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Sample records for azufres michoacan mexico

  1. Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.

  2. Isotopic Evolution of Wells in the Geothermal Field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; Evolucion isotopica de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Portugal Marin, Enrique; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manel; Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    Isotopic ({delta}{sup 1}8 O and {delta}D) data from production and reinjection web fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a result of exploitation. The study included data of 30 wells, which were sampled in September, 2000. General results indicate that different phenomena seem to occur in both zones of the field. In the southern zone there are two different trends of behavior: a mixture of fluids evidenced by the {delta}D versus {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend with a positive slope, was interpreted as the result of reservoir vapor separation at a temperature above 220 Celsius degrees, since for temperatures above 220 Celsius degrees deuterium behaves as a volatile component. No well-defined {delta}{sup D} vs {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend was found for the northern zone, but some points seem to fit the same negative slope trend found in the souther zone. The study of reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time, as well as temperature results obtained with a heat and flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas in both zone of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Spanish] Se interpretaron datos isotopicos ({delta}{sup 1}8 O y {delta}D) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, para definir la evolucion del yacimiento y la ocurrencia de procesos fisicos como resultado de la explotacion. En el estudio se consideran datos de treinta pozos segun el muestreo realizado en septiembre de 2000. El estudio de la evolucion en el tiempo de las estimaciones de temperatura de yacimiento mediante diferentes tecnicas, asi como la temperatura obtenida de simulacion de pozos, sugiere que ocurre ebullicion en areas localizadas en ambas zonas del campo debido a la explotacion. Los resultados generales indican la existencia de

  3. Remote sensing in the study of the perspective of enlargement of the geothermal area of Los Azufres field, Michoacan, Mexico; Utilizacion de la teledeteccion para estudiar las perspectivas de ampliacion de la zona geotermica de Los azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaramian H, Eduardo; Garduno M, Victor Hugo [UMSNH, (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    The results are presented of a remote sensing study in Los Azufres Geothermal field. Data of a volcanological study have been used. Standing out is the importance of a resurgence phenomenon in the volcanic evolution of the caldera of Los Azufres and its observed relationships with thermal anomalies outsides the area of well known geothermal resources in the field. On the basis of these data, we suggest additional remote sensing studies in different geothermal areas to identify blind resources or large thermal anomaly outsides the well know ones in developed geothermal fields. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio de teledeteccion en la zona geotermica de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico. En el se han utilizado los datos obtenidos de un estudio volcanologico que resalta la importancia de un fenomeno de resurgencia en la evolucion volcanologica de la Caldera de los Azufres y su relacion con anomalias termicas fuera de la zona de explotacion del campo geotermico. Con base en estos resultados se propone que sean retomados los datos de diferentes campos geotermicos con la finalidad de hacer estudios de exploracion mediante teledeteccion en campos ciegos o bien en aquellos ya desarrollados que presentan anomalias termicas mayores fuera de las ya conocidas.

  4. Characterization and Evaluation of a kaolin deposit located in Los Azufres Michoacan, Mexico, for Industrial Use; Caracterizacion y Evaluacion de un Deposito de Caolin de Los Azufres Michoacan, Mexico, para su Uso Industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, J.; Bribiesca, S.; Escudero, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this work a kaolin ore from the region of Los Azufres, state of Michoacan, Mexico, was characterized and evaluated in order to assess its use in the industry. A powder fraction less than 45 {mu}m were studied by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The results showed high silica content of {approx}70%, associated with minerals such as cristobalite, tridimite and quartz followed by kaolinite and a small amount of alunite. The distribution, morphology and surface area of the particles were obtained by Laser Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller technique (BET). Thermal characterization was performed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and dilatometric analysis. The thermal characterization results displayed a strong mineral thermal expansion from room temperature to 300 degree centigrade, followed by an abrupt contraction a temperatures between 580 degree centigrade to 920 degree. This could be associated with phase transformations of the polymorph of silica, the dehydroxylation of the alunite and kaolinite and the desulfatation of alunite. The physical properties such as mineral color, degree of whiteness, plasticity, linear shrinkage and density were also determined. Finally whit the results obtained in this work, it can be concluded that the investigated ore is highly recommended for the cement industry and plastic. (Author) 29 refs.

  5. Isotopic Behaviour of fluids from the Los Azufres, Michoacan, (Mexico) Geothermal Wells; Comportamiento isotopico de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Portugal M, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Tello L, Mirna del Rocio; Tello H, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    Isotopics data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) from production and reinjection well fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define the reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a consequence of exploitation. The study included data for 25 wells for 1994-1996. Chemical and production data were also studied in order to explain the isotopic characteristics of the fluids. General results indicated that different phenomena seem to occur for both field zones. In the southern zone (Tejamaniles), a mixture of fluids was evidenced by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency which provides a positive slope. The isotopically enriched fluid is constituted by the reinjection fluid. In the northern zone, (Maritaro) there was no evidence that the reinjection fluid is appearing in well discharges. For this zone the dominant process seems to be the reservoir vapour separation at a temperature above 220 degrees Celsius. This was suggested by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency for which a negative slope was found. This trend is characteristics of a vapour separation process since for temperatures above 220 degrees Celsius deuterium behaves as a volatile component. The study of the reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time and the results obtained with a heat and fluid flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas for both zones of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta una interpretacion de datos de composicion isotopica (oxigeno-18 y deuterio) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Estos datos se obtuvieron entre 1994 y 1996 con el proposito de definir la evolucion del yacimiento e identificar los procesos dominantes surgidos como consecuencia de la explotacion del campo. El estudio comprendio un numero de 25 pozos productores y de reinyeccion. La

  6. Chemical and isotopic characterization of rainwater in Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico and its surroundings. Caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de las precipitaciones pluviales en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico y en zonas de referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra Pal (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)); Barrera Gonzalez, Victor; Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Tapia Salazar, Ruth; Casimiro Espinoza, Emigdio (Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia (Mexico)); Fernandez Solorzano, Ma Elena (Departamento de Exploracion, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)); Rye, Robert; Gent, Carol; Johnson, Craig (USGS, Denver, CO. (United States))

    1998-01-15

    The results obtained from the chemical and isotopic monitoring of rainwater in Los Azufres and its surroundings in the period May to September, 1995 are presented. Eight sampling sites were selected to collect rainwater: six in the Los Azufres and its surroundings and two in the offices of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Morelia and Guadalajara. The anions Cl-, SO[sub 4] [sup 2]- and NO[sub 3]- were analyzed in about 350 samples. The rainwater has very low content of carbonic species (i.e. total dissolved CO[sub 2]). Due to it, it is not possible to analyze alkalinity with traditional titration method. The Gran Titration method was implemented to determine alkalinity (or acidity) and carbonic speciation in the samples. The values of acidity (negative of alkalinity) are in the range of 10[sup -4] to 10[sup -6] eq/l and are positive only for the sites Vivero and Guadalajara. The space and time distribution of the chemical and isotopic species in the rainwater could provide the information about the source of acidity. The species S0[sub 4][sup 2]- and NO[sub 3]- contribute to the acidity. To study the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate, a system is designed to collect 100 1 of rainwater. The dissolved sulfate ions were extracted in the form of barium sulfate to analyze sulfur-34 and oxygen-18. The values of (d34S are around -1.5% in Los Azufres and its surroundings and in the CFE office in Morelia whereas they are very different in the CFE office in Guadalajara (-0.3%). The same values of d34S in Los Azufres and Morelia indicates a regional source of sulfate and is not related to the Los Azufres geothermal system.

  7. Environmental protection at the Los Azufres, Michoacan geothermal field; La proteccion ambiental en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Geothermal-electric development is a sustainable activity from an environmental viewpoint, as is proved by the operation and management of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Impacts to soil and vegetation can be prevented and adequately mitigated. Liquid residues can be returned to the reservoir avoiding contaminating surface and ground waters and aquifers; and atmospheric emissions can kept bellow allowable limits. The main environmental technical experiences of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in this field are presented in this paper. [Spanish] El desarrollo geotermoelectrico es una actividad sustentable desde el punto de vista ambiental, como lo prueba el manejo del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Los impactos al suelo y a la vegetacion pueden prevenirse y mitigarse con las medidas adecuadas. Los desechos liquidos pueden regresarse al yacimiento sin contaminar cuerpos de agua superficiales o acuiferos someros, y las emisiones a la atmosfera pueden controlarse para mantenerlas dentro de limites permisibles. Se presentan las principales experiencias tecnicas de tipo ambiental obtenidas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en ese campo.

  8. Seismic gap of Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.K.; Yamanoto, J.; Havskov, J.; Guzman, M.; Novelo, D.; Castro, R.

    1980-01-01

    A 150 km segment of subduction plate boundary along the Pacific coast of Mexico between the aftershock areas of the Colima earthquake (Jan. 10, 1973; M/sub s/=7.5) and the recent Petartlan earthquake (March 14, 1979; M/sub s/=7.6) has not experienced a major earthquake since 1911 and, thus, has been designated as a seismic gap. There has been considerable discussion in the scientific community about instrumenting this gap for intensive observation. An examination of the 1911 earthquake (M=7 3/4), however, provides strong evidence that its location was about 280 km NNW of the epicenter reported by Gutenberg and Richter. Study of seismicity of Mexico in the past century gives some additional evidence that no major earthquake (M> or approx. =7.5) occurred in the area. Thus, presently available evidence suggests that no large earthquake has occurred in this gap for at least the past 78 years and perhaps for as long as 178 years.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico. 319.56-30... § 319.56-30 Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico. Fresh Hass variety avocados (Persea americana) may be imported from Michoacan, Mexico, into the United States in accordance with the requirements of §...

  10. Source characteristics of earthquakes in the Michoacan seismic gap in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Astiz, Luciana; Kanamori, Hiroo; Eissler, Holly

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the source characteristics of large earthquakes which occurred in the Michoacan, Mexico, seismic gap during the period from 1981 to 1986 in relation to historical seismicity in the region. The rupture pattern of the Michoacan gap during this period can be characterized by a sequential failure of five distinct asperities. Before 1981, the Michoacan gap had not experienced a large earthquake since 1911 when an M_S = 7.8 earthquake occurred. The recent sequence started in October...

  11. Steam saving during maintenance of the 50-MW Unit 7 at Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan; Ahorro de vapor durante el mantenimiento de la Unidad 7 de 50 MW en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Barajas, Elvia Nohemi; Ruiz Lemus, Alejandro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: elvia-medina@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    Commercial-steam production in the southern area of Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, Geothermal Field began in 1982 with the operation of Unit 2, the backpressure 5-MW unit, and continued in 1988 when the 50-MW condensing Unit 7 was commissioned. Today to supply steam to Unit 7, it is necessary to gather steam from 15 production wells, amounting 450 tons per hour (t/h) under operating conditions. During maintenance periods for Unit 7, production wells are removed from the steam-supply system but continue producing steam that is discharged to the atmosphere-a loss affecting the economic life of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore several actions have been proposed and tried to save the steam and preserve the geothermal resource. This paper presents the results of the actions and the technical and economic benefits obtained from them. [Spanish] La produccion de vapor con fines comerciales en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, empezo en 1982 con la puesta en marcha de la Unidad 2 de 5 MW a contrapresion, para continuar en 1988 con la Unidad 7 de 50 MW a condensacion. Para cumplir con el suministro de vapor a la U-7, a la fecha es necesario integrar la produccion de 15 pozos productores, que producen un total de 450 toneladas por hora (t/h) a condiciones de operacion. Durante los periodos de mantenimiento de la U-7 los pozos son desintegrados del sistema de suministro, pero continuan produciendo vapor, el cual es descargado a la atmosfera sin ningun provecho, lo que representa una perdida que afecta la vida util del yacimiento geotermico. Por ello se han propuesto y aplicado diversas acciones operativas en cada uno de esos pozos con el objetivo de ahorrar vapor y preservar el recurso geotermico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de esas acciones y los beneficios tecnicos y economicos obtenidos.

  12. The lakes of Michoacan (Mexico): A brief history and alternative point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal-Brooks, Fernando

    1998-01-01

    This article is intended to open a discussion about the historical development of lakes Zirahuen, Patzcuaro and Cuitzeo in the state of Michoacan, and the postulated relationships between lake ecology and evolution. Dr Fernando De Buen was the first man dedicated to limnology in Mexico who came to the country in the 1930s. He was adviser at the Estacion Limnologica de Patzcuaro and wrote outstanding papers dealing with Mexican lakes. The lakes of Michoacan probably formed in the late Pliocene...

  13. Energy performance of wood-burning cookstoves in Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrueta, Victor M. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Edwards, Rufus D. [Epidemiology Department, School of Medicine, University of California at Irvine, CA (United States); Masera, Omar R. [Center for Ecosystems Research, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and Interdisciplinary Group on Appropriate Rural Technology (GIRA) (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    There have been few detailed assessments of the actual impacts of improved stove interventions in rural communities, although many improved stove projects have reported overall efficiencies from tests in simulated kitchens using water-boiling tests (WBTs). This paper presents an integrated energy evaluation of the Patsari cookstove, an efficient wood-burning cookstove developed in Mexico that has recently obtained international recognition, in comparison to traditional cookstoves in rural communities of Michoacan, Mexico. The evaluation uses three standard protocols: the WBT, which quantifies thermal efficiency and firepower; the controlled cooking test (CCT), which measures specific energy consumption associated with local cooking tasks, and the kitchen performance test (KPT), which evaluates the behavior of the stoves in-field conditions and estimates fuel savings. The results showed that the WBT gave little indication of the overall performance of the stove in rural communities. Field testing in rural communities is of critical importance, therefore, in estimating the benefits of improved stoves. In the CCT for tortilla making, the main cooking task in Mexican rural households, Patsari stoves showed fuelwood savings ranging from 44% to 65% in relation to traditional open fires (n=6; P<0.05). These savings were similar in magnitude to the average energy savings from KPT before and after Patsari adoption of 67% (n=23; P<0.05) in rural households exclusively using fuelwood. Similar energy savings of 66% for fuelwood and 64% for LPG, respectively, were also observed in households using mixed fuels. With sound technical design, critical input from local users and proper dissemination strategies, therefore, improved stoves can significantly contribute to improvements in the quality of life of rural people with potential benefits to the surrounding environment. (author)

  14. Geochemistry and isotopic characterization of rain in the zones of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Los Humeros, Puebla and its relation with geothermal fluids; Caracterizacion geoquimica e isotopica de lluvia en las zonas de Los Azufres, Michoacan y Los Humeros, Puebla y su relacion con fluidos geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra P; Santoyo, Socrates; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Fernandez, Ma. Elena [Comision Federal de Electricidad Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Tovar, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Azufres (Mexico); Casimiro, Emigdio; Sandoval, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico); Johnson, Craig [USGS, Denver, Colorado, (United States); Gerardo-Abaya, Jane [IAEA, Viena (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of chemical and isotopic monitoring of rainwater in Los Humeros and Los Azufres geothermal fields and their surrounding during 1995-1998. The rainwater samples were collected in seven and eight sites in Los Humeros and Los Azufres, respectively. The alkalinity values of rainwater were positive in all Los Humeros sites, which indicates that there is no acid rain in the region. There were some samples with negative alkalinity at two sites in case of Los Azufres, Vivero and Guadalajara, but the values were very small. This means that there is some acidity in the rain. In case of Los Humeros a good correlation was observed between alkalinity and the concentration of calcium, which indicates that the samples were probably affected by dust. The concentration of anions Cl, SO{sub 4} {sup 2} and NO{sub 3} was very low in the rainwater samples in both fields, but there is a clearly defined trend. The concentration of NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2} at Los Azufres dicreased with advance in the rainy season. There is no NO{sub 3} in the rain at Los Humeros. The values of NO{sub 3} in the rain of Mexico City were higher than 10 ppm. This indicates that NO{sub 3} in rainwater is related with the industrial contamination. This evidence suggests that the clouds formed in the Gulf of Mexico bring rain to the Central part of Mexico. Los Humeros is located east of any big industrial site, therefore the rainwater has less anthropogenic SO{sub 4} {sup 2} and NO{sub 3}. Rainwater at Los Azufres contains contaminants from industrial sites located to the east. It can be concluded that there is no discernible influence of geothermal emissions on rainwater acidity. The concentration of Cl{sup -} was very low and constant for all the rainy seson. The origin of Cl{sup -} is considered as marine. A mixing model for Cl{sup -}/SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} versus {delta}{sup 3}4S suggests that there is 10-25% sulfate from sea spray in rainwater at Los Humeros

  15. Sintacs Aquifer Vulnerability in the Definition of the Natural Protected Area Los Chorros Del Varal, Los Reyes, Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J.; Ramiro, R.; Estrada, F.; Ochoa, S.

    2006-12-01

    In Michoacan State, Mexico, the use of aquifer vulnerability assessment is been incorporated in the regional policies of aquifer protection. A hydrogeological evaluation and aquifer vulnerability assessment using the SINTACS method was done in the natural protected area, NPA, Los Chorros del Varal in Michoacan State, Central Mexico. This place is a discharge area. An spectacular spring is feeding a stream. The predominant rocks are volcanic. By means of the SINTACS method a contamination risk zoning was obtained. The research permitted the expansion of the protection area of Los Chorros del Varal: a surrounding area to avoid anthropogenic impacts. This NPA is the preferential recharge area of the regional aquifer. This aquifer is the main water supply source for more than 200,000 inhabitants. A high to medium vulnerability was calculated. These vulnerable parts must be protected impeding risky projects such as dumps or industries producing wastewaters. Low values were obtained in clayey environments and also in volcanic rocks with scarce fracturing.

  16. Receiver Function Imaging of Crustal and Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Jalisco Block and Western Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Alfaro, G.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Perez-Campos, X.; Reyes Dávila, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    We used a receiver function technique for imaging western Mexico, a unique area with several active seismic and volcanic zones like the triple junction of Rivera, Cocos and North American plates and the Colima volcano complex (CVC), the most active in Mexico. Clear images of the distribution of the crust and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary are obtained using P-to-S receiver functions (RF) from around ~80 broadband stations recorded by the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS), the Colima Volcano Deep Seismic Experiment (CODEX) and a local network (RESCO) that allowed us to considerably increase the teleseismic database used in the project. For imaging, we constructed several 2-D profiles of depth transformed RFs to delineate the seismic discontinuities of the region. Low seismic velocities associated with the Michoacan-Guanajuato and the Mascota-Ayutla-Tapalpa volcanic fields are also observed. Most impressive, a large and well delineated magma body 100 km underneath CVC is recognized along a surely related depression of the moho discontinuity just above it. We bring more tools for a better understanding of the deep processes that ultimately control eruptive behavior in the region.

  17. Geophysical survey in the new magnetic observatory site in Coeneo, Michoacan (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We present the complete Geophysical Survey focused to the new magnetic observatory site located in Coeneo, Michoacan (Mexico). These new observatory is going to replace in a near future Teoloyucan Magnetic Observatory (TEO) that operates since 1914. TEO have actually serious problems caused by the urban Mexico City grown up, mainly the construction of the Suburban Electric Train near to the observatory emplacement. The terrains have all the facilities and infrastructure to place a Geophysical Observatory, nowadays an Interplanetary Scintillation Antenna (call MEXART) is operating by our institution. Several Geophysical Methods were developed such as magnetic, electrical, gravimetric, GPR, and seismic during 10 days of surveying. Results demonstrate that the site is adequate to place a Geomagnetic Observatory, showed in the geophysical results. Intercomparison of Geophysical Methods is useful to have a complete analysis methodology. The main advantage in this new place is that we have a complete terrain dedicate only for geomagnetic measures, independently from other geophysics disciplines; and we have a place too far from possible urban deployments, so we will be able to have a very long time geomagnetic observations.

  18. Conversion of back pressure type turbines to cross compound type for Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas, Roberto; Fernandez, Maria Elena [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case of converting geothermal back pressure turbines into cross compound condensing type. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is operating 16 back pressure turbines, 5 MW each, which were installed to investigate and evaluate several zones of the Mexican geothermal fields. Nine of these units are installed in Los Azufres geothermal field. The purpose of these units was to remain operating for some time and then be replaced by condensing units with better efficiencies. However, because of new fields are not available, it has became a necessity to get better efficiencies with the present units and leave them operating in their original sites for a longer time. The conversion of that turbines will allow to increase the power of each unit, from 5 MW to 8.5 MW, with competitive production costs and positive environmental effects. [Espanol] Se presenta un caso de conversion de turbinas tipo contrapresion a turbinas tipo cross compound. La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene en operacion 16 turbinas de contrapresion de 5 MW cada una, que fueron instaladas para investigar y evaluar diversas zonas de los campos geotermicos de Mexico. Nueve de esas unidades se encuentran en el campo de Los Azufres. Las expectativas de la empresa eran operar temporalmente estas unidades en algunos sitios de interes y posteriormente substituirlas por unidades a condensacion, de mejor eficiencia. Sin embargo, en este momento no se cuenta con nuevos campos productores para la reubicacion de las turbinas, siendo necesario mejorar su eficiencia a efecto de dejarlas operando como instalaciones permanentes en sus sitios originales. La conversion permitira incrementar la potencia de cada unidad de 5 MW a 8.5 MW, con costos de produccion competitivos y beneficios ambientales adicionales.

  19. Geomorpho-edaphic mapping of Atécuaro catchment (Michoacan, Mexico) and indigenous soil classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanís González, N.; Alcalá de Jesús, M.; Arellano Reyes, A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    The needs of management and conservation of land involve the study of natural resources and their internal relationships. Over time, these resources, including soil, have been used in an uncontrolled manner, resulting in species extinction and environmental degradation processes. The main reason for this in developing areas is the lack of soil and geomorphological information for an adequate land use planning. Often, ethnopedological knowledge and the inclusion of indigenous communities as beneficiaries of the agricultural technology are indispensable premises to make a better use of soil. A geomorphology and soil survey was conducted in the Atécuaro catchment (4591 ha), in the municipality of Morelia (Michoacan, Mexico). The Atécuaro catchment is located in the Mil Cumbres area, and is characterized by an irregular relief and a diversity of landforms and substrates (andesite, rhyolite, basalt, tuff and Quaternary sediments). The main land uses are oak and pine forest, shrubland, grassland and dryland farming. Results of the soil survey and the analysis of geoforms were studied and incorporated in a geographycal information system. Preliminary geoform and soil units maps were overlapped in order to get a map of geomorpho-edaphic units. Up to 30 different geomorpho-edaphic units were classified. Finally, map units were correlated with local indigenous soil classification.

  20. Evolution evidence of a basic fluid to an acid based in the analysis of hydrothermal alteration of the geothermic field of the Azufres, Michoacan; Evidencias de evolucion de un fluido basico a acido a partir del analisis de la alteracion hidrotermal del campo geotermico de los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Hydrothermal alteration at the Los Azufres geothermal field is mostly composed of calc-silicate minerals that define a propylitic alteration zone, which shows progressive dehydration with depth and temperature increase. A generalized zoning of the calc-silicate zone can be observed, with zeolites in the upper part and epidote-clinozoisite at the deepest levels. An argillic alteration zone overlies the calc-silicate zone and is the dominant surface manifestation of the hydrothermal alteration. In some parts, there is a mineral assemblage composed of kaolinite-alunite-native sulfur-quartz (advanced argillic zone) formed by the interaction of vapor and shallow groundwater. The proto-fluid at the Los Azufres geothermal system is related to a neutral sodium chlorine brine, which favors deep propyllitic alteration (productive zone). This zone is characterized by secondary permeability due to fracturing. At depth the geothermal field is dominated by a pressurized liquid, yielding to vapor at more shallow zone. The gradual change from a liquid to a vapor phase occurs through boiling at depths between 1,200 and 1,500 m, and is accompanied by changes in the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy. The type of alteration passes from proylitic to argillic by means of an oxidation-acidification process, which includes the participation of a gas, particularly CO{sub 2}. Considering the physicochemical characteristic of the brine and the evolution of the paragenetic sequence, the Los Azufres geothermal field could de considered a model for hydrothermal behavior at ore deposits which develop by boiling and oxidation of low sulfidation fossil hydrothermal fluids. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres la zona de alteracion hidrotermal esta formada en su mayor parte por calcosilicatos (que definen una zona paragenetica del tipo propilitico), los cuales muestran una deshidratacion progresiva conforme se va profundizando e incrementandose la temperatura. Se puede generalizar un

  1. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back

  2. The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J. L.; Corona-Chavez, P.; Sanchez-Nunez, J. M.; Martinez-Medina, M.; Garduno-Monroy, V. H.; Capra, L.; Garcia-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Maximo, G.

    2015-05-01

    On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of circa 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~ 7 m s-1, destroying many construction walls and covering the church floor with ~ 2 m of mud and debris. Revision of eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. A total volume of the Lamas flood deposit was estimated as 1.5 x 106 m3. The physically based bidimensional (2-D) hydraulic model FLO-2D was implemented to reproduce the breached flow (0.5 sediment concentration) with a maximum flow discharge of 8000 m3 s-1 for a total outflow volume (sediment + water) of 2.5 x 106 m3, similar to the calculations obtained using field measurements. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate

  3. Petrographic study and preliminary conceptual model of the Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal zone, Michoacan, Mexico; Estudio petrografico y modelo conceptual preliminar de la zona geotermica de Ixtlan de los Hervores, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano-Guerra, Julio C; Gutierrez-Negrin, Luis C.A [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Petrographic studies of cuttings from the shallow well Ixtlan 2, drilled in the Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal zone, State of Michoacan, Mexico, at a maximum depth of 159 meters, together with results of previous exploration studies, allow to delineate a preliminary conceptual model of the probable geothermal system. It is formed by a wide-fracture zone system, with low topographic relief and shallow water level. Its hydrothermal fluids are of sodium-chloride type, neutral pH, silica oversaturated in the discharge and with temperatures between 125 and 225 degrees Celsius, based on the geothermometry and the hydrothermal mineral assemblage encountered in the well. The assemblage of laumontite + quartz + calcite + chlorite/smectite + pyrite is typical for the zeolitic facies, beneath of which it is possible to encounter the epidote-wairakite facies, with higher temperatures. The favorable conditions of the zone allow to recommend continuation of exploration in the same. [Spanish] El estudio petrografico de muestras de canal de la perforacion del pozo somero Ixtlan 2, con una profundidad maxima de 159 metros y ubicado en la zona geotermica de Ixtlan de Los Hervores, Michoacan, Mexico, aunado a los resultados de estudios previos de exploracion superficial, han permitido la configuracion de un modelo conceptual preliminar del probable yacimiento geotermico. Se trata de un sistema zona de fractura ancha, bajo relieve y nivel freatico somero, con fluidos hidrotermales de tipo clorurado-sodico, pH neutro, sobresaturados de silice en la descarga, y con temperatura entre 125 y 225 grados Celsius, de acuerdo con la geotermometria + cuarzo + calcita + clorita/esmectita + pirita es tipica de la facies zeolitica, debajo de la cual podria hallarse la facies de epidota-wairakita, con temperaturas mas altas. Las condiciones favorables de la zona permiten recomendar la continuacion de la exploracion en la misma.

  4. Feasibility studies for the location of the exploratory borehole EN-1 at Los Negritos, Michoacan, Mexico; Antecedentes para la localizacion del pozo exploratorio EN-1 en Los Negritos, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigurra Pimentel, Emilio; Casarrubias Unzueta, Zenon [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1995-05-01

    Los Negritos geothermal zone, is located in the northwestern portion of Michoacan state, 10 Km to the eastern of the Sahuayo town, 250 Km to the NW of Morelia city, and 140 Km to the southeast of Guadalajara, Jalisco state, in Mexico. The aim of this work, is to analyse the geological, geophysical and geochemical characteristics underground, and its relation with hot springs on the surface, in the drilling site of the exploratory well EN-1. Around the drilling site, there are volcanic rocks and lacustrine sediments of Upper Miocene and Upper Pliocene age. The older rocks are compound by Miocene andesites. Over this formation three are lacustrine sediments with Medium Miocene age, basaltic flows of Lower Pleistocene age and cinder cones emplaced during the Medium Pleistocene age; over this formation was deposited the last volcanic issue formed by vitric andesites of recent age. The recent rocks were affected by structural systems NE-SW (Los Negritos fault) and NW-SE. Geophysical studies confirm the location of deep structures NE-SW and NW-SE. The drilling area has a low resistivity anomaly of 8 Ohm.m. Geochemical results show sodic-chloride waters, while the geothermometers show temperatures from 150 to 200 degrees celsius. Drilling the well EN-1 we hope to confirm the geological sequence and the geophysical results, and to measure the temperatures and pressures existing at 2000 m depth. [Espanol] La zona geotermica de Los Negritos, se encuentra en la porcion noroccidental del estado de Michoacan, 10 km al oriente de la poblacion de Sahuayo, Michoacan, y 140 Km al SE de la ciudad de Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir las caracteristicas geologicas, geofisicas y geoquimicas del subsuelo y su relacion con las manifestaciones hidrotermales, en el sitio de la perforacion exploratoria EN-1. En los alrededores del sito de perforacion afloran rocas volcanicas y sedimentos lacustres, que comprenden edades desde el Mioceno Superior al

  5. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m-3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  6. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  7. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic fluid evolution of the Los Azufres geothermal field, Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal alteration at Los Azufres geothermal field is mostly propylitic with a progressive dehydration with depth and temperature increase. Argillic and advanced argillic zones overlie the propylitic zone owing to the activity of gases in the system. The deepest fluid inclusions (proto-fluid) are liquid-rich with low salinity, with NaCl dominant fluid type and ice melting temperatures (Tmi) near zero (0 deg C), and salinities of 0.8 wt% NaCl equivalent. The homogenization temperature (Th) = 325 ± 5 deg C. The boiling zone shows Th = ±300 deg C and apparent salinities between 1 and 4.9 wt% NaCl equivalent, implying a vaporization process and a very important participation of non-condensable gases (NCGs), mostly CO2. Positive clathrate melting temperatures (fusion) with Th = 150 deg C are observed in the upper part of the geothermal reservoir (from 0 to 700 m depth). These could well be the evidence of a high gas concentration. The current water produced at the geothermal wells is NaCl rich (geothermal brine) and is fully equilibrated with the host rock at temperatures between T = 300 and 340 deg C. The hot spring waters are acid-sulfate, indicating that they are derived from meteoric water heated by geothermal steam. The NCGs related to the steam dominant zone are composed mostly of CO2 (80-98% of all the gases). The gases represent between 2 and 9 wt% of the total mass of the fluid of the reservoir. The authors interpret the evolution of this system as deep liquid water boiling when ascending through fractures connected to the surface. Boiling is caused by a drop of pressure, which favors an increase in the steam phase within the brine ascending towards the surface. During this ascent, the fluid becomes steam-dominant in the shallowest zone, and mixes with meteoric water in perched aquifers. Stable isotope compositions (δ18O-δD) of the geothermal brine indicate mixing between meteoric water and a minor magmatic component. The enrichment in δ18O is due to

  8. Contamination in marine turtle (Dermochelys coriaca) egg shells of Playon de Mexiquillo, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G.F.; Reyes, M.C.; Fenandez, G. [Cd. Universitaria (Mexico)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Concern for the decreasing population sizes of marine turtles around the world is growing. Potential contamination within habitats of marine turtles, and human activities, such as poaching, modification of nesting sites, and capture of adult turtles, may be responsible for their decreasing populations. Little is known about the baseline levels and physiological effects of environmental contaminants on marine turtle populations. Responding to this concern, the Mexican government has designated areas along the Mexican coastline to preserve marine turtle nesting habitats. {open_quotes}Playon de Mexiquillo{close_quotes}, Michocan, Mexico is one of the coastal preservation areas located near the mouth of Rio la Manzanilla which flows between Sierra Madre del Sur and the Pacific Ocean. Samples of seawater, sand, and marine turtle egg (Dermochelys Coriaca) shells were collected monthly from October, 1992-March, 1993. Contaminants investigated were oil and grease, and metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel, and lead). Seawater samples were collected where the turtles lay eggs in the preservation area and sand samples were taken from the area surrounding the eggs. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities by cyclophosphamide and colchicine in Xenotoca melanosoma (Pisces, Goodeidae) from Lake La Alberca in Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Aguirre, Jose Luis; Torres-Bugarin, Olivia; Buelna-Osben, Hector Rene; Flores-Kehn, Lola Paulina; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria Luisa; Zuniga-Gonzalez, Guillermo; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    This study is a follow-up of previous research in which we described the frequency of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in the Goodeid Xenotocoa melanosoma collected from Lake La Alberca, located in the state of Michoacan, Mexico. In the present work, we measured micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in erythrocytes of peripheral blood. Bioassays taken at 24 or 96 hours in either the cyclophosfamide (CP) or colchicine (COL) showed a significant increase in MN and BC (P values ranging from 0.0499 to 0.0036) compared with information from wild organisms collected over 3 years. Concentrationdependent and time-dependent responses support the proposal of using endemic Xenotoca melanosoma as a bioindicator of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity with a high transcendence for the health of the entire ecosystem and evaluation of the Lerma-Chapala watershed. PMID:20390845

  10. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  11. Michoacan People, Customs, and the Day of the Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulhardt, Mary

    This curriculum guide is intended: (1) to expose students to the people and customs of Michoacan, Mexico; (2) to explore the meaning of traditional Day of the Dead customs through hands-on experiences; and (3) to build the self-esteem of second language learners of Mexican descent. During the study, students whose primary language is Spanish read…

  12. Field Geothermal Volcano Azufral (CO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field geothermal Volcano Azufral is located to 60 km of Pasto City. It discharges waters chlorine-bicarbonates, diluted and of neuter pH. The riolitics of low k20, andesites, dacites as well as lava flows, hydro volcanic deposits due to events volcanic past and the influence of calcium like main component in the layer stamp are the main ones characteristic geologic of the volcanic area of Azufral. The layer stamp heats waters of the underground and it reacts until producing bicarbonates waters, more common type in the region. Glasses of sulfur toward the crater of the volcano are presented close to a sour lagoon. Thermal activity has been detected toward the southwest of the volcano with an area of covering of 1.47 there are, approximately. Changes in the last 14 years were determined by comparison of last chemical analysis with those obtained by INEA in 1996

  13. EL MODO DE VIDA LACUSTRE: ETNOGRAFÍA DE LAS CUENCAS LACUSTRES DE MICHOACÁN (Ethnographic Perspectives on the Aquatic Lifeway in Michoacan, Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Williams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamérica fue la única civilización en el mundo antiguo que careció de fuentes importantes de proteína animal como el ganado, los cerdos y los borregos. Por lo tanto, las abundantes especies acuáticas (peces, aves, reptiles, anfibios, insectos y plantas, entre otros tuvieron un papel estratégico en la dieta y la economía de la mayoría de las culturas mesoamericanas, incluyendo a los tarascos. Este estudio de actividades de subsistencia (pesca, caza, recolección y manufactura en los lagos de Cuitzeo y Pátzcuaro (Michoacán, México enfatiza la relevancia de la etnografía, la arqueología y la etnohistoria como herramientas para entender el modo de vida lacustre tradicional de los tarascos; que vivían en un entorno dominado por lagos, ríos, pantanos y otros paisajes acuáticos. ENGLISH: Mesoamerica was the only civilization in the ancient world that lacked major domesticated sources of animal protein, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep. Therefore, the abundant wild aquatic species (fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and plants, among others had a strategic role in the diet and economy of most Mesoamerican cultures, including the Tarascans. This study of subsistence activities (fishing, hunting, gathering, and manufacture around the Cuitzeo and Pátzcuaro lakes (Michoacán, Mexico underscores the value of ethnography, archaeology, and ethnohistory as tools for understanding the traditional aquatic lifeway of the Tarascans; who lived in an environment dominated by lakes, rivers, marshes and other wetlands.

  14. Improvement in using steam for electric generation at the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Mejora en el aprovechamiento del vapor para generar energia electrica en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Marco A.; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Mendoza Covarrubias, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Commercial exploitation in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico, started in 1982 when the first five backpressure-power units of 5-MW each were commissioned. Nowadays the installed capacity is 188 MW from 14 units: five in the South Zone fed by steam produced from 18 production wells plus two binary-cycle power units fed by residual brines; and seven in the North Zone with steam supplied by 22 production wells. There are seven backpressure-power units with high specific consumption [between 14.5 and 13.6 tons per hour of steam (t/h) per MW]. Three operate in the South Zone and four in the North Zone. This paper shows a way to achieve more efficient use of the geothermal resource by replacing the seven backpressure units, which have completed their useful lifetime-or are close to do it-with two, new condensing power units with lower specific consumption: one unit of 50 MW to be located in the North Zone and the other of 25 MW to be placed in the South Zone. No new wells need be drilled. In this way, the average specific consumption would be reduced to 8.8-7.2 t/h per MW (saving 47% of the steam), the income for electric generation would be increased and the steam-extraction rate would remain the same. [Spanish] En 1982 empezo la explotacion comercial del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, con la instalacion y puesta en servicio de las primeras cinco unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion de 5 MW cada una. Actualmente la capacidad instalada es de 188 MW, con catorce unidades: cinco en la zona sur, alimentadas por el vapor de 18 pozos productores, mas dos unidades de ciclo binario que utilizan salmuera residual, y siete unidades en la zona norte, alimentadas por 22 pozos. Hay siete unidades a contrapresion con un consumo especifico elevado [entre 14.5 y 13.6 toneladas por hora (t/h) de vapor por MW], tres de las cuales se localizan en la zona sur y cuatro en la zona norte. En este documento se presenta un proyecto para hacer mas

  15. Inversion for slip distribution using teleseismic P waveforms: North Palm Springs, Borah Peak, and Michoacan earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Carlos; Hartzell, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    We have inverted the teleseismic P waveforms recorded by stations of the Global Digital Seismograph Network for the 8 July 1986 North Palm Springs, California, the 28 October 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho, and the 19 September 1985 Michoacan, Mexico, earthquakes to recover the distribution of slip on each of the faults using a point-by-point inversion method with smoothing and positivity constraints. In the inversion procedure, a fault plane with fixed strike and dip is placed in the region of the e...

  16. Unidad de recuperación de azufre

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués Sancho, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    En este proyecto se trata del diseño de una unidad de recuperación de azufre, dentro de una refinería de petróleo, ubicada cerca de Tarragona. En esta unidad se pretende recuperar gran parte del azufre generado en toda la planta, para evitar que se filtre en modo de dióxido de azufre a la atmosfera, evitando así la posible creación de lluvia acida. También se pretende aprovechar el azufre en estado líquido, y el vapor sobrantes, para diversas aplicaciones, dentro y fuera de la refinería. ...

  17. Manejo de microembalses para el cultivo extensivo de carpa común (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 en la región de Zacapu, Michoacán, México Water basins management for extensive aquaculture of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 in the region of Zacapu, Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bel Huipe-Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio aporta, mediante pruebas experimentales, una estimación de la capacidad de carga de los microembalses de la región de Zacapu, Michoacán para ser utilizada en la acuicultura extensiva y semintensiva de carpa común (Cyprinus carpió. Un análisis factorial (3 × 3 con tres densidades (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M = 1 org. · m-2 y D A = 2 orgs. · m-2 y tres regímenes de alimentación (R0= sin fertilizar o con el alimento natural, R F= con fertilización y R+= suplementada con subproductos agrícolas incluyó nueve tratamientos combinados entre densidades y regímenes alimenticios con tres réplicas en cada caso. La combinación de baja densidad y alimentación natural, análoga a una acuicultura extensiva en microembalses, alcanzó un rendimiento máximo equivalente a 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Pruebas empíricas realizadas a la par en siete microembalses temporales (This study provides an assessment of the carrying capacity of water bodies in the area of Zacapu, Michoacan for extensive and semintensive aquaculture with carp (Cyprinus carpió by means of experimental trials in 27 ponds. A 3 × 3 factorial analysis with three densities (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M=1 org. · m-2 and D A= 2 orgs. · m-2 and three feeding regimes (R0 = without fertilization, R F = fertilization and R+ = farming by-products included nine combined treatments between densities and feeding regimes with three replicates for each case. The combination of low density and natural food, analog to an extensive aquaculture in small water reservoirs, attained a maximum yield equivalent to 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Empirical trials accomplished at seven temporary basins (<10 ha under conditions of different stocking densities from 1,500 to 6,000 orgs.· ha-1 lead to fairly similar yields to those obtained in the ponds. Thus, the general index used in Mexico for extensive aquaculture of 1 org. · m² overloads the regional temporary ecosystems and only the possibility

  18. Diversidad genética, patogénica y morfológica del hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. de Michoacán, México Genetic, pathogenic and morphological diversity of fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. from Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Montero Tavera

    diversity of the population of this fungus has been studied in several parts of the world, yet in Mexico, its population structure, and especially the components of its diversity, are unknown. The genetic, pathogenic and morphological diversity was determined for 21 monoconidial strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Michoacán, Mexico. The genetic diversity was estimated by means of random amplified DNA polymorphism, and by determining the profiles of isoenzymes of each monoconidial strain. Pathogenic diversity was measured with the invasive capacity of avocado pulp and the growth rate in vitro was determined by comparing the characteristics of the mycelia of each monoconidial strain. Results showed a high diversity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with a genetic variability index of 0.3031, and the most accurate estimator was the random amplified DNA polymorphism (genetic variability index= 0.344 and isoenzyme profile (genetic variability index= 0.35. The typical characteristics were white mycelia, cotton-like consistency, white colony, random mycelia growth and short hyphae on the growth border. There was no relation between the pathogenicity measured as the invasive capacity of the pulp and this growth rate in vitro. The group analyses determined that the relations between the strains are established based mainly on the origin and, in a secondary manner, on the symptom in the fruit.

  19. Diversidad y distribución del género Salvia (Lamiaceae en Michoacán, México Diversity and distribution of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Cornejo-Tenorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la riqueza y distribución de las especies de Salvia en los municipios del estado de Michoacán con datos florísticos y ecológicos para cada especie. Con base en trabajo de campo y revisión de ejemplares depositados en los herbarios CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU y MO, se registraron 64 especies nativas de Salvia en Michoacán. El 67.2% de éstas son endémicas de México y 4 (6.2% del área de estudio. Salvia iodantha Fernald y S. mexicana L. fueron las especies con más ejemplares herborizados (140 y 134, respectivamente. Los bosques que albergan el mayor número de especies (40 fueron el de Pinus-Quercus y el de Quercus, en un intervalo altitudinal de 1 500 a 3 000 m. Morelia fue el municipio con más especies registradas (34. En cuanto a las formas de crecimiento, predominan las hierbas perennes o arbustos (86%. El 76.5% de las especies tiene flores azules y/o moradas. La floración se presenta todo el año, con una actividad máxima en octubre. Se sugiere que en un futuro cercano se incremente la exploración florística del género Salvia en Michoacán, especialmente en sus áreas protegidas y en la sierra Madre del Sur.This paper presents the richness and distribution by municipality of Salvia species in the state of Michoacán, floristic and ecological data are included. Based on herbarium specimens deposited in CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU, and MO, as well as collecting trips, 64 native species of Salvia were recognized in the study area. Endemic species to Mexico and Michoacán reached 67.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Salvia iodantha Fernald and S. mexicana L. were species with most herbarium specimens (140 and 134, respectively. The vegetation types with most species (40 were Pinus-Quercus and Quercus forests. The highest number of species occurred between 1 500 and 3 000 m. The municipality with the most Salvia species recorded was Morelia (34 species. Perennial herbs and shrubs were the most common growth

  20. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  1. The spatial organization of pottery production in Huancito, Michoacan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Williams

    1995-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of the organization of space in pottery-producing households from the ethnoarchaeological perspective. The ethnoarchaeological approach is based on observation of contemporary cultural patterns to provide data and inferences to help in the interpretation of the archaeological record.

  2. Results of an injection test using ethyl alcohol as tracer at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador, en el campo geotermico de Los humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Los Humeros is the third Mexican geothermal field where ethyl alcohol was used as organic tracer to test communication between wells. The first Mexican geothermal field where this kind of test was used Los Azufres, Michoacan. The second was Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur. In both cases, connections between wells were observed. The injection well H-29 is in the north-central sector of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. At a depth of 1580 meters, 600 liters of ethyl alcohol was pumped through a 60.35 mm (23/8 inch) diameter tube after 2.7 m{sup 3} of geothermal fluids were displaced, allowing the alcohol to reach the formation. Then, the normal injection process continued with water and condensed steam (130 t/h). On the basis of the experience acquired with similar tests conducted at Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, and with the goal of detecting the tracer, samples of condensed steam were collected in nearby wells (H-15, H-16, H-17, H-30, H-33, H-36 and H-8) and in distant wells-named special samples (H-32, H-1, H-11, H-12, H-19, H-20, H-35, H-37, H-39, H-6 and H-9). Condensed steam samples were collected every 12 hours, the every week and finally every 15 days, making a total of 592 samples. The chemical analysis were done in two stages because of probable with the chromatograph. In the first stage, 441 samples were run and the rest were run in the second stage. No evidence of the tracer was observed in the monitoring wells. The results confirm the existence of a low-to-moderate permeability, as was previously interpreted using pressure log data. [Spanish] Los Humeros es el tercer campo geotermico de Mexico en el que se realiza una prueba de trazadores organicos empleando alcohol etilico con la finalidad principal de conocer si existe comunicacion entre pozos. El primer campo geotermico en el que se realizo esta prueba fue el de Los Azufres, Michoacan y el segundo el de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur; en ambos casos se encontro

  3. Reducción de las emisiones de azufre de un horno túnel

    OpenAIRE

    Monfort, E.; Gomar, S.; Celades, I.

    2010-01-01

    En el trabajo presentado se ha estudiado la emisión de azufre de un horno túnel dedicado a la cocción de ladrillos que utiliza coque de petróleo como combustible. El análisis de emisiones ha permitido determinar que los contaminantes más críticos para cumplir los requisitos medioambientales son los óxidos de azufre. El trabajo se ha realizado en dos fases. En la primera se ha realizado un balance de azufre al horno, y se han estudiado las transformaciones físico-químicas de los co...

  4. Spatial analysis of noise emission at the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Analisis espacial de emision de ruido en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarena Magana, Emilio; Ordaz Mendez, Christian A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: emilio.camarena@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    To verify noise emissions from the usual activities in an operating geothermal field, noise measurements were carried out in a 4.2 km{sup 2} area in the southern zone of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. There are seven production wells operating here and three abandoned wells. The average noise emission in the southern zone was 36.5 decibels (dB), regarded as the natural reading of environmental-noise emission. In the Christmas (valves) tree for operating production wells, the noise ranges from 70.9 to 91.7 dB, while in open discharging valves for steam-pipes, the noise can reach 118 dB. In Mexico the maximum permissible limit of noise on the periphery of a property is 68 dB in daytime and 65 dB at night. Based on measurements made at the periphery of lots where the geothermal wells are located, four out of seven production wells measured do not exceed the maximum allowable level, while the other three seem to exceed it. However no definite limits exist for the lots. It is recommended that the measurement points as indicated by the official standard in environmental matters be re-established, which will enable noise emissions by several wells that have exceeded the permissible limit, to actually fall within it. [Spanish] Se realizaron mediciones sonicas en un area de 4.2 km{sup 2} localizada en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., a fin de verificar la emision de ruido asociada a las actividades usuales en un campo geotermico en operacion. En esta area se encuentran siete pozos productores en operacion y tres pozos abandonados. La emision promedio de ruido en estos ultimos fue de 36.5 decibeles (dB), considerandose como la condicion natural de emision de ruido ambiental. En el arbol de valvulas de los pozos productores en operacion el ruido va de los 70.9 a los 91.7 dB, mientras que en valvulas abiertas de descarga de vaporductos la emision puede llegar hasta los 118 dB. En Mexico el limite maximo permisible de ruido en la periferia de

  5. THE AGRARIAN DEMANDS INSIDE PUREPECHAS ORGANIZATIONS DISCOURSE´S FROM MICHOACAN: PROBLEMS WITHOUT SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Jacaranda Jasso Martínez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purepecha´s organizations of Michoacan have theirhistory in the peasant movement from 1970´s and 1980´s.The petitions for distribution and control of their lands werereinforced with the rejection to the improvement ofconstitutional article 27 of 1992. From that moment, theirdiscourses were enriched with demands from indigenousmovement and now presents a group of rights to berecognizes for Mexican State. Through a historical analysisof the most popular purepecha organizations discourse’sfrom Michoacan I confirm changes. Despite organizationsare etnopolitics, the demands for the control andmanagement of naturals resources no disappear, now arerights and are in the center of discussions.

  6. Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  7. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  8. Endohelminth parasites of seven goodein species (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae) from Lake Zacapu , Michoacán, Central Mexico Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Martínez-Aquino; Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez; David I. Hernández-Mena; Lorena Garrido-Olvera; Rogelio Aguilar-Aguilar; Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León

    2012-01-01

    A total of 11 parasitic endohelminth taxa were found in 7 freshwater fish species of the subfamily Goodeinae in Zacapu Lake, Michoacan, Mexico. Six were adults (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp.), while the remaining 5 taxa (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphis sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Polymorphus brevis) were larvae. The taxa S. sogandaresi,...

  9. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  10. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  11. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  12. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  13. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  14. Study of liquid and steam tracers at the Maritaro - La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en la zona Maritaro - La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    We ran two simultaneous tracer tests in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. We wished to determine whether or not fluids injected in well Az-15 recharged the productive areas of six production wells and to estimate the fractions of injected fluid recovered in them, if any. Because only three of the wells produce water and all of them produce steam, two tracers were used, sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) for the gas phase and 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonate (1,3,6-nts) for the liquid phase. All of the observation wells recorded SF{sub 6}, and the three water-producing wells recorded 1,3,6-nts, proving that fluids injected in well Az-15 do recharge the area of interest. When sampling was suspended, the three water-producing wells were still producing 1,3,6-nts at significant rates. The total recovery of 1,3,6-nts at wells Az-65D, Az-04 and Az-28, 279 days after injection when sampling was halted, were, respectively, 6.1%, 0.90% y 0.16%, for a total of 7.61%. We concluded that these quantities constitute the lower boundaries for the respective recovery factors. When sampling was halted, wells Az-65D, Az-66D and Az-30 were still producing some SF{sub 6} at lower rates, and the rest of the wells were no longer recording the gas phase tracer. The total recovery of SF{sub 6} at wells Az-65D, Az-04, Az-41, Az-30, Az-28 and Az-66D were, respectively, 4.82 e-02%, 1.37 e-03%, 1.48 e-03%, 6.38 e-04%, 1.38 e-03% y 4.31 e-04%, for a total of 5.35 e-02%. The liquid recharge occurred in orders of magnitude greater than the steam. [Spanish] Se efectuaron dos pruebas simultaneas en la zona Maritaro-La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico. Los objetivos de estas pruebas fueron determinar si la salmuera de desecho inyectada en el pozo Az-15 recarga las zonas de alimentacion de seis pozos productores designados por CFE, y estimar que fraccion de lo inyectado recarga dichos pozos productores. Debido a que solo tres de los pozos

  15. Breed and environmental factors of sows and their repeatabilities in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José C. Segura-Correa; José Herrera-Camacho; Rosa E. Pérez-Sánchez; Ernestina Gutiérrez-Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Background: reproductive traits influence lifetime productivity of sows. Objective: to determine the effects of year and season of farrowing, parity number, and breed, on litter size at birth, weaning to service interval (WSI), farrowing to service interval (FSI), and to estimate their repeatabilities. Methods: data from years 1998 to 2008 from a farm in La Piedad, Michoacan, Mexico, were used. Sow breeds were Camborough 22 (PIC), Yorkshire (Y), F1 Landrace x Yorkshire (F1 LY), and ¼ Landrace...

  16. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  17. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis; Caracterizacion de artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con Analisis por Activacion Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  18. Strategies for the Optimization of Planted Area and to Increase Production of Avocado in Michoaca?n

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, José G.

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze how the increased use of the area planted with Hass Avocado from Michoacan state as a strategy will help catch up in production from the point of view based on resources. The basic question that will help us solve the problem is how to harness the avocado sector resources for greater production? Analytical method was used based on existing information to achieve the research objectives. The fundamental theory applied to the object of study is based on resources a...

  19. Update of Geothermics in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Negrin, Luis C.A.; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Four geothermal fields are currently operating in Mexico (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Virgenes), with a total installed geothermal-electric capacity of 953 megawatts (MW). This means the country is located in third place, worldwide, just behind the USA and Philippines. Thirty-six power plants of several types (condensing, back pressure and binary cycle), between 1.5 and 110 MW, operate in the fields, fed by 197 wells with a combined production of 7,700 metric tons of steam per hour (t/h). These production wells have depths between 600 and 4,400 meters. Steam comes with 8,750 t/h of brine that is injected through 19 injection wells or treated in a solar evaporation pond of 14 km2 in Cerro Prieto. During 2003, steam produced in those fields equaled 67.5 million metric tons, and the power plants generated 6,282 gigawatt-hours (GWh), which represented 3.1% of the electric energy produced in Mexico. All the power plants and the geothermal fields are operated bye the public utility, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)). [Spanish] Actualmente se operan en Mexico cuatro campos geotermicos (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros y Las Tres Virgenes), con una capacidad geotermoelectrica total de 953 megawatts (MW). Esto coloca al pais en el tercer lugar mundial, detras de Estados Unidos y Filipinas. En esos campos operan treinta y seis unidades de tipos diversos (a condensacion, a contrapresion y de ciclo binario), entre 1.5 y 110 MW, alimentadas por 197 pozos con una produccion combinada de 7,700 toneladas de vapor por hora (t/h). Estos pozos productores tienen profundidades entre 600 y 4,400 metros. El vapor sale acompanado por 8,750 t/h de salmuera, que se inyecta en 19 pozos inyectores o se trata en una laguna de evaporacion solar de 14 km2 en Cerro Prieto. Durante 2003 el vapor producido en los campos sumo 67.5 millones de toneladas y las unidades generaron 6,282 gigawatts-hora (GWh), lo que represento el

  20. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analyzed. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz R, S. de la; Armienta, M.A.; Segovia A, N

    1992-05-15

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analysed. (Author)

  2. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analysed. (Author)

  3. The Use of Geographic Information Technologies in Environmental Decision-Making in the State of Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Silva García José; Gustavo, Cruz Cárdenas; Salvador, Ochoa Estrada; Franciso, Estrada Godoy; Fabian, Villalpando Barragán

    2008-05-01

    One of the most urgent issues facing the human environment, a result of current human evolution is the increase in the production of Urban Solid Waste (USW). The State of Michoacán is no exception; the presence of waste facilities in the area is a very big problem and one with a strong geographical content (Mena et al., 2006). SIGs are one tool for addressing this kind of need. A model which has been commonly used for selecting areas for the final deposit of USW, and which has obtained good results, is so-called multicriterion decision-making. It has been applied in the context of integral USW management, and has generated both a methodology for the determination of safe places for final waste deposit and an Environmental Risk Index (ERI), which fulfills the requirements indicated by the Official Mexican Norm (NOM-083-SEMARNAT-2003). The methodology consists of a quadrant analysis of 25 ha of five factors. A rank was assigned to each of the factors, and this rank was standardized according to a scale from 0 to 10 and subsequently multiplied by a weight (W) which numerically represents the degree of importance and influence of each factor in the environment. Five represented the largest impact, and two represented the smallest impact. The ERI is the sum of the five factors considered and it is represented by means of the following equation: ERI = VVw+UsUsw+FrFrw+ln lnw+Zi Ziw, where ERI is the Environmental Risk Index, V Vw is the aquifer vulnerability, Us Usw represents the use of the soil, Fr Frw refers to the fracturing density, ln lnw represents the domain of the urban and industrial infrastructure, and Zi Ziw refers to flood zones. This was shown to be successful in different regions of Michoacán State, such as the Bajío area, the Paísde la Mariposa Monarca and Tierra Caliente. Another example is its application in the hydrogeologic context, which generated the Aquifer Veda index (a restriction diagram for the opening of new exploitations), and which is intended to regulate and give advice about the design of wells, their depth and optimum slot interval, their appropriate location and caudal, in those cases in which well-drilling is permitted. The above-mentioned approach is fundamental to the sustainable operating schemes for the handling of the underground water in the Ciénega de Chapala. This approach is intended to influence the scientific handling of the hydro resource, promoting sustainable politics and rules of operation.

  4. Interdisciplinary approach to depict landscape change drivers; a case study of the Ticuiz agrarian community in Michoacan, Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, M.; Velazquez, A.; Priego, A.; Skutsch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape changes are driven by a combination of physical, ecological and socio-cultural factors. Hence, a large amount of information is necessary to monitor these changes and to develop effective strategies for management and conservation. For this, novel strategies for combining social and enviro

  5. Contract farming and producer participation in the avocado industry in Michoacan: The case of Calavo de Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jenny Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the extent to which contractual arrangements with Calavo have influenced participation of small-scale farmers in the avocado export market, as well as the Michoacán avocado industry in general. The case study makes extensive use of both primary and secondary sources. Qualitative information and data were collected through semi-structured interviews and informal conversations with avocado growers, Calavo’s personnel and representatives of local organizations. I find...

  6. Selection of new drill sites using a Geographic Information System (GIS) at Los Azufres, Mexico; Seleccion de nuevos sitios de perforacion empleando un Sistema de Informacion Geografica (SIG) en Los Azufres, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Estrada, G.H [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: gerardo.garcia04@cfe.gob.mx; Lopez-Hernandez, A [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Quijano Leon, J.L Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    GIS technology is used to study the effects of distance between producing wells and superficial-thermal features and faults. It is used to interpret topographic lineaments and linear-resistivity interfaces at depth to identify hidden faults. Finally, a geothermal interpretation is conducted by applying a Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method (MCE) on a comprehensive data set, including geology, geophysics, and well production data. Visual comparisons of exploratory and drilling-data maps, with thermal discharge measured from wells, were used to select variables and data ranges that could be more directly associated with energy-production levels. Relative weights assigned by visual inspection are used to extend this knowledge to the whole exploration area. Criteria are compared to calculate a geothermal index representing the geothermal-production suitability for each cell into which the study area is divided. Considering the geometry of fault planes at depths from 700 to 2000 m below the surface, and a 250 m exclusion zone around productive wells, we choose areas from the normalized-geothermal index to propose new drill sites with different levels of risk, ranging from production (low risk) to exploration (high risk) boreholes. [Spanish] Se empleo la tecnologia de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica (SIG) para estudiar el efecto de la distancia de los pozos productores a las manifestaciones termales superficiales y a las fallas, y para interpretar los lineamientos topograficos y las interfaces lineales de resistividad a profundidad para identificar fallas ocultas. Finalmente, se realizo una interpretacion geotermica aplicando un Metodo Multi-Criterio de Evaluacion (MCE) a un conjunto completo de datos que incluye geologia, geofisica y datos de produccion de pozos. Se utilizo una comparacion visual de mapas de datos de exploracion y perforacion con descargas termicas medidas en pozos, a fin de seleccionar variables y rangos de datos que podrian asociarse mas directamente con niveles de produccion de energia. Se usaron pesos relativos asignados por inspeccion visual para extender este conocimiento al total del area de exploracion. Se compararon diferentes criterios para calcular un indice geotermico que representa la produccion geotermica potencial de cada celda en las que se dividio el area estudiada. Tomando en cuenta la geometria de los planos de fallas a profundidades de 700 a 2000 m, asi como un zona de exclusion de 250 m alrededor de los pozos productores, se determinaron areas de indices geotermicos normalizados para proponer nuevos sitios de perforacion con diferentes niveles de riesgo, que van de pozos productores (riesgo bajo) a exploratorios (riesgo alto).

  7. Determination of the water quality and radon content in wells located at the Cuitzeo basin, Michoacan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major elements, trace elements, presence of microorganisms and, radon content in wells located in urban and rural zones around the Cuitzeo lake at the Lerma River basin in Mexico were determined. The techniques to determine the parameters were the liquid scintillation method for 222 Rn, Icp-Ms for trace elements, conventional chemical analysis for major components and the counting in slide for the bacteriological determination. The average concentration of radon oscillated between 0.88 and 4.75 Bq/lt which, indicated a fast transit from the reload toward the spring exit. The major components and trace elements are analysed considering the geological characteristics of the sites in study. Faecal coliforms were not found. (Author)

  8. Modification of the water-level control system at the Unit 12 of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Modificacion del sistema de control de nivel de agua en la Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Raul; Aburto Huerta, S. Ramon; Mendoza Covarrubias, Hector M [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: raul.tello@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Unit 12 of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field is a binary cycle unit of 1.45 MW, installed at the pad of production well Az-22. There are two separators on this pad. One separates the mix extracted from well Az-22 and the other from adjacent wells. The separated brine from both separators is gathered in a horizontal tank and sent to Unit 12. The steam is sent to Unit 7, which generates 50 MW. Once some interference occurred affecting the power generation of Unit 7 when Unit 12 was off line. This was caused by the original flow arrangement and water-level control system. To avoid interference, a water-level control system was designed and installed in the separators. The system operates independently of Unit 12, with tanks in each separator connected by a pipe. Regulation of the water level is accomplished by three motor valves and a level sensor. To ensure permanent feeding of electrical power to the valves, an automatic system was installed from transmission lines of 23 and 115 kV. In case both lines fail, there is an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) unit. At the beginning of 2005, Unit 12 was again online with a modified water-level control system that has operated satisfactorily since then. Its short periods offline have not affected Unit 7. [Spanish] La Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., es una unidad de ciclo binario de 1.45 MW, instalada en la plataforma del pozo productor Az-22. En esta plataforma hay dos separadores, uno de los cuales separa la mezcla extraida del pozo Az-22 y el otro la de varios pozos aledanos. El agua separada de ambos se concentra en un tanque horizontal y de este pasa a la Unidad 12, mientras que el vapor se envia a la Unidad 7, de 50 MW. Por el tipo de arreglo original de flujo y control de nivel de agua en los equipos, ocurrian interferencias que provocaban que cuando la Unidad 12 se disparaba se afectara la generacion en la Unidad 7. Para evitar esta interferencia se diseno e instalo un sistema de control de

  9. Derivados quirales de azufre y de fósforo: síntesis y aplicaciones en catálisis asimétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Chelouan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo presentado en esta Tesis Doctoral forma parte de un proyecto de investigación más amplio desarrollado a lo largo de los últimos años por nuestro grupo de investigación, que tiene por objeto la síntesis estereoselectiva de compuestos quirales de azufre de interés sintético y/o farmacológico. En concreto, en esta Tesis Doctoral nos hemos propuesto extender el uso de diversos sulfinilderivados quirales a aquellos campos en los que su aplicación ha sido menos explorada, como es la ...

  10. Neutralización del trióxido de azufre con hidróxido de magnesio en la combustión de hidrocarburos pesados

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Leticia García-Arreola; José Miguel González-Santaló; Enrique R. Bazúa-Rueda; Carmen Durán de Bazúa

    2009-01-01

    En México, el 32% de la energía eléctrica se produce quemando hidrocarburos pesados. Entre los principales contaminantes al aire producidos se encuentran el CO2, CO, NOx, SOx y las partículas suspendidas (PM). El SO2 es precursor de la lluvia ácida y el SO3 al condensarse forma pequeñas gotas de ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4) y es uno de los principales responsables de la opacidad de la pluma de gases provenientes de las centrales termoeléctricas que queman combustibles con altos contenidos de azufr...

  11. Climatology of landfalling hurricanes and tropical storms in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-01

    The potential for damage from hurricanes landfalling in Mexico is assessed. During the 1951-2000 period, Pacific hurricane hits were more frequent on coastal areas of the northwest of country (e.g., Sinaloa and the southern half of Baja California Peninsula) as well as in southern Mexico (Michoacan). On the Atlantic side, the Yucatan Peninsula and the northern state of Tamaulipas were most exposed to these storms. The hurricane season reaches maximum activity in September for both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the country. During the 50 year period, five intense hurricanes (category 5) made landfall on the Gulf/Caribbean coasts, while only one such intense hurricane made a land hit on the Pacific side. While hurricanes affecting Pacific coasts show a marked increase during the last decade, those of the Atlantic side exhibit a marked decrease since the 1970s. However, when considering the frequency of landfalling tropical storms and hurricanes impacting on both littorals of the country, their numbers have considerably increased during the 1990s. [Spanish] Se determino el potencial de dano de los huracanes que entran a tierra en Mexico. Durante el periodo 1951-2000 los impactos de los huracanes del Pacifico fueron mas frecuentes en las areas costeras del noroeste del pais, como Sinaloa y la mitad sur de la peninsula de Baja California, asi como en el sur de Mexico (Michoacan). En el lado del Atlantico la peninsula de Yucatan y el estado norteno de Tamaulipas fueron los mas expuestos a estas tormentas. Para las dos costas del pais, del Pacifico y del Atlantico, la temporada de huracanes alcanza su maxima actividad en septiembre. Durante los 50 anos del periodo de estudio cinco huracanes intensos (categoria 5) tocaron tierra en el lado del Atlantico y uno en el Pacifico. Mientras que los huracanes que afectan las costas del Pacifico muestran un incremento en numero durante la ultima decada, los del Atlantico exhiben una disminucion notable desde la decada de los

  12. Study with liquid and steam tracers at the Tejamaniles area, Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en el area Tejamaniles del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Reyes Delgado, Lisette [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The Mexican Federal Commission for Electricity injects brines produced by nearby geothermal wells into well Az-08, located in the Tejamaniles area, in the southwestern portion of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. The main goals of this study are to determine whether or not the injected fluid recharges nine producing wells in the area, and if so, to estimate the fraction of the injected fluid recharging each producing well. Five of the selected wells produce mixes of liquid and steam and the rest produce only steam. For this reason, we designed this study with simultaneous injections of liquid- and steam-tracers. The nine selected producing wells detected the steam-tracer, and the five wells producing mixes detected the liquid-phase tracer. The residence curves of both tracers present a series of peaks reflecting the known fractured nature of the reservoir. The results show the feeding areas of the nine selected wells are recharged by the fluid injected into well Az-08. When this paper was written, the arrival of steam-tracers in all wells was completed, but the wells producing mixes of liquid and steam continued to record the arrival of the liquid-tracer. Until 407 days after injecting the tracer, the total percentage recovery of liquid phase tracer in the five wells producing mixes of liquid and steam was 3.5032%. The arrival of the steam tracer ended in all nine wells 205 days after the tracer was injected, with an overall recovery rate of 2.1553 x 10-2%. The recovery rates imply the recharge rates of the monitored wells by the injector Az-08 are modest, but it appears the amounts of the recovered liquid-phase tracer will increase significantly. The modest recovery rates suggest most of the fluid injected into the well Az-08 disperses in the reservoir, contributing to recharge and maintaining the pressure. Results reveal that: (i) the injected fluid is heated at depths from 700 to over 1000 m, where it boils and rises to reach the feeding areas of the

  13. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Originally the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) was proposed to integrate the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), operating since 1991, with the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), in services since 2003. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during 2010 and 2011, local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development. Until 2012 SASMEX better coverage includes 48 new field seismic sensors (FS) deployed over the seismic region of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan and Puebla, with someone enhancements over Guerrero and Oaxaca, to reach 97 FS. During 2013, 35 new FS has been proposed to SASMEX enhancements covering the Chiapas and Veracruz seismic regions. The SASMEX, with the support of the Mexico Valley Broadcasters Association (ARVM) since 1993, automatically issue Public and Preventive earthquake early warning signals in the Cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, and Oaxaca. The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Now the SASMEX warning time opportunity could be different to the 60 sec. average typically generated when SAS warned earthquake effects coming from Guerrero to Mexico City valley. Mexican EEW issued today reach: 16 Public and 62 Preventive Alert in Mexico City; 25 Public and 19 Preventive Alerts in Oaxaca City; also 14 Public and 4 Preventive Alerts in Acapulco; 14 Public and 5 Preventive Alerts in Chilpancingo. The earthquakes events registered by SASMEX FS until now reach 3448. With the support of private and Federal telecommunications infrastructure like, TELMEX, Federal Electric Commission, and the Mexican Security Ministry, it was developed a redundant communication system with pads to link the different

  14. Respuesta del cultivo de trigo al agregado de azufre en el sudeste bonaerense Wheat response to sulphur fertilization in the southeast bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Nahuel Ignacio Reussi Calvo; Hernán Eduardo Echeverría; Hernán Sainz Rozas

    2006-01-01

    La intensificación de la agricultura en los últimos años, en la Región Pampeana y en el sudeste bonaerense en particular, provocó una disminución de la disponibilidad de azufre (S) en los suelos. Frente a esta situación, se planteó como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la fertilización azufrada sobre el rendimiento y el contenido de proteína en grano de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.), como así también su interacción con nitrógeno (N). Además se evalúan algunas de las metodologías de diagnóstico de...

  15. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  16. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  17. Utilización de azufre micronizado en la corrección del pH de compost de residuos de poda Correction of the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barbaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los compost actualmente son muy utilizados como componentes de sustratos, aunque en algunos casos presentan pH alcalinos y causan problemas nutricionales. Por ello se recomienda hacer una corrección previa a su utilización o luego de elaborar el sustrato. Algunas alternativas para bajar el pH es mezclando el compost con materiales ácidos o mediante la adición de azufre, sulfato ferroso u otros compuestos azufrados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue corregir el pH de un compost de residuos de poda con azufre micronizado y hallar la dosis adecuada para el pH deseado. Se conformaron siete tratamientos, incorporando al compost de poda diferentes dosis de azufre micronizado: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 y 8 g/litro. Al compost de cada tratamiento se le midió el pH semanalmente y una vez estabilizados se analizó la conductividad eléctrica, concentración de nitrato, calcio, magnesio, potasio y sodio. Para un pH entre 5,3 y 6,2 se necesitaron 2 a 3 g de azufre/litro. El pH del compost disminuyó con el incremento de la dosis de azufre, y la CE aumentó. El azufre micronizado es una alternativa viable para corregir el pH del compost de restos de poda a los valores deseados.Nowadays, composts are widely used for incorporation into substrates and in some cases they present alkaline pH, causing nutritional problems. Therefore, it is suggested that a correction should be made prior to its use or after its preparation. Some alternatives to decrease pH values are mixing compost with acid materials or adding sulphur, ferrous sulphate or other sulphur compounds. The aim of this work was to correct the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur and find the appropriate dose for the desired pH. Seven treatments were performed incorporating different doses of micronized sulphur: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 g per liter of compost. Compost pH was measured weekly in each treatment. Once stabilized, electrical conductivity and concentration of nitrate, calcium, magnesium

  18. EL MODO DE VIDA LACUSTRE: ETNOGRAFÍA DE LAS CUENCAS LACUSTRES DE MICHOACÁN (Ethnographic Perspectives on the Aquatic Lifeway in Michoacan, Western Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Williams

    2015-01-01

    Mesoamérica fue la única civilización en el mundo antiguo que careció de fuentes importantes de proteína animal como el ganado, los cerdos y los borregos. Por lo tanto, las abundantes especies acuáticas (peces, aves, reptiles, anfibios, insectos y plantas, entre otros) tuvieron un papel estratégico en la dieta y la economía de la mayoría de las culturas mesoamericanas, incluyendo a los tarascos. Este estudio de actividades de subsistencia (pesca, caza, recolección y manufactura) en los lagos ...

  19. Ancient seismic record of the Tarascan (Purhepecha) Empire. Preclasic Period (3000 Yr B.P.). Jaracuaro Island, Patzcuaro Lake. Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Pascua, Miguel Angel; Garduño-Monroy, Victor Hugo; Perez-Lopez, Raul; Israde-Alcantara, Isabel

    2010-05-01

    The Pátzcuaro lake is located in the Mexican State of Michoacán in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. The Jarácuaro island is formed by Holocene lake sediments highly deformed by active faults (Morelia-Acambay Fault System, MAFS, more than 200 km long). MAFS is an E-W strike-slip fault with a transtensive component in the Pázcuaro Lake zone. Several paleoseismic studies were carried out in the island. Four trenches were made in the active faults that cross the island and it is possible observe that there are two andesitic blocks (>4 m3) over two different faults with surface rupture. The archaeological evidences (pottery, idols, etc), founded in the soils affected by the fault, implies that the age of the events concern to the Pre - Classic period (3.000 years B.P.).The Tarascan (or Purhépecha) Empire supported this earthquakes and put the blocks close both faults on the hanging wall block. The andesitic blocks are carved and polished and the quarry where this blocks were extracted is 1.5 km long out the lake. This cultural behaviour was profusely used by the Tarascan related to natural disasters but not documented before related to earthquakes. Maybe this is ones of the oldest human seismic manifestation, and is the first time that is connected a fault with a seismic movement.

  20. Enviromental history during late Pleistocene at occidental región of Mexico through palynological analysis in sediments of Zirahuen lake, Michoacan

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Rodríguez Esperanza; LOZANO-GARCÍA MA. DEL SOCORRO; ORTEGA-GUERRERO BEATRÍZ Y CABALLERO-MIRANDA MARGARITA

    2010-01-01

    Мексиканский вулканический пояс, пересекающий центральную Мексику, является центром палеоэкологических исследований четвертичного периода. Многочисленные бессточные озерные бассейны в пределах этой вулканической горной местности представляют собой эталонные объекты для палеолимнологических исследований, потому что их осадочные отложения содержат доказательства изменений растительных сообществ и уровня озер в четвертичное время. В работе приведены результаты палинологических исследований осадо...

  1. Impact of climatic change in forests and natural protected areas of Mexico; Impacto del cambio climatico en los bosques y areas naturales protegidas de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villers-Ruiz, L.; Trejo-Vazquez, I. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Geografia

    1998-01-01

    The vulnerability of Mexico`s forest ecosystems to climate change was assessed according to the results of two General Circulating Models (GCMs): CCCM and GFDL-R30. Holdridge`s life zones classification was used for the analysis. The paper shows the climatic differences for each model and for different region of Mexico. Climate scenarios were compared to current climate so as to recognise climate change regions for each model. Of the 18 life zones reported for the country, the most affected ones would be the temperate cold and warm forests, tending to disappear. On the contrary, tropical dry, very dry and thorn forests with warm affinities tend to widen their current surfaces, according to the CCCMN model. The GFDL-R30 model foresees increases in the distribution of tropical, humid and wet forests, which would be favored by the increase in rainfall, giving place to tropical rain forests, currently non-existent in the country. Of the 33 natural protected areas used for this study, 24 show changes in their life zones, the most affected ones are those found in the northern and occidental regions of the country. The most affected forest industries would be those located in the Sierra Madre Occidental, in the states of Durango and Chihuahua, and to the occidental part of the country, the industries found in Michoacan and Jalisco. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Cerca Martinez, M.; Serrano Duran, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity. Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. The southernmost lineament runs for ~140 km from San Miguel Totolapan area (NW Guerrero) to Sanchiqueo (SE Michoacan), and passes through Ciudad Altamirano. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River. The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. Domes near Ciudad Altamirano are unaffected by ductile shearing and yielded a ~42 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age, setting a minimum age for this deformation. The northern volcano-tectonic lineament runs for ~190 km between the areas of Huitzuco in northern Guerrero and the southern part of the Tzitzio fold in eastern Michoacan. The Huautla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Nanchititla silicic centers (all in the range 37-34 Ma) are emplaced along this lineament, which continues to the WNW trough a mafic dike swarm exposed north of Tiquicheo (37-35 Ma) and the Purungueo subvolcanic body (~42 Ma). These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Post ~42 Ma deformation is essentially brittle and is characterized by several left lateral and right lateral transcurrent faults with typical Riedel patterns. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely

  3. A hybrid method for the estimation of ground motion in sedimentary basins: Quantitative modelling for Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the ground motion in two-dimensional, laterally heterogeneous, anelastic media, a hybrid technique has been developed which combines modal summation and the finite difference method. In the calculation of the local wavefield due to a seismic event, both for small and large epicentral distances, it is possible to take into account the sources, path and local soil effects. As practical application we have simulated the ground motion in Mexico City caused by the Michoacan earthquake of September 19, 1985. By studying the one-dimensional response of the two sedimentary layers present in Mexico City, it is possible to explain the difference in amplitudes observed between records for receivers inside and outside the lake-bed zone. These simple models show that the sedimentary cover produces the concentration of high-frequency waves (0.2-0.5 Hz) on the horizontal components of motion. The large amplitude coda of ground motion observed inside the lake-bed zone, and the spectral ratios between signals observed inside and outside the lake-bed zone, can only be explained by two-dimensional models of the sedimentary basin. In such models, the ground motion is mainly controlled by the response of the uppermost clay layer. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral ratios, and frequency content) of the observed ground motion. The large amplitude coda of the ground motion observed in the lake-bed zone can be explained as resonance effects and the excitation of local surface waves in the laterally heterogeneous clay layer. Also, for the 1985 Michoacan event, the energy contributions of the three subevents are important to explain the observed durations. (author). 39 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  4. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  5. Condensers for measuring steam quality at the inlet of back-pressure units of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Condensadores para medir la calidad del vapor a la entrada de las turbinas a contrapresion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Rubi; Reyes Delgado, Lisette; Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Electrical conductivity is an indirect measurement of the quality of the steam supplied to power units. In the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, the electrical conductivity once was measured in a discrete and periodic way by condensing steam samples through a water-cooled condenser. In an attempt to continuously measure conductivity, conductivity meters were installed where the units discharged, but the values proved unstable and unrepresentative. Thereafter, taking into account that steam quality should be measured at the steam delivery-reception point, equipment was designed and tested for continuously condensing steam. Finally it was possible to get an air-cooled condenser able to condense 500 milliliters per minute, enough to collect a representative flow of the steam and to measure its electrical conductivity. The equipment was installed in all seven back-pressure units operating in the field and to date has been operating in an optimal manner. [Spanish] La conductividad electrica es una medida indirecta de la calidad del vapor que se suministra a las unidades turbogeneradoras. En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., la conductividad electrica se media en forma puntual y periodica, condensando muestras de vapor por medio de un serpentin enfriado con agua. Despues, ante la necesidad de medirla en forma continua, se instalaron conductivimetros en las descargas de las unidades, pero los valores resultaron muy inestables y poco representativos. Considerando, ademas, que la calidad del vapor debe medirse en el punto de entrega-recepcion, se disenaron y probaron equipos para condensar vapor de manera continua, lograndose construir un condensador enfriado por aire que logra condensar un flujo de 500 mililitros por minuto, cantidad suficiente para tener un flujo representativo del vapor que alimenta a las turbinas y medirle su conductividad electrica. Se instalaron estos equipos en las siete unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion que funcionan en el campo

  6. Egade, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubany, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a business school design in Mexico, whose spiral building sits atop a parking structure creating a compact, symbolic form for an arid urban landscape. Includes seven photographs, a floor plan, and sectional drawing. (GR)

  7. Arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienta, M A; Segovia, N

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above Mexican drinking water standards have been detected in aquifers of various areas of Mexico. This contamination has been found to be mainly caused by natural sources. However, the specific processes releasing these toxic elements into groundwater have been determined in a few zones only. Many studies, focused on arsenic-related health effects, have been performed at Comarca Lagunera in northern México. High concentrations of fluoride in water were also found in this area. The origin of the arsenic there is still controversial. Groundwater in active mining areas has been polluted by both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic-rich minerals contaminate the fractured limestone aquifer at Zimapán, Central México. Tailings and deposits smelter-rich fumes polluted the shallow granular aquifer. Arsenic contamination has also been reported in the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining zone, southern Baja California, and Santa María de la Paz, in San Luis Potosí state. Even in the absence of mining activities, hydrogeochemistry and statistical techniques showed that arsenopyrite oxidation may also contaminate water, as in the case of the Independencia aquifer in the Mexican Altiplano. High concentrations of arsenic have also been detected in geothermal areas like Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Acoculco. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was revealed by epidemiological studies in Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosí states. Presence of fluoride in water results from dissolution of acid-volcanic rocks. In Mexico, groundwater supplies most drinking water. Current knowledge and the geology of Mexico indicate the need to include arsenic and fluoride determinations in groundwater on a routine basis, and to develop interdisciplinary studies to assess the contaminant's sources in all enriched areas. PMID:18335171

  8. Microtremors Studies Using SPAC Method: Experiences and Applications in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Rosas, R.; Aguirre, J.; Mijares-Arellano, H.

    2008-12-01

    The study of Microtremors (environmental vibration) has become one of the key parts for the evaluation of seismic risk. That is because they can be used to estimate the site effects. The first approach is by obtaining the dominant period of the site through the H/V spectral ratio (Nakamura method). However there are parts of the body and surface waves that are not entirely known. The spectral H/V ratio is mainly influenced by SH resonance in the superficial layers. But if we are working with surface waves, like Rayleigh waves, they should be represented by the ellipticity coefficient of theoretical Rayleigh waves, whereas the absolute magnitude of the H/V spectral ratio can not be directly compared with the transfer function. The shear wave velocity of the shallow structure is a basic element in the studies of the ground amplification and for the site response of sedimentary basins. The SPAC method (Spatial Auto Correlations Method) was proposed by Aki in 1957, based on microtremors recorded in instrumental arrays. This method allows us to obtain the dispersion curve of the Rayleigh waves, from which we can estimate the velocity structure. In Mexico we have used this method in geotechnical applications, engineering and seismic hazard studies, to characterize the site effect. Since in some places we do not have enough information to validate our results, we use ellipticity curves to interpret the H/V spectral ratios and compare with our SPAC results. This was implemented in cities with substantial urban density as the city of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon and in areas where the site effect has had great impact as Mexico City and in areas with important seismicity as some parts of the state of Michoacan, There, it has been possible to estimate the shear wave velocity of the soil through this type of study.

  9. Oxidación catalítica selectiva de sulfuro de hidrógeno a azufre elemental sobre catalizadores basados en óxidos de metales de transición

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Rodríguez, Mª Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Esta tesis muestra el estudio sobre la síntesis y caracterización de materiales basados en óxido de metales de transición para ser empleados como catalizador en la oxidación parcial de sulfuro de hidrógeno a azufre elemental. Más concretamente la preparación de materiales que contienen vanadio (ya sea como óxido de vanadio másico o soportado, o incorporado en bronces como bronce de Mo y/o W ). En primer lugar, se ha realizado un estudio sobre catalizadores basados en óxido de vanadio (puro...

  10. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Yglesias-González; Horacio Alejandro Chamizo-García

    2014-01-01

    El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analiza...

  11. Aplicación de diferentes fuentes de azufre en soya (glycine max (l.) merrill) en tres ordenes de suelos del valle del río cauca, colombia, en condiciones de invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguado H., David A.; Gómez L., Jairo A.

    2010-01-01

    Se utilizaron cuatro fuentes portadoras de S (sulfato de amonio, yeso, ácido sulfúrico y azufre micronizado) en dosis de 20 y 40 kg de S/ha, aplicado en pre y al momento de la siembra , en tres órdenes de suelos (Vertisol, Inceptisol y Entisol) del Valle geográfico del río Cauca, con la variedad ICA Tunía, como cultivo indicador. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por bolsas de polietileno con dos kilos de suelo seco al aire, utilizando el horizonte Ap. El diseño experimental fue compl...

  12. Aplicación de diferentes fuentes de azufre en soya (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) en tres ordenes de suelos del Valle del río Cauca, Colombia, en condiciones de invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez L. Jairo A.; Tanguado H. David A.

    1989-01-01

    Se utilizaron cuatro fuentes portadoras de S (sulfato de amonio, yeso, ácido sulfúrico y azufre micronizado) en dosis de 20 y 40 kg de S/ha, aplicado en pre y al momento de la siembra , en tres órdenes de suelos (Vertisol, Inceptisol y Entisol) del Valle geográfico del río Cauca, con la variedad ICA Tunía, como cultivo indicador. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por bolsas de polietileno con dos kilos de suelo seco al aire, utilizando el horizonte Ap. El diseño experimental fue compl...

  13. Mexico's Oxbridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussman, Fay

    1979-01-01

    For 400 years the National Autonomous University of Mexico has remained at the hub of the country's intellectual and political life. The history of the University from the Mayas and the Aztecs, University expansion, upward mobility of students, and student pressure groups and politics are described. (MLW)

  14. Technologies for the treatment of the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides generated by the combustion in open chamber; Tecnologias para el tratamiento de dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Villalpando, Maria Dolores [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In general terms, there are only three ways of avoiding the sulfur dioxide and the nitrogen oxides, generated by the combustion in open chamber, from contaminating the air; the first one is utilizing low sulfur and nitrogen content fuels, the second one is by controlling the parameters that affect the combustion and the third one to treat and/or clean the gases before exhausting them to the air. In this document, some of the treatments for diminishing the pollutant emissions generated by the combustion in open chamber, are presented. [Espanol] En terminos generales, solo existen 3 maneras de evitar que el dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta sigan contaminando el aire, la primera es utilizar un combustible de bajo contenido de azufre y nitrogeno, la segunda es controlar los parametros que afectan la combustion, y la tercera es tratar y/o limpiar los gases antes de emitirlos a la atmosfera. En este documento se presentan algunos tratamientos para disminuir las emisiones de contaminantes generados por la combustion en camara abierta.

  15. Mexico - PROGRESA

    OpenAIRE

    IFPRI

    2002-01-01

    For many of the world's poor, public safety-net programs are the only hope for a life free from chronic poverty and undernutrition. But the proper combination of incentives and support can be difficult to achieve. The International Food Policy Research Institute's in-depth evaluation of Mexico's PROGRESA (Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación) indicates that antipoverty programs that combine education, health, and nutrition interventions in one package can be quite successful in improvi...

  16. Respuesta del cultivo de trigo al agregado de azufre en el sudeste bonaerense Wheat response to sulphur fertilization in the southeast bonaerense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel Ignacio Reussi Calvo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La intensificación de la agricultura en los últimos años, en la Región Pampeana y en el sudeste bonaerense en particular, provocó una disminución de la disponibilidad de azufre (S en los suelos. Frente a esta situación, se planteó como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la fertilización azufrada sobre el rendimiento y el contenido de proteína en grano de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., como así también su interacción con nitrógeno (N. Además se evalúan algunas de las metodologías de diagnóstico de S citadas en la literatura. Los experimentos (Experimento A: bajo SD y LC; Experimento B: bajo SD se realizaron durante las estaciones de crecimiento 2003 y 2004 en la EEA INTA-Balcarce. En el Experimento A los tratamientos fueron: sistemas de labranza (LC y SD asignados a las parcelas principales y combinación de nutrientes (T: testigo; NP: nitrógeno + fósforo; NPS: nitrógeno + fósforo + azufre asignados a las subparcelas. Las dosis de nutrientes utilizadas fueron de 120 kg N ha-1, 30 kg P ha-1 y 15 kg S ha-1. Para el Experimento B los tratamientos fueron dosis de N (70 y 130 kg ha-1 y de S (0 y 15 kg ha-1. Ambos experimentos fueron conducidos sin deficiencias de P y en condiciones de secano. En el Experimento B y para las dos campañas agrícolas el agregado de S incrementó el rendimiento (4.703 vs 5.328 kg ha-1 sin y con S, respectivamente, mientras que en el Experimento A, la fertilización con S incrementó el rendimiento (4.172 vs 4.748 kg ha-1, sin y con S, respectivamente sólo en el 2004 bajo SD. No se determinó respuesta en el contenido de proteína en grano por el agregado de S. La eficiencia de uso del N fue ligeramente mejorada por el agregado de S. La determinación de los contenidos de sulfato en el suelo en los primeros 20 cm, como así también la relación N/S total en grano no diagnosticaron satisfactoriamente la respuesta al agregado de S. Sin embargo, la determinación de S-SO4 = en suelo (0-60 cm al momento de la

  17. Study with a steam tracer in a zone near well Az-64, in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con un trazador de vapor en la zona aledana al pozo Az-64, en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J.; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    A previous tracer study in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field concluded that injection in well Az-15 recharges a group of producing wells located east of the injector to a maximum distance of about 2000 m. The study also indicated injection in Az-15 either does not recharge wells farther east in the neighborhood of the Laguna Verde fault, or does so at very low rates over a long period. Because it is important to recharge this zone, it was decided to explore the possibility of doing it by injecting in well Az-64, located in the area. Thus the present study was designed. Six producing wells were chosen to monitor tracer arrivals. Because all the chosen wells produce steam (several also produce water) and for economic reasons, it was decided to use a steam-phase tracer. We chose sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a tracer successfully used before in the field. On October 24, 2006, we injected 96.4 kg of SF6 into well Az-64. All six chosen wells were sampled for 156 days, starting the day of injection. The tracer was detected in all six wells and for every well the shape of the residence curve clearly depicted the fractured nature of the corresponding permeability. Again in every case, the recovery curves indicated recovery was completed within the 156-day sampling period. The largest recoveries were in wells Az-05 (48.5%) and Az-43 (1.27%), those closest to the injection well and on the same side of the Maritaro fault as Az-64. Well Az-51, lying at 848 m from the injector and farthest away, registered the third-highest recovery percentage (1.01 x 10-5%), significantly higher than well Az-19 (6.95 x 10-6%), located 490 m from the injector; the two wells are on the same side of the Maritaro fault as Az-64. Well Az-32, located 423 m from the injector, but on the other side of the Maritaro fault, recovered 5.6 x 10-7% of the injected tracer, comparable to 8.67 x 10-7%, the amount recovered in well Az-13 on the same side of the Maritaro fault

  18. Impacto en la salud ambiental por efecto de emisiones de dióxido de azufre del Volcán Arenal, en la población de la Fortuna de San Carlos

    OpenAIRE

    Xinia Alvarado Zeledón

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: Las emisiones de dióxido de azufre (SO2)del volcán Arenal representan un riesgo para la salud ambiental en La Fortuna. Se realizó un análisis teórico de las diferentes variaciones en las concentraciones de SO2 del volcán, con posible impacto a la salud de sus pobladores. Estudios teóricos sobre emisión y dispersión de gases volcánicos, así como su impacto potencial a la salud en el país, han sido realizados en 1999 por Morales &Liao (1). Material y métodos: Basados en datos de m...

  19. Mexico: prospects for democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Yvonne D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze why Mexico has failed to democratize and offer recommendations for U.S. policy towards Mexico. The thesis examines the impact of three casual variables on the level of democracy in Mexico: civilian control of the military, the fairness of Mexico's political party system, and U.S. foreign policy towards Mexico. NA U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author

  20. Seismic monitoring at the geothermal zone of Acoculco, Pue., Mexico; Monitoreo sismico en la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lermo, Javier; Antayhua, Yanet; Bernal, Isabel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Instituto de Ingenieria Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Venegas, Saul; Arredondo, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jles@pumas.iingen.unam.mx

    2009-01-15

    Results are presented of a research project to study seismic activity in the Acoculco geothermal zone, Puebla, Mexico. Geological and geophysical information was collected for the zone and a seismic network composed of seven digital seismographs was installed over four months (August-November 2004). Of the 30 regional earthquakes located by the National Seismological Service, 14 were at the subduction zone, 7 in the intra-plate zone, 6 of cortical type were in the Mexican Volcanic Belt, and 3 had deep origins in the Veracruz and Chiapas regions. Although there were no local earthquakes, probably due to the short monitoring span or lack of currently active zones, velocity models were defined near the springs of Los Azufres and Alcaparrosa, with lineal arrangements of wide-band seismic stations (SPAC) and strata identified in the exploratory well EAC-1, drilled by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. By using the registers of regional earthquakes, the site-effects were estimated on the six temporary seismic stations, whose empirical transfer functions were used to validate a velocities model proposed for the endhoreic basin. The proposed velocity models, both for the endhoreic basin and outside it, enhance the previous interpretations. They confirm the geo-electrical model proposed for the zone is adequate and they provide dynamic conditions for the model, such as propagation velocities of the P and S waves and densities and attenuation. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de un proyecto de investigacion para estudiar la actividad sismica de la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Puebla, Mexico. Con este fin se recopilo informacion geologica y geofisica de la zona y se instalo durante cuatro meses (de agosto a noviembre de 2004) una red sismica conformada por siete sismografos digitales. Se registraron 30 sismos regionales que fueron localizados por el Servicio Sismologico Nacional en la zona de subduccion (14), en la zona de intraplaca (7), de tipo cortical del Eje

  1. Azufre Elemental como Corrector del pH y la Fertilidad de Alfunos Suelos de la III y IV Región de Chile Elemental Sulphur as pH and Soil Fertility Amendment for Some Chileans Soils of Regions III and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sierra B; Angelus Lancelloti M; Iván Vidal P.

    2007-01-01

    En los suelos de la zona norte de Chile existen suelos con carbonatos, situación que influye sobre la disponibilidad de nutrientes para los cultivos. En el presente experimento se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio, el efecto de la aplicación de azufre elemental sobre el pH, conductividad eléctrica y micronutrientes en seis suelos de la III y IV Región, Chile. El azufre se aplicó en dosis de 500 y 1000 mg S° kg-1, y el suelo se incubó por períodos de 60 y 120 días a 80% de su capacidad de c...

  2. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  3. New Mexico Golf Courses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of golf courses in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from...

  4. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  5. New Mexico Convention Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of convention centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data...

  6. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  7. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  8. Efecto del contenido de azufre sobre la meteorización del carbón: comparación de dos mantos en Hato de la Virgen (Fm. Carbonera, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galarraga, F.

    2000-08-01

    contenido de azufre ≻ 5 %; y la galería G-24, donde está presente el manto 24, cuya abundancia en este elemento no supera el 1,5 %. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto del azufre en la extensión de la meteorización del carbón. Con fines comparativos, se cuenta con las respectivas muestras totalmente frescas, provenientes de núcleos de perforación. Los carbones fueron sometidos a los siguientes análisis: inmediatos (humedad, materia volátil, carbono fijo, cenizas, poder calórico, Indice de hinchamiento libre (FSI, análisis elemental (C, H, N, O, azufre total y sus formas (pirítico, sulfático y orgánico, y composición mayoritaria de las cenizas (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Na, Cl, P. Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron sus espectros de infrarrojo, en el modo de Transformadas de Fourier. Sólo las muestras procedentes de los núcleos de perforación son totalmente frescas; las muestras colectadas dentro de las galerías manifiestan diferentes niveles de oxidación, detectada tanto por parámetros químicos (humedad, poder calórico, composición elemental y de las cenizas como por espectroscopia de infrarrojo (aparición de la banda de carbonilo, disminución de la absorción propia de estiramiento del enlace C-H. La presencia de azufre en alta proporción no modifica de manera apreciable ni el estilo ni la extensión de la oxidación de la matriz orgánica del carbón. Sin embargo, el azufre sí es responsable de variaciones importantes en el estilo de alteración de la matriz inorgánica, modificando el esquema de lixiviación de algunos elementos (principalmente Fe, y en menor extensión Si, P, K, que son removidos preferentemente, e inmovilizando otros (Ca, Mg, Mn mediante precipitación como sulfatos insolubles.

  9. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Mexico presents econometric investigation of the cyclical determinants of remittances to Mexico. The aggregate U.S. business cycle is not necessarily relevant for remittances. Remittances to Mexico do show a significant relationship with employment conditions in certain regions of the United States. Employment conditions in the U.S. construction sector seem to be especially important as well as remittances for certain regions of Mexico with high rates of emigrati...

  10. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper is a wide-ranging survey of the conditions for, and obstacles to, the growth in Mexico. It frames the issue of Mexico’s growth record, and presents the paper’s prior assumptions and approach. It highlights the main observations and conclusions emerging from the survey of growth conditions in Mexico. It also presents an overview of remittances in Mexico, motivated by their recent increase and possible macroeconomic implications.

  11. Behavior patterns of chemical and isotopic species (2006-2007) in the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, as a response to reinjection; Patrones de comportamiento de especies quimicas e isotopicas (2006-2007) en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., en respuesta a la reinyeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Martinez E, Ignacio; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Reyes D, Lisette; Gonzalez, Rubi [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Chemical and isotopic ({delta}18 O y {delta}D) data from the Los Azufres geothermal field fluids for 2006 and 2007 were analyzed to investigate changes in their behavior patterns and their relation to reinjection. Total discharge chlorides, reservoir temperatures, excess steam in well feeding fluids, CO{sub 2} concentrations at reservoir and total discharge conditions, and liquid saturations were calculated. Contour lines of certain parameters were obtained for 2006 and 2007 to relate them to the contours obtained for 2005 and to the reinjection histories. Fluid isotopic compositions, including injection fluids, were correlated to estimate fluid mixing effects between the reservoir and reinjection fluids. Results suggest chemical parameters respond to the mass flow rate injected and to the isotopic composition of injection fluids. {delta}D vs {delta}18 O relationships show a number of wells produce different proportions of reinjection returns. In the northern zone, wells AZ-65D, AZ-13, AZ-32, AZ-9A, AZ-9AD, AZ-28A, AZ-69D and AZ-44 produce relatively high proportions, while wells AZ-5, AZ-28 and AZ-19, among others, produce lower proportions. Wells AZ-2A, AZ-16AD, AZ-46 and AZ-33 from the southern field zone produce higher proportions of reinjection returns while wells AZ-34, AZ-36 and AZ-37 produce lower proportions. The liquid saturation distribution in 2007 shows the maximum saturation zones have decreased compared with 2005 and 2006 data. In 2007, maximum liquid saturations were found around wells AZ-22 and AZ-23 (southern zone) and AZ-28, AZ-32, AZ-45 and AZ-48 (northern zone). Minimum saturations were found around wells AZ-6 and AZ-16 (southern zone) and AZ-56 (northern zone). The CO{sub 2} levels for the reservoir liquid were used to trace paths of reinjection fluids, considering these fluids are depleted in this gas. Thus the minimum CO{sub 2} contour lines indicate the movement of the reinjection fluids in the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos

  12. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  13. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Yglesias-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la proclividad de las poblaciones aledañas de desarrollar síntomas respiratorios ante las exposiciones vía aérea de dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba. La investigación consistió en un estudio transversal, descriptivo, analítico y cuantitativo. Se trabajó con ocho comunidades, y se obtuvo una muestra de 502 personas. Las comunidades estudiadas fueron: Hacienda La Fuente, La Central, La Silvia, Miravalles, Finca El Retiro, Guayabo Arriba, Las Virtudes y La Alegría. Esta última fue la comunidad control. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la garganta cuando hay exposición a gases volcánicos fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,93, mujeres (OR=1,86, personas que emplean varios tipos de cocina (OR=2,07, individuos con ocupaciones al aire libre (OR=1,51 y personas con ingresos iguales o mayores a los USD $475 (OR=2,09. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la nariz fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,37, mujeres (OR=1,83, personas que emplean cocina eléctrica (OR=2,23, individuos con ocupaciones dentro de edificaciones (2,12 y personas con ingresos inferiores a los USD $475 (OR=2,30.

  14. Real Time View of the Functions and Services of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Inostroza Puk, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) is integrated since March 2012 by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO) that started its services in 2003. SASMEX consists of 97 field seismic sensor station (FS) type triaxial accelerometer, mostly sponsored by the government of Mexico City and secondly by Oaxaca. The SASMEX covers the Pacific seismic hazard among the coast of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca; and the seismic region of Puebla and northern Oaxaca and Guerrero states. This integration lets to warn with better opportunity to the population of Mexico City, Oaxaca Oax., Acapulco Gro., Chilpancingo Gro. and recently Morelia Mich.; cities with a system called EASAS where receives seismic data from FS and emits earthquake early warning signals to the population. The recent sponsorship of Federal Government through the General Coordination of Civil Protection and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, reinforced integration SAS and SASO, and auspiced the development of a Real-Time Monitoring System of functions and services of SASMEX. This work show how is displayed the functions of services of SASMEX through this monitoring system and its possible application by Civil Protection authorities. This monitoring system can indicate the status of FS, the communications system and cities with EASAS. Additionally, when an earthquake occurs and is detected by the SASMEX, the monitoring system shows the messages of FS, whose consist in the characteristics of detection and seismic danger forecasted; in the case of a strong earthquake estimated by more than one FS, the EASAS of each city could automatically issue an Alert Public to its population. The monitoring system allows observing cities with EASAS that activate their alerts, displays a basic earthquake propagation model and how it reaches to other FS. Additionally, the monitoring system shows the

  15. Modelo de tratamiento en ingeniería ortoconductual para la resocialización penitenciaria: Propuesta para Michoacán, México/Treatment model in ortoconductual engineering for prison resocialization: Proposal for Michoacan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Salgado García

    2015-01-01

    The study of offenders requires a multidisciplinary intervention because it is a multifactorial phenomenon; resulting logical offender treatment resulting from a variety of analysis by the ortoconductual Engineering, which in its application Ortoconducta strategies, involving various sciences and scientific disciplines in charge of the study of behavior (from different areas), criminology, psychology, psychiatry, andragogy, pedagogy, sociology, philosophy, neurophysiology and endocrinology, t...

  16. Modelo de tratamiento en ingeniería ortoconductual para la resocialización penitenciaria: Propuesta para Michoacán, México/Treatment model in ortoconductual engineering for prison resocialization: Proposal for Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Salgado García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of offenders requires a multidisciplinary intervention because it is a multifactorial phenomenon; resulting logical offender treatment resulting from a variety of analysis by the ortoconductual Engineering, which in its application Ortoconducta strategies, involving various sciences and scientific disciplines in charge of the study of behavior (from different areas, criminology, psychology, psychiatry, andragogy, pedagogy, sociology, philosophy, neurophysiology and endocrinology, to name just a few, which are complement to the same end: The social reintegration. Our prison system is aimed at crime prevention (secondary prevention, which must be achieved rehabilitate the offender, later to reintegrate into the community.

  17. Organic beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador V.; Vandame, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t).

  18. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper considers the “informal sector†in Mexico. In Mexico and many other countries, the informal sector represents a large share of total employment. The paper reviews the literature on informality, with special focus on findings for Mexico, and develops a theoretical model that highlights the importance of externalities and the distortion associated with the informal sector. The analysis provides insight into the kinds of policy measures that might sustainably reduce...

  19. Organic Beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador; Gänz, Peter; Vandame, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t). Two condit...

  20. Competition Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Estrada Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    The CFC faces significant challenges from cartel activity, prevailing regulatory restrictions on competition, and exclusionary practices undertaken by some of the most powerful corporations in Mexico.

  1. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  2. Characterization of archaeological pieces from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico with nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was used the technique of Neutron Activation Analysis to characterize obsidian samples and of archaeological ceramic coming from the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico; and samples of clay of three banks bordering to the site. The characterization of the ceramic, was complemented with the analysis of pastes (cooked clay) and pigments, with the techniques of X ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). With the technique of NAA was determined the concentration of 13 elements (Eu,Ce,Lu, Yb, U, Th, Sb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Co and La) in 44 obsidian samples, in some of them were also determined Na, K and Mn. The analysis of the data, with different techniques of multivariable analysis, indicated that the obsidian comes from three locations that are: Sierra de las Navajas in the Estado de Hidalgo, Zinaparo and Zinapecuaro, both located in the Estado de Michoacan. On the other hand, in the ceramic samples and local clay 19 elements were measured (Sm, Nd, Ce, Lu, Eu, Yb, U, Th, Tb, Cr, Hf, As, Sb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Co and La). The statistical analysis of the data revealed differences in the elementary composition of the samples, being three main groups that in accordance with the archaeological classification they correspond to the ceramic types: local, foreign and regional. By means of the determination of the elementary composition of the local clays was possible to identify the local ceramic. These results are confirmed with those of the study of XRD, in the one which were observed differences in the mineralogical composition among these three groups. (Author)

  3. Mexico Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally

    2008-01-01

    As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.

  4. Comparison between two plant nitrogen and sulphur determination methods: impact on wheat sulphur diagnostics Comparación de métodos de determinación de nitrógeno y azufre en planta: implicancia en el diagnóstico de azufre en trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel I Reussi Calvo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen and sulphur ratio (N:S in plants is often used as a sulphur diagnostics tool in wheat. This ratio requires two different analyses results for its calculation, and thus involves two sources of analytical error. The objective of this work was to compare the accuracy and reliability of the Dumas dry combustion method for N and S determination in plant, compared to traditional methods of wet digestion, and its use as a sulphur diagnostics tool in wheat. The N and S determination was carried out in wheat plant samples from four experiments carried out in the 2006 growing season in the southwestern Buenos Aires province. A highly significant correlation was obtained between both methods (r = 0.99 and r = 0.74 for N and S, respectively. The quantity of N recuperated by the Dumas method was not significantly different to the Kjeldahl method, however, the reliability of the former was higher (low variability coefficient. The method of turbidimetry with wet digestion underestimated (20% the sulphur concentration compared to the Dumas method. Moreover, the sulphur percent recovered from standard samples was 83 % and 96 % for the turbidimetry and Dumas methods, respectively. The underestimation of plant sulphur concentration by the turbidimetry method resulted in a low percentage of samples correctly diagnosed (25, 18.7 and 50% for Z22, Z24 and Z31, respectively. However, the percent of samples correctly diagnosed was high by the Dumas method (94, 94 and 100% for Z22, Z24 and Z31, respectively. The results of this work indicate that the reliability of the N:S ratio is limited by the S analysis accuracy. On the other hand, the N recovery for both methods was similar.La relación nitrógeno (N: azufre (S total es utilizada frecuentemente para el diagnóstico de deficiencias de S en trigo. Para determinar este índice es necesario la realización de dos análisis diferentes, y por lo tanto, es afectada por dos errores analíticos. El objetivo fue

  5. Aplicación de diferentes fuentes de azufre en soya (Glycine max (L. Merrill en tres ordenes de suelos del Valle del río Cauca, Colombia, en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez L. Jairo A.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron cuatro fuentes portadoras de S (sulfato de amonio, yeso, ácido sulfúrico y azufre micronizado en dosis de 20 y 40 kg de S/ha, aplicado en pre y al momento de la siembra , en tres órdenes de suelos (Vertisol, Inceptisol y Entisol del Valle geográfico del río Cauca, con la variedad ICA Tunía, como cultivo indicador. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por bolsas de polietileno con dos kilos de suelo seco al aire, utilizando el horizonte Ap. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar, el diseño de tratamientos fueron dos factoriales entrelazados con dos tratamientos adicionales, testigo absoluto (To, testigo comercial (Te. Este llevó fertilización basal con N, P, K, y doce tratamientos con fertilización basal más S (N, P, K +S. Al período de floración se cuantificó peso de materia seca, peso de nódulos, % S, % N Y N/S, a final de cosecha se determinó en el grano de soya % S, % N, N/ S, número de vainas, de granos, peso seco de grano y % de aceite. Los tres suelos respondieron a la fertilización de S. La fuente que presentó diferencias significativas con mayor incremento en producción de grano de soya, fue el azufre micronizado, en la dosis de 20 kg S/ha aplicado con anterioridad a la siembra.In order to fertilize, four sources of sulphur, ammonicum sulfate, gyppum, sulfuric acid and micronized sulphur, were used. Sulphur dose of 20 and 40 kg per hectare were applied before sowing and at the seeding moment, on three soils orders (Vertisol, Inceptisol and Entisol of the geographic Valley of the Cauca river, with the soybeam variety ICA Tunía. The experimental units were made of polyethilen bags with two kilograms of air dry soil, using the Ap. horizon. The experimental design was completyly ramdom. The treatment designs were two factorial s interlaced with two additional treatments, absolute indicator (To commercial indicator (Te. This carried basal fertilization with N, P, K and twelve treatments with

  6. Disponibilidad de agua, nitrógeno y azufre en barbechos con y sin control de malezas en distintos niveles de residuos Water, nitrogen and sulphur availability in fallows with and without weed control and different residue levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de los residuos vegetales sobre la eficiencia de almacenamiento de agua, la dinámica de nitrógeno y azufre disponible durante el barbecho con y sin presencia de malezas, se realizaron 10 ensayos con distintos niveles de residuos (A: 10.000 kg MS ha-1, M: 5.000 kg MS ha-1, B: menor a 2.000 kg MS ha-1 en Haplustoles de las regiones planicie con tosca y planicie medanosa de La Pampa y Sur de Córdoba. En cada tratamiento de residuos se dividieron las parcelas en dos subtratamientos de manejo de malezas: tratamiento con malezas (malezas y sin malezas (barbecho. Se realizaron determinaciones de: textura, densidad aparente, punto de marchitez permanente, materia orgánica total. Al inicio y al final del barbecho se midió el contenido de agua en el suelo, nitratos (N, azufre de sulfatos solubles y adsorbidos (S en 0-0,2 m de profundidad. Al comienzo del barbecho todos los sitios presentaron altos contenidos de agua útil (entre 51 y 100%. A pesar de ello, nuestros resultados mostraron que al finalizar el barbecho el nivel de residuos tuvo un efecto positivo en los contenidos de agua con una diferencia entre A y B de 33%. Con presencia de las malezas, no se pudo comprobar una ventaja por parte de los residuos y la diferencia entre A y B fue de 10%. El factor que más influyó en los contenidos de agua fue la presencia de malezas. Los contenidos de N y de S disponible no fueron influenciados por los distintos niveles de residuos, constatándose un mayor efecto de malezas. En el tratamiento con malezas se vería comprometida la siembra del cultivo de girasol por menor disponibilidad de agua y además se afectaría el rendimiento en 200 kg ha-1 por la menor disponibilidad de N y en 600 kg ha-1 por menor disponibilidad de S disponible en el nivel A de residuos.In order to study the effect of crop residues on the efficiency of water storage, available nitrogen and sulphate dynamics during fallow with and without weed

  7. Análisis de las concentraciones de azufre en agua, alimento y gas sulfúrico ruminal de rebaños bovinos de carne de las regiones de La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos de Chile Determination of sulphur contents in water, forage and ruminal hydrogen sulphide concentrations in beef cattle herds from La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El azufre es un macroelemento esencial en rumiantes. Niveles elevados de azufre y sulfatos consumidos por rumiantes a través de las plantas, agua y otros alimentos pueden reducir el apetito y la tasa de crecimiento en los animales, afectar la absorción de otros elementos y causar afecciones respiratorias y/o neurológicas. El propósito de este estudio fue medir los niveles de azufre en la dieta, analizando las praderas (3 muestras por predio y el agua (1 muestra por predio en 45 predios dedicados a la producción de carne, de las regiones de La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos de Chile durante los períodos de primavera 2008 y verano 2009. Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron muestras de gas ruminal de 5 animales por predio, muestreándose un total de 225 animales por período. Posteriormente, se analizaron las diferencias en las concentraciones de azufre en agua y pradera y H2S en gas ruminal de los predios provenientes de las zonas de la costa, depresión intermedia y precordillera. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las concentraciones promedios de azufre en la pradera fueron de 1.482 ± 592 ppm y de 1.472,1 ± 448 ppm en el periodo primavera y verano respectivamente, no evidenciándose diferencias significativas. La concentración de azufre en agua fue de 1,12 ± 0,1 y 1,14 ± 0,09 ppm durante el período de primavera y de verano, respectivamente. Los resultados de los análisis por región y zona geográfica (costa, depresión intermedia y precordillera no mostraron diferencias significativas. La concentración de H2S en gas ruminal en los animales en estudio fueron de 273,1 ± 187,5 y de 245,4 ± 180 ppm en primavera y en verano, respectivamente. El análisis de correlación entre variables indicó una asociación positiva entre los niveles de azufre en alimento y H2S en gas ruminal para el período de primavera y verano. El consumo promedio total de azufre estimado considerando las fuentes de pradera y agua en 45 predios durante ambos per

  8. Census Snapshot: New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in New Mexico. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in New Mexico. In many ways, the more than 6,000 same-sex couples living in New Mexico are similar to married couple...

  9. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes external shocks and business cycle fluctuations in Mexico. The paper examines the relative importance of U.S. demand shocks—and other foreign disturbances—in explaining Mexican output fluctuations. It identifies the dynamic response of Mexico’s output to those shocks. The paper investigates which U.S. variables are most relevant to explaining business cycles in Mexico. It analyses potential spillovers and channels of transmission underlying the linkag...

  10. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes reserve adequacy in Mexico. Reserve adequacy has been of renewed interest, as the authorities have introduced a new rules-based mechanism of U.S. dollar sales to reduce the rate of reserve accumulation. The paper examines the recent experience with Mexico’s fiscal management tools in light of the need for further consolidation. It reviews evidence on the cyclical behavior of fiscal policy in Mexico, finding that it has generally been procyclical since the...

  11. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes reforms to Mexico’s fiscal framework. Mexico’s resilient economic performance would be consolidated by increasing fiscal policy buffers and preparing for challenges associated with long-term budget pressures. In the short term, reducing public debt levels can create space to implement countercyclical fiscal policies and reduce exposure to high financing and hedging costs, which would protect Mexico’s credit rating at times of distress. The paper highl...

  12. Chemical and isotopic study of thermal springs and gas discharges from Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nencetti, A; Tassi, F; Vaselli, O [Department of Earth Sciences, Florence (Italy); Macias, J. L [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Magro, G [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Capaccioni, B [Institute of Volcanology and Geochemistry, Urbino (Italy); Minissale, A [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Florence (Italy); Mora, J. C [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    Thermal water and gas discharges south-east of El Chichon volcano, Mexico are associated mainly with NW-SE oriented fault systems. Spring discharges include i) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS>3000 mg/L; ii) waters with Ca-SO{sub 4} composition and TDS values between 1400 and 2300 mg/L; iii) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS of 800 to 2400 mg/L and sulphate content up to 650 mg/L and iv) waters with Ca-HCO{sub 3} composition and low salinity (TDS <250mg/L). Most of these waters are associated with free-gas discharges of N{sub 2} (up to 93 % by vol.), CO{sub 2} (2.4 to 31.2 % by vol.) and Ar (up to 1.25 % by vol.) with a predominant meteoric origin. H{sub 2}S is present only in gas samplers collected at El Azufre (up to 1.1 % by vol.). The {delta}13C CO{sub 2} values are always below -9.7% (PDB) and suggest a partially biogenic origin for CO{sub 2}. Chemical and isotopic features of spring discharges indicate that fluid circulation in the Sierra de Chiapas is mainly regulated by meteoric waters that tend to infiltrate the upper and middle-Cretaceous carbonate units up to the lower Cretaceous-upper Jurassic evaporitic formations (by Lopez-Ramos, 1982). The latter provide the main source of the species in solution. No evidence for high-to-medium enthalpy systems at depth beneath the Sierra de Chiapas has been found. [Spanish] La Sierra de Chiapas localizada en el Sureste de Mexico, se caracteriza por la presencia de descargas de gas y agua. La mayoria de los manantiales termales se asocian a rocas volcanicas Terciarias a lo largo de fallas regionales con orientacion NOSE. Las descargas termales se dividen en cuatro grupos: i) aguas con composicion Na-Cl y Solidos Disueltos Totales (SDT) >3000 mg/L; ii) aguas con composicion Ca-SO{sub 4} y valores de SDT entre 1400 y 2300 mg/L; iii) aguas con composicion Na-Cl, bajos contenidos de SDT (800 2400 mg/L) y un contenido de sulfato alto (hasta 650 mg/L) y iv) aguas con una composicion Ca-HCO{sub 3} y salinidad baja

  13. 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  14. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  15. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  16. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  17. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico. PMID:12028953

  18. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  19. Privatization in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Alberto; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Mexico redefined the role of the state in its economy through an ambitious program to liberalize trade, promote efficiency and reduce the size and scope of the state-owned sector. In Mexico, privatization led to a significant improvement in firm performance, as profitability increased 24 percentage points and converged to levels similar to those of private firms. From this increase, at most 5 percent can be attributed to higher prices and 31 percent to transfers from w...

  20. Mexico; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the global crisis and potential growth in Mexico. The paper uses two methodologies to assess to what extent the global crisis is likely to weigh on Mexico’s growth potential. The first approach is sectoral, examining the historical relationship between financial stress and growth in manufacturing industries. The second approach uses a growth-accounting framework to take a closer look at likely developments in the factors that drive potential growth. The p...

  1. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Mexico’s growth process in trend and cyclical factors, with implications for policy decisions, is discussed. Mexico’s trade integration has been important for growth. But the high export growth experienced has been followed by a more muted performance. Reforms to improve productivity are important to sustain export dynamism. Fiscal credibility, underpinned by prudent fiscal management and a strong fiscal framework, permitted a countercyclical fiscal response during the global crisis. Howe...

  2. REDD+ i Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leithoff Christensen, Anneliese; Bondo Vester, Rasmus; Q. Madsen, Camilla Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Mexico joined the REDD+ program (Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) in 2010, and has since worked on the design of a national strategy to be implemented in the country. Through ACF's theoretical perspective, we analyze advocacy coalitions and belief systems of the actors in the subsystem in the design of Mexico's REDD+ national strategy. All coalitions in the subsystem share a deep core belief that REDD+ as vision has the potential to tackle deforestation problems. ...

  3. Poverty alleviation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Santiago

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of poverty in Mexico. Its four objectives are to : i) present evidence; ii) analyze economic determinants; iii) discuss policy options; and iv) assess existing poverty programs. The author begins by giving a very brief discussion of recent economic events, as these set the stage for poverty programs in the 1990's. The paper goes on to discuss the concept of poverty measurement. The author presents evidence of the extent of poverty in Mexico. He aims at...

  4. Azufre Elemental como Corrector del pH y la Fertilidad de Alfunos Suelos de la III y IV Región de Chile Elemental Sulphur as pH and Soil Fertility Amendment for Some Chileans Soils of Regions III and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sierra B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En los suelos de la zona norte de Chile existen suelos con carbonatos, situación que influye sobre la disponibilidad de nutrientes para los cultivos. En el presente experimento se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio, el efecto de la aplicación de azufre elemental sobre el pH, conductividad eléctrica y micronutrientes en seis suelos de la III y IV Región, Chile. El azufre se aplicó en dosis de 500 y 1000 mg S° kg-1, y el suelo se incubó por períodos de 60 y 120 días a 80% de su capacidad de campo a 25°C. El experimento se estableció con un diseño de tratamientos completamente al azar con arreglo factorial, donde los factores fueron: suelo, dosis de azufre elemental y tiempo de incubación. Los recipientes en incubación se distribuyeron de acuerdo a un diseño completamente al azar. Las características de los suelos que más influyeron sobre la magnitud del efecto acidificante del azufre elemental fueron los contenidos de CaCO3, materia orgánica y arena. Las reducciones de pH significativas se presentaron en los suelos con una menor capacidad tampón, como consecuencia del menor contenido de CaCO3 y materia orgánica. La conductividad eléctrica se incrementó por la aplicación del azufre elemental, debido al aumento de sales solubles en el suelo. Los niveles de los micronutrientes Fe, Mn y Cu se incrementaron en los suelos cuyos pH disminuyeron significativamente, siendo el Mn el más influenciado por la acidificación. Esta información es de utilidad para establecer programas de aplicación de enmiendas en suelos calcáreos de la zona norte de ChileSoils containing calcite are common in Northern Chile, and this condition decreases the availability of nutrients for plants. The effect of the application of elemental sulphur (S° was evaluated on soil pH, electrical conductivity and the available micronutrients content in six soils of the III and IV Regions of Chile. This was applied in doses of 500 and 1000 mg S° kg-1 and the

  5. Characterization of archaeological pieces from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico with nuclear and conventional techniques; Caracterizacion de piezas arqueologicas provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con tecnicas nucleares y convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G

    2003-07-01

    In this work was used the technique of Neutron Activation Analysis to characterize obsidian samples and of archaeological ceramic coming from the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico; and samples of clay of three banks bordering to the site. The characterization of the ceramic, was complemented with the analysis of pastes (cooked clay) and pigments, with the techniques of X ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). With the technique of NAA was determined the concentration of 13 elements (Eu,Ce,Lu, Yb, U, Th, Sb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Co and La) in 44 obsidian samples, in some of them were also determined Na, K and Mn. The analysis of the data, with different techniques of multivariable analysis, indicated that the obsidian comes from three locations that are: Sierra de las Navajas in the Estado de Hidalgo, Zinaparo and Zinapecuaro, both located in the Estado de Michoacan. On the other hand, in the ceramic samples and local clay 19 elements were measured (Sm, Nd, Ce, Lu, Eu, Yb, U, Th, Tb, Cr, Hf, As, Sb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Co and La). The statistical analysis of the data revealed differences in the elementary composition of the samples, being three main groups that in accordance with the archaeological classification they correspond to the ceramic types: local, foreign and regional. By means of the determination of the elementary composition of the local clays was possible to identify the local ceramic. These results are confirmed with those of the study of XRD, in the one which were observed differences in the mineralogical composition among these three groups. (Author)

  6. Impacto en la salud ambiental por efecto de emisiones de dióxido de azufre del Volcán Arenal, en la población de la Fortuna de San Carlos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Alvarado Zeledón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las emisiones de dióxido de azufre (SO2del volcán Arenal representan un riesgo para la salud ambiental en La Fortuna. Se realizó un análisis teórico de las diferentes variaciones en las concentraciones de SO2 del volcán, con posible impacto a la salud de sus pobladores. Estudios teóricos sobre emisión y dispersión de gases volcánicos, así como su impacto potencial a la salud en el país, han sido realizados en 1999 por Morales &Liao (1. Material y métodos: Basados en datos de máxima emisión de SO2 del Arenal (1, se presumen escenarios de diferentes volúmenes de emisión de SO2, a diferentes velocidades de salida, y aplicados a las diferentes clases de condiciones atmosféricas. Para determinar el mecanismo de dispersión del SO2 y sus concentraciones en La Fortuna, se utilizó el modelo Gaussiano con cálculo de penacho y dispersión horizontal a nivel de piso. Resultados: Emisiones de SO2 con caudales inferiores a 190 ton/día no representan riesgo para la salud humana en La Fortuna. Emisiones superiores a 800 ton/día, con velocidades de salida superiores a 40 km/h provocan concentraciones de SO2 cercanas a los 365 µg/m³, (máxima concentración para un período de 24 horas de exposición, para atmósferas tipo A y B. Emisiones de SO2 mayores a 12.000 ton/día, en atmósferas tipos A y B, alcanzan concentraciones entre 1.417 µg/m³ y 4.869 µg/m³. Discusión y conclusiones: Emisiones de SO2 superiores a 800 ton/día, implican un riesgo a la salud de los pobladores de La Fortuna, incluyendo características fatales. Se recomienda implementar monitoreos constantes de las emisiones de SO2, para tomar medidas de protección en La Fortuna en caso de emisiones iguales o mayores a 800 ton/día.

  7. Rock magnetic properties of southern Mexico beach sands. Implications for homing and nesting of marine black turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. It has long been suggested that marine turtles may use parameters of the earth's magnetic field for open ocean navigation and to broadly locate their natal beaches. Accurate location may then require short-range indicators, perhaps including magnetic cues to refine geographical position once within their natal areas. It remains however uncertain whether natal beaches indeed display short-range magnetic features. Here we present initial results on the characterization of nesting and non-nesting beaches in terms of magnetic properties of their sands. The coast of Michoacan, southern Mexico constitutes one of the main nesting areas of the marine black turtle Chelonia agassizi and we evaluate and compare magnetic features of non-natal (La Ticla and La Llorona) and natal beaches (Colola and Maruata). Values of inclination, declination, total intensity and vertical intensity of the earth's magnetic field are lower for Colola and Maruata than for La Ticla and La Llorona. Horizontal intensity is higher for Colola and Maruata. Secular variation rates for all beaches studied are similar. Analyses of magnetic and geological charts reveal presence of magnetic anomalies with values above 350 nanoTeslas for Maruata beach, associated with a large intrusive body that supplies ferromagnetic sediments rich in magnetite to Maruata. Sand samples of Maruata display the highest values of natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic hysteresis parameters allow further characterization of magnetic environments among and within nesting and non-nesting beaches. These features might have implications for nest selection in the context of magnetic orientation mechanisms.

  8. New Mexico Voting Precincts (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Voting Precinct Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage...

  9. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  10. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  11. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  12. Humboldt's works on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Leitner

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in Spanish and English. Humboldt wrote about Mexico from the perspective of a scientific explorer and naturalist. His works include his diaries, the Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne, the Tablas géograficas, the Vues des Cordillères and a geographic atlas. Concerning the scientific aspect, the lack of a section on Mexico in the Relation historique is not a real deficit, since this can be found in the Essai. But only the diaries and letters from the journey, both published by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Research Centre, Berlin, can be considered an adequate substitute.The following will show the origin of Humboldt's writings on Mexico, offer historical and bibliographical facts and present the publications "Beiträge zur Alexander von Humboldt-Forschung", as well as Humboldt’s handwritten estate as far as they are available to us.

  13. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the sources of Mexico’s economic growth since the 1960s, and compares various decompositions of historical growth into trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflation process is assessed. The paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative productivity growth rates. The paper also describes the significant steps Mexico has taken to strengthen the structure of its public debt in recent years, both in terms ...

  14. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    Mexico is an open economy with strong real and financial links to the rest of the world with risks of spillovers from global turbulence. Recent gains in market share in the U.S. manufacturing market are owed to improved relative unit labor costs and reemergence of a location advantage. Mexico’s current fiscal framework requires measures to offset the emerging challenges of a decline in oil revenues and the projected increase in health- and pensions-related spending. The sustained increase o...

  15. Firearms in New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, S. Z.; Gallaher, M M; Baron, R C; Watson, M E; Sewell, C M

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of firearm ownership and storage practices in New Mexico, we did a random-digit-dialing survey of New Mexico residents in October 1991. Of 200 households surveyed, 79 (40%) had 1 or more firearms in the home. Rural households were more likely than urban households to have firearms (44% versus 30%), and households with annual incomes of greater than $25,000 were more likely to have a firearm than households with incomes of $25,000 or less (41% versus 33%). Household...

  16. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  17. New Mexico's Challenge 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert M.; And Others

    This report presents a comprehensive strategy developed by the New Mexico Education Technology Planning Committee to maximize resources in educational technology to achieve the long-range goals adopted for education in the state. Four basic strategies are recommended: (1) to forge relationships between schools and businesses, and partnerships…

  18. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  19. Mexico Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This note presents an overview of Mexico's forthcoming reform agenda-from the World Bank's vantage point. It distills the main messages in the policy notes that make up this compendium. The purpose is not to provide definitive answers to the many policy questions likely to occupy the New Mexican administration, or to provide a comprehensive account of progress to date and policy recommenda...

  20. Electroacoustic Music in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Sigal

    2010-01-01

    Mexico has been an outsider to the electroacoustic music movement. Countries likeArgentina, Cuba and Chile were pioneers in establishing electronic music centers in thecontinent. This texts aim to illustrate briefly the story behind the first initiatives in Mexicoandthe actual situation and characteristics of the institutional electroacoustic music scene.

  1. Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala-Castro, Jorge E.; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar F.; Uicab, Justo E. Sulú

    2009-01-01

    The detection of Rickettsia akari in 2 human patients increased the diversity of rickettsioses affecting the public health in the southeast of Mexico. Rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis with other febrile illnesses for the correct diagnosis and accurate treatment of this potential threat to human health.

  2. Fast Identification of Near-Trench Earthquakes Along the Mexican Subduction Zone Based on Characteristics of Ground Motion in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Arroyo, D.; Rodríguez, Q.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-12-01

    The disastrous 1985 Michoacan earthquake gave rise to a seismic alert system for Mexico City which became operational in 1991. Initially limited to earthquakes along the Guerrero coast, the system now has a much wider coverage. Also, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake exposed the need for a tsunami early warning along the Mexican subduction zone. A fast identification of near-trench earthquakes along this zone may be useful in issuing a reliable early tsunami alert. The confusion caused by low PGA for the magnitude of an earthquake, leading to "missed" seismic alert, would be averted if its near-trench origin can be quickly established. It may also help reveal the spatial extent and degree of seismic coupling on the near-trench portion of the plate interface. This would lead to a better understanding of tsunami potential and seismic hazard along the Mexican subduction zone. We explore three methods for quick detection of near-trench earthquakes, testing them on recordings of 65 earthquakes at station CU in Mexico City (4.8 ≤Mw≤8.0; 270≤R≤615 km). The first method is based on the ratio of total to high-frequency energy, ER (Shapiro et al., 1998). The second method is based on parameter Sa*(6) which is the pseudo-acceleration response spectrum with 5% damping, Sa, at 6 s normalized by the PGA. The third parameter is the PGA residual, RESN, at CU, with respect to a newly-derived ground motion prediction equation at CU for coastal shallow-dipping thrust earthquakes following a bayesian approach. Since the near-trench earthquakes are relatively deficient in high-frequency radiation, we expect ER and Sa*(6) to be relatively large and RESN to be negative for such events. Tests on CU recordings show that if ER ≥ 100 and/or Sa*(6) ≥ 0.70, then the earthquake is near trench; for these events RESN ≤ 0. Such an event has greater tsunami potential. Few misidentifications and missed events are most probably a consequence of poor location, although unusual depth and source

  3. Distribución de nitrógeno, fósforo y azufre en un cultivo de colza: efectos sobre el ciclado de nutrientes Distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in oilseed rape: effects on nutrient cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rubio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparado con otros cultivos, la colza tiene una alta demanda de azufre (S por lo que sería esperable que la inclusión de este cultivo en la rotación agrícola acelere el agotamiento de este nutriente en los suelos de las áreas cultivadas. En este trabajo, se comparan los patrones de partición de biomasa, S, nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P en plantas maduras de colza. La información a obtener es relevante desde el punto de vista del ciclado de nutrientes. Para ello se realizó un experimento de campo que se ajustó a un arreglo factorial con dos factores (N y S. En el momento de la cosecha, se midió la acumulación de biomasa, N, P y S en tres compartimientos: granos, rastrojo (resto de parte aérea y raíces. Aunque el rendimiento fue afectado levemente por la adición individual de N o S, la simultánea adición de ambos nutrientes provocó un incremento del 56%. El N y el P presentaron una distribución semejante entre los órganos de la planta estudiados, sin embargo, el S difirió marcadamente de ambos. Su partición al órgano que se exporta (granos fue de menor magnitud que la observada para N y P. En cambio, su partición al rastrojo en pie fue mayor. Esta característica atenuaría los efectos de la alta demanda de S sobre la exportación del cultivo y permitiría una reutilización del fertilizante agregado por el cultivo siguiente.Oilseed rape poses a higher sulfur (S demand, compared to other crops. This may indicate that the inclusion of this crop in the crop rotation could accelerate soil S depletion. In this work, we compared the allocation of biomass, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and S in oilseed rape mature plants. Two factors were analyzed in a field experiment: nitrogen and sulphur (two levels for each factor. At harvest, we measured the accumulation of biomass, N, P and S in three compartments: roots, straw and grains. Yield was little affected by the addition of single nutrients but the simultaneous addition of N and S

  4. Fertilización con azufre en el cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. para la industria en el Sudeste Bonaerense Effect of sulfur fertilization on potato for the processing industry in southeastern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Giletto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los incrementos en los rendimientos de los últimos años aumentaron la demanda de azufre (S en papa y los niveles de materia orgánica en el suelo han bajado. Estos factores podrían favorecer la aparición de deficiencias de S. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de la fertilización con S en papa para la industria en el sudeste bonaerense. Se realizaron dos ensayos (Sitio 1 y 2 con tres dosis de S: S0 (testigo; S10 (10 kg S ha-1 y S20 (20 kg S ha-1. La producción de materia seca total y la cantidad de S acumulado en planta no fueron afectadas por la aplicación de S. La relación N:S total disminuyó a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo en ambos sitios y fue inferior al umbral crítico de 15:1 e indicó que el cultivo no presentó deficiencias de S. El rendimiento, la concentración de S y la relación N:S en los tubérculos no fueron afectados por el agregado de S en ningún sitios. La cantidad máxima de S acumulado en los tubérculos a cosecha fue en promedio de 18,8 y 14,2 kg ha-1 en el Sitio 1 y 2; respectivamente, mientras que los aportes de S por la aplicación de funguicida y del agua de riego alcanzaron valores de 14 y 17 kg ha-1, respectivamente. A partir del balance de masa de S se determinó que el S residual fue el principal destino del nutriente en el sistema suelo-planta. Se recomienda conocer los aportes de S en los funguicidas y en el agua de riego al diseñar un plan de fertilización con S en papa.In recent years, sulfur (S requirements in potato crops have been increasing due to increasing yields. Soil organic matter contents have been decreasing in Southeastern Buenos Aires thereby limiting the capacity of the soils in this area to meet the higher requirements. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of S fertilization on potato for the processing industry in southeastern Buenos Aires. Two experiments were carried out (Site 1 and 2 involving three different S rates: S0 (control, S

  5. Respuesta a nitrógeno y azufre en el cultivo de maíz en diferentes ambientes de la Provincia de Buenos Aires Corn response to nitrogen and sulfur under different environments in the Province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Pagani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El nitrógeno (N y el azufre (S son nutrientes de gran relevancia para el cultivo de maíz en la Región Pampeana. Sin embargo, no existe suficiente evidencia bibliográfica que analice el efecto de la aplicación de ambos nutrientes y de su interacción, sobre la respuesta en grano, la eficiencia de uso de N y S del fertilizante (EUFN y EUFS y la rentabilidad de la fertilización en el cultivo de maíz. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar: 1 el efecto de la aplicación de N y S sobre el rendimiento y la EUFN y EUFS y 2 la conveniencia económica de la fertilización en ambientes de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Dos experimentos en Balcarce (Bce I y Bce II y otros dos en 9 de Julio (9dJ I y 9dJ II fueron realizados durante las campañas 2005-06, 2006-07 y 2007-08 evaluando dosis de N y S. No se determinó interacción N-S para ninguna de las variables estudiadas. La aplicación de N incrementó los rendimientos (pNitrogen (N and sulfur (S are very important nutrients in corn production in the Pampas Region. However, there is not enough bibliographic evidence related to N and S effects and their interaction on grain yield response, N and S fertilizer use efficiency (EUFN and EUFS and the economic benefit of fertilizing with N and S. The objective of this work was to evaluate N and S application effects on corn grain yield, EUFN and EUFS, and the fertilization economic return under different environments in the province of Buenos Aires. Two experiments with different N and S rates were conducted at Balcarce (Bce I and Bce II and two at 9 de Julio (9dJ I and 9dJ II during 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007- 08. No N-S interactions were found in any studied variable. Nitrogen application increased grain yield (p<0.01 up to 32, 15, 54 y 72% at Bce I, Bce II, 9dJ I and 9dJ II, respectively; whereas S application increased grain yield at Bce II, 9dJ I and 9dJ II (p<0.05 (maximum responses of 11, 10 and 22%, respectively. The EUFN was not systematically

  6. U.S.-Mexico energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that while Mexico's petrochemical industry has grown rapidly, it now faces shortages both in investment funds and in supplies of basic petrochemicals due to a financial crisis in the 1980s. Mexico has undertaken a series of policy reforms aimed at encouraging foreign and private investment, but these efforts have generally failed to entice U.S. investment in Mexico. U.S. petrochemical companies have cited unfavorable market conditions, insufficient basic petrochemical capacity in Mexico, concern about the reversibility of Mexican reforms, inadequate Mexican protection of intellectual property rights, and lack of investment protection for U.S. businesses as impediments to investment in Mexico. Cooperation between the two nations in overcoming these obstacles could help U.S. petrochemical companies maintain their positions in a competitive global market, while at the same time provide Mexico with much needed capital investment and technological expertise

  7. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  8. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  9. A perspective from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mario Henry Rodríguez-

    2008-04-01

    As Binder et al. describe in their article in this issue of the Journal, most of the work of National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs) falls into the category of public goods. This is certainly true for the National Institute of Public Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica (INSP)) of Mexico. Our mission is to contribute to social equity by improving public health in Mexico and Latin America, through the generation of knowledge, innovation in health systems, and public health training. At INSP, we believe that public health is a collective responsibility and that the state has a primary role in promoting and protecting the population's health. Binder et al. have performed a service by drawing attention to the importance of NPHIs and the challenges associated with funding public goods functions. PMID:18368016

  10. ALARA development in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980's, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field

  11. Mexico and the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  12. Idle Youth in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael; Gutierrez Fierros, Carlos; Vargas M., J. Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The present study combines data from Mexico's employment surveys (Encuesta Nacional de Empleo and Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo) with the country's official statistics on murder rates to create a state-level panel data set covering the period 1995 to 2013. Including most of the common controls identified by the literature, the results show that the rate of male youth ages 19 to 2...

  13. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the impact of Mexico’s energy reform on hydrocarbons production. These reforms aim to increase oil and gas production by eliminating the state oil company’s (PEMEX) monopoly on exploration and production of hydrocarbons, while retaining the prime directive that these resources are the property of the Mexican nation. This paper focuses on the nature of reforms and what problems these reforms are addressing. It presents illustrative production scenarios f...

  14. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper assesses the potential financial vulnerabilities of the corporate sector in Mexico. It provides an overview of salient features of the Mexican corporate sector. The paper also presents the formal stress tests that estimate the potential effects of some macroeconomic and financial shocks, such as a sharp depreciation of the exchange rate, a sustained increase in interest rates, a slowdown in demand, and a prolonged international market closure on the corporate sector.

  15. Mexico's Fiscal Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 21, no.6, 1987. Refereed Journal Article Mexico's current crisis has its origins in a number of structural conditions that developed in the 1970s. This paper examines one of these structural impediments, the country's fiscal disequilibrium. An empirical analysis of the country's tax structure indicates that there is ample scope for major tax reforms geared to introducing more responsiveness into the country's tax collection system. Given t...

  16. Mexico environmental services project

    OpenAIRE

    Comisión Nacional Forestal (CONAFOR)

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The Mexico Environmental Services Project aims to improve water quality, biodiversity, and carbon sequestration from areas with globally significant biodiversity. Eight pilot sites will be chosen to overlap with existing high-priority biodiversity conservation areas. The project objectives will be met through "(i) strengthening the capacity of CONAFOR, INE, community associations, and NGOs to increase flexibility and improve efficiency of existing service provision to ...

  17. Inequality in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Prát, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    This thesis project has the aim of analysing the development of inequality in Mexico, income redistribution, and future possibilities of investment into the educational system. Human capital is one of the determinants of economic growth. Although human capital includes health, education, and social capital, the major focus of this diploma thesis is on education. Education becomes a suitability criterion for employment in all sectors of industry. Everyone is rewarded for exercising the knowled...

  18. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the scope and manner of regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Quantitative indicators on business regulations and their enforcement have been created for 12 cities and states, which can now be compared with Mexico City, and to 154 countries around the world. The indicators cover four "Doing Business" topics: starting a business, registering property, getting credit and enforcing contracts. The 12 cities and states are: Aguascalientes,...

  19. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  20. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  1. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  2. Earthquake Damage in Mexico City, Mexico, September 19, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On September 19, 1985, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 km2 area of Mexico City, 350 km from...

  3. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  4. Mexico: Democracy and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    During most of the twentieth century, Mexico was governed by one of the longest-ruling authoritarian parties in the contemporary world. Even as most Latin American countries democratized in the 1980s, Mexico remained under the control of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). It was not until the 2000 presidential election that a two-party…

  5. Mexico's National Educational Videoconferencing Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanty, Alejandro

    This paper begins with background on the National University of Mexico (UNAM) and its networks. Other distance education projects in Mexico are described, including projects of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), the National Distance Education Program operated by the Secretary of Education, and the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios…

  6. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  7. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  8. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  9. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  10. Environmental lead in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, L.A.; Badillo, F. (Centro de Ecodesarrollo (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    From the data presented here, it can be concluded that environmental exposure to lead is a particularly severe problem in Mexico. As has been shown, there are very important sources of exposure to this metal: (a) for rural populations who manufacture and/or utilize lead-glazed pottery, (b) for urban populations who are exposed to high air lead concentrations due to the continued use of lead fuel additives, (c) for workers of several industries, mainly those of batteries and pigments, (d) for consumers who routinely eat canned foods such as hot peppers and fruit products, and (e) for the general population living in the vicinity of smelters, refineries and other industries that emit lead. Therefore, in Mexico only those native populations living in very primitive communities, far away from all civilized life, could be expected to be free from this exposure. At the same time, and despite the relatively few data available, it can be stated that the exposure to lead of populations in Mexico could be approaching levels that might be highly hazardous, in particular for the neuropsychological health of children. Regarding the presence of lead in the environment, despite the fact that the available studies are not enough, it is evident that pollution by this metal is widespread and that there is a serious lack of studies for most regions of the country, including several that might be expected to be highly polluted. At the same time, it is evident that the official attention paid to the problem, either in regulations, support of further studies, or implementation of effective control measures has been far from the level needed according to the available data.

  11. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Frías Armenta; Livier Gómez Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia†in Spanish) of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective ...

  12. Mexico 68: Official Report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Intitulé “Mexico 68”, le rapport officiel publié en 1969 atteint un nouveau record avec plus de 2300 pages. Il se compose de quatre principaux volumes (Le pays ; L’organisation ; Les Jeux sportifs ; L’Olympiade culturelle) auxquels s’ajoute un coffret contenant divers souvenirs : médailles, tickets, cartes postales. Ce « cinquième volume » est assez méconnu. Le rapport officiel a été publié en 4 langues, sous la forme de deux éditions bilingues français-anglais et espagnol-allemand. Vol.1 Par...

  13. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  14. Port of Altamira, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Croonen, K.; Froeling, D.; Marbus, G.; Bemmel, M. van

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. The Port of Altamira is one of the fast growing ports in the world and is together with Veracruz and Coatzacoalcos one of the biggest ports of Mexico at the Gulf coast. It is an industrial Port with a lot of potential for expanding. However, the breakwaters of the Port extending into the sea caused severe erosion at the downdrift side of the Port (south side). This ongoing erosion is threatening a precious lagoon and some important land. The erosion can also cause a bre...

  15. [Health technology in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C; Faba, G; Martuscelli, J

    1992-01-01

    The features of the health technology cycle are presented, and the effects of the demographic, epidemiologic and economic transition on the health technology demand in Mexico are discussed. The main problems of science and technology in the context of a decreasing scientific and technological activity due to the economic crisis and the adjustment policies are also analyzed: administrative and planning problems, low impact of scientific production, limitations of the Mexican private sector, and the obstacles for technology assessment. Finally, this paper also discusses the main support strategies for science and technology implemented by the Mexican government during the 1980s and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. PMID:1411774

  16. NUEVA EVIDENCIA DE LA OCUPACIÓN DE TINGAMBATO DURANTE EL CLÁSICO Y EL EPICLÁSICO EN EL OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (New Evidence for the Occupation of Tingambato (Western Mexico during the Classic and Epiclassic Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Punzo Díaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El sitio arqueológico de Tingambato es uno de los pocos que ha sido excavado de manera extensa en Michoacán, sin embargo es muy poco lo que aún sabemos de él; incluso una cuestión básica como su ubicación temporal sigue todavía en discusión. Es en este sentido que en el presente artículo se presentan las primeras dataciones radiocarbónicas que nos permiten comenzar a entender la función de esa importante población, una de las más grandes y relevantes durante su tiempo en el occidente de México. ENGLISH: The archaeological site of Tingambato is one of the few sites in Michoacan to have been extensively excavated, but despite this little is known about it; even its chronology is debated. This paper presents the first results of radiocarbon dating of the site. These data allow us to begin to understand the relevance and function of Tingambato, which at the time of its occupation was one of the largest in Western Mexico.

  17. On the vertical distribution of pollutants in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Vidal, H. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ciencias Basicas, Tabasco (Mexico); Raga, G. B. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-04-01

    Mexico se estudia en este trabajo utilizando una base de datos obtenidos por un avion meteorologico instrumentado durante una campana de muestreo en febrero de 1991. Estos datos constituyen una base unica en Mexico y permiten conocer la estructura vertical de la capa limite y de especies contaminantes que no han sido presentadas anteriormente. Los resultados obtenidos en cuanto a la evolucion y estructura de la capa de mezcla indican que su altura pasa de 100 m a las 8 de la manana a mas de 2000 m sobre el nivel de la superficie a las 5 de la tarde. Los resultados consistentemente presentan que el maximo en la concentracion de ozono no se observa en superficie, sino a una altura de 700 m por encima de ella cerca del mediodia. Este pico, con una concentracion promedio durante el periodo observacional de 167 ppb, parece ser un resultado transitorio, dado que las concentraciones se homogeneizan en la vertical por la tarde. Los perfiles verticales de oxido de nitrogeno y de bioxido de azufre indican que las concentraciones son maximas durante la manana y decrecen uniformemente con la altura, sugiriendo que las fuentes para estas especies estan en la superficie, como era de esperar. No parece haber una correlacion entre el contenido de oxidos de nitrogeno observado durante los sondeos de la manana (durante el despegue del avion) y la concentracion de ozono observada durante el aterrizaje (2 o 3 horas mas tarde). Cuando las variables son normalizadas por la altura de la capa de mezcla, los resultados indican que el ozono es independiente de la concentracion de oxidos de nitrogeno observada durante el despegue. El rango de valores del cociente entre el ozono acumulado en la capa de mezcla y la altura de esa capa no es amplio. Las particulas de aerosol cerca de la superficie presentan su maxima concentracion durante la manana, pero durante el transcurso del dia, hay un marcado incremento en la concentracion mas arriba en la capa de mezcla, sugiriendo que posiblemente la

  18. Eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental relativa a una fuente azufrada soluble en trigo en la Región Pampeana Agronomic efficiency of elemental sulphur in wheat relative to a soluble sulphur source in the Pampas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Torres Duggan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia agronómica del azufre elemental (AE en relación a fuentes azufradas solubles y sulfatadas, depende de su reactividad (e.g. tamaño de partícula y de las condiciones edafo-climáticas. Para las condiciones de la Región Pampeana algunas publicaciones sugieren que el AE puede ser una fuente de S tan efectiva como las fuentes solubles, aunque la información no concluyente. Se hipotetiza que en las condiciones de la Región Pampeana, ambas fuentes poseen similar eficiencia agronómica en la mayoría de los años. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: i. Evaluar la respuesta al agregado de S con una fuente reactiva de AE en relación a un fertilizante azufrado sulfatado, aplicado en trigo en diferentes dosis y en distintas condiciones edafo-climáticas; ii. Comparar, para el conjunto de experimentos, la eficiencia agronómica del S aplicado con las distintas fuentes. iii. Relacionar las respuestas a la fertilización azufrada con variables de suelo y clima. Se realizaron ocho ensayos de campo durante dos años consecutivos en lotes de producción ubicados en la Región Pampeana. Se aplicó un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados con cuatro o seis repeticiones en un arreglo factorial de tratamientos (factor 1: fuente azufrada, factor 2: dosis de S. Los tratamientos fueron: un testigo absoluto; fertilización con AE micronizado (95% de S en dos niveles de dosis y fertilización con sulfato de amonio granulado (SA, 24% S, también en dos niveles de dosis. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 10 y 30 kg ha-1 de S (año 1 y 15 y 30 kg ha¹ (año 2. La fertilización azufrada afectó significativamente (p0,05 en la mayoría de los sitios. La dosis más baja (10 o 15 kg ha-1 fue suficiente para cubrir el requerimiento de S del cultivo. Se observó una asociación positiva entre las respuestas y el contenido de MO del suelo y las precipitaciones (macollaje y total del ciclo y una relación inversa con el contenido de S-SO4(2- disponibles a la

  19. 76 FR 58772 - Safety & Security Trade Mission; Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Safety & Security Trade Mission; Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico AGENCY... Safety and Security trade mission to Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico, for January 30-February 2, 2012... traveling to Mexico independently, will enhance the companies' ability to secure meetings with...

  20. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  1. the case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez Carrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Food products require efficient marketing systems to move from producers to consumers keeping high quality and price. In many developing countries, although mushroom production is well established and increasing, the marketing systems are poorly understood. During 1999-2004, we studied the channels of distribution for wild and cultivated mushrooms in central Mexico following an institutional approach (550 interviews. Most wild and cultivated mushrooms are marketed within this region. Representative places were selected for this study: a large city (Mexico, two medium cities (Puebla, Toluca, and a rural community (Cuetzalan. Several marketing channels were identified and described, involving middlemen, wholesalers, retailers, “tianguis”, public markets, retail food stores, and food services. The grower’s share, the gatherer’s share, and the mushroom marketing margin were also estimated. The present mushroom marketing system evolved from a small centralized process to a combination of centralized and decentralized marketing processes involving limited activities. During this series of changes, large private enterprises took over several marketing functions supporting the decentralization process, but discouraging the development of new firms specialized in mushroom marketing and processing. At the same time, changes also led to the market concentration of open-market sales in large private enterprises and functional wholesalers. Main structure, organization and trends of the Mexican mushroom marketing system are discussed.

  2. MEXICO Wants to Attract Chinese Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Though last year many countries were affected by the global financial crisis,tourism in Mexico enjoyed an increase of 5% in 2008.Aiming at attracting more Chinese tourists to Mexico,on April 7,2009,Ambassador Jorge Guajardo together with Mr.Eligio Serna,China Director of the Mexico Tourism Board,held a conference to introduce Mexico Travel in Mexico Embassy to China,Beijing.

  3. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt – MVB, based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Clemente-Chavez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east–west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0 that have taken place in this zone. The Valley of Mexico City (VM is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier Acceleration Spectrum (FAS shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1 stations with Negligible Site Amplification (NSA and (2 stations with Significant Site Amplification (SSA. Most of the sites in the first group showed small ( These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on the Central Mexico due to large

  4. Surgical education in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Surgical education in Mexico basically follows the same model as in the United States, with a selection process resembling the matching program. There is a 4-year training period during which residents in their third year spend 4 months as the sole surgeon in a rural community. During the senior year they are entitled to an elective period in a place of their choosing. After completion of the 4 years, residents have to present a thesis and undergo an oral examination before getting a university diploma. They are then encouraged to pass the written and oral examination of the Mexican Board of Surgery before they are fully certified to enter practice in a public or private hospital. PMID:19603225

  5. New Mexico Urban Areas - Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  6. New Mexico, 2010 Census Place

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  7. MARKETING WINTER VEGETABLES FROM MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, Linda; Barrios, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    The North American winter-vegetable industry is highly integrated, with Mexican production supplying a large part of U.S. winter consumption needs. Imports from Mexico undergo a rigorous inspection procedure before entering the United States. In addition to Mexican firms, many U.S. firms are also involved in sourcing winter vegetables from Mexico. To compete well, both U.S. and Mexican firms must adapt to the changing market pressures, which reward firms that can source from many locations to...

  8. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  9. Oil and Gas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Gerardo Carreón Rodríguez; Juan Rosellón

    2012-01-01

    Mexico is a highly centralized federation. The states and municipalities are highly dependent on federal transfers and so equally at risk to the country’s fiscal dependence on oil. Although Mexico has become more truly federal since multiparty competition has become vibrant and several states are in opposition hands, the states remain very minor actors in relation to oil and gas. However, as the political system has democratized, states have had an increasing say regarding oil and gas activit...

  10. NAFTA and Mexico's Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tornell, Aaron; Westermann, Frank; Martínez, Lorenza

    2004-01-01

    Mexico, a prominent liberalizer, failed to attain stellar gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the 1990s, and since 2001 its GDP and exports have stagnated. In this paper we argue that the lack of spectacular growth in Mexico cannot be blamed on either the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or the other reforms that were implemented, but on the lack of further judicial and structural reform after 1995. In fact, the benefits of liberalization can be seen in the extraordinary growth ...

  11. Materia seca nodular y nitrógeno acumulado en el cultivo de soja en función de la disponibilidad de agua y azufre, y del sistema de labranza Nodular dry matter and accumulated nitrogen in soybean as a function of water and sulfur availability and tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cicore

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La material seca nodular (MSN y el nitrógeno acumulado (N-acum. en el cultivo de soja fueron evaluados en función del sistema de labranza [siembra directa (SD y labranza convencional (LC] y la disponibilidad de azufre (S. Para ello, se realizaron en Balcarce durante la campaña 2002-03 dos experimentos, uno conducido bajo riego (Ri y otro en secano (Se. La MSN determinada en R5 no fue afectada por la aplicación de S (P>0.10, sin embargo fue mayor bajo SD en Se (PNodular dry matter (NDM and accumulated nitrogen (AN in a soybean crop were evaluated as a function of tillage system [no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage(CT] and sulfur (S availability in two experiments carried out under irrigation (Ri and rainfed conditions (Se. The experiment was carried out at Balcarce in the 2002-2003 growing season. The NDM, determined at R5 stage, was not affected by S fertilization (P>0.10 but was higher under NT in Se (P< 0.05. Under Ri NDM was higher under NT but this difference was not significant. The AN was not affected by S fertilization, and under rainfed conditions, it was significantly lower (P<0.05 under CT. The AN was positively related with NDM but the r² value was low (36%, suggesting that NDM was not the only factor regulating biological N2-fixation.

  12. Endohelminth parasites of seven goodein species (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae from Lake Zacapu , Michoacán, Central Mexico Plateau Endohelmintos parásitos de siete especies de godeinos (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae del lago de Zacapu, Michoacán, en la Mesa Central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martínez-Aquino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 11 parasitic endohelminth taxa were found in 7 freshwater fish species of the subfamily Goodeinae in Zacapu Lake, Michoacan, Mexico. Six were adults (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp., while the remaining 5 taxa (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphis sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Polymorphus brevis were larvae. The taxa S. sogandaresi, Tylodelphis sp., and R. lichtenfelsi reached the highest levels of prevalence and mean abundance among all hosts, while the cestodes B. acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp. showed the lowest values. This study contributes with the inventory of the freshwater fish helminth fauna in Central Mexico Plateau, and particularly with the previous work that has been done with Goodeinae, a subfamily of freshwater fishes endemic to that part of the country.En este trabajo se registran 11 taxa de helmintos endoparásitos de 7 especies de peces de la subfamilia Goodeinae del lago de Zacapu, Michoacán, en la mesa central de México. Seis taxa se registraron en estado adulto (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi y Caryophillidae gen. sp., en tanto que los 5 restantes correspondieron a larvas (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphys sp. y Eustrongylides sp. y Polymorphus brevis. Los taxa S. sogandaresi, Tylodelphis sp. y R. lichtenfelsi presentaron los valores más altos de prevalencia y abundancia en los peces estudiados, mientras que los céstodos B. acheilognathi y Caryophillidae gen. sp. presentaron los valores más bajos. Este estudio contribuye al inventario de la fauna helmintológica de peces de agua dulce de la mesa central de México y en particular al que ha sido realizado con Goodeinae, una subfamilia de peces dulceacuícolas endémica de esa

  13. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  14. [Health manpower in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, J

    1986-01-01

    Population increase, rural-to-urban migration, excessive population concentration side by side with scattered rural populations, and the economic crisis provide the primary framework for this analysis of health manpower in Mexico. The secondary frame of reference is the primary causes of mortality (in 1981): the leading cause, accidents and violence; the second, heart disease; the third, influenza and pneumonia; and the fourth, enteric diseases and diarrheas. Data are supplied on the number of new physicians graduating (this number rose from 2,493 in 1976 to 14,099 in 1983), and on the number of nurses (about 98,000, of which 40% are professionals). The growth pattern of the contingent of dentists is the same as that of physicians, namely, disproportionate and inefficient. The Federal Government is now trying to set up a National Health System that will fulfill the constitutional right of all Mexican citizens to health protection. On the basis of the disequilibrium apparent in every part of the health sector, the author recommends that educational and health institutions plan and coordinate the training of physicians so that the number of graduates may meet the country's needs, and the quality of their education may be improved. PMID:3780502

  15. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico... Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City... conference will take place at the World Trade Center in Mexico City. Relevant issues on energy efficiency...

  16. New Mexico HUC-10 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the watershed (10-digit) 10th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  17. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  18. New Mexico Museums and Cultural Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of museums and cultural centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using...

  19. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  20. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97...

  1. New Mexico Campaigns Against Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Shami

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nutritional needs of individuals in New Mexico, and the efforts of the Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine at Albuquerque to remove hunger and malnutrition. (DM)

  2. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  3. Aztec Mexico: Discovery of Templo Mayor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslav, Marc

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Aztec archaeological artifacts shown in the American Museum of Natural History exhibit: "Aztec Mexico: Discovery of Templo Mayor." More than 100 objects, ranging from human skulls to jewelry, found in the excavation of the Great Temple of Mexico located under the center of Mexico City, were displayed. (AM)

  4. Mexico and China:Strategic Trade Parthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Guajardo

    2008-01-01

    @@ In recent years,trade between Mexico and China has grown dynamically with an average annual growth of 36.7%.Mexico and China are both major world economies and China is the second largest trading partner of Mexico.Our two countries have been committed to deepening strategic partnership,cementing the basis for cooperation in all areas with fruitful outcome achieved.

  5. New Mexico Charter Schools Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the New Mexico legislature passed changes to the Charter School Act that provided more accountability for both charters and authorizers in New Mexico. As part of that law, the Public Education Department (PED) is asked to submit an annual report on the status of charter schools in New Mexico. This is the first report submitted under that…

  6. Working without a Union in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adele, Niame; Rack, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a description of the academic climate in New Mexico. Like many other places in the world today, New Mexico is trying to find an identity in an environment that the authors label "increasingly privatized, corporatized, and militarized." New Mexico's higher education salaries are lower than those in other states.…

  7. CERN servers go to Mexico

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday, 26 August, 384 servers from the CERN Computing Centre were donated to the Faculty of Science in Physics and Mathematics (FCFM) and the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics (MCTP) at the University of Chiapas, Mexico.   CERN’s Director-General, Rolf Heuer, met the Mexican representatives in an official ceremony in Building 133, where the servers were prepared for shipment. From left to right: Frédéric Hemmer, CERN IT Department Head; Raúl Heredia Acosta, Deputy Permanent Representative of Mexico to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva; Jorge Castro-Valle Kuehne, Ambassador of Mexico to the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General; Luis Roberto Flores Castillo, President of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Mexicans Abroad; Virginia Romero Tellez, Coordinator of Institutional Relations of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Me...

  8. Operating private hospitals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcie, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is one of the richest countries in Latin America and over the last several decades there have been many changes in the healthcare delivery systems, from universal healthcare coverage for all Mexicans to the fast paced expansion of private healthcare. Like many countries, Mexico has both private and public health systems and hospital administrators are facing challenges on multiple fronts in addition to facing exciting new opportunities. In this article you will get a bird's eye view of this ever changing panorama. How the new growing middle class consumerism has impacted physicians, health insurance and private healthcare industry. PMID:26521381

  9. Giant fields in southwest Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    According to Petroleos Mexicanos southeastern Mexico's Isthmus Saline basin holds five new giant fields - Tonala-El Burro, El Plan, Cinco Presidentes, Oraggio, and Magallanes - producing oil and gas from Tertiary sandstones. Numerous normal faults resulting from salt intrusion have given rise to multiple blocks, each with its own reservoir conditions. Previously discovered basins in the area include the Macuspana, which holds three giant gas- and condensate-producing fields: Jose Colomo, Chilapilla, and Hormiquero. The 3100-mi/sup 2/ Campeche marine platform, extending offshore nearby, contains the Cantarell complex, Mexico's most productive hydrocarbon province.

  10. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  11. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy; Analisis economico de la produccion de hidrogeno mediante el proceso termoquimico yodo-azufre con energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: cuausos@comunidad.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  12. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  13. The People of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Sigurd

    The bulletin provides data on New Mexico's population. Information is given on population size, distribution, and composition; topography and climate; urban and rural population changes; racial and ethnic characteristics; age and sex composition; fertility and mortality; population mobility; nativity; income; marital status; and education. A brief…

  14. The Geography Olympiad in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The formal organisation of science Olympiads in Mexico dates from 1987, when a national contest on Mathematics was held in order to identify a team to represent the country in the International Mathematics Olympiad. In 1991, the Mexican Academy of Sciences ("Academia Mexicana de Ciencias"-AMC) created the National Science Olympiads Program with…

  15. Pemex and Mexico's mixed emotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemex, Mexico's state owned oil company, has long been a byword for overmanning, inefficiency, disregard for the environment and for having all the ills of state incorporation, with few of the benefits. Matters, however, are changing. Pemex wants to be normal. (author)

  16. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  17. Implementing Competence Frameworks in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anda, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the Mexican case study undertaken as part of the comparative study of the implementation and impact of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF). Even though Mexico does not have a comprehensive NQF, the country has considerable experience in the development of labour competence technical standards; these share some aims…

  18. Structural Damage in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John F; Beck, James L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the structural damage in Mexico City caused by the September 19, 1985 earthquake. Photographs which illustrate various features of structural behavior are included. One explanation is presented as to why buildings with fundamental periods of elastic vibration considerably below the predominant two‐second period of the ground motion were most vulnerable to damage.

  19. Mexico: swapping crude for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico, considered the Saudi Arabia of the Western Hemisphere because of its proven and potential petroleum reserves, has surprised the world: it has embarked on the biggest nuclear-electric program in the Third World, only to postpone it days before scheduled approval of an international bidding (on which the atomic energy industry had pinned its hopes). A graph shows Mexican supplies of electricity by source with official projections to 1990. The point of entrance of the first nuclear reactor, originally scheduled for 1982, won't come onstream until 1983; and how nuclear-generated electricity grows close to 5% of the total in 1990. The big question is, will the future President of Mexico give the green light to the atomic megaproject. And if he does, how will Mexico deal with the serious logistics problems and grave ecological implications confronting the industry worldwide. In this issue, the author and Energy Detente touch on these questions and review the nuclear power status of Mexico, as well as addressing some of its global problems. Also presented in this issue is an update of the fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries

  20. Revitalizing Communities in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzl, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Rural Revitalization Initiative (NMRRI), an innovative program to enhance the growth and development of rural communities, involves schools and students as part of a holistic approach. The program requires community members to take responsibility for revitalizing their economy and fosters an entrepreneurial spirit among students.

  1. Mexico:A Golden Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2010-01-01

    @@ Mexico is the second largest producer of silver in the world and is ranked among the too 12 countries in terms of production of eighteen types of minerals. It has become one of the most internationally competitive countries for mining at the same time as the sector has taken on a key role in the country's own economic growth.

  2. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  3. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  4. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  6. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Conservacion y mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Cruz T, E. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mapes S, C. [Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Laguna C, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  7. Mexico and the CTBT; Mexico y el CTBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  8. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia; Gustavo Mora-Aguilera; Daniel Téliz-Ortiz; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2008-01-01

    El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI), se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P). Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa), y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5%) (MI-A), MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales d...

  9. EVIDENCIA DE ESCORIAS DE COBRE PREHISPÁNICAS EN EL ÁREA DE SANTA CLARA DEL COBRE, MICHOACÁN, OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (Evidence of Prehispanic Copper Slags from the Santa Clara del Cobre Area, Michoacan, Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Punzo Díaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados de dataciones para objetos arqueológicos metálicos en Mesoamérica. A través del análisis arqueomagnético de las escorias, producto de la fundición del cobre en siete sitios arqueológicos de los alrededores de Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán, se logró ubicarlas cronológicamente; pudiendo determinar la presencia de esta tecnología de fundición desde los últimos cien años antes de la llegada de los españoles, durante el esplendor del Señorío Tarasco, hasta adentrado el siglo XVIII, cuando nuevas tecnologías y una producción masiva de cobre se desarrollaron en todos los territorios bajo el dominio español. ENGLISH: This paper presents the first magnetic dating of metal items in Mesoamerica. The archaeomagnetic analysis of the slags, the residual product of the copper smelting process from seven archaeological sites near the town of Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán State, made it possible to estimate their production time. The results obtained thus far suggest the presence of smelting technology in this area 100 years before the Spanish conquest, synchronous of apogee of the Tarascan Señorio, until the XVIII century when the development of new technologies and a massive production of copper occurred in whole territories under the Spanish dominance.

  10. EVIDENCIA DE ESCORIAS DE COBRE PREHISPÁNICAS EN EL ÁREA DE SANTA CLARA DEL COBRE, MICHOACÁN, OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (Evidence of Prehispanic Copper Slags from the Santa Clara del Cobre Area, Michoacan, Western Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Punzo Díaz; Juan Morales; Avto Goguitchaichvili

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados de dataciones para objetos arqueológicos metálicos en Mesoamérica. A través del análisis arqueomagnético de las escorias, producto de la fundición del cobre en siete sitios arqueológicos de los alrededores de Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán, se logró ubicarlas cronológicamente; pudiendo determinar la presencia de esta tecnología de fundición desde los últimos cien años antes de la llegada de los españoles, durante el esplendor del Señorío...

  11. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.

  12. Shifting Nominal Anchors: The Experience of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Leiderman; Nissan Liviatan; Alfredo Thorne

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980’s Mexico successfully brought down its high rate of inflation by using the exchange rate as nominal anchor in combination with strict fiscal discipline, tight monetary policy, and incomes policy. This paper discusses the role of exchange rate policy as nominal anchor in Mexico and develops the inflation target as the monetary framework for anchoring prices. It also describes how Mexico is applying this frame work while shifting to a more flexible exchange regime and discusses ...

  13. Was NAFTA behind Mexico's high maquiladora growth?

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Gruben

    2001-01-01

    Although Mexico's maquiladora system is an important and well-recognized component of Mexico-U.S. trade, the connection between the acceleration in maquiladora growth and NAFTA is less clearly understood. A broad cross section of observers -- including journalists, political activists, industry analysts, and academics -- argue that Mexico's maquiladoras have been strongly influenced by NAFTA and have grown rapidly as a result. William C. Gruben finds no such connection when he tests for NAFTA...

  14. Management for mollusc culture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcet, G; Jimenez, F.; Rangel, C.; Arriaga, R

    1992-01-01

    Mollusc culture began formerly in Mexico in 1800, with the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica. Oyster culture began in a commercial basis in the sixties, as an activity developed by the Mexican government in the Gulf of Mexico, yet the exploitation of the species was until 1989 reserved to fishermen grouped in cooperatives. Production data shows a noticeable variability up to 1986; from then, yearly production averaged 50,000 tonnes of Crassostrea virginica from the Gulf of Mexico. The whole y...

  15. Mexico's crisis: financial modernisation and financial fragility

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. LÓPEZ

    1997-01-01

    The work seeks to analyse Mexico's recent exchange-rate crisis in relation to the debate on financial modernisation and external financial fragility. The author reviews some key features of Mexico's 1988-1994 economic recovery before analysing some aspects of the country's evolution in the light of the financial modernisation debate. An explanation of the crisis in which Mexico's external financial fragility is emphasised is provided. Finally, the relationship between financial modernisation ...

  16. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  17. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  18. GIS application on modern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  19. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  20. Mexico and apachería

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the relations between the government of Mexico and the Apaches, one of the nomadic tribes inhabiting Northern Mexico, with the tools and from the perspective of foreign policy. My hypothesis is that, although Mexico´s policy towards the Apaches was never international neither in its object (as the Apaches were never treated as an independent nation) nor in its approach (Apache policy in Mexico was designed and implemented mainly by local and state au...

  1. The Diffusion of Health Information: Medicine Hucksters Can Teach Us Something.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Joseph J.; Ball, Richard A.

    During 1974, the role and effectiveness of the Mexican medicine huckster were examined within the context of a specified information diffusion process. Seventy-five hucksters were observed at work in three states of Mexico (Oaxaca, Michoacan, and Mexico) and in the Federal District (Mexico City area). Twenty-five sales pitches were recorded and…

  2. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  3. Area Handbook for Mexico. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Morris; And Others

    This volume on Mexico is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University. It is designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Mexico. The emphasis is on…

  4. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  5. Enterprise Surveys : Mexico Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Mexico is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Mexico income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important...

  6. 50 CFR 32.50 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico. 32.50 Section 32.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... § 32.50 New Mexico. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and...

  7. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  8. Advisable alternative fuels for Mexico; Combustibles alternativos convenientes para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Gonzalez, Jorge Luis [ICA Fluor (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The alternative fuels are born with the goal of not damaging the environment; biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, methanol, natural gas, LP gas, are the main alternative fuels. However, the biodiesel and bioetanol are the only completely renewable ones, this makes them ideal to be developed in Mexico, since the agricultural sector could be fortified, the technological independence be favored, improve the conservation of the oil resources and by all means not to affect the environment. On the other hand, also efficient cultivation techniques should be developed to guarantee the economy of the process. [Spanish] Los combustibles alternativos nacen con la meta de no danar el medio ambiente; el biodiesel, electricidad, etanol, hidrogeno, metanol, gas natural, gas LP, son los principales combustibles alternativos. No obstante, el biodiesel y el bioetanol son los unicos completamente renovables, esto los hace ideales para desarrollarse en Mexico, ya que se podria fortalecer el sector agricola, favorecer la independencia tecnologica, mejorar la administracion de los recursos petroleros y por supuesto no afectar al medio ambiente. Por otro lado tambien se tendrian que desarrollar tecnicas de cultivo eficientes para garantizar la economia del proceso.

  9. Research on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy and waste heat; Investigacion sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica y calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Arellano-Gomez, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2008-01-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the Comision Federal de Electricidad have done research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP) in past years. Tested systems include mechanical compression, absorption and heat-transformers. The main R&D aspects on HP are briefly described, and also a more detailed description about three of the main studies is presented: (a) a mechanical compression HP of the water-water type operated with low-pressure geothermal steam at the Los Azufres; Mich., geothermal field, and designed for purification of brine; (b) an absorption HP for cooling and refrigeration operating with ammonia-water and low-enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the Los Azufres and Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal fields; and (c) a heat-transformer by absorption-Absorption Heat Pump Type II-tested to assess the performance of several ternary solutions as work fluids. Plans exist to install and test a geothermal heat pump at Cerro Prieto or Mexicali, BC. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas y la Comision Federal de Electricidad han realizado trabajo de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas probados incluyen compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor en forma general, y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: (a) una BC por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua disenada para purificacion de salmueras operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.; (b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion operando con amoniaco-agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia, la cual fue probada en los campos geotermicos de Los Azufres y Cerro Prieto, BC; y (c) un transformador termico por absorcion -llamado Bomba de Calor por Absorcion Tipo II--, el cual fue probado para evaluar el comportamiento de diversas

  10. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  11. The wind power of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Escobedo, Q. [Gerencia de Energias No Convencionales, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113 Col. Palmira, C. P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; Zapata-Sierra, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural, Universidad de Almeria, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  12. The wind power of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  13. 76 FR 30705 - Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations to the Gulf of Mexico Citizen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations to the Gulf of Mexico Citizen... considered for appointment to the Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee (GMCAC). Vacancies are... Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee (GMCAC) to provide independent citizen advice to the EPA...

  14. The environmental policy in Mexico: Crisis and perspectives; La politica ambiental en Mexico: Crisis y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Victor [Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper some aspects of the environmental situation in Mexico are condensed. The main roll performed by the modality of the energy resources consumption and the evolution of the environmental policy in Mexico from 1971 to 1996 is analyzed. It is concluded that in Mexico it has not been able to define the environmental policy in all its extension requiring, therefore, a greater participation of all the sectors to protect Nature and fight against the industrial and municipal pollution [Espanol] En esta ponencia se resumen algunos aspectos de la situacion ambiental actual de Mexico. Se analiza el papel central desempenado por la modalidad del consumo de energeticos y la evolucion de la politica ambiental en Mexico desde 1971 hasta 1996. Se concluye en que la politica ambiental en Mexico no se ha podido definir todavia en todos sus alcances por lo que se requiere una mayor participacion de todos los sectores para proteger la naturaleza y combatir la contaminacion industrial y municipal

  15. NAFTA and Mexico's Tax Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Duanje Chen

    2001-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a significant effect on Mexico’s economy and institutions. The ongoing consideration of tax reform in Mexico requires an evaluation of the role of NAFTA in Mexico’s economy, including its tax structure; it also requires an assessment of the impact of the Mexico’s tax system on the trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA partners, the United States and Canada. Clearly, no good tax reform in Mexico can ignore the role of NAFTA...

  16. An Energy Overview of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Mexico. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  17. [Health policy polarization in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arellano, O; Blanco-Gil, J

    2001-01-01

    In the last 17 years, health policy in Mexico has been shifted from a conception of integrated health care and a gradually extended coverage as a major responsibility of the State and health care public institutions, to in the one hand, a very active promotion of market and private profit in health services and in the other, poverty relief programs. In this paper we identify different periods corresponding to the last three presidential terms. Each clearly represent different stages of health sector reform: transitional (1982-1988), mercantilisation and poverty relief (1988-1994) and, strengthening of the so called health markets (1994-2000). The analyzed transformation is part of the set of secondary reforms subordinated to the structural adjustment and the economic and social megaprojects imposed by the international financial institutions. PMID:11241926

  18. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  19. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, O; Savarino, S J; Walton, B C; Gam, A A; Neva, F A

    1989-09-01

    In Mexico, 6 cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) were found in widely separated geographic regions. Information was also available on 2 other cases. In addition to the typical clinical features, half of the patients had evidence of nasopharyngeal mucosal involvement. All isolates from the DCL patients were identified as Leishmania mexicana mexicana by isoenzyme analysis and monoclonal antibody typing. In 1 region of Tabasco state where DCL was found, uncomplicated cutaneous leishmaniasis appeared to be highly endemic, and isolates from a few such patients were identified as L. mexicana mexicana. An incidental finding was the recovery of an isolate of L. braziliensis braziliensis from a patient with chiclero ulcer in Oaxaca state. The clinical and epidemiological significance of the reported cases are discussed. PMID:2802018

  20. Nuclear energy activities in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description of the nuclear energy activities in Mexico is presented. The most important of these are related to the operation of Unit-1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of Unit-2, both 654MWe (net) boiling water reactors (GE, Mark II). The research and development activities as well as the local specialized technical services capacity are described. Participation in the design of simplified light water reactors and the activities related to siting studies for future nuclear power plants and engineering for installation of low and medium level radioactive waste are also presented. Application of radioisotopes in industry and medicine is described the research and development activities related to them as well as the future plans for the utilization of nuclear energy in power generation are briefly discussed. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. CHANGES IN INDIGENOUS WOMEN WITH MIGRANT HUSBANDS: PUACUARO, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erandi de Jesús-Díaz Barriga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently a large number of people in the indigenous community of Puacuaro, Michoacán migrate to the U.S., most of them reside for periods of more than 5 years, and the rest do it temporarily. This article describes and analyzes the role played by women within the family and community during the period of absence from their spouse. It was found that, in the social organization of indigenous community, the power distance between men and women is very wide, but with the migration of males this distance changes and set up a higher proportion of women participation in family life, as head of household, and as in public spaces, whether in community assemblies, celebrations and family crops. However, with the return of the migrant relative, the family organization returns to its previous structure.

  2. El noroeste de Michoacan: un paisaje en busca de identidad

    OpenAIRE

    Gougeon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCION Programa de investigación En 1987, los campos del noroeste de Michoacán constituyen un mundo heteróclito donde el suelo se aprovecha tanto mediante métodos prehispánicos como por medio de las últimas técnicas del siglo xx. A esta diversidad se suma una inestabilidad: las conmociones en la vocación de los espacios han sido frecuentes en el transcurso del siglo xx. Ciertos tipos de explotación del medio ambiente, aún atestiguados a fines del siglo pasado, ya no existen más que en l...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A. O.; Rojas, R.; Barrios, F. A.

    2001-10-01

    MR imaging has experienced an important growth worldwide and in particular in the USA and Japan. This imaging technique has also shown an important rise in the number of MR imagers in Mexico. However, the development of MRI has followed a typical way of Latin American countries, which is very different from the path shown in the industrialised countries. Despite the fact that Mexico was one the very first countries to install and operate MR imagers in the world, it still lacks of qualified clinical and technical personnel. Since the first MR scanner started to operate, the number of units has grown at a moderate space that now sums up approximately 60 system installed nationwide. Nevertheless, there are no official records of the number of MR units operating, physicians and technicians involved in this imaging modality. The MRI market is dominated by two important companies: General Electric (approximately 51%) and Siemens (approximately 17.5%), the rest is shared by other five companies. According to the field intensity, medium-field systems (0.5 Tesla) represent 60% while a further 35% are 1.0 T or higher. Almost all of these units are in private hospitals and clinics: there is no high-field MR imagers in any public hospital. Because the political changes in the country, a new public plan for health care is still in the process and will be published soon this year. This plan will be determined by the new Congress. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and president Fox. Experience acquired in the past shows that the demand for qualified professionals will grow in the new future. Therefore, systematic training of clinical and technical professionals will be in high demand to meet the needs of this technique. The National University (UNAM) and the Metropolitan University (UAM-Iztapalapa) are collaborating with diverse clinical groups in private facilities to create a systematic training program and carry out research and development in MRI

  4. Southern Mexico Miocene Magmatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic activity in southern Mexico have been occurred in three important volcanic regions: Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (TVF), Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), and Tacaná Volcanic Complex (TVC). This activity produce alkaline and calc-alkaline products. The TVF has been active since 7 Ma ago producing Na-alkaline basanite, trachybasalt, and trachyandesite (41 63 wt% SiO2), and calc-alkaline basalts, basaltic-andesites, and andesites (45 63 wt% SiO2). The CVA including El Chichon Volcano produced calc-alkaline magmas varying from andesites to dacites (57 65 wt% SiO2) emitted between 2100 ka ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ka and K-alkaline magmas emitted from 1.1 Ma ago (trachybasalt, 46 51 wt% SiO2) to the Recent (trachyandesite, 57 63 wt% SiO2). The TVC emitted calc-alkaline products varying from basaltic-andesite (52 57 wt% SiO2) as mafic enclaves, andesites (57 63 wt% SiO2), and dacites (63 68 wt% SiO2). El Chichón and TVF present slight enrichments in K2O, Na2O, Rb, Sr, Th, U, Cs, and LREE respect to TVC, these are signatures related to subduction environment. The presence of alkaline magmas at El Chichón and TVF correspond to mantle low degree melts that reach the surface along with calc-alkaline lavas due to a tensional stress field that allows their pass to the surface. In the generation of the magmas of southern Mexico three components are involved: mantle partial melting fluids, fluid from subducted lithosphere, and continental crust, likely interacting in different ratios through time and in different proportions from SW to NE.

  5. Mexico: a model for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J E

    1986-03-01

    In Mexico, a 40 year period of political stability and economic advancement, hailed for its high rates of growth in income per capita, rapid urbanization, and impressive gains in indicators of health and education, seemed to come to a halt in the early 1980s. Since the early 1970s, fertility has declined sharply in chronological association with a new population policy and the implementation of a national family planning program. If in 1940 there was no apparent reason for the Mexican state to have much interest in limiting fertility, such was no longer the case by 1970. The General Law of Population that had been passed in 1947 was laced with the expansionist ideology that dominated demographic issues for more that a century; its pro-natalism had been reinforced by health regulations prohibiting the sale and use of contraceptives and by a penal code that made abortion a crime. Between 1970 and 1981 the total fertility rate fell by about 39%. Since 1975, change in contraceptive practice accounts for the bulk of the measured fertility decline. Between 1976 and 1982 there was a 66% increase in contraceptive prevalence. The government's involvement in family planning activities helped to: 1) develop an effective contraceptive distribution system; 2) circulate extensive information, education, and communication publicizing fertility and images of the small family; and 3) mobilize health practitioners in public institutions to counsel and persuade their clients to accept and practice contraception. The emerging debate over population policy in Brazil may well prefigure debates in other Latin American countries; the recent democratization in Brazil is the vocalization of a demand from women's groups and the left for government provided family planning services. Overall, Mexico's willingness to take the long view tackle the birth rate issue head on is likely to remain an exception in Latin America. PMID:12340888

  6. Screening for autism in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Bruno, Ruth; Tinoco, Cecilia Manero; Marquez, Christian Diaz

    2012-06-01

    In order to conduct the screening phase of the first epidemiological survey of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Mexico, we needed a screening tool to detect autistic symptomatology in a large sample of school-age children. We used the Spanish version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). We recruited a clinical sample of 200 children (81% males; mean age: 7.4 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of ASDs and a sample of 363 control children (59.5% males; mean age: 8.5 years) without ASDs. Three-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) identified a main effect of clinical status (ASDs vs. controls) for both parent and teacher scales, but no gender or age effect. The mean total and subscale raw scores were significantly different between the clinical and control groups for the parent and for the teacher SRS (P < 0.001). The internal consistency of the SRS was excellent. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed excellent discriminant validity of the SRS in the Mexican sample (area under the curve: 0.962 for the parent, 0.960 for the teacher). ROC curves were also used to determine which cutoff would provide the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. Mexican SRS scores were significantly higher than in the U.S. and German population for typically developing children but comparable for clinically referred subjects. The SRS is an acceptable screening instrument for epidemiological studies of ASDs in Mexico. Its psychometric properties are excellent and comparable to those derived from North American and other samples. PMID:22581514

  7. Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and...

  8. New Mexico, 2010 Census American Indian

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  9. Sustainability analysis of agave production in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide food production is done in different types of agricultural production systems. The main difference is whether it is an intensive or extensive system. The agave production in Mexico has been developed in these two different ways. Firstly, agave f

  10. International Boundary United States Mexico Minute 315

    Data.gov (United States)

    International Boundary & Water Commission — This provisional international boundary was developed by the International Boundary and Water Commission-United States and Mexico (IBWC), to be used as a common...

  11. Landscape Conservative Cooperatives for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Landscape conservation cooperatives (LCCs) are conservation-science partnerships between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and...

  12. Sister Cities along US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Locations of 29 cities referred to as US and Mexico "Sister Cities." The locations of the cities were pulled from the Digital Chart of the World database, 1994. The...

  13. 2013 Gulf of Mexico SPCE angler survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey provides economic data related to marine recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected include preference and opinion information...

  14. Migratory Bird Joint Ventures of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — A joint venture is a self-directed partnership of agencies, organizations, corporations, tribes, or individuals that has formally accepted the responsibility of...

  15. HSIP New Mexico State Government Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset includes buildings occupied by the headquarters of cabinet level state government executive departments, legislative offices buildings outside of the...

  16. ROE Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Sample Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset describes dissolved oxygen levels in the Gulf of Mexico. Individual sampling sites are represented by point data. The background polygon shows areas...

  17. Relations between Mexico and the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico-EC bilateral relations must be considered within the general relation ECLatin America which -as the author remarks, do not appear among EC's preferential relations.Latin America can benefit from the Generalized Preference System which is not discriminatory, without reciprocity and generalized, but has some restrictions: for some products as textile, leather or oil. This affects some Latin American countries and specifically Mexico.Mexico initiates its relation with the EC in 1960; in 1975 both parts sign the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation which has been substituted by the new General Agreement on Cooperation signed on April26, 1991. A new factor that will condition this relation is the Free Trade Agreement recently signed between USA, Canada and Mexico.

  18. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  19. HSIP Correctional Institutions in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Jails and Prisons (Correctional Institutions). The Jails and Prisons sub-layer is part of the Emergency Law Enforcement Sector and the Critical Infrastructure...

  20. China Offers Humanitarian Aid to Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu announced the government’s decision to provide Mexico with humanitarian aid on April 29 in Beijing. The Chinese Government has offered $5 million in emergency humanitar

  1. Southeast Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2014 in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico north of the Dry Tortugas. Data were collected on the...

  2. New Mexico Populated Places (GNIS), 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  3. New Mexico Urban Areas - 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  4. Protected Areas Database for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by USGS GAP, that illustrates and describes public land ownership, management...

  5. Level III Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  6. Cretaceous Onlap, Gulf of Mexico Basin [cretonlapg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maximum extent of Cretaceous onlap is generalized from Plate 3, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled...

  7. Level IV Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  8. Water Scarcity and Water Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the possible solutions to control demand and supply of water for a sustainable environment in Mexico, along with a detailed analyses of economic implications related to the water sector. At the same time it focuses on the opportunities and constraints to improve the use of water and the allocation in the agricultural sector, by a system of transferable water-use permits. Actual examples are provided nationwide to the current situation in Mexico, focusing on problems rela...

  9. Urban Governance and Participation in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Guarneros-Meza

    2007-01-01

    Valeria Guarneros-Meza looks at national aspects that characterize Mexico's democratization and decentralization processes, and their impact upon the central region of Mexico. Based on the region's social characteristics, she discusses the concept of ‘urban governance’ in terms of its ambiguity, which promotes municipal systems of participation at the same time as it fragments their internal organization. Development (2007) 50, 104–109. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100340

  10. Federated Technologies for Distance Education - SINED (Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrián de la Serna, Manuel; Galeana, Lourdes; Murrillo, Georgette

    2013-01-01

    The Association for the Development of the National Distance Education (SINED, https://www.sined.mx/sined/) is an organization which manages and develops distance education in Mexico. Its public and institutional actions are carried out through networking. Knowledge management is promoted through educational social networking supported by the strategic use of technology. SINED has contributed in various ways to the development of distance education in Mexico, e.g. through a) insta...

  11. Comparing the Power of Mexico and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pavchenko, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Mexico and Brazil are the two powers, who enjoy significant influence and contribute not only on the regional level, but to a certain extent on the global level as well. Having this common feature, the two centers of power differ dramatically in many aspects, starting from geopolitics, relation towards the super power and finishing with identity perception. The main aim of the research is to compare Mexico and Brazil during 2000 -- 2012, which will allow not only predicting possible developme...

  12. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977]. PMID:21870497

  13. Music Therapy in Mexico: Another Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Hernandez-Ruiz

    2005-01-01

    Music therapy has grown exponentially in the last few years in Mexico. Several approaches, from the humanistic to the behavioral, are present; and new programs are constantly being created. We still have a lot to do to take music therapy to the professional level of other countries. This article shares some recent advances in the hope that a professional exchange will support music therapy's further development in Mexico.

  14. Geoelectrical analysis of Las Tres Virgenes geothermal zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Analisis geoelectrico de la zona geotermica de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigurra Pimentel, Emilio (Departamento de Exploracion, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico))

    1998-01-15

    On the basis of vertical electric sounding (VES) analysis it is possible to define three geoelectrical environments in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal area. From the surface to 250 m depth, apparent resistivity values change from 12000 Ohm.m. to 200 Ohm.m. This layer is composed by Las Tres Virgenes volcanic material, Aguajito ignimbrite and Santa Rosalia basin deposits. Underlaying this high resistivity layer, from 250 m to 1500 m depth, there is an extensive conductive layer with low resistivity values from 15 Ohm.m to 3 Ohm. m. This conductive layer includes the aquifer of the area, the Santa Lucia and Comondu formations and the top of granitic basement. Under this low resistivity layer, there is a zone of medium resistivity values from 20 Ohm.m to 100 Ohm.m, corresponding to El Azufre and El Partido volcanoes area, and the Agua Caliente hydrothermal zone. The decrease of resistivity values in this middle resistivity layer is associated with hot rock zones produced by magmatic intrusions (volcanoes zone). High horizontal gradients are associated with geologic faults with normal component of fractures, and high vertical gradients with changes in electrical layers, some of them with superficial evidences, but other appearing only at depth. The intersection of NW-SE with NE-SW trends are important, because those zones provide the paths for the hydrothermal fluids circulation; examples of these zones are: Los Azufres volcano area, El Partido volcano and Agua Caliente geothermal zone.

  15. Geological synthesis of Las Tres Virgenes geothermal area, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Sintesis geologica de la zona geotermica de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Hernandez, Aida (Departamento de Exploracion, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico))

    1998-01-15

    The Las Tres Virgenes geothermal area is placed in middle Baja California Peninsula, in a zone affected by deformational events since Late Miocene. As a result of tensional stress, NW-SE faults were generated. During this process the Santa Rosalia basin was formed starting the deposition of marine sediments. At the same time La Reforma and Aguajito volcanic centers were emplaced, their deposits were interfingered with sand deposits. At the end of the volcanic activity at Aguajito, the stress regimen changed, old normal faults were reactivated as lateral faults and a pull apart system was initiated. NE-SW and NNE-SSW faults resulted from this deformational stage, and Las Tres Virgenes volcanic products were erupted through this weakness zone. The hydrothermal active system is hosted in a grid constructed by NE-SW, NW-SE faults within the granodioritic basement under the El Azufre volcano. The fluid's discharged take place at Las Viboras zone where intense superficial fracturing is present, associated with El Azufre dextral fault. Drilling results from seven wells confirm the existence of high temperatures making feasible the exploitation of this resource to generate electric energy.

  16. The History of Soil Science in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Ventura, E., Jr.; Castellanos, J. Z.; Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the history of soil science in developing countries such as Mexico. Soil knowledge in the pre-Colombian era was a notable attribute of indigenous people in Mexico. Mayas and Aztecs classified soils based on properties and land use and developed a terminology still used by locals. International organizations and institutions advocating modern agricultural practices have played an important role in the development of soil science in Mexico, in conjunction with the Green Revolution in which the use of fertilizers for crop production was implemented. Soil fertility, as an area of study, has developed significantly in the country. One of the most significant impacts of the Green Revolution on the development of soil science in Mexico was through academic exchange, in which Mexican soil scientists obtained graduate-level degrees in the United States and later returned to Mexico to conduct research programs. Although Mexico has a long history of soil knowledge, soil scientists are facing several challenges today, including a lack of communication between farmers and scientists, soil erosion, soil contamination, and water usage. Some researchers have suggested that ethnopedological knowledge should be incorporated into modern Mexican soil science.

  17. Electric power and environment in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  18. The personal dosimetry in Mexico; La dosimetria personal en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A. [Proxtronics/ Asesoria Integral en Dosimetria Termoluminiscente S.A. de C.V., Canal de Miramontes 2030-14, Col. Educacion, 04400 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: aidtsa@avantel.net

    2006-07-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  19. ARTICULACIÓN PRODUCTIVA PARA LA INNOVACIÓN EN LAS PEQUEÑAS EMPRESAS ACUÍCOLAS DE LA REGIÓN OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO.(PRODUCTIVE ARTICULATION FOR THE INNOVATION OF SMALL AQUACULTURE COMPANIES IN THE WESTERN REGION OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Huerta Mata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La realidad económica de nuestro país se ha orientado a encontrar nuevas formas de solucionar viejos problemas que atañen al sector primario, la acuicultura desarrollada desde las culturas primitivas de México ha crecido paulatinamente, mas como un esfuerzo constante por participar en actividades productivas de autoconsumo que con la intención de enfocar a las pequeñas empresas a formar proyectos conjuntos de articulación productiva y de desarrollo de Innovación. Este artículo de investigación, plantea tres aspectos esenciales: 1 las condiciones de las empresas rurales granjas acuícolas de la región occidente de México, en los estados de Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán y Nayarit, 2 Las modalidades de articulación productiva, redes o agrupamientos de organizaciones alrededor de las granjas acuícolas 3 Las características de los procesos de las granjas y su orientación a la innovación; la investigación analiza la manera en que las empresas, gobierno y la sociedad en su conjunto participan a través del trabajo común para la formalización de proyectos económicos que modifiquen a largo plazo las condiciones sociales de la población.Abstract:The economic reality of our country has been oriented to find new ways to solve old problems pertaining to the primary sector, aquaculture developed from the very primitive cultures in Mexico has grown gradually, more like a constant effort to participate in productive activities for self-consumption than intending to focus on small firms to form joint projects of productive articulation and development of innovation. This research article, poses Three essential aspects: 1 the conditions of rural enterprises aquaculture farms in the western region of Mexico, in the States of Colima, Jalisco, Michoacan and Nayarit, 2 modalities of productive articulation, networks or groupings of organizations around aquaculture farms 3 the characteristics of the processes on the farms and their orientation to

  20. 76 FR 73595 - Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... applicants will be evaluated on their ability to meet certain conditions and to satisfy the selection... arrival in Mexico City on May 13, participants will check into the hotel and participate in a commercial...; Preferential hotel rates in Mexico City. Optional Gold Key Service not included in the trade...

  1. The personal dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  2. Global politics in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D; Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    At the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population held in August, delegates from 149 countries affirmed that population dynamics are an intrinsic part of development and that all people, including adolescents, have a right to family planning information and services. Despite concern for continued US support for population activities, the US delegation in Mexico City clearly emphasized its government's commitment to increased funding. The conference also accepted by acclamation the Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development drafted by 29 countries which stresses the importance of increased funding for population policy, the urgent need to improve women's status and the concern for the effects of the deepening economic crisis, Legal abortion and voluntary sterilization as fertility determinants were ignored. The meeting put to rest any notion that population and development activities are competing spheres of action. In contrast to its 1974 position, the US emphasized entrepreneurial initiative within a free-market system as a stimulus to economic development. The status of women was a major issue brought up by the delegations of Zimbabwe and Australia. The crucial but uncertain issue of funding was addressed by most country represehntatives and most developed countries pledged at least continued if not increased funding for development programs. Most discussion on the abortion issue was almost universally based on repudiation of the procedure as a family planning method. The role of the US in the abortion issue is discussed. The US criticized 2 international agencies that provide most of family planning services to which the US provides funding but which are promoting abortion through affiliates. The US affirmed it would not participate in or assist abortion promotion as a birth control method. The nature and scope of the current economic world crisis caused profound differences between the US and most developing countries' delegations

  3. Why the bankers suddenly love Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, D.D.

    1979-07-16

    In early 1977, the state-owned oil company in Mexico, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) revealed that it had made huge new discoveries and was ready to exploit the find. Mexico's economy had been in trouble for a number of years. The government had been searching for money to borrow. But now, bankers from all over the world were offering Mexico bank loans - more than it needed - and Mexico was having to determine its best money buy. Oil did not produce the boomy atmosphere by itself; much of the credit goes to President Jose Lopez Portillo. He is now half-way through a 6-year term and has restored confidence in Mexico. He has tempered the euphoria from oilfields with tough, conservative economic policies. He scaled down public spending, developed only 4 new industrial centers in comparison to 50 recommended by the former president, and got the unions to hold wage demands in check. The global aspects of Mexico's financial dealings in the last several years are reviewed, emphasizing the dealings with European banks which account for about 60% of the government's deals. The more significant question now seems to be whether the government can hold to its plan of restrained growth in oil production. The target calls for moving up sharply to about 2.25 million barrels a day by the end of 1980, followed by a leveling off for several years. In sum, Mexico is no longer a second-rate player in the financial markets of the world. (MCW)

  4. ENSAYOS BIOLÓGICOS EN MACETAS CON TRÉBOL SUBTERRÁNEO EN SUELOS DEL SECANO COSTERO, VI REGIÓN DE CHILE.: EXPLORACIÓN DE DISPONIBILIDAD DE FÓSFORO, AZUFRE, BORO, MOLIBDENO Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA NODULACIÓN Biological tests in pots with subterranean clover in Coastal Dry Land soils, VI Region of Chile: Survey of available phosphorus, sulfur, boron and molybdenum and their relation to nodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Opazo A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available La productividad y calidad de la pradera natural del secano de la Cordillera de la Costa de la VI Región de Chile, recurso muy importante para la ganadería de esta zona y principal fuente de ingreso para su población, pueden mejorarse incrementando la presencia de especies con mayor valor forrajero tal como el trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L.. Sin embargo, el adecuado establecimiento del trébol subterráneo se ha visto dificultado, postulándose posibles deficiencias nutricionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar una metodología de ensayo en macetas en condiciones de invernadero, como un método rápido para evaluar posibles deficiencias nutricionales de P, S, B y Mo. Se usaron los suelos de las series Curanipe (Alfisol y Marchihue (Inceptisol. Los tratamientos aplicados a cada maceta con 2 kg de suelo y seis plantas de trébol subterráneo cv. Trikkala fueron testigo (T, fertilización completa (FC, FC-P, FC-S, FC-B y FC-Mo. Las plantas se cortaron a los 79 días desde la siembra. El rendimiento de materia seca aérea (MSA y la nodulación fueron afectados por una deficiencia severa de fósforo, un pH ácido (5,1, y por el aluminio intercambiable (0,09 cmol (+ kg-1. La MSA no fue afectada por la aplicación de B y Mo. Los incrementos de materia seca del trébol subterráneo, bajo las condiciones del estudio, se duplicaron y sextuplicaron, dependiendo de la degradación de la fertilidad de los suelos. Para la interpretación del azufre disponible se recomienda considerar el azufre mineralizable y la posible absorción foliar de SO2The productivity and quality of native dry land pasture of the Coastal Range of the VI Region of Chile, the major feed resource for the livestock of this zone and main source of economic income for its population, could be improved increasing the proportion of better forage species, such as subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. However, the adequate establishment of subterranean

  5. New Mexico 7.5' USGS Quad Index, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the vector line map information for the 1:24,000 quadrangles for New Mexico. This dataset was obtained as a nation wide dataset from the...

  6. New Mexico 6th Code Subwatersheds (12-digit)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (12-digit) 6th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  7. USDA FS Inventoried Roadless Areas in New Mexico, Sept. 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all National Forest Inventoried Roadless Areas (IRAs) for New Mexico. The IRA data was originally submitted to GSTC by all national forests...

  8. New Mexico Quad Grid for 15' USGS Quads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This coverage was derived from the 7.5minute USGS quad coverage for the state of New Mexico. It shows a quad index for the USGS 15 minute quads.

  9. HSIP Emergency Operations Centers (EOC) in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Emergency Operations Centers (EOC) in New Mexico "The physical location at which the coordination of information and resources to support domestic incident...

  10. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... CODE 3410-11-P...

  11. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in..., Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  12. 76 FR 31299 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Forest. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Correct FR Doc. 2011-12588; Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource...

  13. Soil and Water Conservation Districts of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) shapefile includes forty-seven boudaries which cover each SWCD throughout the State.

  14. Energy, environment and development in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is a country at the crossroads. It has huge potentials in energy, in natural resources and in human resources. It is currently experiencing one of the most serious crises in its history - economic, ecological, political - and it is making efforts to overcome the problems behind these crises, which may affect us all because of Mexico's importance as energy producer and energy consumer. Mexico is one of the developing countries which has participated actively in finding solutions to the worlds environmental problems not least the problem of climatic changes as a result of increasing energy consumption. Mexico is seeing the consequences at local and national level, and is taking steps to change course. At the same time, it has also expressed interest in participating in international initiatives and cooperation to solve these problem. But Mexico finds itself in a situation not unlike that of many East European countries after the fall of the communist regimes. The old system is tumbling, the will to change is present, but there is a lack of resources. 123 refs., 45 tabs

  15. Policies to reduce carbon emissions from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two long-term scenarios carried out for Mexico attempt to paint a picture of carbon emissions and energy use in the year 2025. The scenarios reveal that Mexico's current energy path is not optimal; the energy-intensity indicators show an increasing reliance on petroleum products and electricity over the next 40 years. Thus, Mexico must embark on a program of energy conservation in the near future. Mexico recently has undertaken several energy conservation efforts. The Mexican government implemented a National Program for Energy Modernization. This program identifies the promotion of energy conservation in Mexico as one of its top priorities between 1990 and 1994. It incorporates a number of actions geared at improving energy conservation, including: establishing pricing policies which pay special attention to electricity tariffs; setting aside budget appropriations for energy-savings programs; carrying out an energy diagnosis in the transportation and industrial sectors; promoting cogeneration and new legislation in this field; setting efficiency standards for equipment; initiating a public education campaign to inform people about energy conservation; promoting the participation of research institutes and consulting firms in the research of the technological aspects of energy-saving measures; and creating agreement with industrial and commerce associations

  16. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... of Potatoes From Mexico AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... vegetables to allow the importation of fresh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) from Mexico into the United.... Finally, the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Mexico would have to provide a...

  17. 78 FR 25591 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, New Mexico AGENCY: Federal Communications... transmission service at Crownpoint, New Mexico. (The symbol `` '' will be used to denote a channel reserved as... under New Mexico, is amended by adding Crownpoint, Channel 297A. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  18. 75 FR 43939 - The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... International Trade Administration The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico AGENCY: International Trade... trade mission to Mexico City with an optional second stop in Monterrey, October 25-28, 2010. This... locations, there will be an in-depth commercial briefing on the local business climate. In Mexico...

  19. 7 CFR 352.29 - Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. 352.29 Section 352.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND....29 Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. Avocados from Mexico may be moved through...

  20. 78 FR 71557 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico AGENCY: Federal Communications... Rules, by allotting FM Channel 268C2, Tohatchi, New Mexico, as a first local service under the Tribal... 0 2. Section 73.202(b), the Table of FM Allotments under New Mexico, is amended by adding...

  1. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M

    1991-09-15

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of {sup 222} Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  2. Renewable energy for productive uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a USAID/USDOE sponsored program to implement renewable energy in Mexico for productive uses. The objectives are to expand markets for US and Mexican industries, and to combat global climate change - primarily greenhouse gas emissions. The focus is on off-grid applications, with an emphasis on developing the institution structure to support the development of these industries within the country. Agricultural development is an example of the type of industry approached, where photovoltaic and wind power can be used for water pumping. There are hundreds of projects under review, and this interest has put renewables as a line item in Mexico`s rural development budget. Village power projects are being considered in the form of utility partnerships.

  3. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  4. Lower Cretaceous Dinosaur Tracks from Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén A. Rodríguez-de la Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaur tracks have been identified near San Martín Atexcal, southern Puebla, Mexico, within the sedimentary sequence of the San Juan Raya Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Albian age. The tracksite, located in the bed of the Magdalena River, reveals six different ichnofossiliferous levels identified within a 9 m thick sedimentary sequence. The inferred environment is that of a tidal (marginal marine mudflat (Level I. Level I preserves three theropods trackways (?Allosauroidea, additionally, isolated tracks belonging to iguanodontids (Ornithopoda. Level II preserves faint iguanodontid tracks. Levels III to V preserve sauropod tracks. Younger level VI preserves, although morphologically different, a track belonging to Ornithopoda. The dinosaur tracks from San Martín Atexcal support the existence of continental facies within the San Juan Raya Formation; they represent the second record of dinosaur tracks from the Lower Cretaceous of Mexico and are part of an important but little documented record of Lower Cretaceous dinosaurs in Mexico.

  5. 1983 nuclear power outlook in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic crisis has forced Mexico to reduce drastically its development plans, including the programs for electricity generation. Electricity demand is forecast to be in the range of 250-300 TWH in the year 2000, about half of previous forecasts. Mexico depends more than 90 percent on oil for its energy requirements. There are programs to diversify energy sources, especially in the electricity sector. The country can use its oil, gas, hydro, geothermal, coal and uranium resources to generate electricity at commercial costs, and there are plans to develop them all intensively. However, the economic situation, particularly the enormous foreign debt, might force the country to rely more heavily on its domestic oil for some years. In the long term nuclear power is cheaper, but its capital cost combined with the fact that Mexico's first nuclear power project is very much delayed preclude the initiation of a new nuclear power project before the economy improves

  6. Parabolic Trough Development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C.; Ramirez, R.; Huacuz, J.

    2006-07-01

    The current tendencies of the concentrating solar technologies present an excellent potential to contribute in next decades with a significant way to the electric power production and process heat for industrial uses. Concentrating solar technologies are appropriate for a wide range of applications in the process heat generation and of great utility for the industry that requires thermal energy for their processes. Among solar thermal concentrating technologies, parabolic trough technology is one of the most promising in such sense. In an industrial installation the solar system could give heat for the preheating of water and even steam generation. For testing purposes and for demonstration of the parabolic trough technology two prototypes have been developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Each prototype includes a parabolic trough concentrator 2.3 m wide and 6.9 m long, mounted on a one-axis tracking structure. Anodized aluminum sheet with a solar reflectivity of 90% was used as reflective material. These prototypes were installed in different places and provided a lot information concerning to the operation and maintenance activities, elaboration of methodological guides for the development of similar applications and the identification and establishment of mechanisms of collaboration with national industry to involve them in the technological development of parabolic trough components. Recently the IIE erected a small installation in an automobile industry of Mexico for sanitary applications. In this paper, we present the design features as well as the construction development of the prototypes. Likewise, the operational experience and the maintenance strategies on the reflective surface, the tracking system and lessons learned over the time are described. Also, the first experiences in the operation and maintenance and particular findings in the automobile industry application are presented and discussed. (Author)

  7. THE U.S./MEXICO WATER DISPUTE: IMPACTS OF INCREASED IRRIGATION IN CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rosson, C. Parr, III; Hobbs, Aaron; Adcock, Flynn J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S./Mexico Water Dispute: Impacts of Increased Irrigation in Chihuahua, Mexico. C. Parr Rosson, III, Texas A&M University, Aaron Hobbs, Texas A&M University, and Flynn Adcock, Texas A&M University. Mexico accumulated a water debt of 1.5 million acre feet to the United States while increasing its use of irrigation water by fourteen percent in Chihuahua. This paper documents recent trends in irrigated production of major crops grown in Chihuahua, estimates irrigation water use in Chihuahua...

  8. Water Desalination: Arizona, California, Nevada and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Clinton P.

    2012-01-01

    This was a study on the history of the Colorado River, the water challenges of the Lower Basin states and the international water laws that govern the United States and Mexico concerning the Colorado river. The main purpose of this study was to determine possible long-term solutions to the growing water needs of the Lower Basin states and how Mexico could help. After discussing some concerns that the Lower Basin states had, research was done on the different types of desalination. This resear...

  9. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  10. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  11. Corn market integration in porfirian Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dobado González, Rafael; Gustavo A. Marrero

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a polemic and relevant aspect of the economic history of Porfirian Mexico: the integration of agricultural domestic markets. Since corn was the staple product of the commercial agricultural sector and also the main subsistence crop, it is the protagonist of this story. Panel techniques, similar to those used by Barro and Sala-i-Martín (1992), are applied to a price convergence model. Our analysis reveals that Mexico was not an exception in the international panorama of m...

  12. Test and Demonstration Assets of New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This document was developed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a DOE/NNSA grant. The NSPP has three primary components: business incubation, workforce development, and technology demonstration and validation. The document contains a survey of test and demonstration assets in New Mexico available for external users such as small businesses with security technologies under development. Demonstration and validation of national security technologies created by incubator sources, as well as other sources, are critical phases of technology development. The NSPP will support the utilization of an integrated demonstration and validation environment.

  13. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Armond, Tina; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located around the known LkHalpha 185-189 group of stars, which includes the recently erupting FUor HBC 722.

  14. Working as a Music Therapist in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Murow

    2002-01-01

    Music therapy in Mexico is only beginning. Though there is a lot of interest in what it is and on its effect on health and personal growth, there are also a lot of misconceptions about what it really is. I have encountered that one of the obstacles for the growth of music therapy in Mexico is what I call the myths about what it is. I am sure some of them are well known to my colleagues around the world: if you play a music tape the client gets well, or just get some percussion instruments and...

  15. CFD simulations of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The wake behind a wind turbine model is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and results are compared with measurements. The turbine investigated is the three‐bladed test rotor (D = 4.5 m) used in the Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions (MEXICO) wind tunnel experiment....... During the MEXICO experiment, particle image velocimetry measurements of the induction upstream and downstream of the rotor were performed for different operating conditions, giving a unique dataset to verify theoretical models and CFD models. The present paper first describes the efforts in reproducing...

  16. Prediction of aerodynamic performance for MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Zedong; Yang, Hua; Xu, Haoran;

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the MEXICO (Model EXperiments In Controlled cOnditions) rotor at five tunnel wind speeds is predicted by making use of BEM and CFD methods, respectively, using commercial MATLAB and CFD software. Due to the pressure differences on both sides of the blade, the tip...... the reliability of the MEXICO data. Second, the SST turbulence model can better capture the flow separation on the blade and has high aerodynamic performance prediction accuracy for a horizontal axis wind turbine in axial inflow conditions. Finally, the comparisons of the axial and tangential forces as well...

  17. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  18. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cabezon Area, New Mexico (Sandoval County, New Mexico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Gas Industry Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Rosellón

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic considerations behind the regulatory policies that are being considered after the recent reforms to the gas legal framework in Mexico. These reforms let Pemex maintain its over production but allow private investment in transportarion and distribution. The main challenge for gas regulation is Mexico is to develop a competitive structure when i) the initial condition is an upstream monopoly and ii) there is a dominant competitor in transportation. The paper di...

  1. Electric power and environment in Mexico; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla, J. [ed.] [UNAM IIE-PUE, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  2. Murine Typhus in Child, Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala-Castro, Jorge E.; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.; Uicab, Justo Eduardo Sulú

    2009-01-01

    A case of murine typhus in Yucatan was diagnosed in a child with nonspecific signs and symptoms. The finding of Rickettsia typhi increases the number of Rickettsia species identified in Yucatan and shows that studies are needed to determine the prevalence and incidence of rickettsioses in Mexico.

  3. Return Migration to Mexico: Does Health Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Erika; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Teruel, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    We use data from three rounds of the Mexican Family Life Survey to examine whether migrants in the United States returning to Mexico in the period 2005-2012 have worse health than those remaining in the United States. Despite extensive interest by demographers in health-related selection, this has been a neglected area of study in the literature on U.S.-Mexico migration, and the few results to date have been contradictory and inconclusive. Using five self-reported health variables collected while migrants resided in the United States and subsequent migration history, we find direct evidence of higher probabilities of return migration for Mexican migrants in poor health as well as lower probabilities of return for migrants with improving health. These findings are robust to the inclusion of potential confounders reflecting the migrants' demographic characteristics, economic situation, family ties, and origin and destination characteristics. We anticipate that in the coming decade, health may become an even more salient issue in migrants' decisions about returning to Mexico, given the recent expansion in access to health insurance in Mexico. PMID:26385111

  4. [Typhus in Mexico City in 1915].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Martha Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    The year 1915 was particularly difficult; it was characterized by droughts, famines, and outbreaks of diseases including typhus.This text exposes its spread in Mexico City as well as the measures implemented to combat it, carried out before knowing the etiology of the illness, focused on cleaning up the environment and the measures undertaken afterwards with the aim of delousing people. PMID:27160626

  5. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe

    2016-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  6. Special Education in Mexico: One Community's Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Terry L.; Contreras, Diana; Brown, Randel

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at the history of special education in Mexico, discusses the emergence of special education programs, and examines a school for special education in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. The school provides vocational training for students with a variety of disabilities and has a partnership with the local maquiladora industry. (Contains 5…

  7. New Mexico Counties, Housing Vacancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  8. New Mexico Census Tracts, Total Population (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  9. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G.; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H.; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  10. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. PMID:25525144

  11. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs

  12. Schooling Indicators During Mexico's "Lost Decade."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    The 1980s were a "lost decade" for Latin America, due to the international debt crisis. This paper explores the lost decade's effects on schooling indicators in Mexico. Falling opportunity costs improved schooling indicators at the same time a reduced national income worsened them. Enrollment rates were stagnant. (33 references) (MLH)

  13. New Mexico Counties, Total Population (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  14. On-Line Databases in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Enzo

    1986-01-01

    Use of online bibliographic databases in Mexico is provided through Servicio de Consulta a Bancos de Informacion, a public service that provides information retrieval, document delivery, translation, technical support, and training services. Technical infrastructure is based on a public packet-switching network and institutional users may receive…

  15. Facing the Knowledge Society: Mexico's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education in Mexico faces major challenges vis-a-vis its position within the modern knowledge society, sparking concern among educational authorities. In the second half of the 20th century Mexican universities ceased to be selective, elitist schools, becoming, instead, massive institutions that reflect social and intellectual…

  16. Analysis of Mexico wind tunnel measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, J.G.; Boorsma, K.; Cho, T.;

    This report describes the work performed within the first phase of IEA Task 29 Mexnext. In this IEA Task 29 a total of 20 organisations from 11 different countries collaborated in analysing the measurements which have been taken in the EU project ‘Mexico’. Within this Mexico project 9 European...

  17. Education Reform Sparks Teacher Protest in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The current tumult in the Mexican education arena has deep roots in politics and tradition, but it is latter-day global competition and international measures of student performance that are driving reform efforts. Teacher strikes and demonstrations are not new in Mexico, but issues raised by today's protesting teachers represent a…

  18. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  19. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large

  20. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a historical overview of the energy sector in Mexico, an important player in the world energy market, whose trade and market policies support economic development and foreign investment. Trade, commerce and investment between Canada and Mexico has been increasing steadily ever since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect in January 1994. TransAlta Corporation and Westcoast Energy Inc. are two very active investors in the energy sector. Westcoast has invested in increasing natural gas and oil production from the Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico through the Campeche Natural Gas Compression Service Project and the Cantarell Nitrogen Plant. TransAlta has invested in two natural gas fired power plants which are both expected to be in service for the second quarter of 2003. These include the 252 MW Campeche facility and the 259 MW Chihuahua facility. Mexico has proven crude oil reserves of 27 billion barrels, proven natural gas reserves of 30 tcf, and in 2000 had a crude oil production of 3.4 mmbl/d, of which half was exported. The energy sector in Mexico may need about $120 billion of investment by 2010, of which half will be used for crude oil exploration and production, transportation and refining and the other half for natural gas exploration and production, transportation and distribution and power generation. Recently, the Mexican government embarked on two initiatives. The first to increase the productivity and profitability of PEMEX, the largest corporation in Mexico and one of the largest in the world, and to allow a form of private investment in the development of non-associated natural gas fields. This paper discussed the significance of the Multiple Service Contracts (MSC) program which involves domestic and international petroleum exploration and development. It also discussed forms of business organizations, taxation and structuring, financial issues, employment and the North American Free Trade Agreement

  1. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  2. Impact of the Popocatepetl's volcanic activity on the air quality of Puebla City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Gay, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Flores, Y. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    In this work we report measurements of atmospheric pollutants in Puebla City, including those registered during the period characterized by intense volcanic activity from Popocatepetl volcano between December 2000 and January 2001. We used a gaussian air dispersion model to calculate the impact of sulfur compounds from volcanic emissions on the measurements of these compounds in the stations belonging to Puebla City Atmospheric Monitoring Network. The data show that during the analyzed period, this volcanic emissions affected the air quality, increasing the indexes of PM{sub 1}0, CO and sulfur compounds. Also, the results of applying a Gaussian air dispersion model to these sulfur compounds explains the measurements from Tecnologico station for days with intense volcanic activity and wind coming from the volcano to Puebla City. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reportan mediciones de contaminantes atmosfericos en la ciudad de Puebla, incluyendo las registradas durante el periodo caracterizado por una intensa actividad del volcan Popocatepetl, entre diciembre de 200 y enero de 2001. Aplicamos un modelo de dispersion gaussiano para calcular el impacto de las emisiones volcanicas de compuestos de azufre en las mediciones de estos compuestos en las estaciones de la Red de Monitoreo Atmosferico de la ciudad de Puebla. Los datos muestran que durante el periodo analizado, las emisiones volcanicas afectaron la calidad del aire incrementando los indices de PM{sub 1}0, CO y compuestos de azufre. Ademas, los resultados del modelo gaussiano de dispersion del aire para los compuestos de azufre, explican las mediciones de la estacion Tecnologico para los dias con intensa actividad volcanica y viento viniendo del volcan hacia la ciudad de Puebla.

  3. Migration, development and remittances in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, H

    1992-06-01

    The argument is that remittances to Mexico from migrants in the US contribute to household prosperity and lessen the balance of payments problem. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the incentives and constraints to development and individual economic well-being in rural Mexico. Examination is made of the financial amount of remittances, the use of remittances, the impact on development of remittances, models of migration, and migration historically. The viewpoint is that migration satisfies labor needs in developed countries to the detriment of underdeveloped countries. $2 billion a year are sent by illegal migrants from the US to Mexico. This sum is 4 times the net earning of Mexico's tourist trade. 21.1% of the Mexican population depend in part on money sent from the US. 79% of illegal migrants remitted money to relatives in Jalisco state. 70% of migrant families receive $170/month. In Guadalupe, 73% of families depended on migrant income. In Villa Guerrero, 50% of households depended on migrant income. Migrant income supported 1 out of 5 households in Mexico. Money is usually spent of household subsistence items. Sometimes money is also spent on community religious festivals, marriage ceremonies, and education of children or improved living conditions. Examples are given of money being used for investment in land and livestock. Migration affects community solidarity, and comparative ethic, and the influence on others to migrate. Employment opportunities are not expanded and cottage and community industries are threatened. Land purchases did not result in land improvements. Migration models are deficient. There is a macro/micro dichotomy. The push-and-pull system is not controllable by individual migrants. The migration remittance model is a product of unequal development and a mechanism feeding migration. Mexican migration has occurred since the 1880's; seasonal migration was encouraged. There was coercion to return to Mexico after the

  4. Expansion of nuclear power in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mexico has a Nuclear Power Plant located at Laguna Verde Veracruz. It has two General Electric BWR reactors of 680 MWe each, The first reactor started operating in 1990 and the second one in 1995. Nuclear power contributes about 4.4 % of the total electricity produced in Mexico. The Mexican regulatory body has given the two reactors an operation license of 30 years. The Laguna Verde Nuclear Plant was uprated to 5% of its nominal capacity in 1999 and at the moment there is an ongoing project to uprate it to 20%, this however, implies changing major components such as the turbines. At the present time there are not government official plans to built new NPPs in Mexico; however studies about de technical and economical feasibility new nuclear capacity are being carried out by the CFE and the Mexican Nuclear Research Institute. In Mexico the production of nuclear power is reserved to the state trough Federal Electricity Commission (CFE). The Program of Works and Investment of the Electrical Sector (POISE) is an annual national electricity program prepared by CFE taking into account the electricity needs for the following 10 years. The Mexican government has stated in the POISE 2009-2018 plans to install close to 18,000 MWe by the year 2018 of new electricity capacity, of this amount 15,500 MWe will be produced using conventional sources and 2,500 MWe will be defined in the future considering technologies that can include nuclear power. The most viable option to increase nuclear capacity in Mexico besides the current reactors uprate program is to build new reactors in the same site of Laguna Verde. This site was originally planed to house up to 4 reactors. Another very important issue is the operational license extension to at least 60 years, this can only be archived through a life extension program which is currently underway. The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute has been carrying out a materials surveillance program to determine the current state of the

  5. Dyslipidemias and obesity in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Barquera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe in a national sample 1 the mean total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDLc and triglyceride (TG concentrations, 2 the prevalence of the most common lipid abnormalities and 3 the association between obesity and these conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the nationally representative, cross-sectional Me-xican Health Survey (2000. The final analytic sample used consisted of 2 351 individuals at fasting state. TC, HDLc and TG were determined. BMI was classified according to the WHO cut-off points. Sex-specific means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated by age group for TC, HDLc and TG. The prevalence of: a hypercholesterolemia (HC, b hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA, c hypertriglyceridemia (HT, d HT with HA and e HC with HT was calculated adjusting for age. Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to analyze the association of obesity to the prevalence of dyslipidemias. RESULTS: The mean TC, HDLc, and TG concentrations were: 197.5 mg/dl (95% CI= 194.0, 201.1, 38.4 mg/dl (95% CI= 37.2, 39.5 and 181.7 mg/dl (95% CI= 172.7, 190.6, respectively. HC was present in 40.5% of the adult females (95% CI=35.5, 45.4 and 44.6 of the adult males (95% CI=37.7, 51.4; HA was the most prevalent form of dyslipidemia, present in 64.7% (95% CI=58.7, 70.8 and 61.4% (95% CI=54.4, 68.3 of females and males, respectively. Obesity increased ~1.4 times the probability ratio (PR of having HC among women and 1.9 among men. CONCLUSION: TC concentrations from our study in Mexico were similar to those found for Mexican-Americans and the prevalence of HC was slightly lower than the one reported in the US; however, it increased ~26% from 1988 to 2000. HA was the most frequent lipid abnormality followed by HT. Regions showed no significant differences, contrary to what has been previously reported.OBJETIVO: Describir en una muestra nacional las concentraciones de 1 colesterol total (CT, colesterol-HDL (cHDL y triglic

  6. Trade liberalisation in Mexico: rhetoric and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennelope Pacheco-Lopez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalisation in Mexico started in a significant way in 1985/86, and was consolidated by the NAFTA agreement 1994. Mexico was expected to benefit in terms of increased export growth, employment, real wages, and above all, a faster rate of economic growth. In practice, there has been a divorce between rhetoric and reality. The growth of GDP post-liberalisation has been only one-half that pre-liberalisation. This paper gives three explanations. Firstly, export growth has hardly changed. Secondly, there has been a sharp increase in the propensity to import (partly related to US direct foreign investment which has reduced the growth of GDP consistent with a sustainable balance of payments equilibrium on current account. Thirdly, liberalisation has been used as a substitute for a development strategy.

  7. A new AMS facility in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, C.; Chávez-Lomelí, E.; Ortiz, M. E.; Huerta, A.; Andrade, E.; Barrios, E.

    2014-07-01

    A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system has been installed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). A sample preparation chemistry laboratory equipped with computer controlled graphitization equipment (AGEIII) has also been established. Together both facilities constitute the LEMA (Laboratorio de Espectrometría de Masas con Aceleradores) first of its kind in Mexico. High sensitivity characterization of the concentration in a sample of 14C as well as 10Be, 26Al, 129I and Pu are now possible. Since the demand for 14C dating is far more abundant, a data analysis program was developed in the cross-platform programming language Python in order to calculate radiocarbon age. Results from installation, acceptance tests and the first results of 14C analyses of reference materials prepared in our own facility are presented.

  8. A new AMS facility in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system has been installed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). A sample preparation chemistry laboratory equipped with computer controlled graphitization equipment (AGEIII) has also been established. Together both facilities constitute the LEMA (Laboratorio de Espectrometría de Masas con Aceleradores) first of its kind in Mexico. High sensitivity characterization of the concentration in a sample of 14C as well as 10Be, 26Al, 129I and Pu are now possible. Since the demand for 14C dating is far more abundant, a data analysis program was developed in the cross-platform programming language Python in order to calculate radiocarbon age. Results from installation, acceptance tests and the first results of 14C analyses of reference materials prepared in our own facility are presented

  9. Mexico, maquiladoras, and occupational medicine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, D H; Rea, D F; Schwartz, I; Rea, J

    1989-01-01

    Industrialization and its concomitant social and environmental effects in developing countries are considered in this paper. Mexico offers one example of economic progress achieved through the promotion of industrial growth. Recognising the need for trained experts with global experience in occupational health, the University of Arizona (UA) has begun a programme to train occupational and preventive medicine residents in international aspects of occupational health in the nearby industrialized border regions of Mexico. By using the maquiladora (assembly plant) industries and the resources of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with the State of Sonora, residents observe existing problems in occupational safety and health in addition to adding to their understanding of the need for worldwide cooperation for research and reform in this field. PMID:2719874

  10. American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990-2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1-3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  11. Total economic value of forests in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure to account for the numerous functions and economic uses of forests have led to patterns of global forest use with many detrimental environmental consequences. This study demonstrates the economic techniques for estimating the Total Economic Value (TEV) for forests. For the Mexican forest estate, the results show an annual lower bound value of the services of the total forest area to be in the order of USD 4 billion. This aggregate value stems from the nonmarketed services provided by nonconsumptive use; from future potential uses of the genetic resources and from pure existence values; and the largest proportion of economic value coming from the functional values of hydrological and carbon cycling. However, only a proportion of this value can be feasibly be 'captures' within Mexico; much of the benefit of Mexico's forests falls outside the country's borders, and is therefore not considered by forest users or national policy makers. 79 refs, 1 fig, 7 tabs

  12. Country nuclear fuel cycle profile: Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two BWRs at the Laguna Verde facility, which have a combined capacity of 1308 MW(e), generated 5% of domestic electricity production (9.6 TW.h) in 2002. mexico has not yet decided about its nuclear fuel cycle policy. The Mining Development Commission operated a plant at Villa Aldama, Chihuahua from 1969 to 1971. The facility recovered molybdenum and byproduct uranium from ores mined in the Sierra de Gomez, Domitilia and other localities. A total of 49 t U was produced. At present, there are no plans to resume uranium production. Uranium enrichment is not undertaken domestically, requirements being met by USEC Inc., USA. Fuel fabrication requirements are met by GNF, USA. A fuel fabrication facility (capacity 5 t HM/a) of the Centro Nuclear de Mexico BWR was in operation from 1980 to 1996 when it was shut down for economic reasons. Spent fuel is stored at the reactor site

  13. Gulf of Mexico forecasts : the dead sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future gas supply potential from the offshore Gulf of Mexico region was discussed with particular emphasis on the issue of whether there is enough growth potential to satisfy the anticipated growth in power generation markets. In 1980, a forecasted decrease in gas supply proved to be wrong. In fact, supply actually increased and productivity in the Gulf of Mexico has been relatively stable since 1982. A significant growth has been forecasted for 1997 to 2010. This growth will coincide with a large growth in gas demand in the northeastern U.S. The fact that electric power generation is changing hands adds to the opportunities in the northeast. It was emphasized that Canadian supply must be present to compete. 1 tab., 16 figs

  14. A new AMS facility in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solís, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Chávez-Lomelí, E.; Ortiz, M.E.; Huerta, A.; Andrade, E.; Barrios, E.

    2014-07-15

    A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system has been installed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). A sample preparation chemistry laboratory equipped with computer controlled graphitization equipment (AGEIII) has also been established. Together both facilities constitute the LEMA (Laboratorio de Espectrometría de Masas con Aceleradores) first of its kind in Mexico. High sensitivity characterization of the concentration in a sample of {sup 14}C as well as {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 129}I and Pu are now possible. Since the demand for {sup 14}C dating is far more abundant, a data analysis program was developed in the cross-platform programming language Python in order to calculate radiocarbon age. Results from installation, acceptance tests and the first results of {sup 14}C analyses of reference materials prepared in our own facility are presented.

  15. Laguna Verde: the nuclear debate in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico in planning to start up its first nuclear power station at Laguna Verde in the state of Veracruz (1988). The history of the plant is traced; it should have been finished by 1974. Both the fuel and the technology have been imported from the United States for Laguna Verde. The design, a Mark II Boiling Water Reactor, is controversial and there are doubts as to its safety. Opposition to the plant on safety and environmental grounds has grown. In April 1987 a 'Chernobyl anniversary' demonstration had 10,000 protesters and opponents of the plant are becoming more militant. The main opposition is from environmental and 'Green' groups but also includes intellectuals. However, politically, Mexico would find it embarrassing to cancel the plant and also it wants to be seen as a 'First World' rather than a 'Third World' country. (U.K.)

  16. 76 FR 61695 - Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AGENCY Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary) AGENCY: Environmental... the Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary) for public review and... Mexico Ecosystem Restoration Strategy. Additionally, the Task Force was instructed to build upon...

  17. The future of nuclear power in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power in Mexico shows interesting aspects: the nuclear power is the source of energy that can supply large proportions of energy, that the country needs; the Kw/h of nuclear power is the most economic energy; the installation of 20 nucleoelectric plants will grant future jobs, the associated nuclear industry can be nationally integrated in the natural uranium cycle. (author)

  18. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  19. Are tortillas a Giffen Good in Mexico?

    OpenAIRE

    David Mckenzie

    2002-01-01

    Jensen and Miller (2001) have recently demonstrated rice and noodles to be Giffen Goods among the poor in South and North China respectively. We examine whether tortillas, the main staple in Mexico, are also a Giffen Good. The large income change due to the 1995 Peso Crisis and the large tortilla price increase arising from the removal of government subsidies provide an ideal environment for this test. We find tortillas to be an inferior good, but not a Giffen Good.

  20. Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.

  1. Education and earnings inequality in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lachler, Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    Education attainment levels increased dramatically for Mexico's labor force in the 1980s and early 1990s. In parallel, the country experienced a pronounced increase in earnings inequality from 1984-94, reflected in a higher dispersion of wages and an absolute decline in the real incomes of less educated, poorer Mexicans. This increased wage dispersion presents policymakers with a tradeoff between efficiency considerations (favoring increased spending on higher education) and equity considerat...

  2. Exports, imports, FDI and GDP in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José Romero

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization on economic growth for Mexico. A four-variable vector autoregression (VAR) is used to study the relationships between trade, FDI and economic growth using quarterly data from 1989 to 2013. The estimated results from the Granger causality/Block exogeneity test show that economic growth is affected by real non-oil exports, real imports and real foreign direct investment. There is only one bidirectional causality, that between GDP an FDI, and...

  3. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  4. Evaluation of atmospheric corrosion in Orizaba, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. RAMÍREZ-REYES; J. URUCHURTU-CHAVARÍN; J. Genescá; R. Longoria-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the atmospheric aggressiveness in the city of Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Atmospheric corrosiveness map of the state of Veracruz project, developed by Universidad Veracruzana from 2007 to 2008. The corrosiveness in marine, industrial and rural environments was determined with the standard method of bolt and wire, and the corrosion levels throughout flat samples of mild steel, galvanized steel, copper and aluminum in accordance to ISO 9223. The corrosion prod...

  5. Geomagnetic anomalies observed at volcano Popocatepetl, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsarenko, A.; V. Grimalsky; R. Pérez Enríquez; Yutsis, V.; Koshevaya, S.; J. A. López Cruz-Abeyro; Valdez-Gonzalez, C.; Villegas Cerón, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of the ULF geomagnetic monitoring of the volcano Popocatepetl (Mexico) and their analysis are summarized and presented for the period 2003–2006. Our analysis reveals some anomalies which are considered to be of local volcanic origin: the EM background in the vicinity of the volcano was found to be significantly noisier than at other reference stations; sporadic strong noise-like geomagnetic activity was observed in the H-component; some geomagnetic pulsations were observed o...

  6. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality policies. This paper describes the programs that are being used to fulfill the three tasks of the project: air pollution modeling and simulation, air pollution monitoring, and strategic evaluation. The two lead institutions for this project are the Mexican Petroleum Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  7. Water Markets in Mexico: Opportunities and Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Trava, Jose L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the Government of Mexico initiated a new national water law which decentralised water resources management and allowed the market transfer of water-use concessions between individual irrigators. These reforms were expected to improve water resources management through greater user participation in irrigation management, as well as to increase irrigators incentives to improve water-use efficiency. At the time of its proposal the 1992 Federal Water Law was considered to the first step ...

  8. Unions and Job Queuing in Mexico's Maquiladoras

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Otero; Jose Pagan

    2002-01-01

    The U.S.-Mexico border region has experienced substantial economic growth over the last two decades; nonetheless, employment and wage growth has been uneven across the border cities with a high maquiladora presence. We hypothesize that these growth differences can be traced to relative labor union power. Using microdata from the 1998 National Urban Employment Survey, we find evidence of job queuing in Mexico’s maquiladoras. Queuing seems to be stronger in cities with powerful labor unions suc...

  9. Agricultural Policy and Rural Poverty in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    John Scott

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture and rural development policies in Mexico have experienced a profound reform process over the last two decades, including the ejido reform of 1992, the liberalisation of agricultural markets under the North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta, between 1994 to 2008), and the introduction of new instruments of agricultural support (Procampo, Aserca, Alianza para el Campo) and rural poverty alleviation (Progresa/Oportunidades, FAIS, PET). The study presents an assessment of these ref...

  10. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were...

  11. Crime and growth convergence : evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Enamorado, Ted; López-Calva, Luis F.; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have often argued that crime deters growth, but the empirical literature assessing such effect is scarce. By exploiting cross-municipality income and crime data for Mexico -- a country that experienced a high increase in crime rates over the past decade -- this study circumvents two of the most common problems faced by researchers in this area. These are: (i) the lack of a homogen...

  12. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  13. Use of Medicinal Plants in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Enrique GONZÁLEZ-STUART

    2010-01-01

    Mexico has a rich tradition in medicinal plant use within its diverse traditional healing practices. Many people have used medicinal herbs to treat a variety of diseases and ailments for many generations. Located in the northeast, Monterrey is Mexico’s third largest city and one of the most industrialized cities in Latin America. In spite of widespread use of modern pharmaceuticals, and the availability of "scientific" or mainstream medicine in this city, many people still rely on traditional...

  14. Commercialization and consumption of coffee in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Velazquez

    2014-01-01

    This work presents advances of the doctoral thesis 'Commercialization and consumption of coffee in Mexico' under the governance approach proposed by Korzeniewicks (1994), Gereffi, Humphrey, Gereffi and Sturgeon (2005) and Ponte and Gibbon (2008). First, the paper discussed the theoretical framework of global value chains, from where it came and what is the history of art until today. The first version of governance refers to the domain of global value chains in a sense of control; the second ...

  15. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications

  16. Right To Public Information Regulation In Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Rosales García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes the legal nature and the usefulness of the right to information, is special in the case of Mexico. So it will be a study of the right to public information, in order to understand its origin and utility; then analyze the establishment and evolution in Mexican positive and discover its use as a mechanism for transparent use of public resources and the accountability of the State authorities.

  17. The Honeymoon of China and Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hellen

    2008-01-01

    @@ For China and Mexico,the just past July 2008 is their "honeymoon", as their relations have been consolidated by a series of big events. Only three days later after Mexican President Felipe Calderon Hinoiosa met his counterpart Hun Jintao at G8, he paid an official visit to China on July 9, and agreed with Chinese top leaders on some significant issues. It was the first China tour that Calderon paid since he took office in December 2006.

  18. Foreign investment in Mexico after economic reform

    OpenAIRE

    Máttar, Jorge; Moreno Brid, Juan Carlos; Peres Núñez, Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Since the mid-1980s the Mexican economy has undergone a process of deep economic reform designed to shift away from the more inward-oriented development model that Mexico had followed until then. The main purpose of these reforms was to privilege market mechanisms in economic activities, which meant reducing the state's direct and indirect involvement in the economy. Some of these economic reforms have been completed, some are still in process, and still ...

  19. Mexico's financial vulnerability: then and now

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Quintin; Jose Joaquin Lopez

    2006-01-01

    Financial turmoil dots Mexico’s recent economic history. Between 1975 and 1995, the nation experienced recurrent currency, debt and banking crises with devastating effects on real economic activity. ; In Mexico, election years often heighten the risk of financial instability. Debt defaults or massive devaluations—or both—have accompanied three of the past five presidential elections. Given that history, it’s not surprising that questions about Mexico’s financial vulnerability have arisen with...

  20. Økonomisk udvikling, Handelsaftaler og Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kamper Holbøll, Tine; Hilge Thygesen, Sofie

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the different perspectives on economic development, free trade and the economic developmental potential of trade agreements. This will be done through the views of modernization theory, structuralism and neoliberalism. Thereafter we analyze NAFTAs influence on the economic development of Mexico. The project shows that there is little agreement between the views of modernization theory, structuralism and neoliberalism, besides the fact that they all strive for economi...

  1. INAA of aerosol samples in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total solid particles (TSP), respirable particles (RP) PM10 and 17 metallic pollutants were measured in dwellings in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley (MZMV) by gravimetry and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Monitoring was performed in Northeast, Center, Southeast and Southwest Zones in the winter and spring seasons. In general, the average concentration of contaminants (derived from industrial activities) that we have determined have increased with time. TSP and RP PM10 are often above the US and Mexican norms. (author)

  2. Effective access to health care in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Dolci, Germán Fajardo; Ávila, Mauricio Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining fin...

  3. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2:...

  4. Nuclear energy an opportunity for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to present, in a clear and concrete way, the results presented in the book -Nuclear energy an opportunity for Mexico- this book was prepared to evaluate the feasibility of constructing a new nuclear power plant in Mexico considering the evident worldwide rise of the nuclear energy as a way to produce electricity. The worldwide nuclear power renaissance is based on several factors, some of the most important are the uncertainty about the availability and behavior of fossil fuels, the impacts of the green house gases over the environment; improvements in the design and construction process that allow to reduce the construction periods; the competitiveness of nuclear power with other clean technologies and the experience of the nuclear power plant fleet that has shown performance indicators that exceed other technologies. Also, the competitiveness of the nuclear power as base load to satisfy the electricity demand. This book include the actual situation of the nuclear power in the world and the challenges and opportunities to incorporate additional nuclear power plants in Mexico, with the aim of satisfy the future electricity demand, in harmony with the environment and in a secure and safety way. Nonetheless, by itself a nuclear power plant is not the entire or only solution for the environmental and security of supply issues, but nuclear power is a main part of the integral solution where renewable and new clean technologies (e.g. carbon capture and storage and integrated gasification combined cycle) plays an important role. Nowadays, several countries go forward for the use or nuclear power, reinforcing and in some cases restarting their nuclear power programs, Mexico should not be the exception, nuclear power deserves to be included in the portfolio of generation technologies in the future years. The main advantages of nuclear power, as well as the most questionable issues are deeply discussed in the book. (Author)

  5. Predicting Exchange Rate Crises: Mexico Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    1990-01-01

    This paper predicts ex-ante the probability of currency crises end size of expected devaluations month by month for Mexico between 1980 and 1986 using a heterodox linear discrete time model of exchange rate crises. The forces contributing to speculative attacks on the Mexican peso include internal money creation, external credit shocks, and relative price shocks. The framework proves highly successful for generating forecasts of the probability of speculative attacks on the peso and for predi...

  6. Mexico's 2014 Public Interest Design Award

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Francesca; PENNACCHIO, ROBERTO

    2014-01-01

    Design students in Mexico City and Turin, Italy paired up with an NGO in Oaxaca to help a local cooperative build a center for technological innovation. The experimental center is a space to explore low-tech and low-cost innovative technologies, which will lead to a stronger local economy in the future. The built project was designed to incorporate local construction culture and improve thermal properties with local materials, resulting in the use of traditional tejamanil wood shingles and ra...

  7. Marketing a destination: Case of CreateTrips and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tiainen, Johanna; Korvenpää, Emmi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on Finnish people travelling to Mexico. Firstly, the writers conduct a quantitative research, a questionnaire, that studies Finnish people’s thoughts and presumptions about Mexico. Secondly, they create mobile travel guides of four different destinations. The questionnaire concentrates on the people’s point of view, asking what people think about Mexico, on what kind of trip would they go it they travel there, how long it would last and so on. The questionnaire also h...

  8. Did NAFTA really cause Mexico's high maquiladora growth?

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Gruben

    2001-01-01

    Although Mexico's maquiladora or in-bond plant system is an important and well-recognized component of Mexico-U.S. trade, the connection between the acceleration in maquiladora growth and NAFTA is less clearly understood. A broad cross-section of maquiladora observers - including journalists, political activists, industry analysts, and professors -- argue that Mexico's maquiladoras have been strongly influenced by NAFTA and have grown rapidly as a result. There are reasons to wonder if these ...

  9. Mexico: one of the last great emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican government's proposed reform of the electricity industry and its efforts to raise capital from the private sector are examined. The restructuring of the industry, the expansion of the natural gas projects in the Frontera US/Mexico border region, and the market potential along the border are discussed. Details of Mexico's electricity generation projects are tabulated, and Mexico/US electricity and natural gas prices for 1998-1999 are plotted. (UK)

  10. Is DDT use a public health problem in Mexico?

    OpenAIRE

    López-Carrillo, L; Torres-Arreola, L; Torres-Sánchez, L; Espinosa-Torres, F; Jiménez, C.; Cebrián, M.; Waliszewski, S; Saldate, O

    1996-01-01

    We review the potential impact of DDT on public health in Mexico. DDT production and consumption patterns in Mexico during the last 20 years are described and compared with those in the United States. In spite of the restrictions on DDT use in antimalaria campaigns in Mexico, use of DDT is still higher than in other Latin American countries. We analyzed information from published studies to determine accumulated levels of this insecticide in blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples from...

  11. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Hernández-Camacho; Raúl Francisco Pineda-López; María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo; Germinal Jorge Cantó-Alarcón; Robert Wallace Jones; Marco Antonio Moreno-Pérez; Juan Joel Mosqueda-Gualito; Salvador Zamora-Ledesma; Brenda Camacho-Macías

    2016-01-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the ...

  12. Mexico's crisis: looking back to assess the future

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Gould

    1995-01-01

    Mexico's most recent economic crisis took many in the international business community by surprise. In early December 1994, the Blue Chip consensus forecast for 1995 Mexican real GDP growth was 3.8 percent. A few weeks later, on December 20, the devaluation of the Mexican peso rocked international financial markets. What first appeared to be a minor correction in Mexico's nominal exchange rate quickly developed into a broader financial crunch felt in and outside Mexico. The Mexican government...

  13. Mexico's año horrible: global crisis stings economy

    OpenAIRE

    Edward C. Skelton; Erwan Quintin

    2009-01-01

    Initial optimism has been replaced by increasingly dire predictions for Mexico's near-term economic outlook in response to the global economic slump. World trade flows have dried up, which is particularly damaging for nations like Mexico whose economic activity depends critically on exports. At the same time, international financial uncertainty led investors to withdraw capital from emerging markets. Mexico was also confronted with a number of idiosyncratic shocks: a crackdown on drug cartels...

  14. Impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on Bilateral Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuyo ANDO; Urata, Shujiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on bilateral trade by using two different types of information, trade statistics and the EPA utilization rate. Using trade data, we found that Japan's exports of built-up cars, auto parts, base metals, electrical machinery, precision machinery, and ballpoint pens to Mexico increased sharply. We also found that Japan's imports of live animals and products, leather, and footwear with leather from Mexico increased significantly. These are s...

  15. Foreign Direct Investment and Relative Wages: Evidence from Mexico's Maquiladoras

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Feenstra; Gordon H. Hanson

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the increase in the relative wages of skilled workers in Mexico during the 1980s. We argue that rising wage inequality in Mexico is linked to capital inflows from abroad. The effect of these capital inflows, which correspond to an increase in outsourcing by multinationals from the United States and other Northern countries, is to shift production in Mexico towards relatively skill-intensive goods thereby increasing the relative demand for skilled labor. We study the ...

  16. MEXICO CITY'S MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso DURÁN MORENO; Manuel GARCÉS RODRÍGUEZ; Adriana Rocío VELASCO; Juan Carlos MARÍN ENRIQUEZ; Rafaela GUTIÉRREZ LARA; Abril MORENO GUTIÉRREZ; Norma Angélica DELGADILLO HERNÁNDEZ

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City generates approximately 12 500 000 kg of municipal solid wastes (MSW) a day. Nowadays, waste management of the refuse material is of high concern since the local landfill has reached its limit capacity and its closure is imminent, thereby alternative disposal methods must be evaluated. The objective of this paper is to analyze the composition of MSW produced in Mexico City through a sampling campaign. In comparison to previous official reports of Mexico Citys MSW characterization,...

  17. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. PMID:26449505

  18. ENDEMIC ORTHOPOXVIRUS CIRCULATING IN PROCYONIDS IN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Emerson, Ginny L; Martínez-Martínez, Flor O; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Ramírez-Cid, Citlali; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Gual-Sill, Fernando; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Carroll, Darin S

    2016-07-01

    Limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are widespread in the US (e.g., Raccoonpox virus, Skunkpox virus, Volepox virus) and Brazil (Vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. Mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for OPXV infections has been found (Oryzomys, Peromyscus, Microtus, and Procyonidae). The presence of these groups of mammals in Mexico and the evidence of their possible involvement in the maintenance of OPXV in nature suggest the same or similar OPXV are circulating in Mexico. We tested 201 sera from 129 procyonids via modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) to estimate OPXV antibody prevalence in these animals. We detected a prevalence of 16.67% in Nasua narica (white-nosed coati), 35% in Procyon lotor (raccoon), and 30.4% in Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat) when tested by either ELISA or WB. Western blot results presented protein bands consistent with the size of some OPXV immunodominant bands (14, 18, 32, 36, and 62 kDa). These results support the hypothesis that OPXV circulate in at least three genera of Procyonidae in Central and Southeast Mexico. PMID:27224209

  19. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

  20. Manufacturing poverty: the maquiladorization of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Botz, D

    1994-01-01

    Based on interviews with social workers, attorneys, feminists, union activists, and factory workers, the author argues that the maquiladora free trade zone of Northern Mexico portends developments under the North American Free Trade Agreement. Today some 500,000 Mexican workers labor in 2,000 factories for $4.50 a day in Mexico's maquiladoras. Two-thirds of the workers are women, many single women who head their households. These women work in the new, modern manufacturing plants in industrial parks, but live in squalid shantytowns without adequate water, sewage, or electricity. On the job, workers face exposures to toxic chemicals and dangerous work processes. The Mexican government does not have the political will, the trained personnel, or the equipment to monitor these occupational health problems. While Mexico's Constitution and labor laws guarantee workers the right to organize, bargain collectively, and strike, in practice the state controls the unions and opposes worker activism. In the face of employer and state repression workers are forced to organize secretly to fight for higher wages and safer conditions. PMID:7928008

  1. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Postgraduate Professional Pedagogical Education In Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhyzhko Olena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of scientific comparative-pedagogical research, which purpose was to highlight the main features of postgraduate professional pedagogical education in Mexico. The author found that the postgraduate professional pedagogical education in Mexico is performed by public and private higher education institutions: higher pedagogical schools, universities, autonomous universities, tecnological universities, technological institutes, research institutions, institutions of postgraduate education. Despite common goals, public and private institutions performed the posgraduate profesional pedagogical education on various organizational and procedural schemes. The main characteristics of postgraduate professional pedagogical education in Mexico are a relatively recent launch of the first programs (70-ies of the twentieth century; the rapid development of postgraduate professional pedagogical education in the 80-ies - 90-ies years of the XX century; the relative uniformity of its distribution between the state (61.1 % and private (39.9 % universities; careful surveillance of public higher pedagogical education quality through periodic programs’s evaluation; various thematic orientation of the programs; low rates of the ultimate effectiveness (the number of graduates, who received a diploma.

  3. [Serological study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The results of 4 043 bovine sera samples from various Mexican regions, which were sent to a diagnosis lab, were analyzed. The method was the agglutination technique, taking the dilution rate 1:1000 or higher as positive. The analysis revealed 31,1% of seroprevalence and the most frequent serovarietes were hardjo (strain H 89 isolated in Mexico), wolffi and tarassovi. There is coincidence with early data obtained in Mexico on a 34% of prevalence found in a similar study performed in 1994, and with the scientific literature from other countries. The former study also indicated that tarassovi and wolffi were the most common leptospira, so there is coincidence with the figures in the reviewed literature. It was concluded that there was no significant variation in the prevalence rate between the 1994 study and the present one; therefore, it is recommended that this study be promoted so as to increase the bovine vaccination and achieve a reduction in leptospirosis in Mexico. PMID:15846936

  4. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico; Analisis FODA de la industria nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C., E-mail: edelmiraf@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  5. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  6. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  7. Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest of public and policy makers due to his potential role in long term strategies aiming to reduce the risk of global warming and in a more general, to carry out sustainable policies, however, any project of nuclear nature arise concerns about the risks associated with the release of radioactivity during accident conditions, radioactive waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then in light of the likeliness for a new nuclear project in Mexico, is necessary to design a strategy to improve the social acceptance of nuclear power. This concern is been boarding since the environmental and economic point of view. The information that can change the perception of nuclear energy towards increase public acceptance, should be an honest debate about the benefits of nuclear energy, of course there are questions and they have to be answered, but in a realistic and scientific way: So thinking in Mexico as a first step it is important to communicate to the government entities and political parties that nuclear energy is a proven asset that it is emission free and safe. Of course besides the guarantee of a proven technology, clean and safe relies the economic fact, and in Mexico this could be the most important aspect to communicate to key people in government. Based in the Laguna Verde survey it is clear that we have to find the adequate means to distribute the real information concerning nuclear technology to the public, because the results shows that Mexican people does not have complete information about nuclear energy, but public can support it when they have enough information. From the IAEA study we can say that in Mexico public acceptance of nuclear energy it s not so bad, is the highest percentage of acceptance of nuclear technology for health, considering benefits to the environment Mexican opposition to build new plants is the second less percentage, and generally speaking 60% of the people accept somehow nuclear

  8. The Mayans in Chiapas, Mexico: Past and Present. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jari Taylor

    This unit is designed for a second-year Spanish language class. The focus is on the Mayans and the 1994 Zapatista uprising in Chiapas (Mexico). The topics addressed include: (1) the Mayans' historical problems; (2) the 1994 rebellion in Chiapas; and (3) the reactions of the world and of the Mexican federal government to the rebellion. Suggestions…

  9. The World of Ancient Mexico. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1997 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsohar, Elizabeth

    This unit provides background information and activities about ancient Mexico including the Olmecs, the Mayans, the Toltecs, the Zapotecs and Mixtecs, and the Aztecs. Brief readings are followed by activities that cover a wide range of subjects within each culture. Illustrations throughout the text highlight the topics. A 24-item bibliography…

  10. Mexico, Past and Present. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamken, Mary

    This curriculum unit focuses on the Aztec settlement in Mesoamerica comparing it with present-day Mexico. The unit is oriented to teach basic communicative skills to beginning English language learners in small groups of approximately five students. It helps Mexican Spanish-speaking students embrace their own culture and build on their prior…

  11. Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Gas Industry Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rosellón

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the economic considerations behind the regulatory policies that are being considered after the recent reforms to the gas legal framework in Mexico. These reforms let Pemex maintain its over production but allow private investment in transportarion and distribution. The main challenge for gas regulation is Mexico is to develop a competitive structure when i the initial condition is an upstream monopoly and ii there is a dominant competitor in transportation. The paper discusses the solutions that are being designed during the elaboration of the gas regulatory framework. The main purpose is to describe how economic policy is responding to a fast evolving phenomena and to suggest topics for future research. This paper addresses the economic considerations behind the regulatory policies that are being considered after the recent reforms to the gas legal framework in Mexico. These reforms let Pemex maintain its over production but allow private investment in transportarion and distribution. The main challenge for gas regulation is Mexico is to develop a competitive structure when i the initial condition is an upstream monopoly and ii there is a dominant competitor in transportation. The paper discusses the solutions that are being designed during the elaboration of the gas regulatory framework. The main purpose is to describe how economic policy is responding to a fast evolving phenomena and to suggest topics for future research.

  12. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  13. Suicide Notes in Mexico: What Do They Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Hernandez, Ana-Maria; Paramo, Daniel; Leenaars, Antoon A.; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2006-01-01

    According to international and Mexican official statistics, there is a dramatic rise in suicide in Mexico; however, research in this area is severely limited. This is the first study of suicide notes from Mexico in the international literature. From a population of 747 registered suicides, a sample of 106 note-writers and 106 nonnote writers was…

  14. Agricultural Policy and Child Health in Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Antoinette B.; Partridge, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the impact on malnutrition of Mexico's Sistema de Alementacion Mexicana (SAM) program, which tried to make the country self-sufficient in basic foods. Concludes that the food problem in Mexico is not so much one of production as it is a problem of distribution and consumption. (PS)

  15. Border Controls, Public Policy, Immigration, and Trade with Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr; Sprinkle, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    A review is conducted of economic relations between Mexico and the United States in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks. Topics covered include cross-border commuting patterns, merchandise trade flows, immigration, and structural adjustment efforts in Mexico. Potential outcomes associated with a bi-lateral, temporary guest worker program proposal for the United States are also examined.

  16. EC-LEDS Mexico: Advancing Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    EC-LEDS works with the government of Mexico to help meet its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. The program targets specific, highly technical areas where Mexico has indicated the program can add value and make an impact.

  17. Problem Gambling in New Mexico: 1996 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Randall; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip; Woodall, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Included in both the 1996 and 1998 Survey of Gambling Behavior in New Mexico was a scale of individual problem gambling. To assess problems related to gambling behavior, questions were developed using the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. The purpose of this paper is to describe problem gamblers in New Mexico. Descriptive data indicate…

  18. University and Government in Mexico: Autonomy in an Authoritarian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel C.

    The relationship between the authoritarian state and higher education in Mexico is examined in this case study. Focus is on the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) since it receives 40 percent of the federal budget for higher education, which makes it a prime example of autonomy within an authoritarian political system. Using three…

  19. Onate's Foot: Remembering and Dismembering in Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyzes the historical construction of "Spanish" icons in northern New Mexico and the complex Hispanic and Chicano identities they both evoke and mask. It focuses on the January 1998 vandalism of a statue depicting New Mexico's first Spanish colonial governor, Don Juan de Onate. The removal of the Onate statue's foot references a…

  20. Mexico : Program Escuelas de Calidad--School Autonomy and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Mexico's Programa de Escuelas de Calidad (PEC) combines increased funding per student with significant training to principals in school management practices, especially in areas of parent participation, planning, organization, and accountability. Mexico began PEC as its first school-based management program in 2001. The program provides a fixed-amount, cash grant to schools in exchange for...

  1. The Practice of Psychotherapy in Mexico: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Marcella D.; Frels, Rebecca K.; Chavez, Rafael Reyes; Sharma, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the history of psychotherapy in Mexico and describes past and current practices of psychological services, training, and supervision for Mexican international students in the United States. Sample curricula, texts, and universities in Mexico are listed. Implications for training underscore the importance of collaboration and…

  2. Educational Planning and Social Forecasting: The Case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruero, Juan Carlos; Reboredo, Maria Teresa

    1987-01-01

    Discusses Mexico's "National Plan of Higher Education, 1981-1991" in conjunction with other plans concerning this nation's demography, economic growth, increasing urbanization, and science and technological system. Mexico's educational plan was hampered by an unexpected economic crisis in 1982 that drastically reduced the GNP and caused a 60…

  3. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... sessions. July 6, 2010. Alan E. Koss, Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  4. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing...-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  5. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... notice in the Federal Register of April 7, 2011 (76 FR 19382). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in...

  6. Social Class in English Language Education in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gopar, Mario E.; Sughrua, William

    2014-01-01

    This article explores social class in English-language education in Oaxaca, Mexico. To this end, first, we discuss social class in Mexico as related to coloniality; second, for illustration, the paper presents the authors' own social-class analysis as language educators in Oaxaca; third, we discuss how social class impacts English education…

  7. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... notice in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72721). The hearing was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  8. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Register of January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1082). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on January, 20, 2012... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... reasonable indication that an industry is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of...

  9. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on August 24, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... imports from Mexico of large residential washers that the Commerce has determined are sold in the...

  10. Mexico: Eldorado or fool's gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, R.

    1978-12-14

    Mr. Myers points to a study by Bruce Netschert, NERA's vice president in Washington, DC, who examined developments in Mexico from 1972 to the present - in which time the estimates of Mexico's resource base in oil have been revised from 8 billion to 200 billion barrels. In Netschert's view, the US should take advantage of its good fortune in being located between Canada and Mexico. Rather than rebuffing Mexico's initial attempt to sell gas to US pipelines, as it did a year ago, the Carter Administration would do better to offer generous financing, to encourage arrangements for technical assistance in the offshore, where Mexico lacks experience; and in the larger sphere, to make a vigorous attempt to soften all points of differences between the two countries, and to help solve Mexico's economic problems. In further discussion, Mr. Myers reviews the many reports published on the magnitude of Mexico's oil and gas resources. Specifically, Richard Nehring's study suggests that outside of the Middle East, the only likely source of supergiant fields (5 billion barrels or more) is the Reforma area in Mexico. President Jose Lopez Portillo in his September 1, 1978 State of the Union address, put proved reserves at 20.24 billion barrels, probable reserves at 37 billion, and potential resources at 200 billion barrels. (MCW)

  11. Children's Activity Book, New Mexico. 1992 Festival of American Folklife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies.

    This booklet was designed in conjunction with a Festival of American Folklife focusing on New Mexico, but can be used when teaching lessons on the culture of New Mexico. It introduces young children to activities adapting Santa Clara Pueblo pottery designs, adobe model making, Rio Grande blanket designs, tinwork picture frames, and ramilletes de…

  12. A North Sea approach for Mexico?; El marco Mar del Norte para Mexico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, George [ENERGIA.com, United States (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The probable existence of oil and gas deposits in the border territory between Mexico and the United States has waked up an enormous restlessness given the lack of agreements and stipulations on the handling of such deposits; cases like this one have occurred in other parts of the globe and it is indeed the intention of this article to show how the agreement decided on the North Sea can be applied in the case of Mexico. The bilateral characteristics of this agreement conformed by incentives and openings to the market, require the cooperation of different offices and governmental sectors from the federal government to make a series of possible stipulations that regulate the treaty and allow different oil companies a substantial interaction that profits the owners on both sides of the border. In Mexico the responsibility to put in action projects of this type corresponds to the legislative power in complicity with the secretariats of Foreign Affairs and Work. The present action models and the monopoly of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) in Mexico have only managed to suspend the development of the country in this sector and to maintain the oil industry development in a mediocre and deteriorated level. The benefits of such an adjustment would extend beyond obtaining a bilateral development for the involved countries; nevertheless we remember that the government of the United States is not to the compass of the governments pro-unification of borders. In order to begin the unification of the border regions, Mexico must document the location of border wells, nevertheless even though any agreement could be reached, years would have to pass before PEMEX develops the appropriate technology to operate its part of the deposits. [Spanish] La probable existencia de yacimientos de petroleo y gas en el territorio fronterizo entre Mexico y Estados Unidos ha despertado una enorme inquietud dada la falta de acuerdos y estipulaciones sobre la manipulacion de tales yacimientos; casos como

  13. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  14. Defective modernization and health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, J M

    1987-01-01

    This paper uses data gathered in a semi-arid, mountain region of the border state of Sonora, Mexico to illustrate that modernization and the importation of urban ideas and values can influence health status in unexpected ways. It traces the historic process of modernization in a rural municipio, relating this to social promises and economic cycles in Mexico. Modernization is seen to encompass life standard improvements and access to medical care; extension of road and transportation systems; and the widespread availability of information and education, as well as lifestyle changes required to incorporate these 'urban' influences. Reviewing the link between climate and health in arid lands, the paper notes that such modernization can be a well-meaning intrusion upon a set of cultural and social practices which had proved adaptive in dealing with climatic extremes. Initial modernization produces impressive declines in mortality and morbidity, as illustrated in an analysis of mortality figures and causes in relation to age cohorts and decades for the years 1955-1984. However, reductions in epidermic-related infant mortality are shown to be offset by increases in deaths due to trauma, chronic conditions and endemic disease. An analysis of morbidity for the year 1983-84 indicates that continuing high rates of infectious disease are related to conditions which result from increasingly defective modernization. To maintain technology, including water, electrical, and sewage systems, continual capital expenditure on both the public and private level is required. The economic crisis in Mexico is reducing available funds at a time when the community has adjusted its traditional lifestyle to incorporate technological improvements. In light of this, it is likely that inroads against infectious disease will not just continue to be stalemated, but could actually be reversed. This finding has implications for towns and villages on both sides of the Mexican-American border. PMID

  15. The eradication of the Mexico killing fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexico an industrial facility produces millions of sterile flies. These flies are then released in the wild to eliminate the 'Cochliomyia hominivorax' flu species whose larvae generate large sanitary and economical damage. The flies are made sterile through gamma irradiation at the cocoon stage. Containers filled with 40.000 cocoons are exposed to Cs137 gamma radiation doses of 55 Gy, the irradiation session lasts 2 minutes and a half. After the cocoons undergo strict quality control they are deposited in natural places. The irradiation generates cell damages in semen and ovaries while preserving the capacity of copulating and the lifetime of the flies. (A.C.)

  16. Missing in Mexico: Denied victims, neglected stories

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I will describe the mostly invisibilized “fight for rehumanization” of the families of the dehumanized disappeared of the Mexican Dirty War of the 1960s and 1970s. The conflictive memory politics in Mexico and the ambivalent transitional justice process led to processes of re-dehumanization for the families of the disappeared. Within these processes of clarification of past crimes, new spaces of violence emerged. The current “war on drugs” has caused an unprecedented number o...

  17. The heat spells of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Jáuregui

    2009-01-01

    The warning of urban air has been documented to increase in intensity and area as cities grow (Oke, 1982). As the cities grow the so called heat island tends to increase the risk of more frequent heat waves as well as their impacts (IPCC, 2001). Threshold values to define a heat wave vary geographically. For the case of Mexico City located in a high inland valley in the tropics, values above 30° C (daily maximum observed for three or more consecutive days and 25° C or more as mean temperatu...

  18. 2014 Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne; Obenour, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico annual summer hypoxia forecasts are based on average May total nitrogen loads from the Mississippi River basin for that year. The load estimate, recently released by USGS, is 4,761 metric tons per day. Based on that estimate, we predict the area of this summer’s hypoxic zone to be 14,000 square kilometers (95% credible interval, 8,000 to 20,000) – an “average year”. Our forecast hypoxic volume is 50 km3 (95% credible interval, 20 to 77).

  19. 2013 Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne; Obenour, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico annual summer hypoxia forecasts are based on average May total nitrogen loads from the Mississippi River basin for that year. The load estimate, recently released by USGS, is 7,316 metric tons per day. Based on that estimate, we predict the area of this summer’s hypoxic zone to be 18,900 square kilometers (95% credible interval, 13,400 to 24,200), the 7th largest reported and about the size of New Jersey. Our forecast hypoxic volume is 74.5 km3 (95% credible interval, 51.5 to 97.0), also the 7th largest on record.

  20. Teenage Pregnancy in Mexico: Evolution and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Arceo-Gómez, Eva Olimpia; Campos-Vázquez, Raymundo M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the consequences of a teenage pregnancy event in the short- and long-run in Mexico. Using longitudinal and cross-section data, we match females who got pregnant and those that did not based on a propensity score. Several balancing tests and specifications indicate that the main assumptions to estimate the average treatment effect on the treated using a propensity score are satisfied. In the short-run, we find that a teenage pregnancy causes a decrease of 0.6-0.8 years of schooling,...

  1. Mexico: the aesthetic challenge of forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Deotté

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on the aesthetic of forced disappearance based on the case in Mexico in October 2014 in which 43 young students from Ayotzinapa, in the state of Guerrero, disappeared. We analyse the photographic support of this shocking event and relate it to the function of the image in other cases of serious crimes against humanity, establishing a genealogy of the aesthetic of disappearance. We present fifteen declarations on the aesthetic of disappearance which enable us to debate on old and new forms of organised violence, particularly in the Latin American context.

  2. Crime perception and Presidential evaluation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R. Gómez Vilchis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available How important are citizen perceptions of an increase in crime rate when they evaluate the President? This article uses Mexico as a case study to examine the relationship between perception of crime and citizen grading of the President. The research uses 11 national surveys from 1994 to 2006 to analyze the effects of perception of crime on citizen grading of the President before and after the 2000 presidential election. The main proposition is that, after the 2000 political transition, perception of crime, together with other economic variables, becomes more relevant and has stronger effects when citizens evaluate the President due to an increase of their expectations of the Executive's competence.

  3. Metals in aerosols of the Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general purpose and scope of this work was to have a data base that includes enough information about the heavy metals which are disseminated in the atmospheric air in Mexico City, like it is what refers to its elements, its concentration and its particle size. For this were collected samples through collectors types: of the filters unit and the cascade impactor. Through the PIXE analysis for filters and films it was identified the presence of 20 elements in the majority of samples studied of the four seasons during the years 1993-1994. The metals were classified in two groups: those of natural origin and those of anthropogenic origin. (Author)

  4. Gulf of Mexico production still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the extent of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew to Gulf of Mexico oil and gas installations continues coming into focus. A preliminary tally by Minerals Management Service offers a reasonably complete summary of gulf production and pipeline systems damage detectable at the surface. MMS requires Outer Continental Shelf operators to inspect for underwater damage all platforms, pipelines, risers, and other structures within an 85 mile corridor along the path of Andrew's eye as it churned through the gulf. OCS operators have until Oct. 16 to submit plans for the Level II surveys

  5. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  6. Determination of radon levels in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the determination of radon levels in the houses room in Mexico City is part of the project Emanometry of the radon. To carry out this study, the passive method was used, which consists of: thin film dosemeter of cellulose nitrate, container of the same one and spark accountant. The method is based on the mensurations of exhibition of the number of marks of alpha track is of the open type and it allows to average the radon activity along several weeks and it presents low concentrations. This study was carried out in 4 periods of exhibition of 3 months each one. (Author)

  7. Conflicting energy, environment, economy policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental concerns, both at the local and global levels, have been present in Mexico's energy planning and national and international commitments. However, deregulation policies and financial constraints in the public sector seem to come in conflict with respect to greenhouse gas emissions in the development of the Mexican energy system. This is specially noticeable in the power sector where expansion of non fossil fuel generation has been essentially postponed at present and only the substitution of fuel oil and diesel by natural gas is contemplated. (Author)

  8. Nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the analysis of Purhepecha metals of the Pareyon collection; Tecnicas nucleares y convencionales aplicadas al analisis de metales Purhepecha de la coleccion Pareyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, U.; Tenorio C, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lopez, J.A. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, 11000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to determine the composition and microstructure of 13 metallic devices by means of the nuclear techniques of PIXE, RBS and conventional; which were elaborated starting from copper and gold, and they were in the offering of a tarasc personage located in the 'Matamoros' porch in Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico. (Author)

  9. 75 FR 29680 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... importation of Hass avocados originating in Michoacan, Mexico, into the United States by adding the option to ship avocados to the United States in bulk shipping bins when safeguarding is maintained from...

  10. Nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the analysis of Purhepecha metals of the Pareyon collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this investigation was to determine the composition and microstructure of 13 metallic devices by means of the nuclear techniques of PIXE, RBS and conventional; which were elaborated starting from copper and gold, and they were in the offering of a tarasc personage located in the 'Matamoros' porch in Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico. (Author)

  11. EFFECT OF HARVEST TIME AND RIPENING DEGREE ON QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF ‘HASS’ AVOCADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada is an important avocado importer country accounting for 12-15% of total avocado exports from Mexico. ‘Hass’ avocado is harvested year round in the state of Michoacan. For most part of the season, fruit reach adequate mesocarp dry matter content (DM), ripen properly and consequently, quality a...

  12. Fifty years of nuclear energy in Mexico 1945-1995; Cincuenta anos de energia nuclear en Mexico 1945-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez O, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Programa Universitario de Energia. Coordinacion de Vinculacion. Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This book presents the state of development of the nuclear energy in Mexico during the period 1945-1995, its benefits, advances and failures. It is related in a pleasant and informed way about the past decisions, the vision of the initiators of the nuclear development in Mexico, their successes and that its were followed the present advances and future problems to confront. (Author)

  13. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-11 - From approved areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From approved areas of Mexico. 319.8-11 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-11 From approved areas of Mexico. (a) Entry... in, and which were produced and handled only in approved areas of Mexico 5 may be authorized...

  15. Considerations to the nuclear safety in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertain future of the hydrocarbons like main source of energy, force us to think on the nuclear energy as the suitable substitute that we can inherit to those future generations. Mexico therefore should multiply the number of nuclear power centrals and to be in this way prepared for the new challenges, however, it is necessary and advisable, to restate the mexican nuclear plan that includes mainly the transparency. The 'WANO Report' (World Association of Nuclear Operators - for their initials in English), result of a technical audit to the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (CNLV), it is a polemic topic, because in accordance with David Lochbaum of 'The Union of Concerned Scientists' of the United States of America and of John Large of 'Large and Associates' of the Great Britain, the security in the CNLV is questionable. The pronouncements of concern of Abel J. Gonzalez and Ken E. Brockman, high officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency who took knowledge of diverse irregularities in the CNLV, should be analysis reason for to take actions in pro of the future of the nuclear energy in Mexico. (Author)

  16. Update on Chagas' disease in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumonteil Eric

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a major public health problem in most of the American continent. As transmission of the parasite is being interrupted in most of South America, the disease remains endemic in various areas of Mexico. We review here some of the information gathered in recent years. Seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans remains relatively high in some areas, and there has been a general increase in the number of chronic cases reported to health authorities in recent years. In fact, chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy appears to be affecting a large number of patients with heart disease, but many cases may be misreported because of the unspecific nature of the clinical symptoms. Epidemiological monitoring of vector and reservoir populations, as well as of human cases is helping focus on endemic areas, but a better coordination and development of these efforts is still needed. Recent studies of parasite biology are in agreement with previous work showing the great diversity of parasite characteristics, and support the need for a regional approach to this zoonosis. Strong and continuing support from health and academic authorities is thus still needed to further improve our understanding of Chagas' disease in Mexico and implement efficient control programs.

  17. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment

  18. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  19. Early uses of radionuclides in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945, when uranium became economically important, a rumor spread that large amounts of Oaxaca's black ceramics were being purchases and set abroad because of their assumed high uranium content. It was not until 1949 that minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as open-quotes national reserves.close quotes In the 40's, a radium emanation plant was installed at the open-quotes Hospital Generalclose quotes in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the 50's, a radium dial-painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca. In 1955, the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree with two main activities: a training program on open-quotes Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentationclose quotes and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper, a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades from 1940 to 1970 is given

  20. Implementation of Mexico's Health Promotion Operational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Lucero; Rivero, Lilia; Ochoa, Jorge; Stanford, Adriana; Latinovic, Ljubica; Rueda, Gretel

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing profound health reform, extending health insurance to previously uninsured populations and changing the way health care services are delivered. Legislation enacted in 2003 and implemented in 2004 mandated funding and infrastructure that will allow 52% of Mexico's population to access medical care at no cost by 2010. This ambitious social reform has not been without challenges, particularly financial sustainability. Health promotion, because of its potential to prevent or delay chronic diseases and injuries and their associated costs, is a key component of health care reform. In 2006, the Ministry of Health's General Directorate of Health Promotion developed the Health Promotion Operational Model. Based on Ottawa Charter functions, the model integrates health promotion activities within the overall health care system. The main goal of this model is to build strong human capital and to improve organizational capacity for health promotion starting at the local level by training health care personnel to implement health promotion activities. Organizational development workshops started in 2006, and implementation plans in all 32 Mexican states were in place by end of 2008. PMID:19080038