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Sample records for azul callinectes sapidus

  1. Toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion and its metabolism by blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The LC 50 for Callinectes sapidus exposed to fenitrothion for 96 hours at 22 0 C and a salinity of 34 ppt (parts per thousand) was estimated to be 8.6 μg/liter. Acute toxicity was shown to decrease with decreasing salinity and decreasing temperature. Exposure to a simulated tidal cycle increased the acute toxicity of fenitrothion to Callinectes. The autotomization response in Callinectes was shown to be affected at subacute exposure levels as low as 0.1 μg/liter. In vitro studies showed that the rates of formation of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and desmethyl fenitrothion were greater and the rate of formation of fenitrooxon was less in subcellular fractions prepared from the hepatopancreas of crabs which had been acclimated to lower salinity seawater. All three of these metabolites were formed at faster rates in subcellular fractions prepared from crabs which had been acclimated to and incubated at 22 0 C than at 17 0 C. Tissue distribution of aniline hydroxylase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was also determined. The uptake of 14 C-fenitrothion at a level in a seawater of 5.2 μg/liter was greater at 22 0 C than at 17 0 C and from 34 ppt than from 17 ppt seawater. Tissue distribution of radioactivity was determined as well as the nature of radiolabelled metabolites in the hepatopancreas and in seawater. There was no significant difference in the overall level of metabolites detected in the 22 0 C than in the 17 0 C seawater. The rate of uptake of fenitrothion by Callinectes also affects the toxicity as the uptake of fenitrothion was more rapid at the higher salinity as well as at the higher temperature

  2. Cloning of aquaporin-1 of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: its expression during the larval development in hyposalinity.

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    Chung, J Sook; Maurer, Leah; Bratcher, Meagan; Pitula, Joseph S; Ogburn, Matthew B

    2012-09-03

    Ontogenetic variation in salinity adaptation has been noted for the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the export strategy for larval development: females migrate from the estuaries to the coast to spawn, larvae develop in the ocean, and postlarvae (megalopae) colonize estuarine areas. We hypothesized that C. sapidus larvae may be stenohaline and have limited osmoregulatory capacity which compromises their ability to survive in lower salinity waters. We tested this hypothesis using hatchery-raised larvae that were traceable to specific life stages. In addition, we aimed to understand the possible involvement of AQP-1 in salinity adaptation during larval development and during exposure to hyposalinity. A full-length cDNA sequence of aquaporin (GenBank JQ970426) was isolated from the hypodermis of the blue crab, C. sapidus, using PCR with degenerate primers and 5' and 3' RACE. The open reading frame of CasAQP-1 consists of 238 amino acids containing six helical structures and two NPA motifs for the water pore. The expression pattern of CasAQP-1 was ubiquitous in cDNAs from all tissues examined, although higher in the hepatopancreas, thoracic ganglia, abdominal muscle, and hypodermis and lower in the antennal gland, heart, hemocytes, ovary, eyestalk, brain, hindgut, Y-organs, and gill. Callinectes larvae differed in their capacity to molt in hyposalinity, as those at earlier stages from Zoea (Z) 1 to Z4 had lower molting rates than those from Z5 onwards, as compared to controls kept in 30 ppt water. No difference was found in the survival of larvae held at 15 and 30 ppt. CasAQP-1 expression differed with ontogeny during larval development, with significantly higher expression at Z1-2, compared to other larval stages. The exposure to 15 ppt affected larval-stage dependent CasAQP-1 expression which was significantly higher in Z2- 6 stages than the other larval stages. We report the ontogenetic variation in CasAQP-1 expression during the larval development

  3. Distribución espacial y temporal del cangrejo Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda: Portunidae en la Bahía de Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México

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    Héctor J Ortiz-León

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar los patrones de distribución espacial y temporal de Callinectes sapidus, se realizaron muestreos durante las temporadas climáticas de nortes (enerofebrero, secas (mayo-junio y lluvias (agosto-septiembre de 2002, en 30 estaciones de muestreo de la Bahía de Chetumal, agrupados en los sectores A (14 estaciones, B (ocho estaciones y C (ocho estaciones. Para recolectar las jaibas se colocaron en cada sitio de muestreo dos transectos paralelos a la costa, con tres trampas cada uno, separadas 30 m una de otra. Se recolecciónron 1 031 ejemplares de C. sapidus. La CPUE difirió espacial y temporalmente. La mayor CPUE fue encontrada en el sector C, con 1.3 ind∙trampa-1, y en la temporada climática de lluvias, con 1.1 ind∙trampa-1. La población estuvo compuesta predominantemente de individuos machos. La relación macho: hembra fue 15:1. La CPUE de machos y de adultos (grupo II fue significativamente diferente entre sectores y entre temporadas climáticas. Ambos presentaron resultados similares, registrando la mayor CPUE en el sector C (1.2 ind∙trampa-1 y en la temporada climática de lluvias (1.1 ind∙trampa-1. La CPUE de hembras y de jóvenes del grupo I fue escasa durante el período de muestreo, mientras que la de jóvenes del grupo 0, fue nula. La mayor frecuencia relativa entre los sectores y las temporadas climáticas se observó en los intervalos de talla (AC de 130-139 mm y 140-149 mm. C. sapidus se presentó en los sedimentos arenosos de la Bahía de Chetumal. La correlación producto momento de Pearson mostró relaciones significativas entre la CPUE de C. sapidus con la temperatura, salinidad y el oxígeno disuelto. Los patrones de distribución espacial y temporal mostrados por C. sapidus en la Bahía de Chetumal parecen estar relacionados con las características de salinidad, temperatura, protección, alimentación, reclutamiento y los eventos reproductivos.Temporal and spatial distribution of the crab Callinectes

  4. Extracellular digestion during hyposaline exposure in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

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    Curtis, Daniel L; van Breukelen, Frank; McGaw, Iain J

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular digestive processes were examined in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, during hyposaline exposure. Both species are found in estuaries as adults, but vary in their ability to balance the cardiovascular and respiratory demands of concurrent osmoregulation and digestion. The weak osmoregulator, C. magister, is unable to balance the demands of osmoregulation and digestion. Concordant with observed decreases in oxygen consumption and mechanical digestion, proteolytic digestion within the foregut and hepatopancreas was delayed, resulting in a relative reduction of circulating amino acids post-feeding in low salinity. In contrast, the efficient osmoregulator, C. sapidus, balances the demands of osmoregulation and digestion, and mechanical digestion continues unabated in low salinity. Protease activity in the gut fluid and hepatopancreas showed either no change or a reduction over time. The transport of amino acids into the cells post-feeding is opposed by an efflux of amino acids at the cellular level, and resulted in a build up of amino acids in the hemolymph. Despite differences in the extracellular responses to low salinity exposure following feeding, both species were able to maintain high digestive efficiencies. © 2013.

  5. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Ruas, Vinicius Mendes; Rodrigues, Marcos Alaniz; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial) at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM) for abundance variations and A...

  6. [Temporal and spatial distribution of the crab Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda: Portunidae) in Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

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    Ortiz-León, Héctor J; Jesús-Navarrete, Alberto de; Cordero, Eloy Sosa

    2007-03-01

    In order to determine temporal and spatial distribution patterns of Callinectes sapidus, samplings were carried out during the cold-front (January-February), dry (May-June) and rainy (August-September, 2002) climatic seasons, in 30 sampling stations of Chetumal Bay, grouped in sectors A (14 stations), B (eight stations) and C (eight stations). In each sampling station crabs were collected from two transects parallel to the coast, each with three traps, separated by 30 m. Sediments were calcareous coarse and medium sand, white or lightly gray. A total of 1 031 specimens were collected. CPEU (Capture Per Effort Unit) differed spatially and temporally. Highest CPEU was found in sector C with 1.3 ind.trap(-1), and in the rainy season with 1.1 ind.trap(-1). Population was predominantly composed of male individuals. The male:female ratio was 15:1. Males and adults (group II) CPEU was significant different between sectors and climatic seasons. Both males and adults (group II) had a greater CPEU in sector C (1.2 ind.trap-) and in the rainy season (1.1 ind.trap(-1)). Abundance of female and juvenile individuals (group I) was low during the sampling period whereas group 0 juvenile individuals were not found. A greater relative frequency between sectors and climatic seasons were observed in 130-139 mm and 140-149 mm size interval (CW). C. sapidus occurred on sandy sediments in Chetumal Bay. Pearson product moment correlations exhibited significant relationships between CPEU and temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen. In Chetumal Bay, the spatial and temporal distribution of C. sapidus can be related to salinity, temperature, habitat quality, food availability, recruitment and reproduction events of individuals.

  7. Comparação do crescimento entre Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae coletados em campo e mantidos em condições contoladas Growth comparison between Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae collected on the field and maintained under controlled conditions

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    Marcos A. Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de estruturas rígidas para determinação de idade em crustáceos, métodos que se baseiam na determinação de idade através da distribuição da freqüência de comprimentos são comumente utilizados. Neste trabalho, foi comparado o crescimento do siri-azul, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, em laboratório e a partir de indivíduos de campo. Os indivíduos de laboratório, após a coleta, tiveram seu crescimento acompanhado individualmente. A temperatura foi mantida constante (25±2°C e a salinidade a 20±5. Os indivíduos do campo foram coletados entre 2002 e 2004 em pontos pré-determinados no estuário da Laguna dos Patos, com rede de portas. A biometria, nos dois casos, constou da medida da largura da carapaça (LC mm. As estimativas das curvas de crescimento, segundo o modelo de Bertalanffy para os indivíduos de campo, foram obtidas pelo acompanhamento do deslocamento modal (MPA. O tamanho máximo de largura de carapaça utilizado foi mantido fixo em todas as análises (157,78 mm para fêmeas e 162,71 mm para machos. Para os indivíduos mantidos em laboratório, os parâmetros e a longevidade obtidos foram k=0,001/dia; t o=-1,53; longevidade de 3117 dias (8,5 anos para machos e k=0,002/dia; t o=-29,5; longevidade de 2795 dias para fêmeas (7,7 anos. Os parâmetros de crescimento e a longevidade estimados para os animais coletados em campo foram k=0,004/dia; t o=-4,23; 1267 dias (3,5 anos para machos e k=0,004/dia; t o=-3,71; 1260 dias (3,45 anos para fêmeas. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre animais de laboratório e de campo, sugerindo que a espécie responde de forma diferente ao ambiente em que está inserida.The absence of hard structures which register age on crustaceans requires the use of length-based methods for age determination, and modal progression analysis (MPA to estimate growth. In this paper, individual growth of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 was studied in the

  8. The Effects of Ocean Acidification on Predator-Prey Interactions between Mya arenaria and Callinectes sapidus

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    Longmire, K.; Glaspie, C.; Seitz, R.

    2016-02-01

    The study examined the implications of ocean acidification for Mya arenaria and the predator-prey dynamics between M. arenaria and Callinectes sapidus. Clams were subjected to either ambient conditions or acidified conditions and grown over four weeks. Mortality, shell lengths, and biomass (ash-free dry weights) were recorded for clams destructively sampled each week. Clams were subjected to behavioral experiments to determine their response to an approaching physical disturbance. Crabs were exposed to acidified or ambient conditions for 48 hours, and placed in 48 hour mesocosm trials with clams. Shell lengths, mortality and biomass between the ambient and acidified clams were not significantly different between acidified and ambient treatments. Shell ash weights were lower for acidified clams, evidence of shell dissolution. In the behavioral experiment, ocean acidification reduced the ability of clams to respond to a predator stimulus. Lastly, in predator-prey mesocosm trials, in ambient conditions, crabs ate all or none of the available clams, whereas acidified crabs ate all available clams in many trials and ate at least one acidified clam per trial. The early effects of ocean acidification on M. arenaria will manifest in trophic interactions with other species, rather than impacting M. arenaria alone.

  9. Epizootiology of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. in the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

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    Messick, G A; Shields, J D

    2000-11-14

    Hematodinium sp. is a parasitic dinoflagellate that infects and kills blue crabs Callinectes sapidus. Periodic outbreaks of dinoflagellate infections with subsequent high host mortalities prompted a study of the epizootiology and distribution of the crab pathogen. Hemolymph samples from over 13000 crabs were assessed for infections over 8 yr. Moderate to high prevalences were found at several locations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. In the coastal bays of Maryland and Virginia, prevalence followed a seasonal pattern, with a sharp peak in late autumn. Infections were significantly more prevalent in crabs measuring less than 30 mm carapace width; host sex did not influence prevalence. Prevalences were highest in crabs collected from salinities of 26 to 30%o; no infected crabs were found in salinities below 11%o. Intensity of infection did not vary among crab sizes, molt stages, or sexes. Naturally and experimentally infected crabs died over 35 and 55 d in captivity, with a mean time to death of approximately 13 and 42 d, respectively. Several other crustaceans, including gammaridean amphipods, xanthid (mud) crabs, and the green crab Carcinus maenus, were found with Hematodinium-like infections. Considering its widespread distribution and high pathogenicity, we suggest that Hematodinium sp. represents a significant threat to blue crab populations in high salinity estuaries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the USA.

  10. Trophic flexibility of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus in invaded coastal systems of the Apulia region (SE Italy): A stable isotope analysis

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    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Teresa Guerra, Maria; Alujević, Karla; Raho, Davide; Zotti, Maurizio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2017-11-01

    The Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus is recognized as an Invasive Alien Species in the Mediterranean Sea. However, its trophic role and feeding flexibility in invaded benthic food webs have been addressed only recently. Here, field samplings were conducted in winter and summer in five coastal systems of the Apulia region (SE Italy), three located on the Ionian Sea (Mar Piccolo, Torre Colimena, and Spunderati) and two on the Adriatic Sea (Acquatina and Alimini Grande). Captured blue crabs were weighed and had their δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures measured; their trophic level (TL) was estimated using the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as isotopic baseline. C. sapidus abundances varied greatly across systems and seasons, and in Adriatic systems the species was not collected in winter. Trophic levels showed significant spatial and temporal variations, although with no general pattern. In winter, the Mar Piccolo population showed the highest TL values; the lowest estimates were in Torre Colimena and Spunderati, where crabs showed δ13C signatures significantly higher than mussels, suggesting the contribution of 13C-enriched plant material in the diet. In summer, with the exception of the Mar Piccolo, Ionian populations increased their trophic level; both Adriatic populations were characterized by the lowest TL estimates. The analysis performed at the individual scale further indicated body weight-related changes in trophic level. For the Torre Colimena population, in particular, a hump-shaped pattern was observed in both seasons. The present study highlighted a considerable spatial and temporal trophic flexibility of C. sapidus at the population scale, while at the individual scale size-related shifts in trophic level were observed. The ability of the blue crab to vary its energy sources in relation with season, local environmental conditions, and ontogenetic stage is emphasized, suggesting that it may represent a key determinant of its invasion success.

  11. A Multifaceted Mass Spectrometric Method to Probe Feeding Related Neuropeptide Changes in Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas

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    Zhang, Yuzhuo; DeLaney, Kellen; Hui, Limei; Wang, Junhua; Sturm, Robert M.; Li, Lingjun

    2018-05-01

    Food intake is regulated by various neuromodulators, including numerous neuropeptides. However, it remains elusive at the molecular and cellular level as to how these important chemicals regulate internal processes and which regions of the neuronal organs are responsible for regulating the behavior. Here we report a comparative neuropeptidomic analysis of the brain and pericardial organ (PO) in response to feeding in two well-studied crustacean physiology model organisms, Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas, using mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. A multifaceted MS-based approach has been developed to obtain complementary information on the expression changes of a large array of neuropeptides in the brain and PO. The method employs stable isotope labeling of brain and PO extracts for relative MS quantitation, capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS for fractionation and high-specificity analysis, and mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) for in-situ molecular mapping of peptides. A number of neuropeptides, including RFamides, B-type allatostatins (AST-B), RYamides, and orcokinins exhibit significant changes in abundance after feeding in this investigation. Peptides from the AST-B family found in PO tissue were shown to have both altered expression and localization changes after feeding, indicating that they may be a class of vital neuropeptide regulators involved in feeding behavior. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. A Multifaceted Mass Spectrometric Method to Probe Feeding Related Neuropeptide Changes in Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas

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    Zhang, Yuzhuo; DeLaney, Kellen; Hui, Limei; Wang, Junhua; Sturm, Robert M.; Li, Lingjun

    2018-02-01

    Food intake is regulated by various neuromodulators, including numerous neuropeptides. However, it remains elusive at the molecular and cellular level as to how these important chemicals regulate internal processes and which regions of the neuronal organs are responsible for regulating the behavior. Here we report a comparative neuropeptidomic analysis of the brain and pericardial organ (PO) in response to feeding in two well-studied crustacean physiology model organisms, Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas, using mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. A multifaceted MS-based approach has been developed to obtain complementary information on the expression changes of a large array of neuropeptides in the brain and PO. The method employs stable isotope labeling of brain and PO extracts for relative MS quantitation, capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS for fractionation and high-specificity analysis, and mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) for in-situ molecular mapping of peptides. A number of neuropeptides, including RFamides, B-type allatostatins (AST-B), RYamides, and orcokinins exhibit significant changes in abundance after feeding in this investigation. Peptides from the AST-B family found in PO tissue were shown to have both altered expression and localization changes after feeding, indicating that they may be a class of vital neuropeptide regulators involved in feeding behavior. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Biodiversidad, morfometría y alimentación de los cangrejos del género Callinectes (Decapoda: Portunidae en Santiago de Cuba

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    Liliana Gómez Luna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del género Callinectes en la zona costera del municipio de Santiago de Cuba. Se realizó una recolecta de 257 ejemplares durante marzo de 2007 a abril de 2008, en ocho estaciones a lo largo de la costa. El género resultó estar ampliamente distribuido en el litoral y representado al menos por cuatro especies: C. sapidus, C. similis, C. rathbunae y C. larvatus, las dos últimas no incluidas en la lista publicada de crustáceos (Crustacea: Decapoda cubanos. Las especies más abundantes resultaron ser C. sapidus y C. similis. C. rathbunae fue la más ampliamente distribuida. El análisis del contenido estomacal permitió identificar nueve categorías alimentarias, siendo las más importantes los peces y las macroalgas. Las especies de Callinectes tienen un amplio espectro trófico; comen no sólo lo disponible, sino también lo más abundante.Biodiversity, morphometry and diet of Callinectes crabs (Decapoda: Portunidae in Santiago de Cuba. On the basis of fishery intensity and proximity to river mouth, a total of 257 swimming Callinectes crabs were collected from March 2007 to April 2008 in eight localities. Captures were made with hanging nets, to a maximal depth of 1.5m, establishing a top time of 2 hr. The genus was widely distributed, and it is represented at least by four species: C. sapidus, C. similis, C. rathbunae and C. larvatus, the last two not included in the last list of Cuban crustaceans (Crustacea: Decapoda. The size and shape of the gonopods were very useful as taxonomical criteria, considering the prevalence of males. The most abundant species were C. sapidus (47.08%, and C. similis (30.35%. C. rathbunae, which was identified at 75% (6 of the localities, showed a better distribution, followed by C. sapidus, which appears in the 63% (5. Sex rate (Rs by species (male:female was 6.20 for C. rathbunae, 3.58 for C. similis, 1.40 for C. larvatus and 0.40 for C. sapidus. The most abundant

  14. Grooming behaviors and gill fouling in the commercially important blue crab (Callinectes sapidus and stone crab (Menippe mercenaria

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    Jen L. Wortham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grooming behaviors reduce fouling of body regions. In decapods, grooming time budgets, body regions groomed, and grooming appendages are known in several species; however, little data exists on brachyuran crabs. In this study, grooming behaviors of two commercially important crabs were documented (blue crabs: Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896; stone crabs: Menippe mercenaria Say, 1818. These crabs are harvested by fishermen and knowing their grooming behaviors is valuable, as clean crabs are preferred by consumers and the stone crab fishery consequence of removing one cheliped to grooming behaviors is unknown. Crabs were observed individually and agonistically to determine how grooming behaviors vary in the presence of another conspecific. Both species frequently use their maxillipeds and groom, with the gills being cleaned by epipods. Respiratory and sensory structures were groomed frequently in both species. Removal of a grooming appendage resulted in higher fouling levels in the gills, indicating that grooming behaviors do remove fouling. Overall, stone crabs had a larger individual time budget for grooming, but agonistic grooming time budgets were similar. Stone crab chelipeds are used in grooming, especially cleaning the other cheliped. The chelipeds are not the main grooming appendage; however, implications of losing one cheliped may have large impacts.

  15. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

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    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species.

  16. Application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for Weight Predictions of Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus RATHBUN, 1896 Using Predictor Variables

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    C. TURELI BILEN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of artificial networks (ANNs to estimate the weights of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus catches in Yumurtalık Cove (Iskenderun Bay that uses measured predictor variables is presented, including carapace width (CW, sex (male, female and female with eggs, and sampling month. Blue crabs (n=410 were collected each month between 15 September 1996 and 15 May 1998. Sex, CW, and sampling month were used and specified in the input layer of the network. The weights of the blue crabs were utilized in the output layer of the network. A multi-layer perception architecture model was used and was calibrated with the Levenberg Marguardt (LM algorithm. Finally, the values were determined by the ANN model using the actual data. The mean square error (MSE was measured as 3.3, and the best results had a correlation coefficient (R of 0.93. We compared the predictive capacity of the general linear model (GLM versus the Artificial Neural Network model (ANN for the estimation of the weights of blue crabs from independent field data. The results indicated the higher performance capacity of the ANN to predict weights compared to the GLM (R=0.97 vs. R=0.95, raw variable when evaluated against independent field data.

  17. Efficacy of alfaxalone for intravascular anesthesia and euthanasia in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus).

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    Minter, Larry J; Harms, Craig A; Archibald, Kate E; Broadhurst, Heather; Bailey, Kate M; Christiansen, Emily F; Lewbart, Gregory A; Posner, Lysa P

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the behavioral effects and changes in heart rate of four doses of alfaxalone delivered by intravascular injection to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Thirty (male, n = 27; female, n = 3) blue crabs were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups of alfaxalone: eight animals were assigned to each of the 5-, 10-, and 15-mg/kg treatment groups, and the remaining six animals were assigned to the 100-mg/kg group. Times for anesthetic induction and recovery periods were recorded. Righting reflex, defensive posturing, and heart rate were evaluated before, during, and after the anesthetic trial. Anesthesia was induced in all 14 animals consolidated into the high-dosage group (15 mg/kg [n = 8] and 100 mg/kg [n = 6]), which was significantly greater than 8 of 16 animals in the low-dosage group (5 mg/kg [n = 2] and 10 mg/kg [n = 6]). Median anesthesia induction time for all crabs was 0.4 min, with no significant difference in induction time between groups observed. Median recovery time was 9.4 min (n = 2), 6.1 min (n = 5), 11.3 min (n = 8), and 66.1 min (n = 5) for the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 100-mg/kg groups, respectively. Recovery times were significantly longer for crabs exposed to an induction dose of 100 mg/kg compared with the 10- and 15-mg/kg induction doses. A significant decrease in the median heart rate was observed between the baseline value and that observed at both induction and 5 min postinjection in the 100-mg/kg dose trial. Two mortalities were observed during the anesthesia trials (n = 1, 10 mg/kg; n = 1, 100 mg/kg), both associated with the autotomization of limbs. In summary, the intravascular administration of alfaxalone at 15 mg/kg provided rapid and reliable sedation, whereas alfaxalone administered at 100 mg/kg produced rapid and long lasting anesthesia.

  18. Calcium phosphate granules in the hepatopancreas of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

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    Becker, G L; Chen, C H; Greenawalt, J W; Lehninger, A L

    1974-05-01

    The hepatopancreas of the adult male blue crab Callinectes sapidus in intermolt was found to contain substantial amounts of calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus, averaging about 260, 20, and 250 microg-atoms per g wet tissue, respectively, accounting for over 10% of the tissue dry weight. Electron microscopy of the intact tissue showed three qualitatively different granular structures having electron densities suggestive of high mineral content. After fractionation of the tissue using centrifugal techniques, almost 95% of the total mineral was found to reside in a heavy, nonmitochondrial particulate fraction(s). The bulk of the low-speed pellet consisted of relatively dense, roughly spherical granules 1-5 microm in diameter, which could be considerably purified by repeated suspension in water and low-speed sedimentation. In the electron microscope the isolated granules appeared basically similar to one of the three characteristic types of electron-dense granules seen in the intact tissue. Although the freshly isolated granules lost approximately 50% of their wet weight when dried at 105 degrees C, only 10% more was lost upon dry ashing at 450 degrees C, suggesting a fairly low content of organic material. Chemical analysis revealed calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate at 5.7, 2.1, and 4.4 microg-atoms per mg dried granules, respectively, accounting for 69% of the dry weight of the fraction. By specific enzymatic assays, the freshly isolated granules were found to contain ATP, ADP, and AMP at levels of 0.13, 0.03, and 0.01 micromol/mg, or 8% of their total dry weight. The remainder of the total phosphorus contributed an additional 3%, whereas carbonate, citrate, oxalate, and protein each constituted no more than 1%. The mineral granules of the crab hepatopancreas appear to function as storage forms of calcium and phosphate during the intermolt period. This tissue appears promising as a model for study of the cellular events associated with biological

  19. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

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    Sirinart Techa

    Full Text Available Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH. Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w ratio. Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  20. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  1. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

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    Vinicius Mendes Ruas

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM for abundance variations and ANOVA for variations on the size of individuals. The pink shrimp was more abundant at Saco da Mangueira, in seagrass meadows and areas of higher salinity. The blue crab was more abundant at Saco do Arraial and in lower levels of salinity. The importance of submerged vegetation for the blue crab lies in a preference of smaller crabs of the species for the seagrass meadows. It has been shown that these species choose different habitats in the estuary, and both the salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows influence the selection of habitat.

  2. Movement patterns and trajectories of ovigerous blue crabs Callinectes sapidus during the spawning migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sarah D.; Tankersley, Richard A.; Hench, James L.; Forward, Richard B.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2004-08-01

    Female blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) migrate from low salinity estuarine regions to high salinity regions near the ocean to release larvae. During this migration, ovigerous females use ebb-tide transport, a vertical migratory behavior in which they ascend into the water column during ebb tides, to move seaward to larval release areas. In order to determine the relationship of ebb-tide vertical migrations to local currents and the influence of these vertical migrations on the horizontal transport of blue crabs in the estuary, ovigerous females with mature embryos (˜1-3 days from hatching) were tracked near Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina (USA), in July and August 2001 and 2002. Crabs were tagged and tracked using ultrasonic telemetry, and currents near the crabs were measured simultaneously with a shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler. During the two seasons, eight crabs were successfully tracked for periods ranging from 3.9-37.0 h and for distances ranging from 1.9-10.6 km. All crabs migrated seaward during the tracking periods. Crabs moved episodically during all tidal phases with periods of movement on the order of minutes to an hour. They moved with local currents in terms of both speed and direction during ebb tides, consistent with ebb-tide transport, and moved down-estuary (seaward) in opposition to local currents during flood tides. The percentage of time that crabs were active was higher during night ebb tides than during day ebb tides or flood tides and increased with increasing ebb-tide current speed. Mean migratory speeds were 0.11, 0.04, 0.08 and 0.02 m s -1 during night ebb, night flood, day ebb and day flood tides, respectively, and net migratory speeds were on the order of 5 km day -1. Due to the episodic nature of the crabs' movements, the total distances that crabs traveled during ebb tides ranged from 10-40% of the distances that passive particles could have traveled under the same conditions.

  3. Effects of acidifying ocean conditions on growth and survival of two life stages of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Taylor, C.

    2016-02-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, begin their larval phase offshore and circulate for approximately 30 days before settling near shore. As crabs transition to the juvenile stage, they move into coastal or estuarine environments characterized by lower salinity. Presently the average pH of the ocean is 8.1, 30% down from the beginning of the industrial revolution and is forecasted to drop to 7.8 by 2100. Decreasing pH causes dissolution of calcium carbonate shells, but the overall effects on crustaceans, such as blue crabs, are unknown. This study investigated the effect of a lower pH environment on the growth, survival, carapace hardness and molt frequency of larval and juvenile blue crabs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Larval crabs showed delayed growth under low pH (7.8) conditions compared to crabs in a control (present day) pH (8.1) environment. Population crashes (complete mortality) were experienced in 55% of the low pH aquaria but not in any of the control aquaria, suggesting that acidification poses a mortality risk. Under low pH conditions the intermolt duration decreased in juveniles, but the body length and weight did not differ from crabs raised in the control pH. Larvae (in tanks that did not crash) and juveniles did not experience increased mortality from a lower pH, but there do appear to be sublethal effects on growth and molting that differ between life history stages.

  4. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae in the Southeast coast of Brazil

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    Evandro Severino-Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available C. sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt, and cephalothorax width (CW was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne. A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50 occurred at CW=10.33cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100 was CW=11.20cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11cm of carapace width.

  5. New functions of arthropod bursicon: inducing deposition and thickening of new cuticle and hemocyte granulation in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

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    J Sook Chung

    Full Text Available Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs, although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC neurons with pericardial organs (POs as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs β/Burs α mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs β homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ∼21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ∼89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI, we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods.

  6. Gill area, permeability and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity as a function of size and salinity in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandao; Roer, Robert; Vana, Matthew; Pate, Susan; Check, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, extensively utilize oligohaline and freshwater regions of the estuary. With a presumptively larger surface-area-to-body weight ratio, juvenile crabs could experience osmo- and ionoregulatory costs well in excess of that of adults. To test this hypothesis, crabs ranging over three orders of magnitude in body weight were acclimated to either sea water (1,000 mOsm) or dilute sea water (150 mOsm), and gill surface area, water and sodium permeabilities (calculated from the passive efflux of 3H2O and 22Na+), gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and expression were measured. Juveniles had a relatively larger gill surface area; weight-specific gill surface area decreased with body weight. Weight-specific water and sodium fluxes also decreased with weight, but not to the same extent as gill surface area; thus juveniles were able to decrease gill permeability slightly more than adults upon acclimation to dilute media. Crabs crabs > 5 g in both posterior and anterior gills. Acclimation to dilute medium induced increased expression of Na+, K+ -ATPase and enzyme activity, but the increase was not as great in juveniles as in larger crabs. The increased weight-specific surface area for water gain and salt loss for small crabs in dilute media presents a challenge that is incompletely compensated by reduced permeability and increased affinity of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase for Na+. Juveniles maintain osmotic and ionic homeostasis by the expression and utilization of extremely high levels of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase, in posterior, as well as in anterior, gills. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. BIOCHEMICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF CA2+ TRANSPORT BY MITOCHONDRIA OF THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF THE BLUE CRAB CALLINECTES SAPIDUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Greenawalt, John W.; Lehninger, Albert L.

    1974-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus show up to 12-fold stimulation of respiration on addition of Ca2+, which is accompanied by Ca2+ accumulation (Ca2+:site = 1.9) and H+ ejection (H+:Ca2+ = 0.85). Sr2+ and Mn2+ are also accumulated; Mg2+ is not. A strongly hypertonic medium (383 mosM), Mg2+, and phosphate are required for maximal Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+ uptake takes precedence over oxidative phosphorylation of ADP for respiratory energy. Once Ca2+ is accumulated by the crab mitochondria, it is stable and only very slowly released, even by uncoupling agents. ATP hydrolysis also supports Ca2+ uptake. Respiration-inhibited crab hepatopancreas mitochondria show both high-affinity and low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites, which are inactive in the presence of uncoupling agents. Crab hepatopancreas mitochondria have an enormous capacity for accumulation of Ca2+, up to 5,500 ng-atoms Ca2+ per mg protein, with an equivalent amount of phosphate. Freshly isolated mitochondria contain very large amounts of Ca2+, Mg2+, phosphate, K+, and Na+; their high Ca2+ content is a reflection of the vary large amount of extra-mitochondrial Ca2+ in the whole tissue. Electron microscopy of crab mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ and phosphate showed large electron-dense deposits, presumably of precipitated calcium phosphate. They consisted of bundles of needle-like crystals, whereas Ca2+-loaded rat liver mitochondria show only amorphous deposits of calcium phosphate under similar conditions. The very pronounced capacity of crab hepatopancreas mitochondria for transport of Ca2+ appears to be adapted to a role in the storage and release of Ca2+ during the molting cycle of this crustacean. PMID:4827906

  8. Atmospheric Correction and Vicarious Calibration of Oceansat-1 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) Data in Coastal Case 2 Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    uppermost part of the Barataria estuary in southeastern Louisiana (Figure 3). Lac des Allemands is a freshwater lake ( salinity < 1 psu) with a surface...W.; Walker, N.D. Evaluating the potential risk of microcystins to blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) fisheries and human health in a eutrophic estuary ...risk of microcystins to blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) fisheries and human health in a eutrophic estuary . Harmful Algae 2010, 9, 134–143. 5. Ren

  9. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela

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    Jesylén Castillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Callinectes sostienen pesquerías importantes en varias partes del mundo. En el occidente de Venezuela, Callinectes sapidus es capturado con palangre y sostiene una pesquería artesanal importante en el Lago de Maracaibo; mientras que en la Isla de Margarita, Callinectes danae es capturado con nasa en zonas cercanas a lagunas costeras y su pesca está limitada por la oferta y la demanda. Estos recursos son de considerable importancia económica entre los crustáceos comestibles; sin embargo, pocos estudios han sido reportados sobre la dinámica poblacional y potencialidad pesquera en ambientes costeros de Venezuela que contribuyan a la toma de decisiones en la administración pesquera. En este documento se presenta información de los parámetros de crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, con el fin de obtener un conocimiento detallado del patrón de crecimiento y lograr estimaciones más precisas sobre el tamaño de la población y su disponibilidad para la explotación. Se analizó una muestra constituida por 3 623 ejemplares capturados con nasa cangrejera por la flota artesanal, entre octubre 2007 y septiembre 2008. Se estableció la relación longitud-peso y se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento de las curvas en longitud y peso del modelo de von Bertalanffy. La proporción sexual global mostró que no existe diferencia significativa entre machos y hembras (χ2=0.04, p>0.05. Los valores de las pendientes b entre machos y hembras presentaron diferencias significativas (ts=2.75, pDana Swimming crab growth Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae from Margarita Island, Venezuela. Callinectes danae is a common species captured with crab traps in nearby areas of coastal lagoons in Margarita Island. Although its considerable economic importance as a fishery resource, few studies have been done on population dynamics and its fishery potential in local coastal environments to support decision making in

  11. Evaluation and management of blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896 (Decapoda - Portunidae fishery in the Estuary of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida, São Paulo, Brazil

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    JT. Mendonça

    Full Text Available The Estuary of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida is a part of the Estuarine Lagoon System of Cananéia, Iguape and Paranaguá , on the south coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. It has been recognised for its high standards of environmental conservation. The objective of this paper was to assess the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus fishing in the region, from January 1998 to December 2006, and obtain supportive data to implement technical rules for the rational exploitation and resulting conservation of this resource. The results show a remarkable decrease in the fisheries' abundance index (CPUE up to 2005, from 9.4 to 4.0 kg/hour, mainly caused by an increase in fishing effort, from 1,960 to 13,776 hours on a yearly basis. With the decrease in the fishing effort in 2005 and 2006, the abundance index reacted positively, indicating a recovery of the exploited population. Due to the lack of appropriate regulation limiting the fishing effort and organising the fluctuating admission rates of new fishermen, there is a noticeable increase of the effort, above the sustainable level. Therefore, there is a need for measures to limit and control the admission of fishermen in this activity. One of the measures to be considered is the establishment of regular periods where fishing the species is prohibited (called "defeso", each year, especially from September to January. Another measure is to create a fishermen registry and special licenses, to limit the number of new entrants. Such actions require, for their implementation, a co-managed initiative, involving the blue crab fishermen themselves, governmental agencies and resource management researchers, and the integration of ecological, socioeconomic and cultural dimensions.

  12. Crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesylén Castillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Callinectes sostienen pesquerías importantes en varias partes del mundo. En el occidente de Venezuela, Callinectes sapidus es capturado con palangre y sostiene una pesquería artesanal importante en el Lago de Maracaibo; mientras que en la Isla de Margarita, Callinectes danae es capturado con nasa en zonas cercanas a lagunas costeras y su pesca está limitada por la oferta y la demanda. Estos recursos son de considerable importancia económica entre los crustáceos comestibles; sin embargo, pocos estudios han sido reportados sobre la dinámica poblacional y potencialidad pesquera en ambientes costeros de Venezuela que contribuyan a la toma de decisiones en la administración pesquera. En este documento se presenta información de los parámetros de crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, con el fin de obtener un conocimiento detallado del patrón de crecimiento y lograr estimaciones más precisas sobre el tamaño de la población y su disponibilidad para la explotación. Se analizó una muestra constituida por 3 623 ejemplares capturados con nasa cangrejera por la flota artesanal, entre octubre 2007 y septiembre 2008. Se estableció la relación longitud-peso y se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento de las curvas en longitud y peso del modelo de von Bertalanffy. La proporción sexual global mostró que no existe diferencia significativa entre machos y hembras (χ2=0.04, p>0.05. Los valores de las pendientes b entre machos y hembras presentaron diferencias significativas (ts=2.75, p<0.05 igualmente los interceptos a (ts=2.44, p<0.05; por lo que se estableció la relación longitud-peso por separado: P=7.48e-5*L2.98 para machos y P=1.21e-4*L2.87 para hembras, evidenciándose un crecimiento alométrico negativo en ambos sexos. Los parámetros de crecimiento quedaron establecidos en: L∞=134.80mm, P∞=166.04g y k=0.86/año para machos; L∞=122.35mm, P∞=118.45g y k=0.63/año para hembras. La

  13. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Callinectes amnicola and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organisms is as a result of pollutants discharge generated by anthropogenic and natural activities which has become a tremendous concern in developing nations. The levels of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, zinc and nickel in the tissue of Callinectes amnicola and ...

  14. Mavi Yengecin (Callinectes Sapidus Rathbun 1896 Et Verimi ve Besin Madde İçeriği Üzerine bir Araştırma

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    Hasan H. Atar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, mavi yengecin (Callinectes sapiduset verimi ile etinin kuru madde, su, ham protein, ham yağ ve ham kül gibi besin maddelerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Mavi yengecin canlı ağırlık ortalaması 128.044±10.71 g, ortalama toplam et miktarı 24.365±2.25 g ve toplam et verimi % 23.060 olarak saptanmıştır. Besin maddeleri ile ilgili analiz sonuçlarına göre; mavi yengecin etinde ortalama su, kuru madde, ham protein, ham yağ, ham kül, kalsiyum ve fosfor oranları kıskaçta sırasıyla %77.40, % 22.60, %17.60, % 0.22, % 3.20, %0.20, %0.18 ve abdomende sırasıyla %77.80, %22.20, %17.50, %2.40, %0.37, %0.09, % 0.04 olarak tespit edilmiştir.

  15. Influence of blue light spectrum filter on short-wavelength and standard automated perimetries Influência de filtro para o espectro azul da luz na perimetria computadorizada branco-branco e azul-amarelo

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    Leonardo Cunha Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of a blue light spectrum filter (BLSF, similar in light spectrum transmittance to the intraocular lens Acrysof NaturalTM, on standard automated perimetry (SAP and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP. METHODS: Twenty young individuals (OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de um filtro para o espectro azul da luz, semelhante à lente intra-ocular Acrysof Natural®, nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão (branco-no-branco e de comprimento de onda curto (azul-no-amarelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes jovens sem alterações oculares (20 olhos realizaram seqüência de 4 exames de campo visual: perimetria automatizada padrão e azul-no-amarelo com e sem o filtro para o espectro azul da luz. Os índices de limiar foveal (FT, desvio médio (MD e desvio-padrão (PSD obtidos em todos os exames e a diferença causada pela excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo foram analisados. Variabilidade interindivíduos (desvio-padrão dos pontos testados foi calculada. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução estatisticamente significante no desvio médio (p<0.001 e no limiar foveal (p<0.001 medidos pela perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz comparado quando realizado sem o filtro. Nenhum outro índice avaliado apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão ou azul-no-amarelo. Foi notado aumento da variabilidade interindivíduos com a excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com e sem o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz, assim como a diferença de sensibilidade entre os hemisférios inferior e superior (hemisfério inferior menos superior, mas não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os exames com e sem o uso do filtro. Quando foram comparados os 4 pontos mais inferiores e os 4 pontos mais superiores, a diferença inferior-superior aumentou

  16. Etude microscopique de L'ovogenese chez la femelle de Callinectes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological survey showed that the ovary of Callinectes amnicola was made of two elements, lobes of ovogonia and an amorphous zone. Both of them participate into ovogenesis. According to structural and ultrastructural aspects, process of the ovogenesis comprises five stages in which ovogonia change successively in ...

  17. Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC. Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.

  18. Isolation and characterization of wild-type lipoxygenase LOX(Psa)1 from Pleurotus sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, Ina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    The lipoxygenase LOX(Psa) 1 of Pleurotus sapidus, originally investigated because of its ability to oxidize (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit aroma (+)-nootkatone, was isolated from the peptidase-rich lyophilisate using a three-step purification scheme including preparative isoelectric focusing and chromatographic techniques. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) of the purified enzyme and peptide mass fingerprint analysis gave 38 peptides of the lipoxygenase from P. sapidus. Nearly 50% of the 643 amino acids long sequence encoded by the cDNA was covered. Both terminal peptides of the native LOX(Psa) 1 were identified by de novo sequencing, and the postulated molecular mass of 72.5 kDa was confirmed. With linoleic acid as the substrate, the LOX(Psa)1 showed a specific activity of 113 U mg(-1) and maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively.

  19. Domestication de portunus validus et callinectes amnicola au Bénin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afin de diversifier les espèces candidates à l'aquaculture béninoise, des essais de domestication ont été réalisés sur deux espèces de crustacés lagunaires, Portunus validus et Callinectes amnicola. Des essais de croissance basés sur le nourrissage sur production primaire des étangs (mis en charge de 100 individus) et ...

  20. Heavy metal contents in sediments of rivers and adjacent streams to the filling of Rio Azul, Rio Azul, San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Amador, Raul Alberto

    2003-01-01

    In Costa Rica there are no studies that have documented the concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments, caused by point sources of pollutants, such as the deposits sites of solid waste. The potential source of heavy metals concentrations in the study area, is an active landfill, known as Relleno Sanitario de Rio Azul, which is located southeast of the city of San Jose, in Distrito de Rio Azul de La Union. The site where the landfill Rio Azul is located is composed by a sequence of volcanic materials, which could have been affected by local faulting. This fact would mean a serious threat of contamination of groundwater in the region, geological faults are therefore a highly permeable, able to get in touch the fill pollutants with some aquifer. The mass of metal deposited on the site, from 1978 to date, has been estimated between 70000-100000 tm, which it becomes environmental concern in a first order. The results of X-ray fluorescence show the presence of elements such as vanadium, chromium, magnesium, copper, zinc, rubidium, strontium, potassium, calcium, iron, titanium and yttrium, which show a trend towards more high Concentrates in the fine fraction (d [es

  1. The occurrence of Callinectes arcuatus ordway, 1863 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Pires de Gouvêa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available During the study of the Carcinofauna of the Bahian Coast, some Brachyura Portunidae were found. Some of these animals were Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 which has its distribution restricted to the Pacific Ocean, from California to Peru and the Galapagos Islands. This is the first occurrence of this species reported from the Atlantic Ocean and the Brazilian Coast (Bahia, 38º50'Wand 12º50'S.Durante o estudo da carcinofauna do litoral baiano, muitos Braquiuros Portunidae foram encontrados. Alguns destes animais foram Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 que possuia sua distribuição restrita da Califórnia ao Peru e Ilhas Galápagos, no Oceano Pacífico. Esta é a primeira ocorrência desta espécie no Oceano Atlântico e na Costa Brasileira. (Bahia, 12º50'S e 38º50'W.

  2. Extraction and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from Blue Crab and Synthesis of Chitosan Cryogel Scaffolds

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    Nimet Bölgen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric scaffolds produced by cryogelation technique have attracted increasing attention for tissue engineering applications. Cryogelation is a technique which enables to produce interconnected porous matrices from the frozen reaction mixtures of polymers or monomeric precursors. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antifungal natural polymer that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin, which is mostly found in the exoskeleton of many crustacean. In this study, chitin was isolated from the exoskeleton of blue crap (Callinectes sapidus using a chemical method. Callinectes sapidus samples were collected from a market, as a waste material after it has been consumed as food. Demineralization, deproteinization and decolorization steps were applied to the samples to obtain chitin. Chitosan was prepared from isolated chitin by deacetylation at high temperatures. The chemical compositon of crab shell, extracted chitin and chitosan were characterized with FTIR analyses. And also to determine the physicochemical and functional properties of the produced chitosan; solubility, water binding and fat binding analysis were performed. Chitosan cryogel scaffolds were prepared by crosslinking reaction at cryogenic conditions at constant amount of chitosan (1%, w/v with different ratios of glutaraldehyde (1, 3, and 6%, v/v as crosslinker. The chemical structure of the scaffolds were examined by FTIR. Also, the water uptake capacity of scaffolds have been determined. Collectively, the results suggested that the characterized chitosan cryogels can be potential scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering applications.

  3. variedad azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Corona González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra un estudio del efecto del pH, la temperatura y la concentración de polifructosas de Agave tequilana weber variedad azul sobre la producción de inulinasas, con una cepa de Saccharomyces sp. en un reactor de 16 litros. Las condiciones óptimas del proceso se obtuvieron al aplicar un diseño factorial 23 en el cual temperatura, pH y concentración de azúcares de Agave tequilana se probaron con dos niveles 15 y 30°C, 4 y 5.5 y 20 y 30 g/L respectivamente. Las condiciones con las que se alcanzó la concentración más alta de inulinasas (240.6 U/ml fueron: temperatura 30°C, pH 5.5 y 30 g/L de polifructosas de Agave tequilana

  4. Maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho, Itamaracá, PE, Brasil Sexual maturity of females of Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in the estuaries of the Botafogo and Carrapicho rivers, Itamaracá, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline do Vale Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869, siri-azul, constitui um importante recurso pesqueiro nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a maturidade sexual das fêmeas de C. danae. Os espécimes foram capturados, entre outubro de 2003 a junho de 2004, com auxílio de um barco de pesca equipado com rede de arrasto do tipo "wing-trawl" e arrastados durante 5 minutos. No laboratório, os siris foram contados, numerados, sexados, pesados e mensurados. A largura da carapaça (LC foi medida na base do espinho lateral e a largura do abdome (LA mensurada na altura da articulação do quinto esternito abdominal. Um total de 596 fêmeas de C. danae foram analisadas: 417 (69,97% no rio Botafogo e 179 (30,03% no Carrapicho; as fêmeas não-ovígeras apresentaram LC de 18,38 a 101 mm (59,14 ± 13,65 mm e 26,70 a 83,48 mm (59,16 ± 13,77 mm, nos respectivos rios; a LC de fêmeas ovígeras foi de 57,04 a 83,30 mm (67,68 ± 6,56 mm. As médias de larguras das carapaças não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas O conhecimento da maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae é de grande importância para o seu manejo e conservação. O L50 gonadal foi estimado em 63,58 mm (chi2 = 140,47; g.l. = 1; p Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869 is an important fishery resource in the Botafogo and Carrapicho river estuaries. The aim of this study was to estimate the sexual maturity of C. danae. Specimens were captured between October 2003 and June 2004 with the aid of a fishing boat equipped with a wing-trawl and trawling took place during 5 minutes each time. In the laboratory, the crabs were counted, numbered, sexed, weighed, and measured. The carapace width (CW was measured at the base of the lateral spine and the abdomen width (AW was measured at the point of the articulation of the fifth abdominal esternite. A total of 596 females of C. danae were analyzed: 417 (69.97% from Botafogo River and 179 (30.03% from

  5. ESTABILIZACIÓN DEL PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR EN CEMENTO PÓRTLAND BLANCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN GUILLERMO MORALES RENDÓN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se prepararon muestras de cemento azul a partir de cemento Pórtland Blanco Tipo III, según Normas Técnicas Colombianas NTC y pigmento Azul Ultramar U-601 adicionado en un 2% en peso del cemento. El cemento se caracterizó químicamente por fluorescencia de rayos X, y físicamente mediante los ensayos típicos según las NTC. Al pigmento y al cemento se les determinaron sus coordenadas cromáticas por espectrofotometría mediante el sistema CIELAB. Se eligieron varios aditivos y adiciones (entre orgánicos, inorgánicos y minerales para ser adicionados al cemento azul en diferentes dosificaciones en peso. Tanto a las muestras de cemento azul sin aditivo como a aquellas con las diferentes dosificaciones de aditivos, se les determinaron sus características físicas de desempeño y coordenadas cromáticas a diferentes edades de curado en agua saturada con cal (1, 3, 7 y 28 días. Adicionalmente se les determinó el color en las mismas edades a especimenes curados a las condiciones ambientales del laboratorio. Se presentó decoloración total en todos aquellos cementos adicionados con aditivos orgánicos, y decoloración parcial en los cementos adicionados con algunos de los aditivos inorgánicos y ciertas adiciones minerales. Tanto los tiempos de fraguado, como las resistencias a la compresión y demás variables de desempeño experimentaron cambios significativos, en algunos casos positivos y en otros negativos, como consecuencia y efecto de las diferentes dosificaciones utilizadas de cada uno de los aditivos.

  6. Content of heavy metals in the sediments of the rivers and adjacent gullies to Relleno de Rio Azul, Rio Azul, San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Amador, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    In Costa Rica it is not had studies that have documented heavy the fluvial sediment metal concentrations, caused by point sources of polluting agents, as they are the sites of I deposit of been accustomed to remainders. The potential source of heavy metal concentrations in the study area, it is an active sanitary filling, known like Sanitary Landing Azul River, which is located to the Southeastern of the city of San Jose, in the District of Azul River, Corner of the Union. The site where this made up of a sequence of materials of volcanic origin is located to the filling of Azul River, which could be affected by local fault, this fact would mean a serious threat of contamination of underground waters of the region, then the geological faults constitute very permeable means, able to put in contact the polluting agents of the water-bearing filling with some. The mass of metals deposited in the site, from 1978 to date, metric ton has calculated between 70000 to 100000, which turns it an environmental preoccupation of first order. The results of x-rays fluorescence show the presence of elements like vanadium, chromium, manganese, it receives, zinc rubidium, strontium, potassium, calcium, iron, titanium and yttrium, which show a tendency to present/display high concentrations but in the fine fraction (d [es

  7. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  8. Detección de restricciones en la producción de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul mediante percepción remota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ceja Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul se utiliza, principalmente, para la producción del Tequila; una bebida espirituosa. El estado de Jalisco, México, contribuye con el 90% de la producción; esto constituye un importante apoyo a la economía del Estado. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la superficie ocupada por agave azul, que presentó restricciones en su producción en la región Valles, correspondiente a los municipios de Tequila, Amatitán y El Arenal, en el estado de Jalisco, México, por medio de percepción remota. Se utilizó una imagen adquirida por el satélite LANDSAT 5 el 2 de abril de 2011, la cual se procesó para su calibración radiométrica, corrección atmosférica y georreferenciación. La interpretación digital se hizo a través del proceso de clasificación supervisada utilizando la opción de máxima probabilidad. Los campos de entrenamiento se seleccionaron de información de campo y de la base de datos del Consejo Regulador del Tequila (CRT. Los resultados se plasmaron en mapas temáticos; distribución de agave y no agave y distribución de agave con restricciones. El 45% del área ocupada por el cultivo presentó restricciones relacionadas con: aspectos económicos (restricción tipo 1, plagas y enfermedades (restricción tipo 2 y efectos por exceso de humedad del suelo (restricción tipo 3. Para evaluar la precisión de estos datos se aplicó una matriz de error que reportó una precisión general del 73%. Este valor es aceptable considerando la resolución a 30 m del sensor (LANDSAT 5 y la peculiaridad del cultivo. El uso de imágenes LANDSAT por su resolución espectral y radiométrica es aceptable para el estudio del cultivo del agave azul según lo observado en campo y lo expresado por el procesamiento de la imagen.

  9. Blue toe syndrome Síndrome do dedo azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a man with blue toe syndrome, who developed bilateral foot ischemia and underwent successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated renal artery stenosis. Blue toe syndrome is characterized by tissue ischemia secondary to embolization of cholesterol crystals or atherothrombotic debris. Microembolization most often occurs in elderly men who undergo an invasive vascular procedure or have an aneurysm.Os autores relatam o caso de síndrome do dedo azul em um homem que apresentou um quadro de isquemia bilateral dos pés e foi submetido ao reparo bem sucedido de um aneurisma da aorta abdominal e de estenose da artéria renal associada. A síndrome do dedo azul é caracterizada pela isquemia tecidual, secundária à embolização de cristais de colesterol ou aterotrombose. A microembolização ocorre mais freqüentemente em homens idosos que têm um aneurisma ou são submetidos a um procedimento vascular invasivo.

  10. The first finding of Ostrea cf. puelchana (Bivalvia living as epibiont on Callinectes exasperates (Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Felipe Barbosa Lima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epibiosis of Ostrea cf. puelchana on Callinectes exasperatus (Gerstaecker, 1856, both collected from the estuary of the Paraíba River, in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The basibiont crab was captured using a trap installed in mangrove area at a depth of about 2 meters. The oyster was closely attached to the left side of dorsal carapace covering most of the epibranchial, mesobranchial and metabranchial regions. Possible advantages and disadvantages for both the epibiont and the basibiont are discussed. We believe that young O. cf. puelchana may avoid a variety of potential predators due to the considerable movement capacity of C. exasperatus and may also serve as a small protective shield for the basibiont. However, the oyster, which is a bivalve with an epifaunal lifestyle, is likely to be negatively affected, mainly due to burrowing activity of the crab. This is the first record of epibiosis between bivalves of the genus Ostrea Linnaeus, 1758 and crabs of the genus Callinectes Stimpson, 1860.

  11. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  12. A estratégia Oceano Azul como proposta de valor: o caso dos ginásios/health clubs portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Elsa Regina Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Metaforicamente, Kim e Mauborgne (2005) referem que o mercado é constituído por dois oceanos, o vermelho e o azul. O oceano vermelho representa todas as indústrias que existem hoje. O oceano azul considera todas as indústrias que ainda não existem, representa assim, o mercado não explorado, onde se pode criar a procura e onde existem oportunidades de elevado crescimento e rentabilidade. A esta abordagem Kim e Mauborgne (2005) chamam Estratégia Oceano Azul. Esta tese tem como objetivo geral de...

  13. Optimization study of fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aarón SALAZAR-LEYVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Agave tequilana Weber azul variety is a valuable source of fructans. In this study, a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction yield of fructans from agave pines. A Box Behnken factorial design was applied to evaluate the effects of several conditions such as extraction temperature, water raw material ratio and extraction time on extraction yield. Under the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature of 79.1 °C, water raw material ratio of 5.13 mL/g, and extraction time of 1.48 h fructans extraction yield was 83.12%. The chromatographic profile of the agave crude extract presented four peaks, out of which fructans were the most preponderant (~87%. The obtained results suggest that the response surface methodology is adequate to optimize fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety.

  14. El duelo y el tiempo mítico en Rosa Cuchillo y La hora azul

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Oyarce, Tania

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo, sostenemos que las novelas Rosa Cuchillo y La hora azul proyectan procesos individuales de duelo en un orden social mítico que se limita a reproducir el fantasma de la nación cercada (Ubilluz) como (seudo) propuesta de solución al conflicto armado acontecido en el Perú entre 1980-2000. En Rosa Cuchillo, la protagonista Rosa Cuchillo atraviesa un proceso de duelo por haber perdido a su hijo subversivo, Liborio, mientras que, en La hora azul, el protagonista Adrián Ormache suf...

  15. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Petrografía, caracterización geoquímica y análisis microestructural del granito del cerro Siempre Amigos, sierras de Azul, Tandilia

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletti, Melisa; Frisicale, María Cristina; Dimieri, Luis V

    2016-01-01

    El cerro Siempre Amigos integra las sierras de Azul, Tandilia, distante 28 km al sur de la ciudad de Azul y 3 km al norte de la megacizalla de Azul, zona de cizalla subvertical donde el basamento se encuentra deformado a milonitas y ultramilonitas. La litología predominante en el cerro Siempre Amigos es un granito paleoproterozoico deformado que en el centro y hacia los bordes se encuentra interdigitado con una roca gnéisica y cuerpos de anfibolitas subverticales de rumbo similar a la foliaci...

  17. Distribution and Size of Barnacle Chelonibia patula Fouling Blue Crab Callinectes amnicola in Southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udoh James Philip; Otoh Aniekan Johnny

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and occurrence of epibionts on the dorsal carapace, ventral carapace and chela of 325 specimens of Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne, 1883) (103.4 - 138.7 mm carapace width) from the Qua Iboe (QIRE) and Imo River (IRE) estuaries in southeast Nigeria was determined. The only ectosymbiont observed was cirriped barnacle, Chelonibia patula, mostly of smaller sizes (2.25 mm), infesting only 25-29% of intermoult crabs, more on females and in the Imo River estuary, with an average...

  18. Efeitos da infusão de azul de metileno em equinos após a administração de lipopolissacarídeo

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, José Henrique Saraiva [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    A endotoxemia é um distúrbio grave na clínica veterinária, sendo uma das principais causas de mortalidade em equinos.Trabalhos recentes relatam a eficácia do azul de metileno na prevenção dos danos impostos pelo óxido nítrico. Este estudo foi concebido com o fito de avaliar os efeitos do azul de metileno sobre as respostas clínica, celular e bioquímica, na endotoxemia experimental em equinos. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos. LPS+AM recebeu LPS e foi tratado com 3mg/kg de azul de met...

  19. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health Center, Department of Molecular Microbial and Structural Biology (United States); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano, E-mail: sirano.dhepaganon@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H., E-mail: carrow@uhnresearch.ca [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 28}-Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two {alpha}-helicies.

  20. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda; Bezsonova, Irina; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2011-01-01

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X 4 -Cys-X 4 -Cys-X 28 -Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two α-helicies.

  1. The relationship of blue crab abundance to winter mortality of Whooping Cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugesek, Bruce H.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Stehn, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We sampled blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) numbers in marshes on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas from 1998-2006, while simultaneously censusing the wintering population of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) on the refuge and surrounding habitats. This was done to determine whether mortality of wintering Whooping Cranes was related to the availability of this food source. Yearly variation in crab numbers was high, ranging from a low of 0.1 crabs to a high of 3.4 crabs per 100-m transect section. Significant non-linear increases in both juvenile and adult mortality in relation to decreasing crab abundance was observed. Results suggest that some threshold of crab abundance exists in which Whooping Cranes have higher survival on their wintering grounds.

  2. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael A.; Quarles, Robert L.; Dantin, Darrin D.; Moore, James C.

    2004-01-01

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacted by golf course runoff is not well understood. This report summarizes trace metal, pesticide and PCB residues for colonized periphyton, Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass), Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (blue crabs) and Crassostrea virginica Gemlin (Eastern oyster) collected from areas adjacent to a Florida golf course complex which receive runoff containing reclaimed municipal wastewater. Concentrations of 19 chlorinated pesticides and 18 PCB congeners were usually below detection in the biota. In contrast, 8 trace metals were commonly detected although concentrations were not usually significantly different for biota collected from reference and non-reference coastal areas. Residue concentrations in decreasing order were typically: zinc, arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury. Mean BCF values for the eight trace metals ranged between 160-57 000 (periphyton), 79-11 033 (R. maritima), 87-162 625 (C. virginica) and 12-9800 (C. sapidus). Most trace metal residues in periphyton colonized adjacent to the golf complex, were either similar to or significantly less than those reported for periphyton colonized in nearby coastal areas impacted by urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. Consequently, the recreational complex does not appear to be a major source of bioavailable contaminants locally nor in the immediate watershed based on results for the selected biota

  3. Isolation and Tissue Distribution of an Insulin-Like Androgenic Gland Hormone (IAG of the Male Red Deep-Sea Crab, Chaceon quinquedens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lawrence

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG; however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG, and to examine its tissue distribution. To this end, we employed polymerase chain reaction cloning with degenerate primers and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length ChqIAG cDNA sequence (1555 nt includes a 366 nt 5′ untranslated region a 453 nt open reading frame encoding 151 amino acids, and a relatively long 3′ UTR of 733 nt. The ORF consists of a 19 aa signal peptide, 32 aa B chain, 56 aa C chain, and 44 aa A chain. The putative ChqIAG amino acid sequence is most similar to those found in other crab species, including C. sapidus and S. paramamosain, which are clustered together phylogenetically.

  4. La estrategia del océano azul para emprendedores

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    Tula Mendoza Farro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los emprendedores deben tener presente que no siempre la planeación garantiza el logro de los objetivos, sin embargo sin planes es difícil alcanzar metas (1. Alfred Chandler J. define que “la estrategia es la determinación de los objetivos y planes a largo plazo de la empresa, las acciones a emprender y la asignación de recursos necesarios para lograr esto...” (2. Michael Porter sostiene que “la empresa sin estrategia está dispuesta a intentar cualquier cosa” (3. C.K. Prahalad dice que “si queremos escapar de la atracción gravitacional del pasado tenemos que ser capaces de replantear nuestras propias ortodoxias. Debemos volver a generar nuestras estrategias esenciales y replantear nuestras creencias fundamentales sobre cómo vamos a competir” (4. Peter Drucker, en tanto, considera que “la estrategia de la organización es la respuesta a dos preguntas: ¿qué es nuestro negocio? y ¿qué debería ser?” (5. Las concepciones de estrategia en la empresa son diversas, pero todas coinciden en la enorme trascendencia que tiene para la gestión empresarial. Los modelos de estrategia, del mismo modo esencial para la gestión, también son distintos, pero suelen variar en función de la búsqueda de mejores resultados. Un emergente y expectante modelo es hoy la estrategia del océano azul, que alienta la innovación en la apertura de mercados y deja de lado la competencia como modelo estratégico. La estrategia del océano azul, formulada por W. Chan Kim y Renée Mauborgne en su gran best seller del mismo nombre (6, sostiene que las empresas si quieren ser exitosas pueden hacerlo explorando nuevos mercados, nuevas oportunidades y a través de la innovación en valor (innovación con utilidad, precio y costo, sin preocuparse en la competencia. Es un modelo de “no competencia”, de búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades, de intactos escenarios, de aguas tranquilas e inexploradas que simbolizan el océano azul, y que precisamente es una

  5. Juan Ramón Jiménez y Rubén Darío: recorrido de un arte azul

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliana, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende llamar la atención sobre algunos puntos de la trayectoria del color azul desde la época modernista bajo la influencia dariana hasta Diario de un poeta reciencasado (1916) a través de un repaso de la presencia del color azul en la poesía modernista como representación de varios símbolos (la melancolía, el sueño, etc.) o un color heredado de la poesía francesa romántica y simbolista hasta la metamorfosis literaria en el Diario, como renovación literaria hacia la poe...

  6. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  7. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  8. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  9. Biologia populacional de Callinectes ornatus (Ordway na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Population biology of Callinectes ornatus (Ordway in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 é a espécie mais abundante de Portunidae, capturada como fauna acompanhante na pesca artesanal do camarão sete-barbas. Durante o período de Agosto de 1996 a Julho de 2002, os caranguejos foram monitorados mensalmente na Armação do Itapocoroy. C. ornatus mostrou flutuações sazonais na abundância com as maiores taxas na primavera e no inverno. A variação da população quando a largura da carapaça variou de 2,0 a 10,0 cm, e a presença de juvenis foi comum ao longo do ano. As espécies apresentaram crescimento alométrico positivo, com os machos e as fêmeas chegando à primeira maturação gonadal com 5,8 e 5,2 cm, respectivamente. A pesca artesanal na Armação do Itapocoroy atua com alta intensidade sobre o estoque adulto.Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 is one abundant Portunidae species which is caught by sea-bob-shrimp's artisanal fishery in area. During the period from August, 1996 to July, 2002, the crabs were monitored monthly in the Armação do Itapocoroy. C. ornatus shows seasonal fluctuations in its abundance with higher rates in spring and winter. The population width variation of the carapace ranged from 2.0 to 10.0 cm, and the presence of juveniles was common along the year. The species present positive alometric growth, with males and females get to the first gonadal maturation with 5.8 cm and 5.2 cm, respectively. The artisanal fishery in Armação do Itapocory is acting with a higher intensity over the adult stock.

  10. Biossorção de azul de metileno utilizando resíduos agroindustriais

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    Andressa C. Honorato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a capacidade de adsorção do corante azul de metileno nos resíduos da palha de milho e da bainha do palmito pupunha in natura. A caracterização dos resíduos foi determinada utilizando-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho a qual indicou a presença de grupos carboxílicos, hidroxila e carbonila. O tempo necessário para que o sistema atingisse o equilíbrio para ambos os resíduos foi de 240 min, seguindo uma cinética descrita pelo modelo de pseudo-segunda ordem. A capacidade máxima de adsorção foi de 102,8 mg g-1 para o resíduo da palha de milho, seguindo o modelo de isoterma de Langmuir e 50,9 mg g-1 para o resíduo de palmito pupunha, sendo que o modelo que melhor se ajusta foi Freundlich. Desta forma, esses resíduos são promissores para a adsorção do corante azul de metileno em efluentes.

  11. Suicídio e o jogo da Baleia Azul analisados na perspectiva de Anomia de Émile Durkheim

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    Irineu Francisco Barreto Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma síntese das principais ideias de Durkheim, representante da sociologia positivista. São revisitados os conceitos de fato social, solidariedade e anomia com o intuito de analisar os suicídios ocorridos no ano de 2017 e associados ao jogo da Baleia Azul, fenômeno mundial da internet e da Sociedade da Informação. O conceito de anomia pode ser compreendido como ausência de normas, que decorre de grande turbulência social, heteronomia, perda dos laços sociais e de solidariedade. Nessa perspectiva, o artigo problematiza a associação entre o conceito de suicídio anômico e as mortes associadas ao jogo da Baleia Azul.

  12. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2010-01-01

    the reproductive biology and the taxonomy of these specialized parasites. We use scanning electron microscopy and histological methods to study the anatomy of juvenile and the mature externae of the rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus texanus parasitizing the blue crab Callinectes rathbunae. We put emphasis......, as is characteristic for the genus Loxothylacus. The internal anatomy of the mature externa of L. texanus is in most features similar to that seen in other species of the Sacculinidae, which comprises the majority of rhizocephalan species. However, the single receptacle creates a situation where the two implanted...

  13. Functional expression of a valencene dioxygenase from Pleurotus sapidus in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2012-03-01

    Valencene dioxygenase (ValOx) from the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus converted the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit flavour (+)-nootkatone and to nootkatols through intermediate hydroperoxides. Expression of the enzyme was carried out in the cytosol and periplasm of Escherichia coli. The heterologous production led to high yields of inclusion bodies. The poor yield of soluble recombinant protein was improved by various strategies including cold shock expression, chaperone co-expression, and employment of mutant E. coli strains. Up to 60 mg of the biologically active, soluble ValOx was produced by cold shock under control of the cspA promoter at 8 °C in the BL21(DE3)Star strain and co-expression of the E. coli trigger factor. The recombinant enzyme, purified using the N-terminal His tag, showed the catalytic properties of the wild-type enzyme, as was confirmed by the LC-MS analysis of hydroperoxide intermediates and GC-MS analysis of the volatile products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prisoners in their habitat? Generalist dispersal by habitat specialists: a case study in southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus.

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    Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros

    Full Text Available Habitat specialists inhabiting scarce and scattered habitat patches pose interesting questions related to dispersal such as how specialized terrestrial mammals do to colonize distant patches crossing hostile matrices. We assess dispersal patterns of the southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus, a habitat specialist whose habitat patches are distributed through less than 2% of the study area (overall 600 km² and whose populations form a dynamic metapopulational network. We predict that individuals will require a high ability to move through the inhospitable matrix in order to avoid genetic and demographic isolations. Genotypes (N = 142 for 10 microsatellites and sequences of the whole mitochondrial Control Region (N = 47 from seven localities revealed a weak but significant genetic structure partially explained by geographic distance. None of the landscape models had a significant effect on genetic structure over that of the Euclidean distance alone and no evidence for efficient barriers to dispersal was found. Contemporary gene flow was not severely limited for A. sapidus as shown by high migration rates estimates (>10% between non-neighbouring areas. Sex-biased dispersal tests did not support differences in dispersal rates, as shown by similar average axial parent-offspring distances, in close agreement with capture-mark-recapture estimates. As predicted, our results do not support any preferences of the species for specific landscape attributes on their dispersal pathways. Here, we combine field and molecular data to illustrate how a habitat specialist mammal might disperse like a habitat generalist, acquiring specific long-distance dispersal strategies as an adaptation to patchy, naturally fragmented, heterogeneous and unstable habitats.

  15. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Timoteo T. Watanabe; Bruno S. Sant'Anna; Gustavo Y. Hattori; Fernando J. Zara

    2014-01-01

    Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863) in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay) from Mar...

  16. The crab Neohelice (= Chasmagnathus) granulata: an emergent animal model from emergent countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2010-09-01

    Neohelice granulata (previously known as Chasmagnathus granulata and C. granulatus) is a burrowing semiterrestrial crab found in the intertidal zone of estuaries, salt marshes and mangroves of the South-western Atlantic Ocean. Beginning in the late 1989s, an explosion of publications appeared in international journals dealing with its ecology, physiology, toxicology and behavior. A bibliometric analysis using the Scopus database allowed detecting 309 papers that deal with this species during the period 1986-2009. The number of papers per year increased continuously, reaching a mean annual value of 22.6 during the last 5 years; a great majority of them were authored by researchers from Argentina and Brazil. Neohelice granulata has become now one of the most studied crab species, after Carcinus maenas, Callinectes sapidus, Scylla serrata and Cancer pagurus and C. magister, and it can be considered as an emergent animal model for biochemical, physiological and ecological research.

  17. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

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    Timoteo T. Watanabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  18. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón Bello, Jorge Alejo

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  19. Superficie específica de una bentonita mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno

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    Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la determinación de la superficie específica de una bentonita colombiana, procedente del Valle del Cauca, mediante la adsorción de azul de metileno, a 298 K. Este método se comparó con el de la adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K.

  20. Inheritance of resistance to cotton blue disease Herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul

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    Osmério Pupim Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of cotton blue disease resistance by cotton plants. Populations derived from the CD 401 and Delta Opal resistant varieties were evaluated, through a greenhouse test with artificial inoculation by viruliferous aphids. Cotton blue disease resistance is conditioned by one dominant gene, both in CD 401 and Delta Opal varieties.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul. Populações derivadas das variedades resistentes CD 401 e Delta Opal foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio da inoculação de pulgões virulíferos. A resistência à doença-azul do algodoeiro é condicionada por um gene dominante, tanto em 'DC 401' quanto em 'Delta Opal'.

  1. Physical-geographical landscape of the tourist circuit Chilpancingo-Azul, Guerrero State, Mexico

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    Julio C. Carbajal Monroy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the delimitation of physical-geographical landscapes of the territory of the Tourist Circuit Chilpancingo Azul, at Guerrero's State central region, from geo-ecological conception for the physical-geographical synthetic classification of territorial units. This approach obtained territorial units and its hierarchical classification using a taxonomic system of localities, neighborhoods and boroughs (smallest categories. Taking into account the 1:100 000 scale different geographical units were determined: 3 localities, 31 neighborhoods and 177 boroughs. The characterization of these territorial units include lithologic constitution, geomorphological conditions (morphogenesis and morphometrics and spatial distribution of major types of soils and vegetation and land uses in the territory.

  2. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.

  3. Distribution and Size of Barnacle Chelonibia patula Fouling Blue Crab Callinectes amnicola in Southeast Nigeria

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    Udoh James Philip

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and occurrence of epibionts on the dorsal carapace, ventral carapace and chela of 325 specimens of Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne, 1883 (103.4 - 138.7 mm carapace width from the Qua Iboe (QIRE and Imo River (IRE estuaries in southeast Nigeria was determined. The only ectosymbiont observed was cirriped barnacle, Chelonibia patula, mostly of smaller sizes (2.25 mm, infesting only 25-29% of intermoult crabs, more on females and in the Imo River estuary, with an average of four barnacles per crab, presupposing low level of epibiont-host interaction. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in spatial distribution but epibionts were highest in the dry season in low salinity IRE (0.53‰ and in wet season in the medium-salinity QIRE (17.4‰. No public health risk has been reported among crab consumers in the study area. This study highlights epibiont-host interaction in the study area largely unknown for proper management of the fishery.

  4. El duelo y el tiempo mítico en Rosa Cuchillo y La hora azul

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Oyarce, Tania

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that the novels Rosa Cuchillo and La hora azulproject individual processes of mourning in a mythical social order thatlimits itself to reproduce the phantom of the enclosed nation (Ubilluz) asa (seudo) proposal to solve the internal conflict that took place in Perubetween 1980-2000. In Rosa Cuchillo the main character, Rosa Cuchillo,goes through a process of mourning due to the loss of his terrorist son,Liborio, whereas in La hora azul the main character, Adrián Ormac...

  5. Agave azul y el desarrollo sustentable en la cuenca baja del río Ayuquila, Costa Sur de Jalisco (1994-2004

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    Peter R.W. Gerritsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber es un cultivo nuevo para la cuenca del río Ayuquila en la Costa Sur de Jalisco, y es importante para su progreso agropecuario. Sin embargo, se observan efectos socioambientales negativos. Desde 2003 se han estudiado las condiciones del cultivo y su expansión, así como alternativas posibles. Los resultados muestran un crecimiento acelerado desde su introducción, a mitad de la década de 1990. Se destaca una concentración de propietarios privados y a través de contratos. Si bien sembrar esta planta puede ser redituable, las tendencias cíclicas de sobreproducción y escasez han originado una falta de incentivos para hacerlo y un deterioro de la capacidad productiva. Se discuten las perspectivas del avance agropecuario basado en el cultivo del agave azul, y se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones para fomentar la sustentabilidad de su sistema de producción comercial.

  6. Extração e estabilidade do corante azul de jenipapo (Genipa americana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Renhe, Isis Rodrigues Toledo

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a avaliação da potencialidade do fruto do jenipapo como fonte de corante azul natural, objetivando torná-lo tecnicamente viável, bem como identificar o solvente adequado para a extração dos pigmentos do jenipapo, avaliar o efeito do pH e da temperatura na produção do corante, e estudar a estabilidade dos pigmentos obtidos por diferentes solventes. Para a obtenção do corante o experimento foi conduzido para três níveis de solvente (água, solução aquosa de ...

  7. Técnicas de empleo del azul de metileno para la caracterización de finos en materiales de ingeniería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Rodríguez González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elempleo del azul de metileno en ingeniería se inició en  Francia  a  finales  de  los  años  ochenta,  con  la finalidad de caracterizar la actividad y naturaleza de los  finos  contenidos  en  las  arenas  y gravas  que  se empleaban  en  la  fabricación  de  concretos; posteriormente  se  desarrollaron  variantes  de  dicho empleo  para determinar  la  presencia  de  arcillas  en los finos de tamaños inferiores a 400 micras, para su empleo en materiales de bases, subbases y mezclascomplemento  al  ensayo  de  equivalente  de  arena,asfálticas.  En Colombia  existe  actualmente  una tendencia al uso del ensayo de azul de metileno para evaluar  las  características  de  las  partículas  finas contaminantes o nocivas en un suelo;  los diferentes procedimientos consisten, básicamente, en medir  la capacidad de adsorción de azul de metileno por una muestra  de  suelo,  capacidad  representada  como  la cantidad  de  colorante  requerido  para  recubrir  las superficies específicas de las moléculas de los finos. En nuestro país su aplicación se ha limitado a ser un dentro  de  las  especificaciones  INVIAS  y  como exigencia en las normas IDU.

  8. Alterações clínicas e patológicas em ovinos infectados naturalmente pelo vírus da língua azul no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi; Saulo P. Pavarini; Luiz A.O. Ribeiro; Mariana S. Silva; Eduardo F. Flores; David Driemeier

    2010-01-01

    Língua azul (LA) é uma doença causada pelo vírus da língua azul (VLA) e transmitida por vetores do gênero Culicoides. Estudos sorológicos têm demonstrado a ampla presença do vírus no Brasil; entretanto, informações clínicas da LA na América do Sul são limitadas. Esse trabalho descreve alterações clínico-patológicas em ovinos acometidos pela LA no Sul do Brasil. Em dois surtos, em propriedades distintas, 15 ovinos apresentaram como principais sinais clínicos hipertermia, apatia, aumento de vol...

  9. Idade e crescimento de Callinectes danae e C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Age and growth of Callinectes danae and C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina A. Keunecke

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 e C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constituem uma parcela importante da produção pesqueira na Baía de Guanabara. Ambas espécies compõem uma fração significativa da fauna-acompanhante sendo exaustivamente descartadas pelas pescarias de arrasto de camarões na costa brasileira. As curvas de crescimento de C. danae e C. ornatus foram calculadas por meio da análise de progressão modal. Para estimar os parâmetros biológicos, foi aplicado o modelo de crescimento de Bertalanffy e para estimar a longevidade foi usada a sua fórmula inversa. As curvas de crescimento foram: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t , ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t e ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t , respectivamente para C. danae e C. ornatus. A longevidade alcançada para as duas espécies foi em torno de 2,5 anos, além de validar as curvas de crescimento. O estudo do crescimento em crustáceos é de extrema importância, pois além de fornecer a informação biológica básica para o grupo, os parâmetros estimados subsidiam o ordenamento e manejo pesqueiro das espécies exploradas.Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constitute an important portion from the fishing products at Guanabara Bay. Both species compose a significant by-catch fraction being a lot discarded during shrimp trawlings along Brazilian coast. Growth curves were estimated by modal progression analysis. For the biological parameters it was applied the Bertalanffy growth function and for the age it was used its inverse formula. Growth curves of C. danae and C. ornatus were respectively: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t, ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t and ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t. The age for both species reached around 2.5 years, besides to confirm growth curves. Growth study in crustaceans is very important, because besides supplying biological information it subsidizes fishery management for exploted species.

  10. Uso do corante azul de metileno a 2% na localização do linfonodo axilar em cadelas (Canis familiaris – Linnaeus, 1758

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    Tábata Maués

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A biopsia de linfonodo sentinela (LS é cada vez mais utilizada para a determinação do estadiamento clínico tumoral. O acometimento de linfonodos em animais com doença oncológica possui forte valor prognóstico no tumor da glândula mamária. Em medicina veterinária faltam diretrizes bem estabelecidas para a avaliação do LS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do corante azul de metileno a 2% na identificação do linfonodo axilar em cadelas com lesões mamárias. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 101 cadelas, portadoras de lesões mamárias, submetidas à mastectomia radical unilateral ou bilateral. Antes do início da cirurgia, aplicou-se, por via intradérmica, na área ao redor da mama torácica cranial, solução de azul de metileno a 2% estéril. O corante foi eficaz na identificação do linfonodo axilar em 76,27% das cadeias mamárias. Obtiveram-se estruturas coradas em azul, semelhantes a linfonodos em 78,81% dos casos. Dessas estruturas, 96,77% foram confirmadas ao exame histopatológico como linfonodos. Dada a importância prognóstica do comprometimento de linfonodos em alguns tumores, a avaliação do LS deve ser incorporada à rotina clínica, de modo a permitir um estadiamento mais preciso das cadelas com neoplasia mamária.

  11. Crosses between monokaryons of Pleurotus sapidus or Pleurotus florida show an improved biotransformation of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra B; Plagemann, Ina; Schimanski, Silke; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2014-11-01

    Several hundred monokaryotic and new dikaryotic strains derived thereof were established from (+)-valencene tolerant Pleurotus species. When grouped according to their growth rate on agar plates and compared to the parental of Pleurotus sapidus 69, the slowly growing monokaryons converted (+)-valencene more efficiently to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone. The fast growing monokaryons and the slow×slow and the fast×fast dikaryotic crosses showed similar or inferior yields. Some slow×fast dikaryons, however, exceeded the biotransformation capability of the parental dikaryon significantly. The activity of the responsible enzyme, lipoxygenase, showed a weak correlation with the yields of (+)-nootkatone indicating that the determination of enzyme activity using the primary substrate linoleic acid may be misleading in predicting the biotransformation efficiency. This exploratory study indicated that a classical genetics approach resulted in altered and partly improved terpene transformation capability (plus 60%) and lipoxygenase activity of the strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Population ecology of the blue crab Callinectes danae (Crustacea: Portunidae) in a Brazilian tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marina S L C; Barreto, Aline V; Negromonte, Aurinete O; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 ± 15.6 mm and 52.9 ± 12.4 mm, respectively), an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation. Overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. However, evaluating sex-ratio by sampling area, males and juveniles of both sexes occurred preferentially in the upper estuary (p estuary, an area of major marine influence (p salinity in order to provide a more favorable environment for embryonic and larval development and to enhance larval dispersal. Recruitment of juveniles was continuous along the year, but intensified from March to June and, with less intensity, from October to December.

  13. Two distinct mtDNA lineages of the blue crab reveal large-scale population structure in its native Atlantic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz Rodrigues, Marcos; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; dos Santos, Cléverson Rannieri Meira; D'Incao, Fernando; Weiss, Steven; Froufe, Elsa

    2017-10-01

    For the first time, a molecular approach was used to evaluate the phylogenetic structure of the disjunct native American distribution of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Population structure was investigated by sequencing 648bp of the Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI), in a total of 138 sequences stemming from individual samples from both the northern and southern hemispheres of the Western Atlantic distribution of the species. A Bayesian approach was used to construct a phylogenetic tree for all samples, and a 95% confidence parsimony network was created to depict the relationship among haplotypes. Results revealed two highly distinct lineages, one containing all samples from the United States and some from Brazil (lineage 1) and the second restricted to Brazil (lineage 2). In addition, gene flow (at least for females) was detected among estuaries at local scales and there is evidence for shared haplotypes in the south. Furthermore, the findings of this investigation support the contemporary introduction of haplotypes that have apparently spread from the south to the north Atlantic.

  14. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  15. Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, F; Blumenthal, N C; Posner, A S; Becker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1975-06-01

    The radial distribution function calculated from x-ray diffraction of mineralized cytoplasmic structures isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is very similar to that previously found for synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. Both types of mineral apparently have only short-range atomic order, represented as a neutral ion cluster of about 10 A in longest dimension, whose probable composition is expressed by the formula Ca9(PO4)6. The minor differences observed are attributed to the presence in the biological mineral of significant amounts of Mg-2+ and ATP. Synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate in contact with a solution containing an amount of ATP equivalent to that of the biological mineral failed to undergo conversion to the thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite. The amorphous calcium phosphate of the cytoplasmic mineral granules is similarly stable, and does not undergo conversion to hydroxyapatite, presumably owing to the presence of ATP and Mg-2+, known in inhibitors of the conversion process. The physiological implications of mineral deposits consisting of stabilized calcium phosphate ion clusters are discussed.

  16. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Population ecology of the blue crab Callinectes danae (Crustacea: Portunidae in a Brazilian tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina S.L.C. Araújo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 ± 15.6 mm and 52.9 ± 12.4 mm, respectively, an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation. Overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. However, evaluating sex-ratio by sampling area, males and juveniles of both sexes occurred preferentially in the upper estuary (p O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever a estrutura populacional do siri Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 em um dos estuários mais produtivos do Brasil, o Canal de Santa Cruz. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de Janeiro a Dezembro/ 2009 em quatro estações ao longo do canal, duas no estuário superior e duas no estuário inferior. Um total de 2373 exemplares de C. danae foi coletado. Os machos apresentaram média de largura de carapaça superior à das fêmeas não-ovígeras (60,0 ± 15,6 mm e 5,9 ± 12,4 mm, respectivamente, uma adaptação que confere maior proteção às fêmeas durante a cópula. A proporção sexual total não diferiu significativamente de 1:1. Porém, avaliando a 'sex-ratio' por área de coleta, os machos e os juvenis residem preferencialmente no estuário superior (p < 0, 05, enquanto as fêmeas adultas e ovígeras habitam no estuário inferior, área de maior influência marinha (p < 0, 05. Enquanto os juvenis procuram águas estuarinas devido a abundância de abrigos e comida, as fêmeas ovígeras migram para áreas de maior profundidade e maior salinidade visando prover um ambiente mais favorável ao desenvolvimento embrionário e

  18. Registro de un Monstruo Diprósopo de Tiburón Azul (Prionace glauca) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia-Hormazábal, Valentina; Pastén-Marambio, Víctor; Vega, Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Un espécimen de siameses de tiburón azul, Prionace glauca, fue recolectado durante actividades de pesca en el norte de Chile. Según una clasificación basada en el grado de duplicación y el sitio de fusión de los gemelos, el espécimen corresponde a un monstruo del tipo diprósopo tetroftalmo. El individuo tiene una duplicación craneofacial parcial con presencia de cuatro globos oculares e igual número de narinas. Las cavidades orales están interconectadas convergiendo en una única faringe. El t...

  19. A dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus transforms (+)-valencene regio-specifically to (+)-nootkatone via a stereo-specific allylic hydroperoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügener, Sven; Krings, Ulrich; Zorn, Holger; Berger, Ralf G

    2010-01-01

    A selective and highly efficient allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone was achieved with lyophilisate of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sapidus. The catalytic reaction sequence was elucidated through the identification of intermediate, (+)-valencene derived hydroperoxides. A specific staining of hydroperoxides allowed the semi-preparative isolation of two secondary (+)-valencene hydroperoxides, 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-4(S)-yl-hydroperoxide and 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-2(R)-yl-hydroperoxide. Chemical reduction of the biotransformation products yielded a tertiary alcohol identified as 2(R)-Isopropenyl-8(R),8a(S)-dimethyl-1,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-4a(R)-ol. This suggested a lipoxygenase-type oxidation of (+)-valencene via secondary and tertiary hydroperoxides and confirmed homology data of the key enzyme obtained previously from amino acid sequencing.

  20. Análisis socioeconómico e interrelación de las pesquerías de sardina y atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de las engordas de atún aleta azul en las costas de Baja California cambió el destino de las capturas de sardina, ya que antes se destinaban al mercado de congelados y a la elaboración de harina de pescado, y en la actualidad se utilizan como alimento para el atún aleta azul. Esto generó un efecto socioeconómico positivo para los armadores y pescadores de pelágicos menores, ya que la llegada de grandes capitales foráneos para el desarrollo de las engordas de atún mejoró los precios de la sardina, e hizo más rentable su pesquería.

  1. Idealismo e imaginario falangista en las primeras novelas de la División Azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Possi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en el análisis de la ideología, la retórica y el imaginario falangista utilizado en las novelas españolas escritas por los veteranos de guerra de la División Azul en los años 40 y 50. El estudio versa en particular sobre la representación de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la figura del héroe y el arquetipo del militante falangista entregado a la causa, y las imágenes de la muerte de los soldados en el frente. Este trabajo demuestra que los escritores se alejan de un imaginario realista para crear una representación idealizada y estética de la muerte.

  2. Elucidation of the regio- and chemoselectivity of enzymatic allylic oxidations with Pleurotus sapidus – conversion of selected spirocyclic terpenoids and computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Weidmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Allylic oxidations of olefins to enones allow the efficient synthesis of value-added products from simple olefinic precursors like terpenes or terpenoids. Biocatalytic variants have a large potential for industrial applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Herein we report efficient biocatalytic allylic oxidations of spirocyclic terpenoids by a lyophilisate of the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus. This ‘’mushroom catalysis’’ is operationally simple and allows the conversion of various unsaturated spirocyclic terpenoids. A number of new spirocyclic enones have thus been obtained with good regio- and chemoselectivity and chiral separation protocols for enantiomeric mixtures have been developed. The oxidations follow a radical mechanism and the regioselectivity of the reaction is mainly determined by bond-dissociation energies of the available allylic CH-bonds and steric accessibility of the oxidation site.

  3. Abundance and distribution of Portunidae larval phases (Crustacea: Brachyura in the estuarine and coastal region of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Roberto Ramos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The abundance and distribution of larval phases of the Portunidae found in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon and the coastal region were studied during two years (1995 and 1999. A conical net (165 cm long, 60 cm mouth, and 330 µm mesh equipped with a flowmeter was towed for three minutes at 2 knots at six stations within the estuary and four stations in the coastal region. Samplings were carried out on the surface and near the bottom. At each sampling location, the salinity and temperature were also recorded. In 1995, the zoeae of Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Achelous spinicarpus Stimpson, 1871 were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 121.98 ind.100 m-3 (90.95 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 31.03 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. A total of 452.27 ind.100 m-3 were caught in the megalopa phase (13.49 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 438.78 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. In 1999, only zoeae of C. sapidus were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 419.78 ind.100 m-3 (386.98 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 32.8 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Megalopae of these three species were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 179.91 ind.100 m-3 (25.38 ind.100 m-3 on surface and 154.53 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Summer was the season with the highest abundance of larvae in both years. During spring and summer, spawning was observed in the estuarine region of the Patos Lagoon.

  4. Invertebrate predation on egg masses of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.

  5. Development of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Brachyura: Portunidae

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    Fabiana Aparecida do Nascimento

    Full Text Available This study describes the histology and histochemistry of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus, comparing juvenile and adult developmental stages. We also analyzed changes in the gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, and the weights of the testis and vas deferens during the development. The results showed that all stages, beginning with the juvenile (JUV, through developing (DEV and mature (MAT adult males of C. ornatus produce sperm and spermatophores. During development, testicular lobes showed the same characteristics of production and release of sperm into the seminiferous duct. The vas deferens showed little histological and histochemical change in the epithelium in juvenile and adult males. The differences consisted of the larger amount of secretion in MAT males compared to JUV and DEV ones. The chemical composition of the seminal fluid was similar, but MAT males produced a more homogeneous secretion. Morphological and physiological maturation are not synchronized in C. ornatus, since JUV males produced spermatophores similar to those in DEV and MAT males. However, these JUV are not yet able to reproduce, since they still have the abdomen attached to the cephalothoracic sternum. The increase of the GSI during development was significant for MAT males, and is related to the production of sufficient volume of seminal fluid to form the sperm "plug" in the female seminal receptacle. The HSI decreased from DEV to MAT adult stages, indicating that reserves from the hepatopancreas are used to develop the reproductive system after the pubertal molt.

  6. El control de la limpieza de las arenas por medio del ensayo del azul de metileno

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    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, the main lines of the investigation work developed at LABEIN on the «Influence of the limy and clayey slimes from calcareous crushed sands on concrete properties» are presented. As a consequence of it, new limits are proposed to consideration regarding the admissible content of slime in crushed sands, reaching a limit higher than 15%, controling the slime nature by means of an equivalent of normal sand and specially by Methylene Blue. The second part of the work is devoted to the development of the methodology for the obtention of Methylene Blue, in sands used in the elaboration of concrete which have a little amount of clay, taking as a base the method applied by French normative, duly adapted and with different expression of the results.Se muestran, en la primera parte del artículo, las líneas fundamentales del trabajo de investigación desarrollado en LABEIN, sobre la «Influencia de los finos calizos y arcillosos de arenas calizas de machaqueo, en las propiedades del hormigón». Como consecuencia del mismo, se proponen nuevos límites a considerar respecto al contenido admisible de finos en las arenas calizas de machaqueo, llegando a un límite superior del 15%, controlando la naturaleza de los finos por medio del equivalente de arena a vista, y, sobre todo, por el Azul de Metileno. En la segunda parte del artículo, se desarrolla la metodología utilizada para obtener el Azul de Metileno, en arenas utilizadas en la confección de hormigón, que poseen poca arcilla, basándose en el método aplicado por la normativa francesa, adaptado convenientemente y con diferente expresión de resultados.

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR Y GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES CON ENVEJECIMIENTO ACELERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Dur\\u00E1n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del envejecimie nto acelerado en semillas de varie dades criollas de maíz azul. En los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, semillas de cuatro varie dades criollas de maíz azul (Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometie ron a dos tip os de envejecimie nto acelerado: calor húmedo (41°C, 72 horas y 100% h. r. y calor seco (60°C, 48 horas. Se evaluaron: protrusión radicular de 0 a 72 horas de imbibición y, a los sie te días de incubación a 25°C, plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Se obtuvo la caracterización molecular de los tratamie ntos mediante la RA PD y se construyeron los dendogramas respectivos. En plántulas normales provenie ntes de semillas sin envejecimie nto acelerado, las varie dades Oaxaca y Puebla fueron significativamente superiores. El peso seco en las plántulas disminuyó con el deterioro, sie ndo exigua con calor seco. La presencia de plántulas anormales se incrementó con ambos tip os de deterioro en el orden: Oaxaca, Puebla, Cocotitlán y Cuijingo. La diferenciación de los perfiles de bandeo entre semillas testigo y deterioradas ocurrió con la secuencia: Oaxaca (31,6%, Cocotitlán (25,8%, Puebla (19,6% y Cuijingo (18,6%. Estos valores de similitud, a los cuales se ramificaron los perfiles genómicos, se asociaron de manera inversa con el nivel de vigor de las semillas, y directamente con la presencia de anormalidades en las plántulas obtenidas.

  8. A ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA EMPRESA DE SERVIÇOS NA CIDADE DE CAMPINA GRANDE – PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Correia Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As empresas se utilizam de estratégias e atitudes para chegar a um determinado objetivo, observando os pontos fortes e fracos do ambiente interno e externo da organização. Assim, têm-se a teoria do trade-off (valorXcusto no qual as empresas sempre optam por um de dois caminhos: agregar valor ao produto para cobrar mais, ou o cobrar menor preço com um produto menos diferenciado. Hoje, emerge no mundo científico um novo paradigma, a estratégia do oceano azul, a qual afirma que é possível as empresas optarem, de uma só vez, pela diferenciação e pela liderança em preços. Este trabalho visa verificar a relação entre a estratégia do oceano azul com a adotada por uma empresa de serviços de pesquisa e intermediação de compras de mantimentos, que concorre com supermercados, ofertando os mesmos produtos, porém, de forma inovadora com este tipo de comercialização na cidade de Campina Grande-PB, através da compra pela internet. Trata-se de um estudo de caso aplicado aos principais supermercados do município e para tratamento dos dados utilizou-se da abordagem quali-quantitativa. Foi analisada a percepção do cliente e feito a matriz de avaliação de valor, tanto do setor de atuação quanto da empresa estudada. Concluiu-se, que a estratégia adotada está alinhada com a estratégia de oceano azul, pois, igualmente aos supermercados, a empresa estudada supre a necessidade dos clientes, todavia, sem utilizar estoques, com entrega em domicílio e atendimento personalizado, tudo isto sem acrescentar maiores custos ao consumidor final, liderando em preços ao passo que se diferencia da concorrência.

  9. Accumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants in shellfish collected in estuarine waters near Pensacola, Florida: Contamination profiles and risks to human consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew G.; Ranga Rao, K.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a screening level assessment of contaminants in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from bays and bayous in the Pensacola, FL area. Tissue samples were analyzed for 17 dioxins/furans, 12 dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCBs) congeners, mercury, and various metals. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. EPA recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. All sampling locations exceeded the SV (0.098 pg g -1 ) for dioxins/furans/DL-PCBs, based on a Florida-specific consumption rate (46 g day -1 ). Arsenic (inorganic), mercury, cadmium, and zinc levels exceeded SVs in samples from select locations, and with the exception of mercury, these locations were generally downstream of known contaminated areas. We also assessed potential human health risks from consumption of these species. Risks to human health were greatest from consumption of crab hepatopancreas, suggesting that consumption of hepatopancreas, whether directly or indirectly, from crabs collected anywhere in the Pensacola Bay region should be avoided. - Elevated levels of dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs were detected in blue crabs and oysters from select locations in the Pensacola Bay region

  10. The Dilemma of Derelict Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheld, A M; Bilkovic, D M; Havens, K J

    2016-01-21

    Every year, millions of pots and traps are lost in crustacean fisheries around the world. Derelict fishing gear has been found to produce several harmful environmental and ecological effects, however socioeconomic consequences have been investigated less frequently. We analyze the economic effects of a substantial derelict pot removal program in the largest estuary of the United States, the Chesapeake Bay. By combining spatially resolved data on derelict pot removals with commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) harvests and effort, we show that removing 34,408 derelict pots led to significant gains in gear efficiency and an additional 13,504 MT in harvest valued at US $21.3 million--a 27% increase above that which would have occurred without removals. Model results are extended to a global analysis where it is seen that US $831 million in landings could be recovered annually by removing less than 10% of the derelict pots and traps from major crustacean fisheries. An unfortunate common pool externality, the degradation of marine environments is detrimental not only to marine organisms and biota, but also to those individuals and communities whose livelihoods and culture depend on profitable and sustainable marine resource use.

  11. Seasonal abundance of crustaceans associated with artisanal fishery of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Celis-Sánchez, José Alfredo; Estrella-Canto, Arely de Jesús; Poot-López, Gaspar Román; González-Salas, Carlos; López-Rocha, Jorge Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal abundance and selectivity of the main crustacean species associated with blue crab fishing was studied at the port of Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. For this purpose, 52 crab traps were used, which were divided into four parallel transects placed 100, 150, 200 and 250 m of the shoreline. Each transect consisted of 13 traps 20 m from each other. Traps were set at dusk and checked at dawn, standardizing the fishing effort to 17 hours/trap/day. A total of 832 organisms from eight species were ...

  12. Cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno para diagnóstico de esôfago de Barrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saporiti Marcela Rocha Loures

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O esôfago de Barrett é uma condição na qual a mucosa escamosa esofágica é substituída por metaplasia intestinal especializada, que predispõe o paciente ao desenvolvimento de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Este é precedido por displasia e carcinoma precoce; o rastreamento dessas lesões faz-se através de endoscopias digestivas periódicas com biopsias randomizadas. A incidência aumentada desse, tem despertado interesse no desenvolvimento de novas técnicas endoscópicas, como a cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno, para melhorar a identificação do esôfago de Barrett e suas complicações. OBJETIVO: Determinar se as biopsias dirigidas pela cromoendoscopia com azul de metileno oferecem vantagem em relação ao método convencional na detecção do esôfago de Barrett. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudaram-se 45 pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de esôfago de Barrett, todos submetidos a dois exames de endoscopia digestiva alta com biopsias, em intervalo de 4 semanas, um convencional e outro com aplicação do corante, no período entre abril e outubro de 2002. RESULTADOS: Os resultados histológicos das biopsias de todos os exames foram comparados. Observou-se sensibilidade de 62,5%, especificidade de 15,4%, valor preditivo positivo de 57,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 18,2%. Não houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de biopsias. O tempo de duração da técnica de cromoendoscopia foi significativamente maior quando comparado ao da técnica convencional. CONCLUSÃO: Não se observou vantagem na utilização da cromoendoscopia em relação à técnica randomizada no diagnóstico do esôfago de Barrett.

  13. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI, the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52% and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%.Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlin azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes, de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI, fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52% y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%.

  14. On the Sources of Salinity in Groundwater under Plain Areas. Insights from {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Hydrochemistry in the Azul River Basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M. E.; Varni, M.; Weinzettel, P. [Instituto de Hidrologia de llanuras, Azul (Argentina); Manzano, M. [Technical University of Cartagena (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The Azul River basin, with some 6200 km{sup 2}, is located in the plains of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The Azul River flows along 160 km from the Tandilia Range, in the SW, to the Channel 11, in the NE. Average annual precipitation is 1005 mm (1988-2000); mean reference evapotranspiration is 1090 mm. The geology consists of Miocene to recent sediments, mostly sands and silts with some clay and calcrete layers, overlying crystalline rocks and marine sediments. The water table is shallow and groundwater in the aquifer upper 30 m displays an increasing salinity from SW to NE. The previous hypothesis to explain the salinity was infiltration of evapo-concentrated surface water, as the small soil slope in the northern basin (< 0.2%) induces rainfall accumulation in lowlands, where water evaporates prior to infiltration. But recent chemical and isotopic data reveal two salinity sources: evaporation of recent recharge water, and mixing with old saline groundwater of yet unknown origin. (author)

  15. Estructura de tallas y crecimiento de los cangrejos Callinectes arcuatus y C. bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae en la laguna costera Las Guásimas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernández

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos información sobre la estructura de tallas, la relación ancho-peso y los parámetros de crecimiento de las jaibas Callinectes arcuatus y C. bellicosus. Las muestras fueron recolectadas mensualmente con una red de arrastre tipo camaronera durante el día y la noche desde marzo 1998 hasta febrero 2000 en una laguna costera del Golfo de California. C. bellicosus (n= 878 fue más abundante que C. arcuatus (n= 357 y su intervalo de talla de 8.4- 166 mm ancho del caparazón (AC y 9-130 mm AC, respectivamente. Ambas poblaciones son representadas principalmente por jóvenes (75 mm AC entre 37-75 mm AC y adultos entre 76- 90 mm AC. La relación ancho-peso mostró que los machos crecen más que las hembras en ambas especies y se observó una tendencia de crecimiento isométrico. Los parámetros de crecimiento para C. arcuatus estimados con el modelo von Bertalanffy fueron: K= 0.84 año-1, L∞= 140 a -0.12 mm para C. arcuatus, y K= 0.9 año -1, L∞= 169 a -0.11 mm para C. bellicosus. Estos resultados mostraron que la edad relativa a la cual se alcanza el crecimiento máximo es entre los tres y cuatro años de edad para ambas especies.Size frequency distribution and growth of the crabs Callinectes arcuatus and C. bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae in Las Guásimas coastal lagoon, Mexico. Information on size frequency distribution, the width-weight relation and growth parameters of the crabs Callinectes arcuatus and C. bellicosus is presented. The data comes from samples taken with a trawl net both day and night on a monthly basis from March 1998 to February 2000 in a coastal lagoon from Gulf of California. C. bellicosus (n= 878 was more abundant than C. arcuatus (n= 357 and its size frequency distribution presented carapace width CW ranges of 8.4-166 mm and 9-130 mm respectively. Both populations were mainly represented by juveniles (75 mm in CW ranging from 37 to 75 mm in CW, and adults (>75 mm in CW between 76 and 90 mm in CW. In both species

  16. Levantamento das Cianobactérias Psâmicas em Sedimentos Superficiais Marginais da Lagoa Azul, Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of the Rio de Janeiro State presents a series of lagoons, dune fi elds and strand plains, which are the result of thepaleogeographical evolution during Neogene. The lagoa Azul is situated at 22o56’52”S and 42o04’62”W in the Arraial do Cabo, locatedabout 160 km far the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a natural hypersaline coastal aquatic body which, parallel to Atlantic Ocean. The presentwork focused on the identifi cation of psammic cyanobacteria in the surface sediments of the lagoa Azul. The samples were obtained byusing plastic tubes and were later aconditiones in opaque plastic containers and conserved in a 4% solution of formaldehyde. With thematerial obtained, permanent slides were prepared so as to characterize them phycologically. Qualitative analysis showed the presenceof 14 species and the occurrence of the families Chroococcaceae Nägeli 1849 (5 sp., Phormidiaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988(4 sp., Synechococcaceae Komárek & Anagnostidis 1995 (2 sp., Nostocaceae Kützing 1843 (1 sp., Oscillatoriaceae Gomont 1892(1 sp. and Pseudanabaenaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988 (1 sp.. The incidence of these species is also recorded in other lagoons(Araruama, Pernambuco, Pitanguinha and Vermelha in the northeast of Rio de Janeiro coast, such as the frequency of cyanobacteriais justifi ed by the harsh environment, without predation, with high salinity, elevated temperature and low concentration of oxygen.

  17. Levantamento das Cianobactérias Psâmicas em Sedimentos Superficiais Marginais da Lagoa Azul, Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva; Anderson Andrade Cavalcanti Iespa; Cynthia Moreira Damazio Iespa; Teresa Cristina Lopes Medeiros Faruolo

    2008-01-01

    The coastal area of the Rio de Janeiro State presents a series of lagoons, dune fi elds and strand plains, which are the result of thepaleogeographical evolution during Neogene. The lagoa Azul is situated at 22o56’52”S and 42o04’62”W in the Arraial do Cabo, locatedabout 160 km far the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a natural hypersaline coastal aquatic body which, parallel to Atlantic Ocean. The presentwork focused on the identifi cation of psammic cyanobacteria in the surface sediments of the...

  18. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  19. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  20. Separation of active laccases from Pleurotus sapidus culture supernatant using aqueous two-phase systems in centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienheer, C; Prinz, A; Zeiner, T; Merz, J

    2015-10-01

    For the production of bio active compounds, e.g., active enzymes or antibodies, a conserved purification process with a minimum loss of active compounds is necessary. In centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), the separation effect is based on the different distribution of the components to be separated between two immiscible liquid phases. Thereby, one liquid phase is kept stationary in chambers by a centrifugal field and the mobile phase is pumped through via connecting ducts. Aqueous two phase systems (ATPS) are known to provide benign conditions for biochemical products and seem to be promising when used in CPC for purification tasks. However, it is not known if active biochemical compounds can "survive" the conditions in a CPC where strong shear forces can occur due to the two-phasic flow under centrifugal forces. Therefore, this aspect has been faced within this study by the separation of active laccases from a fermentation broth of Pleurotus sapidus. After selecting a suitable ATPS and operating conditions, the activity yield was calculated and the preservation of the active enzymes could be observed. Therefore, CPC could be shown as potentially suitable for the purification of bio-active compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Uso do azul de metileno no tratamento de choque anafilático durante anestesia: relato de caso Uso del azul de metileno en el tratamiento de choque anafiláctico durante anestesia: relato de caso Methylene blue to treat anaphylaxis during anesthesia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mestriner Stocche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: No período peri-operatório, o risco de anafilaxia deve sempre ser considerado. A incidência de reações alérgicas em anestesia é controversa, variando entre 1/3000 a 1/20.000, com mortalidade entre 3% e 9 %. Neste caso, relata-se o uso do azul de metileno como coadjuvante ao tratamento do choque anafilático refratário à terapêutica tradicional. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, submetido a herniorrafia inguinal sob raquianestesia. No final do procedimento, ao receber dipirona (1,5 g, por via venosa, o paciente imediatamente apresentou broncoespasmo, cianose, diminuição da SpO2 e da PAS, culminando com parada cardiorrespiratória. Foi iniciada reanimação cardiorrespiratória com massagem cardíaca externa, seguida de IOT e injeção de adrenalina (1 mg, atropina (1 mg, restabelecendo-se FC de 150 bpm, porém sem pulso palpável. Administrou-se mais 1 mg de adrenalina além de 1 g de hidrocortisona, com restabelecimento de pulso central (8 minutos. Apesar de receber dopamina (20 µg.kg-1.min-1, o paciente manteve-se hipotenso (60 mmHg até 80 minutos. Administraram-se 100 mg de azul de metileno por via venosa, quando houve aumento da PAS para 85 e 105 mmHg, após a segunda dose. Seguiu-se da diminuição da dose de dopamina de 20 para 10, 7, 5 e, finalmente, 2 µg.kg-1.min-1. CONCLUSÕES: A anafilaxia tem como principal mediador a liberação de histamina, que induz a produção de óxido nítrico (NO, com conseqüente aumento da guanilato ciclase que promove vasodilatação arteriolar por aumento do GMP cíclico. O azul de metileno pode ser útil nestas situações, pois inibe a guanilato ciclase e conseqüentemente a vasodilatação, o que resulta em melhora hemodinâmica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: En el período peri-operatorio, el riesgo de anafilaxis siempre debe ser considerado. La incidencia de reacciones alérgicas en anestesia es polémica, variando entre 1/3000 a 1/20.000, con

  2. DURABILIDAD DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND BLANCO ADICIONADO CON PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El pigmento Azul Ultramar (AU es un aluminosilicato polisulfurado de sodio que reacciona con el aluminato tricálcico (C3A y con el óxido de calcio (CaO del cemento Pórtland blanco en presencia de agua, generando cantidades considerables de etringita a edad temprana y en menor proporción de tobermorita. Esta etringita primaria se presenta en forma de fibras no orientadas mejorando el desempeño mecánico de los morteros, y al mismo tiempo dejando pocas cantidades de C3A disponible para la formación de etringita secundaria. En esta investigación se evalúa la durabilidad a diferentes edades de curado en morteros de cemento Portland blanco sustituidos por 0%, 10% y 20% de AU en peso, mediante pruebas de succión capilar y evaluación del cambio longitudinal de morteros expuestos a una solución de sulfato de sodio con una concentración del 5% (ASTM C1012. Los resultados evidencian una mayor resistencia a compresión y a flexión, una significativa disminución de la expansión y una reducción hasta del 800% de la absorción de agua en morteros con AU. Todo esto debido a la formación de las fases minerales adicionales (etringita primaria y tobermorita, las cuales fueron identificadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM.

  3. El secreto del huevo azul, de Catalina González Vilar. Estudio narratológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el estudio narratológico de la obra El secreto del huevo azul , de la escritora Catalina González Vilar, que obtuvo el Premio El Barco de Vapor en el año 2012. Examina los diferentes elementos constitutivos del texto (el enfoque del tema, la caracterización de los personajes, la estructura sintáctica, el tratamiento del lenguaje, la técnica narrativa utilizada... y su aporte al desarrollo de la historia con la finalidad de descubrir los valores estéticos y literarios que aporta a la fábula. Pretende demostrar el adecuado uso de todos ellos dado que favorecen un texto rico en matices, llamativo, sugerente. Cualidades, todas ellas, de gran importancia tanto en creaciones destinadas al público adulto como al infantil y juvenil pues enriquece el valor final de la obra, y por extensión, el bagaje cultural de sus lectores.

  4. Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2008-08-01

    When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans.

  5. Toxicity of phthalate esters in fish and shellfish from virginia beach using matrix solid phase dispersion (mspd) and gc-ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, A.B.; Shaukat, S.; Hashmi, D.; Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the outcome of an investigation on the occurrence of phthalates, in eight edible marine fish species from lower James River, Chesapeake Bay along the Virginia Coast of Atlantic ocean. These include shell fish like Crab(Callinectes sapidus), Clam( Merccnaria), Oyster(C.ariakensis), and white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) from aquaculture center of Virginia Tech. These were analyzed for their content of Dimethyl Phthalate, Diethyl Phthalate, Di-n-butyl Phthalate , butyl benzyl Phthalate , bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate ,and di-n-octyl Phthalate Mean concentrations (range) of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in fish samples were 1.1 (<0.01-1.5), 0.22 (<0.01-1.1) and 0.14 (<0.01-1.3) mu g g-1; those in shell fishery were 1.2 (<0.02-1.3), 0.13 (<0.01-0.27) and 0.09 (<0.02-0.22) mu g g-1, respectively. The highest concentration of bis (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in fish samples were found in Atlantic mackerel (Centropristis striate) (1.98+-0.92) mu g/g (wet weight) and Oyster (C.ariakensis) (2.30 mu g/g (wet weight), were higher than those in other fish species. (author)

  6. Bioinspired algorithm for autonomous sensor-driven guidance in turbulent chemical plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D R; Volyanskyy, K Y; Weissburg, M J

    2012-01-01

    We designed and implemented a control algorithm for sensor-mediated chemical plume tracking in a turbulent flow environment. In our design, we focused on development of a signal processing strategy capable of replicating behavioral responses of actively tracking blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) to chemical stimuli. The control algorithm is evaluated in a hardware platform that allows motion in two directions (i.e. forward–back and left–right). The geometric arrangement of the sensor array is inspired by the location of blue crab sensor populations. Upstream motion is induced by a binary response to supra-threshold spikes of concentration, and cross-stream steering is controlled by contrast between bilaterally-separated sensors. Like animal strategies, the developed control algorithm is dynamic. This property allows the algorithm to function effectively in the highly irregular turbulent environment and produces adaptive adjustments of motion to minimize the distance to the source of a plume. Tracking trials indicate that roughly 80% of the tracks successfully stop near the plume source location. Both success rate and movement patterns of the tracker compare favorably to that of blue crabs searching for odorant plume sources, thus suggesting that our sensory-mediated behavior hypothesis are generally accurate and that the associated tracking mechanisms may be successfully implemented in hardware. (paper)

  7. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  8. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3 kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey.

  9. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Mangrove expansion into salt marshes alters associated faunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Delbert L.; Sanchez, James A.; Diskin, Meredith; Trettin, Carl

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is altering the distribution of foundation species, with potential effects on organisms that inhabit these environments and changes to valuable ecosystem functions. In the Gulf of Mexico, black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) are expanding northward into salt marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora (hereafter Spartina). Salt marshes are essential habitats for many organisms, including ecologically and economically important species such as blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Penaeid shrimp (e.g., Penaeus aztecus), which may be affected by vegetation changes. Black mangroves occupied higher tidal elevations than Spartina, and Spartina was present only at its lowest tidal elevations in sites when mangroves were established. We compared nekton and infaunal communities within monoculture stands of Spartina that were bordered by mangroves to nearby areas where mangroves had not yet become established. Nekton and infaunal communities were significantly different in Spartina stands bordered by mangroves, even though salinity and temperature were not different. Overall abundance and biomass of nekton and infauna was significantly higher in marshes without mangroves, although crabs and fish were more abundant in mangrove areas. Black mangrove expansion as well as other ongoing vegetation shifts will continue in a warming climate. Understanding how these changes affect associated species is necessary for management, mitigation, and conservation.

  11. Utilização de resíduos de materiais cerâmicos na adsorção de corante azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dominguini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a viabilidade de utilização de resíduos de materiais cerâmicos como agentes de adsorção de corantes utilizados em indústrias têxteis. Resíduos de materiais cerâmicos, oriundos de quebras de tijolos, azulejos e pisos foram selecionados, triturados e moídos a uma granulometria adequada, o que possibilitou o estudo da influência do tipo de material cerâmico (resíduo e da sua granulometria sobre a adsorção do corante azul de metileno. Os resíduos cerâmicos foram separados em três diferentes granulometrias, fina (0,15 mm < Dfino< 0,30 mm, média (0,30 mm < Dmédio< 1,18 mm e grossa (1,18 mm azul de metileno presente na amostra ensaiada. No entanto, os resultados também mostram que a absorção de água do material cerâmico pode não ser somente o fator que influencia na adsorção do corante.

  12. Efectividad del Caldo Lactosado con Azul de Bromotimol en el control bacteriológico de las desinfecciones profilácticas en instalaciones bovinas

    OpenAIRE

    Cepero Rodríguez, Omelio:; Silveira Prado, Enrique A.:; Suárez Fernández, Yolanda E.:; González García, Oraida:

    2008-01-01

    Con la finalidad de evaluar la efectividad del medio de cultivo CaldoLactosado con Azul de Bromotimol (CLAB) en el control bacteriológico de las desinfecciones profilácticas se realizó un estudio en unidades bovinas cuyos resultados se compararon en paralelo con los obtenidos con el medio de Heifetz Modificado (HM), establecido en Cuba para esta actividad. Previa limpieza mecánica se aplicaron las soluciones desinfectantes mediante una unidad móvil y después de tres horas de exposición se rea...

  13. Comportamiento electroquímico de colorantes antraquinónicos, azul de metileno, y compuestos afines en solución de solventes no-acuosos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Suárez, Jaime Fernando

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo realizado en esta Tesis doctoral pretende contribuir a la electroquímica orgánica, particularmente, en el campo del comportamiento electroquímico de colorantes en solución de solventes no acuosos. Se estudia por voltamperometría cíclica (VC) el comportamiento de los colorantes azul de metileno, alizarina, purpurina, ácido carmínico, quinalizarina y rojo de alizarina S, y además un precursor para la síntesis de colorantes indigoides, la isatina. El comportamiento electroquímico de l...

  14. Estudo clínico-epidemiológico da doença de Chagas no distrito de Serra Azul, Mateus Leme, centro-oeste do Estado de Minas Gerais Clinic and epidemiological study on Chagas disease in the Serra Azul district of Mateus Leme, central-western region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élvio Marques da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Chagas permanece como grave problema de saúde pública na América Latina, mesmo com o controle de sua transmissão. Esse estudo avaliou a prevalência da doença de Chagas no distrito de Serra Azul, Centro-Oeste de Minas Gerais, identificando as anormalidades eletrocardiografias dos indivíduos com sorologia positiva. MÉTODOS: A sorologia para doença de Chagas foi realizada em 676 indivíduos (48% da população. O exame clínico e o eletrocardiograma (ECG foram realizados na população sorologicamente positiva. Selecionou-se um grupo controle para comparação dos dados do ECG. RESULTADOS: A população estudada residia principalmente em área rural, com baixo nível sóciocultural. Quatorze indivíduos foram positivos, com prevalência de 2,1%. Os indivíduos chagásicos eram de faixa etária mais avançada (67 vs 39 anos; p INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a severe public health problem in Latin America, despite control over its transmission. This study evaluated the prevalence of Chagas disease in the Serra Azul district, in the central-western region of the State of Minas Gerais, through identifying electrocardiographic (EKG abnormalities among serologically positive individuals. METHODS: Specific serological tests for Chagas disease were carried out on 676 individuals (48% of the population. Clinical examinations and EKGs were performed on the serologically positive population. A control group was selected for comparison with the EKG data. RESULTS: The study population lived mainly in rural areas, with low sociocultural level. Forty subjects were positive (prevalence of 2.1%. The individuals with Chagas disease were in an older age group (67 vs. 39 years; p < 0.001. EKG abnormalities were frequent among the individuals with Chagas disease (79%. Among the seropositive individuals, the EKGs showed greater prevalence of ventricular premature beats and conduction disorder of the right branch alone or in

  15. Efecto de la plata sobre el proceso de síntesis por fusión de un pigmento del tipo azul ultramarino

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Wilmer; González, Luis; Sánchez, Selene; Ocanto, Freddy; Linares, Carlos F

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó la síntesis de pigmentos inorgánicos del tipo azul ultramarino a partir de la mezcla de zeolita A, carbonato de sodio, azufre elemental y contenido de plata entre un 0 al 5% p/p a una temperatura de 800°C por espacio de 4h. Los sólidos fueron caracterizados por la técnicas de difracción de rayos X (DRX), infrarrojo con transformada de Fourier (FTIR) y espectroscopia de reflectancia de UV a fin de verificar la estructura y coloración de los materiales obtenidos. Los resultados mostr...

  16. Combustión espontánea de las harinas de pescado azul: Factores de influencia y peligrosidad en el transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, M. J.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal production characteristics and treatment are described, together with a detailed explanation of the international regulations for its maritime transport, as well as of the requirements for its stabilization to avoid its spontaneous combustion. Experience with this kind of transport, as well as Intensive research carried out over several years, has shown that the high fat content in several kinds of fish and the environmental humidity and temperature have a great influence and transform this kind of cargo into dangerous goods. Knowledge of proper stowage and cargo distribution in the holds greatly decreases the dangers during maritime transport. Good transport practice and stabilization of the meal with antioxidants together with the conclusions reached after research, make maritime transport of these cargoes safer.

    Se detallan las características de la fabricación y tratamiento de la harina de pescado azul, junto con un amplio desarrollo de las disposiciones internacionales para su transporte por vía marítima, así como la necesidad de estabilizar la harina de pescado para evitar la combustión espontánea. La experiencia en este transporte, además de las investigaciones realizadas durante varios años, ha puesto de manifiesto que el contenido de grasa en el pescado azul, la humedad y la temperatura, tienen una gran influencia y convierten a estos cargamentos en mercancías peligrosas. El conocimiento de una buena estiba o distribución de la carga dentro de las bodegas reduce considerablemente la peligrosidad en su transporte por mar. Esta práctica en el transporte y su estabilización con antioxidantes, junto con las conclusiones aportadas en la investigación, determinan un viaje más seguro en el transporte de estas mercancías.

  17. Banco de semillas en ambientes de las sierras de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina con distinta intensidad de disturbios Seed bank in environments of the Azul sierras (Buenos Aires, Argentina with different disturbance intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gianaccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el impacto de la agricultura sobre la flora potencial de pastizales serranos en el Partido de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina, se comparó el banco de semillas en los 20 cm superficiales del suelo entre dos sectores adyacentes en las primeras estribaciones serranas. Uno de ellos está sometido a agricultura permanente y el otro conserva un pastizal natural bajo pastoreo y quemas no programados. Este último sector presentó en promedio una densidad de 70.000 sem m-2 contra 36.720 sem m-2 en el primero. La representación de semillas de especies nativas se redujo notablemente en el ambiente agrícola. Stipa caudata con 31360 sem m-2 resultó la especie más abundante en el pastizal. En el ambiente de cultivo, su densidad se redujo a 9940 sem m-2 y fue superada por Chenopodium album con 10560 sem m-2. La similitud en la composición del banco fue de 55% en términos cualitativos y 27% en términos cuantitativos. Estos resultados evidencian que, en el área de estudio, el reemplazo del pastizal natural por agricultura reduce notoriamente las reservas de semillas y modifica la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del banco con una elevada pérdida en la proporción de especies nativas.In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on the potential flora of grasslands of the sierras of Azul (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, the soil seed bank in the top 20 cm from two adjacent areas on the first foothill spurs were compared. One is submitted to continuous agriculture. The other area has grasslands under grazing and non programmed burning. The latter showed a mean density of 70.000 seeds m-2 against a mean density of 36.720 seeds m-2 in the first area. The proportional representation of native species seeds decreased strongly in the agricultural environment. The most abundant species in the grasslands was Stipa caudata (31.360 seeds m-2. In the agricultural environment, its density decreased to 9940 seeds m-2. It was surpassed by

  18. APLICACIÓN DE LOS SIG PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DEL ESTADO DE CONSERVACIÓN DEL HÁBITAT DEL PAUJIL DE PICO AZUL CRAX ALBERTI (AVES: CRACIDAE EN EL NORORIENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Molina

    Full Text Available El paujil de pico azul, Crax alberti, es un ave endémica del norte de Colombia en peligro crítico de extinción, sometida a la pérdida del hábitat y a la cacería de subsistencia como principales amenazas. Se desarrolló una aplicación de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG para comparar el estado de conservación de las áreas de bosque, hábitat del paujil de pico azul, en 15 municipios de la región del nororiente de Antioquia en dos períodos de tiempo diferentes (1986 y 2002. La aplicación desarrollada que incorpora información cartográfica digital permitió clasificar ocho zonas definidas en el área de estudio para realizar un análisis de las prioridades de conservación. Se formularon, además, algunas recomendaciones para futuras aplicaciones de SIG como herramienta para la gestión de la conservación de especies amenazadas en Colombia.

  19. BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES DETECTIONS IN SHEEP FROM ARAÇATUBA REGION –SAO PAULO, BRAZIL DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS CONTRA O VÍRUS DA LÍNGUA AZUL EM OVINOS NA REGIÃO DE ARAÇATUBA – SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Bluetongue (BT is an infectious, insect-born viral disease of ruminants. The causative agent of BT is bluetongue virus (BTV that belongs to the family Reoviridae genus Orbivirus. Insect vectors in the genus Culicoides transmit this virus. BT affects domestic and wild ruminants, however small ruminants are considered the most affected specie. The aim of the study was to detect antibodies against BTV in commercial sheep farms, of the Northeastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 1002 sera samples collected from adult sheep (above 1 year-old, comprising a total of 31 farms, were screened for the presence of BTV antibodies, by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID and ELISA-CFS (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay – competitive solid phase, both produced by Pan American Center of FMDV. From a total of 1002 samples, 651 (65% were positive by AGID and 742 (74.1%, were positive by ELISA-CFS. These results suggest that the BTV is widespread among farms, probably causing subclinical infections.

    KEY WORDS: AGID, bluetongue virus, ELISA-CFS, seroepidemiological survey.

    A língua azul é uma doença viral, cujo agente etiológico pertence à família Reoviridae, gênero Orbivirus, transmitida por um vetor (artrópode hematófago, do gênero Culicoides. Os animais acometidos são ruminantes domésticos e selvagens, porém os pequenos ruminantes são os mais afetados. O estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de anticorpos para língua azul em ovinos da região de Araçatuba, por possuir um rebanho expressivo e condições climáticas favoráveis à multiplicação de insetos. Foram analisadas 1.002 amostras de soros ovinos, provenientes de 31 cabanhas, pelas provas de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar (AGID e ELISA (Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay de competição da fase sólida (ELISA CFS, provenientes do Centro Panamericano de Febre Aftosa. Desses soros, 651 (65% foram

  20. A ESTRATÉGIA DO OCEANO AZUL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA EMPRESA DE SERVIÇOS NA CIDADE DE CAMPINA GRANDE – PB

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Leandro Correia; Parque Tecnológico da Paraíba (PaqTec/PB); Barbosa, Robson Fernandes; Universidade Federal de campina Grande - UFCG; Sousa, Jackson Epaminondas de; Universidade Federal de Campina Grande - UFCG; Barbosa, Diego Fernandes; INFRAERO; Alexandre, Stefane Nogueira; UFCG

    2015-01-01

    As empresas se utilizam de estratégias e atitudes para chegar a um determinado objetivo, observando os pontos fortes e fracos do ambiente interno e externo da organização. Assim, têm-se a teoria do trade-off (valorXcusto) no qual as empresas sempre optam por um de dois caminhos: agregar valor ao produto para cobrar mais, ou o cobrar menor preço com um produto menos diferenciado. Hoje, emerge no mundo científico um novo paradigma, a estratégia do oceano azul, a qual afirma que é possível as em...

  1. Nanofibers of cellulose bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by electrospinning: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Miguel Ángel; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Barrera-Rodríguez, Arturo; Aguilar, Jacobo; Aguilar, José A; Reynoso-Marín, Francisco Javier; Ceja, I; Dórame-Miranda, R; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco

    2018-07-15

    In this study, cellulose of bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul was extracted to elaborate nanofibers by the electrospinning technique. Fiber characterization was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), x-ray, Fournier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TGA). Different diameters (ranging from 54.57 ± 0.02 to 171 ± 0.01 nm) of nanofibers were obtained. Cellulose nanofibers were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, where we observed a total loss of crystallinity in comparison with the cellulose, while FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the hemicellulose and lignin present in the agave bagasse were removed. Thermal analysis showed that nanofibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties, and the zeta potential value (-32.5 mV) demonstrated moderate stability in the sample. In conclusion, the nanofibers obtained provide other alternatives-of-use for this agro-industrial residue and could have potential in various industrial applications, among these encapsulation of bioactive compounds and reinforcing material, to mention a few. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visibilidad y enunciabilidad en la larga duración de la violencia política: La sombra azul de Sergio Schmucler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciana Vásquez Villanueva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Una historia de vida, eje fundamental de un film, es la discursividad que hemos indagado para percibir sentidos nuevos en la relación cine, memoria y violencia en la zona amplia de los discursos producidos sobre el terrorismo de estado en Argentina. La sombra azul, con guión y dirección de Sergio Schmucler, irrumpe para desbaratar conciencias. Nuestro trabajo, filiado en el Análisis del Discurso, se ha detenido en la indagación de tres dispositivos: las visibilidades, las enunciabilidades y las temporalidades, superpuestas, fragmentarias a veces, otras omnipresentes, deslizadas en la larga duración de una memoria social. Estos dispositivos, elaborados por Foucault para blandir discursividades exasperantes de órdenes impuestos, constituyen un camino privilegiado para llegar, a través de su desgranamiento, a una verdad intolerable forjada en este film. En La sombra azul la larga duración de la violencia de estado, la impunidad de los represores durante la democracia y, fundamentalmente, un sobreviviente —a la tortura, la prisión, el exilio, perteneciente a la fuerza policial de una de las provincias más castigadas por la dictadura— son cincelados, en la heteroglosia, en el diálogo y en el antagonismo, con otras voces. Este sobreviviente, devenido en re-viviente señala cómo un marco ético, capaz de valorar la tragedia humana, lo erige en un don para dotar de verdad, para esclarecer a una sociedad que, en muchos espacios, aún permanece en sombra. Este recorrido discursivo señala cómo, desde la indecibilidad original de un sujeto doliente, irrumpen visibilidades y enunciabilidades capaces de decir verdad y así proseguir con una memoria que nunca cesa.

  3. Petrogenesis, U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Furna Azul Migmatite: partial melting evidence during the San Ignacio Orogeny, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Newton Diego Couto do; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Lima, Gabrielle Aparecida de; Matos, Joao Batista; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: newtongeologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabilimagel@gmail.com, E-mail: lafonjm@ufpa.br, E-mail: prof.jmatos@gmail.com, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2016-11-01

    The Furna Azul Migmatite is a ∼10 km{sup 2} complex located in Pontes e Lacerda city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. It belongs to Paragua Terrane, limit with Rio Alegre Terrane, southeast of San Ignacio Province, in Amazon Craton. It consists of transitional metatexites with amphibolite enclaves and dioritic injections. The rocks were divided in residuum rich and leucosome rich; both have three deformation phases marked by folded stromatic layers affected by spaced foliation and metamorphosed in amphibolite facies, represented by garnet, biotite, sillimanite, and by the clinopyroxene in the enclaves. The metamorphic retrograde to greenschist is marked by formation of chlorite, muscovite and prehnite. Residuum-rich metatexites show higher CaO and Na{sub 2}O contents, separating them from K{sub 2}O, Ba and Rb enriched transitional metatexites. U-Pb on zircon and Sm-Nd whole-rocks dating indicates that the residuum-rich metatexite crystallized at 1436 ± 11 Ma, with a T{sub DM} age of 1.90 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.43)} of -0.54, whereas the dioritic injection crystallized at 1341,7 ± 17 Ma with a T{sub DM} age of 1.47 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.34)} of 3.39. These results indicate that the Furna Azul Migmatite protolith was formed during the San Ignacio Orogeny and was reworked during the same orogeny, as basement for collisional to post-magmatic granites from Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  4. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com dexametasona e azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collares Edgard Ferro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O óxido nítrico pode estar envolvido no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico produzido pelo lipopolissacarídio bacteriano. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré-tratamento com a dexametasona, bloqueadora da indução do óxido nítrico-sintetase induzida e com o azul de metileno, que bloqueia a guanilato-ciclase, inibe as óxido nítrico-sintetases e inativa o óxido nítrico, sobre o retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio em ratos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos, ''specific patogen free'', após 24 horas de jejum alimentar. No pré-tratamento foram empregadas, via intravenosa, soluções de dexametasona (3 e 6 mg/kg, azul de metileno (2 mg/kg e veículo estéril. O tratamento constou da administração, via intravenosa, de lipopolissacarídio (50 mig/kg e veículo. O intervalo entre o pré-tratamento e o tratamento foi de 10 minutos, exceto no estudo com dexametasona 6 mg/kg, que foi de 1 hora. O intervalo entre a administração do lipopolissacarídio e a avaliação do esvaziamento gástrico foi de 1 hora, exceto nos dois estudos com dexametasona 3 mg/kg que foram de 2 e 8 horas. O esvaziamento gástrico foi avaliado, indiretamente, através da determinação da percentagem de retenção gástrica de solução salina marcada com fenol vermelho. RESULTADOS: Os valores de retenção gástrica, nos animais pré-tratados com dexametasona ou azul de metileno e tratados com veículo, não diferiram significativamente dos observados nos que receberam veículo nos dois momentos. Os animais pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com lipopolissacarídio apresentaram valores de retenção gástrica significativamente mais elevados que nos controles. O pré-tratamento com dexametasona não interferiu no aumento da retenção gástrica determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio, nas primeiras 2 horas após administração da endotoxina. Oito horas após a administração da endotoxina, foi

  5. Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Ana Cristina; Echavarría, Ana María; Hormaza, Angelina

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la remoción del colorante Azul Ácido 9 (AA9) a través de un diseño factorial completo 2³ y su posterior optimización mediante un diseño de superficie Box- Behnken utilizando tallos de flores (TF) como material adsorbente. Las variables evaluadas fueron dosis de adsorbente (D), concentración de colorante (C) y tiempo de contacto (t). El contenido del colorante se cuantificó por espectrometría UV-Vis. El modelo estadístico presentó u...

  6. Inibição da guanilato ciclase pelo azul de metileno no choque circulatório causado por pancreatite aguda necrosante: uma palavra de cuidado embasada em modelo suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Floreoto Baldo

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar o uso terapêutico do bloqueio da guanilato ciclase pelo azul de metileno em um modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em suínos. MÉTODOS: a pancreatite aguda necrotizante foi induzida em porcos anestesiados por infusão ductal pancreática retrógrada de 1ml/kg de taurocolato de sódio a 5% e 8U/kg de enteroquinase. Três grupos foram estudados (n=5: controle (C, pancreatite (PA, "bolus" de azul seguido por pancreatite (AM+PA. Os dados incluíram enzimas séricas e do líquido abdominal, variáveis hemodinâmicas, hemogasometria arterial, volume de líquido abdominal, marcadores inflamatórios plasmáticos, nitrito/nitrato e mieloperoxidase e malondialdeído plasmático. Aplicou-se a análise de variância seguida do pós-teste de Bonferroni (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: os valores de amilase e lipase foram três e dez vezes mais elevados no grupo PA. A atividade da mieloperoxidase foi 50% superior no grupo PA. Os dados hemodinâmicos indicaram choque hipovolêmico precoce seguido de choque cardiogênico. Observou-se grave translocação de líquidos para a cavidade peritoneal. A nitrito/nitrato plasmática permaneceu inalterada. O grupo AM+PA teve aumento de cinco vezes do mieloperoxidase em comparação com o grupo C. CONCLUSÕES: a utilização de azul de metileno em suínos com pancreatite não demonstrou efeitos significativos sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas e inflamatórias. Seu uso terapêutico na pancreatite necro-hemorrágica pode ser inadequado e extremo cuidado deve ser tomado dado o aumento da peroxidação lipídica evidenciado pelo aumento dos valores do malondialdeído.

  7. Historical review of the sanitary filling of Rio Azul and considerations about heavy metals treated in it and the presents in our homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Chinchilla, Rolando; Mora Amador, Raul

    2003-01-01

    A summary has been done on the most outstanding events during the history of Rio Azul sanitary landfill by consultating documents and local newspapers. The historical outline starts in 1972, when the Inter municipal Cooperative Agreement (COCIM) was created, until May 27, 2002, when a warning was issued on the possible harmful effects on health due to technological waste disposal. Likewise, the method for estimating the mass of metals deposited in the landfill is disclosed. In this landfill the mass of metals varies between 70000 and 100000 tm. Finally, some considerations on household chemical products are made and recommendations are presented to improve metal waste management. (Author) [es

  8. Concurrent protein synthesis is required for in vivo chitin synthesis in postmolt blue crabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, M.N.

    1990-01-01

    Chitin synthesis in crustaceans involves the deposition of a protein-polysaccharide complex at the apical surface of epithelial cells which secrete the cuticle or exoskeleton. The present study involves an examination of in vivo incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids and amino sugars into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Rates of incorporation of both 3H leucine and 3H threonine were linear with respect to time of incubation. Incorporation of 3H threonine into the endocuticle was inhibited greater than 90% in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, puromycin. Linear incorporation of 14C glucosamine into the cuticle was also demonstrated; a significant improvement of radiolabeling was achieved by using 14C-N-acetylglucosamine as the labeled precursor. Incorporation of 3H-N-acetylglucosamine into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs was inhibited 89% by puromycin, indicating that concurrent protein synthesis is required for the deposition of chitin in the blue crab. Autoradiographic analysis of control vs. puromycin-treated crabs indicates that puromycin totally blocks labeling of the new endocuticle with 3H glucosamine. These results are consistent with the notion that crustacean chitin is synthesized as a protein-polysaccharide complex. Analysis of the postmolt and intermolt blue crab cuticle indicates that the exoskeleton contains about 60% protein and 40% chitin. The predominant amino acids are arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, and threonine

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafoods in Lagos Lagoon Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Oramadike

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 90 seafood samples; croaker fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis, shrimps (Penaeus notialis and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus collected from landing sites along the Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria were examined for the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using both biochemical and molecular methods. Biochemical identification of the isolates was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The presence of the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin, trh1 (thermostable-related haemolysin and trh2 genes in the V. parahaemolyticus isolates was also detected by the PCR method. PCR products from the V.16S primers were sequenced. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was also determined. About, eight isolates were presumptively identified as V. parahaemolyticus, PCR identified five and none of the isolates were positive for the genes tdh or trh. The five isolates sequenced were identified as different strains of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus_RIMD_2210633 = 2MKSHa remained resistant to all antimicrobials tested. However, only V. parahaemolyticus_MP-2_AY911391 = TBSHy showed strong sensitivity to all the antimicrobials with ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration-4 μg/ml. In addition, the other three isolates showed sensitivity for Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime. Ampicillin resistance in most of the isolates suggests low efficiency of ampicillin in management of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  10. TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA COM AZUL DE METILENO SOBRE CEPA DE Staphylococcus aureus RESISTENTE À METICILINA

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    Mirian Alves Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available S. aureus é o agente etiológico de maior importância associado às infecções adquiridas tanto em âmbito comunitário ou hospitalar, devido a sua capacidade de desenvolver resistência às terapias convencionais. A Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD surge como alternativa a ser utilizada no controle de cepas resistentes aos antibioticos. O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos da TFD com Azul de Metileno (AM sobre cepas de S. aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA. As amostras foram diluídas em PBS estéril de acordo com a escala 0,5 de MacFarland. Os grupos foram compostos com diferentes concentrações de AM, incubados no escuro durante 15 minutos e irradiados por LED Biopdi/Irrad-Led5 em 660nm com fluência de 10 J/cm². Posteriormente, foram semeadas e incubadas à 37ºC por 24 horas. A contagem de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFCs demonstrou que a TFD foi eficaz na menor concentração testada de AM sobre cepas de MRSA.

  11. Estrutura populacional de Callinectes ornatus Ordway (Crustacea, Portunidae no Balneário Shangri-Lá, Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptista Cassiana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming crabs are commonly found in the otter-trawl shrimp fishery by-catch, which operate intensively in the Coastal Plain of Leste Beach, where is located Shangri-lá Beach (25°37'30"S and 48°25'08"W, Paraná State. This work aimed to study the population structure of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, the most abundant swimming crab in this beach. Between March 2000 and April 2001, fortnightly visits were accomplished in Shangri-lá at the fish market, where all swimming crabs of one otter-trawl were collected. The following data from each individual of C. ornatus were obtained: sex, carapace width (excluding lateral spines, weight, and the gonadal maturation stage, based on its color and size. Juveniles and mature males were dominant, mean sexual proportion was 2.2:1 (males:females. Two recruitment periods were detected, but few ovigerous females were obtained. Size at sexual maturation was estimated at 55mm for males, and 48 mm for females. Both sexes presented positives allometric growths. The results indicate that an important portion of C. ornatus population is captured in the otter-trawl shrimp fishery in Shangri-lá Beach (Paraná. Such information is important for futures plans of by-catch management in that area.

  12. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas; Dana Arizmendi-Rodríguez; Napoleón Gudiño-González; Felipe Galván-Magaña

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI), the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52%) and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%).Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en e...

  13. Composicion y variabilidad espacialdel banco de semillas de malezas en un area agricolade azul (Argentina Composition and spatial variation of a weed seed bank on an agricultural area in Azul, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Requesens

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No Distrito Azul, zona central da província de Buenos Aires (Argentina, encontram-se ambientes de planície na parte norte e ambientes serranos na parte sul. Esta última, constituí-se numa área predominantemente agrícola, onde a cultura de trigo, principal atividade agrícola, se alterna com culturas de verão como milho, girassol e soja. Com o objetivo de caracterizar globalmente o banco de sementes da área agrícola, foram analisados o conteúdo de sementes, a composição de espécies, a distribuição e variabilidade espacial das espécies que o compõem. A informação básica foi obtida aplicando-se a técnica da emergência em amostras de solo correspondentes a 20 locais alinhados numa faixa de 14 km. A densidade de sementes nos locais de amostragem variou entre 1.173 e 44.000 sem/m2. Na totalidade, foram detectadas 33 espécies. Digitaria sanguinalis foi claramente a espécie dominante, aportando com quase 43 % do banco, seguida de Polygonum aviculare com um aporte de 15 %. As duas espécies, juntamente com Anagallis arvensis e Setaria viridis completam70 % do banco de sementes. A composição específica completa-se com um grupo de 29 espécies, os quais contribuem, cada um delas, com menos de 5%. A distribuição espacial das espécies ao longo da faixa estudada mostrou um grau de agregação variável, sendo encontrada uma correlação positiva significativa entre o tamanho do banco e a relação variância/média. Demonstrou-se, assim, que as espécies mais abundantes em média, apresentaram grande variabilidade espacial. Nelas, foram observados diferentes padrões de distribuição espacial.Azul, in the center of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina, includes flat environments in the north and hill environments in the south. Last constitutes a predominantly agricultural area where the wheat crop, principal activity, alternates with summer crops as corn, sunflower and soybean. The objetive of the present paper is to

  14. The Benthonic Macroinvertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Colombia and their Relationship with Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guerrero-Bolaño

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macroinvertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Magdalena, Colombia. The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Ephemeroptera. The most representative families were Baetidae, Simullidae, Perlidae, Chironomidae, and Hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone.

  15. Perimetria azul-amarelo em usuários de tabaco-álcool Blue-on-yellow perimetry in tobacco and alcohol consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando de Carvalho Júnior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações de campo visual em usuários crônicos de tabaco e álcool por meio da perimetria azul-amarelo estratégia 10-2. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois olhos de vinte e um voluntários usuários de tabaco e álcool, todos do gênero masculino, foram selecionados após exame oftalmológico completo e normal, sendo submetidos a perimetria azul-amarelo estratégia 10-2. Quinze voluntários participaram do grupo controle. A análise dos dados foi realizada mediante gráfico da profundidade do defeito e número de pontos alterados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 40 olhos (95,3% dos usuários crônicos de tabaco e álcool, apresentaram maior freqüência de alterações no gráfico de profundidade do defeito (>10dB e 27 olhos (64,3% apresentaram número de pontos alterados (>10 pontos, (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the visual field changes in blue-on-yellow perimetry (B/Y strategy 10-2 in alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers. METHODS: Forty-two eyes of twenty-one users were studied. Fifteen individuals were used as a control group. All volunteers were males. After normal ophthalmologic examinations, central 10-2 (B/Y was performed in both eyes. Analysis of the results was performed through the alterations in the depth graph defect and number of altered points. RESULTS: It was found that the majority of the chronic alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers had a greater frequency of alterations in the depth graph defect; 40 eyes (95.3%, (>10dB, and 27 eyes (64.3% showed a number of altered points, (>10 points, (p<0.0001. All those who were used as a control group showed alterations in the depth graph defect and number of altered points, but had less than 10dB and 10 altered points, respectively. CONCLUSION: A higher number of abnormal points and depth graph defects and number of altered points were observed in alcohol and tobacco smoking consumers reflecting a higher number of alterations in the cells of the parvocellular system, responsible

  16. Captura de atún aleta azul en Baja California, México: ¿pesquería regional o maquiladora marina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El atún aleta azul, capturado por la flota mexicana en las costas de la península de Baja California, se destinaba al enlatado local, para ofrecer a los consumidores nacionales un producto barato y con valor nutritivo alto. Sin embargo, esto cambió en la última década con la llegada de inversionistas, sobre todo japoneses. Ahora el atún se captura, engorda y exporta a los mercados japonés y estadounidense, que pagan un precio elevado, para satisfacer su demanda de sashimi. Esto tiene repercusiones positivas en el orden social y económico en México y Japón; determinadas a partir del trabajo de campo directo e indirecto realizado en el marco de esta investigación. Además, se identificaron algunas similitudes entre el comportamiento de las empresas estudiadas y la industria maquiladora de exportación, lo que abrió un debate sobre el tema.

  17. Caracterização químico-mineralógica e espectroscopia Mössbauer de água-marinha da região de Pedra Azul, nordeste de Minas Gerais.

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Rúbia Ribeiro; Evangelista, Hanna Jordt; Costa, Geraldo Magela da

    2001-01-01

    Águas-marinhas de três pegmatitos localizados nas imediações da cidade de Pedra Azul, Minas Gerais, foram caracterizadas em termos de propriedades físicas e composição química, incluindo espectroscopia Mõssbauer. Os corpos pegmatíticos têm forma lenticular, ra- ramente ultrapassam 5m de largura e apresentam um pronunciado zonamento mineralógico e textural. Ó último evento termal registrado nes- tes pegmatitos, conforme determinado pelo método K-Ar em moscovita, ocorreu no Neoproterozóico. Est...

  18. Morro Azul Observatory: A New Center for Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Cardoso de Oliveira, Vladimir

    2002-08-01

    In 1999, the Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) started a project to build an observatory and initiate several astronomy related activities in the city of Limeira and region (São Paulo state) with the aim of teaching and popularizing astronomy. After contracting teachers, a technician and an intern, the Morro Azul Observatory was inaugurated in March 2000 as a part of the geosciences department of ISCA Faculdades. This poster describes the development phases of the Observatory, the activities initiated by the Observatory, and assesses the impact of the project. Several issues will be discussed such as the criteria for choosing the site, buildings, instruments, group visits, and particularly the goals that were reached. The Observatory, as described here, serves as a model for other centers with the same purpose in the country. The achievements of this project include the creation of two astronomical disciplines for the geography course and liaisons with other courses such as tourism, pedagogy, social communication and engineering. New activities were initiated, educational materials created, and the Observatory is now part of the regions teaching network and is in contact with other Brazilian and foreign centers. This poster presents the results from report analyses, visitor records, the local media, goal strategy assessment, and the current state of the project. It concludes with an evaluation of the social commitment of the Observatory, its initiatives for the constant renewal and growth of the project, its policy of maintaining the activities and interchange with other national and international astronomy centers, and the future perspectives in terms of its contribution for the research in science education.

  19. Argyria mimicking a blue nevis: dermoscopy features Argyria imitando um nevo azul: características dermatoscópicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor Enei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argyria is a rare disease caused by prolonged skin contact with silver. Localized cases have been described regarding the use of topical medications, and trauma with objects containing this metal such as acupuncture needles and jewelry. Clinically, a macule or a patch, round or oval, appears in the infected area, with a characteristic bluey-gray color. To our knowledge this is the first time that this clinical condition has been described through the use of dermoscopy.A argíria é uma doença rara, causada pelo contato prolongado da pele com prata. Foram descritos casos localizados relacionados ao uso de medicamentos tópicos e traumas com objetos que contem esse metal, como agulhas de acupuntura e jóias, por exemplo. Clinicamente, aparecem máculas ou manchas redondas ou ovais na área afetada, com uma característica cor azul-acinzentada. Até onde sabemos esta é a primeira vez que este quadro clínico foi descrito através da dermatoscopia.

  20. Polymorphism and methylation patterns in Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants propagated asexually by three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Martínez, Miriam; Nava-Cedillo, Alejandro; Guzmán-López, José Alfredo; Escobar-Guzmán, Rocío; Simpson, June

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variation in three forms of asexually propagated Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants namely offsets, bulbils and in vitro cultured individuals was studied by AFLP analysis. Low levels of variation were observed between mother plants and offsets and a higher level between mother plant and bulbils. Families obtained from commercial plantations showed lower levels of variation in comparison to families grown as ornamentals. No variation was observed between the original explant and four generations of in vitro cultured plants. Epigenetic variation was also studied by analyzing changes in methylation patterns between mother plants and offspring in each form of asexual reproduction. Offsets and bulbils showed an overall decrease in methylation whereas in vitro cultured plants showed patterns specific to each generation: Generations 1 and 4 showed overall demethylation whereas Generations 2 and 3 showed increased methylation. Analysis of ESTs associated with transposable elements revealed higher proportions of ESTs from Ty1-copia-like, Gypsy and CACTA transposable elements in cDNA libraries obtained from pluripotent tissue suggesting a possible correlation between methylation patterns, expression of transposable element associated genes and somaclonal variation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  2. The benthonic macro invertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Colombia) and their relationship with water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Bolano, Francisco; Manjares Hernandez, Ana; Nunez Padilla, Norbelis

    2003-01-01

    On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macro invertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Magdalena, Colombia). The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were found 588 individuals distributed in 11 orders and 38 families. The most representative orders were trichoptera, coleoptera, diptera and ephemeroptera. The most representative families were baetidae, simullidae, perlidae, chironomidae, and hydropsychidae, in this rank of abundance. The BMWP index for the relationship between the community structure and the water quality (adapted by Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia) was calculated. According to this index the water quality was optimum. Also, given the general characteristics of the site studied, the water mass quality was classified as good and oligosaprobit, based on the saprobit ecology. It is possible that this state was reached due to stabilization after a small perturbation induced by coffee cultivation in the zone

  3. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  4. Responses of free radical metabolism to air exposure or salinity stress, in crabs (Callinectes danae and C. ornatus) with different estuarine distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Togni, Valéria G; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2011-10-01

    The swimming crabs Callinectes danae and C. ornatus are found in bays and estuaries, but C. danae is more abundant in lower salinities, while C. ornatus remains restricted to areas of higher salinity. Experimental crabs of both species were submitted to: air exposure (Ae, 3h), reimmersion in 33‰ (control) sea water (SW) (Ri, 1h) following air exposure; hyposaline (Ho, 10‰ for 2h) or hypersaline (He, 40‰ for 2h) SW, then return to control 33‰ SW (RHo and RHe, for 1h). Hemolymph was sampled for osmolality and chloride determinations. Activity of antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase] and levels of carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in hepatopancreas, muscle, anterior and posterior gills. In Ho groups, hemolymph concentrations were lower in both species, compared to He groups. C. danae displayed higher control activities of GPX (hepatopancreas and muscle) and catalase (all four tissues) than C. ornatus. C. ornatus presented increased activities of catalase and GPX in Ae, Ri, and He groups. Increased TBARS was seen in C. ornatus tissues (He group). The more euryhaline species displayed higher constitutive activities of antioxidant enzymes, and the less euryhaline species exhibited activation of these enzymes when exposed to air or hyper-salinity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

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    Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  6. MICROPROGAPACIÓN DE AGAVE (Agave tequilana Weber. var. Azul A TRAVÉS DE YEMAS AXILARES

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    A. Angeles-Espino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, se le conoce comúnmente como “Agave Azul o Agave Tequilero”. La planta de agave es un producto económicamente importante de México debido a que es el ingrediente base del Tequila, el cual es una bebida popular destilada. La micropropagación es una técnica importante para la multiplicación masiva en agave y la respuesta a los reguladores de crecimiento debe considerarse en el desarrollo de cada protocolo. El objetivo del trabajo fue obtener plántulas de agave a partir del cultivo de meristemos in vitro. Se colectaron hijuelos de seis meses en plantaciones de 3 años de edad. Los meristemos se lavaron y desinfestaron con alcohol al 70% y una solución de hipoclorito al 3% por 15 minutos y se dio triple enjuague en condiciones de asepsia en la cámara de flujo laminar. Los explantes se sembraron en el medio Murashige y Skoog (MS, suplementado con 24.6 µM de AIB y 46.46 μM de Cinetina, 30 g/L de sacarosa y 8 g/L de agar para su solidificación. El medio se vertió en frascos de 100 mL de capacidad a razón de 25 mL y se esterilizó en autoclave por 15 min a 121°C. Se sembró un explante por frasco y se colocaron en la cámara de crecimiento a 27°C con 16 horas luz. La inducción de los brotes se presentó a partir de la cuarta semana posterior a la siembra. Los brotes obtenidos se multiplicaron transfiriéndose a medio MS suplementado con 0.1 mg L-1 de AIB y 46.46 μM de Cinetina. El desarrollo de las plántulas se obtuvo a la cuarta semana después del inicio de la inducción de los brotes. La micropropagación de plántulas de agave a partir de yemas axilares, se completó en un lapso de 10 semanas a partir de la siembra de los meristemos. Al considerar el tiempo requerido para la obtención de vitroplántulas de agave, se confirmó que la técnica de micropropagación es un proceso eficiente para la obtenci

  7. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

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    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  8. Estudo da descoloração do corante FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina pelo tratamento combinado do fungo Trametes versicolor e processo de filtração lenta

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Maria Margareth Gonçalves; Sales, Paulo de Tarso Ferreira; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Schimidt, Fernando; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes

    2014-01-01

    O uso de fungos na descoloração de corantes com métodos economicamente viáveis de produção de água bacteriologicamente segura há muito vem sendo descrito por diversos autores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a eficiência da remoção de corante artificial FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina, com uso do fungo de degradação branca Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta. Para a realização dos trabalhos, foram instalados dois protótipos de filtros lentos denominados FL-A e FL-B - ...

  9. Suicidio en azul con negra mancha. Breve historia de un balazo en la pintura de Pablo Picasso

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    Godoy C., Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paris 1901: unrequited love drove Carles Casagemas, a close friend of Pablo Picasso’s youth, to commit suicide by shooting himself in the head. This tragic event was a major blow to Picasso, causing him to dwell upon the subject of death and express his “mourning” through his paintings. The “bullet hole” in his friend’s temple symbolically displaced several areas of the young Picasso’s life and became a “deep vacuum” and “melancholy”, permeating various areas in Picasso’s paintings, and marking the start of his famous blue period.París 1901: por el amor de una mujer, se suicida de un balazo en la cabeza Carles Casagemas, amigo íntimo de juventud de Pablo Picasso. Este trágico suceso producirá un gran dolor en el artista, el cual, lo hará internarse en el tema de la muerte y elaborar su “duelo” apoyado en su pintura. El “hoyo a bala” en la sien de su amigo se desplazará simbólicamente a varios espacios de la vida del joven Picasso y devendrá en “vacío profundo” y “melancolía”, permeando diferentes ámbitos dentro de la pintura de Picasso, dando comienzo a su mentado período azul.

  10. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P.; Bennett, Micah G.; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A.; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable ( R 2 = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie ( Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  11. A sex-specific metabolite identified in a marine invertebrate utilizing phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance.

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    Robert A Kleps

    Full Text Available Hormone level differences are generally accepted as the primary cause for sexual dimorphism in animal and human development. Levels of low molecular weight metabolites also differ between men and women in circulating amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates and within brain tissue. While investigating the metabolism of blue crab tissues using Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, we discovered that only the male blue crab (Callinectes sapidus contained a phosphorus compound with a chemical shift well separated from the expected phosphate compounds. Spectra obtained from male gills were readily differentiated from female gill spectra. Analysis from six years of data from male and female crabs documented that the sex-specificity of this metabolite was normal for this species. Microscopic analysis of male and female gills found no differences in their gill anatomy or the presence of parasites or bacteria that might produce this phosphorus compound. Analysis of a rare gynandromorph blue crab (laterally, half male and half female proved that this sex-specificity was an intrinsic biochemical process and was not caused by any variations in the diet or habitat of male versus female crabs. The existence of a sex-specific metabolite is a previously unrecognized, but potentially significant biochemical phenomenon. An entire enzyme system has been synthesized and activated only in one sex. Unless blue crabs are a unique species, sex-specific metabolites are likely to be present in other animals. Would the presence or absence of a sex-specific metabolite affect an animal's development, anatomy and biochemistry?

  12. The smell of success: the amount of prey consumed by predators determines the strength and range of cascading non-consumptive effects

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    Marc Weissburg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether chemically mediated risk perception by prey and the effects of changes in prey behavior on basal resources vary as a function of the amount of prey biomass consumed by the predator. We studied these issues using a tritrophic system composed of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus (top predator, mud crabs Panopeus herbstii (intermediate prey, and oysters Crassostrea virginica (basal resource. Working in a well characterized field environment where experiments preserve natural patterns of water flow, we found that biomass consumed by a predator determines the range, intensity and nature of prey aversive responses. Predators that consume large amounts of prey flesh more strongly diminish consumption of basal resources by prey and exert effects over a larger range (in space and time compared to predators that have eaten less. Less well-fed predators produce weaker effects, with the consequence that behaviorally mediated cascades preferentially occur in refuge habitats. Well-fed predators affected prey behavior and increased basal resources up to distances of 1–1.5 m, whereas predators fed restricted diet evoked changes in prey only when they were extremely close, typically 50 cm or less. Thus, consumptive and non-consumptive effects may be coupled; predators that have a greater degree of predatory success will affect prey traits more strongly and non-consumptive and consumptive effects may fluctuate in tandem, with some lag. Moreover, differences among predators in their degree of prey capture will create spatial and temporal variance in risk cue availability in the absence of underlying environmental effects.

  13. The spatial and temporal patterns of odors sampled by lobsters and crabs in a turbulent plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, Matthew A; Koehl, M A R

    2011-09-15

    Odors are dispersed across aquatic habitats by turbulent water flow as filamentous, intermittent plumes. Many crustaceans sniff (take discrete samples of ambient water and the odors it carries) by flicking their olfactory antennules. We used planar laser-induced fluorescence to investigate how flicking antennules of different morphologies (long antennules of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus; short antennules of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus) sample fluctuating odor signals at different positions in a turbulent odor plume in a flume to determine whether the patterns of concentrations captured can provide information about an animal's position relative to the odor source. Lobster antennules intercept odors during a greater percentage of flicks and encounter higher peak concentrations than do crab antennules, but because crabs flick at higher frequency, the duration of odor-free gaps between encountered odor pulses is similar. For flicking antennules there were longer time gaps between odor encounters as the downstream distance to the odor source decreases, but shorter gaps along the plume centerline than near the edge. In contrast to the case for antennule flicking, almost all odor-free gaps were <500 ms at all positions in the plume if concentration was measured continuously at the same height as the antennules. Variance in concentration is lower and mean concentration is greater near the substratum, where leg chemosensors continuously sample the plume, than in the water where antennules sniff. Concentrations sampled by legs increase as an animal nears an odor source, but decrease for antennules. Both legs and antennules encounter higher concentrations near the centerline than at the edge of the plume.

  14. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P; Bennett, Micah G; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable (R (2) = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  15. Disease ecology of Hematodinium perezi in a high salinity estuary: investigating seasonal trends in environmental detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, K A; Pitula, J S

    2017-05-11

    The blue crab Callinectes sapidus has seen a general decline in population levels. One factor influencing mortality is infections by Hematodinium perezi, a dinoflagellate parasite. A 2 yr study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 to monitor H. perezi DNA within the Maryland (USA) coastal bays, comparing seasonal cycles in the abundance of parasite DNA in environmental samples to parasite presence in host blue crabs. A late summer to early fall peak in H. perezi infections in blue crabs was observed, consistent with previous work. Infection intensities matched this trend, showing a slow progression of low intensity infections early in the year, with a peak in moderate and heavy infections occurring between July and September, for both years. It was hypothesized that the peak in water column occurrence would coincide with those months when infection intensities were highest in blue crabs. As the peaks in water column occurrence were in July 2014 and August-September 2015, this is consistent with sporulation being the primary contributor to environmental detection in summer months. An additional peak in environmental detection occurred in both years during the early spring months, the cause of which is currently unknown but may be related to infections in overwintering crabs or alternate hosts. Several new crustacean hosts were identified within this estuary, including grass shrimp Palaemonetes spp. and the sand shrimp Crangon septemspinosa, as well as the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi. Improved knowledge of this disease system will allow for better management of this important fishery.

  16. Turbidity interferes with foraging success of visual but not chemosensory predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Jessica; Smee, Delbert L

    2015-01-01

    Predation can significantly affect prey populations and communities, but predator effects can be attenuated when abiotic conditions interfere with foraging activities. In estuarine communities, turbidity can affect species richness and abundance and is changing in many areas because of coastal development. Many fish species are less efficient foragers in turbid waters, and previous research revealed that in elevated turbidity, fish are less abundant whereas crabs and shrimp are more abundant. We hypothesized that turbidity altered predatory interactions in estuaries by interfering with visually-foraging predators and prey but not with organisms relying on chemoreception. We measured the effects of turbidity on the predation rates of two model predators: a visual predator (pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides) and a chemosensory predator (blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus) in clear and turbid water (0 and ∼100 nephelometric turbidity units). Feeding assays were conducted with two prey items, mud crabs (Panopeus spp.) that rely heavily on chemoreception to detect predators, and brown shrimp (Farfantepenaus aztecus) that use both chemical and visual cues for predator detection. Because turbidity reduced pinfish foraging on both mud crabs and shrimp, the changes in predation rates are likely driven by turbidity attenuating fish foraging ability and not by affecting prey vulnerability to fish consumers. Blue crab foraging was unaffected by turbidity, and blue crabs were able to successfully consume nearly all mud crab and shrimp prey. Turbidity can influence predator-prey interactions by reducing the feeding efficiency of visual predators, providing a competitive advantage to chemosensory predators, and altering top-down control in food webs.

  17. The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea, an invader in Argentina La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea, un invasor en Argentina

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    Lisandro Héctor Luis-Negrete

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea is reported from Argentina (Buenos Aires province. We found C. coerulea in the east central region of Argentina in anthropic environments. The specimens that we found have the characteristic of the species found in others regions; that is, a bluish dorsal surface with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe and eyes forming a single row around the anterior tip, clustered laterally. This is the first record of this species from the Neotropical Region, and together with Bipalium kewense are the only 2 species of exotic terrestrial planarians so far recorded in Argentina.La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea se registra para el centro este de Argentina (provincia de Buenos Aires, en ambientes antropizados. Los ejemplares encontrados presentan las características de la especie registrada en otras regiones, con una superficie dorsal azulada y una hilera medio dorsal amarilla, y ojos formando una hilera alrededor del extremo anterior, agrupados lateralmente. Es la primera vez que se cita dicha especie en la Región Neotropical, y junto a Bipalium kewense son las únicas planarias terrestres exóticas registradas en Argentina.

  18. Uso do azul de metileno na reversão de vasoplegia refratária ao uso de catecolaminas após bypass aortobifemoral Use of methylene blue in the reversal of vasoplegia refractory to the use of catecholamines after aortobifemoral bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raphaela Garcia de Araújo dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que o óxido nítrico (NO tem importância na vasodilatação associada a reações vasoplégicas. O objetivo deste relato de caso é documentar um caso de vasoplegia refratária ao uso de catecolaminas após bypass aortobifemoral revertida com o uso de azul de metileno. Mulher, 50 anos, submetida a bypass aortobifemoral. Sem comorbidades. Saiu de sala cirúrgica extubada, estável e com pulsos distais presentes. Duas horas após a cirurgia, evoluiu com choque circulatório. Iniciada noradrenalina e investigadas causas de choque. Manteve-se com necessidades crescentes de aminas e parâmetros estáveis. No sexto dia pós-operatório, com a hipótese de vasoplegia refratária, optou-se pelo uso do azul. Resposta imediata, com queda nos níveis de aminas, sendo desligada a noradrenalina no dia seguinte. O azul de metileno inibe a guanilato ciclase, produtora de guanosina monofosfato cíclico. Especula-se que haja um sinergismo entre essas drogas, já que a sua associação permite a atuação do sistema adenosina monofosfato.There is evidence that the nitric oxide plays an important role in the vasodilation associated with vasoplegic reactions. The objective of this case report is to document a case of catecholamine-refractory shock after aortobifemoral bypass treated with methylene blue. A 50-year-old woman was admitted for aortobifemoral bypass graft surgery. She did not present with any comorbidities. At the end of the surgery, she was breathing spontaneously, with palpable pedal pulses. Two hours later, the patient presented shock. Noradrenaline infusion was initiated and the causes of shock were investigated. She required increasing doses of amines and her parameters were stable. On the sixth day after surgery, methylene blue was administered due to the hypothesis of refractory vasoplegia. There was immediate response, with decrease in the catecholamine infusion levels until its withdrawal on the next day. Methylene blue

  19. Los lípidos en la nutrición del abulón azul, molusco con potencial de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Durazo Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tipo y nivel de lípidos en el crecimiento y metabolismo de ácidos grasos en abulón azul. La primera parte del estudio se realizó en una granja comercial, donde se analizaron tres tratamientos de alimentación (alimento formulado, macroalga fresca y la combinación de ambos sobre parámetros biológicos y composición de ácidos grasos de organismos juveniles en un periodo de 329 días. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos de los abulones sugieren su capacidad para sintetizar ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 y n-6 de cadena larga a partir de precursores de cadena más corta. En el segundo experimento se evaluó el efecto de la fuente y nivel de ácidos grasos, con trece tratamientos de alimentación y el uso de cuatro aceites comestibles, sobre el crecimiento y composición de ácidos grasos en tejido muscular. No se determinó una relación significativa entre crecimiento y un determinado tipo o nivel de ácido graso, pero se establecieron requerimientos de ácidos grasos n-3 y n-6.

  20. Application of a Box-Behnken design for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Girón, Emmanuel; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul) is an industrially important crop in México since it is the only raw material appropriate to produce tequila, an alcoholic beverage. Nowadays, however, these plants have also a nutritional interest as a source of functional food ingredients, owing to the prebiotic potential of agave fructans. In this study, a Box-Behnken design was employed to determine the influence of temperature, liquid:solid ratio and time in a maceration process for agave fructan extraction and optimization. The developed regression model indicates that the selected study variables were statistical determinants for the extraction yield, and the optimal conditions for maximum extraction were a temperature of 60 °C, a liquid:solid ratio of 10:1 (v/w) and a time of 26.7 min, corresponding to a predicted extraction yield of 37.84%. Through selective separation via precipitation with ethanol, fructans with a degree of polymerization of 29.1 were obtained. Box-Behnken designs are useful statistical methods for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans. A mixture of carbohydrates was obtained from agave powder. This optimized method can be used to obtain fructans for use as prebiotics or as raw material for obtaining functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Levantamento de plantas medicinais nativas da Fazenda Azulão em Dourados-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bratti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as espécies medicinais nativas em um fragmento de mata situada na Fazenda Azulão, em Dourados/MS, baseando-se no conhecimento popular de mateiros da região, com intuito de gerar subsídios para perpetuar a preservação, a diversidade e variabilidade das espécies, bem como, incentivar populações locais a valorizar e preservar esses recursos naturais, retardando o impacto sobre a biodiversidade. Partes das plantas indicadas como medicinais foram coletadas, as quais foram identificadas mediante literaturas especializadas e por comparações com plantas depositadas no Herbário da Cidade Universitária de Dourados. Foram identificadas 61 espécies distribuídas em 35 famílias e 53 gêneros. As famílias Asteraceae (9, Fabaceae (5 e Piperaceae (4 foram as que apresentaram o maior número de espécies. Dentre as formas de vida encontradas na vegetação nativa do local, as espécies medicinais de hábito arbustivo (39,34% foram as que apresentaram os maiores valores, seguido pelas herbáceas (27,86%, arbóreas (24,6%, e lianas (8,2%. As partes das plantas mais utilizadas são as folhas, seguidas da raiz e casca. Com base nos resultados obtidos nesse estudo, as indicações da utilização das plantas medicinais podem fornecer subsídios para estudos bioquímicos e farmacológicos, diminuindo os custos e o tempo na extração de princípios ativos, bem como, permitir o fortalecimento do conhecimento cultural da comunidade local, incentivando a preservação ambiental de diversas espécies medicinais utilizadas na região. Novos estudos devem ser conduzidos no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, a fim de se garantir o registro de dados mais precisos sobre as espécies medicinais ocorrentes.

  2. [Sex ratio and environmental influence on population growth rate of Callinectes bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae) in the Gulf of California].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Félix, Demetrio; Cisneros-Mata, Miguel Angel; Aragón-Noriega, Eugenio Alberto; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    The brown swimming crab (Callinectes bellicosus) is an economically important species in the Gulf of California, and its fishing activity, held in Sonora from 1986, has been affected by a 20-year declining trend in its biomass. With the aim to understand the possible reasons of this species population changes along time, we estimated population growth rate (r) and sex ratio of C. bellicosus, and combined them with three parameters describing its habitat: sea temperature, wetland extension and habitat size in four areas along the coast of Sonora. For this, monthly mean sex ratio was estimated from crabs samples obtained from commercial catches during 1998-2002 and 2012; mean sea surface temperature for the spawning period (May-August) were derived from remote sensors for the same years; while wetland coverages were obtained from published reports, and habitat size was estimated as the fishing surface. For each area, r was estimated using a method developed for limited data situations using commercial landings (t) from 1986-2013. With data from the four areas, simple and multiple linear regression models were developed to ascertain theoretical sensitivities of r to variations in sex ratio and environmental parameters. A total of 24 556 crabs were sampled; males dominated (68.8 %) over females during the study period and in all areas; a cluster analysis identified two groups according to sex ratio: a Northern group with zones 1 and 2, and a Southern group with zones 3 and 4. r values were different in all zones (P0.995). Both the estimated data and sensitivity analyses suggest the existence of a direct and positive dependence of r on the proportion of female crabs and wetland size. We hypothesize that excess fishing of females caused the declining biomass trend of the brown swimming crab in Sonora, and concluded on the convenience of implementing harvest refugia inside coastal wetlands to protect females during the spawning season.

  3. Coloración de azul de metileno como alternativa para determinar la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis Methylene blue test for the determination of viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis

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    V.R. Randazzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar si la coloración con azul de metileno, de probada utilidad para demostrar la viabilidad de protoescólices de Echinococcus granulosus, puede evidenciar también la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis. Para ello se utilizaron tres suspensiones de larvas de T. spiralis (M1, M2 y M3, las que fueron expuestas a diferentes condiciones y observadas a distintos tiempos: M1 se expuso a -30 °C y se observó a los 70 días; M2 a 80 °C durante 5 minutos y se observó inmediatamente, y M3 se mantuvo a 4 °C durante todo el experimento, como testigo del 100% de vitalidad. Cada suspensión contenía 500 estadios larvarios libres. Se emplearon 100 μl de solución de azul de metileno 1:10 000 en agua destilada, agregados a igual volumen de suspensión de larvas, y las muestras fueron observadas al microscopio óptico para evaluar la motilidad. Los resultados evidenciaron que cuando las larvas de T. spiralis estaban muertas (M1 y M2, el 100% se coloreaban totalmente de azul en su interior, y las estructuras internas, en relación con la capa quitinosa, aparecían retraídas y algunas fragmentadas. En la suspensión testigo M3 las larvas no se coloreaban, y como prueba adicional de viabilidad se pudo observar su típico movimiento en espiral en el 100% de ellas.The present research was carried out with the purpose of determining whether or not the methylene blue test could also evidence viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis, taking into account its usefulness in the determination of viability of protoscolices in Echinococcus granulosus. To this end, three T. spiralis larval suspensions (M1, M2 and M3 were used, each containing 500 free larval stages. A hundred μl of methylene blue solution 1:10000 in distilled water were added to 100 μl of the larval suspension. Larvae were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate motility. M1 was exposed to -30 °C and could be

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA COM AZUL DE METILENO EM Leishmania major e Leishmania braziliensis: ESTUDO in vitro

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    Danielle El Atra Coelho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaníase é uma doença crônica causada pelo protozoário do gênero Leishmania, cujo tratamento é agressivo. A Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD é uma alternativa promissora que combina luz, fotossensibilizador (FS e oxigênio molecular, para causar a morte celular. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, in vitro, a ação da TFD com Azul de metileno (AM em promastigotas de Leishmania, por teste de MTT, curva de crescimento e morfologia do parasito. O teste de MTT demonstrou alteração de ambas as espécies após interação com o AM no escuro e após TFD. A análise das curvas demonstrou que a TFD influenciou o crescimento das espécies. A análise morfológica revelou que o AM no escuro não causou alterações expressivas como a TFD, sendo a cepa de L. braziliensis mais afetada que a cepa de L. major. Pode-se concluir que a TFD com AM foi promissora contra promastigotas de Leishmania, pois foi capaz de diminuir o crescimento e alterar a morfologia dos parasitos em cultura.

  5. Uso de Materiais Alternativos em Processos de Adsorção de Corante Azul de Metileno

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    E. L. do Rego

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo empregar materiais alternativos, puros e/ou modificados com 5 ou 10% (m/m de  pentóxido de nióbio (Nb2O5, em processos de remoção de azul de metileno (AM. Entre os materiais alternativos foram utilizadas argila sanitária, argila de resíduo industrial, rochas sedimentares e cinzas de casca de arroz obtida pela queima a 350oC. Estes sólidos foram caracterizados pelas técnicas de difração de raios- X (DRX e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR. Os testes de remoção de AM foram realizados em frascos de 125 mL, sob agitação constante, contendo 100 mL de solução de AM (100mg/L a 2000mg/L e adsorvente (0,1 a 0,6g, sob uma mesa agitadora a 200 rpm, em temperatura ambiente. A quantificação da remoção de AM foi realizada com auxílio de um espectrofotômetro UV-Vis da Varian (Cary 50, coletando 2 mL de amostra nos períodos de 2 à 1440 min. Dados de DRX evidenciaram uma mistura de argilominerais nos sólidos baseados em argilas. Nos ensaios de adsorção os materiais demonstraram eficiência para a remoção do corante, com destaque aqueles modificados com 10% de Nb2O5 exibindo 95% de remoção, no tempo de 120min, em solução de pH de ~6,5.

  6. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  7. Influence of Black Mangrove Expansion on Salt Marsh Food Web Dynamics in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Baustian, M. M.; Polito, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The range of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) is projected to expand in the northern Gulf of Mexico due to reduced winter freeze events and an increased rate of droughts. The colonization of mangroves in salt marshes alters habitat structure and creates a novel basal carbon source for consumers. This addition may modify trophic linkages and the structure of estuarine food webs. To understand the implications of mangrove expansion on food web dynamics of traditional Spartina alterniflora marshes, two sites in coastal Louisiana with three habitat types, marsh-dominated, mangrove-dominated, and a transition or mix of the two, were studied. Community composition of juvenile nekton was sampled using fyke nets, minnow traps, and suction sampling and analyzed for abundance and diversity. Primary carbon sources (emergent vegetation, phytoplankton, macroalgae, benthic microalgae, submerged aquatic vegetation, and soil organic matter) and consumers ((blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.), Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis), periwinkle snails (Littoraria irrorata), eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), and southern ribbed mussels (Geukensia granosissima)) collected at each habitat type were measured using stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) to identify trophic level, basal carbon sources, and assess how mangrove carbon is incorporated into salt marsh food webs. While data analysis is ongoing, preliminary results indicate that basal carbon sources supporting some marsh consumers (e.g., periwinkle snails) shift between habitat types, while others remain static (e.g., grass shrimp). This research will further develop our understanding of how climate induced shifts in vegetation influences valued marsh-dependent consumers in the estuarine ecosystems of northern Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Use of fully biodegradable panels to reduce derelict pot threats to marine fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilkovic, D M; Havens, K J; Stanhope, D M; Angstadt, K T

    2012-12-01

    Fishing pots (i.e., traps) are designed to catch fish or crustaceans and are used globally. Lost pots are a concern for a variety of fisheries, and there are reports that 10-70% of deployed pots are lost annually. Derelict fishing pots can be a source of mortality for target and bycatch species for several years. Because continual removal of derelict gear can be impractical over large spatial extents, modifications are needed to disarm gear once it is lost. We tested a fully biodegradable panel with a cull or escape ring designed for placement on the sides of a crab pot that completely degrades into environmentally neutral constituents after approximately 1 year. This panel is relatively inexpensive, easy to install, and can be used in multiple fisheries. We used the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) fishery as a test case because it is a large pot fishery and blue crab pots are similar to traps used in other pot fisheries. We had commercial fishers deploy pots with panels alongside standard pots in Chesapeake Bay (U.S.A.) to assess potential effects of our experimental pots on blue crab catch. We compared the number, biomass, and size of crabs captured between standard and experimental pots and evaluated differences in catch over a crabbing season (March-November) at five locations. There was no evidence that biodegradable panels adversely affected catch. In all locations and time periods, legal catches were comparable in abundance, biomass, and size between experimental and standard pots. Properly designed biodegradable panels appear to be a viable solution to mitigate adverse effects of derelict pots. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” (March 2017

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    L. LIPEJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This Collective Article presents information on 22 species belonging to 5 Phyla, arranged geographically from from west to east. The new records were found in 8 countries as follows: Spain: first record of the two scarcely known nemerteans Baseodiscus delineatus and Notospermus geniculatus in Formentera; Malta: second record of the alien fish Lagocephalus sceleratus; Italy: the alien polychaete Syllis pectinans and the isopod Paranthura japonica, as well as the cryptogenic opisthobranch Anteaeolidiella lurana, were found in the fouling assemblages along the docks of the port of Livorno. New decapod records are reported from Sicily (the alien Callinectes sapidus and the native Pachygrapsus maurus and Apulia (Percnon gibbosus and Procambarus clarkii; the lesser amberjack Seriola fasciata extended its geographical range to the Egadi Isands and Siganus luridus was documented for the first time along the Ionian coasts of Apulia and Calabria. Slovenia: the first record of the alien bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis is reported, together with a survey of up to date Adriatic records. Greece: the first record of the gastropod Rhinoclavis kochi is reported from Gavdos island. In addition, two records of endangered and rare cartilaginous fish were reported, namely, the shark Hexanchus griseus and the ray Leucoraja fullonica, as well as additional records of Siganus luridus for Lesvos and Malleus regula and Fulvia fragilis from Astypalaia. Turkey: the black wing flyingfish Hirundichthys rondeletii is reported for the very first time from the Black Sea. Egypt: the Indo-Pacific crab Halimede ochtodes is reported as established in Port Said. In addition, biometric parameters and meristic counts are reported for Anthias anthias in Damietta. Cyprus: the alien opisthobranch gastropod Bursatella leachii is reported for first time.

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  11. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry Efeito das lentes intraoculares asféricas e com pigmentação amarela na campimetria azul-amarelo

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    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possibilidade de efeitos na sensibilidade ao contraste e nos resultados da campimetria azul-amarelo com implante de uma lente intraocular (LIO asférica ou de pigmentação amarela. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-mascarado, envolvendo 52 pacientes portadores de catarata senil bilateral, divididos em dois grupos; 25

  12. Chemical-mineralogical characterization and Moessbauer spectroscopy of aquamarine from Pedra Azul, Northeast of Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Rubia Ribeiro; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Costa, Geraldo Magela da

    2001-01-01

    Aquamarines from three pegmatites located the vicinities of the Pedra Azul city, Minas Gerais state, were investigated in terms of chemical composition, physical properties and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The small lenticular pegmatite bodies are usually less than 5 m wide and exhibit a conspicuous mineralogical and textural zoning. The last thermal event in these pegmatites, determined by K-Ar method in muscovite, is of Neo proterozoic age, coincident with the late stages of the Brasiliano tectono- metamorphic cycle. Chemical analyses showed that sodium is the alkali with higher contents in the aquamarines, thus enabling their classification as sodic beryls. In zoned samples there is an increase of Fe as well as Mn from center to border, while no systematic variation could be detected for other elements. The specific gravity of 2.72 to 2.80 g/cm 3 is higher than the values determined for samples from other pegmatites of Minas Gerais. The refraction indices are ne=1.569 - 1.579 and NW= 1.573 - 1.581 and the birefringence varies from 0.002 to 0.008. The refraction indices increase with the Be O content. The color of aquamarines varies from medium to light blue, sometimes greenish blue. Moessbauer spectra obtained at room temperature and at 80 K show that Fe 2+ is the main chromophore-ion and suggest that the iron is present in octahedral sites as well as in the structural channels. Moessbauer spectra also indicate that the incorporation of Fe 3+ may cause a shift from deep blue to light blue colors. Based on their aquamarine composition the pegmatites were classified as barren, poor in rare alkalis (Li, Rb, Cs) and therefore little differentiated. The relatively simple mineralogy and the lack of lithium minerals such as lepidolite and spodumene confirm this classification. Thus, the composition of beryl can be used as a tracer for the prospection of pegmatites with different degrees of differentiation and consequently with different types of mineralization. (author)

  13. Nuevos datos paleontológicos del Pleistoceno en el Valle del Manzanares (Madrid, España: Los micromamíferos del yacimiento del Arenero de Arriaga

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    Sesé, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromammals from the archaeological site of the Arenero de Arriaga from the Manzanares Valley are here described. They are the Soricomorpha: Crocidura sp. and Talpa sp., the Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Microtus brecciensis, Microtus arvalis, Microtus duodecimcostatus and Arvicola aff. sapidus, and the Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus. The faunal association and the evolutionary state of Microtus brecciensis and Arvicola aff. sapidus, suggest an age of the end of the Middle Pleistocene. It also indicates the existence of different biotopes: riparian, moist and dry meadows, and forest, and a temperate climate similar to the present-day climate of the Meseta.Se describe la asociación de micromamíferos del yacimiento achelense del Arenero de Arriaga del valle del Manzanares constituida por los soricomorfos: Crocidura sp. y Talpa sp., los roedores: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Microtus brecciensis, Microtus arvalis, Microtus duodecimcostatus y Arvicola aff. sapidus, y el lagomorfo: Oryctolagus cuniculus. La asociación faunística y el estadio evolutivo de Microtus brecciensis y Arvicola aff. sapidus, indican una edad del final del Pleistoceno Medio. La asociación de micromamíferos sugiere la existencia de varios biotopos representados: ripícola, praderas húmedas y secas, y bosque, y un clima templado similar al actual de la Meseta.

  14. Oyster reefs as natural breakwaters mitigate shoreline loss and facilitate fisheries.

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    Steven B Scyphers

    Full Text Available Shorelines at the interface of marine, estuarine and terrestrial biomes are among the most degraded and threatened habitats in the coastal zone because of their sensitivity to sea level rise, storms and increased human utilization. Previous efforts to protect shorelines have largely involved constructing bulkheads and seawalls which can detrimentally affect nearshore habitats. Recently, efforts have shifted towards "living shoreline" approaches that include biogenic breakwater reefs. Our study experimentally tested the efficacy of breakwater reefs constructed of oyster shell for protecting eroding coastal shorelines and their effect on nearshore fish and shellfish communities. Along two different stretches of eroding shoreline, we created replicated pairs of subtidal breakwater reefs and established unaltered reference areas as controls. At both sites we measured shoreline and bathymetric change and quantified oyster recruitment, fish and mobile macro-invertebrate abundances. Breakwater reef treatments mitigated shoreline retreat by more than 40% at one site, but overall vegetation retreat and erosion rates were high across all treatments and at both sites. Oyster settlement and subsequent survival were observed at both sites, with mean adult densities reaching more than eighty oysters m(-2 at one site. We found the corridor between intertidal marsh and oyster reef breakwaters supported higher abundances and different communities of fishes than control plots without oyster reef habitat. Among the fishes and mobile invertebrates that appeared to be strongly enhanced were several economically-important species. Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were the most clearly enhanced (+297% by the presence of breakwater reefs, while red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus (+108%, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus (+88% and flounder (Paralichthys sp. (+79% also benefited. Although the vertical relief of the breakwater reefs was reduced over the course of our study

  15. Seasonal and spatial variations in fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure in Mad Island Marsh estuary, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, S.; Winemiller, K. O.; Gelwick, F. P.

    2003-05-01

    Fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure was analyzed along an estuarine gradient at Mad Island Marsh (MIM), Matagorda Bay, TX, during March 1998-August 1999. Eight estuarine-dependent fish species accounted for 94% of the individual fishes collected, and three species accounted for 96% of macrocrustacean abundance. Consistent with evidence from other Gulf of Mexico estuarine studies, species richness and abundance were highest during late spring and summer, and lowest during winter and early spring. Sites near the bay supported the most individuals and species. Associations between fish abundance and environmental variables were examined with canonical correspondence analysis. The dominant gradient was associated with water depth and distance from the bay. The secondary gradient reflected seasonal variation and was associated with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and vegetation cover. At the scales examined, estuarine biota responded to seasonal variation more than spatial variation. Estuarine-dependent species dominated the fauna and were common throughout the open waters of the shallow lake during winter-early spring when water temperature and salinity were low and dissolved oxygen high. During summer-early fall, sub-optimal environmental conditions (high temperature, low DO) in upper reaches accounted for strong spatial variation in assemblage composition. Small estuarine-resident fishes and the blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) were common in warm, shallow, vegetated inland sites during summer-fall. Estuarine-dependent species were common at deeper, more saline locations near the bay during this period. During summer, freshwater species, such as gizzard shad ( Dorosoma cepedianum) and gars ( Lepisosteus spp.), were positively associated with water depth and proximity to the bay. The distribution and abundance of fishes in MIM appear to result from the combined effects of endogenous, seasonal patterns of reproduction and migration operating on large

  16. The bioeconomic impact of different management regulations on the Chesapeake Bay blue crab fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David B.; Lipton, Douglas W.; Miller, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of blue crabs Callinectes sapidus in Chesapeake Bay declined 46% between 1993 and 2001 and remained low through 2008. Because the total market value of this fishery has declined by an average of US $ 3.3 million per year since 1993, the commercial fishery has been challenged to maintain profitability. We developed a bioeconomic simulation model of the Chesapeake Bay blue crab fishery to aid managers in determining which regulations will maximize revenues while ensuring a sustainable harvest. We compared 15 different management scenarios, including those implemented by Maryland and Virginia between 2007 and 2009, that sought to reduce female crab harvest and nine others that used seasonal closures, different size regulations, or the elimination of fishing for specific market categories. Six scenarios produced the highest revenues: the 2008 and 2009 Maryland regulations, spring and fall closures for female blue crabs, and 152- and 165-mm maximum size limits for females. Our most important finding was that for each state the 2008 and 2009 scenarios that implemented early closures of the female crab fishery produced higher revenues than the 2007 scenario, in which no early female closures were implemented. We conclude that the use of maximum size limits for female crabs would not be feasible despite their potentially high revenue, given the likelihood that the soft-shell and peeler fisheries cannot be expanded beyond their current capacity and the potentially high mortality rate for culled individuals that are the incorrect size. Our model results support the current use of seasonal closures for females, which permit relatively high exploitation of males and soft-shell and peeler blue crabs (which have high prices) while keeping the female crab harvest sustainable. Further, our bioeconomic model allows for the inclusion of an economic viewpoint along with biological data when target reference points are set by managers.

  17. Activación mecánica del caolín como vía para la fabricación de azul ultramar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jaime Restrepo Baena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La molienda del caolín en molinos de anillos causa una destrucción progresiva de la estructura cristalina original. Los estudios granulométricos demuestran que la molienda de los granos de caolín se produce por fuerzas de cizalladura, ocasionando un deslizamiento de los planos que conforman las partículas, distorsionándolas y aglomerándolas. El estudio de rayos X de mostró una pérdida casi completa de la estructura cristalina. Los análisis de DTA y TGA mostraron que la pérdida del agua de composición interna se produce desde el momento que comienza el calentamiento. Los estudios de microscopía electrónica de barrido muestran granos de forma y tamaño irregular que difieren notablemente de la muestra original. Con las muestras de caolín activado mecánicamente, se fabricó el pigmento Azul Ultramar utilizando un horno de tubo, los resultados obtenidos muestran un producto de características de calidad comparables a los conseguidos utilizando el caolín calcinado (10. Este estudio muestra que la activación mecánica del caolín, puede convertirse en una alternativa a la calcinación, proceso que actualmente se realiza a nivel industrial.

  18. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A influência do azul de metileno na prevenção da lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal The role of the methylene blue as a lung protector after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ação do azul de metileno como supressor da produção de radicais livres de oxigênio, atuando como receptor alternativo de elétrons na enzima xantina oxidase. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia divididos em 2 grupos de 16 animais, os quais foram denominados grupos: experimento e controle. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e oclusão da artéria mesentérica cranial por 60 minutos. A reperfusão foi confirmada por meio da verificação do reaparecimento da pulsação na arcada mesentérica. Foi então administrado no grupo experimento 2 ml de azul de metileno 1 % estéril intraperitonealmente, enquanto que no grupo controle foi administrado solução salina isotônica estéril em mesmo volume e pela mesma via de administração. Após 4 horas de reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados. Amostras dos pulmões foram obtidas para: análise histopatológica, avaliação do edema e para determinação da atividade da xantina oxidase. RESULTADOS: O dano pulmonar encontrado no grupo controle foi superior ao encontrado no grupo experimento. Observou-se uma maior formação de edema nos pulmões do grupo controle. A atividade da xantina oxidase foi semelhante em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O azul de metileno diminui a lesão pulmonar após isquemia-reperfusão intestinal.PURPOSE: To study the role of methylene blue as an inibitor of superoxide production by xantine oxidase. METHODS: Thirty two Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups of 16 animals: the control group and the experimental group. All the animals were submitted to a laparotomy for the occlusion of the cranial mesenteric artery during 60 minutes. The reperfusion was confirmed by the 'pulsation of the artery after releasing the temporary ligature. In the animals of the control group, 2 ml of saline were injected in the peritoneal cavity and in the animals of the experimental group 2 ml of methylene

  20. K+ and NH4(+) modulate gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in the blue crab, Callinectes ornatus: fine tuning of ammonia excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garçon, D P; Masui, D C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M; Leone, F A

    2007-05-01

    To better comprehend the mechanisms of ionic regulation, we investigate the modulation by Na+, K+, NH4(+) and ATP of the (Na+, K+)-ATPase in a microsomal fraction from Callinectes ornatus gills. ATP hydrolysis obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with KM=0.61+/-0.03 mmol L(-1) and maximal rate of V=116.3+/-5.4 U mg(-1). Stimulation by Na+ (V=110.6+/-6.1 U mg(-1); K0.5=6.3+/-0.2 mmol L(-1)), Mg2+ (V=111.0+/-4.7 U mg(-1); K0.5=0.53+/-0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4(+) (V=173.3+/-6.9 U mg(-1); K0.5=5.4+/-0.2 mmol L(-1)) and K+ (V=116.0+/-4.9 U mg(-1); K0.5=1.5+/-0.1 mmol L(-1)) followed a single saturation curve, although revealing site-site interactions. In the absence of NH4(+), ouabain (K(I)=74.5+/-1.2 micromol L(-1)) and orthovanadate inhibited ATPase activity by up to 87%; the inhibition patterns suggest the presence of F0F1 and K+-ATPases but not Na+-, V- or Ca2+-ATPase as contaminants. (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity was synergistically modulated by K+ and NH4(+). At 10 mmol L(-1) K+, increasing NH4(+) concentrations stimulated maximum activity to V=185.9+/-7.4 U mg(-1). However, at saturating NH4(+) (50 mmol L(-1)), increasing K+ concentrations did not stimulate activity further. Our findings provide evidence that the C. ornatus gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase may be particularly well suited for extremely efficient active NH4(+) excretion. At elevated NH4(+) concentrations, the enzyme is fully active, regardless of hemolymph K+ concentration, and K+ cannot displace NH4(+) from its exclusive binding sites. Further, the binding of NH4(+) to its specific sites induces an increase in enzyme apparent affinity for K+, which may contribute to maintaining K+ transport, assuring that exposure to elevated ammonia concentrations does not lead to a decrease in intracellular potassium levels. This is the first report of modulation by ammonium ions of C. ornatus gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase, and should further our understanding of NH4(+) excretion in benthic crabs.

  1. Influências da Guerra Fria no discurso nacionalista argentino. O retrato dos conflictos internacionais no Semanário Nacionalista Azul y Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valeria Galvan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As notícias sobre as guerras internacionais desencadeadas no marco da Guerra Fria têm sido utilizadas pela discursividade nacionalista em pós do seu programa político próprio, mais vinculado ao contexto local do que ao internacional.O semanário político dos anos cinqüenta e sessenta, Azul y Blanco, virou testemunha disso. Este, embora tenha-se concentrado principalmente na política nacional, deixou filtrar em suas páginas notícias internacionais que expunham as problemáticas mais importantes da Guerra Fria nesses anos, desde uma óptica nacionalista que ia mais longe das identidades nacionais para construir um “nós” geograficamente mais amplo. Assim, apesar da maior relevância da Revolução Cubana nas páginas da revista, a situação do bloco oriental europeu e a Guerra do Vietnã foram também importantes na secção internacional. Essas notícias eram escritas por correspondentes e editores argentinos e estrangeiros. Ambos argentinos e estrangeiros tiveram posicionamentos políticos e ideológicos que ficaram comprometidos com seus respectivos cenários locais. Assim, eles contribuíram especialmente para as transformações que atravessava o discurso nacionalista local. Nesse sentido, as redefinições ideológicas e políticas do nacionalismo argentino desses anhos nutriram-se também de aqueles olhares.

  2. PROPAGACIÓN ASEXUAL DE AZUL DE MATA (Justicia tinctoria (OERST. D. N. GIBSON, FAM. ACANTHACEAE POR MEDIO DE ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dosis de ácido indolbutírico (0, 500, 1000 o 1500 ppm, la posición de donde se toma la estaca (basal, medial o terminal, el tamaño de la estaca (6, 10 o 14 cm, la ausencia o presencia de hojas, y el tipo de sustrato (arena de río, fibra de coco o carbón de granza de arroz, sobre el enraizamiento de estacas de azul de mata bajo ambiente protegido. Las variables evaluadas fueron el porcentaje de brotación y de enraizamiento, número de brotes, cantidad y longitud de raíces. Las estacas terminales presentaron los mayores valores para todas las variables, excepto porcentaje de enraizamiento: mayor número de brotes (17,5, longitud (0,17 y cantidad de raíces (0,65 que las estacas mediales y basales, lo que estaría asociado a una mayor velocidad de enraizamiento. Las dosis de AIB 1000 y 1500 ppm indujeron una mayor cantidad de raíces por estaca (8,40 y 9,24 respectivamente que las dosis menores. Hubo mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento con 1000 ppm de AIB (69% que sin ese compuesto (41%. Al utilizar estacas sin hojas aumentó la magnitud de cada una de esas variables. Con arena se obtuvo una mayor brotación aérea (96%, enraizamiento (92% y longitud de raíz (5,1 cm que con los otros sustratos. Las estacas de 14 cm presentaron consistentemente, mayor número de brotes (3,71, raíces más largas (3,56 cm y en mayor número (10,71 que las de 10 y 6 cm.

  3. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabala, M.E.; Manzano, M.; Vives, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO 3 -Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO 3 -Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO 4 –NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO 2 , calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The work studies the

  4. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M.E., E-mail: mzabala@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzano, M., E-mail: marisol.manzano@upct.es [Escuela de Ingeniería de Caminos, Canales y Puertos y de Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, P° de Alfonso XIII 52, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO{sub 3}-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO{sub 4}–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO{sub 2}, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The

  5. Avaliação genética em erva-mate pelo procedimento BLUP individual multivariado sob interação genótipo x ambiente Genetic evaluation in Ilex paraguariensis by the multivariate individual BLUP procedure with genotype-environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Maria Simeão

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizar a predição de valores genéticos de matrizes e procedências de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis. Foram avaliadas 164 progênies de oito procedências, em três locais (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR e Rio Azul, PR, em relação ao caráter produção de massa foliar (PMF. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros genéticos e valores genéticos foram estimados pelo procedimento REML/BLUP individual (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada, realizando a análise multivariada para os três locais. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade individual, no sentido restrito, para o caráter PMF foram 0,15 em Ivaí, 0,62 em Guarapuava e 0,23 em Rio Azul. A baixa magnitude desses coeficientes em Ivaí e Rio Azul demanda a utilização de métodos de seleção que utilizem todos os efeitos aleatórios do modelo estatístico. O efeito de procedências foi significativo em Ivaí e Rio Azul, com correlação fenotípica intraclasse de 0,13 em Ivaí e de 0,09 em Rio Azul. As procedências apresentaram correlação genética de 0,95 entre os locais Ivaí e Rio Azul. Nesses locais, as procedências foram mais estáveis nos diferentes ambientes do que as progênies. Foram preditos os valores genéticos em relação a todas as procedências e matrizes em todos os locais quanto ao caráter avaliado. As melhores procedências são Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, Cascavel e Ivaí.The objectives of this paper were to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict breeding values for parents and provenances of Ilex paraguariensis. Eight provenances with 164 progenies were evaluated on three sites (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR and Rio Azul, PR for the trait leaf weight (LW. All the variance components, parameters and breeding values were obtained by REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure at the

  6. Alterações anatômicas em algodoeiro infectado pelo vírus da doença azul Anatomical alterations in blue disease infected cotton plant

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    Juliana K. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A doença azul do algodoeiro está associada a um vírus ainda pouco conhecido em suas características morfológicas e moleculares, tanto quanto a sua patologia e epidemiologia. O tipo de transmissão circulativa pelo afídeo vetor Aphis gossypii Glover, associado a recentes relatos de estudos moleculares, sustentam ser o agente etiológico uma espécie membro da família Luteoviridae. No presente trabalho, estudos anatômicos comparativos em plantas sadias e infectadas foram realizados com a finalidade de conhecer aspectos estruturais da interação vírus-espécie hospedeira, com potencial aplicação na área de diagnose e melhoramento genético. Os estudos anatômicos foram realizados em folhas de plantas infectadas, com área foliar reduzida, nervuras cloróticas e margem foliar voltada para baixo. O encurtamento dos entrenós, que resultam em um agrupamento de folhas, flores e frutos, e conseqüente redução da altura da planta, do número e tamanho dos frutos, são expressões fenotípicas da planta de algodão infectada, a qual serviu para o presente estudo. Nas plantas infectadas com o agente da doença azul havia maior acúmulo de calose e de cristais de oxalato de cálcio, cloroplastos íntegros distribuídos na região periférica das células do mesofilo e aparente alteração química no interior das células do parênquima paliçádico. Inclusões nos vasos do floema e, ocasionalmente no xilema, também foram observadas. O acúmulo de calose e a presença de inclusões no floema podem indicar uma relação ou preferência do vírus por esse tecido.Cotton blue disease is caused by a virus whose morphological and molecular characteristics is not well known and so demanding information its phytosanitary and epidemiological characteristics. Evidences of an aphid borne (Aphis gossypii Glover circulative (persistent type of transmission, associated with a recent molecular report, sustain for a virus species belonging to the

  7. Heterologous expression of Fusarium oxysporum tomatinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases its resistance to saponins and improves ethanol production during the fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Luis Alberto; González, Gloria Angélica; Torres, Juan Carlos; Pelayo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Melesio; Ramírez, Jesús

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the effect of the heterologous expression of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene FoTom1 under the control of the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) promoter was cloned into pYES2. S. cerevisiae strain Y45 was transformed with this vector and URA3 transformant strains were selected for resistance to alpha-tomatine. Two transformants were randomly selected for further study (designated Y45-1 and Y45-2). Control strain Y45 was inhibited at 50 muM alpha-tomatine, in contrast, transformants Y45-1 and Y45-2 did not show inhibition at 200 muM. Tomatinase activity was detected by HPLC monitoring tomatine disappearance and tomatidine appearance in the supernatants of culture medium. Maximum tomatinase activity was observed in the transformants after 6 h, remaining constant during the following 24 h. No tomatinase activity was detected in the parental strain. Moreover, the transformants were able to grow and produce ethanol in a mix of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must, contrary to the Y45 strain which was unable to grow and ferment under these conditions.

  8. Utilização de zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinza de carvão para remoção de azul de metileno em água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A adsorção de azul de metileno de solução aquosa foi realizada usando-se zeólitas de cinza de carvão como adsorventes de baixo custo. A amostra de cinza de carvão foi convertida em zeólitas por tratamento hidrotérmico usando parâmetros de síntese diferentes. Os materiais foram caracterizados por análise físico-química e estudos de DRX e MEV. As isotermas de adsorção ajustaram-se ao modelo de Freundlich. Os valores da capacidade de adsorção foram similares para os adsorventes. Estudos cinéticos indicaram que a adsorção seguiu o modelo de pseudo-segunda-ordem./////////// The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution was carried out using zeolites synthesized from coal ash as low-cost adsorbents. The coal ash sample was converted to zeolites by hydrothermal treatment using different synthesis parameters. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, XRD and SEM studies. The adsorption isotherms can be fitted by Freundlich model. The values of the adsorption capacity of adsorbents were similar for adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  9. Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy

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    Eduardo Dib

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é apresentar os dados atuais da aplicação de corantes vitais durante cirurgia vitreorretiniana, "cromovitrectomia", bem como uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto no tocante às técnicas de aplicação, indicações e complicações em cromovitrectomia. Um grande número de publicações tem abordado o perfil tóxico da indocianina verde na cromovitrectomia. Dados experimentais mostram uma toxicidade dose-dependente da mesma em várias populações de células retinianas. Novas gerações de corantes incluem: azul tripan, azul patente, acetato de triancinolona, infracianina verde, fluoresceína sódica, azul de bromofenol, acetato de fluorometolona e azul brilhante. Novos instrumentos podem permitir um corar seletivo de estruturas durante a vitrectomia. Este artigo mostra que o campo da cromovitrectomia está em plena expansão de pesquisas. Os corantes de primeira linha são a indocianina verde, infracianina verde e o azul brilhante. Azul patente, azul de bromofenol e azul tripan surgem como novos adjuvantes para melhor observação da membrana epirretiniana. Demais corantes que surgiram merecem maior investigação.The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, "chromovitrectomy", as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal

  10. Diagnosis of the generation, harvesting and leached treatment of the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul and proposal of technological alternatives for its improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Gonzalez, Ileana

    2007-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis was conduced in the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul to evaluate the state of the generation, the harvesting and the leached treatment system. Besides, the corrective measures for each case were determined. The physicochemical characterization of the leached generated has been established through the collection of historical analysis conduced and the implementation of an environmental monitoring plan. As a consequence of said characterization, it was concluded that the leached generated at present possesses the specific characteristics of backfills that are found in mature stage (methanogenic), to know: low relation DBO/DQO, slightly basic pH, low concentration of heavy metals and low biodegradability. Even so these liquids must be treated to fulfill the permissible maximum parameters that establish the Reglamento de Uso y Vertido de Aguas Residuales. A seasonal variation linked with the generation of leached was determined, by effects of infiltration, toward the mass of waste and the combination of pluvial water with leached, mainly due to the absence of adequate infrastructure and unfinished works. The amount of leached that was generated and that will be generated until year 2025 it was managed to consider by means of the modeling a hydric balance. The volume is significant and is due to adopt the respective sanitary measures to guarantee to long term the adapted treatment of the leached and the fulfillment of the effective legislation. A series of improvements are proposed to the leached treatment system that functions at present, as a consequence of the diagnosis carried out to achieve that the quality of the effluent treated comply with the parameters of poured established; such as: filtration of heavy particles, implementation of a physicochemical treatment and treatment of muds. (author) [es

  11. SECAGEM INTERMITENTE E SEUS EFEITOS NA QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE TREMOÇO AZUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. AHRENS

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Dois modelos de secadores comerciais, um intermitente lento, com a temperatura do ar de secagem a 60oC e a 65oC e outro rápido a 50oC, foram testados para a avaliaç��o da redução do grau de umidade de 20 para 13% e sua influência na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tremoço azul (Lupinus angustifolius L.. Foram realizados testes de germinação, envelhecimento artificial e emergência em campo, após a secagem, aos três e seis meses de armazenamento. Os testes de germinação e envelhecimento artificial não detectaram diferenças significativas entre a qualidade das sementes secadas nos secadores e das secadas à sombra. Na semeadura aos seis meses, as emergências em campo foram 81%, 89%, 90% e 83% para os secadores intermitente lento a 60oC, a 65oC, para o intermitente rápido a 50oC e para a secagem à sombra, respectivamente. O secador intermitente rápido, onde as sementes passam rapidamente pela câmara de secagem e permanecem maior período na equalização, reduziu em média 1,1 pontos porcentuais por hora o teor de água das sementes e na secagem intermitente lenta a 65oC e a 60oC obteve-se 2,3 e 2,7 pontos porcentuais por hora, portanto mais eficientes que o primeiro, quando comparadas umidades iniciais/finais semelhantes. Conclui-se que o secador intermitente lento apresenta a velocidade de secagem superior ao rápido e que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tremoço não é afetada pela secagem nos diferentes secadores.Two commercial intermittent dryers, one slow (60oC and 65oC air temperature and another rapid (50oC, were tested to evaluate the water content decrease (20% to 13% and their influence on the physiological quality of Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. The seeds were evaluated through physiological analysis (germination, accelerated ageing and field emergence, stored for 3 and 6 months. After six months the field emergence results were 81%, 89%, 90% and 83% for the slow 60oC, 65oC, rapid (50o

  12. WSSV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... 2Quality Assurance and Management Division, Central Institute of Fisheries .... The data obtained from the experiments were subjected to appro- ..... blue crab Calinectus sapidus glucose. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A.

  13. Avaliação biomecânica do cimento ortopédico combinado com antibiótico e azul de metileno Biomechanical evaluation of orthopaedic cement combined with antibiotic and methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Felipe Marcatto de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O cimento acrílico é utilizado há anos nas cirurgias ortopédicas, especialmente nas artroplastias do joelho, merecendo atenção também quando utilizado com o acréscimo de antibióticos (para tratamento de infecções ou corantes (para facilitação de uma possível retirada. Neste estudo procurou-se avaliar diferenças mecânicas entre o cimento ortopédico puro e quando misturado com antibiótico e/ou corante. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados cimento acrílico ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker, vancomicina em pó e azul de metileno e as misturas submetidas a testes físicos e mecânicos de acordo com a norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833. Avaliou-se: tempo para a formação de massa, capacidade de intrusão, resistência à compressão, resistência ao dobramento (tensão e temperatura máxima atingida pelas misturas. RESULTADOS: As misturas avaliadas foram aprovadas quanto ao tempo de preparação da mistura, temperatura máxima alcançada, profundidade da intrusão e resistência à compressão. Somente aquela contendo apenas cimento puro foi aprovada no ensaio de flexão. CONCLUSÃO: O acréscimo de vancomicina e/ou azul de metileno ao cimento ortopédico Surgical Simplex®P Stryker reduz a resistência da mistura à flexão, sendo reprovada pela norma ABNT NBR ISO 5833.OBJECTIVE: Acrylic cement has been used for years on orthopaedic surgeries, especially on knee arthroplasties, deserving special attention when added to antibiotics (for treatment of deep bone infections or stains (to facilitate its removal. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate potential mechanical differences between the orthopaedic cement itself and when this is added to antibiotic and/or stains. METHODS: Surgical bone cement Simplex®P Stryker, vancomycin and methylene blue were used, and the mixtures were submitted to physical and mechanical tests according the ABNT NBR ISO 5833 rule. The parameters studied here were: time for mass formation

  14. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  15. Estudio arqueométrico comparativo de muestras de pinturas con azul egipcio, procedentes de la tumba de Nefertari siglo XIII a.C. y del Balneum, termas romanas, siglos I a.C., I d.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Portal, A. J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work have studied two samples with the same pigment, Egyptian Blue, but from different sources. The difference between them is caused by the functionality. In the case of Nefertari´s tomb is decorating interior rooms carved into rock in which they would not suffer any damage since it does not accessed to that place anymore. In the case of Balneum´s baths is decorating very warm and humid rooms, and should resist deterioration resulting from human activity during the use of these baths.

    En el trabajo presentado se han estudiado dos muestras de pinturas con el mismo pigmento, azul egipcio, de distinta procedencia. Las diferencias entre ellas vienen causadas por la funcionalidad. En el caso de la tumba de Nefertari se trata de decorar estancias interiores excavadas en roca en las que no sufrirían deterioro alguno, dado que no se accedería a ese lugar nunca más. En el caso del Balneum se trata de pinturas que decoran ambientes muy húmedos y cálidos y que, además, deben resistir el deterioro derivado de la actividad humana en dichas termas.

  16. Micronucleus Assay and Heavy Metals Characterization of E-waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-28

    Mar 28, 2018 ... Ba) in the sediments, water, leachate and aquatic fauna (Tilapia guineensis, Callinectes amnicola and Cardiosoma ..... (2003) limit standard (0.01mg/L) for treated waste water .... the erythrocyte of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus).

  17. Cultivo in vitro de cana-de-açúcar exposta a diferentes fontes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Aarão Maluta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes comprimentos de onda no desenvolvimento in vitro de mudas de cana-de-açúcar. Explantes foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos de diodos emissores de luz (LED: 100% azul; 70% azul + 30% vermelha; 30% azul + 70% vermelha; 100% vermelha, além do controle com lâmpada fluorescente branca. As plântulas foram avaliadas quanto a: número de brotações; altura; massa de matéria fresca e seca; e conteúdo de carotenoides e das clorofilas a e b. Observou-se desmanche dos tilacoides nos cloroplastos, proporcional ao aumento na incidência de luz vermelha. O porte das mudas diminui com o aumento na incidência de luz vermelha.

  18. How Pore-Fluid Pressure due to Heavy Rainfall Influences Volcanic Eruptions, Example of 1998 and 2008 Eruptions of Cerro Azul (Galapagos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, F.; Amelung, F.; Gregg, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 30 worldwide seismic studies have shown a strong correlation between rainfall and earthquakes in the past 22 years (e.g. Costain and Bollinger, 2010). Such correlation has been explained by the phenomenon of hydro-seismicity via pore pressure diffusion: an increase of pore-fluid in the upper crust reduces the normal stress on faults, which can trigger shear failure. Although this pore pressure effect is widely known for earthquakes, this phenomenon and more broadly poro-elasticity process are not widely studied on volcanoes. However, we know from our previous works that tensile failures that open to propagate magma through the surface are also pore pressure dependent. We have demonstrated that an increase of pore pressure largely reduces the overpressure required to rupture the magma reservoir. We have shown that the pore pressure has more influence on reservoir stability than other parameters such as the reservoir depth or the edifice loading. Here, we investigate how small pore-fluid changes due to hydrothermal or aquifer refill during heavy rainfall may perturb the conditions of failure around magma reservoirs and, what is more, if these perturbations are enough to trigger magma intrusions. We quantify the pore pressure effect on magmatic system by combining 1) 1D pore pressure diffusion model to quantify how pore pressure changes from surface to depth after heavy rainfall events and 2) 2D poro-elastic numerical model to provide the evolution of failure conditions of the reservoir as a consequence of these pore pressure changes. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to characterize the influence on our results of the poro-elastic parameters (hydraulic diffusivity, permeability and porosity) and the geometry of the magma reservoir and the aquifer (depth, size, shape). Finally, we apply our methodology to Cerro Azul volcano (Galapagos) where both last eruptions (1998 and 2008) occurred just after heavy rainfall events, without any pre-eruptive inflation. In

  19. The micromammals (Lagomorpha, Eulipotyphla and Rodentia) from the Middle Pleistocene site of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain): Systematic study and paleoenvironmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sese, C.; Soto, E.; Santonja, M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.

    2016-07-01

    The micromammal association established in this work is the following: Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus; Eulipotyphla: Crocidura cf. russula, cf. Sorex sp., Neomys sp., Soricidae indet. and Talpa sp.; and Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Apodemus cf. sylvaticus, Cricetulus (Allocricetus) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus (Iberomys) brecciensis and Microtus (Terricola duodecimcostatus. This association is characteristic of the Middle Pleistocene. The morphological state of Cricetulus (A.) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus (I.) brecciensis allows to place it in the advanced, but not final, Middle Pleistocene, which agrees with the numerical data of the site (243–337 ka) that places it in the MIS 8 or 9. The micromammals indicate the predominance of the open spaces with abundant vegetation mainly of herbaceous and bushes but also with some areas with trees. The climate would be of Mediterranean type, similar to the actual or perhaps a little milder and more humid. (Author)

  20. Variation of monthly inventories of {sup 7}Be fallout in the soils of the sub-basins 3 and 4 in Mato Frio river, a tributary of Serra Azul river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Alexander D., E-mail: alexander.esquivel@utp.ac.pa [Centro de Investigaciones Hidráulicas e Hidrotécnicas (CIHH / UTP – PA), Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá (Panama); Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this study 72 soil samples collected right at the surface were analyzed. They were collected at two work parcels located within the basin of the Mato Frio Creek (total drainage area = 10.6 km²) located in the municipality of Itauna, except for a small fraction in its northern part, which is located in the municipality of Serra Azul. Both municipalities are in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sampling period covers the time span from May 2014 to May 2015, with the purpose of observing on a monthly basis the variation in the activity of the radionuclide Beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be, Eγ = 477.6 keV) along a one year hydrologic cycle, stressing the dry and rainy seasons. The objective of this investigation was to establish a baseline for the alteration pattern of the {sup 7}Be content in the soil in order to use these results for future estimates of rates of erosion or accreation in areas of interest within this basin. In order to measure the {sup 7}Be activity in the collected samples, a gamma spectrometer was used, composed of a hyperpure germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 50%. The results indicate a net trend towards a marked variation in the activity of {sup 7}Be in relative to the period of year within which the samples were collected, which in turn results in a reduction or increase in the values of the {sup 7}Be monthly inventory in the topsoil. (author)

  1. www.ajol.info www.bioline.org.br/ja The Abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    indication that the area is an important ecological zone for benthos macroinvertebrates conservation. ... Heck and Coen, (1995), the estuarine and mangroves ..... ecological services. Callinectes amnicola was the most abundant and are economically important species locally; hence the need to integrate a sustainable ...

  2. Distribución en gran escala de los cúmulos globulares en Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Para analizar los cúmulos globulares azules y rojos de NGC 1399 asociados con NGC 1399 en particular, o si los cúmulos azules representaban un sistema asociado con el cúmulo de Fornax en general, se obtuvieron imágenes CCD de gran formato con el telescopio de 4m del CTIO, en las bandas C y T1. Se describe el método empleado y lo encontrado.

  3. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  4. Estudo da descoloração do corante FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina pelo tratamento combinado do fungo Trametes versicolor e processo de filtração lenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Gonçalves Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de fungos na descoloração de corantes com métodos economicamente viáveis de produção de água bacteriologicamente segura há muito vem sendo descrito por diversos autores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a eficiência da remoção de corante artificial FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina, com uso do fungo de degradação branca Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta. Para a realização dos trabalhos, foram instalados dois protótipos de filtros lentos denominados FL-A e FL-B - no sobrenadante do filtro FL-A foi inoculado o referido fungo, e o filtro FL-B foi utilizado como controle (sem inoculação do microrganismo. O melhor percentual de remoção do corante pelo fungo Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta foi de 44,74% 24 horas após a atividade máxima registrada de lacase. Os resultados mostraram que a filtração lenta combinada com o tratamento com o fungo T. versicolor não apresenta grande potencial para remoção de cor em 21 dias de tratamento, visto que os produtos microbianos gerados interferem no processo de filtração, diminuindo a eficiência do processo físico. Entretanto, restringindo o tempo de tratamento a 24 horas após a atividade enzimática máxima, o tratamento combinado apresentou boa eficiência.

  5. Cien años del colorante de Giemsa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Perea Sasiaín

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una revisión general de los trabajos previos y subsecuentes al hallazgo del colorante de Giemsa, con énfasis en los azules de metileno policromos. Se presenta un breve bosquejo biográfico de Berthold Gustav Carl Giemsa, así como de la constitución y mecanismo de acción de su colorante y el resultado de análisis únicos por HPLC de su azur II (azul de metileno, 63,6%; azur B, 28,6%; azur A 4, 4%; azur C, 1,4%, y tionina, 1,9%. Por tanto, el azur I no era 'puro' sino una mezcla de tionina y todos sus derivados metilados en los grupos amina 3 y 7, muy probablemente preparada por oxidación del azul de metileno en medio ácido como lo definió Lillie. Se tabulan los usos del colorante de Giemsa informados durante los últimos 32 años.

  6. EVALUATION OF WHITE CEMENT COLOURED WITH ULTRAMARINE BLUE PIGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CAMILO RESTREPO GUTIÉRREZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evalúa el desempeño mecánico del cemento blanco coloreado con pigmento azul ultramar y se explica su desempeño a partir de las modificaciones mineralógicas acaecidas por la sustitución de cemento por pigmento en porcentajes de 5, 10, 15 y 20%. Se fabricaron hormigones y pastas para ser estudiados a 3, 7, 28 y 90 días de curado normal. Se encontró que el pigmento Azul Ultramar al entrar en contacto con el C3A del cemento y el agua, y debido a su contenido de azufre, permite la formación de grandes cantidades de etringita primaria (desordenada y dispersa en la matriz, lo cual se traduce en un incremento de la resistencias mecánicas de los hormigones sustituidos con Azul Ultramar hasta en un 45% a 90 días de curado normal.

  7. El secreto del huevo azul, de Catalina González Vilar. Estudio narratológico. The secret of the blue egg, by Catalina González Vilar. Narratological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez-García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a narratological study of the literary work The secret of the blue egg, by the writer Catalina Gonzalez Vilar, that won El Barco de Vapor prize in 2012. It examines the different constitutive elements of the text (topic approach, prominent figures, syntactic structure, narrative technique… and his contribution to the development of the story with the purpose of discovering the aesthetic and literary values that contribute to the fable. It aims at demonstrating the proper use of them all as they shape a text rich in nuances, striking, suggestive. All these qualities of great importance both in creations aimed at adults as well as at children and young people because they enrich the final value of the work, and by extension, the cultural background of their readers.Este trabajo aborda el estudio narratológico de la obra El secreto del huevo azul, de la escritora Catalina González Vilar, que obtuvo el Premio El Barco de Vapor en el año 2012. Examina los diferentes elementos constitutivos del texto (el enfoque del tema, la caracterización de los personajes, la estructura sintáctica, el tratamiento del lenguaje, la técnica narrativa utilizada… y su aporte al desarrollo de la historia con la finalidad de descubrir los valores estéticos y literarios que aporta a la fábula. Pretende demostrar el adecuado uso de todos ellos dado que favorecen un texto rico en matices, llamativo, sugerente. Cualidades, todas ellas, de gran importancia tanto en creaciones destinadas al público adulto como al infantil y juvenil pues enriquece el valor final de la obra, y por extensión, el bagaje cultural de sus lectores.

  8. Avaliação do efeito de corantes organicos sinteticos artificiais na função respiratoria mitocondrial

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Filomena Claret de Aguiar Valim

    1989-01-01

    Resumo: Neste estudo foi realizada a avaliação do efeito, na respiração mitocondrial, dos seguintes corantes orgânicos sintéticos artificiais, de uso permitido em alimentos no Brasil: Eritrosina, Ponceau 4R, Vermelho 40, Amarelo Crepúsculo, Amarelo de Tartrazina, Azul de Indigotina, Azul Brilhante e Amaranto, assim como dos corantes: Laranja GGN, Escarlate GN e Vermelho Sólido E. Utilizando-se mitocôndrias isoladas de fígado e de rim de ratos Wistar, verificou-se que estes corantes inibiam a ...

  9. Estudo experimental de linfonodo sentinela na mama da cadela com azul patente e Tecnécio Tc99m Experimental study of the sentinel lymph node in the dog breast using blue dye and technetium Tc99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Linfonodo Sentinela (LS tem se mostrado efetiva na avaliação axilar nas portadoras de neoplasia mamária. O LS negativo torna desnecessário o esvaziamento axilar. OBJETIVO: Identificar o LS da região subareolar da mama em cadelas utilizando corante azul patente (AP, Tecnécio Tc99m ou a associação de ambas as técnicas e compará-las quanto à sensibilidade na detecção do linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas dezessete cães fêmeas. Um total de 55 mamas foram analisadas. Utilizou-se AP (2,5%/0,5 ml e/ou Tc99m (1,0 mC/0,8ml para identificação do LS. A aplicação do Tc99m era realizada duas horas antes da realização do experimento. O AP era injetado na região subareolar da mama. Localizado o LS, realizava-se sua exérese. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 linfonodos em que se utilizou AP, pôde-se verificar que 40 estavam corados (90,90%. Dos 48 linfonodos em que se utilizou Tc99m, 47 linfonodos estavam radioativos (97,91% (p=0.18; k= - 0.067. Nas 37 mamas em que se associou AP ao Tc99m, apesar de 02 linfonodos não estarem corados, todos estavam radioativos (AP vs AP+Tc: p=0.12; k=0.083; Tc vs AP+Tc: p=1.0; k=0.018. CONCLUSÃO: O Tc99m e o corante azul patente, isolados ou associados, prestam-se à identificação do LS da mama do animal.The sentinel lymph node research (SLN has been effective in the evaluation of nodal status in patients with breast cancer. A negative SLN makes an axillary lymphadenectomy unnecessary. PURPOSE: To identify the SLN of the subareolar region in female dog breasts using blue dye (BD, Technetium (Tc99m or the association of both techniques and to compare their sensibility in the detection of the SLN. METHODS: Seventeen female dogs were studied. 55 breasts were analyzed. DB and/or Tc99m were used for the identification of SLN. Tc99m was introduced two hours before the experiment. BD was introduced some minutes before the procedure. Once the SLN was localized its dissection was performed. RESULTS

  10. Cruz azul y escudo azul, centro de servicio - Carolina del Norte – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odell, -

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available This building is situated at the Chapel Hill-Durham road and contains the installations of two important merged insurance companies. The shape has not been chosen at random but is subject to certain conditions, such as protection from sun rays and strong winds. Neither should it be forgotten that this type of construction has a certain public relations mission to fulfill. Further, there was a great need for isolation from the noise of the traffic in the area. Metal structure, installations of all kinds and greatest consideration for the surrounding nature and the trees were dominant design factors.Este edificio está situado junto a la carretera Ciiapel Hill-Durliam y alberga las instalaciones de dos importantes compañías de seguros fusionadas. Su forma no es caprichosa, sino que obedece a motivaciones de tipo estructural, como protección de los rayos solares y de los vientos dominantes, sin olvidar la misión de reclamo publicitario que suele ser característica de este tipo de construcciones, así como lograr un cierto aislamiento del ruido que produce el tráfico rodado de la carretera próxima. Estructura metálica, cerramientos de muros - cortina, toda suerte de modernas instalaciones y máximo respeto del entorno natural y arbóreo existente.

  11. Reducción de vulnerabilidad en bibliotecas, centros de documentación, archivos, museos y la preservación del patrimonio documental de Costa Rica: II parte

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejos Vásquez, Sheily

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo es continuación del publicado en el número anterior (N°5) de la revista En torno a la prevención. Realiza una pequeña reseña sobre la organización Escudo Azul y del Comité Internacional del Escudo Azul (ICBS), quienes tienen como fin la preservación y respeto de los bienes culturales de las naciones, por lo que entre otras cosas promueven la prevención de riesgos de desastres en archivos, bibliotecas, sitios, monumentos y museos. A continuación, describe cada una de las etapas q...

  12. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, A. C.; Carrascal, L. M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.

    2018-01-01

    Marcada resiliencia de una especie de ave insular endémica después de una perturbación intensa: el caso del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria Son pocos los datos disponibles sobre la tendencia demográfica de las especies en peligro de extinción en zonas de protección especial y su capacidad de recuperarse de perturbaciones catastróficas. Se estudia la tendencia demográfica del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria (Fringilla polatzeki), un especialista de hábitat endémico de las Islas Canarias, restrin...

  13. Entrenamiento: “Cambios ontogénicos a la tolerancia de estresores a bajas y altas temperaturas en larvas y juveniles de PBT (Thunnus orientalis).” Nara, Japón 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, Yazmin

    2015-01-01

    Dentro de las actividades a desarrollar bajo el marco del Proyecto “Estudio comparativo de la biología reproductiva y del ciclo vital temprano del atún aleta amarilla y el atún aleta azul para el manejo de estos recursos”, se estableció un plan de trabajo, donde incluía el entrenamiento técnico-científico del personal de la Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá (ARAP). Se acordó las visitas para realizar ensayos con esta especie en las Estaciones de cultivo de atún aleta azul (Thunnus...

  14. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  15. Environmental Assessment for Public-Private Venture Housing, South Texas Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Laguna Madre and was being used as an ornamental shrub. Small assemblages of live oak (Quercus virginiana) and redbay ( Persea borbonia) still exist...sapidus) and American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are other common shellfish resources found in shallow coastal waters of the Coastal Bend (Case...possibility of finding ocelot or jaguarundi in or near NAS Corpus Christi. Recently delisted (64 Federal Register 46542-58; August 25, 1999), American

  16. Clinical and pathological changes in sheep naturally infected with bluetongue virus in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniassi, Nadia Aline Bobbi; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Ribeiro, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Silva, Mariana Silva da; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; Driemeier, David

    2010-01-01

    Língua azul (LA) é uma doença causada pelo vírus da língua azul (VLA) e transmitida por vetores do gênero Culicoides. Estudos sorológicos têm demonstrado a ampla presença do vírus no Brasil; entretanto, informações clínicas da LA na América do Sul são limitadas. Esse trabalho descreve alterações clínico-patológicas em ovinos acometidos pela LA no Sul do Brasil. Em dois surtos, em propriedades distintas, 15 ovinos apresentaram como principais sinais clínicos hipertermia, apatia, aumento de vol...

  17. Energy saving with speed variators; Ahorro de energia con variadores de velocidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolores Anguiano, Ramses; Dolores Vazquez, Raul [Cementos Cruz Azul, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The cement plant Cruz Azul S.C.L. is located in the center of the Mexican republic at 70 km north of the capital. Nowadays the Direction of Cementos Cruz Azul has implemented measures allowing to reduce their production costs. The optimization department found a great area of opportunity at the ventilators of the plant. The ventilators are used in different stages of the process and their flow was normally controlled by means of dampers -due to the high costs of the initial investment and that of maintenance of the speed variation technology which in its majority used direct current equipments. In this case it existed the possibility of making a successful application in two large ventilators, with motors of 1000 HP fed in medium tension (4160 v) in our calcination unit Num. 8. This document shows the development of this project from its initial analysis to its application and results. [Spanish] La planta de cemento Cruz Azul S.C.L. se encuentra localizada en el centro de la republica mexicana a 70 Km al norte de la capital. En estos momentos la direccion de cementos Cruz Azul ha implementado medidas que permitan reducir sus costos de produccion. El departamento de optimizacion encontro una gran area de oportunidad en los ventiladores de la planta. Los ventiladores son utilizados en distintas etapas del proceso y normalmente su flujo era controlado por medio de mamparas, debido a los altos costos como inversion inicial y de mantenimiento de la tecnologia de variacion de velocidad que en su mayoria utilizaba equipos de corriente directa. Para nuestro caso existia la posibilidad de realizar una aplicacion exitosa en dos ventiladores grandes, con motores de 1000 HP alimentados en media tension (4160 v), en nuestra unidad de calcinacion Num. 8. Este documento muestra el desarrollo de este proyecto desde su analisis inicial hasta su aplicacion y resultados.

  18. Influence of calcium hydroxide on dyes for dentin labeling, anlyzed by means of a new methodology Influência do hidróxido de cálcio sobre corantes na marcação dentinária, analisada por meio de uma nova metodologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium hydroxide in intracanal dressing on the ability of the dyes rhodamine B and methylene blue to label the dentine. Forty extracted human mandibular premolars had their canals instrumented and were divided into four groups: in two groups, the canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste and the others remained in distilled water. After 15 days, in two groups (with and without dressing, the canals were obturated with sealer containing methylene blue, whereas the others contained rhodamine B. For analysis, the roots were transversally sectioned in their cervical, medium and apical thirds, and the labeling was analyzed. The Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference between the dressing/methylene blue group and the others. Based on these results, it was concluded that calcium hydroxide in intracanal dressing negatively interferes with the labeling ability of methylene blue.Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do curativo intracanal de hidróxido de cálcio sobre a capacidade dos corantes azul de metileno e rhodamine B de marcar a dentina, quando incorporados à massa obturadora, no momento da espatulação. Quarenta pré-molares inferiores humanos extraídos tiveram seus canais instrumentados sendo, então, divididos em quatro grupos. Em dois grupos, os canais foram preenchidos com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e propilenoglicol por 15 dias. Os outros, permaneceram em água destilada. Após a remoção do curativo, todos os canais foram obturados com condensação lateral e cimento de óxido de zinco e eugenol acrescidos de azul de metileno ou rhodamine B. Assim, em dois grupos (com e sem curativo, os canais foram obturados com cimento contendo azul de metileno e os outros, rhodamine B. Decorridos 15 dias, as raízes foram seccionadas transversalmente nos terços cervical, médio e apical, procedendo-se à análise da marcação, com atribuição de escores

  19. La Verbena azul en el tratamiento del niño con salpullido The blue Verbena to treat the child with rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Galiano Piquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la miliaria es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la piel, usualmente conocida como salpullido, es muy frecuente en niños pequeños sobre todo en los meses de verano. Objetivo: valorar la eficacia de la infusión de Verbena azul en el control de la miliaria común. Métodos: se realizó un ensayo clínico fase II, a partir de la preparación de una infusión de hojas frescas o secas molidas, que se vertieron en 12 litros de agua hirviente, se tapó y se separó del fuego después de añadirle la planta, se dejó reposar y se coló. Fue aplicada tibia en todo el cuerpo durante 21 días, en dos secciones, al levantarse, y en la tarde luego del baño diario. El estudio se realizó en 30 lactantes de raza blanca, que acudieron con esta patología a la consulta de Medicina Natural y Tradicional, en el consultorio 6 del poblado de Altagracia, en el periodo entre junio del 2004 y junio del 2005, los cuales pertenecían al Policlínico Comunitario Docente "Carlos J. Finlay" de la Ciudad de Camagüey. Los datos se recogieron mediante una encuesta, confeccionada de acuerdo con los objetivos planteados en la investigación. Resultados: el grupo más afectado fue el de 3 a 6 meses, todos los pacientes fueron blancos, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al sexo. La variedad clínica más frecuente fue la cristalina, y los meses en que más se presentó fueron entre junio y agosto. Conclusiones: este tratamiento presentó una alta eficacia en el control de la sintomatología de la miliaria común; se curaron 9 de cada 10 pacientes.Introduction: miliaria is an skin inflammatory disease known as rash and is very frequent in small children mainly during summer months. Objective: assessing the efficacy of the infusion of blue Verbena in controlling common heat rash. Methods: a phase II clinical trial was conducted from the preparation of an infusion of fresh leaves or dry grinded poured out in 12 liters of boiling water, was covered

  20. Box-Behnken design for optimizing the acid blue dye adsorption on flower wastes Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Jaramillo Madrid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we identified the best conditions for the removal of Acid Blue 9 dye (AB9 using ower wastes (FW as an adsorbent were determined using a full factorial 23 and a Box-Behnken design for further optimization. Adsorbent dose (D, dye concentration (C and contact time (t, were the assessed variables. The dye content was quantied by UV-Vis spectrometry. The statistical model presented an adequate adjustment coecient (R2 = 99,18%, allowing to achieve a removal of 98,5% with a dosage of 7,8 gL-1, dye concentration of 7,11 mgL-1 and contact time of 104 min. These results suggest that owers wastes are an alternative and potential adsorbent material for the treatment of dissolved acid dyes. En este artículo se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la remoción del colorante Azul Ácido 9 (AA9 a través de un diseño factorial completo 23 y su posterior optimización mediante un diseño de superficie Box-Behnken utilizando tallos de flores (TF como material adsorbente. Las variables evaluadas fueron dosis de adsorbente (D, concentración de colorante (C y tiempo de contacto (t. El contenido del colorante se cuantificó por espectrometría UV-Vis. El modelo estadístico presentó un adecuado coeficiente de ajuste (R2 = 99,18 %, permitiendo alcanzar una remoción del 98,5% con una dosificación de 7,8 gL-1, concentración de colorante de 11,7 mgL-1 y tiempo de contacto de 104 min. Estos resultados sugieren que los residuos de flores constituyen un material adsorbente alternativo y potencial para el tratamiento de colorantes ácidos disueltos.

  1. Coastal seas as a context for science teaching: a lesson from Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Wayne H; Fowler, Erin M; Stein, J Andrew

    2003-01-01

    space. The "salt wedge," picnocline, and anoxia are examined using graphics derived from data taken by researchers using "ScanFish," a towed instrument that samples temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen at a resolution of only a few meters vertically and horizontally. The seasonal dynamics of these parameters at a given location are interpreted using biweekly monitoring data obtained as part of the state-federal Chesapeake Bay Program. The influence of annual variations in freshwater input is examined using stream flow data from US. Geological Survey gauging stations. Satellite remote sensing images from the TOPEX/Poseidon project are used to show how El Niño and La Niña events in the mid-Pacific affect the Chesapeake Bay system via rainfall on its watershed. Finally, the life cycle of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is presented to show how an estuarine organism has adapted to this truly unique and dynamic coastal environment.

  2. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  3. Distribución espacio-temporal de la meiofauna béntica en cuatro playas del Litoral Norte de la Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Alfonso Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la distribución espacio-temporal de la meiofauna béntica en la zona sublitoral del norte de la Habana, se realizaron muestreos mensuales en cuatro playas, dos al W de la ciudad (Santa Fe y La Concha y dos al E (Mar Azul y Canasí, desde marzo del 2003 hasta febrero del 2004. Se mantuvo constante la profundidad de muestreo, biotopo y tipo de sedimento, observándose la relación con la salinidad en la columna de agua e intersticial. Para determinar la afinidad entre estaciones se realizó un análisis MDS y para establecer diferencias significativas entre éstas a nivel espacial ó temporal se realizó un análisis de similitud ANOSIM. Las densidades medias más altas se obtuvieron en Santa Fe (7 133. 48 ind/10 cm² y las más bajas en Canasí (892.12 ind/10 cm². Se registraron un total de 13 táxones en todas las áreas estudiadas, siendo los nemátodos de vida libre los organismos dominantes en las estaciones de Santa Fe y Mar Azul, y los copépodos los dominantes en La Concha y Canasí. Se detectaron dos picos de abundancia para los nemátodos y los copépodos durante el período de estudio, así como diferencias significativas entre las estaciones muestreadas, agrupándose así: Santa Fe - La Concha y Mar Azul - Canasí.Temporal spatial distribution of benthic meiofauna in four beaches of the northern Havana shore. The temporal-spatial distribution of benthic meiofauna was evaluated in four beaches at the north coast of Havana, Cuba, from March 2003 to February 2004. We studied two urban beaches (Santa Fe and La Concha and two tourist beaches (Mar Azul and Canasí. Monthly meiofauna samplings were taken by scuba-diving using with a syringe (inner diameter 2.5 cm, and physico-chemical parameters (grain size, interstitial salinity and water column salinity were recorded with standard equipment. Statistical analysis (MDS and ANOSIM were performed. Depth and biotope kind were the same in the four beaches. Highest

  4. Exploring the Potential use of Photo-Selective Nets for Fruit Growth Regulation in Apple Explorando el uso Potencial de Mallas Foto-Selectivas para la Regulación del Crecimiento de Fruto en Manzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Bastías

    2012-06-01

    espectro azul (B, 400-500 nm, rojo (R, 600-700 nm y rojo lejano (FR, 700-800 nm sobre crecimiento de fruto y respuestas fisiológicas asociadas en manzano. Árboles de manzano 'Fuji' de 3 años de edad fueron cubiertos con mallas foto-selectivas azul y roja al 40%, y neutras gris al 40% y blanca al 20% (control. Las mallas azul y roja redujeron en la misma proporción (27% la radiación fotosintéticamente activa respecto al control. Sin embargo, la malla azul incrementó en 30% y redujo en 10% las relaciones de luz B:R y R:FR, respectivamente. La tasa máxima de crecimiento de fruto bajo las mallas azul y gris fue 1520% mayor que el control. El peso de fruto bajo la malla azul fue 17% mayor que el control, pero no se encontraron diferencias significativas de peso de fruto entre la malla roja y el control. La fotosíntesis de la hoja y área foliar total bajo la malla azul fueron 28% y 30% mas altas que el control, respectivamente; con un consiguiente efecto positivo sobre la asimilación neta de C por el árbol y producción de materia seca total. Los resultados sugieren que cambiar la composición de luz B, R, y FR a través de mallas foto-selectivas podría ser una herramienta útil para manipular los procesos fotosintéticos y morfo-genéticos que regulan la disponibilidad de carbohidratos para el crecimiento de fruto en manzano.

  5. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) DIVERSITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORBERT OPIYO AKECH

    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the first results on the water quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae ... Key words: Chironomidae, River Niger, Niamey, water quality ...... of macroinvertebrates assemblages in the Azul-.

  6. Methylene blue improves hemodynamic shock but increases lipoperoxidation in severe acute pancreatitis pig model Azul de metileno melhora as condições hemodinâmicas do choque circulatório, mas aumenta a peroxidação lipídica em um modelo suino de pancreatite aguda grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferreira Meirelles Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study hemodynamic pattern and lipoperoxidation during methylene blue (MB treatment on taurocholate - enterokinase induced acute pancreatitis (AP. METHODS: Thirty pigs were equally divided in control group; MB group; AP group; MB previous AP group; and MB after 90 min of induced AP group. MB was given iv in a bolus dose (2mg.kg-1 followed by maintenance dose (2 mg.kg-1.h-1. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded continuously during 180 min by Swan-Ganz catheter. Blood samples were taken every 60 min to determine arterial and venous nitrate, malondialdehyde (MDA and amylase. Pancreatic tissue was removed for histopathologic study. RESULTS: In AP group MBP and CO decreased over time 33% (p0.05 serum MDA when associated to AP. After induced AP, MB did not reverse MBP and CO decrease. There was no difference in serum amylase and necro-hemorrhagic findings with MB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In this taurocholate-induced AP model MB treatment delayed hemodynamic shock and decreases serum nitrate levels but increases serum MDA levels. No volemic replacement was done and it may have been a mitigated factor to a poor tissue perfusion and impairment microcirculation. Further investigations are needed to elucidate MB treatment role during AP treatment.OBJETIVO: estudar o perfil hemodinâmico e a lipoperoxidação durante o tratamento com azul de metileno (AM de pancreatite aguda (PA induzida por taurocolato-enteroquinase. MÉTODOS: Trinta porcos foram igualmente divididos em: grupo controle, grupo AM; grupo PA; grupo AM prévio à PA; grupo AM após 90 minutos após a indução da PA. O AM foi administrado sob a forma de bolus EV (2mg.kg-1 seguido por dose de manutenção (2 mg.kg-1.h-1. Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos foram registrados continuamente durante 180 min com auxílio de cateter de Swan-Ganz. Amostras sanguíneas foram colhidas a cada 60 min para a determinação arterial e venosa de nitrato, malondialdeido (MDA and amilase. Removeu-se tecido

  7. Determinação e análise de isotermas de adsorção do corante azul 5G em leito fixo de carvão ativado=Mathematical model of the adsorption column, in activate Carbon, used in the renovation of blue-colorant 5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Lopes Dal Piva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visando o desenvolvimento de um processo de tratamento de efluentes têxteis, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o processo de adsorção do corante reativo azul 5G de um efluente sintético em carvão ativado. As isotermas de adsorção, com seus respectivos parâmetros ajustados, em sistema batelada foram obtidas para as temperaturas de 30, 40 e 60C (com pH controlado na faixa de 6,0 a 8,0 e também com tempo de contato entre o sistema corante-carvão de 90 horas segundo os modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich. A partir daí estes parâmetros foram colocados em função da temperatura, apresentando bons resultados frente aos dados experimentais.This work, to looking for the development of process for wastes textile treatment, had the objective to study the adsorption process of the blue reactive dyes 5G from the synthetic effluent in coal activated. The isotherms of adsorption in batch system was made for temperatures of 30, 40 and 60C (the pH was controlled in 6.0 until 8.0 and the time of contact between the system dye-coal was 90 hours with posterior adjustment of the models for Langmuir and Freundlich equations. After, these parameters were put in function of temperature, with good results when compared to the experimental data.

  8. Sodalite Cancrinite Nepheline Syenite of Mendanha Massif, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Called Commercially Blue Guanabara Granite, and its Origin from Deuteric Metasomatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta observações de campo, descrições petrográficas e considerações genéticas do sodalita cancrinita nefelina sienito, chamado comercialmente de Granito Cinza Azul Guanabara, que se encontra na zona de contato sudoeste da intrusão alcalina félsica de Mendanha, RJ. Esta rocha ornamental ocorre ao longo do eixo central de um dique sienítico com 15 m de largura. A cor macroscópica em rocha total é caracterizada por saturação baixa (S=5~7 e clareza média (B~62. A cor de minerais opacos tem clareza relativamente alta (B~28. O feldspato alcalino é comumente alterado em muscovita. Os feldspatóides são presentes nos espaços intersticiais do arcabouço de feldspato alcalino. O anfibólio e biotita são alterados em minerais opacos e vermiculita, apresentando pseudomorfo. Os minerais acessórios são magnetita primária e titanita. Existe uma significativa quantidade de carbonatos com quantidade modal de 6,8%, constituindo agregados de forma irregular ou preenchendo espaços. A cor macroscópica dos agregados de feldspatóides varia de azul profundo para azul claro de acordo com o teor relativo de sodalita. A sodalita e cancrinita são originadas de nefelina e foram formadas através de metassomatismo deutérico do fluído rico em Cl

  9. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES CAPRINOS DILUÍDOS E CONGELADOS EM MEIO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO EM PÓ (ACP-101 OU TRIS, CORADOS POR EOSINA-NIGROSINA E AZUL DE BROMOFENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Alencar de Araripe Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This aims of the work were: to evaluate in vitro the goat semen frozen in diluents media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 and TRIS and, compare the bromophenol blue stain efficiency with the eosin-nigrosin stain. The ejaculateds were divided and diluted into PCW-101 and TRIS, frozed and thawed after 30 days. Spermatic morphology was evaluated, through semen smears stained by eosin-nigrosin (EN and bromophenol blue (BB. The morphologic parameters evaluated were: normal spermatozoa (N, head alteration (HA, intermediary piece alteration (IPA, tail alteration (TA, proximal citoplasmic drop (PCD, distal citoplasmic drop (DCD, and detached head (DH. There wasn’t significant difference in the observation of N between media, staining and their interactions after 5 minutes of thermo resistance test. After 120, the N was significantly influenced by media, where the TRIS presented better results. The incubation period of 120 minutes at 37ºC affect the spermatic morphology, increasing the HA percentages. The media based on TRIS promoted better protection from the cryoinjuries on frozen goat spermatozoa. BB staining was efficient on the fresh and post-thaw goat semen evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: Bromophenol blue, goat, powder coconut water; TRIS, spermatozoa.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a morfologia de espermatozoides caprinos frescos e congelados em meios à base de água de coco em pó (ACP-101 e TRIS, bem como comparar a eficiência dos corantes azul de bromofenol (AB e eosina-nigrosina (EN. Cada ejaculado foi dividido, diluído em ACP-101 e TRIS, congelado e, após trinta dias, descongelado. Analisou-se a morfologia espermática por esfregaços corados por EN e AB. Os parâmetros morfológicos foram: espermatozoides normais (N, alterações de cabeça (AC, de peça intermediária (API, de flagelo (AF, gotas citoplasmáticas proximal (GCP e distal (GCD e cabeça destacada (CD. Não se verificou diferença de N entre

  10. Aspectos morfológicos e citoquímicos dos glóbulos sangüíneos de Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin, 1802 (Reptilia, Crocodilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Leal de Moura

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 10 jacarés Caiman crocodilus yacare, colhendo-se 5 ml do sangue periférico de cada animal. A análise morfológica foi realizada após coloração por Leishman. Para estudo citoquímico, empregaram-se os métodos do PAS, do Sudan black B, da o-toluidina e do azul de bromofenol. Foram identificados 7 tipos celulares: eritrócitos, trombócitos, heterófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos, linfócitos e monócitos azurófilos. Os eritrócitos nucleados apresentam formato elíptico com atividade mitótica e positividade citoplasmática para o azul de bromofenol. Os trombócitos são de formato elíptico, com citoplasma abundante nos pólos, contendo grânulos de glicogênio e núcleo com sulcos profundos. Heterófilos, grosseiramente esféricos, mostram núcleo esférico excêntrico e citoplasma repleto de grânulos corados em salmão, de formato fusiforme, em baqueta, oval ou esférico. A citoquímica nestas células revelou a presença de glicogênio, grânulos citoplasmáticos positivos para azul de bromofenol e parcialmente sudanófilos e positivos para mieloperoxidase. Eosinófilos mostram-se esféricos com núcleo lenticular excêntrico e citoplasma com grânulos esféricos ou ovais róseos positivos para Sudan e mieloperoxidase, porém fracamente para o azul de bromofenol. Basófilos apresentam formato esférico, de tamanho menor em relação aos demais granulócitos, núcleo esférico central e citoplasma com poucos grânulos fortemente basófilos. Linfócitos mostram-se polimórficos com núcleo de formato irregular, citoplasma escasso com projeções e grânulos azurófilos. Monócito azurófilo, de formato esférico, núcleo excêntrico e citoplasma basófilo contendo grânulos azurófilos abundantes.

  11. Determination of resistance to salt crystallization on natural stone measured with ultrasonic wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, D.; Brix, S.; Kjærgaard, H. Howe

    2008-01-01

    and after salt exposure. Four different stones are investigated: the limestone Bateig Azul, the sandstone Oberkirchener, the limestone Perlatino, and the limestone Travertine. The procedure for the salt crystallization test is EN 12370 standard “Natural stone test methods – Determination of resistance...

  12. Sinfonía en verde y azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moscarella

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available La rica región esmeraldífera de Muzo, ha dado inmenso prestigio a Colombia en el exterior: las esmeraldas que allí se han encontrado son las más hermosas del mundo y sus tamaños han superado muchas veces la imaginación de las mentes más afiebradas; pero no solo las esmeraldas han hecho famoso el nombre de la provincia de Muzo, se encuentran allí también unas mariposas de singular belleza y colorido que han cautivado la atención de algunos importantes poetas latinoamericanos.

  13. Enfermedad y creatividad de Luis A. Calvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodriguez Rodríguez

    2003-06-01

    Para algunos autores contemporáneos dos de sus obras "Malvaloca" y "Lejano azul" se pueden considerar como paradigmas de la música para piano en Colombia. En la obra pianística de Calvo se puede apreciar un talento musical natural, con pocas influencias externas...

  14. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  15. Association of pteridophyte species in two fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Carneiro Leão Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate fern flora similarity and fern species relationships in the study areas, in terms of their substrates, habitat types, and life forms. The study was conducted in the Água Azul forest fragment, municipality of Timbaúba, Pernambuco, and the Maria Maior forest fragment, municipality of São José da Laje, Alagoas. The Jaccard similarity index was used for cluster analysis. The 112 species that occur in the two areas were used for numerical analysis. The floristic similarity was great (J=43.75%, principally due to similarities in the two areas vegetational types, as was expected due to their geographic proximity to one another and their similar climatic conditions. Five groups of associated species were determined for the Água Azul fragment and six groups for the Maria Maior fragment. In general, the ecological factors that determined fern species associations were habitat and type of substrate.

  16. POTENCIAL FISIOLÓGICO DE ESPÉCIES OLERÍCOLAS SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES ESPECTROS DE LUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ferrari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espectros de luz sobre o potencial fisiológico de espécies olerícolas. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial três por cinco, com quatro repetições. As três espécies testadas foram alface (Lactuca sativa L., rúcula (Eruca sativa Mill. e couve chinesa (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. Os cinco espectros de luz utilizados foram: vermelho, azul, amarelo, branco e ausência de luz. O teste de germinação foi conduzido em germinador tipo BOD, com temperatura constante de 25°C. Para a alface o espectro azul revela efeito negativo sobre as variáveis primeira contagem, percentual de germinação e comprimento de radícula. Para espécies de rúcula e couve chinesa, o espectro de luz vermelha e amarela apresentaram os melhores resultados para as variáveis estudadas.

  17. A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

    2013-08-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence.

  18. Infección por el virus de la Lengua azul: activación de señales celulares que inducen apoptosis Bluetongue virus infection: signaling pathway activated during apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mortola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la Lengua azul (VLA es un ARN virus de doble cadena que induce apoptosis tanto en cultivos celulares como en tejidos blanco. Con el fin de dilucidar el mecanismo de apoptosis en la infección por el VLA, en el presente trabajo examinamos en detalle, por la técnica de Western blot, las señales celulares de caspasas, Bax, citocromo c, Smac/DIABLO y factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB que se activan en la infección viral. Hemos comprobado que luego de la infección in vitro con el VLA, se detectó la activación de la caspasa 8 y con ello el mecanismo extrínseco de la apoptosis. También detectamos por primera vez no sólo la activación de miembros de la familia Bcl-2 (Bax, sino también la liberación del citocromo c y la proteína Smac/DIABLO, confirmando que en la infección por el VLA está involucrado el mecanismo secuencial intrínseco de la apoptosis. Asimismo, demostramos que la infección por el VLA activa el NF-kB y que la apoptosis es sustancialmente reducida mediante la inhibición del mismo. La activación de las señales celulares tales como Bax, citocromo c, Smac/DIABLO y NF-kB presentados en este trabajo, esclarecen los mecanismos apoptóticos durante la infección por el VLA para una mayor comprensión del papel primario que juega la apoptosis en la patogénesis del virus.Bluetongue (BTV is a double-stranded RNA virus that induces apoptosis both in mammalian cell cultures and in target tissues. To elucidate the apoptosis pathways in BTV infection, we have examined in detail the apoptosis mechanism by examination of caspases, Bax, cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and NF-kB signalling pathways. In this report, after cell infection with BTV, the activation of caspase 8 was detected, proving the extrinsic receptor binding apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis followed a sequential pathway involving the detection of activated Bcl-2 family members. Furthermore, its translocation to the mitochondria, as well as the release of cytochrome c and

  19. Comparative study of parasitic loads of Callinectes amnicola and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of sea food especially crabs in the Niger Delta is an indelible aspect of the culinary culture of the people and a veritable avenue to contracting zoonotic infections. A comparative ... Also, protozoa had the highest prevalence in C. amnicola while nematodes had the highest prevalence in C. armatum.

  20. Informe sobre la alimentación de Tyto alba (Lechuza común) en Villacastín (Segovia) el 12 de abril de 1956

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Informe cuantitativo sobre la alimentación de Tyto alba (Lechuza común) en Villacastín (Segovia) el 12 de abril de 1956, a partir de diverso material encontrado en el desván de la iglesia del pueblo. Se observaron restos de insectos (fundamentalmente coleópteros y ortópteros), ranas, los siguientes mamíferos: Apodemus sp. (Ratón), Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, también llamado Ratón aguadero), Crocidura sp. (Musaraña) y "Pytimis" (llamado así por el autor, siendo posiblemente el actual géne...

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 93 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction and characterization of a partial binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) of Agave tequilana var. azul (2X) and its application for gene identification · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Tamayo-Ordoñez, LC Rodríguez-Zapata, ...

  2. Resultados paleomagnéticos de los depósitos pliopleistocenos de la cuenca de Palma (Mallorca, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, P. G.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The results from the paleomagnetic analysis of the plio-pleistocene deposits located in the eastern (Bahia Azul Section and western (Banc d'Eivissa borders of the Palma Basin are presented in this paper. The Bahía Azul section is composite by a marine terrace at +70-74 m a.s.1., overlapped by nine littoral dune systems separated by erosional surfaces. The Banc d'Eivissa section is constituted of a lower marine terrace at +24-25 m a.s.l., buried by two dune systems, although there are more numerous in the vicinity. The lithological spectrum at both sections holds a main calcarenitic nature, but the available outcrops display a different degree of weathering making difficult the establishment of a continuous magnetoestratigraphic sequence. The paleontological content (Roselló y Cuerda, 1973 and paleomagnetic results of the Banc d'Eivissa deposits are no sufficient to establish a precise chronological sequence, and only is possible to locate them within the reverse polarity Matuyama epoch. On the contrary, the lower half of the Bahia Azul sequence (marine terrace plus the 3 first dune systems presents a consistent reverse polarity. The paleontological content of these materials indicates an early Pleistocene age (Emilian cycle: Cuerda y Sacarés, 1992 which agree with the obtained paleomagnetic results. Therefore, the whole sequence is interpreted to be located between the normal polarity chrons of Jaramillo and Olduvay (Clr. 1n and C2n of Cande and Kent, 1995 within the Matuyama epoch, but can not be totally rejected the possibility that them could be placed after the Olduvai Chron.Se presentan los resultados paleomagnéticos obtenidos del análisis de los depósitos plio-pleistocenos que afloran en los bordes oriental (sección de Bahía Azul y occidental (Banc d'Eivissa de la cuenca de Palma. La sección de Bahía Azul está constituida por una terraza marina situada a +70-74 metros sobre el nivel medio del mar y, sobre ella, nueve sistemas

  3. Diagnóstico microscópico de neumonía por Pneumocystis jirovecii en muestras de lavado broncoalveolar y lavado orofaríngeo de pacientes inmunocomprometidos con neumonía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Rodiño

    2011-03-01

    Conclusiones. Ambas coloraciones son útiles para diagnosticar neumonía por P. jirovecii en muestras de lavado broncoalveolar. Sin embargo, el azul de toluidina no detecta, aproximadamente, el 12 % de los casos positivos por inmunofluorescencia. Las muestras de lavado orofaríngeo no son apropiadas para detectar microscópicamente P. jirovecii.

  4. Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para a língua azul em carneiros das mesorregiões do Sertão e da Borborema, semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Seroprevalence and risk factors for Bluetongue in rams of the Sertão and Borborema mesoregions, semi-arid of Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Leandro Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi determinada a prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em carneiros das mesorregiões do Sertão e da Borborema, semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, bem como foram identificados os fatores de risco associados à infecção. A amostragem foi delineada para a determinação da prevalência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais soropositivos por mesorregião. Foi realizada uma seleção aleatória de unidades primárias, composta por 189 propriedades no Sertão e 100 propriedades na Borborema. Dentro das unidades primárias, foram amostrados todos os carneiros (unidades secundárias, resultando em 321 animais no Sertão e 185 na Borborema. Na ocasião da coleta, foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico por propriedade. Para o diagnóstico sorológico, foi utilizada a prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA, com antígeno produzido na Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Na mesorregião do Sertão, as prevalências de focos e de animais soropositivos foram de 11,6% [7,8% - 17,1%] e 8,4% [5,7% - 12,3%], respectivamente. Na mesorregião da Borborema, a prevalência de focos foi de 0,0% [0,0% - 3,6%] e a prevalência de animais soropositivos foi de 0,0% [0,0% - 2,0%]. Os fatores de risco associados à língua azul foram a não realização de higiene das instalações (OR = 5,51 e a vermifugação dos animais duas a quatro vezes ao ano (OR = 4,44.The prevalence of antibodies against Bluetongue virus in rams of the Sertão and Borborema mesoregions, semi-arid of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, was determined, and risk factors for the infection were identified. The sampling was delineated for the determination of the prevalence of positive herds and seropositive animals for each mesoregion. Herds (primary units were randomly selected in the Sertão mesoregion (n = 189 and in the

  5. Purpura, verde, azul...la calidad como un color

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Ramírez, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es explicar, compartir y hacer públicos algunos pensamientos e ideas sobre la Universidad y la cultura del profesorado universitario. Se parte de la idea de que no existe armonía entre la gestión, la técnica y la cultura universitaria. Si como docentes aprendemos de la experiencia y del ambiente de trabajo, entonces cabe preguntarse por nuestras experiencias y por los conocimientos que a travcs de ellas hemos generado, para mantenerlos o rechazar...

  6. Modelo de innovación estratégico de negocios aplicado a viviendas de madera en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gómez Valdés

    2015-11-01

    Las entrevistas indicaron que existe poca información en el país sobre el uso de productos madereros, específicamente viviendas de maderas, en consecuencia se pueden abrir oportunidades de negocios en toda su cadena de valor. El análisis de datos y estrategia de océano azul permitieron formular un modelo de negocios con una propuesta de valor en la entrega rápida de viviendas de maderas con características térmicas y con aislación acústica, enfocada en segmentos de clientes rural de la octava región y el sector residencial con gustos estéticos del producto. Por lo tanto, se pudo innovar en proceso estratégico empleando distintas herramientas como el diseño y aplicación de encuestas, análisis de datos, la estrategia de océano azul y el modelo de negocios Canvas, como también se pudo aplicar para la innovación de casas de madera.

  7. Genetic diversity in sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. by using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Filipi Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in a collection of 64 sugar apple accessions collected from different municipalities in northern Minas Gerais was assessed by RAPD analysis. Using 20 selected RAPD primers 167 fragments were generated, of which 48 were polymorphic (28.7% producing an average of 2.4 polymorphic fragments per primer. Low percentage of polymorphism (< 29% was observed by using the set of primers indicating low level of genetic variation among the 64 accessions evaluated. Genetic relationships were estimated using Jaccard's coefficient of similarity. Accessions from different municipalities clustered together indicating no correlation between molecular grouping and geographical origin. The dendrogram revealed five clusters. The first cluster grouped C19 and G29 accessions collected from the municipalities of Verdelândia and Monte Azul, respectively. The second cluster grouped G16 and B11 accessions collected from the municipalities of Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus, respectively. The remaining accessions were grouped in three clusters, with 8, 15 and 37 accessions, respectively. In summary, RAPD showed a low percentage of polymorphism in the germplasm collection.

  8. Estudo morfoanatômico preliminar do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia R. Rocha Martins

    Full Text Available Descrições morfoanatômicas preliminares do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze foram realizadas a partir de material vegetal fresco e fixado. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As superfícies do caule e da folha foram observadas através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A. australe apresenta, tanto no caule quanto na folha, tricomas tectores pluricelulares, unisseriados e de extremidades afiladas, e glandulares discóides, com pedúnculo curto unicelular, no qual se prendem cinco séries de células. A folha é anfiestomática e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico, levemente proeminentes em relação ao nível das demais células epidérmicas. O caule apresenta crescimento secundário inicial, destacando-se os ductos secretores no parênquima cortical e medular.

  9. Methylene blue administration in the compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock: hemodynamic study in pigs Administração de azul de metileno no choque anafilático induzido por composto 48/80: estudo hemodinâmico em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Menardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if the methylene blue (MB administration prevents and/or reverses the compound 48/80 (C48/80-induced anaphylactic shock in pigs. METHODS: Female Dalland pigs were anesthetized and had the hemodynamic parameters recorded during the necessary time to administer some drugs and observe their effect. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the five groups: 1 control; 2 MB: the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg followed by continuous infusion of MB (2.66 mg/Kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump; 3 C48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg; 4 C48/80+MB: the animals received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg and 10 minutes after the C48/80 administration the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg followed by continuous infusion of MB (2.66 mg/Kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump; 5 MB+C48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg and 3 minutes later they received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg. RESULTS: The intravenous infusion of MB alone caused no changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP showing that the administered MB dose was safe in this experimental model. The C48/80 was effective in producing experimental anaphylactic shock since it was observed a decrease in both MAP and cardiac output (CO after its administration. The MB did not prevent or reverse the C48/80-induced anaphylactic shock in this model. In fact, the MAP of the animals with anaphylactic shock treated with MB decreased even more than the MAP of the animals from the C48/80 group. On the other hand, the C48/80-induced epidermal alterations disappeared after the MB infusion. CONCLUSION: Despite our data, the clinical manifestations improvement brings some optimism and does not allow excluding the MB as a possible therapeutic option in the anaphylactic shock.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a administração de azul de metileno (AM previne e/ou reverte o choque anafilático induzido por

  10. Construction and characterization of a partial binary bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure and organization of the genome of Agave is still unknown. To provide a genomic tool for searching sequences of the genus, we built and characterized a binary (BIBAC2) genomic library of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Clones of the library had an average insert size of 170 Kb. The frequency of inserts with ...

  11. Ginebra. La ciudad de la paz y los relojes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Serpa Flórez

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available El lago Lemán, que es verde, azul y diáfano, se lanza al occidente para formar, impetuoso, el río Ródano. Allí, en el extremo del lago donde el río comienza y blancos cisnes nadan impacibles, grupos de gentes en la edad de bronce.

  12. First report of diarrheic shellfish toxins in mollusks from Buenos Aires province (Argentina associated with dinophysis spp.: evidence of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and their acylderivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia A Sar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In January 2010, the toxin-producing dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 were detected in Mar Azul during routine plankton monitoring in Buenos Aires Province coastal waters, Argentina. Wild clams Mesodesma mactroides and Donax hanleyanus from Mar Azul intertidal beach, which are part of the diet for local inhabitants and tourists, tested positive with the offcial lipophilic mouse bioassay. This paper focuses on the detection of Diarrhetic Shellfsh Poison (DSP toxins in these samples using a HPLC-FLD pre column derivatization procedure. The data showed that shellfish were contaminated with complex DSP toxin profiles composed of Okadaic Acid (OA, Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1, Acyl-Dinophysistoxin-1 (Acyl-DTX-1 and Acyl-Okadaic Acid (Acyl-OA. The DSP toxins found in this study produce diarrhea symptoms consistent with those experienced by patients who had ingested cooked shellfish in January. This is the first report of Acyl-derivatives in South American Atlantic shellfish samples and of OA in Argentinean shellfish samples.Primer reporte de toxinas diarreicas de moluscos en bivalvos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina asociado con Dinophysis spp.: evidencia de Ácido Okadaico, Dinophysistoxina-1 y sus acyl-derivados. En enero de 2010, los dinoflagelados productores de toxinas Dinophysis acuminata y D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 fueron detectados en Mar Azul durante un monitoreo rutinario de fitoplancton realizado en aguas costeras de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mesodesma mactroides (almeja amarilla y Donax hanleyanus (berberecho del intermareal de Mar Azul, que son parte de la dieta de los habitantes del lugar y de turistas, dieron resultado positivo para toxinas lipofílicas mediante bioensayo ratón. Este trabajo está focalizado en la detección de Toxinas Diarreicas de Moluscos (DSP en muestras colectadas durante el evento de toxicidad usando un HPLC-FLD con procedimiento de derivatizaci

  13. Diferentes cores de armadilhas adesivas na cultura da alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina da Silva Borba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar qual a cor mais atrativa para os insetos-praga mosca-minadora (Liriomyza trifolii e tripes (Thrips tabaci. O experimento foi desenvolvido na empresa BioPlanta Hidroponia situada em Ivoti/RS, no período de 07/02/2012 a 03/04/2012, na cultura da alface, variedade Mouse, cultivada em ambiente protegido. Foram confeccionadas em cartelas plásticas de 10 x 15 cm, armadilhas nas cores amarela, branco, azul e verde, tendo sua superfície coberta por cola entomológica. Foram dispostas 12 repetições aleatórias de cada cor, sendo que cada mesa de cultivo hidropônico recebeu quatro cartelas de cores distintas. Foi feita a contagem dos insetos coletados semanalmente durante 9 semanas e os dados analisados pelo Programa Winstat 2.0 e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Duncan, em nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. As armadilhas de coloração amarela se mostraram mais atrativas para L. trifolii, enquanto a coloração azul se mostrou mais atrativa para T. tabaci.

  14. Cactaceae do Vale do Rio Jequitinhonha (Minas Gerais Cactaceae of Jequitinhonha river valley (Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P Taylor

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante as primeiras coletas relacionadas ao Projeto "Cactaceae no Brasil Oriental", ficou provada a grande diversidade de espércies dessa família na região do vale médio do Rio Jequitinhonha, tendo sido visitadas as localidades de Itinga, Itaobim e Pedra Azul. Foram coletadas 21 espécies distribuídas entre os gêneros Pereskia, Opuntia, Tacinga, Pseudoacanthocereus, Arrojadoa, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Coleocephalocereus, Melocactus, Pilosocereus e Selenicereus, representando as três subfamílias de Cactaceae, cujas afinidades taxonômicas e padrões de distribuição geográfica são discutidos a seguir.During an initial visit to collect material for the projected "Cacti of Eastern Brazil", a remarkable great diversity of species of Cactaceae in the region of middle drainage of the Rio Jequitinhonha (mainly in the localities of Itinga, Itaobim and Pedra Azul was noted. Twenty one species in the genera Pereskia, Opuntia, Tacinga, Pseudocanthocereus, Arrojadoa, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Coloecephalocereus, Melocactus, Pilosocereus e Selenicereus representing all three subfamilies of Cactaceae were recorted. The phytogeographic affinities of the Cactaceae from this region are discussed.

  15. Caracteres morfo-anatômicos de folha e caule de Bauhinia microstachya

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    M. do R. Duarte

    Full Text Available Bauhinia microstachya (Fabaceae é um arbusto escandente, de caule comprimido e flexuoso e folhas bilobadas, denominado popularmente de escada-de-macaco e empregado como analgésico na medicina tradicional. A morfo-anatomia foliar e caulinar dessa espécie foi analisada a fim de contribuir com informações farmacognósticas e taxonômicas. O material botânico foi fixado, seccionado e corado com azul de toluidina e com a dupla coloração fucsina básica / azul de astra, bem como submetido a testes histoquímicos. A folha apresenta epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos paracíticos e anomocíticos na face abaxial, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral e nervura central com feixe vascular colateral único, envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. O caule mostra estrutura atípica característica, devido ao crescimento irregular do câmbio vascular, que é mais ativo em dois lados opostos, determinando expansões laterais. A medula possui forma de cruz, e idioblastos contendo prismas e raras drusas de oxalato de cálcio são observados.

  16. Language Identification by Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    1520. Dario, Ruben, Azul (El rey burgues). Diaz,del Castillo, Bemal, The Imprisonment of Moctezuma. Fernandez dc Lizardi, Jose Joaquin, El...poriquillo sarniento. Garcia Calderon, Francisco, La creacion de un continente. Garcilaso de la Vega, El Inca, Comentarios reales de los incas. Gonzalez...Facundo. Siguenza y Gongora, Carlos de, Infortunios de Alonso Rameriz. Ugarte, Manuel, El destino de un contincnte (La ncuva Roma). Vasconcelos

  17. Estudo comparativo entre citopatologia e histopatologia no diagnóstico de neoplasias caninas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Adelaide M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo comparativo entre os diagnósticos citológico e histopatológico em diversas neoplasias de 150 cães, pelas colorações de Wright, May-Grünwald-Giemsa, Novo Azul de Metileno e Papanicolau. Colorações histológicas como Hematoxilina-Eosina, van Gieson, Sudan, Azul de Toluidina e Ácido Periódico de Schiff também foram empregadas. Os dados revelaram uma eficácia de ordem de 85,3% no diagnóstico citopatológico, considerando-se os resultados histopatológicos como corretos. Em 4,0% dos casos somente a origem embrionária das neoplasias foi estabelecida. Em 1,3% das neoplasias apenas o prognóstico foi determinado; o diagnóstico citológico diferiu da histopatologia em 8,1% dos casos. Em dois casos (1,3% o diagnóstico citológico diferiu do histológico, mas um reexame determinou que o primeiro estava correto, o que elevou a sua eficácia para 86,6%. Entre as técnicas utilizadas, a punção aspirativa por agulha fina foi o melhor método para obter amostras. A citologia não foi adequada para o diagnóstico de neoplasias mamárias, dadas às variações morfológicas em diferentes áreas. A impressão em lâmina não é recomendada para análise de tumores mesenquimais e deve ser substituída pela citologia esfoliativa. O Wright revelou-se o método de coloração mais eficiente. As colorações adaptadas da histopatologia, van Gieson em leiomiomas e leiomiossarcomas, Sudan em lipomas e lipossarcomas, e Ácido Periódico de Schiff e Azul de Toluidina em mastocitomas, foram empregadas com sucesso fornecendo assim maior clareza de detalhes para as diversas neoformações de origem epitelial e mesenquimal.

  18. APRESENTAÇÃO (Um pálido ponto azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os Editores da Prometeus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Em meados de abril deste ano tivemos a notícia (cf.http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/index.html de que as naves Voyager 1 e 2, lançadasem 1977, estão nos limites da heliosfera e a ponto de penetrarem no espaço interestelar.Essa informação nos traz à memória Carl Sagan (1934-1996, cientista e astrônomonorte-americano que se dedicou não só à docência (foi professor de astronomia eciências espaciais na Universidade de Cornell e professor visitante no Laboratório dePropulsão a Jato do Insittuto de Tecnologia da Califórnia e à exploração espacial(consultor da NASA desde os anos 50, tomou parte do Projeto Apollo, chefiou osprojetos Mariner e Viking, e participou das missões Voyager e Galileu, mas também seconsagrou à divulgação científica, através de uma série de livros e programastelevisivos, entre os quais se destaca a série (e o livro Cosmos.

  19. Un caso de aorta destrocardica o enfermedad azul permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Pedraza

    1935-11-01

    Full Text Available Se trata del niño E. S. de 28 meses de edad, que fue recibido por uno de nosotros en el Hospital de La Misericordia en los primeros días de mayo de 1935. El padre, oriundo, como su hijo, de la hacienda de "El Chocho", en el municipio de Fusagasugá, lo trajo a Bogotá con el objeto de que su hijo mejorara de una afección que la sufría permanentemente y desde los primeros momentos de su vida. El padre nos refiere que jamás el niño ha podido comer por más de unos cinco minutos, que el simple ejercicio de la succión del pezón de la madre o del chupo lo fatiga, que tiene que descansar cada momento, en tal forma que nunca queda satisfecho su apetito. Tampoco puede dormir tranquilo; varias veces, durante la noche o el día, se despierta asustado, fatigoso, sobresaltado. Dice que desde que nació le ha notado un tinte morado en los tegumentos y especialmente en las uñas, labios y en las conjuntivas oculares, color que lo ve aumentarse cuando el niño hace el ejercicio natural para comer o cuando se despierta repentinamente del sueño en que estaba. Además nota que el desarrollo no le satisface, es poco relativamente lo que ha crecido, tiene ya 28 meses y los padres se muestran afanosos porque no puede caminar y apenas trata de sentarse; los miembros, poco desarrollados, y su dentición comenzó únicamente a los 14 meses.

  20. Water consumption when exposed to sun and shade for native goats in the semiarid of the State of Paraiba, Brazil Consumo de água quando exposta ao sol e à sombra por caprinos nativos no Semiárido Paraibano

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    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the preference and water consumption of native goats in the semiarid of Brazil. The water was freely supplied, in individual buckets, one exposed to the sun and the other in the shade. The experiment was realized using 18 animals of Moxotó, Graúna and Azul breeds, with average weight of 16,6 ± 2,4 kg, kept in confinement in individual stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers, during the period from January to February of 2009. The water temperature was measured by sensors (thermocouples type T - copper/constantan, which were coupled to a system of data acquisition. It was observed that the average water temperature exposed to the sun was 29.02 ºC, and 23.85 ºC in the shade. For all breeds there was a preference for the water exposed to the sun, corresponding to an average consumption of 64.71% of the total. Among the breeds, the greatest preference for water exposed to the sun was the Azul (71.18%, followed by the Moxotó (65.95% and the Graúna (57.00%. The animals consumed more water during the day, and the average water consumption was 1.15 grams day-1, corresponding to 6.9 % of body weight of the animals.O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a preferência e o consumo de água por caprinos nativos no semiárido brasileiro, fornecida à vontade, em baldes individuais, sendo um exposto ao sol e outro à sombra. O experimento foi realizado, utilizado-se de 18 animais das raça Moxotó, Graúna e Azul, com peso vivo médio de 16,6 ± 2,4 kg, mantidos em confinamento, em baias individuais, providas de comedouro e bebedouro, durante o período de janeiro a março de 2009. A temperatura da água foi medida através de sensores (termopares tipo T - cobre/constantan, que estavam acoplados a um sistema de aquisição de dados. Observou-se que a temperatura média da água exposta ao sol foi de 29,02 ºC, e à sombra, de 23,85 ºC. Para todas as raças, houve preferência pela água exposta ao sol, correspondendo a um

  1. Color del iris e hipoacusia en el Síndrome de Waardenburg. Pinar del Río, Cuba Color of the iris and hypoacusis in Waardenburg Syndrome. Pinar del Rio, Cuba

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    Fidel Castro Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Aunque se han descrito hipoacusia neurosensorial y cambios de color en el iris, la relación entre estos no ha sido estudiada previamente. Objetivos: Describir y analizar la posible asociación de la hipoacusia y profundidad de ésta con el color del iris en una familia afectada con el síndrome, lo que constituiría un nuevo aporte al conocimiento del Síndrome de Waardenburg (SW. Material y Método: Se realizó un estudio de casos, observacional, transversal y descriptivo con algunos aspectos analíticos en personas con SW del Municipio Sandino. Se utilizaron las medidas de resumen para variables cualitativas y la prueba de X² para medir asociación al 95 % de certeza. Resultados: 15 individuos presentaron hipoacusia neurosensorial de diferentes distribución e intensidad, con predominio de los ojos pardos y azules bilaterales. Se detectó mayor frecuencia de individuos hipoacúsicos entre los que tenían ojos azules con asociación entre las dos variables (X²= 6,47, gl = 1; p = 0.01. La intensidad de la hipoacusia fue mayor entre los individuos con ojos azules (85.7 % con hipoacusia severa o profunda 3 veces superior que en los otros colores de los ojos. Conclusiones: Existe relación entre el color azul del iris y la presencia de la hipoacusia y mayor intensidad de esta última en individuos con SW.Background: Although sensorineural hearing loss and iris pigmentary changes have been described, the association between these two elements has not been previously studied. Objectives: to describe and analyze the possible association of hypoacusis and the intensity of this with the color of the iris in a family suffering from this syndrome; which will constitute a new contribution to the understanding of Waardenburg Syndrome (WS. Material and Method: an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive case-study was carried out having some analytic aspects in people suffering from WS in Sandino municipality, Pinar del Rio. Measures

  2. Técnicas de coloração para detecção de Encephalitozoon cuniculi em cortes histológicos Stain techniques for detection of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in tissue sections

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    Maria Anete Lallo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram avaliadas diferentes técnicas de coloração aplicadas a cortes histológicos para a identificação de Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Foram utilizados fragmentos hepáticos de camundongos Balb-c, imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida e inoculados com esporos de Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Os cortes histológicos incluídos em parafina foram corados pelas técnicas de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E, tricrômica modificada, Gram-Chromotrope, Giemsa, Brown-Hopps, PAS, Ziehl-Neelsen e Grocott, e ainda pela técnica de calcoflúor. As colorações azul de toluidina-fucsina e azul de toluidina foram utilizadas para os cortes incluídos em resina plástica. As técnicas de Gram-Chromotrope, Brown-Hopps e Ziehl-Neelsen foram as que permitiram melhor visualização dos esporos para o diagnóstico de E. cuniculi em cortes histológicos incluídos em parafina, uma vez que possibilitaram a clara diferenciação dos esporos de outras estruturas teciduais. Nos tecidos incluídos em resina plástica, as colorações de azul de toluidina-fucsina e azul de toluidina também facilitaram o encontro do agente. Por outro lado, a técnica tricrômica apresentou grande variabilidade nos resultados, sendo, portanto, pouco indicada para o diagnóstico em tecido. As demais técnicas - H-E, calcoflúor, Grocott, Giemsa e PAS - não permitiram a fácil identificação do E. cuniculi.In this study, it was investigated different staining techniques applied to histological sections for identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. It was used liver fragments from Balb-c mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and inoculated with spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The histological paraffin embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H-E, modified trichrome, Gram-Chromotrope, Giemsa, Brown-Hopps, PAS, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Grocott and also by the technique of calcofluor. Toluidine blue-fuchsin and toluidine blue stainings were used for the cuts

  3. Necesidades de aprendizaje relacionados con el cáncer bucal en un círculo de abuelos de Ciudad de La Habana Learning needs related to oral cancer in "Isla Azul" grandparents home, Plaza de la Revolución Municipality. 2007

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    Gilda L García Heredia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento en las personas está asociado a la aparición o aumento de afecciones estomatológicas, entre ellas las alteraciones periodontales, disfunción masticatoria y el cáncer bucal, esta última enfermedad es la de mayor incidencia en la población adulta mayor y su prevención ocupa un lugar importante en la atención primaria de salud, por ello se realizó una investigación cuyo objetivo fue determinar las necesidades de aprendizaje relacionadas con el cáncer bucal en el Círculo de Abuelos "Isla Azul" en el año 2007. Se realizó una investigación de desarrollo tecnológico, descriptiva, de corte transversal para el diagnóstico educativo. Se aplicó una encuesta a 26 ancianos y se determinaron las necesidades de aprendizaje mediante el modelo de David Leyva. El 73 % de los encuestados obtuvo calificación deficiente. Se encontró bajo nivel de conocimiento de los factores de riesgo del cáncer bucal, deficiencias en las vías de información educativa, desconocimiento de los síntomas y signos de alarma ante el cáncer bucal. No realizaban adecuadamente el autoexamen bucal, por lo que consideramos que existieron necesidades de aprendizaje sobre prevención del cáncer bucal en todos los aspectos explorados.Aging in persons it is associated with appearance or increase of stomatologic affections including the periodontal alterations, mastication dysfunction and oral cancer, this entity with the great incidence in elderlies and its prevention is a priority in Health Primary Care, thus, we conducted a research in elderlies linked to a grandparent home whose objective was to determine the learning needs related to oral hygiene in above mentioned home in 2007. A technological development, descriptive and cross-sectional research to an educational diagnosis. A survey was applied in 26 elderlies determining the learning needs by David Leyva Form. The 73 % of person polled had a qualification of deficient. In he above mentioned home

  4. Plan integral de servicio al cliente para la marca aromas y recuerdos

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Villegas, Verónica; Aguirre Carpio, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The project described above will apply advanced techniques of marketing services to implement customer service improvements from the 5 major local in Guayaquil as: Torre Azul, Policentro, Riocentro Ceibos, Riocentro Sur and Riocentro Entreríos, being Policentro the establishment of higher volume sales nationwide of the trademark Aromas y Recuerdos. Where potential customers were analyzed according to the data obtained from repeat customers of perfumery in the different locations, ...

  5. Crescimento vegetativo e produção de óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta cultivada sob malhas

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    Andressa Giovannini Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo e o teor, o rendimento e a composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta (Mentha piperita cultivada sob diferentes malhas, no Município de Lavras, MG. As mudas de hortelã‑pimenta foram cultivadas em cinco ambientes: pleno sol, malha preta, malha aluminizada, malha azul e malha vermelha, todas com 50% de irradiância. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: crescimento vegetativo, teor, rendimento e análise química do óleo essencial. Plantas de hortelã‑pimenta cultivadas em pleno sol e sob malhas preta e vermelha produziram maior biomassa seca de folhas e maiores teores e rendimentos do óleo essencial. Entretanto, a pleno sol, o óleo essencial das plantas apresentou maior teor de mentol e, sob as malhas preta e azul, de mentofurano. Portanto, é possível manipular o crescimento das plantas e a produção e a composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta mediante o cultivo sob malhas ou pleno sol.

  6. Caracterização morfoanatômica de Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae

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    Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira

    Full Text Available Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn. R. M. King et H. Rob. (Asteraceae, conhecido como "matapasto", é uma planta usada na medicina popular como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar caracterização morfoanatômica da folha, dos ramos e da raiz de A. fastigiatum. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas; a inflorescência é constituída de capítulos; as flores com corola lilás; ausência de pápus. A raiz apresenta crescimento secundário na zona de ramificação com estruturas secretoras. O caule possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos, tricomas tectores simples e tricomas glandulares capitados. O pecíolo exibe contorno côncavo-convexo e a epiderme é unisseriada. A lâmina foliar é anfiestomática e o mesófilo dorsiventral. A epiderme possui células de contorno sinuoso e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos permitiram estabelecer parâmetros para identificação do A. fastigiatum.

  7. Distribuição do dextran-99mTc e do carvão ativado no linfonodo-sentinela em coelho = Distribution of dextran-99mTc and activated carbon in sentinel lymph nodes of rabbits

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    Rocha, Rogério Porto da

    2006-01-01

    Conclusões: A solução de CA (6% e corante vital (azul patente V na proporção 1: 1 determinou uma fácil identificação do LS no intra-operatório. A análise comparativa da distribuição do CA e do dextran-99mTc demonstra que ambos se comportaram da mesma forma concentrando-se na mesma metade do LS

  8. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-31

    bacteria . There are high levels of bacteria in: 1. the Pranburi River, 2. the Pasak River, 3. the Chao- phraya River, 4. the Bangpakong River, 5. the...Lacandon Forest and the SEDUE [Urban Development and Ecology Secretariat] proposal of 1986. Nevertheless, many of them, such as Lindavista, Nueva ...Indians from the Nueva Palestina region invaded the northern bank of Lacantun River in the Montes Azules Reserve and cut some 40 hectares in areas they

  9. Atividade da catalase e da lactato desidrogenase em tilápias submetidas a estresse de confinamento: efeito da cor do ambiente Catalase and lactate dehydrogenase activity in tilapia subjected to contention stress: effect of the background color

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    Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da cor do ambiente sobre o crescimento e a atividade da enzima antioxidante catalase (CAT e da lactato desidrogenase (LDH em tilápias do Nilo (n=24; 36,2±3,6g. Oito exemplares foram mortos para determinação da atividade basal das enzimas e os demais permaneceram isolados durante 14 dias sob espectro de luz branca ou azul (n=8 peixes/tratamento. A seguir os peixes foram submetidos a um estresse diário de confinamento de 90 minutos (15° ao 28° dia e pesados semanalmente para cálculo da taxa de crescimento específico (TCE. A TCE negativa confirmou que o confinamento provocou estresse nos peixes, independentemente da cor do ambiente. O aumento da atividade da LDH no músculo vermelho dos peixes mantidos sob luz branca ou azul indicou mudança do metabolismo aeróbio para anaeróbio. O estresse reduziu a atividade da CAT no músculo branco dos peixes mantidos sob a luz branca ou azul. Na musculatura vermelha, esta redução ocorreu apenas nos animais mantidos sob a luz branca. O confinamento aumenta os processos metabólicos anaeróbios e é adequado para estudos sobre os efeitos do estresse. O espectro de luz azul não evita a redução do crescimento e a demanda energética anaeróbia em situações de estresse, mas preserva a atividade da CAT, contribuindo para o bem-estar da tilápia.We assess the effects of the background color on the growth and antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in Nile tilapia (n=24; 36.2±3.6g. Eight fish were killed for assessment of basal activity of the enzymes and the others remained isolated for 14 days under white or blue light spectrum (n=8 fish/treatment. Then each animal were subjected to a daily stress of confinement of 90 minutes (15th to 28th day and weighed to calculate the specific growth rate (SGR. The negative SGR confirmed that the confinement stressed in fish, regardless of the background color. The increased activity of LDH in red muscle of fish

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

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    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  11. Cúpulas comerciais para produção de geléia real e rainhas em colméias de abelhas Apis mellifera

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    Garcia Regina Conceição

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente ensaio foi testar quatro tipos comerciais de cúpulas distintas quanto à coloração, altura, volume e diâmetro, na aceitação das larvas transferidas e na produção de geléia real e rainhas. A cúpula que apresentou maior aceitação foi a alaranjada (55,6%, seguida da amarela (37,3%, azul (36,5% e branca (26,9%. As cúpulas que apresentaram maior peso de geléia real foram branca (347,7 mg, alaranjada (312,3 mg, amarela (284,0 mg e azul (202,8 mg. O peso das larvas retiradas no momento da coleta de geléia real não apresentou diferença nas cúpulas de diferentes colorações sendo, em média, 42,0 ± 49,6 mg. O peso das rainhas recém-emergidas foi maior na cúpula branca (190,2 mg, seguida da alaranjada (181,0 mg, amarela (175,4 mg e azul (147,5 mg. O volume das realeiras não apresentou diferença nas cúpulas de diferentes colorações sendo, em média, 822,5 mm³. Com relação às cúpulas de cera, tanto a porcentagem de aceitação quanto a quantidade de geléia real produzida não apresentaram diferença entre os tratamentos. A porcentagem de aceitação nas cúpulas de cera maiores foi 18,2% e nas cúpulas menores, 12,1%. A quantidade de geléia real produzida nas cúpulas de cera menores foi 151,4 mg e nas maiores foi 137,5 mg. As cúpulas branca, alaranjada e amarela apresentaram maior quantidade de geléia real por cúpula (347,7 mg, 312,3 mg e 284,0 mg, respectivamente, entretanto, a maior quantidade total de geléia real produzida por colméia, foi obtida com as cúpulas alaranjadas (1389,40 mg. Para a produção de rainhas também sugere-se o uso das cúpulas alaranjadas

  12. Evaluación del crecimiento y producción de biomasa de dos cepas del género Pleurotus spp., cultivadas en un medio agar con diferentes sustratos

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    Carol Daniela Coello-Loor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La velocidad de crecimiento radial (VCR (mm.h-1 y la producción de biomasa (PB (g.g-1 de sustrato seco son técnicas que puedan establecer el grado de adaptación y desarrollo de los hongos del género Pleurotus spp., a distintos sustratos que podrían emplearse en una fermentación en medio sólido. Las especies fueron Pleurotus sapidus (Ps y Pleurotus ostreatus IE8 (Po. El medio de cultivo sintético empleado fue el papa dextrosa agar (PDA, con un pH que va de 5.6 a 5.9, ideal para el crecimiento de hongos, tiene todos los componentes nutritivos, y ligera acidez que logran la inhibición del desarrollo de bacterias; diluido en 4 diferentes soluciones preparadas con los materiales residuales (solución cascarilla de arroz CaPDA, solución cáscara de maracuyá CmPDA, solución mezcla 50% Cascarilla de arroz+50% Cáscara de maracuyá CaCmPDA y agua destilada+PDA con el propósito de observar el crecimiento radial cada 24 horas y la producción de biomasa fúngica de estos hongos lignocelulósicos por su periodo de incubación y la adaptación a nivel in vitro. Los tratamientos que presentaron mejor comportamiento VCR fueron el PoCaPDA (0.569 y el PoCaCmPDA (0.549; la cepa que reporto valores más altos en VCR y PB fue el Pleurotus ostreatus y el mejor medio de cultivo fue el CaPDA, en ambas variables; mientras, la mayor producción de biomasa fue en Pleurotus sapidus en CaPDA (0.1727 y el Pleurotus ostreatus IE8 en CmPDA (0.1722, CaPDA (0.1706 y PDA (0.1694.

  13. Pigment chromatic adaptation in Cyclotella caspia Grunow (Bacillariophyta

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    Donato Seiji Abe

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The diatom Cyclotella caspia Grunow, isolated from surface waters of the Ubatuba region (São Paulo State, Brazil was submitted to different light spectral distributions for examination of its adaptative response. Growth rate and the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, carotenoids and phaeopigments were measured under white, blue and red light of the same intensity (8 and 20 µE.cm-2.s-1. Growth rate increased under blue light while red light increased chl a concentration. The relative proportion of chl a and carotenoids did not change, demonstrating the absence of complementary chromatic adaptation.A diatomácea Cyclotella caspia Grunow, isolada de águas superficiais da região de Ubatuba (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foi submetida a diferentes intervalos espectrais de luz com a finalidade de se examinar sua resposta adaptativa. Foram medidos a taxa de crescimento e os pigmentos fotossintéticos clorofila a, clorofila c, carotenóides e feopigmentos, sob luz branca, azul e vermelha de mesmas intensidades (8 e 20 µE.cm-2.s-1. A taxa de crescimento aumentou sob luz azul, sendo que a concentração de clorofila a aumentar sob luz vermelha. A proporção relativa de clα e carotenóides não variou, demonstrando a ausência de adapatação cromática complementar.

  14. Presencia de microplásticos en cuatro playas arenosas de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Purca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el número y peso por metro cuadrado de fragmentos de microplásticos presentes en cuatro playas arenosas de la costa peruana. Las muestras fueron colectadas entre junio de 2014 y mayo 2015. Fragmentos de plástico duro mayores a 1 mm fueron encontrados en más del 80% de las muestras de las cuatro playas. La playa Costa Azul (~ 12°S presentó 522 fragmentos por metro cuadrado (items/m2 de microplásticos, de los cuales, 463.33 items/m2 y 2.6 g/m2 fueron plásticos duros. La playa Albúfera de Medio Mundo (~ 11°S presentó el menor número y peso de microplásticos (4.67 items/m2 y 0.50 g/m2. Una muestra aleatoria de la playa Costa Azul fue analizada por el espectroscopio FT-IR. Se encontró 5 fragmentos con poliuretano (PE, dos fragmentos con polipropileno (PP y un fragmento con estireno (EPS. Pocos estudios mencionan al plástico duro como la mayor fracción de los microplásticos, se sugiere nuevas fuentes de intrusión y vías de microbasura en los hábitas, los cuales podrían estar afectando desde la base de trama trófica marina en el Perú.

  15. Degradação de xenobióticos por fungos filamentosos isolados de areia fenólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Silva

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Microrganismos foram isolados de areia fenólica resultante de atividades metalúrgicas, utilizando meio mínimo para fungos e pentaclorofenol (PCF como única fonte de carbono. Após quatro repiques sucessivos em intervalos de 15 dias de incubação, as culturas foram plaqueadas em meio de Martin. Três gêneros de fungos foram isolados e identificados como Acremonium sp., Paecilomyces sp. e Penicillium sp. Estes foram testados para degradar os corantes índigo e RBBR (Azul Brilhante de Remazol - R e o organoclorado PCF. A descoloração do índigo foi de 99%, para Paecilomyces e Penicillium, e de 74%, para Acremonium, e a de RBBR foi de 16%, para Penicillium; 14%, para Acremonium, e 5%, para Paecilomyces. Usando azul de bromotimol como indicador de degradação de PCF, foram obtidos 24% de descoloração para Acremonium; 22%, para Penicillium, e 17%, para Paecilomyces Utilizando cromatografia gasosa, detectou-se degradação de PCF de 69%, para Penicillium; 65%, para Paecilomyces, e 40% para Acremonium, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que foi possível isolar microrganismos de uma areia de fundição, altamente contaminada com fenóis, e os fungos isolados foram capazes de degradar PCF e outros xenobióticos testados.

  16. PRIMER REGISTRO DE EPIBIONTES EN EJEMPLARES JUVENILES DE CROCODYLUS ACUTUS EN EL MEDIO SILVESTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPUL-MAGAÑA FABIO GERMÁN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por vez primera la presencia de cuatro géneros de diatomeas (Amphora, Cymbella, Navicula y Nitzschia, un alga azul-verde del género Trichodesmium y colonias de protozoarios ciliados del género Epistylis, como epibiontes de cocodrilos de río juveniles (Crocodylus acutus. Los epibiontes se encontraron en la región ventral del cuerpo de cocodrilos juveniles, menores de 75 cm de largo, capturados en el estero Boca Negra, Jalisco, México.

  17. La prueba pericial en los delitos financieros

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Ortega , Cecilia Ilusión

    2016-01-01

    La utilidad del peritaje como medio de prueba en el proceso penal es un tema históricamente establecido. Su pertinencia y uso en los delitos de cuello azul, los delitos violentes asociados a la delincuencia común, hombre de poco estudio y clase social baja, es notoria (necropsias en homicidios, dictámenes en lesiones, violaciones, grafotecnia en estafas, fraudes). Pero el delito evoluciona con el hombre y el aparecimiento de los delitos de cuello blanco, cometidos por hombres estu...

  18. Evaluación de la actividad citotóxica, genotóxica y efecto sobre el ciclo celular de fracciones obtenidas a partir de la esponja marina Iotrochota birotulata

    OpenAIRE

    De la Ossa, Andrés Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Los organismos marinos constituyen una fuente importante de sustancias bioactivas con estructuras novedosas y con propiedades biológicas y farmacológicas potenciales.En este trabajo se evaluaron los efectos citotóxicos, genotóxicos y sobre el ciclo celular con las pruebas de azul de Tripano, MTT, ensayos de clonación, intercambio de cromatides hermanas (ICH), ensayo cometa (SCGE) y función de acumulación respectivamente de dos fracciones obtenidas de la esponja marina Iotrochota birotulata (c...

  19. Utilização do azul de metileno no tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica após cirurgia cardíaca Methylene blue administration in the treatment of the vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos S. de Andrade

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a restauração da resistência vascular sistêmica com o uso do azul de metileno (AM em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com e sem circulação extracorpórea. Todos os pacientes apresentaram no pós-operatório imediato quadro de taquicardia, oligúria, manutenção da perfusão periférica e importante hipotensão arterial sistêmica, retrataria a grandes doses de catecolaminas. As avaliações hemodinâmicas pela técnica de termodiluição com cateter de Swan-Ganz monstraram padrão compatível com síndrome vasoplégica, com índice de resistência vascular sistêmica média de 868 dina. s. cm5, sem resposta a drogas vasoativas. À semelhança do choque endotóxico, a síndrome foi interpretada como decorrente da estimulação da enzima óxido nítricosintetase com conseqüente formação de óxido nítrico (NO pelas células endoteliais. Utilizou-se então AM, como bloqueador do NO no sistemaguanililciclase/guanino-monofosfatociclase, na dose de 1,5 mg/kg peso, em infusão intravenosa por uma hora. O restabelecimento do tônus vascular sistêmico (IRVS = 1693 dina. s. cm5 com normalização da pressão arterial e do quadro clínico, foi efetivo e rápido, mostrando ser o AM uma promissora droga na diminuição da morbi-mortalidade da síndrome vasoplégica.The restoration of the systemic vascular resistance employing methylene blue (MB in 6 patients after cardiac surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass is reported. All patients presented, during the immediate postoperative period, tachycardia, oligury, good peripheral perfusion and important systemic arterial hypotension not responsible to large doses of catecholamines infusion. The hemodynamic analysis, using the Swan-Ganz thermodilution technique, showed a profile compatible with vasoplegic syndrome, with the mean index of systemic vascular resistance of 868 dyne.s.cm5, similarly to the endotoxic shock this syndrome was assumed to be caused by nitric oxide

  20. Risco de contaminação do corante azul de tripano após primeira utilização Risk of contamination of trypan blue dye after first use

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    João Baptista Nigro Santiago Malta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o potencial risco de contaminação do frasco de azul de tripano (AT depois de utilizado pela primeira vez e estocado em diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade, assim como identificar os possíveis fatores de contaminação, microrganismos mais freqüentemente envolvidos e simultaneamente avaliar as propriedades bacteriostáticas e bactericidas do corante. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo experimental, prospectivo, em que 30 frascos de AT foram divididos em três grupos (A: controle, B: armazenamento em geladeira e C: armazenamento em armário. O corante era aspirado e semeado em placas de ágar sangue e tubo de ágar Sabouraud. No grupo A o AT foi semeado apenas logo após a abertura dos frascos (tempo zero - T0, nos grupos B e C ocorreu semeadura nos T0, T1 (1 dia, T2 (2 dias, T7 (7 dias e T10 (10 dias após abertura dos frascos. No 10º dia os frascos dos grupos B e C também foram submetidos a um raspado do lado interno do frasco após abertura. Concomitantemente foi realizado teste de ação inibitória do corante AT para estudo da atividade bacteriostática e bactericida. RESULTADOS: As semeaduras realizadas no T0 não apresentaram contaminação. Entre os T1 e T10 mais o raspado houve apenas 1 frasco contaminado armazenado em geladeira. O microrganismo encontrado foi o Aspergillus niger. Foi comprovado que o corante não apresenta ação bactericida e bacteriostática para as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições do estudo não houve contaminação dos frascos armazenados em armário e 1 frasco (10% armazenado em geladeira apresentou contaminação após abertura e uso inicial. A fonte de contaminação talvez seja o lado externo do produto. O AT não apresenta propriedades bactericidas e bacteriostáticas para as bactérias testadas e na concentração utilizada.PURPOSE: To determine the potential risk of contamination of a trypan blue bottle (TB after first use and after being stored under different

  1. Alterações de cromatina em espermatozóides de ovinos e caprinos avaliadas por azul de toluidina e alaranjado de acridina Chromatin alterations in ram and goat spermatozoa evaluated by toluidine blue and acridine orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Figueiredo Kamimura

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Reprodutores com espermograma normal podem se comportar como subférteis ou passarem por períodos de subfertilidade. As alterações na cromatina dos espermatozóides são possíveis explicações encontradas para tais comportamentos. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de testar a eficiência de azul de toluidina (AT e do alaranjado de acridina (AA na identificação de alterações na compactação de cromatina em espermatozóides de ovinos e caprinos, além de avaliar a correlação entre essas alterações e as de morfologia espermática. Para tal, foram avaliadas amostras de sêmen de 15 ovinos e de 15 caprinos, com dez repetições para cada método por animal. Calcularam-se a média, o desvio padrão (DP e o coeficiente de variação (CV para cada técnica e animal. Utilizou-se o teste t-Student para avaliar diferença entre as médias obtidas nos dois métodos. Também foram calculados a correlação de Pearson e os coeficientes kappa ponderado e não ponderado para avaliar a concordância entre os métodos com AT e AA. Foi verificado que nem sempre as anomalias morfológicas de cabeça são acompanhadas por alterações na cromatina identificáveis pelos métodos utilizados neste trabalho. O método AT é mais estável e possui maior sensibilidade do que AA para ambas as espécies, sendo o mais indicado para caprinos. Contudo, em razão de apresentar repetibilidade muito baixa, ambos os métodos não são indicados para avaliação espermática em ovinos.Males with normal spermogram can behave as subfertile or pass for periods of subfertility. Chromatin alterations of spermatozoa can account for such behavior. The objective of the present work was to test the efficacy of toluidine blue (TB and acridine orange (AO in the identification of alterations in chromatin compaction in spermatozoa from rams and goats, in addition to evaluate the correlation between those alterations and the ones of spermatic morphology. In order to do that

  2. Biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by ligninolytic enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus Biodegradação do azul brilhante de remazol R pelo complexo enzimático ligninolítico produzido por Pleurotus ostreatus

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    Kátia Maria Gomes Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" is produced in Brazil on a commercial scale using various lignocellulosic residues. Efforts have been made to reuse the culture residue to obtain products of greater aggregate value such as enzymes or in processes of bioremediation. We evaluated the Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR degradation potential of extracts from solid substrate colonized by P. ostreatus and extracts from residue of the "shimeji" mushroom yield. Colonized substrates and residue were provided by Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extraction was performed with sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 4.6. RBBR decolorization was monitored at 592 nm and peroxidase and laccase activities were measured by monitoring the oxidation of ABTS. Horseradish peroxidase was used as reference. The time of growth of P. ostreatus influenced RBBR degradation and peroxidase and laccase activities. Concentration of 1 mM H2O2 and pH 4.0 were the best for RBBR decolorization. Complete RBBR decolorization was obtained with the addition of only one aliquot of 50 µL of 1 mM H2O2. The stability of the extracts was higher when they were kept under refrigeration than when stored frozen. The potential application of the ligninolytic complex derived from P. ostreatus and mushroom residue for xenobiotic degradation was demonstrated.Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" é produzido no Brasil em escala comercial empregando-se vários resíduos lignocelulósicos. Esforços têm sido feitos para reaproveitamento do resíduo do cultivo em produtos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas ou sua aplicação em processos de biorremediação. Foi feita avaliação do potencial de degradação do azul brilhante de remazol (RBBR por extratos obtidos de substratos sólidos colonizados por P. ostreatus e por extratos do resíduo da produção do cogumelo "shimeji". Substratos colonizados e o resíduo foram fornecidos pela Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extração foi feita com tampão acetato de sódio (50 mM, pH 4

  3. O uso da cerâmica avançada no design, de joias para o mercado de luxo nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Guilgen, Carolina de Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho apresenta o resultado de um experimento realizado no intuito de introduzir a zircônia pigmentada no design de joias para o mercado nacional. A zircônia é uma cerâmica avançada que vem sendo utilizada por empresas estrangeiras, nas cores branca, preta, rosa e azul claro. Com o crescimento do mercado de luxo no Brasil, as empresas nacionais devem enfrentar a concorrência das marcas estrangeiras, especialmente com o crescimento de shopping centers voltados para a camada de ...

  4. Mapa del proteoma de parásitos de Leishmania Viannia a partir de electroforesis de geles de poliacramida en dos dimensiones y otras técnicas asociadas

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Góngora; Nathalie Acestor; Manfredo Quadroni; Nicolas Fasel; Nancy G. Saravia; John Walker

    2003-01-01

    En este estudio demostramos el potencial de la electroforesis en dos dimensiones (2DE) como herramienta para la caracterización del proteoma de Leishmania (expresión proteica complementaria del genoma). Los proteomas por 2DE en el rango neutro (pH 5-7) de extractos solubles de promastigotes de Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis y Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis fueron reproducibles usando tampón de lisis de urea y nonidet P-40. Con la tinción de azul de Coomassie y nitrato de plata se detectaron...

  5. Degradação de xenobióticos por fungos filamentosos isolados de areia fenólica

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Silva; R. T. R. Monteiro

    2000-01-01

    Microrganismos foram isolados de areia fenólica resultante de atividades metalúrgicas, utilizando meio mínimo para fungos e pentaclorofenol (PCF) como única fonte de carbono. Após quatro repiques sucessivos em intervalos de 15 dias de incubação, as culturas foram plaqueadas em meio de Martin. Três gêneros de fungos foram isolados e identificados como Acremonium sp., Paecilomyces sp. e Penicillium sp. Estes foram testados para degradar os corantes índigo e RBBR (Azul Brilhante de Remazol - R) ...

  6. Modelo de innovación estratégico de negocios aplicado a viviendas de madera en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gómez Valdés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la globalización y tecnologías de la información hacen que sea más imperativo construir estrategias competitivas que destaquen a un negocio de otro. En el caso de la industria de la vivienda chilena, una alternativa que está tomando interés son aquellas construidas con madera. En este trabajo se presentó una innovación en modelo de negocios aplicada a un estudio de caso en la industria forestal mediante el diseño de un proceso que determinó las variables más adecuadas para crear estrategias de valor más competitivas en el sector de viviendas construidas de madera. Para esto se realizó una investigación utilizando como instrumento entrevistas y encuestas a una población conformada por empresas, expertos y clientes. En el análisis de datos, se utilizó el test de Chi-cuadrado de relación entre variables generando una propuesta basada en la estrategia de océano azul relacionada con la creación de valor, además de construir un modelo de negocios Canvas. El modelo estratégico de negocios propuesto se comparó con otros modelos mediante mapas de cadena de valor. Las entrevistas indicaron que existe poca información en el país sobre el uso de productos madereros, específicamente viviendas de maderas, en consecuencia se pueden abrir oportunidades de negocios en toda su cadena de valor. El análisis de datos y estrategia de océano azul permitieron formular un modelo de negocios con una propuesta de valor en la entrega rápida de viviendas de maderas con características térmicas y con aislación acústica, enfocada en segmentos de clientes rural de la octava región y el sector residencial con gustos estéticos del producto. Por lo tanto, se pudo innovar en proceso estratégico empleando distintas herramientas como el diseño y aplicación de encuestas, análisis de datos, la estrategia de océano azul y el modelo de negocios Canvas, como también se pudo aplicar para la innovación de casas de madera.

  7. A new method in estimation of total hexavalent chromium in Portland pozzolan cement; Un nuevo método en la determinación del cromo hexavalente total en cemento Portland puzolánico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.; Sharma, D.

    2017-07-01

    Variamine blue was used first time for the detection of hexavalent chromium from cement samples. In present method, cement was treated sequentially with water, sulphate and carbonate buffer to extract soluble, sparingly soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium respectively. Extracted Cr (VI) was determined using variamine blue as chromogenic reagent. The determination is based on the reaction of hexavalent chromium with potassium iodide in an acid medium to liberate iodine. This oxidizes variamine blue to form a violet coloured species having an absorption to maximum at 556 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) confirmed the complete extraction of hexavalent chromium by sequential extraction process. SRM 2701 (Reference material from NIST, USA) was used for revalidating the results. The percentage of recovery for proposed and reference method (diphelycarbazide method) varied from 98.5 to 101 and 97.5 to 100.5. Whereas, their relative error percentage varied from -1.5 to 0.33 and -2.5 to 0.5. [Spanish] El azul de variamina se utilizó por primera vez para la detección de cromo hexavalente en muestras de cemento. En el presente método, el cemento se trató secuencialmente con agua, y tampones sulfato y carbonato para extraer el cromo hexavalente soluble, poco soluble e insoluble, respectivamente. El Cr (VI) extraído se determinó utilizando azul de variamina como reactivo cromógeno, por reacción del cromo hexavalente con yoduro de potasio en un medio ácido para liberar yodo. Esto oxida al azul de variamina para formar una especie de color violeta con una absorción máxima a 556 nm. El análisis por energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX) y la espectroscopía de infrarrojos (IR) confirmaron la extracción completa de cromo hexavalente mediante el proceso de extracción secuencial. Se utilizó SRM 2701 (material de referencia de NIST, EE.UU.) para validar los resultados. El porcentaje de recuperación para el m

  8. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

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    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  9. Estudo crítico da avaliação da maturidade fetal pela citologia do líquido âmnico: comparação com outros métodos A critical study of the evaluation of foetal maturity through citology of the amniotic fluid: comparison with other methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Augusto Marcondes de Almeida

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Através da amniocentese em 90 gestações de alto risco, foi feito estudo crítico da citologia do líquido amniótico pelo Sulfato de Azul do Nilo em comparação com a creatinina e o Rx simples de abdomen e sua relação com a idade do RN (calculados pelas tabelas de Lubchenco e Capurro. Concluiu-se que a técnica do Sulfato de Azul do Nilo apresenta real valor, nas nossas condições econômicas, com menor percentagem de falhas com os demais métodos, sendo melhor para a avaliação de maturidade fetal o emprego simultâneo de todos os métodos, aliados à clínica.Through amniocentesis carried ou in 90 high-risk pregnant women a critical study of the citology of the amniotic fluid by the Nile-blue sulphate method was undertaken. The results were compared with those obtained by using creatinine and simple X-rays of the abdomen as well as their relationship with the foetal-age of the babies when born (calculated by the Lubchenco and Capurro tables. The Nile-blue sulphate method is of considerable value due to conditions in Brazil and presents a lower percentage of errors than others. For evaluation of foetal maturity, however, one should use all methods simultaneously, along with clinical assessment.

  10. Consagrando a los ciudadanos. Procesos electorales comparados en la campaña de Buenos Aires durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanteri, Sol

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to undertake the first comparative analysis of the electoral practices in the campaign of Buenos Aires from the establishment of the law of «broad» suffrage in 1821 up to and including Rosism, from the study of differentiated political jurisdictions such as the «partido» (minimum political jurisdiction of Quilmes and Azul-Tapalqué, distanced both geographically and historically. Through correspondence, minutes of meetings and electoral lists, etc., we contrast electoral behaviors related to socio-demographic, economic and cultural aspects, stressing the importance of the middle and subordinate sectors and of the negotiation and consensus during the process.

    El objetivo del trabajo es realizar un primer análisis comparativo de las prácticas electorales en la campaña de Buenos Aires desde la instauración de la ley de sufragio «amplio» en 1821 hasta el rosismo inclusive, a partir del estudio de jurisdicciones políticas diferenciadas como los partidos (mínima jurisdicción política de Quilmes y Azul-Tapalqué, distanciadas geográfica e históricamente. A través de correspondencia, actas y listas electorales, etc., se examina de forma confrontada sus comportamientos electorales vinculados a los aspectos socio- demográficos, económicos y culturales, recalcando la importancia de los sectores medios y subalternos, y de la negociación y el consenso en el proceso.

  11. Tela global e oceano azul: cinema 3D, o caso Brasil

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    Andre Gatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A exibição de filmes de longa-metragem em 3D é a nova onda da indústria cinematográfica global. O que está acontecendo no Brasil? Quais problemas da implantação do 3D no país? Tudo ainda é muito recente, mas os resultados desta onda já podem ser percebidos.

  12. ¿Qué es la Agenda Azul de las Mujeres? 1.

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hilda

    19 Nov 2008 ... otras actividades productivas. Participación, gestión y conflictos. Tradicional oral, cultura y agua ... ambientales está subvalorado, incluyendo el tema de cambio climático. ... con enfoque de género. 1. 2. 3. Propuestas.

  13. Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradação do corante Azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar Chitosan/Fe spheres on the Blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely V. de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação dos recursos hídricos é um dos maiores problemas ambientais da atualidade. Dentre as várias fontes poluidoras, destacam-se as indústrias têxteis, por serem fontes geradoras de grandes volumes de efluentes, muitas vezes tratados de maneira ineficiente. A principal causa do grande impacto ambiental decorrente deste descarte é a presença dos corantes, tais como os compostos do tipo azo, que podem gerar subprodutos de caráter carcinogênico e/ou mutagênico, ou como os de base antraquinona, que são muito resistentes à degradação natural e portanto persistem no efluente por um longo tempo. O objetivo do presente trabalho consiste na utilização de processos foto-Fenton assistidos por luz artificial e solar, utilizando ferro imobilizado em esferas de quitosana reticulada com glutaraldeído, para promover a degradação do corante reativo Azul QR-19, de base antraquinona, em solução aquosa. As esferas obtidas apresentaram tamanho regular com diâmetro de 4,0 mm. Os resultados demonstraram 90% de descoloração do sistema em 180minutos e redução de 60% do teor de carbono orgânico total (COT, para o sistema foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial. Para o sistema fotoassistido com luz solar, a descoloração foi integralmente obtida em 120 minutos com 70% de redução do teor de COT. Foi observado que o ferro permaneceu na matriz após o tratamento, possibilitando sua reutilização.The contamination of water resources is one of the greatest environmental problems today. Among the polluting sources are the textile industries due to the production of large volumes of effluent, often treated inefficiently. The main reason for the environmental impact of the rejected materials is the presence of dyes such as azo reactive compounds that can generate by-products with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. They may also include anthraquinone type compounds, which are highly resistant to degradation and persist in the effluent for a

  14. Methylene blue for vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery: fifteen years of questions, answers, doubts and certainties Azul de metileno no tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica em cirurgia cardíaca: quinze anos de perguntas, respostas, dúvidas e certezas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence that methylene blue (MB, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, is an excellent therapeutic option for vasoplegic syndrome (VS treatment in heart surgery. The aim of this article is to review the MB's therapeutic function in the vasoplegic syndrome treatment. METHODS: Fifteen years of literature review. RESULTS: 1 Heparin and ACE inhibitors are risk factors; 2 In the recommended doses it is safe (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 3 The use of MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 4 The MB effect appears in cases of nitric oxide (NO up-regulation; 5 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking of the GMPc system it releases the AMPc system, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 6 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus followed by the same continuous infusion because plasmatic concentrations strongly decays in the first 40 minutes; 7 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for the MB's effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no definitive multicentric studies, the MB used to treat heart surgery VS, at the present time, is the best, safest and cheapest option, being a Brazilian contribution for the heart surgeryOBJETIVO: Existem fortes evidências de que o azul de metileno (AM, um inibidor da guanilato ciclase, é uma excelente opção terapêutica para o tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica (SV em cirurgia cardíaca. O objetivo deste artigo é rever o papel terapêutico do AM no tratamento da SV. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura em período de 15 anos. RESULTADOS: 1 A heparina e inibidores da ECA são fatores de risco; 2 Nas doses preconizadas é droga segura (a dose letal é de 40 mg/kg; 3 O AM não causa disfunção endotelial; 4 O efeito do AM só aparece em caso de supra-regulação de óxido nítrico (NO; 5 O AM não é um vasoconstritor, pelo bloqueio do sistema GMPc ele "libera" o sistema AMPc, facilitando o efeito vasoconstritor da noradrenalina; 6 A dosagem mais utilizada é 2

  15. Desembarque artesanal en Ilo Moquegua: Flota espinelera. 1994-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Treviño Bernal, Hugo; Tejada Cáceres, Alex; Zambrano Pinto, Martín; Huamaní Delgado, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    La flota espinelera artesanal de Ilo-Moquegua, durante los años 1994-2001 desembarcó especies oceánicas. La información sobre áreas de pesca, volúmenes de captura, composición por especies, número de anzuelos, tipo de carnada y días de pesca se obtuvo de los pescadores espineleros. Se desembarcaron 11 especies, destacando: perico (Coryphaena hippurus), tiburón azul (Prionace glauca), tiburón diamante (Isurus oxyrinchus), pez espada (Xiphias gladius) y tiburón martillo (Sphyrna zygaena). Otras...

  16. Viaje Antártico

    OpenAIRE

    Lasa, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    Ah, qué grandiosa sensación esta de poder caminar por los eternos hielos y dejar que mi vista se pierda en el horizonte crepuscular de esta desolada región! Aquellas solitarias islas, lamentos blancos en la distancia, aquellos azules glaciares llorando su neblina de frío y siglos. Al llamado lejano, mi alma se ve arrastrada por los vientos australes. Mítico ensueño que genera en mi imaginación el gran continente antártico. Belleza misteriosa e intimidante de la vastedad casi mágica que envuel...

  17. Characterization of three agave species by gas chromatography and solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; Díaz, Laura; Medina, Alejandra; Labastida, Carmen; Capella, Santiago; Vera, Luz Elena

    2004-02-20

    Steam distillation (SD) extraction-solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC-MS was developed for the determination of terpenes and Bligh-Dyer extraction-derivatization coupled with GC for the determination of fatty acids such as ethyl esters were used. It was found that the three different Agave species have the same profile of fatty acids; the quantity of these compounds is different in each Agave variety. On the other hand, different terpenes were identified in the three Agave plants studied: nine in A. salmiana, eight in A. angustifolia and 32 in A. tequilana Weber var. azul.

  18. O GUME DA IRONIA EM MACHADO DE ASSIS E JANE AUSTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA GUARDINI TEIXEIRA VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available A partir de uma observação de John Gledson, que sugere "uma profunda afinidade entre Machado de Assis e Austen, sobretudo em sua ironia onipresente, meticulosa e implicitamente agressiva" (cf. "A parasita azul", tenciono investigar o potencial dessa afinidade, interrogando os usos que ambos fizeram da ironia como arma de crítica social e as possíveis diferenças que se podem estabelecer entre o modo como cada escritor a mobiliza para dar conta de representar o mundo que era o seu.

  19. Cuerpos de la violencia : Literatura y política en Alonso Cueto

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, María Elena

    2009-01-01

    De los enfrentamientos entre Sendero Luminoso y el gobierno del Perú emergen los hechos sobre los que el peruano Alonso Cueto construye dos novelas de registros diversos. Bordeando el relato de investigación trata de ahondar en los procesos políticos que perpetúan la violencia en la región. Si, por un lado, La hora azul relata una historia familiar desde la voz secreta del protagonista, a modo de diario íntimo, por el otro, en Grandes Miradas, las escenas captadas por una cámara, vinculadas a...

  20. Evaluación in vitro de la filtración marginal de diferentes sistemas de adhesión dentinaria: Gluma frente a Mirage

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Majó, José Luis; Roig Cayón, Miguel; Basilio Monné, J.; Jané Noblom, L.; Sentís Vilalta, Juan; Brau Aguadé, Esteban

    1992-01-01

    Los autores realizaron un estudio comparativo, in vitro, de la capacidad de prevenir la filtración marginal de dos adhesivos dentinarios, el Gluma-Bond y el Mirage-Bond, en cavidades de clases V y II. Se tallaron dichas cavidades en premolares humanos recién extraídos y se obturaron con un composite híbrido. A continuación se procedió al termociclado de las muestras y a su inmersión en azul de metileno, y tras seccionarlas se procedió a su estudio mediante un estereomicroscopio. Pese a lograr...

  1. Operações motivadoras condicionadas transitivas em atletas de alto rendimento : da replicação ao conceito

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Luiz Eduardo de

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo investigou o efeito das operações motivadoras condicionadas transitivas sobre a primeira resposta de uma cadeia comportamental de dois elos em uma tarefa de computador com participantes atletas de alto rendimento. Na cadeia comportamental, o comportamento de pressionar a tecla vermelha sob um esquema de razão variável 14, produzia a apresentação de 5 segundos do reforçador condicionado maçã, na presença do qual, pressionar a tecla azul resultava em 1 ponto verde trocável pel...

  2. Aplicaciones Nutraceúticas y cosmeceúticas de las algas

    OpenAIRE

    López-Figueroa, Félix

    2017-01-01

    El uso de la biomasa algal en diversas aplicaciones biotecnológicas ha experimentado un gran desarrollo en los últimos años. El crecimiento de las publicaciones científicas con contenidos como “extractos de algas”, “compuestos bioactivos de algas”, “biorremediación” o ”cosmética con algas” ha sido exponencial. Dentro de la Biotecnología azul se ha generado un mercado muy dinámico en el que la acuicultura, cosméticos, nutracéuticos e ingredientes funcionales tienen un gran peso. Los campos ...

  3. Seguridad ciudadana, movilización colectiva y percepción del delito : El rol de los medios de comunicación locales en la construcción de una marcha de silencio en una ciudad del interior de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Galar, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    El asesinato de un estudiante en la puerta de un baile universitario fue el punto de partida de una acción colectiva inédita ocurrida en la ciudad bonaerense de Azul, en mayo de 2007. En los seis días que separan el asesinato del joven del reclamo de justicia en su nombre los medios de comunicación locales cumplieron un rol determinante tanto en la construcción del caso como interviniendo en algunas redes de convocatoria tendidas por familiares y amigos. Los medios fueron fundamentales en la ...

  4. Instagram y el canon de belleza actual: modelos “plus-size".

    OpenAIRE

    Nebot Muñoz, Aroa

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Publicitat i Relacions Públiques. Codi: PU0932. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 La imagen de belleza parece pertenecer a un canon de mujeres delgadas, altas, rubias y con los ojos azules. Estas imágenes impregnan todos los espacios posibles, desde las revistas, los anuncios de publicidad, las páginas web… Dejando a las mujeres con crecientes insatisfacciones hacia su cuerpo, capaces de provocar graves daños a su salud mental y física. El movimiento “body po...

  5. Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 14 de febrero de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero, en la provincia de Valladolid, durante la mañana del 14 de febrero de 1951, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), Anas penelope (Silbón europeo), Anas platyrhynchos (Ánade azulón), Anser anser (Ánsar común), Anthus sp. (Bisbita), Ciconia ciconia (Cigüeña blanca), Clamator glandarius (Críalo europeo), Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Picogordo), Corvus coro...

  6. Modelo explicativo de factores psicológicos y el bullying: primer proyecto semillero de investigación de la Dirección Universitaria de Educación a Distancia de la Universidad Alas Peruanas

    OpenAIRE

    Alvites- Huamaní, Cleofé Genoveva

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación aborda el tema del bullying como un problema social que afecta al país en diferentes contextos socioeconómicos y demográficos, siendo el objetivo general el analizar las múltiples relaciones entre la depresión, ansiedad, autoestima, riesgo suicida, clima familiar y autoconcepto como factores psicológicos relacionados con el bullying en estudiantes de 4to y 5to grado de primaria de instituciones públicas de Lima (San Juan de Lurigancho), Arequipa (Cerro Azul) y Trujillo (El ...

  7. Radicalización del nacionalismo chino moderno: orígenes y desarrollo del fascismo chino. El caso de las organizaciones fascistas del Guomindang: la Sociedad Lixingshe y el Movimiento de la Nueva Vida (1927-1937)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chiao-In

    2014-01-01

    ¿Ha existido en realidad el fascismo chino? Cuando hablamos de fascismo chino tenemos que hacer referencia necesariamente a una organización política conocida con varios nombres distintos: el nombre más común fue el de Camisas Azules (lanyishe) que fue utilizado en las prensa internacional durante los año treinta, aunque también se conoció por su nombre oficial, Sociedad de la Práctica Rigurosa de los Tres Principios del Pueblo (sanminzhuyi lixingshe o simplemente lixingshe). Lógicamente los ...

  8. Ictiofauna del Mioceno superior del Suroeste de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir (Suroeste de España)

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Garcia, E.X.M.,; Muñoz, R.; Antunes, M.T.; Balbino, A.; Toscano-Grande, A.; Abad de los Santos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Se estudiaron los restos de ictiolitos obtenidos en seis localidades de la Formación Arcillas de Gibraleón (Tortoniense superior - messiniense). Esta Formación se caracteriza en su inicio por um nivel glauconítico, fechado en 7,512-8 millones de años. Suprayacente, aparece un potente tramo de arcillas azules masivas y margas que puede llegar hasta 1.000m encontrados em sondeos. Se encontram dientes de seláceos, otolitos y vertebras de osteíctios. Se registraron siete taxones de seláceos.

  9. Survey Report on the Tsunami of the Michoacan, Mexico Earthquake of September 19, 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Katsuyuki; Hakuno, Motohiko; Takeuchi, Mikio; Katada, Toshiyuki

    1987-01-01

    The tsunami was caused by the Michoacan, Mexico earthquake (M. 8.1) of September 19, 1985. According to the site survey, sea water ran up to an elevation of 2 meters or more above sea level in the coastal areas of Mexico from Petatlan to Playa Azul. The tsunami was as high as 4 meters at Barra del Potosi and Playa Linda, where minor tsunami damages occurred; some thatched huts on the beaches were destroyed and pieces of furniture were swept out to sea. The tsunami magnitude Mt is estimated to...

  10. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants;Adsorcion de colorantes azul vegetal y azul acuarela por zeolitas naturales modificadas con surfactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz N, M. C., E-mail: teresa.olguin@inin.gob.m [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  11. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  12. Preparación de un nuevo material híbrido orgánico/inorgánico mediante la intercalación de colina en bronce de molibdeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito, P.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Intercalation of a organic compound, 2-hydroxyl etil trimetil ammonium, in the layered host molybdenum bronzes was achieved. Full characterization of solids was performed using chemical analysis, X-ray diffaction, thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy. Using fresh sodium hydrated layered molybdenum bronce yields a monofasic layered solid. The hybrid organic-inorganic compound exhibs a high lamellar order, which is stable at temperatura below 550 K, then collapsing by combustion of organic component. All features show that blue molybdenum bronzes will be a good host for intercalation.

    Se aborda la intercalación de un compuesto orgánico, 2-hidroxil etil trimetil amonio (Colina, entre las láminas de bronce azul de molibdeno. El sólido obtenido se caracteriza mediante análisis químico (AQ, difracción de rayos-X (XRD, análisis térmico (DTA y TG y espectroscopia infrarroja (FT-IR. La utilización de un bronce sódico de molibdeno recién preparado facilita la incorporación de la molécula orgánica, dando lugar a la formación de una única fase laminar. El material híbrido muestra un alto ordenamiento laminar, estable a temperaturas inferiores a los 550 K, que se descompone por combustión del componente orgánico. Los resultado obtenidos indican que el bronce azul de molibdeno puede ser un buen candidato para la obtención de compuestos de intercalación.

  13. Diversidade de habitats físicos e sua relação com macroinvertebrados bentônicos em reservatórios urbanos em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseline Molozzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da estrutura física de habitats em comunidades de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em três reservatórios: Serra Azul (SA, Vargem das Flores (FV e Ibirité (IB. Mensurações de variáveis físicas e químicas e comunidade bentônica foram realizadas em 30 estações de amostragem em cada reservatório. Em SA, foram coletados 12 táxons com predomínio de Melanoides tuberculatus Müller, 1774 (15,2% e Chaoboridae (63,8%. Em VF foram coletados 11 táxons sendo M. tuberculatus (34,2% e Oligochaeta (33,6% os dominantes. Em IB foram coletados 7 táxons com domínio de M. tuberculatus (91,2% e Chaoboridae (6,27%. Em Serra Azul foi observada influência significativa do sub-bosque arbustivo e do ângulo de inclinação do barranco. Nos reservatórios de Ibirité e Vargem das Flores as variáveis significativas foram cobertura do solo, influência humana e macrófitas aquáticas. Concluímos que as ações humanas reduzem a cobertura da vegetação terrestre e a complexidade de habitats físicos na região litorâneos dos reservatórios, levando a uma redução na qualidade de água. Essas mudanças, por sua vez, reduzem a riqueza taxonômica dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos.

  14. Rol del óxido nítrico en modelos experimentales propuestos para inducir inflamación gástrica e intestinal en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Herrera, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Actualmente se vienen usando varios modelos que utilizan al etanol (EtOH) y la indometacina (Indo) para inducir inflamación gástrica e intestinal en forma experimental. Con el objeto de determinar cuál es el rol del óxido nítrico (NO) en la inflamación gástrica e intestinal, hemos utilizado como donadores de NO al nitrito de sodio (NIT), nitroprusiato de sodio (NPS) y metronidazol (MET); y como inhibidor inespecífico de la sintasa del NO a la NG-nitro-L-arginina-metil éster (LNAME) y el azul ...

  15. Tratamento térmico de berilo incolor (goshenita) e colorido (água-marinha, heliodoro e morganita)

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Gabriel de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Evolução Crustal e Recursos Naturais. Departamento de Geologia. Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. A comercialização de grande parte do mineral-gema berilo depende de tratamento térmico mplamente utilizado para água-marinha (azul e verde), morganita e heliodoro, com o objetivo de melhorar ou modificar a cor natural e, assim, agregar valor à gema. Na aplicação do tratamento térmico, devem ser levadas em consideração as mudanças físico-químicas ...

  16. Antarctic climate variability during the past few centuries based on ice core records from coastal Dronning Maud Land and its implications on the Recent warming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Naik, S.S.; Laluraj, C.M.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ravindra, R.

     as to facilitate the summer layer counting. Chronology thus determined by counting the seasonal  cycles  in  the  oxygen  isotope  data  was  further  supported  by  the  identification  of  well‐known  volcanic eruptions of Pinatubo (AD 1991) and Azul (AD 1932). Further to validate the chronology,  the tritium spikes originated from atomic bomb...

  17. PIGMENTOS Y PINTURAS DE MINERAL DE COBRE EN LA REGIÓN DE TARAPACÁ, NORTE DE CHILE: NUEVOS DATOS PARA UNA TECNOLOGÍA PIGMENTARIA PREHISPÁNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda,Marcela; Figueroa,Valentina; Cárcamo,José

    2014-01-01

    La explotación de los recursos minerales de cobre en el norte de Chile implicó la producción de pigmentos azules y verdes identificados, hasta ahora, en pintura rupestre, en nódulos y en estado de polvo al interior de contenedores de cuero provenientes de distintos cementerios de la cuenca del río Loa, región de Antofagasta, desierto de Atacama. En este artículo, se presentan los primeros resultados de análisis físico-químicos de pintura verde aplicada sobre distintos soportes de cuero: másca...

  18. Síntesis de pigmentos basados en el sistema ZRO2 - SIO2 - V2O5 mediante Silicato de Zirconio

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HONGQUAN; WANG, LIRONG; ZHANG, QIMIN

    2003-01-01

    El pigmento basado en el sistema óxido de zirconioóxido de silicio ( ZrO2-SiO2) es de una clase importante que se utiliza ampliamente en la preparación de cerámicas vidriadas y en la producción de esmaltes cerámicos. En este artículo se expone una nueva tecnología de síntesis, mediante la cual se ha obtenido el pigmento azul de zirconio–vanadio, a partir de un mineral de silicato de zirconio(ZrSiO4). Se discute acerca de los factores que influyen en la tonalidad del...

  19. Vascular plants diversity of El Aribabi Conservation Ranch: A private natural protected area in northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Denise Z. Avila-Jimenez; David A. Delgado-Zamora; Liliana Armenta-Cota; Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia. Reina-Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    In northeastern Sonora, isolated Sky Island mountain ranges with desertscrub, desert grassland, oak woodland, and pine-oak forest have high biodiversity. El Aribabi Conservation Ranch in the Sierra Azul (from 30°51’13”N, 110°41’9”W to 30°46’38”N, 110°32’3”W) was designated a Private Protected Natural Area by the Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas in March...

  20. Anomalías congénitas del corazón

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Villa, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Es muy común en clínica cardiológica pensar poco en las lesiones congénitas del corazón. En sus cursos de Patología en estudiante pasa sobre ellas considerándolas como cosa demasiado rara, como mostruosidades apenas comparables a la de los mellizos siameses. Su atención apenas sí se fija en la enfermedad azul (morbus ceruleus), impropiamente llamada por él enfermedad de Roger, por el recuerdo de algún caso visto en la calle, que le han explicado ser debido a una comunicación interventricular....

  1. Acerca De La Identidad Boliviana En Argentina. Un Análisis De Tres Casos De Estudio En La Provincia De Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Mariano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the representations, practices and cultural expressions carried out by groups of Bolivian immigrants and their descendants in the cities of Olavarria, Tandil and Azul in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. For this purpose, the three case studies presented are analyzed based on the theoretical notions of identities and ethnic groups proper to the field of social anthropology. It thus seeks to contribute to knowledge about the construction of the identities of Bolivian immigrants in Argentina and, especially, to the discussion of those perspectives that propose the cultural assimilation of these groups into the host society.

  2. Cartas de amor y guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes Tovar Pinzón

    2012-01-01

    El primero de enero de 1813 mientras Santa Fé alistaba cañones, tropas y bastimentos un hombre alto de cuerpo, moreno, flaco, de capa azul, botas fuertes y calzones del mismo color tomó rápidamente a José del Campo con sus 13 años y por entre las oscuras calles de la ciudad lo llevó hasta San Victorino para que escuchara cómo escurrirse rápidamente hacia el campo de don Antonio Baraya. Luego de recibir perentorias instrucciones de evitar a cualquier costa "hacer alguna cagada" (1), una mujer ...

  3. Efecto de la espirulina en el manejo de las alteraciones metabólicas relacionadas a la obesidad: Revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Bohorquez Medina, Sofia Lorena

    2017-01-01

    Conocida como una cianobacteria verde azul, la espirulina está en la tierra hace 3,6 mil millones de años, evolucionó hacia la realización de fotosíntesis oxigenada haciendo uso del agua como sustrato, lo que ayudó a sintetizar O2 y transformar la atmósfera, permitiendo la evolución de las plantas y demás seres vivos. Además, sirvió de alimento para animales y humanos por muchos años. Entre sus múltiples efectos positivos en la salud, se encuentra su actividad hipocolesterolémica y antioxidan...

  4. Desenvolvimento de métodos eletroanalíticos empregando o eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro para a determinação simultânea de edulcorantes e corantes em produtos alimentícios

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Batista Deroco

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho, desenvolveu-se métodos eletroanalíticos para a determinação simultânea dos pares: amarelo crepúsculo (AC) e aspartame (AS), azul indigotina (AI) e vermelho 40 (V40)), bem como aspartame (AS) e acesulfame-K (AK) em produtos alimentícios utilizando-se o eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro (BDD). O par AS e AC foi determinado, sem a necessidade de separação prévia em H2SO4 0,30 mol L-1 com o eletrodo de BDD pré-tratado anodicamente e utilizando amperometria de múltiplos pulsos (...

  5. Photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthesis rate and chloroplast structure in young plants of Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker grown under colored netsTeores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, taxa de fotossíntese e estrutura de cloroplastos de plantas jovens de Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker cultivadas sob malhas coloridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anacleto Ranulfo dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaco (Mikania laevigata is a medicinal plant used to treat fever, rheumatism, flu and respiratory tract diseases. Understanding the physiology of this species and its responses to environmental conditions has become necessary to improving the cultivation methods. In this context, this work aimed to access the effects of shading by using colored nets in on photosynthetic pigment concentration, photosynthetic rate and ultrastructure of chloroplasts of Mikania laevigata. The plants were cultivated during four months under nets with 50% shading in blue, red and gray color nets and under full sunlight (0%. The plants grown under full sunlight had decreased contents of a and b chlorophyll, and of carotenoids, while those grown under blue nets shown higher concentrations of a and b chlorophyll. The lowest density of chloroplasts was found in plants cultivated under full sunlight. Elongated chloroplasts were noticed in treatments with 50% shading. Regarding the potential rate of photosynthesis no significant change was observed among the plants grown under red, blue and gray nets, which leads to the conclusion that the spectrum transmitted by different coloured nets did not affect guaco photosynthetic apparatus.O guaco (Mikania laevigata é uma planta medicinal, usada para o tratamento de febre, reumatismo, gripe e doenças do trato respiratório. O entendimento do comportamento fisiológico dessa espécie e as suas respostas às condições do ambiente tornam-se necessários ao aperfeiçoamento dos métodos de cultivo. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do sombreamento com uso de malhas coloridas na concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos, na taxa de fotossíntese e na ultra-estrutura de cloroplastos de plantas de Mikania laevigata. As plantas foram cultivadas por quatro meses sob malhas de 50% de sombreamento nas cores azul, vermelha e cinza e a pleno sol (0%. As plantas mantidas a pleno sol tiveram os

  6. Del príncipe azul al exitoso millonario: Cincuenta sombras de Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Montero Fernández

    2016-05-01

    obra; y, a su vez, contrastar si existe una correlación entre este éxito y una tendencia de fantasías sexuales sadomasoquistas que se hayan podido despertar a través de dicha novela. Con una muestra de 102 sujetos, los resultados desvelaron que estos mitos y micromachismos existentes en la sociedad son identificados en la teoría, pero aceptados en la práctica cotidiana; y que el sadomasoquismo no supuso un ingrediente de éxito para la repercusión de Cincuenta sombras de Grey

  7. Del rojo al azul : las pantallas de las dos Españas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la guerra civil española (1936- 1939 el cine se convirtió en una de las armas principales de la retaguardia. En la zona republicana se optó por la colectivización o la incautación de las salas de exhibición y de las empresas cinematográficas para convertirlas en el elemento clave de la propaganda plural del gobierno, partidos y sindicatos, así como en una fuente de ingresos. Las más de 400 obras producidas pretendían educar y elevar la moral de los españoles a la vez que solicitar al resto del mundo una ayuda que nunca llegó. Entre tanto, en la zona rebelde, con poco más de la cuarta parte de la producción, se creaba un aparato cinematográfico único, bajo las claras consignas censoras de la Falange que, tras el triunfo franquista, dirigirá las líneas de la producción cinematográfica nacional.Along the Spanish civil war (1936-1939 the cinema became one of the main weapons in the rear. The republican area the theatres and the cinema companies were either collectivized or withheld to turn them into a key element in the government propaganda, political parties and syndicates, as well as an incoming font. The more-than four hundred of titles produced tried to educate and raise the moral of the Spanish while using the films to pledge for the never coming external help. Meanwhile in the rebel area was produced only a quarter of the pieces, but there was created an unique cinematographic machine highly controlled and censored by the Spanish Falangist party which, after the triumph of Franco, would mark the lines of the national cinematographic production.

  8. Trophic transference of microplastics under a low exposure scenario: Insights on the likelihood of particle cascading along marine food-webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2017-08-15

    Microplastics are emergent pollutants in marine environments, whose risks along food-web still need to be understood. Within this knowledge gap, MPs transference and persistence along trophic levels are key processes. We assessed the potential occurrence of these processes considering a less extreme scenario of exposure than used previously, with microplastics present only in the hemolymph of prey (the mussel Perna perna) and absent in the gut cavity. Predators were the crab Callinectes ornatus and the puffer fish Spheoeroides greeleyi. Transference of microplastics occurred from prey to predators but without evidences of particle persistence in their tissues after 10days of exposure. This suggests a reduced likelihood of trophic cascading of particles and, consequently, a reduced risk of direct impacts of microplastics on higher trophic levels. However, the contact with microplastics along food-webs is still concerning, modulated by the concentration of particles in prey and predators' depuration capacity and rate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Fenologia de Lafoensia pacari A.St.-Hil. (Lythraceae em Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brasil Phenology of Lafoensia pacari A.St.-Hil. (Lythraceae in Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.W. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A.St.-Hil. é uma espécie da flora do cerrado usada na medicina popular como anti-úlcera, antifúngica, antibactericida, anti-inflamatória, febrífuga, para emagrecimento e no tratamento de pneumonia, dores de estômago e coceiras. Estudou-se a fenologia de L. pacari no cerrado do Parque Estadual da "Serra Azul", região de Barra do Garças-MT (15º 51' 58" S e 52º 15' 37" W, à 645 m de altitude, durante o período de 24 meses. Verificou-se que as fenofases são sazonais, com floração nos meses de abril a agosto, frutificação de junho a setembro, brotação no início da estação chuvosa de outubro a dezembro e queda de folhas de julho a setembro, no final da estação seca.Lafoensia pacari is a species from the Brazilian cerrado used in folk medicine to control ulcers, fungal and bacterial diseases, inflammations, fevers, pneumonia, stomachaches, and itching, as well as to lose weight. L. pacari phenology was studied for 24 months in the cerrado at "Serra Azul" State Park, in the region of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (15º 51' 58" S and 52º 15' 37" W, at 645 m altitude. Phenophases are seasonal, with flowering from April to August, fruiting from June to September, sprouting from October to December, during the beginning of the rainy season, and leaf fall from July to September, at the end of the dry season.

  10. Avaliação da durabilidade de processos fotocatalíticos aplicados como pós-tratamentos em substratos de argamassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Custódio Garcia Junior

    Full Text Available ResumoOs processos fotocatalíticos estão sendo estudados e incorporados a sistemas construtivos objetivando melhoria da qualidade da água e do ar. No entanto pairam dúvidas sobre qual o grau de atuação da fotocatálise nos substratos e sobretudo por quanto tempo continua ocorrendo e qual sua intensidade. O método proposto consiste em, através de um pós-tratamento superficial associado a um processo fotocatalítico, obter a simultaneidade das ações dos efeitos hidrofóbicos e hidrofílicos. O presente artigo propõe avaliar a durabilidade de processos fotocatalíticos por meio de um programa experimental, em que corpos de provas de argamassa para revestimento externo após serem pós-tratados e manchados com soluções de azul de metileno (C16H18N3SCl na concentração de 1% em água deionizada e em álcool etílico 92,8°(C2H6O, foram submetidos a 200 ciclos de envelhecimento artificial (molhagem, exposição à radiações infravermelho e ultravioleta. Os resultados apontam: 1 o aumento da concentração de dióxido de titânio acelera os processos de degradação do azul de metileno; 2 os tratamentos superficiais com dispersões aquosas de TiO2 apresentaram queda de desempenho ao longo dos ensaios; 3 o hidrofugante à base de silicone mostrou um bom potencial como agente de fixação do semicondutor.

  11. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima

    2000-01-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863± 97 Ma and e Nd (T) of +4.1 T D M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 ± 77 Ma and e Nd (T) of +2.9. T DM values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 ± 120 Ma and initial e Nd value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  12. EFECTO DE DOS TIPOS DE FUNDAS SOBRE EL FRUTO DE BANANO (Musa AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de dos fundas en la protección del racimo de banano (Musa AAA . En dos épocas climáticas (adversa y favorable bajo condiciones del Ca ribe de Costa Ri ca se evaluaron dos fundas: 1- azul Sa nta Lucía (bifentrina 0,1%, polie tileno de 12,7 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 86,4 cm de ancho y 2- transparente con aditivos para filtrar la luz ultravioleta e infrarroja (bifentrina 0,1%, 20,3 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 88,9 cm de ancho. El peso del racimo así como el grosor y la longitud del fruto central de la fila externa en la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano no difirieron (P> 0,0556 entre ambas fundas. Tampoco hubo diferencias entre estas en la apa rie ncia del racimo (P>0,4699 ni en la firmeza de la cáscara en grado 1 de maduración (P= 0,6268. En las varia bles de medición del color del fruto solamente L* presentó un valor (56,48 más alto (P=0,0109 con la funda transparente fotosensible, mie ntras que las otras dos varia bles relacionadas (a* y b* no fueron diferentes (P>0,1011 entre las fundas. El incremento adicional de 7,6 ¿ en el grosor del polie tileno de la funda transparente con respecto a la azul Sa nta Lucía, no ocasionó un incremento productivo ni una mejor apa rie ncia del racimo de banano y sus frutos.

  13. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863{+-} 97 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +4.1 T{sub D}M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 {+-} 77 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +2.9. T {sub DM} values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 {+-} 120 Ma and initial e{sub Nd} value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  14. Estado Sanitario de las Leches que Llegan a las Plantas Procesadoras de la Ciudad de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega G. Antonio

    1971-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de conocer las condiciones sanitarias de las leches que llegan a las plataformas de recibo de las tres plantas procesadoras existentes en la ciudad de Medellín, se analizaron seiscientas una muestras de leche cruda procedentes de distintas regiones del Departamento de Antioquia y pertenecientes a quinientos cuarenta y cinco proveedores. A cada muestra se le tomó la temperatura de llegada a la planta y se le hicieron análisis de densidad, acidez, sedimentación y tiempo de reducción del azul de metileno. Además de los análisis anteriores, se hicieron otros para detectar adición de bicarbonato a ciento ochenta muestras y se practicó el conteo directo de microorganismos por el método de Breed a doscientas siete muestras de leche. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que la calidad de la leche cruda que se procesa en Medellín es muy baja. Es así, que el 100% de las muestras analizadas llegó a la planta procesadora con temperaturas superiores a 109C; un 5.32% demostró una densidad menor de 1.027; un 5.48% resultó ácido; solamente un 12.48% presentó una sedimentación menor de 0.5 mgs, por botella de leche; tan solo un 9.32% tuvo un tiempo de reducción del azul de metileno mayor de 3 horas; un 3.3% resultó positivo a la prueba de bicarbonato y un 67% de las leches examinadas tuvo más de 2.000.000 de bacterias por c.c.

  15. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Cactaceae é uma trepadeira arbustiva conhecida comumente como ora-pro-nobis. Apresenta elevado teor de mucilagem e proteína, sendo empregada na indústria alimentícia e farmacêutica. Na medicina popular, é utilizada externamente como emoliente. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a anatomia foliar e caulinar da planta, a fim de fornecer informações complementares à sua identificação e aplicáveis ao seu controle de qualidade. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados à mão livre e corados com azul de astra e fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes histoquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram realizados. A folha é simples e elíptica. Possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos paracíticos em ambas as faces, mesofilo que tende a ser dorsiventral, contendo numerosas drusas de oxalato de cálcio e células isodiamétricas grandes com conteúdo mucilaginoso. A nervura central é percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral em arco aberto. O pecíolo tem secção plano-convexa e um feixe colateral em formato de arco fechado. O caule, em estrutura secundária incipiente, possui epiderme unisseriada, colênquima angular, parênquima cortical com muitos amiloplastos, calotas de fibras perivasculares e organização vascular colateral. No córtex e na medula, são observadas numerosas cavidades com conteúdo mucilaginoso e drusas de oxalato de cálcio, estas também presentes no floema.

  16. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. G. Machado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%; 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. chrysosporium used as reference. Extracellular extracts of 35 selected fungi grown on solid medium with sugar cane bagasse (BGS were evaluated for RBBR decolorization and peroxidase activity. All fungi showed peroxidase activities, but 5 of those were unable to decolorize the RBBR. Different patterns of ligninolytic enzymes were detected in 12 fungi extracts. Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP was produced by Peniophora cinerea, Psilocybe castanella, three strains of Trametes villosa, T. versicolor, Melanoporia nigra and Trichaptum byssogenum. All 12 fungi had laccase activity. Trogia buccinalis showed the highest RBBR decolorization and did not produce MnP activity. RBBR decolorization without MnP production was also observed for three strains of Lentinum tested. Higher levels of peroxidase and laccase cannot be related to high RBBR decolorization. RBBR decolorization by extracellular extract was also detected during the growth of P. castanella, L. crinitus, P. cinerea and two strains of T. Villosa in pentachlorophenol- and hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soils. These fungi showed higher RBBR decolorization when grown in the presence of organochlorine compounds than when in non contaminated soil.O corante azul brilhante Remazol R (RBBR foi usado como substrato para avaliar 125 fungos basidiomicetos isolados de ecossistemas tropicais brasileiros quanto a atividade ligninolítica. A descoloração do RBBR por extratos obtidos do crescimento de fungos em meio sólido e

  17. Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre O. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.. O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos.The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important microclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the plants and

  18. Utilização subterrânea dos maciços rochosos

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Efigenia Soares

    2001-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção A cidade de Florianópolis, situada na Ilha de Santa Catarina entre as latitudes 27º 22' S e 27º 50'S, possui incontestável vocação turística ligada às suas características físicas e naturais: morros recobertos pelo verde da exuberante Mata Atlântica que, ao se encontrar com o mar azul, forma costões rochosos entrecortados por belíssimas praias arenosas. O proce...

  19. Molecular variability among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of Agave tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ramos, Karla L; Uvalle-Bueno, J Xavier; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F

    2013-04-01

    In this study, 115 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from roots of Agave tequilana Weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western Mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) using HaeIII and HinfI, and genetic diversity was determined using Box-PCR molecular markers. Box-PCR analysis generated 14 groups. The groups correlated highly with the geographic location of the isolate and sample type. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ARDRA and Box-PCR techniques in the molecular characterization of the Fusarium genus for the discrimination of pathogenic isolates.

  20. Coloreando el Álgebra Lineal

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    Marina Murillo Arcila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un ejemplo de cómo introducir conceptos  básicos de Álgebra Lineal en un primer curso de Ingeniería a partir del modelo de color RGB basado en la síntesis aditiva de los tres colores de luz primarios rojo, verde y azul. Utilizando este modelo se pretende establecer una conexión entre la obtención de colores por adición y los conceptos matemáticos de espacio vectorial, combinación lineal de vectores y envoltura convexa. Para visualizar esta conexión nos ayudamos del software Geogebra.

  1. ANTOCIANINAS DE UVAS (Vitis vinífera L.) PRODUZIDAS EM SISTEMA CONVENCIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Camila Gabriel; Tonhi, Carolina Dário; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-01-01

    As antocianinas são pigmentos que proporcionam coloração às flores e aos frutos, indo do azul ao vermelho. Isso se deve a compostos fenólicos encontrados na uva, propriedades reconhecidas como benéficas ao ser humano. Mas devido a sua instabilidade à temperatura, à luz, ao pH e a copigmentação das antocianinas, suas aplicações na indústria alimentícia, ainda requerem certos cuidados. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar e aperfeiçoar métodos de extração e purificação de antocianinas de uvas ...

  2. Presencia de microplásticos en cuatro playas arenosas de Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Purca, Sara; Henostroza, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Se presenta el número y peso por metro cuadrado de fragmentos de microplásticos presentes en cuatro playas arenosas de la costa peruana. Las muestras fueron colectadas entre junio de 2014 y mayo 2015. Fragmentos de plástico duro mayores a 1 mm fueron encontrados en más del 80% de las muestras de las cuatro playas. La playa Costa Azul (~ 12°S) presentó 522 fragmentos por metro cuadrado (items/m2) de microplásticos, de los cuales, 463.33 items/m2 y 2.6 g/m2 fueron plásticos duros. La playa Albú...

  3. Gracia, misterio y nostalgia de Rafael Alberti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen algunos poemas, a veces unos cuantos versos, dotados de una extraordinaria capacidad germinal y suscitadora. De los inmortales eneasílabos de la Canción de otoño en primavera descienden multitud de elegías contemporáneas. Y al releer ahora la obra juvenil de Rafael Alberti, -su Marinero en tierra- tan vivaz, tan optimista y garbosa, tan pintada de azul marino, de rojo amoroso y de verde eglógico, hemos recordado un viejo y precioso romancillo de Juan Ramón Jiménez en el que parecen estar ya implícitas algunas de las mejores claridades albertianas.

  4. La memoria de la violencia: las consecuencias del conflicto armado contra Sendero Luminoso representadas en una película y dos novelas peruanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Sagermann Bustinza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiar situation of violence experienced in Peru of the 1980s and the 1990s shows a society immersed in the trauma, suffering and pain. The literature as well as the film have become a means to reflect the painful experience of the society. The aim of this article is to analyse some of the main characters of the novels: 'La hora azul' (2005 by Alonso Cueto, 'Abril rojo' by Santiago Roncagliolo (2006, and the film: 'La teta asustada' (2009 by Patricia Llosa in order to show the effects of traumatic experiences of the past and an attempt to return to normal life.

  5. Ecology and conservation of the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi in “restinga” habitats of the north coast of Bahia state, Brazil doi: 10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n4p71

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Vieira Martins; Eduardo José dos Reis Dias; Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n4p71As restingas são habitats herbáceos/arbustivos de dunas de areia cobrindo grande parte do litoral do Estado da Bahia. O nível de fragmentação do ecossistema de restinga, especialmente na região nordeste do Brasil, é preocupante ao se considerar que a destruição e a fragmentação dos habitats naturais são os principais fatores responsáveis pela redução da diversidade por eventos de extinção. O presente estudo, realizado nas restingas de Costa Azul...

  6. Characterization of manganese phases in mineral processing products of the Azul Mine, Carajas. Metallurgical implications; Caracterizacao de fases manganesiferas em produtos de beneficiamento da Mina do Azul, Carajas. Implicacoes metalurgicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, G.; Fernandez, O.J.Ch., E-mail: pereiragilcimar@hotmail.co, E-mail: ochoque.fernandez@gmail.co [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, M.L. da, E-mail: mlc@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2010-07-01

    Were characterized the manganese phases of the processing products using ore microscopy and x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute with new data and help the processing operations of the mine. Cryptomelane is the main manganese mineral in products, and pyrolusite and nsutite are in minor proportion. Were observed distinctive textures of the cryptomelane and others manganese phases, it were formed in different geological times and therefore affecting the operations in mineral processing, principally, comminution. The observed mineralogical variations affect too the unit operations when expand the pit. (author)

  7. Choice of tracers for the evaluation of spray deposits Escolha de traçadores para avaliação de depósitos de pulverização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Palladini

    2005-10-01

    de ajustar a tensão superficial da calda. Foram testados os produtos Azul Brilhante a 0,15%, Saturn Yellow a 0,15% suspenso em lignosulfonato Vixilperse a 0,015% e a Fluoresceína Sódica a 0,005%, e as misturas de Azul Brilhante mais Saturn Yellow e Azul Brilhante mais Fluoresceína, nas mesmas concentrações. Para avaliar a degradação as soluções com os produtos foram depositados sobre folhas de citros e avaliados as quantidades através da leitura de unidade de fluorescência e densidade óptica, das soluções sem secar, secas no escuro, exposta ao sol por 2, 4 e 8 horas e comparadas com as leituras obtidas com os depósitos direto em água. A tensão superficial da solução traçadora foi determinada pela passagem de gotas formadas no período entre 20 e 40 segundos. A mistura do Azul Brilhante mais o Saturn Yellow a 0,15%, não apresentou degradação em todas as condições de avaliação, não foi absorvida pelas folhas e manteve a solução na mesma tensão superficial da água, possibilitando ajustá-la aos mesmos níveis das concentrações dos produtos fitossanitários. Isto proporcionou o estabelecimento de um método qualitativo pela avaliação visual sobre luz ultravioleta da distribuição do pigmento e quantitativo com a determinação da quantidade depositada do corante numa mesma solução, em diferentes tensões superficiais na calda de pulverização.

  8. Crecimiento de Plantas de Remolacha (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia Bajo Coberturas de Color Growth of Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia under Colored Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta de las plantas a diferente color en la iluminación, se atribuye a fotorreceptores que conducen a diversas expresiones fenotípicas en diferentes niveles y etapas del desarrollo vegetal. Para determinar si el color de iluminación en que se cultivan las plantas de remolacha (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia, afecta su crecimiento, rendimiento y calidad, se realizó en Duitama -; Colombia, un estudio bajo coberturas de color azul, rojo o transparente. Para conseguir los colores se colocaron películas de polietileno, 65 cm por encima del cultivo, dejando un control a plena exposición. Las plantas cubiertas con la película roja presentaron mejor calidad de raíz basada en el diámetro, sólidos solubles totales y peso fresco y seco en comparación con las que crecieron bajo cobertura azul, transparente o los controles. Las plantas bajo la cobertura roja mostraron valores mayores de área foliar y peso seco total. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en plantas bajo la cubierta azul. La radiación monocromática inducida por las coberturas alteró también la distribución de materia seca en los órganos de la planta. La calidad de la luz alteró el crecimiento y la calidad del producto a cosechar en remolacha, por los efectos sobre los fotorreceptores que alteran los patrones de crecimiento.Plant responses to different colors of illumination are attributed to different photoreceptors which operate as light-induced initiators of signalling pathways leading to varying phenotypic expressions at various levels and stages of plant development. To determine whether the color of illumination under which plants are grown, affects the growth, yield and the quality of harvested product, beet plants (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia were grown under either blue-enriched, red-enriched, or transparent covers in Duitama -Colombia. To get colors, red, blue and transparent polyethylene films were expanded 65 cm above crop, leaving an

  9. Effect of different dye solutions on the evaluation of the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate Efeito de diferentes soluções corantes na avaliação da capacidade seladora do agregado de trióxido mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Tanomaru Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline materials have shown incompatibility with methylene blue dye in leakage experiments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the effect of different dyes on the evaluation of the apical sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate root-end fillings. Fifty-six extracted human canines were submitted to root canal instrumentation and obturation. After apical resection, retrograde cavities were prepared and teeth were randomly divided into four experimental (n = 13 and two control groups (n = 2. The following root-end filling materials were used: groups 1 and 2 - Pro Root MTA (Dentsply, groups 3 and 4 - zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE. Teeth in groups 1 and 3 were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution, while teeth in groups 2 and 4 were immersed in 0.2% rhodamine B in a reduced pressure environment for 48 hours. Teeth were then longitudinally sectioned and leakage was evaluated. Results were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test. Group 1 presented the least leakage (p Tem sido demonstrada a incompatibilidade de materiais alcalinos com a solução corante de azul de metileno utilizada em testes de infiltração marginal. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de diferentes soluções corantes na avaliação do selamento apical proporcionado pelo agregado de trióxido mineral. Cinqüenta e seis caninos humanos extraídos tiveram seus canais radiculares instrumentados e obturados. Após a secção da porção apical, cavidades retrógradas foram preparadas e os dentes divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (n = 13 e dois controles (n = 2. Foram utilizados os seguintes materiais retrobturadores: grupos 1 e 2 - Pro Root MTA (Dentsply; grupos 3 e 4 - cimento de óxido de zinco e eugenol (OZE. Em seguida, os dentes dos grupos 1 e 3 foram imersos em solução de Azul de Metileno a 2% e dos grupos 2 e 4 em solução de Rodamina B a 0,2% por 48 horas em ambiente com vácuo. Decorrido este

  10. Películas fluorescentes azules basadas en derivados de poli-2,7-fluorenofenilideno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallavia, R.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Quaternization of poly-(9,9-bis(6’-bromohexylfluorenephenylene by treatment with trimethylamine gas was used to obtain a water soluble ammonium salt copolymer. The neutral copolymer containing fluorene/phenylene alternating repeating units was obtained by a palladiumcatalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. This strategy could be applied to prepare water soluble conjugated polymers with the ability to change the charge functionality. The polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The neutral polymer was stable to over 300ºC, while the cationic polymer begins to degrade at 120ºC with a progressive loss of mass at 290ºC. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated in solution and solid phases by UV/VIS and fluorescent spectroscopy. Mesoporous silica thin films were prepared as a host matrix for the fluorescent copolymers.

    La cuaternización del poli-(9,9-bis(6’-bromohexilofluorenofenileno por tratamiento de trimetilamina gaseosa se emplea para obtener una sal de amonio del copolímero precursor soluble en agua. El copolímero neutro contiene unidades alternantes repetitivas de fluoreno/ fenilideno obtenidas mediante una acoplamiento de Suzuki con Pd (II. Los polímeros se caracterizaron por cromatografía de permeación (GPC, espectroscopia RMN de 1H y 13C , espectroscopia IR transformada de Fourier y análisis termogravimétrico (ATG. El polímero neutro mantiene la estabilidad hasta los 300ºC, mientras el derivado catiónico comienza a descomponer a 120ºC, con una progresiva perdida de masa hasta los 290ºC. Las propiedades ópticas de los polímeros se estudiaron en disolución y en películas mediante espectroscopias UV/VIS y de fluorescencia. Las películas delgadas de sílice mesoporosa se prepararon como materiales receptores de los copolímeros fluorescentes.

  11. Carcinoma superficial multifocal do pênis: ênfase ao teste do azul de toluidina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Begliomini

    Full Text Available The author reports a case of penile multifocal superficial carcinoma in a white 66 years old male. The lesions on glans penis and prepuce were asymptomatic. Their appearence were plain reddish ulceration, irregular margins which became evident after circumcision. There was no palpable groin lymph node. The toluidine blue test was useful for guiding biopsies. A partial penectomy was undertaken with free surgical margins of tumor. In a follow-up of two years, penil erectile function is preserve with no tumor recurrence.

  12. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  13. El estudio de la procrastinación humana como un estilo interactivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Padilla Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La procrastinación es un fenómeno que ha cobrado cada vez mayor relevancia dadas las implicaciones que puede tener tanto en las áreas de la educación y la salud, como en la vida diaria en general. Sin embargo, a pesar de su importancia, no se ha estudiado de manera sistemática. En este estudio se examinó el efecto de una tarea con requerimiento de respuesta alto sobre la procrastinación humana. Participaron voluntariamente 12 estudiantes de licenciatura en ingeniería, entre 18 y 20 años de edad, que fueron asignados de manera aleatoria a tres grupos experimentales y un grupo control. La tarea consistió en resolver una cantidad determinada de ejercicios que implicaban calcular, por simple inspección visual, la proporción de puntos verdes y azules desplegados en la pantalla de una computadora, indicando si el número de puntos verdes era mayor o menor que el número de puntos azules. Se dispusieron distractores al alcance de los participantes durante todo el experimento. Los sujetos fueron expuestos a la tarea durante tres fases, una con requerimiento de respuesta alto, que consistió de 200 ejercicios, y dos fases con requerimiento de respuesta bajo de 100 ejercicios cada una. Los resultados no mostraron efectos sistemáticos del requerimiento de respuesta sobre la procrastinación. Sin embargo, se observó un hallazgo consistente, independiente de la condición experimental a la que los participantes se hubieran expuesto: algunos procrastinaron prácticamente en todas las fases, mientras que otros jamás lo hicieron. Ello parece mostrar que la procrastinación es un estilo interactivo idiosincrásico. Se discute la necesidad de realizar más estudios que permitan identificar las variables implicadas en este fenómeno

  14. Parásitos del tapir centroamericano Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae en Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epigmenio Cruz Aldán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron 19 muestras de excretas del tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii en la Reserva "La Sepultura" (marzo a julio de 1999, así como un muestreo directo a un tapir macho de la Reserva "Montes Azules" (Chiapas, México. Se analizaron con cinco técnicas (flotación, MacMaster, micrometría, sedimentación de Ritchie y cuantitativa de Ferreira. Además se recolectaron muestras en piel de animales capturados en en las dos reservas y en una pareja de zoológico proveniente de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. Se hallaron nematodos y protozoarios: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp., y un ancilostomaideo aun por identificar. Además se informa la presencia de Eimeria sp., y Balantidium coli. Los ácaros hallados fueron; Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens e Ixodes bicornis.Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in Chiapas, Mexico. We analyzed 19 samples of Baird´s tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie’s sedimentation and Ferreira´s quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 445

  15. Habitat conditions drive phylogenetic structure of dominant bacterial phyla of microbialite communities from different locations in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Carla M; Mejía, Omar; Falcón, Luisa I

    2016-09-01

    Community structure and composition are dictated by evolutionary and ecological assembly processes which are manifested in signals of, species diversity, species abundance and species relatedness. Analysis of species coexisting relatedness, has received attention as a tool to identify the processes that influence the composition of a community within a particular habitat. In this study, we tested if microbialite genetic composition is dependent on random events versus biological/abiotical factors. This study was based on a large genetic data set of two hypervariable regions (V5 and V6) from previously generated barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons from nine microbialite communities distributed in Northeastern, Central and Southeastern Mexico collected in May and June of 2009. Genetic data of the most abundant phyla (Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria) were investigated in order to state the phylogenetic structure of the complete communities as well as each phylum. For the complete dataset, Webb NTI index showed positive and significant values in the nine communities analysed, where values ranged from 31.5 in Pozas Azules I to 57.2 in Bacalar Pirate Channel; meanwhile, NRI index were positive and significant in six of the nine communities analysed with values ranging from 18.1 in Pozas Azules I to 45.1 in Río Mesquites. On the other hand, when comparing each individual phylum, NTI index were positive and significant in all groups, except in Cyanobacteria for which positive and significant values were only found in three localities; finally, NRI index was significant in only a few of the comparisons performed. The results suggest that habitat filtering is the main process that drives phylogenetic structure in bacterial communities associated to microbialites with the exception of Cyanobacteria where different lineages can contribute to microbialite formation and growth.

  16. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    Full Text Available Conhecida comumente como erva-de-colégio, erva-grossa e sussuaiá, Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea perene, de base sublenhosa, ramos curtos e flores arroxeadas. Suas folhas são empregadas como emoliente, resolutivo, sudorífico e no tratamento de bronquite, tosse e gripe na medicina popular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, a fim de fornecer subsídios aplicáveis à identificação da planta medicinal. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados e corados com azul de astra/fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes microquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram também executados. A folha possui epiderme uniestratificada, recoberta por cutícula estriada e, em vista frontal, tem células com contorno ondulado. Ocorrem tricomas tectores e glandulares. Os primeiros são eretos, pluricelulares e unisseriados. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e bisseriados. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura central é percorrida por feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos em arco aberto. O caule, em estrutura secundária inicial, possui epiderme unisseriada com cutícula estriada e tricomas semelhantes aos da folha. No córtex, observam-se colênquima anelar alternado com clorênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary. Calotas esclerenquimáticas apõem-se ao floema. Este é formado pelo câmbio vascular em direção à periferia e o xilema é gerado de modo centrípeto. A medula é parenquimática. Pequenos cristais de oxalato de cálcio estão presentes na folha e no caule.

  17. Estimation of the regional evapotranspiration through remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rivas, R.; Wohl Coelho, O.; Schirmbeck, J.; Valor, E.

    2004-01-01

    This proposal deals with a new methodology capable of estimating variations in time and space of the evapotranspiration rate, which is one of the main processes controlling recharge to the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). Such a methodology is being applied to the dos Sinos River Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, which is in a region where groundwater from the GAS is heavily used for industrial and urban purposes. The investigations are being carried out by researchers of the Flat Plains Hydrology Institute (National University of the Center Buenos Aires Province, Azul, Argentina) and the Center of Exact and Technological Sciences (University of dos Simos River Valley, UNISINOS, Sao Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) [es

  18. The CPA Failure and the Conflict in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta de Alessi

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se examina el conflicto surgido en los Estados sudaneses de Kordofán del Sur y del Nilo Azul entre el Gobierno de Sudán y el Ejército/ Movimiento de Liberación del Pueblo de Sudán - Sector Norte (MLPS-N) en el periodo posterior al Referéndum de autodeterminación que desembocó en la secesión de Sudán del Sur de Sudán. El artículo incide en que el conflicto en las denominadas Dos Áreas (las regiones fronterizas entre el norte y el sur de Sudán que lucharon junto al E/MLPS duran...

  19. Detecção do linfonodo sentinela em câncer da mama: comparação entre métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nilton Leite

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a eficiência da cintilografia mamária, do detector manual de raios gama (probe e do corante azul vital para a localização do linfonodo sentinela (LNS, estabelecendo a sensibilidade, o valor preditivo negativo (VPN e a acurácia do mapeamento do LNS. Métodos: neste estudo estão incluídas 88 pacientes com câncer de mama atendidas consecutivamente e com axila clinicamente negativa. Foi utilizado o radiofármaco tecnécio ligado ao colóide dextran 500 (Dextran 99mTc, para cintilografia pré-operatória, realizada em 58 pacientes, e detecção transoperatória com o probe em 53 pacientes. Destas, 47 tiveram as contagens de irradiação gama anotadas e também o intervalo de tempo decorrido entre a injeção e a cirurgia. Foram empregados 2 mL do corante vital Bleu Patente V, injetado em torno do tumor, 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica na axila em todos os casos. O LNS foi avaliado por congelação em 77 casos e todos pela coloração por hematoxilina e eosina. Resultados: a linfocintilografia, realizada em 58 casos, foi útil em 62,1%, sendo que em nove ocorreu mapeamento de dois linfonodos, e com o probe foram confirmados 45 casos (84,9% dos 53 avaliados. Das 47 com anotação de contagens de raios gama e do tempo decorrido da injeção do radiofármaco até a cirurgia, constituíram-se dois grupos para análise, o grupo dia (27 casos e o grupo outro dia (20 casos, que se mostraram diferentes, com significância estatística, tanto no tempo decorrido quanto nas contagens de raios gama, porém sem interferência nos resultados de detecção do LNS. A associação do probe e do corante azul resultou em sucesso nos 53 casos avaliados, assim como em 32 dos 35 casos em que só o corante foi usado. A média de idade das pacientes foi 58 anos. Quarenta e uma pacientes tiveram linfonodos axilares com metástase e apenas duas com LNS falsamente negativo, dando sensibilidade de 95,3%, VPN de 95,5% e acurácia de 97,6. Conclus

  20. Structure of fructo-oligosaccharides from leaves and stem of Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praznik, Werner; Löppert, Renate; Cruz Rubio, Josè M; Zangger, Klaus; Huber, Anton

    2013-11-15

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) of a six year old agave plant variety, Agave tequilana, were isolated and fractionated by 2D preparative chromatography (SEC and rpHPLC). Structural analyses of different FOS-fractions were performed by reductive methylation analysis connected to GC/FID identification and NMR-analysis. FOSs from leaves (d.p. 3-8) contain single α-d-Glcp residues as well in terminal as internal position, however (2→1)-linked β-d-Fruf residues only. FOSs from stem, however, contain as well (2→1)- and (2→6)-linked β-d-Fruf residues with branched oligomeric repeating units. These characteristics indicate an enzymatically catalyzed metabolic regulation for the biosynthesis and transformation of fructans in A. tequilana which strongly depends on location and transport activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A proposed chemical structure for fructans from blue agave plant (Tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Toriz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una estructura química para las fructanas de agave Tequilana con base en los resultados combinados de las técnicas de permetilación y ruptura reductiva acopladas a cromatografía gas-líquido asi como también a cromatografía de exclusión de tamaños/dispersión de luz.

  2. [Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Aldán, Epigmenio; Lira Torres, Iván; Güiris Andrade, Dario Marcelino; Osorio Sarabia, David; Quintero M, Ma Teresa

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie's sedimentation and Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis.

  3. Size and distribution of Pandarus satyrus (Copepoda: Pandaridae on the blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 specimens of Pandarus satyrus, a cosmopolitan ectoparasitic copepod, were taken from fishery catches of blue sharks (Prionace glauca in the Eastern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens were found in the dorsal surface of pectoral fins (8-30 per shark. Longer specimens were most abundant.Un total de 80 especímenes de Pandarus satyrus, un copépodo ectoparásito cosmopolita, fueron tomados de tiburones azules (Prionace glauca capturados en la costa del Pacífico Oriental de Costa Rica. Todos los especímenes fueron encontrados en la superficie dorsal de las aletas pectorales (entre 8 y 30 por tiburón. Los parásitos más grandes son los más abundantes.

  4. Parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors from Southern of Goias State / Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no Sul do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefferson José Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors in the south of Goias state. Twelve traps two as of each color were used, painted yellow, black, red, white, green and blue were used two as of each color. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. Between March and December 2006, 17 parasitoid specimens were collected from the yellow trap, 15 from the blue trap, 12 from the white trap, 37 from the black trap, one from the green trap and three from the red trap. The parasitoids did not present any preference for any of the trap colors (F=0.772; P=0.58. The most frequently collected parasitoid species was Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, with 80.0%.O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no sul do estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas 12 armadilhas duas de cada tipo pintadas de amarelo preto, vermelho, branco, verde e azul. As pupas dos dípteros foram isoladas pelo método de flutuação, individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência dos parasitóides. Foram coletados no período de março a dezembro de 2006, 17 exemplares de parasitóides na armadilha amarela, 15 na armadilha azul, 12 na armadilha branca, 37 na armadilha preta, um exemplar na armadilha verde e três na armadilha vermelha. Os parasitóides não apresentaram atração por nenhuma das cores das armadilhas (F= 0,772; P=0,58. A espécie de parasitóide mais freqüente foi Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae com 80,0%.

  5. In vitro evaluation of dental bleaching effectiveness using hybrid lights activation = Avaliação in vitro da eficácia da fotoativação no clareamento dental utilizando a técnica em consultório

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    Araújo, Rodrigo Maximo de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar se fontes de luz aumentam a eficácia do peróxido de hidrogênio na técnica de clareamento profissional. Metodologia: Foram empregados 60 dentes incisivos bovinos, com dimensões coronárias e radiculares padronizadas a partir do limite amelo-cementário, sendo descartada a porção lingual. Os corpos-de-prova (cp foram limpos em ultra-som por 20 min e a dentina condicionada com H3PO4 a 38% por 15 s, sendo os (cp imersos em solução de café solúvel a 25% por duas semanas. A dentina foi impermeabilizada com esmalte e os (cp divididos em 5 grupos, sendo a cor inicial mensurada através do espectofotômetro-EasyShade (VITA. Todos os (cp receberam três aplicações por 10 min do gel clareador Opalescence Xtra-Boost (Ultradent conforme segue: Grupo 1 – controle, não recebeu fotoativação, Grupo 2 – ativado com luz halôgena, Grupo 3 – ativado com LED azul/LASER, Grupo 4 – ativado com LED verde/LASER e Grupo 5 – ativado com LED vermelho. Após o clareamento foi mensurada a variação de cor ?E, ?a*, ?b*e ?L* e as referentes à escala de cor Vita Clássico. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, teste de Tukey e de Dunn (a=5%. Resultados: A diferença geral da cor foi reduzida quando se empregou LED Azul e Luz Halógena, sendo que o desempenho do peróxido de hidrogênio a 38 % foi intensificado dependendo da fonte de luz utilizada. A avaliação quantitativa de cor, obtida por espectrofotômetro e pela escala de cor Vita Clássico, foram coincidentes. Conclusão: O tipo de fonte de luz empregada interfere na eficácia do agente clareador

  6. Morfologia da glândula mamária do quati (Nasua nasua

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    Juliana B. Casals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nasua nasua é um animal onívoro, encontrado em todo Brasil. A reprodução da espécie ocorre somente uma vez ao ano, na primavera. As fêmeas são matriarcas e amamentam suas crias até os 5 meses de idade, vivem com seus filhotes em bandos de até 30 indivíduos. Para descrição morfológica da glândula mamaria do Nasua nasua foram utilizados seis animais provenientes do Criatório Cientifico (Cecrimpas, Unifeob. Autorizado pelo Ibama (Proc.02027.002322/98-99. Para análise macroscópica um animal foi injetado com látex neoprene, sendo a artéria femoral injetada com látex de cor vermelha e a veia jugular de cor azul. Os demais animais foram fixados em solução aquosa a 10% de formaldeído. Para análise microscópica, fragmentos glandulares foram coletados e submetidos ao processo rotineiro, embebido em parafina e corados com Hematoxilina e Eosina, Picrossírius e Azul de Toluidina. Macroscopicamente foram evidenciados três pares de glândulas mamárias, sendo dois pares posicionados na região abdominal e um par na região inguinal. Microscopicamente, notou-se epitélio de revestimento externo das papilas mamárias, epitélio pavimentoso estratificado queratinizado, o qual seguia por toda glândula de forma irregular. Na entrada do óstio, o epitélio da epiderme era modificado ocorrendo uma transição de epitélio pavimentoso estratificado para um epitélio cúbico no ducto papilar. O parênquima glandular era caracteristicamente túbulo alveolar com células secretoras, evidenciado principalmente no animal lactente. Os resultados macroscópicos e microscópicos assemelham-se aos já descritos nas cadelas (Canis familiaris e os do Procyon cancrivorus pertencente à mesma família do quati, Família Procyonidae.

  7. Evolución estelar en sistemas binarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O.

    Definición y clasificación de sistemas binarios; descripción del comportamiento del sistema frente a la variación de su masa; binarias de rayos X; transferencia de masa en sistemas binarios masivos aplicado al posible esclarecimiento del progenitor azul de la supernova SN 1987A; comentario acerca de la evolución de enanas blancas de helio de baja masa y su conexión con los sistemas binarios; reseña del trabajo de Kippenhahn y Weigert sobre el cual está basado el código evolutivo desarrollado en la FCAG por el Dr. Benvenuto y sobre el cual se trabajará para poder incluir la evolución de una estrella con pérdida de masa perteneciente a un sistema binario.

  8. EVALUACIÓN CITOTÓXICA DE FRACCIONES OBTENIDAS DE LA ESPONJA MARINA DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO Topsentia ophiraphidites

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    LINA BLANDÓN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de las esponjas marinas se han obtenido gran cantidad de sustancias con potencial antitumoral. En este estudio se realizó la evaluación de la actividad citotóxica, de cinco  fracciones de la esponja marina del Caribe colombiano Topsentia ophiraphidites en las líneas celulares Jurkat y CHO, mediante las pruebas de MTT y azul de tripano. Sólo la fracción número 4 (T4 presentó actividad citotóxica significativa, obteniendo una concentración inhibitoria media (IC50 de 33 µg/mL para las células Jurkat y 58 µg/mL para las células CHO, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar posteriores ensayos de genotoxicidad y efectos sobre el ciclo celular.

  9. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

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    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  10. Synchrotron and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-01

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS 2-x C x that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report

  11. LOS ROJOS Y LOS AZULES. La violencia de la polarizaci?n bipartidista. Pacho (1930-1956).

    OpenAIRE

    Gait?n Barrero, Clara Helena

    2016-01-01

    C?mo cay? Pacho en ?la Violencia?? Estudio sobre el impacto del 9 de abril y ?la Violencia? en Pacho, Cundinamarca. Se analiza c?mo este municipio, ajeno a la violencia bipartidista, se involucr? en esta contienda que viv?a el pa?s. Sugiere la inversi?n de la pregunta: ?Fue el bipartidismo, m?s que la causa, una consecuencia de la violencia?

  12. Acción expansiva de la illita en Vélez-Málaga

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    Oliveros Rives, Fernando

    1963-04-01

    observed damages. As a solution it has been proposed to build reinforced concrete foundations on the blue clay, and place them on compacted gravel. The latter would absorb the volumetric expansion of the soil, thus neutralizing their action, if it should take place. The foundation should be protected by non active clay, which should serve as a waterproof protection against the access of water to the base, since this might initiate an expansive process.En la zona costera central de la provincia de Málaga son muy frecuentes los casos de existencia de suelos expansivos y se han escogido los situados al S. E, de Vélez-Málaga, para realizar sobre ellos un estudio detallado en el presente trabajo. Sobre tales suelos están edificados unos bloques de viviendas que se encuentran gravemente dañados, como consecuencia de la acción de dichos suelos sobre su cimentación, daños que se ofrecen a la vista del observador. La constitución arcillosa de tales suelos es debida a la formación geológica del pizarral silúrico que la bordea. El suelo consiste en unas arcillas azules que adoptan la coloración grisácea en su primera fase de alteración para terminar en amarillentas. La oxidación avanza en profundidad. De los análisis roentgenográficos efectuados se deduce que estas arcillas están constituidas fundamentalmente por ilita, carbonato cálcico y cuarzo en la proporción de 1:2:3, además de montmorillonita, dolomita y otros elementos. Así, pues, la ilita es el mineral arcilloso predominante, hecho que ha sido confirmado por el análisis térmico diferencial y, por tanto, es el elemento que ha provocado los efectos expansivos del suelo. La potencia de hinchamiento se observa más elevada en los estratos superiores, correspondientes a las arcillas amarillas, que en las azules de base. Este hecho es, en parte, debido a la riqueza de carbonato cálcico que posee la arcilla azul, y que llega a ser superior al doble de la superficial. La abundancia de CO3Ca en la arcilla

  13. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Superior del yacimiento de PRERESA en el valle del Manzanares y su contribución a la reconstrucción paleoambiental de la cuenca de Madrid durante el Pleistoceno

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    Sesé, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PRERESA (Getafe, Madrid is a site of the first third of the Late Pleistocene, at the end of MIS 5, of which 255 m2 have been excavated, and where 754 stone pieces and abundant remains of micro- and macrovertebrates have been recovered. This paper deals with the study of the following identified micromammals at the site: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus; Soricomorpha: Crocidura russula; Chiroptera: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus cabrerae, Microtus duodecimcostatus; Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus. This faunal association, mainly due to the presence of Microtus cabrerae, belongs to the Late Pleistocene. The evolved stage of Microtus cabrerae and Arvicola aff. sapidus indicate the antiquity of this association within the first part of this period, which is consistent with the date of 84±5,6 ka BP obtained by OSL. All the taxa recorded in PRERESA are currently living in the area where the site is located, except Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae that became extinct in the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the Late Pleistocene. Observations on the material indicate that the accumulation of the small mammal remains could have been mainly caused by predators, most likely by pellets of birds of prey. The association of small mammals from PRERESA indicates temperate conditions with some moisture and vegetation development with some wooded areas and mainly open areas but mostly shrubby, herbaceous, wet and dry grasslands, and riparian vegetation. The comparison of the small mammals from PRERESA with those of the Middle Pleistocene sites from Áridos and Valdocarros, indicate a similarity of the climatic conditions and lansdcape in the low sections of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers in the moments that these sites represent (the advanced Middle Pleistocene and

  14. Comparación de seis métodos coproscópicos para el diagnóstico del cromista Blastocystis spp | Comparison of six coproscopics methods for the diagnosis of the chromista Blastocystis spp

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    Milagros Figueroa Lara,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. es uno de los parásitos intestinales zoonóticos de mayor prevalencia y distribución mundial. Está caracterizado por una gran variabilidad genética, lo que dificulta su estudio, generando controversias en cuanto a características morfológicas, ciclo vital, criterios diagnósticos y rol patógeno. Se evaluaron seis técnicas de laboratorio para la identificación de Blastocystis spp. en 391 muestras fecales de pacientes de ambos sexos y diferentes edades que asistieron al Laboratorio Clínico Universitario (LCU y a los laboratorios de emergencia y general del Servicio Autónomo del Hospital Universitario Antonio Patricio de Alcalá (SAHUAPA, Cumaná, estado Sucre, Venezuela, durante mayo-junio de 2013. Se consideró el examen directo como estándar de oro para la detección del cromista, y como pruebas de comparación los métodos de concentración: sedimentación espontánea en tubo (SET y Ritchie modificado, y las coloraciones: tinta china modificada, safranina-azul de metileno y May-Grünwald-Giemsa. Se obtuvo una prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal de 32,74% con el examen directo, con mayor frecuencia de Blastocystis spp. (17,39%. Al comparar los métodos de concentración y coloración, se pudo evidenciar que las técnicas que ofrecieron mejores porcentajes de sensibilidad fueron la tinción de May-Grünwald-Giemsa (94,12%, seguido de la tinta china modificada (92,65%; por último, la utilización de safranina-azul de metileno (76,47%, en cuanto a los porcentajes de especificidad superaron el (99,00% con índices Kappa excelentes (> 0,75. Los métodos de concentración resultaron con porcentajes de sensibilidad relativamente bajos, mientras que la especificidad se mantuvo por encima de (99,00%, razón por la cual los métodos de tinción tinta china y May-Grünwald-Giemsa pueden ser incluidos como técnicas complementarias para la detección y estudio morfológico de Blastocystis spp.

  15. Characterization of tropical starches modified with potassium permanganate and lactic acid

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    Fabiano Franco Takizawa

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work some tropical starches were modified by an oxidative chemical treatment with potassium permanganate and lactic acid. The native and modified samples were evaluated by mid-infrared spectroscopy, differential dyeing, pH, expansion power, solubility and swelling power, clarity of the pastes, susceptibility to syneresis, carboxyl content and reducing power. All modified samples presented dark blue color, higher expansion power (except corn starch, carboxyl content and reducing power. The solubility of the modified starch granules was very high at 90ºC. At this temperature, it was not possible to measure their swelling power. The viscographic analysis showed decrease in peak viscosity and higher degree of cooking instability. The principal component analysis of the mid-infrared spectra allowed separation between native and modified samples due to the presence of carboxyl groups. The expansion was inversely related with amylose content of the starches.No presente trabalho alguns amidos tropicais foram modificados por tratamento oxidativo com permanganato de potássio e ácido lático. Amidos nativos e modificados foram avaliadas por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio, coloração diferencial, pH, propriedade de expansão, poder de inchamento e solubilidade, claridade das pastas, susceptibilidade a sinérese, teor carboxilas e poder redutor. Todas as amostras modificadas adquiriram intensa coloração azul quando suspensas em azul de metileno, maiores valores de expansão (exceto o amido de milho, teor de carboxilas e poder redutor. A solubilidade dos grânulos dos amidos modificados foi muito alta a temperatura de 90°C, não tendo sido possível medir o poder de inchamento. A análise viscográfica mostrou um decréscimo no pico de viscosidade e alta instabilidade ao cozimento. A análise dos componentes principais dos espectros de infravermelho médio permitiu a separação entre as amostras nativas e modificadas

  16. Pigmentation of the viscera and carcasses (chromatosis in sheep in the Brazilian northeastern region Pigmentação das vísceras e carcaças (cromatose em ovinos na região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Anunciação Pimentel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report exogenous pigmentation in sheep grazing in native pastures in northeastern Brazil. The sheep carcasses from a farm were condemned at the slaughterhouse due to pigmentation of the carcasses and viscera. In visits to the farm, bluish-purple pigmentation of the mucosa was observed in the sheep. In two necropsied sheep, a bluish-purple pigment was observed in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fat, muscles, cartilage, bones, serous membranes of the forestomachs, kidneys, adrenal glands, and the mucosa of the uterus, urinary bladder, urethra, vagina, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. Some bone surfaces, the intima of large arteries, tendons, muscle insertions, and ligaments had a yellow-brown or light brown pigment. However, the pigment was not observed upon histologic examination of tissues, suggesting that the pigmentation is caused by a plant. Two plants, Rhamnidium molle and Pereskia bahiensis, were fed to experimental sheep and rabbits, but did not cause pigmentation.Descreve-se pigmentação exógena em ovinos, pastejando numa área de pastagem nativa da região nordeste do Brasil. Os ovinos de uma fazenda, destinados ao abate, tiveram as carcaças rejeitadas pelo frigorífico em virtude da pigmentação apresentada nos tecidos. Em visitas à fazenda, foi observada pigmentação azul-violeta nas mucosas de ovelhas. Em dois ovinos necropsiados, pigmento azul-violeta foi observado na pele, tecido subcutâneo, gordura, músculos, cartilagens, ossos, serosa dos pré-estômagos, rins, glândulas adrenais, mucosa do útero, bexiga urinária, uretra, vagina, traqueia, brônquios e bronquíolos. Algumas superfícies ósseas, íntima de grandes artérias, tendões, inserções musculares e ligamentos tinham pigmento castanho-amarelo ou castanho claro. No entanto, o pigmento não foi observado nos tecidos após processamento para o exame histológico, o que sugere que a pigmentação é causada por uma substância exógena, provavelmente presente

  17. Propiedades biomecánicas de la membrana limitante interna tras recibir tratamiento intravítreo con ocriplasmina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Schumann, Ricarda G; Spindler, Volker; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Henrich, Paul B; Haritoglou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la rigidez de la membrana limitante interna (MLI) humana y evaluar los posibles cambios de las propiedades mecánicas tras administrar una inyección intravítrea de ocriplasmina para tratar la tracción vitreomacular. Métodos: Este estudio se compone de una serie de casos intervencionales y comparativos de 12 muestras de MLI extraídas mediante cirugía y obtenidas de forma consecutiva de 9 ojos de 9 pacientes después de someterse sin éxito a vitreólisis farmacológica con ocriplasmina. Durante el mismo periodo de tiempo, 16 muestras de otros 13 ojos sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina se obtuvieron mediante vitrectomía y sirvieron como controles. Todos los pacientes presentaron agujeros maculares o tracción vitreomacular y se sometieron a vitrectomía con disección de la MLI tanto con tinción con azul brillante (AB) como sin ella. Todas las muestras se analizaron con un microscopio de fuerza atómica con imágenes de las regiones de 25 × 25 μm. En todas las muestras, se analizaron tanto la parte de la retina como la del vítreo de la MLI. Resultados: La microscopia de fuerza atómica no reveló diferencias significativas en cuanto a elasticidad de las muestras de MLI extraídas de ojos con o sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina. Las áreas onduladas de la parte de la retina presentaron una mayor rigidez que la parte del vítreo de la MLI. La cartografía topográfica tanto de la parte del vítreo como de la retina de la MLI no mostró ninguna alteración aparente de la morfología en ojos tratados con ocriplasmina en comparación con los ojos no tratados. La tinción con azul brillante conllevó un aumento de la rigidez tisular. Conclusiones: Las inyecciones intravítreas de ocriplasmina no varían las propiedades biomecánicas de la MLI humana. No existen pruebas de un posible efecto enzimático que interfiera con la rigidez de esta membrana basal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Morphological features of different polyploids for adaptation and molecular characterization of CC-NBS-LRR and LEA gene families in Agave L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Ordóñez, M C; Rodriguez-Zapata, L C; Narváez-Zapata, J A; Tamayo-Ordóñez, Y J; Ayil-Gutiérrez, B A; Barredo-Pool, F; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2016-05-20

    Polyploidy has been widely described in many Agave L. species, but its influence on environmental response to stress is still unknown. With the objective of knowing the morphological adaptations and regulation responses of genes related to biotic (LEA) and abiotic (NBS-LRR) stress in species of Agave with different levels of ploidy, and how these factors contribute to major response of Agave against environmental stresses, we analyzed 16 morphological trials on five accessions of three species (Agave tequilana Weber, Agave angustifolia Haw. and Agave fourcroydes Lem.) with different ploidy levels (2n=2x=60 2n=3x=90, 2n=5x=150, 2n=6x=180) and evaluated the expression of NBS-LRR and LEA genes regulated by biotic and abiotic stress. It was possible to associate some morphological traits (spines, nuclei, and stomata) to ploidy level. The genetic characterization of stress-related genes NBS-LRR induced by pathogenic infection and LEA by heat or saline stresses indicated that amino acid sequence analysis in these genes showed more substitutions in higher ploidy level accessions of A. fourcroydes Lem. 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) and A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180), and a higher LEA and NBS-LRR representativeness when compared to their diploid and triploid counterparts. In all studied Agave accessions expression of LEA and NBS-LRR genes was induced by saline or heat stresses or by infection with Erwinia carotovora, respectively. The transcriptional activation was also higher in A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180) and A. fourcroydes 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) than in their diploid and triploid counterparts, which suggests higher adaptation to stress. Finally, the diploid accession A. tequilana Weber 'Azul' showed a differentiated genetic profile relative to other Agave accessions. The differences include similar or higher genetic representativeness and transcript accumulation of LEA and NBS-LRR genes than in polyploid (2n=5x=150 and 2n=6x=180) Agave accessions

  19. Propiedades termoluminiscentes de una albita de minas Geraes (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, J.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Albite sodium feldspar is studied by thermoluminescent methods using the blue region of the spectra (circa 400nm and the possible uses as a dosimeter are explored. The light emission of the spectra bands of natural and irradiated albite under X and gamma rays are determined using automated RISØ thermoluminescence equipment. Albite is a potential material to be used as retrospective dosimeter due to its good blue thermoluminescence characteristics in good agreement with the dosimetric requirements. It is sensitive to radiation, possesses a good linearity (0.06-8Gy, shows an acceptable stability in time, it is highly reproducible and can detect low levels of dose (60mGy. The TL glow curves emission exhibit a very complex structure associated to a continuous trap distribution. This behaviour could be explained as a consequence of a dynamic creation-annihilation of a [AlO4/alkali]+ and [AlO4]o centres.

    Se estudian las posibilidades dosimétricas de la albita (feldespato sódico por métodos termoluminiscentes utilizando la región espectral del azul (alrededor de los 400nm. Se registran las posiciones espectrales de emisión de luz de este material irradiado con rayos X y con radiación gamma en un equipo automático de termoluminiscencia Risø. La albita puede ser empleada potencialmente en el campo de la reconstrucción de dosis post-accidental ya que sus propiedades termoluminiscentes en la región espectral del azul presentan buenas características dosimétricas. Se observa que la albita es muy sensible a la radiación, presenta una excelente linealidad con la dosis (0.06-8Gy, muestra una gran estabilidad con el tiempo, tiene reproducibilidad aceptable y puede detectar bajos rangos de dosis (60mGy. Sus curvas de termoluminiscencia tienen una estructura compleja asociada a una distribución continua de trampas en todo el rango de temperaturas. Este comportamiento podría explicarse como consecuencia de la formación-aniquilación din

  20. Germinação e qualidade de sementes de Adenostemma brasilianum (pers. cass., Asteraceae nativa de sub-bosque de Floresta Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aparecida Silva Godinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram objetivos deste estudo analisar o comportamento germinativo das sementes de Adenostemma brasilianum oriundas de população natural, avaliar sua qualidade física e verificar o seu tempo de embebição. Sementes foram coletadas em indivíduos de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecídua em Viçosa, Zona da Mata mineira, Sudeste brasileiro. Para avaliação da qualidade física, sementes recém-colhidas (zero mês foram classificadas como perfeitas (escuras com embrião ou imperfeitas (escuras ou claras, sem embrião. Amostras de 50 sementes recém-colhidas foram colocadas para germinar em três temperaturas (20, 25 e 30 °C e em três condições de luminosidade: com suplementação de luz (SUP, luz ambiente (AMB e escuro contínuo (ESC. A germinação de sementes armazenadas por dois, quatro e seis meses foi testada utilizando-se metodologia idêntica. Sementes armazenadas por 12 e 18 meses foram colocadas para germinar a 25 ºC SUP. A dormência e a embebição foram testadas, respectivamente, com solução de tetrazólio e azul de metileno. Foram registradas 74,7% de sementes fisicamente perfeitas, e observou-se a partenocarpia (10%. As sementes iniciaram a germinação ao oitavo dia após a semeadura. Os fatores luz, temperatura e armazenamento agiram sinergeticamente sobre a germinação das sementes. As maiores porcentagens médias de germinação foram observadas nas sementes recém-colhidas e submetidas às temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC SUP, 85,5 e 88,5%, respectivamente. A dormência das sementes foi constatada em baixa temperatura (20 ºC, independentemente do tratamento de luz. O armazenamento aumentou a mortalidade e a quebra da dormência; aos 12 meses, a germinação foi nula. A absorção de água pela semente ocorreu 24 h após a sua imersão em solução de azul de metileno.

  1. Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and Categories (BCCs) in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Julio; González-Perilli, Fernando; Prado-León, Lilia; Melnikova, Anna; Álvaro, Leticia; Collado, José A; Moreira, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs) included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan) of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs ( rojo "red," verde "green," amarillo "yellow," azul "blue," negro "black," and blanco "white") appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs ( gris "gray," naranja "orange," and rosa "pink") but not for the other five derived BCTs ( celeste "sky blue," marrón "brown," café "brown," morado "purple," and violeta "purple"). Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón "brown" and café "brown" being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English) as is the case of morado "purple" and violeta "purple." Uruguayan celeste "sky blue" had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue ( celeste "sky blue") and blue ( azul "blue"), the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste "sky blue" only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the use of the color in the flags and the arrival of an important number of Italian immigrants

  2. Avaliação da composição molecular da cápsula anterior da lente de cães idosos com catarata de alto risco

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    Ana Paula Hvenegaard

    Full Text Available Resumo: Atualmente, a cápsula anterior e o epitélio da lente tem sido cada vez mais estudados, com o intuito de reduzir as possíveis complicações do pós-operatório da remoção da catarata, tal como a opacidade da cápsula posterior, alteração ocasionada principalmente pela diferenciação e migração das células do epitélio lenticular para a cápsula posterior da lente. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a composição molecular da cápsula anterior da lente pela técnica histoquímica de PAS (avaliação de proteoglicanos e picrosirius red (avaliação de colágeno IV, em cães idosos com catarata diabética e não diabética do tipo hipermadura, submetidos ao uso ou não de azul de tripano a 0,1 % durante a facoemulsificação. Vinte e sete cães foram estudados, incluindo 21 fêmeas e 6 machos, de 8 a 12 anos de idade (média = 9,6 anos, de diversas raças e divididos em 2 grupos: GC (catarata hipermadura e GCD (catarata diabética. Os resultados das análises realizadas mostraram que ambas as amostras, tanto as provenientes das cataratas hipermaduras, quanto das diabéticas, apresentam semelhante composição molecular de proteoglicanos e colágeno IV e isto independente da utilização de azul de tripano a 0,1 %. Conclui-se, portanto, que se os resultados obtidos forem decorrentes de alterações provocadas pelo rápido metabolismo da catarata diabética e pela cronicidade da catarata hipermadura sugere-se que o comprometimento da estrutura capsular seja de intensidade equivalente e, por consequência, que isto também possa prejudicar o metabolismo das células do epitélio anterior da lente, diminuindo assim a incidência da opacidade da cápsula posterior de cães com catarata diabética e hipermadura submetidos à facoemulsificação.

  3. Resumen del II Congreso Latinoamericano de Estudiantes de Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalurgia. // Summary of the 2nd Latin-American Congress for Students of Mechanical Engineering.

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    D. William Fonseca

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Del 15 al 20 de Septiembre del 2003 se celebró el II Congreso Latinoamericano de Estudiantes de Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalurgia,CLEIM´2003, con sede en el Hotel Costa Azul de la Villa Panamericana y el Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría,CUJAE., con el auspicio de la Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica de la CUJAE y el Centro de Estudios de Innovación y Mantenimiento(CEIM y la colaboración y patrocinio de DHL, Los Portales S.A, Unión de Empresas de Recuperación de Materias Primas, TractoImport, CUBACEL, Movitel, Softel, Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología, Ministerio de Cultura, Departamento deTelemática de la Facultad de Eléctrica, Universitur- CUJAE, Unidad de Eventos de Islazul.y LabioFam. El CLEIM fue organizadopor la Federación Estudiantil Universitaria de la Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica de la CUJAE en coordinación para su promocióncon la Coordinadora Latinoamericana de Estudiantes de Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalurgia, CLEIM. Este informe resume lasprincipales actividades realizadas durante este congreso y los resultados obtenido durante el mismo.___________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe 2nd Latin-American Congress for Students of Mechanical Engineering (CLEIM 2003 was celebrated in the areas of theHigher Polytechnic Institute José Antonio Echeverría and the Costa Azul Hotel, on September 15 - 20 of 2003, sponsored byMechanical Engineering Faculty at CUJAE and Center for Studies of Maintenance (CEIM. This Congress was organized bythe Federation of Students (FEU in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at CUJAE in coordination and promotion with theLatin American Coordinator of Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy Students (CLEIM. This event was protagonist, onceagain, for the union of the great Mechanical Engineers community in Latin-American area with the mission of developing thisprofession with genius, creativity and talent. After an

  4. Ionoluminiscencia de silicatos de utilización en cerámica a temperaturas criogenicas

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    García-Guinea, J.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements on accurate physical properties need new characterization techniques for structural defects. The use of light ions such as H+ and He+ with MeV energies allows penetration to a depth of several microns in most materials producing strong luminescence to gain information on the defect structures present. Examples of ionoluminescence spectra of silicates for ceramic uses are included such as Mn2+-Fe3+ coupled pairs in quartz, Dy3+ in zircon, hatch-twinning in microcline and spontaneous strain and sodium in albite. In cryogenic thermal conditions tectosilicates display both, reorganization of Mn2+ and Fe3+ centres plus a large enlargement of the UV-blue emissions by stress mechanisms. Nesosilicates, i.e., zircon, shows differences such as existence of REE and (Dy3+ and a selective reduction of some UV-blue peaks, e.g., at 340 and 400 nm.

    El requerimiento de propiedades físicas muy controladas en los nuevos materiales cerámicos precisa de nuevas técnicas de caracterización de defectos estructurales. Al incidir sobre un material un flujo de iones ligeros, como 1 1H+, 2 1H+, 3 2He+ y 4 2He+, acelerados a energías de MeV, estos iones pueden penetrar varias micras en muchos materiales emitiendo un fuerte espectro luminiscente con mucha información sobre defectos estructurales. Se presentan algunos ejemplos de espectros de ionoluminiscencia de silicatos de uso cerámico con diferentes tipos de defectos como Mn2+, Fe3+, Ti4+ en cuarzo, Dy3+ en circón, maclados tartán en microclina y estrés espontáneo y potasio en albita. En tectosilicatos a temperaturas criogénicas se aprecia una reorganización del par Mn2+ y Fe3+ mas un crecimiento de las emisiones espectrales ultravioleta-azules atribuibles a mecanismos de estrés en redes silicatadas. En nesosilicatos (circón se observan diferencias como presencia de tierras raras (Dy3+ y reducción selectiva de algunos picos ultravioleta-azules (340 y 400 nm.

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DO SUCO RUMINAL DE BOVINOS “A FRESCO” E APÓS 12 HORAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO

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    Patrícia Lorena Guimarães

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se no presente estudo os parâmetros físicos (cor, odor, consistência e tempo de sedimentação e flotação, químicos (pH, e tempo de redução do azul de metileno e biológicos (avaliação dos protozoários in vitro, contagem de infusórios e percentagem de protozoários viáveis do suco ruminal de 50 fêmeas bovinas adultas clinicamente saudáveis, imediatamente após a colheita e ao final de 12 horas de armazenamento em garrafas térmicas comuns. Utilizaram-se animais em lactação, da raça Girolando, e alimentados a pasto de Brachiaria decumbens. As análises foram realizadas em uma amostra individual de, aproximadamente, 400 ml de suco ruminal, colhida com sonda oroesofágica do tipo Schambye e Sorensen. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio de estatística descritiva e teste “t” de student para amostras pareadas (P<0,05. Os aspectos físicos, a avaliação in vitro dos infusórios e o número de protozoários por mililitro encontravam-se dentro dos padrões de normalidade na primeira avaliação, porém, após 12 horas de conservação, foram observadas alterações sugestivas de modificações na microbiota do suco ruminal. Constataram-se, após conservação, reduções estatísticas significativas em relação ao pH, percentual de protozoários viáveis e aumento no tempo de redução do azul de metileno (PRAM. Conclui-se que a garrafa térmica comum pode ser usada como opção na conservação de suco ruminal de bovinos em situações de clínica de campo, porém a análise no momento da colheita apresenta resultados mais fidedignos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bovinos, fluido ruminal, métodos de conservação, pH, protozoários.

  6. Una contribución al estudio de la solubilidad del CuSO4∙5H2O en medio acuoso

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    de Juan, D.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Pentahydrate copper sulphate (Blue vitriol is a copper salt used in minerallurgy as activator reagent in concentration methods by flotation for sulphide ores. In this work, crystallization conditions of copper sulphate solutions have been determined as a function of both temperature and sulphuric acidity. The results obtained showed that Cu2+ concentration in the solution is mainly a direct function of the logarithm of temperature and the sulfuric acid concentration. The influence of Zn2+ presence in copper sulphate solubility has been also studied at ambient temperature. Results obtained led to a multiple linear regression between Cu2+ concentration in the solution and sulphuric acid and Zn2+ concentrations in the medium. Finally, a comparison between the results obtained and data available in the literature is made.

    El sulfato de cobre pentahidratado (vitriolo azul, vitriolo de Venus, caparrosa azul es una sal de cobre que se suele emplear en mineralurgia como reactivo activador en los métodos de concentración por flotación de los minerales sulfurados. En el presente trabajo se han determinado las condiciones de cristalización de las disoluciones de sulfato de cobre a distintas temperaturas en función de la acidez sulfúrica presente. Se ha encontrado que la concentración de Cu2+ en la disolución, es principalmente función directa del logaritmo de la temperatura y de la concentración de ácido sulfúrico presente. También se ha estudiado la influencia de la presencia del ion Zn2+ en la solubilidad del CuSO4∙5H2O a temperatura ambiente, hallándose una relación lineal múltiple entre la concentración de Cu2+ y las concentraciones de ácido sulfúrico y Zn2+ en la disolución. Por último, se realiza una comparación de los resultados obtenidos con los datos disponibles en la bibliografía.

  7. Cytotoxic effects of an extract containing alkaloids obtained from Prosopis juliflora Sw. D.C. (Algaroba pods on glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. El- Bachá

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm revelado que o consumo predominante de vagens de Prosopis juliflora desenvolve doença de caráter neurotóxico em animais de produção. No sistema nervoso central, as células gliais desempenham funções essenciais que têm impacto na fisiologia e integridade neuronal. Neste estudo, investigamos os efeitos de citotoxicidade, modificações fenotípicas e expressão de GFAP, proteína marcadora de reatividade astrocitária, do extrato alcaloidal (EA, obtido das vagens de P. juliflora, sobre células gliais da linhagem GL-15. Concentrações entre 0,03-30µg/ml do EA foram avaliadas por 24-72 h. O teste do MTT, LDH e coloração com Azul de Tripan mostraram citotoxicidade dose-dependente do EA, atingindo efeito máximo a 30µg/ml em 24 h. Curvas de crescimento avaliadas pela coloracao com Azul de Tripan revelaram redução significativa do número de células viáveis (p<0,05 em 24 h de tratamento com 0,3µg/ml de EA. Análises por imunocitoquímica e western blotting das proteínas do citoesqueleto, vimentina e GFAP revelaram que, na mais baixa concentração do EA (0,03µg/ml, as células GL-15 modificaram sua morfologia com aumento da proporção de células GFAP positivas, entretanto, a expressão de vimentina permaneceu estável. Em contrapartida, as células expostas às mais altas concentrações do extrato (3-30µg/ml apresentaram muito pouca expressão dessas proteínas. Esses resultados sugerem que alcalóides presentes nas vagens de P. juliflora estejam envolvidos nas modificações fenotípicas observadas em células gliais testadas e também na expressão das proteínas do citoesqueleto, vimentina e GFAP, assim como na redução do número de células viáveis.

  8. In vitro effect of 470 nm LED (Light Emitting Diode in keloid fibroblasts Efeito in vitro do LED (Light Emitting Diode de 470 nm em fibroblastos de quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvilena Bonatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify keloid fibroblasts after irradiation with 470nm blue LED, in vitro. Methods: Fibroblasts from keloid and adjacent skin have been obtained from 6 patients. Cells have been cultivated and maintained in DMEM culture medium. In Petri dishes, they were irradiated with energy doses of 6J, 12J and 18J. After 24 h, counting was done by the average of the triplicates for each sample. Results: There were no significant differences in the number of irradiated keloid fibroblasts at the studied doses (p=0.261. In adjacent skin fibroblasts, differences were observed (p=0.025 concerning the doses of 18 J and 6 J (p=0.03. Conclusions: There was a reduction in the number of adjacent skin fibroblasts irradiated with 470nm blue LED at the energy dose of 18 J compared to the ones irradiated at the energy dose of 6 J. There were no changes in keloid fibroblasts counting at any of the doses applied, 24 h after irradiation.Objetivo: Quantificar fibroblastos de quelóide após irradiação com LED azul de 470nm, in vitro. Métodos: Foram obtidos fibroblastos de quelóide e pele adjacente, de seis pacientes. As células foram cultivadas e mantidas em meio de cultura DMEM. Em placas de Petri, receberam irradiação com doses de energia de 6J, 12J e 18J. Após 24 horas a contagem foi feita pela média da triplicata para cada amostra. Resultados: Não houve diferença na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide irradiados nas doses estudadas (p=0,261. Observou-se diferença nos fibroblastos de pele adjacente (p=0,025, com relação às doses de 18 J e 6 J (p=0,03. Conclusões: Houve redução dos fibroblastos de pele adjacente irradiados com LED azul de 470 nm na dose de energia de 18 J em relação à dose de 6 J. Não houve alteração na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide nas doses aplicadas após 24 horas da irradiação.

  9. Sigüenza y el alma del paisaje

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    Juan Navarro de San Pío

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un análisis de la estética del paisaje en la obra del escritor Gabriel Miró. Para ello se investiga el significado y valor atribuido al paisaje en la trilogía novelesca  (Del vivir, Libro de Sigüenza, Años y Leguas de Sigüenza, héroe modernista de su paisaje literario, así como en el ensayo Sigüenza y el mirador azul. La visión del paisaje en Miró se reconstruye a través del diálogo con diferentes fuentes culturales y filosóficas (especialmente, Giner de los Ríos y Ortega y Gasset. El paisaje mironiano muestra así la evolución desde una inicial actitud panteísta hacia una posterior mirada fenomenológica y hermenéutica.

  10. El color como parte de la estrategia de persuasión política: El caso de los XVI Juegos Panamericanos, Guadalajara 2011

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    Andrés Valdez-Zepeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo los autores analizan el uso del color en las estrategias de persuasión política que utilizan los partidos y los candidatos durante los procesos electorales. También se describe la utilización que los principales partidos políticos de México hacen de los colores para lograr un posicionamiento y una diferenciación política. Específicamente, se indaga sobre el uso del color en los XVI Juegos Panamericanos celebrados en Guadalajara en octubre del 2011. Por ejemplo, se señala que el azul fue el color preponderante en la decoración de las instalaciones deportivas, los hoteles de la ciudad, los automóviles oficiales y en la publicidad del evento, lo que formaba parte de una estrategia ante las próximas elecciones federales del 2012.

  11. Metodologia para aferimento de potencialidade turística: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joélcio Gonçalves Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como intuito apresentar o estudo que foi desenvolvido no município de Rio Azul – PR, o qual teve por objetivo avaliar seu potencial turístico, por meio da aplicação da matriz de avaliação do potencial turístico de localidades receptoras de Almeida (2006. A pesquisa se deu em duas etapas, com metodologias diferentes. Na primeira ocorreram as pesquisas de gabinete, com a busca de bibliografia pertinente, para dar embasamento à pesquisa; a segunda foi em campo, onde ocorreu a aplicação dos formulários de avaliação propostos pela matriz de avaliação. Os resultados alcançados apontam a comunidade com potencialidade turística baixa, tendo em vista as deficiências apresentadas, que refletem a atividade turística incipiente.

  12. Himno a Barranquilla

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    Amira de la Rosa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Barranquilla, prócera e inmortal Ceñida de agua y madurada al sol Savia joven del árbol nacional.   Del jubiloso porvenir crisol Ilusión de Caribe blanco-azul De Colombia tendida en el umbral Da su voz y su músculo al progreso Barranquilla, prócera e inmortal.   Barrancas de San Nicolás con el Magdalena detrás.   Coronada de firme amanecer  te conduce en su espalda el porvenir: las sirenas de fábrica y taller son rumor arterial de tu existir.   Barranquilla sabe cantar  y sobre el yunque martillar.   Tajamares de Bocas de Ceniza Cuchillada del río sobre el mar al Caribe central colombianiza  tu robusta aptitud de navegar.   Amira de la Rosa Poetisa y dramaturga colombiana (1903-1974 (Fundadora del colegio Gabriela Mistral de Barranquilla, 1926

  13. Caracterización química de la vidriera del rosetón del Duomo de Siena (Italia, 1288-1289

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    Tarozzi, C.

    2010-06-01

    with addition of copper (together with manganese and iron, previously prepared as a pigment that has as excipient a potassium glass. The use of potassium glass instead of the sodium glass locally produced strongly suggests that the pigment could be bought directly from Middle or Northern Europe markets and/or could be a sub-product of copper ore melting. On the other hand, the production of sodium red ruby plaqué glass, technologically more evolved and comparable to the coeval potassium glass coming from the Central Europe glass factories, would be outstanding in the XIV century; but we interpret (taking into account its chemical composition that was produced later and introduced during the restoration conducted at the end of XVII century. We can also note the use of well-dosed lead additions in order to increase the lightness and transparency of coloured glass. Manganese has been a very important element in the Siena workshop glassmaker colour palette achievements. On the other hand, the trace-element chemical fingerprint of the glass allows arguing what kind of mineral salts were used as pigments, as well as the way to introduce it in the uncoloured original glass.

    Se han caracterizado químicamente una colección de vidrios arquitectónicos coloreados originales del rosetón del Duomo (catedral de Siena, Italia, realizados bajo diseño del artista Duccio di Buoninsegna en 1288-89. Esta comunicación expone los resultados obtenidos mediante el empleo de microsonda electrónica de Castaing (mayoritarios y espectrometría de masas con fuente de plasma acoplado inductivamente (ICP-MS, elementos en traza en vidrios de varios colores (incoloro, verde oscuro, verde oliva, amarillo, violeta, rosa, azul oscuro, azul celeste, rojo plaqué. Se trata de vidrios sódico-cálcicos (valores en peso alrededor del 13-14 % de Na2O, 56-64 % SiO2, 4% MgO, 9-10 % CaO, 2,5-4 K2O de tradición por tanto mediterránea. Un resultado semejante

  14. Effects of Agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) on Body Fat and Serum Lipids in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Barragán-Álvarez, Carla P; Diaz-Martinez, Nestor E; Rathod, Vineet; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Obesity affects millions of people worldwide, constituting a public health problem associated with premature mortality. Agave fructans decrease fat mass, body and liver weight, and generate satiety in rodents. In the present study the effects of agave fructans on weight control, lipid profile, and physical tolerability were evaluated in obese people. Twenty-eight obese volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, 96 mg/bw of agave fructans was administered for 12 weeks; in the second group, maltodextrin as a placebo was administered for 12 weeks. All participants consumed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal/day. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the study. The body mass index (BMI) of the agave fructans treated group was reduced significantly from the baseline to the final measurements. Hip and waist circumferences decreased statistically in both groups. A decrease of 10% in total body fat was observed in the agave fructans treated group, resulting in a statistically significant difference in the final versus baseline measurements between the Agave fructans treated group and the placebo treated group. Triglycerides were reduced significantly in the agave fructans treated group. Glucose values did not change in either group. Agave fructans intake was safe and well tolerated throughout the study. The results showed that the ingestion of agave fructans enhanced the decrease in BMI, the decrease in total body fat, and the decrease in triglycerides in obese individuals who consume a low-calorie diet.

  15. Granito Azul Sucuru: Caracterização Tecnológica Através do Aproveitamento do Material

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    Lúcio Flávio Moreira Cavalcanti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study aims to present possibilities for utilization of waste of “Blue Granite Sucuru” obtained in the exploration phase and whose field is disabled, located in the Paraiba Cariri, in the municipality of Sumé, PB. It was determined the physical indices of this material that showed the following values: density 2660 kg / m3 ; porosity and absorption 0.26% 0.10%, and these ratios are consistent with those proposed by NBR 15844 - granites requirements for such coating material. Starting from field visits collect materials from the waste, which were crushed and one hundred selected pieces were measured values of their lengths, thickness and width, analyzed in the light of ISO 9654. The coarse aggregate produced shows high percentage of cubic materials (64% and 36% elongated / lamellar material. Thus, the use of elongated gravel / lamellar in the manufacture of concrete reduces the strength thereof to increase the porosity and the possibility of segregation of the mortar when the density of the material in ways. Therefore, the crushed rock produced from the material even though they have good resistance to weathering actions on account of their mineralogical composition (low content in minerals iron and magnesium oxides and 60% alkali feldspar can used in the manufacture of concrete, provided it has precautions as to and grain size to prevent them from becoming trapped between the steel bars that make up the armor and hinder the consolidation of the concrete, which may cause problems such as segregation of the mixture and the empty forms. However these same britas not lend themselves to constitute ballast railways, as have 36% of elongated / lamellar particles when, in use, the maximum allowed is 10%. Therefore, a better economic and environmental feasibility of the blocks which are not used with ornamental purpose is possible, in which the waste can be availed in the form of crushed stone for the construction industry.

  16. O novo pleito brasileiro no mar: a plataforma continental estendida e o Projeto Amazônia Azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pereira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa a submissão do Brasil a uma plataforma continental estendida formulada à Comissão de Limites da Plataforma Continental (CLPC. Primeiramente, o trabalho apresenta a evolução dos limites marítimos brasileiros ao longo de sua formação histórica até o momento atual. Posteriormente, examina o conceito jurídico de plataforma continental elaborado pela Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre o Direito do Mar (CNUDM e a atuação da CLPC na fixação dos limites exteriores desse espaço do mar. Na parte final, destaca as implicações das recomendações "definitivas e obrigatórias" dessa instituição internacional sobre os interesses brasileiros na plataforma continental estendida.

  17. Identificación del agente causal del anillo rojo del agave tequilero (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul).

    OpenAIRE

    Mezo Villalobos, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo del agave tequilero es parte de una larga tradición del estado de Jalisco, México. Esta actividad que culmina con la obtención del tequila, un tipo de mezcal tan característico, que se ha legislado su producción bajo la Denominación de Origen. La cadena producto agave-tequila es de suma importancia económica y social, no sólo para la región productora, sino para el país, dadas las elevadas cantidades de tequila que se exportan a todo el mundo. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo ...

  18. Detection of waste's layers with geoelectric methods: case of Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Jorge; Zuniga, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Areas of greatest potential leachate storage are identified making 25 VES (Vertical Electrical Soundings), whose effective exploration depth was around 65 meters. The proposed geophysical model consists of four layers: the first corresponds to a coverage of compacted material (20 Ωm - 54 Ωm), the second layer contains unsaturated waste (11 Ωm - 18 Ωm), the third (1 Ωm - 5.4 Ωm) is saturated waste with leachate and the fourth (49 Ωm - 360 Ωm) the basement on which was installed the landfill. Therefore, the geoelectric allowed determining the thickness and distribution of covering materials, waste, saturated waste with leachates and depth of the basement's top. (author) [es

  19. Reacciones encadenadas: del reloj de yodo al arco iris químico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Durán Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para motivar a los alumnos en el estudio de la química, presentamos una experiencia que llamará su atención y que puede servir para introducir diversos conceptos en el aula. Consiste en encadenar la reacción de reducción del yodato potásico por hidrogenosulfito de sodio en presencia de almidón con otra reacción en la que aparecen disoluciones de indicadores de pH coloreadas al pasar de medio ácido a básico. En siete copas de vidrio que contienen un líquido incoloro, se añade otra disolución también incolora. El contenido de las copas va cambiando brusca y sucesivamente a azul-negro. Al añadir a las copas una tercera disolución, igualmente incolora, desaparece el color oscuro y aparecen los siete colores del arco iris produciendo un vistoso resultado.

  20. Reacciones encadenadas: del reloj de yodo al arco iris químico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Durán Torres,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para motivar a los alumnos en el estudio de la química, presentamos una experiencia que llamará su atención y que puede servir para introducir diversos conceptos en el aula. Consiste en encadenar la reacción de reducción del yodato potásico por hidrogenosulfito de sodio en presencia de almidón con otra reacción en la que aparecendisoluciones de indicadores de pH coloreadas al pasar de medio ácido a básico. En siete copas de vidrio que contienen un líquido incoloro, se añade otra disolución también incolora. El contenido de las copas va cambiando brusca y sucesivamente a azul-negro. Al añadir a las copas una tercera disolución, igualmente incolora, desaparece el color oscuro y aparecen los siete colores del arco iris produciendo un vistoso resultado.

  1. compuestos fenólicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González García

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica que tiene como objetivo identificar y analizar alternativas de aprovechamiento del bagazo de Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul. Se proponen dos líneas de investigación para obtener productos de valor agregado a partir de este residuo: 1utilización como fuente de carbono de bajo costo para la producción de biopolímeros y carbohidrasas, con bacterias celulolíticas del género Microbulbifer, Marinobacterium y Sagittula; 2obtención de compuestos fenólicos a partir de la lignina presente en sus fibras. Se concluye, que el bagazo de agave tequilero es un material viable para ser usado como substrato en procesos fermentativos, por lo que existen grandes oportunidades de investigación para desarrollar procesos de bioconversión técnicamente factible, eficiente y económicamente atractivo

  2. Reducción de color con cloruro de magnesio en soluciones con colorantes comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Lucero Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se experimentó con diferentes concentraciones de cloruro de magnesio (MgCl2 como coagulante para reducir el color en soluciones con colorantes comerciales: negro, azul y café. Los parámetros analizados fueron pH, color, demanda química de oxígeno ( dqo y sólidos suspendidos totales (sst de acuerdo con las Normas Mexicanas. Como prueba complementaria se agregó carbón activado a las muestras para reducir el color residual después de la coagulación-floculación. La reducción de los valores de color y dqo fue mayor cuando se adicionó más cantidad de MgCl2 (1.8 g/L. Los porcentajes de reducción fueron ≥90% para el color y >50% para la dqo. Los sst aumentaron con la adición de MgCl2. El carbón activado eliminó el color residual.

  3. Condrossarcoma mesenquimal extraesquelético em um gato: relato de caso

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    T.N. Guim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Condrossarcoma mesenquimal extraesquelético (CME é um neoplasma maligno e raro em animais domésticos. Descreve-se um caso de CME em uma gata que apresentava uma massa firme, branco-amarelada, medindo 18cm de diâmetro, aderida à musculatura do membro pélvico esquerdo. O exame citológico revelou presença de células fusiformes individualizadas pleomórficas e agregados de pequenas células ovais, sem bordas definidas em meio à matriz intercelular amorfa. Devido à impossibilidade de tratamento e ao prognóstico desfavorável, foi realizada eutanásia. Microscopicamente foram observadas células fusiformes indiferenciadas e agregados de células condroides pleomórficas. O diagnóstico de CME foi confirmado pelas técnicas de azul alciano, tricrômico de Masson e pela prova imunoistoquímica, utilizando-se anticorpos antivimentina.

  4. Wild felid species richness affected by a corridor in the Lacandona forest, Mexico

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    Gil–Fernández, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild felids are one of the most vulnerable species due to habitat loss caused by fragmentation of ecosystems. We analyzed the effect of a structural corridor, defined as a strip of vegetation connecting two habitat patches, on the richness and habitat occupancy of felids on three sites in Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, one with two isolated forest patches, the second with a structural corridor, and the third inside the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. We found only two species (L. pardalis and H. yagouaroundi in the isolated forest patches, five species in the structural corridor, and four species inside the Reserve. The corridor did not significantly affect occupancy, but due to the low detection rates, further investigation is needed to rule out differences. Our results highlight the need to manage habitat connectivity in the remaining forests in order to preserve the felid community of Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, México.

  5. II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Piattella, Oliver; Rodrigues, Davi; Velten, Hermano; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The series of texts composing this book is based on the lectures presented during the II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology, held in Pedra Azul (Espírito Santo, Brazil) between 9 and 14 March 2014. This II JBPCosmo has been entirely devoted to the problem of understanding theoretical and observational aspects of Cosmic Background Radiation (CMB). The CMB is one of the most important phenomena in Physics and a fundamental probe of our Universe when it was only 400,000 years old. It is an extraordinary laboratory where we can learn from particle physics to cosmology; its discovery in 1965 has been a landmark event in the history of physics. The observations of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation through the satellites COBE, WMAP and Planck provided a huge amount of data which are being analyzed in order to discover important information regarding the composition of our universe and the process of structure formation.

  6. Animal type melanoma: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Esther Alencar Marques

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dificuldade potencial no diagnóstico histológico de melanomas é a dificuldade em reconhecer variantes pouco frequentes de melanoma. Entre elas, as mais desafiantes incluem exemplos de melanoma desmoplásico, melanoma nevoide, o chamado "melanoma de desvio mínimo", melanomas com proeminente síntese de pigmento ou "melanoma tipo animal" e o nevo azul maligno. Os autores descrevem dois casos de melanoma tipo animal e discute-se a importância do diagnóstico diferencial clinico-histopatológico nesses casos.A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histological assessment of melanomas is the difficulty in recognizing unusual melanoma variants. Among them, the most challenging examples comprise desmoplastic melanomas, nevoid melanomas, the so-called minimal-deviation melanoma, melanomas with prominent pigment synthesis or animal-type melanoma, and the malignant blue nevus. Two cases of animal type melanoma are reported and the importance of clinical-histopathological differential diagnosis is discussed.

  7. [The National Medical Arbitration Commission: 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Juan Ramón

    Cuando la Secretaría de Salud todavía tenía el logotipo azul que decía SSA, corrían tiempos difíciles porque no había dinero y la idea de crear nuevas instituciones era recibida con reservas, no sólo por el Presidente Zedillo, siempre generoso y atento a las necesidades de salud de la población, sino también, como ya es costumbre, por el secretario de Hacienda, responsable de cuidar el erario público. Y es que la idea de hacer crecer el gasto corriente del gobierno se percibía, no sin razón, como un acto que podía infligir el riesgo de fomentar estructuras administrativas ineficaces y obesas. No ha sido el caso de la Comisión Nacional de Arbitraje Médico (CONAMED), pues sus aproximadamente 200 trabajadores siguen realizando una labor inmensa con una estructura ligera.

  8. HUELLA HÍDRICA DE UNA FINCA GANADERA LECHERA BAJO LAS CONDICIONES AGROECOLÓGICAS DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS AUGUSTO MARTÍNEZ-MAMIAN

    Full Text Available Las altas demandas de agua para la producción agropecuaria, ha generado la necesidad de cuantificar los consumos de este recurso con el fin de establecer medidas de manejo. Por lo cual se realizó un estudio para determinar la huella hídrica de un hato lechero bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del corregimiento de Rozo Municipio de Palmira Valle del Cauca. Para la evaluación se tuvo en cuenta la metodología de Chapagain, quien establece los parámetros de medición del agua verde, azul y gris. Se aplicó una encuesta para obtener los datos productivos de la finca. Los resultados mostraron que para producir un litro de leche se necesita 1,9 m3 de agua, de las cuales 97,4% son las requeridas por cultivo (forraje para su ciclo productivo, todo lo anterior evidencia la necesidad de establecer alternativas para el uso y reuso del agua dentro del sistema ganadero

  9. La Universidad de Salamanca en el siglo XVI: la reforma educativa de D. Juan de Zúñiga (1594

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier ALEJO MONTES

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salamanca, tímidamente, despierta al amanecer de un nuevo día. Al fondo se recortan las siluetas de las torres de la catedral semejando saetas que se clavan en el cielo. Por allá aparece un estudiante, vestido con su hábito, que se dirige, madrugador, a escuchar su clase de prima. ¡No puede perderse a su maestro preferido! Luego viene otro, y otro, y otro. Por fin, la gran riada; la calle parece un hormiguero de diferentes hormigas: negras, pardas, blancas, verdes, azules... Por último, aquellos más perezosos que se han quedado rezagados. Todos, llevados de la mano de los dioses, han dejado sus citas con Morfeo para encontrarse frente a frente con Minerva.Año de gracia del Señor de mil y quinientos y noventa y cuatro. Salamanca alberga a un personaje ilustre, heraldo de su Majestad Felipe II, D. Juan de Zúñiga, enviado para reformar la universidad.

  10. Carcinoma espinocelular em leucoplasia verrucosa proliferativa: relato de caso e revisão da literatura = Squamous cell carcinoma in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Leucoplasia Verrucosa Proliferativa (LVP é uma lesão cancerizável caracterizada por comportamento biológico mais agressivo e maior risco de malignização que as leucoplasias bucais. O diagnóstico da LVP deve ser feito pela combinação de achados clínicos e microscópicos e o acompanhamento dos pacientes deve ser rigoroso envolvendo a remoção de fatores de risco como o tabaco e o álcool e biópsias de controle, que podem ser realizadas quando ocorrerem mudanças nos sinais e sintomas. Este trabalho revisa a literatura sobre LVP e relata um caso de carcinoma espinocelular originado de leucoplasia verrucosa proliferativa, enfatizando os aspectos clínicos e histopatológico bem como a importância do acompanhamento rigoroso do paciente e de exames complementares como o azul de toluidina

  11. Caracterización del color de los aceites de oliva vírgenes de cultivares catalanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tous Martí, J.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour variation of virgin oil from 34 olive cultivars growing in Catalonia (Spain was analyzed by the ABT (Bromthymol Blue modified method. In addition, the preferences of consumers in the Denomination of Origin Siurana (Tarragona were studied, in relation to coloration. The results obtained show that varietal differences exist in the colour index studied and that the commercial preferences vary according to the oil markets.

    Se analizan mediante el método ABT (Azul de Bromotimol modificado, las variaciones del color de los aceites vírgenes provenientes de 34 variedades de olivo cultivadas en Cataluña y, al mismo tiempo, se estudian las preferencias de los consumidores de la Denominación de Origen Siurana (Tarragona, en cuanto a tonalidades de color. Los resultados obtenidos indican que existen diferencias varietales en los índices de color estudiados y que las preferencias comerciales varían según los mercados oleícolas.

  12. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolución del color en el alero de la fachada del rey D. Pedro I, Real Alcázar de Sevilla. Aportaciones del estudio de materiales a la identificación de las intervenciones de restauración a lo largo de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Cruz, Olimpia

    2011-12-01

    decorations dated between the 16th and 18th century cinnabar is replaced by vermilion, and natural azurite is replaced by its synthetic equivalent. More recent interventions reveal that the most widely-used pigment is emerald green (synthesised from 1814 onwards, this constituting a reference level. From the late 19th century onwards, some emerald greens and synthetic azurite blues are replaced by synthetic ultramarine.Se presenta la investigación realizada en la policromía de la fachada del Palacio de Pedro I, edificio construido en los Reales Alcázares de Sevilla, entre 1356 y 1366, que constituye una de las obras más importantes de la arquitectura andalusí en la Península Ibérica. En esta fachada se han efectuado un gran número de intervenciones en su policromía a lo largo de su historia, pero su aspecto general ha permanecido similar, aunque con variaciones en el detalle. El acabado predominante siempre ha sido el dorado, sobre los colores rojos, azules y verdes. Tras un detallado trabajo de campo y de muestreo, se han combinado diversas técnicas de laboratorio (microscopía óptica con luz reflejada y transmitida, difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de barrido con microanálisis EDX y cromatografías de gases y líquida de alta presión para la identificación y estudio de las fases inorgánicas y orgánicas que constituyen los pigmentos. Se ha podido confirmar la existencia de, al menos, ocho policromías que definen niveles realizados en épocas diferentes. Cada policromía suele presentar varias capas: de preparación, base y pictórica o lámina de oro, siendo éste último el material más representado como capa de terminación. Las policromías incluyen una amplia variedad de pigmentos: rojo de plomo, cinabrio/bermellón, blanco de plomo, azurita natural y sintética, azul ultramar sintético, malaquita, verde esmeralda, verde de As y Cu, amarillo de plomo y estaño, amarillo de cromo, litargirio y negro orgánico. El estudio textural

  14. Health risk assessment of hazardous metals for population via consumption of seafood from Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria; a case study of Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkpaa, K W; Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Essien, E B

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the human health risk through consumption of seafood from contaminated sites in Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City all in Ogoniland. The potential non-carcinogenic health risk for consumers were investigated by assessing the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients for Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe while carcinogenic health effect from Cr, Cd, and Pb was also estimated. The estimated daily intake from seafood consumption was below the threshold values for Cr, Mn, and Zn while they exceeded the threshold for Cd, Pb, and Fe. The target hazard quotients for Zn and Cr were below 1. Target hazard quotients values for Cd, Pb, Mn, and Fe were greater than 1 except for Fe level in Liza falcipinis from Kaa. Furthermore, estimation of carcinogenic risk for Cr in all samples under study exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4. Also, Cd carcinogenic risk level for L. falcipinis and Callinectes pallidus collected from B-Dere and C. pallidus collected from Bodo City was 1.1E-3 which also exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4 for Cd. Estimation of carcinogenic risk for Pb was within the acceptable range of 10E-4. Consumers of seafood from these sites in Ogoniland may be exposed to metal pollution.

  15. Estudio bacteriológico de la Pasteurella pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Colichón

    1942-10-01

    Full Text Available Un considerable número de cepas de P. pestis aisladas en el Perú han sido estudiadas bacteriológicamente y los resultados obtenidos pueden ser resumidos en la forma siguiente: 2 cepas entre 148 estudiadas en caldo produjeron franco enturbiamiento del medio. La liquefación de la gelatina, la producción de indol y acetil metilcarbinol fueron negativos para todas las cepas estudiadas. En las condiciones ordinarias puede haber débil producción de SH2 por muy pocas cepas; en cambio, en el agar-Martín-infusión-extracto hepático la producción de SH2 ocurre en el mayor número de cepas, y en un considerable número de ellas en forma notablemente intensa. La temperatura de incubación es decisiva en la producción de hidrógeno sulfurado. Salvo una excepción la reducción del azul de metileno fue negativa para las cepas estudiadas, en esta misma forma la reducción de nitratos a nitritos, la producción de ácido nitroso y reacción del rojo de metilo fueron positivas para las cepas de P. pestis probadas. Todas las cepas estudiadas dieron reacción de catalasas positiva y no desarrollaron en ácido úrico, ni en medio de Koser. La acción de la P. pestis sobre los carbohidratos fue dividida en los siguientes grupos: Carbohidratos atacados constantemente con producción de ácido, no gas; ellos son: glucosa, maltosa, manita, xilosa, salicina y leche tornasolada. Carbohidratos constantemente no atacados, como son: sacarosa, rafinosa, dulcita, inosita, glicerina y dextrina. Carbohidratos, inconstantemente atacados y son: rhamnosa, trehalosa, lactosa, sorbita y arabinosa. En condiciones adecuadas de cultivo, muchas cepas pueden desarrollar en papa, entre las que desarrollaron se observaron algunas que producen pigmentación amarillo-cepia o amarillo dorado. Las pruebas, del ácido nitroso, de la reducción del azul de metileno y de la rahmnosa tienen valor relativo para el Diagnóstico de la Peste, en cambio la glicerina, el indol, la sacarosa

  16. Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and Categories (BCCs) in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Julio; González-Perilli, Fernando; Prado-León, Lilia; Melnikova, Anna; Álvaro, Leticia; Collado, José A.; Moreira, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs) included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan) of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs (rojo “red,” verde “green,” amarillo “yellow,” azul “blue,” negro “black,” and blanco “white”) appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs (gris “gray,” naranja “orange,” and rosa “pink”) but not for the other five derived BCTs (celeste “sky blue,” marrón “brown,” café “brown,” morado “purple,” and violeta “purple”). Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón “brown” and café “brown” being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English) as is the case of morado “purple” and violeta “purple.” Uruguayan celeste “sky blue” had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue (celeste “sky blue”) and blue (azul “blue”), the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste “sky blue” only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the use of the

  17. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY LED LIGHT ON THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF BROCCOLI SEEDLINGS (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paniagua-Pardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dado su alto valor nutricional y los beneficios a la salud por los compuestos anticancerígenos que posee, el brócoli (Brassica oleraceaL. se ha convertido en un cultivo de importancia dentro de las hortalizas, por lo que es necesario incrementar su consumo y producción por la sociedad mexicana. Esta investigación planteó como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la luz LED de alta intensidad de distinta longitud de onda (rojo, azul y verde, en germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de brócoli, evaluando las variables velocidad de germinación (VG, porcentaje de germinación (PGF, longitud media de hipocótilo (LMH, peso fresco (PF y seco (PS de las plántulas, en busca de alternativas de iluminación para la producción en ambiente controlado. Los tiempos de exposición con luz roja, azul y verde, proveniente de LEDs de alta intensidad fueron de 12, seis y tres horas, con un complemento de tiempo para los últimos dos tratamientos con luz LED blanca. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones de 30 semillas por unidad experimental. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los tratamientos de las variables evaluadas. Los tratamientos con luz roja presentaron los mayores valores de VG, donde el rojo por 12 horas fue el mejor con incrementos del 25% contra el control. La variable LMH en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas tuvo incremento del 39% respecto al control, convirtiéndose en el mejor. Por otro lado, en la variable PF, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 16%. Finalmente en la variable PS, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento rojo por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 6%. Estos resultados mostraron que las respuestas fisiológicas producidas por la exposición a distintas longitudes de onda de luz LED de alta intensidad en semilla de brócoli variaron de acuerdo con el tiempo de exposición y

  18. Basic Color Terms (BCTs and Categories (BCCs in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Lillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs (rojo “red,” verde “green,” amarillo “yellow,” azul “blue,” negro “black,” and blanco “white” appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs (gris “gray,” naranja “orange,” and rosa “pink” but not for the other five derived BCTs (celeste “sky blue,” marrón “brown,” café “brown,” morado “purple,” and violeta “purple”. Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón “brown” and café “brown” being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English as is the case of morado “purple” and violeta “purple.” Uruguayan celeste “sky blue” had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue (celeste “sky blue” and blue (azul “blue”, the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste “sky blue” only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the

  19. PRODUÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DE CARVÕES ATIVADOS OBTIDOS EM DIFERENTES FASES DE ESTABILIZAÇÃO DO LODO DE ESGOTO

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    Glaydson Simões dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento exponencial na produção de lodo de esgoto, decorrente da melhoria dossistemas de tratamento sanitário em grandes centro urbanos, pode representar um problemaambiental se este não for disposto adequadamente. Converter lodo de esgoto em adsorventesatravés da pirólise tem sido proposto desde 1971 como alternativa a destinação final desteresíduo. Como alternativa para disposição do excesso de lodo que é retirado do reator UASBna Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto Subaé, Feira de Santana, Bahia, a proposta deste trabalhofoi obter carvão ativado em diferentes fases de estabilização do lodo de esgoto e avaliar suacapacidade de adsorção na remoção do azul de metileno em solução aquosa. As propriedadesdo lodo como sólidos totais e voláteis totais, carbono orgânico, nitrogênio, foramdeterminadas seguindo recomendações do Standard Methods APHA. As amostras de lodoforam pirolisadas a 450°C sob atmosfera inerte e o carvão ativado produzido foi caracterizadopor CHN, adsorção de nitrogênio e ensaios de adsorção. Pelas análises físico-químicas, o lodode esgoto apresentou baixos teores de carbono e nutrientes, independentemente do tempo deretenção no leito de secagem, quando comparados a típicos Iodos de sistemas anaeróbios. Osespectros de infravermelho confirmam a presença de grande quantidade de silicatosdecorrente da baixa eficiência da ETE-Subaé. Os ensaios de adsorção, usando o azul demetileno como adsorvato, mostraram que estes carvões são adsorventes potenciais pararemoção de corantes em efluentes líquidos. As isotermas de adsorção foram estudadas e osresultados foram ajustados pelos modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich. O modelo de Langmuirdescreveu melhor o processo de adsorção. Os resultados da adsorção, grau de enriquecimentode carbono e a razão molar N/C, indicaram que a melhor amostra para preparar carvão ativadoda ETE-Subaé é o lodo LES08, àquela que permaneceu mais tempo no leito

  20. In vitro biocompatibility tests of two commercial types of mineral trioxide aggregate Testes de biocompatibilidade in vitro de duas formas comerciais do agregado de trióxido mineral

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    Daniel Araki Ribeiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, regular and white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA are being used in Dentistry as retrofilling materials. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity tests form an important part of cancer research and risk assessment of potential carcinogens. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of regular and white MTA in vitro by the single cell gel (comet assay and trypan blue exclusion test, respectively. Mouse lymphoma cells were exposed to two presentation forms of MTA at final concentrations ranging from 1 to 1,000 µg/mL for 3 h at 37°C. The results showed that both compounds tested did not produce genotoxic effects at all concentrations evaluated. Likewise, no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed in cytotoxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that regular and white MTA are not genotoxins and are not able to interfere in cellular viability as assessed by single cell gel (comet assay and trypan blue assay, respectively.Recentemente, o agregado de trióxido mineral (MTA regular e branco estão sendo utilizados na Odontologia como materiais para obturação retrógrada de canais radiculares. Testes de genotoxicidade e citotoxicidade formam uma importante parte da pesquisa do câncer e da avaliação de risco de carcinógenos potenciais. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi examinar a genotoxicidade e citotoxicidade do MTA branco e regular in vitro pelo teste do cometa e teste de exclusão pelo azul de tripan, respectivamente. Células do linfoma murino foram expostas às duas formas de apresentação do MTA nas concentrações finais de 1 a 1.000 µg/mL por 3 horas a 37°C. Os resultados mostraram que ambos os compostos testados não produziram efeito genotóxico em todas as concentrações testadas. Da mesma forma, nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05 foi observada na citotoxicidade. Em suma, nossos resultados sugerem que o MTA regular e branco não são genotoxinas e

  1. Ontogenia de los esporangios, formación y citoquímica de esporas en licopodios (Lycopodiaceae colombianos

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    Edgar Javier Rincón Baron

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre aspectos reproductivos no son muy abundantes en la literatura científica sobre los taxones de Lycopodiaceae y constituyen información esencial para apoyar la taxonomía y relaciones sistemáticas en el grupo. Por lo tanto, se presenta aquí un análisis detallado de la ontogenia de los esporangios y esporogénesis, así como determinaciones químicas de varios compuestos generados durante la formación de las esporas. Los análisis se llevaron a cabo en 14 taxones de seis géneros de la familia: Diphasiastrum, Diphasium, Huperzia (un género que se trata aquí, incluyendo Phlegmariurus, Lycopodiella, Lycopodium y Palhinhaea. Las muestras fueron recolectadas en tres departamentos de los Andes de Colombia entre 1 454-3 677m de altitud. La ontogenia se estudió en trozos de estróbilos y ejes, de 1cm de largo, que se fijaron en glutaraldehido o FAA, se deshidrataron en alcohol, se incluyeron en LR White, se seccionaron en cortes de 0.2-0.5μm y se colorearon con azul de toluidina (TBO, un colorante metacromático que permite detectar tanto esporopolenina como lignina o sus precursores. Para estudios adicionales, secciones de 3-5μm de material incluido en paraplast plus se colorearon con safranina-verde rápido y azul alciánhematoxilina. Las pruebas químicas se llevaron a cabo en secciones de esporangios sin fijar en diferentes etapas de madurez utilizando azul alcián (mucopolisacáridos, solución de Lugol (almidón, Sudán III (lípidos, fluoroglucinol (lignina y orceína (cromosomas. Las observaciones se efectuaron con microscopio fotónico equipado con contraste diferencial de interferencia (DIC y microscopía de fluorescencia (para esporas y pared de los esporangios sin colorear. Para observaciones con microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, los estróbilos y esporangios se deshidrataron con 2,2 dimetoxipropano, se desecaron a punto crítico y se metalizaron con oro. Los resultados indican que la ontogenia de los

  2. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum Ação fototóxica do diodo emissor de luz na viabilidade de Trichophyton rubrum in vitro

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    José Cláudio Faria Amorim

    2012-04-01

    ão são capazes de alcançar o leito ungueal em concentrações terapêuticas, antifúngicos sistêmicos que não erradicam o fungo antes das unhas serem renovadas, efeitos colaterais graves e seleção de isolados fúngicos resistentes. A terapia fotodinâmica tem sido uma alternativa promissora aos tratamentos convencionais. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo avaliou a eficácia, in vitro, de azul de orto-toluidina irradiado por diodo emissor de luz na redução da viabilidade de T. rubrum. MÉTODOS: O inóculo fúngico foi preparado e exposto a diferentes concentrações de azul de orto-toluidina e densidades de energia do diodo emissor de luz, para avaliar a sensibilidade de T. rubrum e o efeito fungicida, após terapia fotodinâmica. Além disso, os perfis da área e volume das suspensões fúngicas irradiados também foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Uma pequena redução, in vitro, de células fúngicas foi observada após a exposição a 100 mM azul de orto-toluidina irradiados por diodo emissor de luz a 18 J/cm². Efeito fungicida ocorreu após irradiação 25 µM orto-toluidina por diodo emissor de luz com densidade de energia de 72 J/cm². A análise mostrou que a área e o volume irradiados pelo diodo emissor de luz foram 52,2 mm² e 413,70 mm³, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados permitiram concluir que a terapia fotodinâmica com diodo emissor de luz, nas condições experimentais é uma abordagem alternativa para inibir, in vitro, T. rubrum e pode ser um tratamento promissor para as dermatofitoses causadas por este fungo.

  3. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  4. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue; Viabilidade do dosimetro Fricke dopado com azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  5. Fantasmas de rojo y azul. Los saqueos de las tropas chilenas en la guerra del Pacífico

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    Patricio Rivera Olguín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La guerra del pacifico (1879-1884 se destaca como uno de los conflictos bélicos más feroces de América Latina, el cual dejó un triste y amargo recuerdo en quienes fueron vencidos (Perú y Bolivia y una aureola de triunfo y gloria en quienes vencieron (Chile. Sin embargo, existen numerosos hechos y pasajes omitidos por la historia tradicional del conflicto y que se refieren a los numerosos saqueos cometidos por las tropas chilenas, principalmente en ciudades y pueblos del Perú. Esta investigación presenta datos que verifican la existencia de estos hechos y se aproxima a la explicación de ellos, a través de la revisión de los registros dejados por los protagonistas del conflicto, en un intento de reconstruir la historia de la guerra, desde una perspectiva social.

  6. Arte como espelho

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    Pedro Süssekind

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como ponto de partida o exemplo da relação espelhada entre um livro e uma pintura de mesmo nome: o retrato que Lucian Freud fez do crítico de arte Martin Gayford e o diário que esse crítico escreveu sobre seu retratista, ambas as obras chamadas Homem com cachecol azul. A partir do exemplo, discuto a metáfora do espelho para caracterizar a arte, recorrendo para isso à teoria da representação artísticas elaborada pelo filósofo norte-americano Arthur Danto no artigo “O mundo da arte”, de 1964, e no primeiro capítulo do livro A transfiguração do lugar-comum, de 1981. Recorro, por fim, a dois exemplos artísticos de espelhamento na representação analisados por Danto em O abuso da beleza, de 2003, um quadro holandês do século dezessete e um poema de Rainer Maria Rilke.

  7. Análise do conto "Um espinho de marfim" sob a perpesctiva da teoria greimasiana

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    Maria do Carmo Almeida Correa

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available A narrativa que escolhemos para nossa análise encontra-se no livro de Marina Colasanti Uma idéia toda azul (2, rotulado como “O Melhor para o.Jovem” pela FNLIJ e premiado na categoria “Literatura Infantil” pela Associação Paulista de Críticos de Artes, em 1979. Se a premiação se deve à qualidade literária inegável do texto, é difícil entender, por outro lado, a rotulação. Como veremos, o conto analisado, ''Um espinho de marfim" (ver anexo, por sua ambigüidade, permite leitura em vários planos; o conhecimento da simbologia utilizada pela autora apontou-nos um caminho. A profundidade de leitura que esse modelo nos permite não descarta, é claro, a possibilidade de sua fruição pela criança e pelo jovem; apenas nos alerta para o risco de se afastar “comercialmente” certas obras do público adulto, que poderia delas desfrutar de maneira mais plena.

  8. Avaliação de progresso do Programa Nacional de Cooperação Acadêmica - Novas Fronteiras - edição 2007 e oportunidades de formação de redes cooperativas nas áreas estratégicas e tecnologias portadoras de futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYSE BENIGNA BERNARDO ARAUJO GOMES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de la estadística descriptiva de una consulta a coordinadores de proyectos son presentados para evaluación de progreso of Programa Nacional de Cooperacion Académica - Nuevas Fronteras (2007. La metodología cualitativa consideró la comparación con los pareceres de los consultores especialistas que aprobaran la continuidad de los proyectos. Instituciones fueran mapeadas con potencial à la formación de redes de cooperación en las áreas estratégicas e tecnologías avanzadas indicadas en lo Libro Azul de la Cuarta Conferencia de Ciencia Tecnología y Innovación para lo Desarrollo Sustentable por medio de busca de ocurrencias no Directorio de Investigación del Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq para comparación con los programas de posgrado aprobados pela Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES con grados mejores o iguales a cinco.

  9. El estrés por temperatura provoca necrosis en tabaco negro; cuantificación por análisis de imágenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortega

    2008-07-01

    de imágenes ImageJ. Este programa es capaz de adquirir, mostrar, editar, resaltar y analizar imágenes. Se demostró que las hojas sometidas a 4 ºC, independientemente del tiempo de exposición, presentaron una mayor área necrosada (35% en comparación con el resto de los tratamientos. Las áreas con acumulación de H2O2 in situ fueron mayores en los tratamientos de estrés por temperaturas altas (45 y 60 oC. La detección y cuantificación de la necrosis producida por temperaturas extremas, combinando el método del azul de tripano con el análisis de imágenes, es una herramienta útil para valorar los daños producidos por estrés de temperaturas y pudiera ser utilizado para valorar los daños celulares provocados por otros tipos de estrés.Palabras clave: variedad-Habana-2000; especies reactivas de oxígeno; H2O2;; Habana-2000-variety; reactive oxygen species.

  10. First report of linear megaplasmids in the genus Micrococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Julian R; Wagenknecht, Martin; Hill, Russell T; Farías, María E; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    High-altitude wetlands (above 4200m) in the northwest of Argentina are considered pristine and extreme environments. Micrococcus sp. A1, H5, and V7, isolated from such environments, were shown to contain linear megaplasmids, designated pLMA1, pLMH5, and pLMV7, respectively. As known from linear plasmids of other actinomycetes, all three plasmids were resistant to lambda exonuclease treatment, which is consistent with having terminal proteins covalently attached to their 5' DNA ends. Electrophoretic mobility, Southern analysis, and restriction endonuclease patterns revealed pLMA1 and pLMH5 being indistinguishable plasmids, even though they were found in different strains isolated from two distant wetlands - Laguna Azul and Laguna Huaca Huasi. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of Micrococcus sp. A1, H5, and V7 suggested a close relationship to Micrococcus luteus. Typing of isolates was performed using fingerprint patterns generated by BOX-PCR. Plasmid-deficient strains, generated from Micrococcus sp. A1, showed a significantly decreased resistance level for erythromycin. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ¿Una frontera bárbara y sin instituciones? Elecciones y clientelismo en la formación del Estado provincial durante el gobierno de Rosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Lanteri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las implicaciones de las prácticas electorales en la frontera sur de Buenos Aires durante el gobierno de Juan Manuel de Rosas, a través del estudio de caso de Azul y Tapalqué. De esta forma, mediante un examen cuantitativo y cualitativo del perfil socio-étnico y económico de los sufragantes, las mesas escrutadoras y los cambios-continuidades habidos en las distintas coyunturas, se intenta indagar en la legitimidad otorgada al régimen a través del sufragio por parte de la sociedad rural y en los intercambios y contraprestaciones generados entre ambas partes. Lo que permite matizar las tesis clientelares tradicionales basadas en el uso exclusivo de la coerción, el monopolio de los recursos o la preeminencia de los grandes estancieros en la estructura de poder rosista, destacando la importancia de la frontera en el andamiaje político-institucional del estado provincial y complejizando la articulación entre gobernantes y gobernados durante el período.

  12. AÇÃO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA EM Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352 UTILIZANDO MODELO DE INFECÇÃO Galleria mellonella

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    Raquel Teles de Menezes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae é um dos patógenos que possui grande resistência a vários antimicrobianos. A Terapia Fotodinâmica Antimicrobiana (PDT vem sendo estudada como novo recurso no combate à resistência bacteriana. Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antimicrobiana da PDT em K. pneumoniae utilizando como modelo de infecção in vivo Galleria mellonella. Métodos: Foram inoculados 10µL da suspensão padronizada de K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352 na última proleg esquerda de cada larva selecionada de G. mellonella. Decorridos 30 minutos, as larvas foram submetidas a PDT, com o uso do fotossensibilizador Azul de metileno e Laser de Arseneto de Gálio Alumínio. Passadas 24h, por sete dias o número de lagartas mortas foi anotado para a realização da curva de sobrevivência. Resultados: A PDT contribuiu para melhora da sobrevida das larvas, porém sem apresentar diferença estatística significante. Conclusão: A PDT apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra a cepa de K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352.

  13. Diferenciación molecular de Lemna aequinoctialis y L. Valdiviana (lemnaceae por patrones proteicos

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    Mª del Milagro Montero Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Genética Molecular de la Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. Se utilizaron plantas acuáticas macrófitas de Lemna valdiviana y L. aequinoctialis previamente identificadas. Estas especies habitan en aguas ricas en sales disueltas y aguas servidas. Recientemente se les consideró como un indicador de la contaminación ocasionada por pesticidas y herbicidas en el agua. La composición proteica llega a niveles entre 38 y 43% de materia seca, importante para diversos usos. La extracción de proteínas totales, por medio de electroforesis discontinua en gel de poliacrilamida, se realizó en condiciones reductoras con SDS (SDS-PAGE. Los geles separadores empleados fueron al 8 y 10%, gel espaciador al 4% y la tinción se efectuó con azul commassie. Los diversos patrones proteicos reflejaron diferencias genéticas entre ambas especies que se pueden deber a las diferencias de hábitat y de reproducción.

  14. A Piriápolis

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    Luis Alberto Quijano Alpuin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Es Piriápolis una estrella prodigiosa que del cielo una noche se escapó, y escondiendo su estela luminosa entre el mar y la sierra se ocultó.   Forjador de ilusiones y de sueños, solo Piria soñando lo encontró, mas no es suyo a pesar de ser su dueño a nosotros su sueño nos legó.   Como él quisiera contemplarlo y mirarlo igual que él lo miró, a su espíritu quisiera yo pasearlo y a su sueño llevarlo entre los dos.   Recoger las horas de los desalientos y en una mochila poderlo llevar, y sobre las rocas ir dejando al viento las desiluciones que puedan quedar.   Llenarme los ojos de color y espuma gozar en la playa con él al pasar, el gris de la sierra tras la blanca bruma el azul del cielo y el verde del mar.   Luis Alberto Quijano Alpuin (1937- Poeta y folklorista uruguayo

  15. UN SIFÓN A PARTIR DE UNA REACCIÓN QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Ángeles García Liarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para amenizar las clases y motivar a los alumnos se presenta una experiencia sorprendente y atractiva que permite abordar aspectos tanto físicos como químicos. Consiste en la reacción en un recipiente cerrado de una pequeña cantidad de cobre con ácido nítrico (HNO3, desprendiendo calor y liberando un gas pardo-rojizo. El gas fluye por un tubo de vidrio hacia un vaso que contiene agua, en donde burbujea y se disuelve. Tras enfriar con hielo el recipiente de reacción se produce un brusco descenso de la presión y el flujo de agua por el tubo de vidrio hacia su interior mediante un efecto sifón, formando una disolución de color azul. La sucesión decolores y el movimiento del gas y el agua provocarán un impacto visual que, sin duda, impresionará a los alumnos y contribuirá a fomentar el interés por la Ciencia.

  16. UN SIFÓN A PARTIR DE UNA REACCIÓN QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Ángeles García Liarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para amenizar las clases y motivar a los alumnos se presenta una experiencia sorprendente y atractiva que permite abordar aspectos tanto físicos como químicos. Consiste en la reacción en un recipiente cerrado de una pequeña cantidad de cobre con ácido nítrico (HNO3, desprendiendo calor y liberando un gas pardo-rojizo. El gas fluye por un tubo de vidrio hacia un vaso que contiene agua, en donde burbujea y se disuelve. Tras enfriar con hielo el recipiente de reacción se produce un brusco descenso de la presión y el flujo de agua por el tubo de vidrio hacia su interior mediante un efecto sifón, formando una disolución de color azul. La sucesión de colores y el movimiento del gas y el agua provocarán un impacto visual que, sin duda, impresionará a los alumnos y contribuirá a fomentar el interés por la Ciencia.

  17. Caracterización superficial en fase gas y líquida de carbones activados

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    Liliana Giraldo Gutierréz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el área superficial de carbones activados obtenidos a partir de cascarilla de café y cáscara de coco, mediante isotermas de adsorción de N2 a 77K. Se compararon los resultados con aquellos obtenidos con un método comúnmente utilizado, el índice de azul de metileno, y se encontró una buena correlación entre las dos áreas determinadas por éste método. Se muestra que los dos métodos permiten realizar un análisis complementario de una superficie porosa./ The superficial area of an activated carbon obtained from coffee husk and coconut shell was determined, by means of isotherms of adsorption of N2 to 77K and the results they area compared with the method of index blue of methylene, finding an good correlation between the two areas determined by this method. This research shows that both methods allow making a complementary analysis of a porous surface.

  18. Gobernanza climática: Actores sociales en la mitigación y adaptación en el estado de Coahuila, México

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    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una evaluación de las capacidades de actores sociales de Coahuila de Zaragoza para enfrentar el cambio climático a partir de tres indicadores: 1 Social, con base en experiencias y prácticas de los actores; 2 Político, se refiere al diálogo y la legitimación del proceso político de los actores, y 3 Ambiental, con base en acciones de sustenta - bilidad ambiental. Los resultados indican que en materia social persiste la vulnerabilidad; en materia política, hay instituciones con acciones para enfrentar el cambio climático, pero sin acciones de consenso entre los actores y sectores; en materia ambiental, la agenda verde aparece avanzada, no así las agendas azul y gris las cuales deben reforzar los procesos de gobernanza para lograr anticiparse a los efectos del cambio climático por medio del incremento de medidas de mitigación y adap - tación a partir de instrumentos de gestión pública como el Programa Estatal de Cambio Climático.

  19. Ictiofauna de la cuenca del río Aguaytía, Ucayali, Perú

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    María Giuliana Quezada García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio presenta una lista comentada de especies de peces registradas en la cuenca del río Aguaytía. Son consideradas las colectas de diferentes años y estaciones climáticas entre 1942 y 2009. Es el primer inventario de los peces para esta cuenca, la cual es importante para el Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul. La metodología empleada para la recolección de las muestras incluyó principalmente colectas activas con redes de arrastre de 10x3 m y de 5x2 m y 6 mm de malla. La fijación y preservación de las muestras se realizo con formol al 10% y de etanol al 70%, respectivamente. Las muestras se encuentran en la Colección Ictiológica (MUSM del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Fueron analizados 9917 ejemplares y registradas un total de 211 especies agrupadas en 28 familias y nueve órdenes.

  20. EVIDENCIA ULTRAESTRUCTURAL DEL NUCLÉOLO DE Entamoeba histolytica

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    Citlali Vázquez-Echeverría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la estructura celular de Entamoeba histolytica se conoce con detalle, no se ha descrito la presencia de material nucleolar con el microscopio electrónico. En este trabajo utilizamos técnicas citoquímicas para microscopía de luz y electrónica para evidenciar la presencia del nucléolo en trofozoitos de esta amiba. Con la técnica de azul de toluidina para RNA y la técnica de impregnación argéntica para organizador nucleolar, se observa contraste de material intranuclear periférico. Con el microscopio electrónico, un material similar de naturaleza fibro-granular se contrasta también con las técnicas para ribonucleoproteínas y para organizador nucleolar. Una zona similar es negativa cuando se aplican técnicas para DNA. Estos resultados muestran evidencia ultraestructural de la presencia de un nucléolo periférico y anular en el núcleo de E. histolytica. Se sugiere que este organelo intranuclear es un caracter general de los eucariontes.

  1. Tierras públicas y construcción del Estado en Buenos Aires durante el siglo XIX: Las donaciones ejidales y condicionadas en una visión comparada

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    María Fernanda Barcos

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es realizar un análisis sobre la construcción del poder político post-independiente en la campaña de Buenos Aires. Para ello se examinan conjuntamente dos variables significativas: la política de tierras públicas -especialmente las donaciones ejidales y condicionadas- y la distribución de la riqueza. Se abordan dos casos de estudio de forma confrontada: la Guardia de Luján y los partidos de Azul y Tapalqué, donde las modalidades de donación se implementaron, estudiando las características de la legislación y su aplicación, el perfil socio-económico de los sectores beneficiados y su relación con la formación de los consensos sociales necesarios para erigir la potestad del Estado. Se presta especial atención a la conformación de las nuevas comunidades políticas, específicamente, durante el gobierno de Juan Manuel de Rosas y la etapa inmediatamente posterior.

  2. Estrategias regresivas en la pampa globalizada y las fronteras entre lo rural y lo urbano

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    Hugo E. Ratier

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available En el centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Partidos de Azul y Olavarría aparecen, entre los recursos para defenderse de la globalización y su secuela de políticas precarizadoras del trabajo, las que llamamos estrategias regresivas. Ante el abandono por parte del Estado del asesoramiento a los productores agrícolas, tanto familiares como asalariados, la gente de campo recurre a sus propios saberes y a sus redes solidarias o simplemente relacionales, para recrear actividades productivas, retroceder hacia formas paternalistas o clientelísticas pre-sindicales en términos de empleo, e incluso arbitrar soluciones tecnológicas ad-hoc. Trabajadores urbanos retornan al campo, y aparecen formas mixtas de actividades rural-urbanas con sede variable. De tal forma se genera un solo espacio donde se procuran salidas a la crisis. Esto suscita interrogantes teóricos en tomo a la llamada nueva ruralidad y a los cambios concomitantes en la calificación del espacio socio geográfico.

  3. DESEMPEÑO DE UNA PELÍCULA DE MAÍZ AZUL EN EL ENVASADO DE UN QUESO DE HUMEDAD INTERMEDIA

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    CECILIA ROJAS DE G.

    Full Text Available La PCT/MX2009/000092, describe un método para obtener películas a partir de harina de cereales mediante método de "casting" y empleocomo almohadillas antimicrobianas yenvases termosellables para alimentos secos. Debido a su sensibilidad al agua y baja resistencia mecánica para contener alimentos de humedad intermedia; se reformuló la matriz biopolimérica para mejorar ambos parámetros.La película derivada de la reformulación fue caracterizada mecánicamente (ASTM D1708, se midió el "swelling" y se observó mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido.El desempeño de la película fue evaluado envasando unalimento perecedero: un quesosemimadurado,sometiéndolo a almacenamiento refrigerado durante 2 meses. Control: se emplearon queso del mismo lote envasado al vacío en película alta barrera. Durante los estudios de estabilidad en anaquel se evaluaron parámetros críticos microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos para el alimento envasado.Se observó que si bien las películas activas controlaron la carga microbiana, la integridad del envase se vio alterada debido a absorción de agua por contacto con el alimento, observándose ruptura de la estructura e integridad del biopolímeroy en consecuencia, exposición del producto y término de su vida útil.

  4. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  5. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

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    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  6. CRUZAMIENTOS INTRA E INTERESPECIFICOS EN TURNERA , SERIE CANALIGERAE

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    María Mercedes Arbo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Canaligerae es una de las 9 series del género Turnera. Las especies de esta serie tienen la morfología floral más avanzada, y son la única serie conocida hasta ahora con número básico x = 5. Un programa de cruzamientos controlados se llevó a cabo entre  13 especies, cuatro de ellos con citotipos diploides y tetraploides,totalizando 17 accesiones de las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de América. La producción de híbridos se utilizó para determinar el grado de afinidad entre las entidades. La producción de los híbridos no viables, buenas semillas que no germinan, semillas vanas y el éxito de los cruces no fueron considerados como fracasos Sólo la producción de híbridos viables fue consideradas como éxitos. De las 136 combinaciones posibles (contando cada cruce y su recíproco a ser una cruz 53 híbridos y fracasos 83 fueron recuperados. La capacidad de cruzamiento entre las especies diploides indica que las especies con flores de color azul-blanca (T.caerulea, T.sunnamensis y T.grandiflora son un grupo estrechamente relacionado, y lo mismo ocurre con las especies de flores amarillas (T.scabra, T.subulata, T. Krapovickasii y T.concinna. Las especies con flores de color azul-blanco son genéticamente aisladas no sólo de las especies con flores amarillas, sino también del resto de las especies estudiadas aquí. T.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen estar también genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. T.aff.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen también estar genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. Por otro lado, los híbridos intraespecíficos entre citotipos señala la continuidad genética entre los individuos 2x y 4x que pertenecen a la misma especie. Alopolyploids (T.grandidentata, T.orientalis, T.ulmifolia y T. Aurelii tener una gama más amplia de cruzabilidad probablemente debido a la presencia de genomas diferentes en sus cromosomas

  7. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of natural inhibitors against Penicillium expansum Inibidores naturais no controle in vitro e in vivo de Penicillium expansum

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    Claudia Fieira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium expansum is the causative agent of apple blue mold. The inhibitory effects of the capsaicin derived from Capsicum spp. fruits and yeast Hansenula wingei against P. expansum were evaluated in an in vitro and in in vivo assay using Fuji apples. The minimum inhibitory concentration of capsaicin determined using the broth micro-dilution method was 122.16 µg mL-1. Capsaicin did not reduce blue mold incidence in apples. However, it was able to delay fungal growth in the first 14 days of the in vivo assay. The in vivo effect of the yeast Hansenula wingei AM2(-2, alone and combined with thiabendazole at low dosage (40 µg mL-1, on the incidence of apple diseases caused by P. expansum was also described. H. wingei AM2(-2 combined with a low fungicide dosage (10% of the dosage recommended by the manufacturer showed the best efficacy (100% up to 7 days of storage at 21 ºC, later showing a non-statistically different decrease (p > 0.05 after 14 (80.45% and 21 days (72.13%, respectively. These results contribute providing new options for using antifungal agents against Penicillium expansum.Penicillium expansum é o agente causador da doença em maçã conhecida como mofo azul. O efeito inibitório da capsaicina derivada dos frutos Capsicum spp. e da levedura Hansenula wingei foi avaliado através de ensaios in vitro e in vivo em maçã. A concentração inibitória mínima da capsaicina de 122,16 µg mL-1 foi determinada usando microdiluição. A capsaicina não mostrou capacidade em reduzir a incidência do mofo azul na maçã. Entretanto, um retardo no crescimento do fungo foi observado nos 14 primeiros dias dos ensaios in vivo. Também descrevemos o efeito da levedura Hansenula wingei AM2(-2 isolada e em combinação com tiabendazol em baixa dosagem (40 µg mL-1 no controle da doença de maçãs por P. expansum.Hansenula wingei AM2(-2, em combinação com baixa dosagem de tiabendazol (10% da recomendada pelo fabricante, apresentou 100% de

  8. Crecimiento y habilidad decolorante potencial de Hyphomycetes (Deuteromycetes de Río Santiago sobre medio agarizado suplementado con cromóforos sintéticos Growth and potential decolorizing ability of Hyphomycetes (Deuteromycetes from Río Santiago on agar medium supplemented with synthetic chromophores

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    Romina Liberto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la capacidad de Dictyosporium triramosum, Minimidochium parvum y Tetraploa aristata, aisladas de materia orgánica colectada en Río Santiago (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, para crecer y decolorar medios agarizados y suplementados con diferentes cromóforos sintéticos al 0,01 % (p v-1. Cristal violeta y verde brillante redujeron el crecimiento de las 3 cepas revelando los mayores porcentajes de inhibición. Mientras que eosina y rosa de bengala no afectaron a D. triramosum, valores superiores al 50 % de inhibición se observaron en M. parvum y T. aristata. Rojo congo y rojo neutral redujeron a D. triramosum y M. parvum en un 12-17 %, pero no a T. aristata. D. triramosum y T. aristata no resultaron afectados por azul de toluidina, mientras M. parvum fue inhibido por el colorante. Rojo de metilo sólo inhibió a M. parvum y T. aristata. Las 3 cepas probadas revelaron capacidad para decolorar el medio suplementado con azul de toluidina y rojo de metilo. D. triramosum decoloró además el medio suplementado con cristal violeta y rojo congo, y T. aristata el medio con cristal violeta y rojo neutral. Ninguno de los hongos estudiados decoloró los medios con eosina, rosa de bengala y verde brillante.The ability of Dictyosporium triramosum, Minimidochium parvum and Tetraploa aristata, isolated from organic matter collected in Río Santiago (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, to grow and decolorize agar media supplemented with different synthetic chromophores at 0.01% (w v-1 was analyzed. Crystal violet and brilliant green reduced the growth of the three strains showing the highest inhibition percentages. While eosin and rose bengal did not affect D. triramosum, growth inhibition values superior to 50 % were observed for M. parvum and T. aristata. Congo red and neutral red inhibited growth of both D. triramosum and M. parvum in a 12-17%, but those dyes did not reduced T. aristata growth. D. triramosum and T. aristata were not affected

  9. Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico

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    Alinka Olea-Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C

  10. Variação temporal do fitoplâncton de um lago pertencente à Área de Proteção Permanente no estado de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a lake in a permanent protected area in Alagoas State, Northeast Brazil

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    Karla Priscila Barros da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a variação espaço-temporal do microfitoplâncton e variáveis ambientais no Lago Azul, Área de Proteção Permanente do município de Marechal Deodoro, Alagoas. As coletas ocorreram no período de abril a setembro de 2008. As amostras do fitoplâncton foram obtidas através de arrastos horizontais superficiais, com rede de abertura de malha de 45 µm e, concomitantemente, coletadas amostras de água utilizando garrafa de Van Dorn, para a determinação dos parâmetros físico-químicos. Foram identificados 27 táxons predominando as Chlorophyta (63%, destacando-se como espécies "dominantes" Desmidium swartzii var. quadrangulatum (Ralfs A. Roy (62,3% e D. cylindricum Greville (55,1%, seguidos das Bacillariophyta (26% e Cyanobacteria (11%. O pH levemente ácido e a baixa disponibilidade de nutrientes ofereceram condições favoráveis para o desenvolvimento das Desmidiaceae: Closterium sp., Cosmarium goniodes West & West, C. margaritiferum Meneghini ex Ralfs, C. vogeciacum Gutwinski, Desmidium cylindricum Greville, D. pseudotreplonema West & West, D. swartzii var. quadrangulatum (Ralfs A. Roy, Euastrum brasiliense Borge var. minus G.S.West, Gymnozyga moniliformis Ehrenberg, Micrasterias denticulata Brébisson ex Ralfs, M. (Kützing Ralfs, M. radians Turner e Tetmemorus laevis (Kuetzing Ralfs.The objective of this work is to determine the spatial and temporal variation of microphytoplankton and environmental variables in Lake Azul, a permanent protected area in the town of Marechal Deodoro, Alagoas State, Brazil. Samples were collected from April to September 2008. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by surface-horizontal trawling with a 45µm mesh net. Water samples were taken with a Van Dorn bottle, during the phytoplankton collection, in order to determine physical-chemical parameters. A total of 27 taxa were identified, Chlorophyta were the most abundant taxa (63% of the sample followed by

  11. Microclimate under different shading screens in greenhouses cultivated with bromeliads Microclima sob diferentes malhas de sombreamento em ambiente protegido cultivado com bromélias

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    Ester Holcman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its objective the evaluation of the influence of shading screens of different colors on the different microclimate variables in a greenhouse covered with transparent low-density polyethylene (LDPE. The experiment was conducted with five treatments: thermo-reflective screen (T1; a control - without screen (T2; red screen (T3; blue screen (T4; and black screen (T5, all of them with 70% of shading. An automatic micrometeorological station was installed in each treatment, measuring air temperature (T, relative humidity (RH, incoming solar radiation (Rg, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and net radiation (Rn continuously. The control (T2 and red screen (T3 treatments promoted the highest solar radiation transmissivity, respectively 56.3 and 27%. The black screen (T5 had the lowest solar radiation transmissivity (10.4%. For PAR and Rn the same tendency was observed. The highest temperature was observed under blue screen (T4 treatment, which was 1.3 °C higher than external condition. Blue screen (T4 treatment also presented the highest relative humidity difference between inside and outside conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de malhas de sombreamento de diferentes cores nos elementos microclimáticos em ambiente protegido coberto com polietileno de baixa densidade transparente (LDPE. O experimento contou com cinco tratamentos: malha termorrefletora (T1; testemunha - sem malha (T2; tela vermelha (T3; tela azul (T4 e tela preta (T5, todas com 70% de sombreamento. Um sistema automático de aquisição de dados micrometeorológicos foi instalado em cada tratamento, obtendo-se dados contínuos de temperatura do ar (T, umidade relativa do ar (UR, radiação solar global (Qg, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA e saldo de radiação (Rn. O tratamento testemunha (T2 e a malha vermelha (T3 proporcionaram os maiores valores de transmitância de radiação solar global, respectivamente 56,3 e 27%; já a

  12. Propiedades Fisicoquímicas de Fresas (Fragaria sp Cultivadas Bajo Filtros Fotoselectivos Physical and Chemical Properties of Strawberries (Fragaria sp Grown Under Photoselective Filters

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para examinar los efectos de la calidad de luz sobre la calidad de la fruta en fresa (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler, establecida en invernadero. Se probaron cinco filtros de polipropileno de colores diferentes (rojo, amarillo, azul, verde, y transparente, con plantas sin cobertura como control. En los frutos se determinó el peso fresco y seco, longitud y ancho, sólidos solubles totales (SST, pH, acidez titulable (AT e índice de madurez (IM. Todas las variables evaluadas fueron afectadas significativamente por los filtros espectrales, con excepción del pH del jugo. El crecimiento del fruto fue fuertemente influenciado por la cobertura verde. Bajo la cobertura amarilla las plantas incrementaron el peso fresco de los frutos y el IM. La cobertura azul redujo el contenido de SST en los frutos, así como el IM. La longitud y ancho de los frutos aumentaron con la cobertura roja. La cobertura transparente incrementó los SST y la AT. Para ciertas variables los resultados no fueron suficientemente concluyentes como para proponer este nuevo sistema de producción en el cultivo de fresa en los altiplanos tropicales; sin embargo, sería importante evaluar esta técnica de producción en regiones con mayor iluminación que la región donde se desarrolló este estudio.An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of light quality on the fruit quality in strawberry (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler established in glasshouse. Five different colored polypropylene filters (red, blue, yellow, green and clear were tested, with plants growing without cover as control. Fresh and dry weight, length and width, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TA and maturity index (MI, were measured on fruits. All evaluated variables were significantly affected by the spectral filters, except the pH of the juice. The fruit growth was strongly reduced by green cover. Under the yellow cover plants enhanced the fresh weight of fruits and the MI

  13. Telas de sombreamento na produção de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Shading screens in the production of strawberry in greenhouse

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    RC Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a produção de duas cultivares de morangueiro, conduzido sob diferentes telas de sombreamento (coberturas em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi realizado em estufa agrícola de aço galvanizado, com teto semicircular, coberta com filme de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD de 150 μm de espessura, no Setor de Horticultura da Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS. Os tratamentos constaram de um fatorial duplo com duas cultivares (Camarosa e Oso Grande e 4 coberturas (testemunha sem tela e telas termo-refletora metálica, azul e vermelha com 40% de sombreamento que foram distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições com 20 plantas por parcela em área útil de 3 m². Foram determinados o número total e comercial de frutos e a massa fresca total e comercial e de frutos deformados por planta. Monitorou-se a temperatura do ar e a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA, sendo essa verificada em dois dias típicos (dia ensolarado e dia nublado. Considerando as médias obtidas sob a ausência e presença de telas e o total das colheitas, as produções das cultivares Oso Grande e Camarosa foram semelhantes. Na tela azul essas cultivares apresentaram a menor massa fresca.The production of two strawberry cultivars achieved under different shading screens (covers in protected environment was evaluated. The experiment was set up in galvanized steel closed greenhouse with semicircular ceiling covered with low-density polyethylene (LDPE films 150 μm thickness, in the University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of a double factorial with two cultivars (Camarosa and Oso Grande and four covers (control without screen and metalic, blue and red thermo-reflective screens with 40% shading which were distributed in randomized blocks lining with three repetitions with 20 plants per plot in an useful area of 3m². The total and commercial number of fruits and the total and commercial

  14. Novelda Stone: widely used within the Spanish architectural heritage

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    Fort, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Novelda Stone is a calcareous rock, of the biocalcarenite type. It is extracted from the «Vinalopó Medio» area (Alicante, eastern Spain. Novelda stone is known as construction material from the 13th century. From final of the 19th century until the present time, it has been used in Madrid, Valencia and Alicante. In the past, the main quarries from which this type of rock was extracted were located in the municipal districts of Monóvar (Almorquí Stone, Sax (Portazgo Stone and Elda (Bateig Stone. Nowadays, the main active extraction site is situated in the Bateig Hill quarries. The rock extracted is known commercially as Bateig Stone. The main varieties of this Bateig Stone are: White, Blue, Layer and Fantasy. Each variety of Novelda stone has different durability rate and different pathology depending on their characteristics, particularly on their hydric behaviour patterns. Layer Bateig and Portazgo stone undergo granular disintegration and alveolization and are less durable than the rest. White and Blue Bateig, as well as Almorquí stone, only develop fissures or scaling under extreme conditions.

    La Piedra de Novelda es una roca carbonática del tipo biocalcarenita. Se extrae del área de Vinalopó Medio (Alicante, España oriental. La piedra de Novelda es conocida como material de construcción desde el siglo XIII. Desde finales del siglo XIX hasta la actualidad, se ha utilizado en edificios y monumentos de Madrid y Valencia, así como Alicante. En el pasado, las canteras principales donde se extrajo este tipo de piedra se localizaban en los distritos municipales de Monóvar (Piedra Almorquí, Sax (Piedra Portazgo y El da (Piedra Bateig. Hoy en día, la actividad principal se sitúa en las canteras de Bateig. La piedra extraída es conocida comercialmente como Piedra Bateig. Las variedades principales de esta Piedra Bateig son: Blanco, Azul, Llano y Fantasía. Consecuencia de las diferentes propiedades y en especial de los

  15. Pectin methylesterase activity determined by different methods and thermal inactivation of exogenous pme in mango juice Determinação da atividade da pectina metilesterase por diferentes métodos e inativação térmica da PME exógena no suco de manga

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    Samantha Lemke Gonzalez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterase (PME hydrolyzes methyl ester groups in pectin chains to form carboxylic groups, releasing methanol and H3O+. The aim of this study was to determine PME activity in samples of pectinases by UV-VIS spectroscopy, to measure the acid and methanol produced in the reaction of pectin with pectinase and to verify the thermal inactivation of exogenous PME in mango juice. The activity of PME in samples of pectinase was determined by potentiometry, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and by the action of alcohol oxidase. The reaction showed greater activity at pH 4.0 to 4.5 and at a temperature of 45° C. PME activity determined by UV-VIS spectroscopy with bromophenol blue indicator showed a good correlation with the activity determined by potentiometry and with alcohol oxidase. The results showed that bromophenol blue indicators can be used to determine PME activity in samples of pectinases where the optimum pH is located in the acidic range. The thermal inactivation of exogenous PME in mango juice occurred at 75° C for 20 min of exposure.A PME hidrolisa os grupos metil éster na cadeia da pectina, formando grupos carboxílicos, liberando metanol e H3O+. Objetivou-se, com o presente estudo, determinar a atividade da PME em amostras de pectinases por espectroscopia Uv-vis para quantificar o ácido e o metanol produzido na reação da pectina com as pectinases e verificar a inativação térmica da PME exógena no suco de manga. A atividade da PME nas três amostras de pectinases foi determinada por potenciometria, espectroscopia Uv-Vis, e pela ação da álcool oxidase. A reação mostrou uma maior atividade em H de 4,0 a 4,5 e a temperatura de 45º C. A atividade da PME, determinada por UV-Vis com o indicador azul de bromofenol apresentou uma boa correlação com a atividade determinada por potenciometria e com a álcool oxidase. Os resultados mostraram que o indicador azul de bromofenol pode ser utilizado para determinar a atividade da PME em

  16. Study of colpo-cytological at the capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Caracterização da colpocitologia em capivaras ("Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris"

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    Cláudia Diniz Pinto Coelho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris is one of the species which has interested farmers due to its performance potential, as a result of the quality of its skin and meat. Based on commercial interests, many studies have been done to understand the reproductive physiology and to answer questions that could help to improve the productive status of these animals. This study was performed to describe the cell types from the vaginal epithelium of capybaras and to compare the efficiency of three dyes on cell staining. The experiment was carried out at Centro de Biodiversidade of USIPA, in Ipatinga/MG. Cells were obtained by the swab technique from five adult animals and stained with Giemsa, Methylene Blue and Shorr. Samples were collected every three and five days, during 30 days. Four types of cells were observed, parabasal cells, intermediate cells and superficial cells (with or without nucleus, besides bacteria and leukocytes. The three dyes were able to stain efficiently on colpocitology, however, Giemsa and Metileno Blue were more practical than Shorr. Colpocytology was shown to be an applicable procedure for this animal species.A capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris é uma das espécies que tem despertado o interesse de produtores rurais pelo potencial zootécnico, advindo da qualidade do seu couro e da sua carne. Com base no interesse comercial, muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas para se entender a fisiologia reprodutiva e responder questões que possam ajudar no aumento da produção desses animais em cativeiro. Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de descrever as células do epitélio vaginal de capivaras e comparar a eficiência de três corantes na coloração das mesmas. O experimento foi realizado no Centro de Biodiversidade da USIPA em Ipatinga / MG. As células foram obtidas pela técnica de swab vaginal de cinco fêmeas adultas cativas e coradas com: Giemsa, Azul de Metileno e Shorr. Foram realizadas coletas com intervalos de 3

  17. Eduardo Neves, nosso eterno mestre

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    Gutz Ivano G. R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Fausto de Almeida Neves, Professor Emeritus of the Universidade Federal de São Carlos and formerly Full Professor at the Instituto de Química - Universidade de São Paulo (USP, São Paulo, Brazil, was born in November 7, 1933 in Pedra Azul, MG, and deceased in July 2, 2006 in São Carlos, SP. He graduated under supervision of Professor Paschoal Senise, pioneer of Analytical Chemistry at USP, and developed his post-doctoral work at Caltech, USA, with Professor Fred Anson. His brilliant career as teacher, scientist, supervisor and mentor resulted in a prolific science school in Analytical Chemistry, with some sixty PhDs and masters supervised by him, amplified to over four hundred in the 2nd to 4th generations (still growing, spread throughout the country and nucleating new research groups. The contents of a hundred papers reflect Prof. Eduardo's wide range of scientific interests. Passionate inclination for creative intellectual activity, rooted in profound knowledge of all branches of Chemistry, broadminded thinking, sound experimentation, generous scientific cooperation and true friendship - that's why friends, colleagues and students referred to him as "master" or "my guru".

  18. Simple methods for in vitro pollen germination and pollen preservation of selected species of the genus Agave

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    Sigifredo López Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple methods to evaluate the viability and to preserve Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and A. angustifolia Haw pollen were established. Pollen viability was assessed by improving a growing media and evaluating three common pollen germination media components: sucrose, boric acid, and calcium ion. Optimal germination of pollen was obtained at 0.300 M sucrose, 0.324 mM boric acid, and 1.219 mM calcium nitrate and incubated at a temperature of 25°C. Agave pollen was preserved in olive oil and organic solvents. Olive oil, which is immiscible with water, provides an anhydrous environment and limits available oxygen, conditions similar to those provided by some organic solvents. Fresh pollen was put into eppendorf tubes containing n-butanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, extra virgin olive oil and preserved at -20, 4, and 25°C. The germination of the preserved pollen was scored at different time periods during preservation employing the optimal germination medium. The viability of pollen grains preserved at -20°C in olive oil, proved olive oil as an efficient medium for agave pollen preservation for at least 6 months.

  19. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Palomino, Guadalupe; Martínez, Javier; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country's economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in Agave tequilana Weber, 1902 'Azul', Agave cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and Agave angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies.

  20. Application of agave subproducts for production of microbial inulinases

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    Huerta Alcocer, S.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is the center of origin of the genus Agave spp. with 159 endemic species, 75 % of all known species. The main use of these plants is in the production of alcoholic beverages, mainly tequila, which is obtained from the “pines” of A. tequilana Weber var. Azul. During tequila production, a huge amount of waste is produced, including leaves that are not used. Main compounds found in these subproducts are polysaccharides, specifically inulin. Current review focuses on the use of these agricultural wastes to obtain inulinase production, and in the production of high fructose syrup using these enzymes in these wastes. Currently, high fructose syrups, especially oligosaccharides, have prompted much interest for their benefits to health due to its low glycemic index and their function as prebiotic in the intestinal flora. The main microorganisms involved with inulinases production belong to the genera Aspergillus and Kluyveromyces. The latter is preferred in the industry due to its high growth rate, high temperature tolerance (52 °C and by having the GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe status. This review emphasizes on the advances achieved in the production of inulinases by yeast K. marxianus.

  1. In vitro antagonism of Thielaviopsis paradoxa by Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Vladimir; Rebolledo, Oscar; Picaso, Rosa M; Cárdenas, Elizabeth; Córdova, Jesús; González, Orfil; Samuels, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-nine Trichoderma strains were isolated from soil taken from 28 commercial plantations of Agave tequilana cv. 'Azul' in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Nine of these isolates produced nonvolatile metabolites that completely inhibited the growth of Thielaviopsis paradoxa on potato dextrose agar plates. These isolates were identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum on the basis of their morphology and DNA sequence analysis of two genes (ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor EF-1alpha). Mycoparasitism of Th. paradoxa by T. longibrachiatum strains in dual cultures was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The Trichoderma hyphae grew alongside the Th. paradoxa hyphae, but penetration of Thielaviopsis hyphae by Trichoderma was no apparent. Aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa were parasitized by Trichoderma. Both hyphae and aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa lost turgor pressure, wrinkled, collapsed and finally disintegrated. In liquid cultures, all nine Trichoderma isolates produced proteases, beta-1,3-glucanases and chitinases that would be responsible for the degradation of Thielaviopsis hyphae. These results demonstrate that the modes of action of T. longibrachiatum involved against Th. paradoxa in vitro experiments are mycoparasitism and the production of nonvolatile toxic metabolites.

  2. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  3. ANÁLISES FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE AMOSTRAS DE LEITE CRU DE UM LATICÍNIOS EM BICAS - MG

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    Vinícius Gimenes Fernandes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, por meio de análises físico-químicas, a qualidade do leite cru recebido por um laticínios em Bicas, MG. As amostras foram submetidas à determinação de acidez Dornic, alizarol, densidade, índice crioscópico, presença de resíduos antimicrobianos, água oxigenada, formol, alcalinos, bicarbonato, sacarose, cloreto e amido. Foram realizados também testes para a determinação do teor de proteína, gordura, extrato seco total (EST e tempo de redução do azul de metileno. As 50 amostras foram obtidas em duas épocas do ano: a estação seca (de abril a outubro de 2009 e a estação chuvosa (de novembro de 2009 a março de 2010. Os resultados indicaram que o maior teor sólidos do leite, como gordura e proteína ocorreu no período da seca, principalmente no mês de junho (4,7%. Foi veri? cada ausência de fraude no leite, atendendo aos parâmetros exigidos pela legislação (BRASIL, 2002.

  4. Registros nuevos de especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae en el departamento de Cesar, Colombia

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    Luis Gregorio Estrada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los insectos asociados a la epidemiología de la leishmaniasis, en la Costa Caribe colombiana, se ha concentrado en los departamentos de Sucre y Córdoba, por consiguiente existe un escaso conocimiento de la fauna de flebotomíneos del resto de la región. En la presente nota se presentan cuatro nuevos registros de Lutzomyia spp., para el departamento de Cesar. Los insectos fueron colectados con dos trampas de luz tipo CDC, equipadas con LED de color azul, en el Balneario Hurtado de la ciudad de Valledupar, Cesar. Se recolectaron en total 50 flebotomíneos, los cuales estuvieron representados por las especies Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (38 %, L. evansi (28 %, L. trinidadensis (14 %, L. venezuelensis (10 %, L. micropyga (6 % y L. rangeliana (2 %. Como primeros registros para el departamento sobresalen L. evansi, L. venezuelensis, L. micropyga y L. rangeliana, con lo que se eleva a ocho el número de especies reportadas hasta la fecha en el Cesar. Entre los nuevos registros se destaca el hallazgo de L. evansi, reconocido vector de Leishmania spp. en la Costa Caribe de Colombia.

  5. Resistance to radiation and concretes thermal cycles for conditioning of spent radioactive sources; Resistencia a la irradiacion y ciclos termicos de concretos para acondicionamiento de fuentes radiactivas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez N, M.; Monroy G, F.; Gonzalez D, R. C.; Corona P, I. J.; Ortiz A, G., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In order to know the concrete type most suitable for use as a matrix of conditioning of spent radioactive sources, concrete test tubes using 4 different types of cement were prepared: CPC 30-Rs Extra, CPC 30-R Impercem, CPC 30-R Rs and CPC 30-R with two gravel sizes >30 mm and <10 mm. The concrete test tubes were subjected to testing compressive strength after 28 days of hardening and after being irradiated and subjected to thermal cycles. Subsequently they were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, in order to evaluate whether these concretes accredited the tests set by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. The results show that the compressive strength of the hardened concretes to 28 days presents values between 36 and 25 MPa; applying irradiation the resistance may decrease to 30% of its original strength; and if subjected to high and low temperatures the ettringite formation also causes a decrease in resistance. The results show that concretes made from cement Impercem, Cruz Azul with gravel <10 mm comply with the provisions of standard and they can be used for conditioning of spent radioactive sources. (Author)

  6. Criptococose pulmonar granulomatosa em um eqüino Granulomatous cryptococcal pneumonia in a horse

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    Glaucia Denise Kommers

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de pneumonia granulomatosa por Cryptococcus neoformans em um eqüino, macho, Quarto de Milha, de 8 anos de idade com história de laminite crônica por 2 anos. Na necropsia, havia múltiplos nódulos macios e gelatinosos distribuídos aleatoriamente nos pulmões. Histologicamente, observaram-se cavidades císticas preenchidas por numerosas estruturas leveduriformes circundadas por um espesso halo claro e por reação inflamatória granulomatosa leve. Em seções coradas por azul alciano e PAS, observou-se densa cápsula mucinosa circundando estruturas leveduriformes com morfologia típica de C. neoformans.A case of cryptococcal granulomatous pneumonia is described in an 8-year-old, male, Quarter Horse with chronic laminitis of 2 years duration. Multiple soft gelatinous nodules were randomly distributed in the lungs. Microscopically, there were cavities filled with numerous yeast-like organisms surrounded by a clear halo and evoking a mild granulomatous reaction. An Alcian blue- and PAS-positive mucinous capsule surrounded the yeast-like structures morphologically typical of Cryptococcus neoformans.

  7. Escuela en Düsseldorf, Alemania

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    Schneider-Esleben, Paul

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available This very cleanly designed, beautiful, school consists of two main blocks whose simple geometric shapes stand in bare contrast with each other. One of them contains schoolrooms and offices, and the other the gymnasium and ancillaries. They are connected by a covered walk, the roof of which provides an element of unity between the two blocks. In the composition of this complex the colour pattern has been a major factor: it involves blues, oranges, ochres and greys, all in vivid contrast. The delightfully shaped seats, and the gay fountains, contribute to enliven the rectangular contracts of the whole.El conjunto consta de: un edificio principal con dos alas paralelas, de dos pisos, en los que están distribuidos los despachos y las aulas, y otro bloque, que alberga el gimnasio, servicios y dependencias anejas, unidos al ala E. por un paso cubierto con «elementos-sombrilla». En la composición estética de este complejo, el color ha jugado un papel muy importante, combinándose los azules, naranjas, marrones y grises en vivo contraste. Los bancos, de preciosas formas, y las alegres fuentes, contribuyen, asimismo, a vivificar la rectangularidad del patio.

  8. Guaviare: Reencontrando Espacios e Identidades (pág. 216-223

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    Cristian Alexis Gil Ruiz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La riqueza colombiana está en las selvas, claro, la faunística y florística que enluce a nuestro querido país, a continuación les mostraré rasgos de esa riqueza encontrada en el departamento del Guaviare, más exactamente en la vereda cerro azul, en un sitio llamado Cerro pinturas y que es un patrimonio cultural y arqueológico del departamento, espacios como hay en muchos escenarios de Colombia , que es un país hermoso, con varios sitios que no se han visitado, y que son dignos de ver, es triste que como estudiantes, como docentes en formación y más que todo, como colombianos, nos estemos perdiendo estas oportunidades. Además de ello debe entenderse al docente como un sujeto no sólo educativo, también es un sujeto con vocación social, política y cultural y que sea como sea, es un ciudadano y nunca dejara de serlo, así que como docentes es nuestro deber apropiarnos de sitios como éste y educar para que sean admirados, protegidos y sobre todo respetados.

  9. Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Endoença Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.

  10. Dermoscopic clues in the diagnosis of amelanotic and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma Pistas dermatoscópicas no diagnóstico de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico

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    Raquel Bissacotti Steglich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical identification of amelanotic malignant melanoma (AMM and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma (HMM becomes difficult due to the lack of pigmentation and to the diverse clinical presentations. Dermoscopy is very useful in these cases, increasing the level of suspicion of malignancy. We report 4 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma with characteristic dermoscopic findings. Dermoscopy under polarized light demonstrates vascular polymorphism, globules and milky-red areas, in addition to chrysalis and multiple blue-gray dots.A identificação clínica de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico torna-se difícil devido à falta de pigmentação e às diversas apresentações desse tipo de tumor. A dermatoscopia é muito útil nestes casos, aumentando o grau de suspeição de malignidade. Relatamos 4 casos de melanoma maligno amelanótico e melanoma maligno hipomelanótico com achados dermatoscópicos característicos. A dermatoscopia com luz polarizada demonstra polimorfismo vascular, glóbulos e áreas vermelholeitosas, assim como crisálides e múltiplos pontos azul-acinzentados.

  11. Energy and quality of life: a case study in HPP Tijuco Alto, Ribeira, SP; Energia e qualidade de vida: estudo de caso da Uhe Tijuco Alto no Municipio de Ribeira, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Andre Luiz da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (BRazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], email: conceicao.andreluiz@yahoo.com.br; Seixas, Sonia Regina da Cal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NEPAM/UNICAMP), SP (BRazil). Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisas Ambientais], email: srcal@unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a critical and reflexive that the issue involving the possibility of construction and operation of Hydroelectric Power (HEP) Tijuco Alto, the upper course of the Ribeira Valley between Sao Paulo and Parana, in the Vale do Ribeira. This project will directly affect the towns of Ribeira-SP, Itapirapua Paulista-SP, Cerro Azul-PR, Dr. Ulysses-PR and Adrianopolis-PR. Thus, we defined the main objective of the research examines the quality of life in the city of Ribeira-SP, at the possibility of deployment of the dam. Thus, field research was conducted in the city and interviews with residents, where it was possible to observe, among other things the precarious economic conditions, social, urban and cultural community. Another aspect noted was the fact that most respondents to position themselves for the construction of the HPP Tijuco Alto, citing primarily the need for local development and increased job opportunities. Those opposing the plant, highlighted environmental issues, mainly, reasons related to loss of peace and security site. Regardless of those who are for or against, a technical opinion issued by IBAMA in 2008 points to the likely deployment of the HPP Tijuco Alto. (author)

  12. Resistance to radiation and concretes thermal cycles for conditioning of spent radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, M.; Monroy G, F.; Gonzalez D, R. C.; Corona P, I. J.; Ortiz A, G.

    2014-10-01

    In order to know the concrete type most suitable for use as a matrix of conditioning of spent radioactive sources, concrete test tubes using 4 different types of cement were prepared: CPC 30-Rs Extra, CPC 30-R Impercem, CPC 30-R Rs and CPC 30-R with two gravel sizes >30 mm and <10 mm. The concrete test tubes were subjected to testing compressive strength after 28 days of hardening and after being irradiated and subjected to thermal cycles. Subsequently they were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, in order to evaluate whether these concretes accredited the tests set by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. The results show that the compressive strength of the hardened concretes to 28 days presents values between 36 and 25 MPa; applying irradiation the resistance may decrease to 30% of its original strength; and if subjected to high and low temperatures the ettringite formation also causes a decrease in resistance. The results show that concretes made from cement Impercem, Cruz Azul with gravel <10 mm comply with the provisions of standard and they can be used for conditioning of spent radioactive sources. (Author)

  13. Basofilia e anisotropia nucleares em células de camundongo após tratamento com oxamniquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanira José Bechara

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar a ação da oxamniquine, uma droga utilizada no tratamento da esquistossomose, sobre a cromatina de núcleos de células animais, foram estudados os padrões de basofilia e anisotropia nucleares em hepatócitos, em células do músculo cardíaco e em linfócitos de camundongos adultos jovens. A oxamniquine foi administrada por via oral (436 mg/kg e preparados foram obtidos após diversos tempos de fornecimento da droga aos animais. Nos núcleos corados com azul de toluidina a pH 4,0, após digestão com RNAse, não se encontrou diferença quanto aos padrões de basofilia e anisotropia comparando-se animais tratados com controles. Demonstrou se assim que as moléculas de oxamniquine não se alojam no interior da dupla hélice do DNA, não alteram a sua conformação helicoidal nem se ligam aos grupos fosfatos livres desta macromolécula, diferindo, portanto, da atuação de outro esquistossomicida, o hycanthone.

  14. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of fructans from agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul at different ultrasound powers and solid