejamento, realizaram-se análises histopatológicas e histoquímicas. A correlação entre a sobrevivência, método e tempo de aclimatação e tipos de água foram analisados usando Modelos Lineares Generalizados (p In order to observe the effects of different acclimation methods for freshwater and oligohalin water on the survival of L. vannameipostlarvae (PL10 and gills, it was analyzed three histological and histochemical studies. Three methods of acclimation were used: direct shock, gradual dilution and dripping. Three General Linear Models and Stepwise process (p < 0.05 were used to analyze the effects of methods and the time of acclimation and the different waters for dilution on survival. The survival rates were higher than 90% in the direct shock method in salinities equal or above 10‰. In the gradual dilution method the oligohalin water showed the best survival rate. In the dripping method only the time of acclimation showed a significant effect on the survival rate. The acclimation did not change the morphology of branchiae. The APS method showed a negative result and the Alcian Blue method showed positive reaction to acidglicoproteins and acidglicosaminoglicans in all postlarvae gills.Recommended method to acclimation of L. vannamei to freshwater was by dripping (48h, starting by direct shock at 10‰ salinity, and the most recommended water for acclimation was oligohalin.

  4. Incidencia del cultivo de la caña de azúcar en la fertilidad del suelo y su efecto en la producción de alimento de la vereda Agua Azul municipio de Villa rica – Cauca

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Possú, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas. CIMAD, 2016 La dinámica agrícola y empresarial en el norte del Departamento del Cauca, modificó en gran manera el acceso, producción, disponibilidad y uso de la tierra de los campesinos de esta región. Esta situación generó cambios en la economía y el acceso a la alimentación de los hogares ubicados en la zona de influencia de los ingenios azuc...

  5. O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succínico na adsorção de azul de metileno The use of chemical modified chitosam with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilauro S. Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption capacity of alpha-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methyene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable.

  6. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption; O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succinico na adsorcao de azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br

    2006-05-15

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically iclass and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 {+-} 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 {+-} 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 {+-} 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 {+-} 0.4 and -21.5 {+-} 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  7. Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in sheep from Distrito Federal, Brazil
    Prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em ovinos do Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia; Vitor Salvador Picão Gonçalves; Andrey Pereira Lage; Zélia Inês Portela Lobato; Alessandro de Sá Guimarães; Fernanda Coura Morcatti; Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles; Marcos Bryan Heinemann

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in sheep from Distrito Federal. Sera from 606 sheep of 18 herds were submitted to the agar-gel immunodiffusion for bluetongue virus antibodies. The prevalences of bluetongue infection found in Distrito Federal were 100% (CI 95%: 84.67 to 100.00) for flocks and 52.37% (389/606) (CI 95%: 35.76 to 68.98) for animals. Thus, data from the present study showed that infection by bluetongue virus is highly w...

  8. Anterior capsule staining using 0.025% trypan blue in cataracts without red reflex Uso de azul tripano a 0,025% para corar a cápsula anterior em catarata sem reflexo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the use of anterior capsule staining in cataracts without red reflex using a 0.025% trypan blue solution. Methods: Six eyes of 6 patients with cataracts without red reflex were submitted to phacoemulsification using a direct injection of 0.2 to 0.5 ml of 0.025% trypan blue in the anterior chamber previous to viscoelastic injection. All patients had an ophthalmologic examination prior to surgery, as well as pre and postoperative corneal endothelial cell count. Results: In all cases the capsule became stained with a faint blue color that enabled an adequate visibility of the flap during the continuous curvilinear anterior capsulotomy (CCC. There were no intra-or postoperative complications. The endothelial cell loss varied between 1.8% and 26.6% (mean 12.8%. Conclusion: Staining the anterior capsule with 0.025% trypan blue solution allows a good visibility of the capsular flap and facilitates the confection of CCC in cataracts without red reflex.

  9. Aislamiento y expresión del ADNc que codifica para la Sacarosa:Sacarosa 1-fructosiltransferasa de Agave tequilana Weber var. azul y caracterización de la enzima recombinante /

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila Fernández, Ángela sustentante.

    2009-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Bioquímicas, presenta Ángela Ávila Fernández ; asesor Agustín López-Munguía Canales. X, 58, [9] páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Bioquímicas UNAM, Instituto de Biotecnología, 2009

  10. Nivel de conciencia ambiental y su relación con el manejo de residuos sólidos de los pobladores de la comunidad Diamante Azul - Alto Nanay - Loreto - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón Cometivos, Juan Roberto; Ruíz Pezo, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Gestión ambiental es el conjunto de acciones encaminadas a lograr la máxima racionalidad en el proceso de decisión relativo a la conservación, defensa, protección y mejora del Medio Ambiente, basándose en una información coordinada multidisciplinaria y en la participación de los ciudadanos siempre que sea posible. Mediante esta metodología en la toma de decisiones se da una nueva comprensión del hombre sobre la naturaleza, viéndose a sí mismo como responsable por la protección del medio ambie...

  11. Removal of blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions with a modified clay with iron chloride; Remocion de colorante azul 1 de soluciones acuosas con una arcilla modificada con cloruro de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, K. A.

    2012-07-01

    At the present time, several technologies have been proposed to remove dyes from water, adsorption is one of the most feasible methods and adsorbents with different properties, such as activated carbon, zeolites, clays and hydrogels among others. In this work, the sorption behavior of blue 1 dye by a natural clay from a site located in the Center-East of Mexico, and other modified with iron chloride were determined. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction to analyze its crystal structure, by scanning electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine the composition and morphology, and the zero point charges were also determined to know the charge distribution on the surface of the clay. The ph effect, contact time, dye concentration and temperature were the parameters considered in this study. The results showed that clay does not suffer any important changes in its structure after the chemical treatments (modification with ferric chloride and contact with blue 1 solutions). The ph influences lightly the adsorption of the dye with natural clay, but the same effect is not observed in the ferric modified clay among the factor ph 6 and 8. The equilibrium time and the sorption capacity for natural clay were 48 hours and 6.16 mg/g, while for the ferric clay were 24 hours and 14.22 mg/g. Adsorption kinetics results were best adjusted to the pseudo first and pseudo second order models. Adsorption isotherms were best adjusted to the Langmuir model, indicating that both clays have a homogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters (E, {Delta}S and {Delta}G and {Delta}H) were calculated for the dye adsorption by the natural clay using data of the adsorption kinetics at temperatures between 20 and 50 C, indicating that the adsorption process is exothermic. For the case of ferric clay, it was not possible to calculate these thermodynamic parameters because the adsorption capacities were similar in the range of selected temperatures. (Author)

  12. Adsorção do corante Reativo Azul 19 em solução aquosa por lama vermelha tratada quimicamente com peróxido de hidrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 dye onto activated red mud was investigated. Red mud was treated with hydrogen peroxide (LVQ and heated at both 400 ºC (LVQ400 and 500 ºC (LVQ500. These samples were characterized by pH, specific surface area, point of zero charge and mineralogical composition. Adsorption was found to be significantly dependent on solution pH, with acidic conditions proving to be the most favorable. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm was the most appropriate to describe the phenomenon of dye removal using LVQ, LVQ400 and LVQ500, with maximum adsorption capacity of 384.62, 357.14 and 454.54 mg g-1, respectively.

  13. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material; Remocion de azul indigo y cadmio presentes en soluciones acuosas empleando un material zeolitico modificado y un material carbonoso activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-07-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na{sup +} and Fe{sup 3+} solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous material, and Z Na material showed a sorption capacity for cadmium higher than the carbonaceous material. Then the sorption process of dye from aqueous solutions using Z Fe material at different equilibrium ph was investigated, the process was analyzed using a generalized sorption model, the results indicate that the removal of denim blue is favored when the molecule is not dissociated in an acid medium and that the sorption capacity rapidly decreased at ph values higher than 8. Desorption studies were performed, it was observed that the denim blue dye could be removed from the adsorbents using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and in the second sorption cycle, the results also indicate a degradation of the dye by Z Fe material. For the case of cadmium, desorption study was carried out using NaCl, showing better results for the Z Na material than for the carbonaceous material. Sorption tests were performed in column experiments, breakthrough curves were obtained and analyzed, the effects of column sizes was determined, the results were analyzed using the Thomas model to determine the maximum sorption capacity. The experimental results showed that the carbonaceous material has the highest sorption capacity for denim blue and Z Na material for cadmium. Breakthrough curves at different height showed that Bo hart-Adams model and EBCT method could be used to represent the initial part of the curves and to predict the service time for the columns under different operating conditions. Comparing the results of both adsorbents in batch studies and column systems, the sorption capacities determined in column systems are lower than those obtained in batch systems because the sorption equilibrium is not reached in the first case. From this study it can be suggested that it is possible to expand the application field of alternative materials such as zeolites and carbonaceous material for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. (Author)

  14. ¿Eran los rusos culpables? Imagen del enemigo y políticas de ocupación de la División Azul en el frente del este, 1941-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé M. Núñez Seixas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the general framework of the war of extermination planned by the Third Reich in its war against the Soviet Union, this essay attempts to analyse the role played by the Spanish Volunteer Division (the «Blue Division» that was dispatched to the Eastern Front between 1941 and 1944. After deconstructing the image of the Spanish experience in Russia transmitted from 1943 to the present day in autobiographies and novels written by war veterans, the article addresses the question of how far has the Spanish Division differed in its policy of occupation from troops in the Wehrmacht. Two points are therefore outlined: first, the image of the enemy which was developed by the Spanish volunteers, which was not permeated by biological racism but to a certain extent by a feeling of cultural superiority; and second, the Blue Division´s behaviour towards the Russian civil population. The sources used are autobiographical accounts written by Spanish veterans, war diaries and letters written by German and Spanish soldiers as well as by Russian civilians, along with oral interviews with Russian peasants.

  15. Escenario discursivo y signifi cados implícitos en una guía ‘para los verdaderos viajeros’: el caso de la Guía Azul de Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garofalo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the manipulation strategies used in the ‘construction’ of the tourist destination, emphasizing the evolution of some myths indicated by Barthes (catholicism, the imperial past, the concept of ‘Spanish nation’. Actually, some recent guides hint at the rising of a fresh mythology in which local particularism and the century-old desire for self-governance plays an essential role. After outlining the ‘scenography’ or representation model, the suggested analysis aims to prove that both the image of the place and the discursive memory are refl ected in the text through implicit meaning,such as presupposition and irony.

  16. Use of ZnO:Mn particles for degradation of methylene blue by photocatalysis process; Utilizacao de particulas de ZnO:Mn para a degradacao do azul de metileno por processo de fotocatalise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldi, T. R.; Swerts, J. P.; Vicente, M. A., E-mail: tania.giraldi@unifal-mg.edu.br, E-mail: jefersonps21@hotmail.com, E-mail: maquelyaspr@oi.com.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Mendonca, V.R. de, E-mail: vrm@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Itapetininga, SP (Brazil); Paris, E.C.; Ribeiro, C., E-mail: elaine.paris@embrapa.br, E-mail: caue.ribeiro@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The management of water use in the agricultural environment is a key factor to build new environmentally sustainable productive methods. Photocatalysis is a promising method for water decontamination. This research paper aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic potential of pure and Mn-doped ZnO particles. The materials were obtained by the polymeric precursor method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption in low temperature, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. In order to evaluate ZnO:Mn particles photo efficiency, experiments were carried out by applying the methylene blue dye solution to photodegradation under UVC exposure. The particles had ZnO single-phase, but low specific surface area. The sample ZnO:0.25% Mn presented higher efficiency in the methylene blue photocatalytic degradation test. This efficiency was related to a higher band gap energy value and a lower rate of electron recombination, which allows greater formation of hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for dye degradation. (author)

  17. REFLEXÕES SOBRE A ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL: UMA COMPARAÇÃO COM AS ESTRATÉGIAS DE ANSOFF, PORTER E HAX & WILDE DOI:10.7444/fsrj.v2i2.51

    OpenAIRE

    Jussani, Ailton Conde; Krakauer, Patricia Viveiros de Castro; Polo, Edison Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of the globalized environment, competitiveness has become a critical issue for business. The use of research to inform strategic decisions is thus important for firms on the path to competitiveness, regardless of their market of operation. This paper provides an overview of four strategies—Kim and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy, Ansoff’s Matrix, Porter’s Generic Strategies, and Hax and Wilde’s Delta model—in order to find the similarities and approximations among them. App...

  18. EFECTO DEL AZUL DE METILENO EN LA HIPOTENSIÓN Y BRADICARDIA ASOCIADAS A LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE UNA DOSIS LETAL DEL VENENO TOTAL DE CASCABEL VENEZOLANA (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) EN RATAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Elena; Zerpa, Hector; Ascanio, Elias

    2010-01-01

    rats treated with a 2% solution of methylene blue (single dose: 2 mg/kg, IV) and forty min later, TV was injected as in group I. Before the onset of the experiments, each rat was anesthetized with azaper - one:ketamine. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated to record blood pressure (mean arterial...

  19. The blue drama: narratives of the victim's suffering of Cesium-137 radiological event; O drama azul: narrativas sobre o sofrimento das vitimas do evento radiologico do Cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2014-07-01

    This research presents a dramatic approach to the Cesium-137 Radiological Event. The event, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The ethnography’s output follows a theoretical experiment with the notions of drama and event. In order to better understand the pattern of this event, I analyzed narratives such as romances, arts, photographs, news, documentaries, films, academic bibliography and stories that emerged from the research field. I argue that the narratives politicize the discourses of victimization and the suffering experience. The dramatic form of narratives and symbols concentrates on emotions and promotes the emotional commitment of the subjects on the trial. The drama articulates the relationship between the narratives and the event and creates a tactful space that arouses the recognition of victims through the narrative form and the suffering language. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. (author)

  20. EFEITO DO DIOXIDO DE CARBONO SOBRE A ESTABILIDADE DA FASE Ca2Fe2O5 APLICADA NO PROCESSO DE DEGRADAÇÃO FOTOCATALITICO DO AZUL DE METILENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erandir Brasil da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid samples containing a Ca2Fe2O5 phase were synthesized using the Pechini method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. The stability of the Ca2Fe2O5 phase was evaluated in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB in aqueous solution in the presence of bubbling gas (air, N2, or CO2. The presence of CO2 is known to suppress MB degradation. After the photocatalytic test, changes were observed in the crystalline phase of all systems. These results suggest the low stability of the Ca2Fe2O5 phase in aqueous systems and the significant effect of CO2 on the photocatalytic activity of the Ca2Fe2O5 phase.

  1. Ascidia subterranea sp. nov. (Phlebobranchia: Ascidiidae), a new tunicate belonging to the A. sydneiensis Stimpson, 1855 group, found as burrow associate of Axiopsis serratifrons A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 (Decapoda: Axiidae) on Derawan Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Dominik; Monniot, Francoise; Stach, Thomas; Christianen, Marjolijn J A

    2013-02-22

    A new tunicate, Ascidia subterranea sp. nov., was found in burrows of the axiid crustacean Axiopsis serratifrons on Derawan Island, Indonesia. It differs from other ascidians in its habitat as well as numerous morphological peculiarities which are described in detail. The shrimp Rostronia stylirostris Holthuis, 1952 was found inside A. subterranea sp. nov., and 4 species of bivalves, 3 species of polychaetes, 1 gastropod, 1 polyplacophoran and 1 sponge species were found as burrow associates besides the ascidian.

  2. Development of duplex real-time PCR for the detection of WSSV and PstDV1 in cultivated shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Carlos A G; Carvalho, Alex F; Leite, Rômulo C; Figueiredo, Henrique C P

    2014-01-01

    Background The White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Penaeus stylirostris penstyldensovirus 1 (previously named Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus-IHHNV) are two of the most important viral pathogens of penaeid shrimp. Different methods have been applied for diagnosis of these viruses, including Real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. A duplex qPCR method allows the simultaneous detection of two viruses in the same sample, which is more cost-effective than assaying for each virus sepa...

  3. Efecto de la salinidad sobre algunas variables bioquímicas, inmunológicas, fisiológicas y productivas del camarón litopenaeus vannamei cultivado experimentalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes Cervantes, Carlos Miguel

    2014-01-01

    La camaronicultura es una de las industrias de mayor crecimiento tanto a nivel mundial como nacional, pero en la última década el desarrollo de ésta se ha visto limitado por la aparición de enfermedades infecciosas provocadas principalmente por virus. Existen condiciones físico-químicas y biológicas dentro de los sistemas de cultivo que pueden provocar estrés y aumentar la susceptibilidad de los camarones a enfermedades infecciosas. Dentro de las variables físico-químicas, la salinidad es una...

  4. SubstituiÃÃo parcial do farelo de soja e da farinha de trigo pelo farelo de algodÃo em dietas balanceadas para juvenis de camarÃo branco, Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Barroso Martins

    2014-01-01

    Ingredientes de origem vegetal sÃo cada vez mais procurados para compor as raÃÃes destinadas à carcinicultura. A busca por tais matÃrias primas gera uma grande demanda do mercado por ingredientes tradicionais que sÃo produzidos na sua maioria em outras regiÃes, elevando o custo das formulas. A utilizaÃÃo de ingredientes regionais pode proporcionar um melhor retorno aos carcinicultores do Nordeste, principal produtor nacional de camarÃes marinhos. O presente trabalho avaliou o desempenho zootÃ...

  5. Efficacy of double-stranded RNA against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV non-structural (orf89, wsv191 and structural (vp28, vp26 genes in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Escobedo-Bonilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool against viral infections. Previous works with RNAi showed different antiviral efficacies depending on the silenced gene. This work evaluated the antiviral efficacy of double-stranded (ds RNA against two non-structural (orf89, wsv191 WSSV genes compared to structural (vp26, vp28 genes to inhibit an experimental WSSV infection. Gene orf89 encodes a putative regulatory protein and gene white spot virus (wsv191 encodes a nonspecific nuclease; whereas genes vp26 and vp28 encode envelope proteins, respectively. Molecules of dsRNA against each of the WSSV genes were intramuscularly injected (4 μg per shrimp into a group of shrimp 48 h before a WSSV challenge. The highest antiviral activity occurred with dsRNA against orf89, vp28 and vp26 (cumulative mortalities 10%, 10% and 21%, respectively. In contrast, the least effective treatment was wsv191 dsRNA (cumulative mortality 83%. All dead animals were WSSV-positive by one-step PCR, whereas reverse-transcription PCR of all surviving shrimp confirmed inhibition of virus replication. This study showed that dsRNA against WSSV genes orf89, vp28 and vp26 were highly effective to inhibit virus replication and suggest an essential role in WSSV infection. Non-structural WSSV genes such as orf89 can be used as novel targets to design therapeutic RNAi molecules against WSSV infection.

  6. Ensayo de un sistema artificial con sedimento para crecimiento de juveniles de Litopenaeus vannamei: evaluación de dos micro cohortes con participación de nematodos y ‘bioflocs’

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Mayorga, Eulalia; Rojas García, Carlos; León Mateo, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    En el sistema artificial de alta densidad con sedimento (n=2 réplicas 150 juveniles/m2), las réplicas I y II se comportaron de forma similar durante 40 días. Fueron identificados 21 géneros de nematodos: Rhynchonema, Ceramonema, Metadesmolaimus, Xyala, Neochromadora, Gonionchus, Spilophorella, Dichromadora y otras taxas. La diversidad disminuyó desde 21 géneros hasta 1-3 géneros. La abundancia total de nematodos se redujo logarítmicamente (replica I:R2= 0.9786 y replica II: R2=0.9595) desde e...

  7. Interferência de diferentes métodos de aclimatação na sobrevivência de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.307 Survival of acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae associated with acclimation method, time and water sources - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.307

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nilson Mendes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observou-se o impacto de três métodos de aclimatação na sobrevivência de PL10 de L. vannamei (choque direto, diluição gradativa e gotejamento, utilizando-se águas oligohalina e doce. Para verificar alterações estruturais nas brânquias das PLs aclimatadas por gotejamento, realizaram-se análises histopatológicas e histoquímicas. A correlação entre a sobrevivência, método e tempo de aclimatação e tipos de água foram analisados usando Modelos Lineares Generalizados (p The effects of different acclimation methods to freshwater and oligohalin water on L. vannamei postlarvae (PL10 survival and gills histologic and histochemical studies were analysed. Three methods of acclimation were used: direct shock, gradual diluition and dripping. Three General Linear Models and Stepwise process (p10 showed short primary filaments and rare secundary filaments. The PL16 had primary elongated filaments and secundary filaments reaching over the prolongament of the primary filament. The APS method showed a negative result and the Alcian Blue method showed positive reaction to acidglicoproteins and acidglicosaminoglicans in all postlarvae gills. The acclimation did not change the morphology of branchiae. Recommended time to acclimation of L. vannamei to freshwater was 48h by dripping and can be started at the PL10 stage.

  8. Structure and activity of lacustrine sediment bacteria involved in nutrient and iron cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Martins, Gilberto Jorge; Terada, Akihiko; Ribeiro, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    lakes with distinct trophic states (Verde, Azul, Furnas and Fogo). Inferred from quantitative PCR, bacteria performing anaerobic ammonia oxidation were the most abundant in the eutrophic lakes Verde, Azul and Furnas (4.5-16.6%), followed by nitrifying bacteria (0.8-13.0%), denitrifying bacteria (DNB) (0...

  9. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  10. Diseases and treatment reported by shrimp and tilapia farmers in Guangdong Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in China that meet demands from both national consumers and export markets. However, the intensified production has brought increased disease problems, antibiotics and other...

  11. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  12. Remoção dos corantes azul brilhante, amarelo crepúsculo e amarelo tartrazina de soluções aquosas utilizando carvão ativado, terra ativada, terra diatomácea, quitina e quitosana: estudos de equilíbrio e termodinâmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luiz Dotto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work compared activated carbon, activated earth, diatomaceous earth, chitin and chitosan to removal acid blue 9, food yellow 3 and FD&C yellow nº 5 dyes from aqueous solutions with different pH values (2-10. In the best process condition for each dye, equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures (from 298 to 328 K and Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted with experimental data. In addition, entropy change, Gibbs free energy change and enthalpy change were obtained in order to verify the thermodynamic adsorption behavior.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of low laser radiation on mast cells in inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia colored and not colored by the toluidine blue; Estudo comparativo do efeito da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade sobre mastocitos de hiperplasias fibrosas inflamatorias coradas e nao coradas por azul de toluidina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawazaki, Iris

    2001-07-01

    THIS STUDY SHOWS A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE LASER RADIATION IN LOW INTENSITY ON THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION IN INFLAMMATORY FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA WHEN THEY ARE COLORED OR NOT BY THE TOLUIDINE BLUE. THE DYE WAS USED IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE ABSORPTION OF THE LASER LIGHT BY THE TISSUE. THE INJURE WAS DIVIDED IN THREE EQUAL PARTS, AND EACH PART RECEIVED A DIFFERENT KIND OF TREATMENT. ONE OF THEM WAS REMOVED TO BE THE CONTROL, THE SECOND PART WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED AND THE LAST ONE, AFTER BEING SUPERFICIALLY COLORED, WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED . THE ORDER OF THE STAGES WAS RANDOMLY CHANGED , THEN THE TIME BETWEEN THE STAGES WOULD NOT INTERFERE IN THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES WERE 49% FOR THE CONTROL GROUP, 87% FOR THE LASER GROUP AND 88% FOR THE COLORED/LASER GROUP. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT STATISTICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUP LASER TREATED AND THE ONE COLORED/LASER TREATED. HOWEVER, THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND THE TREATED GROUP (PS {<=} 0,01). (AUTHOR)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CeO{sub 2} - TiO{sub 2} system for use in heterogeneous photocatalysis in photodegradation of methylene blue dye; Sintese e caracterizacao do sistema CeO{sub 2} - TiO{sub 2} para aplicacao em fotocatalise heterogenea na fotodegradacao do corante azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragatto, Julia

    2016-07-01

    This study has as its goal the synthesis of a mixed oxide system type CeO{sub 2} - TiO{sub 2}, through the polymeric precursor method, to be used in heterogeneous photocatalysis. The synthesized materials were characterized by Thermogravimetry (TG), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of the thermal analysis showed in what temperature ranges certain events occur such as the formation of cerium oxide between 600 and 800 ° C, which refers to the crystallization of the material. Regarding the formation of titanium oxide, events between 600 and 800 ° C are perceived, which suggests the transformation of anatase to rutile phase. The XRD analysis showed no occurrence of the same phase for all materials, meaning that there is a variation in the formation of phases according to concentration of precursor for each sample. Noteworthy are the formation of CeO{sub 2} for Ce75-Ti25 and Ce50-Ti50 concentrations, with cubic crystal structure of the fluorite type. In Ce75-Ti25 and Ce25-Ti75 it is present the TiO{sub 2} in the anatase and rutile phase, with crystal structure of the tetragonal and tetrahedron type, respectively, as well as the formation of CeTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} in Ce50-Ti50 and Ce25-Ti75, with structure monoclinic. From these analyses, it is possible to see which samples, and in which temperatures of calcination the material has increased crystallinity, making the choice for their application in heterogeneous photocatalysis, aiming the degradation of methylene blue dye. Among the tested materials for methylene blue, the sample that stood out was the Ce50-Ti50, with calcination temperature of 800 °C, with values close to 50% degradation, because it was the sample that showed higher dye adsorption capacity, which is the step that precedes photodegradation. (author)

  15. Methylene blue and 4-chloro phenol degradation by photo catalysis with ultraviolet light, using TiO{sub 2} as catalyst; Degradacion de azul de metileno y 4-clorofenol por fotocatalisis con luz ultravioleta, utilizando TiO{sub 2} como catalizador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez H, A.

    2010-07-01

    Within the decontamination and remediation processes of the contaminated waters, as the refining or tertiary processes are the Advanced Oxidation Technologies. Among this technology is the heterogeneous photo catalysis, which is the object of this work to de grate 4-chloro phenol and methylene blue, using as semiconductor commercial titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). On the degradation the combination is exposed in the use of TiO{sub 2} under gamma irradiation of {sup 60}Co at different doses 400, 500, 800, 1000 and 1500 kGy. The organic compounds degradation was determined and the results show that to more radiation dose, the material is modified in such way that shows a major absorption of the organic compound, in the same way it is determined that to more dose which undergoes the TiO{sub 2} generally a major degradation is observed, but also it is has to give a more time of previous stabilization, for that the degradation is observed of better way. (Author)

  16. Archaeometrical comparative study of paint samples with Egyptian Blue, from Nefertari's tomb (XIII Century BC) and Balneum (Roman baths, First Century BC and AD).; Estudio arqueometrico comparativo de muestras de pinturas con azul egipcio, procedentes de la tumba de Nefertari siglo XIII a.C. y del Balneum, termas romanas, siglos I a.C., I d.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado Portal, A. J.; Garcia Sanchez, L.; Penco Valenzuela, F.; Criado Martin, A. J.; Martinez, Garcia, J. A.; Chamon Fernandez, J.; Dietz, C.

    2011-07-01

    In the present work have studied two samples with the same pigment, Egyptian Blue, but from different sources. The difference between them is caused by the functionality. In the case of Nefertari's tomb is decorating interior rooms carved into rock in which they would not suffer any damage since it does not accessed to that place anymore. In the case of Balneum's baths is decorating very warm and humid rooms, and should resist deterioration resulting from human activity during the use of these baths. (Author) 38 refs.

  17. Éxito reproductivo de los pájaros bobos patas azul, Sula nebouxii, y los pájaros bobos café, Sula leucogaster, como indicador de perturbación por uso turístico en las Islas Marietas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornejo–Ortega, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding success of the blue–footed booby, Sula nebouxii, and the brown booby, Sula leucogaster, as an indicator of touristic disturbance in the Islas Marietas, Mexico We studied the breeding success of two seabird species, the blue–footed booby, Sula nebouxii, and the brown booby, Sula leucogaster, in relation to touristic disturbance in order to focus conservation management strategies in the protected area of the Marietas Islands in Bahía de Banderas, Mexico. Data were collected throughout the breeding season of 2013 at Isla Larga. We considered three sites under different conditions of simulated disturbance within the colonies: ‘medium’, visits constrained to a single path; ‘high’, visits without spatial restrictions, and ‘low’, no visits. The total numbers of nests, eggs and chicks for each species were recorded weekly at the three sites. On the basis of these data, we determined the viability of eggs (hatching success and chicks. A generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX showed that breeding success (eggs–to–fledglings rate had no relationship to the conditions of the area and but was significantly lower in the blue–footed booby. The presence of tourists, as measured in this study, was not the cause of nesting failure. Other, non–evaluated factors likely play a role in limiting the breeding success of the two species of booby studied here.

  18. Efecto de diversos sustratos artificiales en el crecimiento y supervivencia de estadios tempranos de la langosta azul (Cherax quadricarinatus) cultivados en un sistema de recirculación - Effect of different artificial substrates on growth and survival of early stages of the blue lobster (Cherax quadricarinatus) reared in a recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ulloa Gómez, Manuel; Pinzón López, Liliana Araceli

    2012-01-01

    ResumenSe evaluó la influencia de diferentes sustratos artificiales (tubo, malla, tubo + malla y grupo control, sin sustrato) sobre el crecimiento y la supervivencia de crías tempranas de Cherax quadricarinatus, cultivadas en un sistema derecirculación durante cuatro semanas.AbstractThe effect of different artificial substrates (tube or straw, mesh, mesh and tube or straw, and control or no substrate) on growth and survival of offspring early Cherax quadricarinatus raised in a recirculating s...

  19. Síntese e caracterização de nanopartículas de óxido de ferro suportadas em matriz carbonácea: remoção do corante orgânico azul de metileno em água Synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles supported on carbon matrix: oxidation of the dye methylene blue in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraísa Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were prepared composites of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials in two different weight proportions (Carbon/Fe 1/1 and 1/2. The physico-chemical properties of the composites were determined by temperature programmed reduction (TPR, adsorption/dessorption of N2, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and pulse titration H2. The XRD and XPS analysis showed a cubic iron oxide phase, identified as maghemite, formed over the carbon surface. The particle size of maghemite showed to be within 10-30 nm. Carbon/Fe 1/2 was the most active in MB removal kinetics and ESI-MS studies showed that MB removal by both composites leads to oxidized intermediates.

  20. Revisión histórica de los estudios sobre la biología, ecología y toxicología del tiburón azul Prionace glauca en aguas del Pacífico ecuatoriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle-Morán, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blue shark Prionace glauca is a species that represents a great economic and ecological importance. However, the information related to its biology and others aspects of its population is limited. Nevertheless these kinds of studies are very important for a suitable management of fishery activities. The aim of this research was to develop a historical review for all biological, ecological and toxicological studies made in the coastal and marine ecosystems of the Ecuadorian Pacific. A review of the specializedliteraturewas carried out for many documents such as thesis, technical reports, scientific papers,and others. According to results obtained, in Ecuador there have been four scientific research studies from 2012: These were two of Biology (one of reproductive aspects in Santa Rosa de Salinas and another about age and growth in Manta and the others two of Ecology and Toxicology (one on mercury bioaccumulation and bio-magnification of mercury, and another on the concentration of mercury and cadmium; both conducted in Santa Rosa de Salinas.The works were developed by state and private universities through thesis, while a draft was in preparation for scientific publication as part of a research project in a private institution of higher education

  1. Remoção dos corantes azul brilhante, amarelo crepúsculo e amarelo tartrazina de soluções aquosas utilizando carvão ativado, terra ativada, terra diatomácea, quitina e quitosana: estudos de equilíbrio e termodinâmica

    OpenAIRE

    Dotto,Guilherme Luiz; Vieira,Mery Luiza Garcia; Gonçalves,Janaína Oliveira; Pinto,Luiz Antônio de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    This work compared activated carbon, activated earth, diatomaceous earth, chitin and chitosan to removal acid blue 9, food yellow 3 and FD&C yellow nº 5 dyes from aqueous solutions with different pH values (2-10). In the best process condition for each dye, equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures (from 298 to 328 K) and Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted with experimental data. In addition, entropy change, Gibbs fr...

  2. Chitosan/Fe spheres on the blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light; Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradacao do corante azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kely V. de; Zamora, Patricio G.P.; Zawadzki, Sonia F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DQ/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: zawadzki@quimica.ufpr.br

    2010-07-15

    The contamination of water resources is one of t