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Sample records for azt treatment studies

  1. AZT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this compound as a potential anti-tumor drug 12. The inhibition of herbal components liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin towards the metabolism of hypnotic agent propofol limited the co-utilization of these two herbal components and propofol 13. The dose beyond the efficient concentration of AZT can induce the genotoxicity ...

  2. Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.

    1989-01-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment

  3. AZT as a telomerase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel E.; Armando, Romina G.; Alonso, Daniel F.

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase is a highly specialized reverse transcriptase (RT) and the maintenance of telomeric length is determined by this specific enzyme. The human holoenzyme telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein composed by a catalytic subunit, hTERT, an RNA component, hTR, and a group of associated proteins. Telomerase is normally expressed in embryonic cells and is repressed during adulthood. The enzyme is reexpressed in around 85% of solid tumors. This observation makes it a potential target for developing drugs that could be developed for therapeutic purposes. The identification of the hTERT as a functional catalytic RT prompted studies of inhibiting telomerase with the HIV RT inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT). Previously, we have demonstrated that AZT binds preferentially to telomeres, inhibits telomerase and enhances tumor cell senescence, and apoptosis after AZT treatment in breast mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Since then, several studies have considered AZT for telomerase inhibition and have led to potential clinical strategies for anticancer therapy. This review covers present thinking of the inhibition of telomerase by AZT and future treatment protocols using the drug.

  4. Anti-HIV therapy with AZT prodrugs: AZT phosphonate derivatives, current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandazhinskaya, Anastasiya; Matyugina, Elena; Shirokova, Elena

    2010-06-01

    AIDS, a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus, was called 'plague of the twentieth century'. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first compound approved for the treatment of HIV, is still a mandatory component of treatment schemes. However, its toxicity stimulated a search for new agents. This review presents the history and current state of the design of AZT prodrugs based on its phosphonate derivatives. Although every effort was made to include as many AZT structures bearing phosphonate residues and demonstrate the variety they offer, we also concentrated on the studies performed in our laboratory. Special attention was also paid to AZT 5'-H-phosphonate (phosphazide, Nikavir) approved in the Russian Federation as a drug for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The prodrug strategy applied to AZT phosphonate derivatives enriched chemistry, biology and medicine not only with new knowledge, methods and structures, but also with a new anti-HIV drug Nikavir. Currently, study of another phosphonate, AZT 5'-aminocarbonylphosphonate, is underway. Slow release of AZT following oral administration and penetration into cells, decreased toxicity and the lack of cumulative properties make the compounds of this group promising as extended-release forms of AZT.

  5. Role of reactive oxygen species and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the development of AZT-induced cardiomyopathy in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, E; Fischer, G M; Toth, K; Csete, B; Nemeti, B; Trombitas, K; Habon, T; Endrei, D; Sumegi, B

    1999-02-01

    The short term cardiac side-effects of AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, zidovudine) was studied in rats to understand the biochemical events contributing to the development of AZT-induced cardiomyopathy. Developing rats were treated with AZT (50 mg/kg/day) for 2 wk and the structural and functional changes were monitored in the cardiac muscle. AZT treatment provoked a surprisingly fast appearance of cardiac malfunctions in developing animals characterized by prolonged RR, PR and QT intervals and J point depression. Electron microscopy showed abnormal mitochondrial structure but the cardiomyocyte had normal myofibers. The AZT treatment of rats significantly increased ROS and peroxynitrite formation in heart tissues as determined by the oxidation of nonfluorescent dihydrorhodamine123 and dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) to fluorescent dyes, and induced single-strand DNA breaks. Lipid peroxidation and oxidation of cellular proteins determined from protein carbonyl content were increased as a consequence of AZT treatment. Activation of the nuclear poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and the accelerated NAD+ catabolism were also observed in AZT-treated animals. Western blot analysis showed that mono-ADP-ribosylation of glucose regulated protein (GRP78/BIP) was enhanced by AZT treatment, that process inactivates GRP78. In this way moderate decrease in the activity of respiratory complexes was detected in the heart of AZT-treated animals indicating a damaged mitochondrial energy production. There was a significant decrease in creatine phosphate concentration resulting in a decrease in creatine phosphate/creatine ratio from 2.08 to 0.58. ATP level remained close to normal but the total extractable ADP increased with 45%. The calculated free ATP/ADP ratio decreased from 340 to 94 in the heart of AZT-treated rats as a consequence of increased free ADP concentration. It was assumed that the increased free ADP in AZT-treated cardiomyocyte may help cells to compensate the

  6. Zidovudine (AZT) versus AZT plus didanosine (ddI) versus AZT plus zalcitabine (ddC) in HIV infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, J; Foulkes, M; Peto, R; Duncan, W; Babiker, A; Collins, R; Hughes, M; Peto, T; Walker, A

    2000-01-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) monotherapy was the first antiretroviral drug to be tested widely. The next two drugs to be developed were didanosine (ddI) and zalcitabine (ddC). To assess the effects of zidovudine (AZT), zidovudine plus didanosine (ddI) and zidovudine plus zalcitabine (ddC) on HIV disease progression and survival. Investigators and pharmaceutical companies were contacted, and MEDLINE searches were supplemented by searching conference abstracts. Randomised controlled trials comparing any two of AZT plus ddI, AZT plus ddC or AZT alone in participants with or without AIDS which collected information on deaths and new AIDS events. Individual patient data with, wherever possible, follow-up obtained beyond that previously published were obtained and checked for internal consistency and consistency with any published reports; any apparent discrepancies were resolved with the trialists. Time to death and to disease progression (defined as a new AIDS-defining event or prior death) were analysed on an intention to treat basis, stratified to avoid direct comparisons between participants in different trials. Six trials were included in the meta-analysis. During a median follow-up of 29 months, 2904 individuals progressed, of whom 1850 died. The addition of ddI to AZT delayed both progression (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.82, PddC to AZT also delayed progression (RR 0. 86; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.94, P=0.001) and death (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.98, P=0.02). After 3 years the estimated percentages alive and without a new AIDS event were 53% for AZT+ddI, 49% for AZT+ddC and 44% for AZT alone; the percentages alive were 68%, 63% and 59% respectively. Five of the six trials involved randomised comparisons of AZT+ddI versus AZT+ddC: in these, the AZT+ddI regimen had greater effects on disease progression (P=0.004) and death (P=0.009). The use of ddI and, to a lesser extent, ddC delayed both HIV disease progression and death, at least when added to AZT.

  7. Transplacental exposure to AZT induces adverse neurochemical and behavioral effects in a mouse model: protection by L-acetylcarnitine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission can be prevented by administration of AZT, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their newborns. In spite of the benefits deriving from this life-saving prophylactic therapy, there is still considerable uncertainty on the potential long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on exposed children. Clinical and experimental studies have consistently shown the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress following prenatal treatment with antiretroviral drugs, and clinical evidence suggests that the developing brain is one of the targets of the toxic action of these compounds possibly resulting in behavioral problems. We intended to verify the effects on brain and behavior of mice exposed during gestation to AZT, the backbone of antiretroviral therapy during human pregnancy. We hypothesized that glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in excitotoxicity and behavioral plasticity, could be one of the major actors in AZT-induced neurochemical and behavioral alterations. We also assessed the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of L-acetylcarnitine, a compound that improves mitochondrial function and is successfully used to treat antiretroviral-induced polyneuropathy in HIV-1 patients. We found that transplacental exposure to AZT given per os to pregnant mice from day 10 of pregnancy to delivery impaired in the adult offspring spatial learning and memory, enhanced corticosterone release in response to acute stress, increased brain oxidative stress also at birth and markedly reduced expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes and GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus. Notably, administration during the entire pregnancy of L-acetylcarnitine was effective in preventing/ameliorating the neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral adverse effects induced by AZT in the offspring. The present preclinical findings provide a

  8. Effect of indinavir used alone or in double or triple combination with AZT and ddC on human immune functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Benedetta; Giordani, Luciana; Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Viora, Marina

    2004-03-19

    Indinavir (IDV) is a potent and selective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI) widely used in antiretroviral therapy, but its effects on the immune system are relatively unknown. In this study we have investigated the in vitro effect of IDV on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We used the drug alone or in double and triple combination with AZT and ddC to assess whether IDV interferes with the previously observed immunomodulatory effects induced by AZT and ddC. We found that proliferative response, induction of immunoglobulins (Ig) production and cytokine production was not modulated by IDV. More importantly, IDV used in double or triple combination with AZT and ddC, does not further strenghten the inhibition of proliferative response induced by AZT and is able to abrogate the inhibitory effect induced by ddC on proliferative response. Similarly, IDV/AZT, IDV/ddC and IDV/AZT/ddC combinations does not strenghten the modulation of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-4 induced by AZT, ddC and AZT/ddC. On the other hand, IDV neutralizes the up-regulating effects of AZT on IL-2 production while the up-regulating effects of ddC on IL-2 production is not affected. These data suggest that IDV used in combination with AZT and ddC did not add any further immunotoxicity.

  9. Azidothymidine (AZT) as a potential modifier of radiation response in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copaceanu, M.L.; Coucke, P.A.; Cottin, E.; Paschoud, N.; Mirimanoff, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    The potential effect of AZT as a thymidine analogue on radiation response in vitro was investigated. Two human cell lines (WiDr and HeLa) were used. The effect of 10 μM AZT on exponentially growing cells was studied after different exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h). The surviving fraction (clonogenic assay) or metabolic activity (MTT assay) after irradiation of AZT-exposed cells, was compared to unexposed irradiated controls. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cell-cycle effect of pre-exposure of exponentially growing cells to AZT. AZT had a radioprotective effect for all experimental time points as far as WiDr was concerned. For HeLa the effect was signicifant at 24 h. Cell-cylce analysis showed a significant accumulation in S-phase at 72 h for WiDr. For HeLa there was a significant accumulation in S-phase at 48 h. We conclude that under the reported experimental conditions, AZT as a thymidine analogue seems to reduce the cytotoxic effect of irradiation. (orig.)

  10. Zidovudine (AZT monotherapy selects for the A360V mutation in the connection domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Brehm

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated in vitro that zidovudine (AZT selects for A371V in the connection domain and Q509L in ribonuclease H (RNase H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT which, together with the thymidine analog mutations D67N, K70R and T215F, confer greater than 100-fold AZT resistance. The goal of the current study was to determine whether AZT monotherapy in HIV-1 infected patients also selects the A371V, Q509L or other mutations in the C-terminal domains of HIV-1 RT.Full-length RT sequences in plasma obtained pre- and post-therapy were compared in 23 participants who received AZT monotherapy from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 175. Five of the 23 participants reached a primary study endpoint. Mutations significantly associated with AZT monotherapy included K70R (p = 0.003 and T215Y (p = 0.013 in the polymerase domain of HIV-1 RT, and A360V (p = 0.041 in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT. HIV-1 drug susceptibility assays demonstrated that A360V, either alone or in combination with thymidine analog mutations, decreased AZT susceptibility in recombinant viruses containing participant-derived full-length RT sequences or site-directed mutant RT. Biochemical studies revealed that A360V enhances the AZT-monophosphate excision activity of purified RT by significantly decreasing the frequency of secondary RNase H cleavage events that reduce the RNA/DNA duplex length and promote template/primer dissociation.The A360V mutation in the connection domain of RT was selected in HIV-infected individuals that received AZT monotherapy and contributed to AZT resistance.

  11. Patents for critical pharmaceuticals: the AZT case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiron, E

    1991-01-01

    Patents and other statutory types of market protections are used in the United States to promote scientific research and innovation. This incentive is especially important in research intensive fields such as the pharmaceutical industry. Unfortunately, these same protections often result in higher monopoly pricing once a successful product is brought to market. Usually this consequence is viewed as the necessary evil of an incentive system that encourages costly research and development by promising large rewards to the successful inventor. However, in the case of the AIDS drug Zidovudine (AZT), the high prices charged by the pharmaceutical company owning the drug have led to public outcry and a re-examination of government incentive systems. This Note traces the evolution of these incentive programs--the patent system, and, to a lesser extent, the orphan drug program--and details the conflicting interests involved in their development. It then demonstrates how the AZT problem brings the interest of providing inventors with incentives for risky innovative efforts into a sharp collision with the ultimate goal of such systems: ensuring that the public has access to the resulting products at a reasonable price. Finally, the Note describes how Congress and the courts have attempted to resolve these problems in the past, and how they might best try to solve the AZT problem in the near future.

  12. Lack of immunotoxicity of saquinavir (Ro 31-8959) used alone or in double or triple combination with AZT and ddC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viora, M; Di Genova, G; Quaranta, M G; Boirivant, M; Camponeschi, B

    1998-09-01

    Saquinavir (Ro 31-8959; SQV) has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinases and acts synergistically with dideoxynucleoside analogues. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of SQV on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC). We used the drug either alone or in double and triple combination with AZT and ddC to assess whether SQV enhances the immunomodulatory effects induced by AZT and ddC that we previously observed. We demonstrated that SQV did not induce any modulation of the proliferative response either in PBMC or in LPMC. Similarly, NK cell-mediated cytotoxic activity and cytokine production were not modified by SQV. More importantly, SQV/AZT, SQV/ddC, and SQV/AZT/ddC combinations did not strengthen neither the inhibition of PBMC and LPMC proliferative response or the modulation of cytokine production induced by AZT, ddC, and AZT/ddC. On the other hand, the increased IL-2 production induced by AZT and ddC was not observed adding SQV to the dideoxynucleoside analogues. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SQV used in combination with AZT and ddC did not add any further immunotoxicity.

  13. Asteroid Observations with NCSFCT’s AZT-8 Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukhov, O.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The asteroid observations of the small Solar System bodies were carried out with the AZT-8 telescope (D=0.7 m, f/4 of the National Center of Space Facilities Control and Testing (NCSFCT during 2010-2013. The telescope is located near Yevpatoria, the observatory code according IAU is B17. The observational program included perturbed main belt asteroids and NEO’s for the GAIA FUN-SSO Company. The MPC database contains more than 4500 asteroids positions and magnitudes obtained during this period at AZT-8 telescope. The article presents analysis of the positional accuracy of B17 observations obtained from the comparison with the JPL HORIZONS ephemeris, and data from AstDyS-2 and NEODyS-2 web services.

  14. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) induces apoptosis and alters metabolic enzyme activity in human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Abby C.; Helliwell, Rachel J.A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Paxton, James W.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Tingle, Malcolm D.

    2003-01-01

    The anti-HIV drug 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the drug of choice for preventing maternal-fetal HIV transmission during pregnancy. Our aim was to assess the cytotoxic effects of AZT on human placenta in vitro. The mechanisms of AZT-induced effects were investigated using JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells and primary explant cultures from term and first-trimester human placentas. Cytotoxicity measures included trypan blue exclusion, MTT, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Apoptosis was measured with an antibody specific to cleaved caspase-3 and by rescue of cells by the general caspase inhibitor Boc-D-FMK. The effect of AZT on the activities of glutathione-S-transferase, β-glucuronidase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, and CYP reductase (CYPR) in the placenta was assessed using biochemical assays and immunoblotting. AZT increased ROS levels, decreased cellular proliferation rates, was toxic to mitochondria, and initiated cell death by a caspase-dependent mechanism in the human placenta in vitro. In the absence of serum, the effects of AZT were amplified in all the models used. AZT also increased the amounts of activity of GST, β-glucuronidase, and CYP1A, whereas UGT and CYPR were decreased. We conclude that AZT causes apoptosis in the placenta and alters metabolizing enzymes in human placental cells. These findings have implications for the safe administration of AZT in pregnancy with respect to the maintenance of integrity of the maternal-fetal barrier

  15. Testing of polarimeter UVP layout on telescope AZT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Morozhenko, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Layout of on-board small-sized ultraviolet polarimeter was created. On its basis a ground version of the layout was prepared. It was installed on the AZT-2 telescope for carrying out special tests. With this device we investigated the possibility of determining the degree of polarization of the twilight glow of the Earth's atmosphere, and also worked out the observation methodology required for such work, and the basic principles of the implementation of this method. For this purpose, a special complex of auxiliary equipment was developed.

  16. Mechanisms of zinc binding to the solute-binding protein AztC and transfer from the metallochaperone AztD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Durga P; Avalos, Dante; Fullam, Stephanie; Roychowdhury, Hridindu; Yukl, Erik T

    2017-10-20

    Bacteria can acquire the essential metal zinc from extremely zinc-limited environments by using ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters are critical virulence factors, relying on specific and high-affinity binding of zinc by a periplasmic solute-binding protein (SBP). As such, the mechanisms of zinc binding and release among bacterial SBPs are of considerable interest as antibacterial drug targets. Zinc SBPs are characterized by a flexible loop near the high-affinity zinc-binding site. The function of this structure is not always clear, and its flexibility has thus far prevented structural characterization by X-ray crystallography. Here, we present intact structures for the zinc-specific SBP AztC from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans in the zinc-bound and apo-states. A comparison of these structures revealed that zinc loss prompts significant structural rearrangements, mediated by the formation of a sodium-binding site in the apo-structure. We further show that the AztC flexible loop has no impact on zinc-binding affinity, stoichiometry, or protein structure, yet is essential for zinc transfer from the metallochaperone AztD. We also found that 3 His residues in the loop appear to temporarily coordinate zinc and then convey it to the high-affinity binding site. Thus, mutation of any of these residues to Ala abrogated zinc transfer from AztD. Our structural and mechanistic findings conclusively identify a role for the AztC flexible loop in zinc acquisition from the metallochaperone AztD, yielding critical insights into metal binding by AztC from both solution and AztD. These proteins are highly conserved in human pathogens, making this work potentially useful for the development of novel antibiotics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Conclusions and suggestions on completing work on automation and modernization of the AZT-2 telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlovskyi, V. I.; Puha, S. P.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Volovyk, D. V.; Puha, G. P.; Obolonskyi, V. O.; Kratko, O. O.; Stefurak, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    The telescope AZT-2 of the MAO of NAS of Ukraine in recent years has been widely use for photometric, spectral and polarimetric observations of celestial objects. In 2012-2017 at automation of the operation of telescope AZT-2, we created a control program for a personal computer (PC), which is now used to control as separate nodes of the telescope AZT-2, and for control of the telescope, in remote access mode. Also in 2017, a number of astronomical observations with spectropolarimetric equipment and other astronomical devices were carried out. The results obtained by us have shown that in order to complete work on management of telescope under astronomical observations in the mode of remote access with the help of a PC - need to further refine the control nodes by powerful servo motors of reducer drive for the rapid transfer of the AZT-2 telescope to a new position.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of "AZT-HEPT", "AZT-pyridinone", and "ddC-HEPT" conjugates as inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikis, R; Dollé, V; Guillaumel, J; Dechaux, E; Note, R; Nguyen, C H; Legraverend, M; Bisagni, E; Aubertin, A M; Grierson, D S; Monneret, C

    2000-05-18

    To test the concept that HIV reverse transcriptase could be effectively inhibited by "mixed site inhibitors", a series of seven conjugates containing both a nucleoside analogue component (AZT 1, ddC 2) and a nonnucleoside type inhibitor (HEPT analogue 12, pyridinone 27) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to block HIV replication. The (N-3 and C-5)AZT-HEPT conjugates 15, 22, and 23 displayed 2-5 microM anti-HIV activity, but they had no effect on the replication of HIV-2 or the HIV-1 strain with the Y181C mutation. The (C-5)AZT-pyridinone conjugates 34-37 were found to be inactive. In marked contrast, the ddC-HEPT molecule 26 displayed the same potency (EC(50) = 0.45 microM) against HIV-1 (wild type and the Y181C nevirapine-resistant strain) and HIV-2 in cell culture. No synergistic effect was observed for these bis-substrate inhibitors, suggesting that the two individual inhibitor components in these molecules do not bind simultaneously in their respective sites. Interestingly, however, the results indicate that the AZT-HEPT conjugates and the ddC-HEPT derivative 26 inhibit reverse transcriptase (RT) in an opposite manner. One explanation for this difference is that the former compounds interact preferentially with the hydrophobic pocket in RT, whereas 26 (after supposed triphosphorylation) inhibits RT through binding in the catalytic site.

  19. Treatment of early AIDS dementia in intravenous drug users : High versus low dose peptide T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, TR; Rosen, MI; McMahon, TL; Bridge, TP; OMalley, SS; Pearsall, R; OConnor, PG

    1997-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over study tested the efficacy of two different doses of Peptide T in the treatment of nine intravenous drug users with early AIDS dementia who were also receiving methadone and AZT. Subjects received Peptide T doses of either 15 or 1.5 mg daily for four

  20. Adverse events and adherence to HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: a cohort study at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Raymond A; Nartey, Edmund T; Lartey, Margaret; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Nortey, Priscilla A; Dodoo, Alexander N O

    2015-06-20

    There is strong evidence that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral drugs in the timely management of occupational exposures sustained by healthcare workers decreases the risk of HIV infection and PEP is now widely used. Antiretroviral drugs have well documented toxicities and produce adverse events in patients living with HIV/AIDS. In the era of "highly active antiretroviral therapy", non-adherence to treatment has been closely linked to the occurrence of adverse events in HIV patients and this ultimately influences treatment success but the influence of adverse events on adherence during PEP is less well studied. Following the introduction of a HIV post-exposure prophylaxis program in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in January 2005, the incidence of adverse events and adherence were documented in occupationally-exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) and healthcare students (HCSs). Cohort event monitoring was used in following-up on exposed HCWs/HCSs for the two study outcomes; adverse events and adherence. All adverse events reported were grouped by MedDRA system organ classification and then by preferred term according to prophylaxis regimen. Adherence was determined by the completion of prophylaxis schedule. Cox proportional regression analysis was applied to determine the factors associated with the cohort study outcomes. Differences in frequencies were tested using the Chi square test and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 228 exposed HCWs/HCSs were followed up during the study, made up of 101 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine (3TC/AZT) for 3 days; 75 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine (3TC/AZT) for 28 days; and 52 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine/lopinavir-ritonavir (3TC/AZT/LPV-RTV) for 28 days. The frequency of adverse events was 28% (n = 28) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 3 days, 91% (n = 68) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for

  1. Realization of the variant for management of AzT-2 telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlovskyi, V. I.; Puha, S. P.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Volovyk, D. V.; Puha, G. P.; Obolonskyi, V. O.; Kratko, O. O.; Stefurak, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    For the control system of the focus of the secondary mirror of the telescope AZT-2 we developed, manufactured and installed on the tube of the telescope a special shield for the addressable microcontroller. To manage its work with using a personal computer, a special control program was written. The tests of this system showed the ability to control the motor of focus unit both from the staff manual console and from the controller. To supply a stabilized voltage of 110 volts to the appropriate consumers, for a network of supplying control signals from a personal computer to the executive nodes via RS485 port, a series of distribution boxes were installed on the column and on the tube of the telescope. The developed software was also adapted to the algorithm of the existing manual system with manual operation. The control system of the telescope AZT-2 was tested in July-September 2017 at observations with the layout of filter polarimeter.

  2. Influência da geometria da plataforma na determinação de chumbo em zidovudina (AZT por ET AAS Influence of the platform geometry on lead determination in zidovudine (AZT by ET AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima R. Moreira

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the performances of the L'vov and integrated platforms in order to overcome the interferences found on lead determination in zidovudine by ET AAS. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures found with integrated platform were 700 and 1400°C, respectively. The characteristic masses were 12.7 ± 1.2 pg with integrated platform and 11.1 ± 1.3 pg with grooved platform. The ratio between the slopes of zidovudine and aqueous curves shows a decrease in the interferences when the L'vov platform is used (bAZT/b aq = 0.97 ± 0.10 and the detection limit found was 0.03 µg.g-1. That ratio was 0.85 ± 0.07 with the integrated platform.

  3. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  4. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  5. Divergent effects of Tenofovir and Retrovir (AZT) on TLR-mediated cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper; Tolstrup, Martin; Paludan, Søren Riis

      Pathogen-recognizing Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are known to recognize a number of pathogens, including E.Coli, S. Pneumoniae and N. Meningitidis. We have studied whether a number of HIV therapeutics affect immediate proinflammatory cytokine responses in cell cultures. Preliminary...

  6. The test of the layout of polarimeter "UFP" on the telescope AZT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, T. A.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Saryboha, H. V.; Zbrutsky, O. V.; Ivakhiv, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine in cooperation with the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI" and National University "Lviv Polytechnic" for a long time working on the design of an optical polarimeter to study of the stratospheric layer of the Earth using of orbital satellite. During this time, was accumulated a large experience of such work, and was established a layout of compact ultraviolet polarimeter (UFP) on board of satellite

  7. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  8. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs

  9. Predictors of Persistent Anaemia in the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Zalagile Akilimali

    Full Text Available Anaemia is associated with adverse outcomes including early death in the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This study reports on the factors associated with persistent anaemia among HIV-infected patients initiating ART in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo.We conducted a retrospective cohort study and analyzed data from patients receiving HIV care between January 2004 and December 2012 at two major hospitals in Goma, DR Congo. Haemoglobin concentrations of all patients on ART regimen were obtained prior to and within one year of ART initiation. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors of persistent anaemia after 12 months of ART.Of 756 patients, 69% of patients were anaemic (IC95%: 65.7-72.3 at baseline. After 12 months of follow up, there was a 1.2 g/dl average increase of haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.001 with differences depending on the therapeutic regimen. Patients who received zidovudine (AZT gained less than those who did not receive AZT (0.99 g/dl vs 1.33 g/dl; p< 0.001. Among 445 patient who had anaemia at the beginning, 33% (147/445 had the condition resolved. Among patients with anaemia at ART initiation, those who did not receive cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART(AOR 3.89; 95% CI 2.09-7.25; P < 0.001 and a AZT initial regimen (AOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.36-3.52; P < 0.001 were significantly at risk of persistent anaemia.More than two thirds of patients had anaemia at baseline. The AZT-containing regimen and absence of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART were associated with persistent anaemia 12 months, after initiation of treatment. Considering the large proportion of patients with persistence of anaemia at 12 months, we suggest that it is necessary to conduct a large study to assess anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Goma.

  10. Studies on Five Senses Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sadaka; Miao, Tiejun; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    This study proposed a therapy from complementary and alternative medicine to treat mental disorder by through interactions of five senses between therapist and patient. In this method sounding a certain six voices play an important role in healing and recovery. First, we studied effects of speaking using scalp- EEG measurement. Chaos analysis of EEG showed a largely enhanced largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) during the speaking. In addition, EEG power spectrum showed an increase over most frequencies. Second, we performed case studies on mental disorder using the therapy. Running power spectrum of EEG of patients indicated decreasing power at end of treatment, implying five senses therapy induced relaxed and lowered energy in central neural system. The results agreed with patient's reports that there were considerable decline in anxiety and improvements in mood.

  11. High rates of regimen change due to drug toxicity among a cohort of South Indian adults with HIV infection initiated on generic, first-line antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadasan, Ajith; Abraham, O C; Rupali, Priscilla; Pulimood, Susanne A; Rajan, Joyce; Rajkumar, S; Zachariah, Anand; Kannangai, Rajesh; Kandathil, Abraham Joseph; Sridharan, G; Mathai, Dilip

    2009-05-01

    To determine the rates, reasons and predictors of treatment change of the initial antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimen in HIV-infected south Indian adults. In this prospective cohort study, ART-naive adults initiated on generic, fixed dose combination ART as per the National AIDS Control Organization guidelines were followed up at an academic medical center. Treatment change was defined as any event which necessitated a change in or discontinuation of the initial ART regimen. Two hundred and thirty persons with HIV infection (males 74.8% and median age 37 years) were followed up for median duration of 48 weeks. The majority (98.7%) had acquired HIV infection through the heterosexual route. Most (70.4%) had advanced IV infection (WHO clinical stage 3 or 4) and 78% had CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts below 200 cells/microL. The initial ART regimens used were: Lamivudine (3TC) with Stavudine (d4T) (in 76%) or Azidothymidine (AZT) and Nevirapine (NVP) (in 86%) or Efavirenz (EFV). The cumulative incidence of treatment change was 39.6% (91 patients). Drug toxicity (WHO grade 3 or 4) was the reason for treatment change among 62 (27%) (incidence rate 35.9/100 person-years). The most common toxicities were attributable to the thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), d4T and AZT [lactic acidosis (8.7%), anemia (7%) and peripheral neuropathy (5.2%)]. The other toxicities were rash (3.9%) and hepatitis (1.3%) due to NVP. The mortality (4.6/100 person-years) and disease progression rates (4.1/100 person-years) were low. The ART regimens used in this study were effective in decreasing disease progression and death. However, they were associated with high rates of drug toxicities, particularly those attributable to thymidine analogue NRTI. As efforts are made to improve access to ART, treatment regimens chosen should not only be potent, but also safe.

  12. Retrovirus XMRV Is Inhibited by Host Proteins and Anti-HIV Drugs AZT, Tenofovir, and Raltegravir | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newly discovered retrovirus, XMRV, isolated from prostate cancer tissues for the first time in 2006, has recently been reported in patients with this cancer, as well as in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, five subsequent studies could not validate these reports. Since XMRV was isolated from the T and B cells of CFS patients, Vinay Pathak and his colleagues in the HIV Drug Resistance Program sought to determine how XMRV was countering intracellular defense mechanisms that inhibit retroviral replication in human cells.

  13. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects

  14. Higher rates of metabolic syndrome among women taking zidovudine as compared to tenofovir in rural Africa: preliminary data from the CART-1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Faturyiele, Olatunbosun; Motlatsi, Mokete M; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Lejone, Thabo Ismael; Cerutti, Bernard; Muser, Jürgen; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hatz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T) has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF [1]. Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI)-based regimens. Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa [2]. Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied [3]. Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV)), history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF). Statistical analyses - stratified for sex - comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance levelwomen. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6; p=0.001) and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8-34.1, pwomen who are on ART for ≥6 months predisposes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Given that, still 38% of first-line regimens in LMIC contain AZT, this finding needs to be verified in other

  15. Personality does not predict treatment preference, treatment experience does: a study of four complementary pain treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Melchart, Herbert; Leitner, Daniela; Marktl, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which personality and treatment experience affect patients' appraisals of 4 complementary treatments for chronic pain. A total of 232 chronic pain patients (164 females, 68 males, average age 56.6 years) visiting a spa clinic in Austria returned a questionnaire on patient characteristics and personality (autonomy, depressiveness, assertiveness, self-control) as well as attitudes towards (i.e. appealing, effective, pleasant) and experience of the treatments. Results were analysed by use of linear regression analysis and confidence intervals. Although all treatments were appraised positively, the passive treatments (thermal water tub baths, classical massage) were favoured more than the active treatments (relaxation training or exercise therapy). Treatment appraisal was not predicted by any of the personality traits but to a large extent by treatment experience. Relaxing, not unpleasant treatments were the most highly esteemed treatments. How strenuous or tiring a treatment was only had a minor effect on its appraisal. Neither do dependent, passive patients prefer passive treatments, nor do conscientious patients prefer active treatments. Instead, the appraisal of treatments that induce specific somatosensory sensations is largely determined by treatment experiences, i.e. what the treatment feels like. Despite the popularity of CAM which encompasses many experientially intensive treatments, treatment experience has to date been a neglected topic of treatment research.

  16. Fingertip Amputation Treatment: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J; Rivlin, Michael; Kirkpatrick, William; Abboudi, Jack; Jones, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Distal fingertip amputations are common injuries in work- and non-work-related accidents. There is a paucity of evidence to support use of any one treatment. We conducted a study to better understand how surgeon and patient factors influence the treatment preferences for distal fingertip amputations among a cross section of US and international hand surgeons. We sent a 16-question survey to the American Association for Hand Surgery and reciprocal international hand societies and analyzed the response data using a logistic regression model. We hypothesized that hand surgeons' treatment preferences would be varied and influenced by surgeon and patient demographics. One hundred ninety-eight hand surgeons (62% US, 38% international) responded to the survey. For each clinical scenario (Allen levels 2, 3, and 4 and volar oblique amputations), there were wide variations in treatment preferences. Wound care was less likely performed by surgeons with more than 30 years of experience or plastic surgery backgrounds. Replantation was less likely performed by US surgeons and private practice surgeons. Pedicle and homodigital flaps were more commonly performed internationally. Surgeons in practice for less than 5 years were more likely to perform skeletal shortening. For all levels and orientations of fingertip amputation queried, there is a wide range of treatment preferences. Our survey results highlight the need for a prospective randomized trial to elucidate the most effective treatments for fingertip amputations.

  17. Treatment Adherence and Outcomes of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV Positive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N. B.; Uddin, Q. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the treatment outcomes in terms of adherence, outcomes and side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) agents. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Teaching Hospital of Khyber Medical University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Kohat, from February 2007 to December 2012. Methodology: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients, taking 1st line ARV agents for at least 6 months were included. Adherence was calculated by self report on asking the number of doses missed in last 30 days. ARVs were provided on monthly basis. Adherence data was noted over a period of 6 months. ARVs outcomes were recorded in the form of adherence, CD4 count, functional status of the patient, change in weight, further transmission of the disease, number of hospital admissions and deaths. Adverse Drug Reactions (ARDs) to ARVs were assessed clinically and by laboratory markers. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for numerical variables while frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Results: Total number of patients included in this study were 107. Out of them, 66.4% were males and 33.6% were females. The mean age was 39.9 +- 13.80 years. Patients taking AZT/3TC/NVP, AZT/3TC/EFZ, D4T/3TC/NVP, D4T/3TC/EFZ, TNF/3TC/NVP or EFZ were 49.5%, 22.4%, 10.3%, 4.7% and 13% respectively. Most adverse affects were observed in 10 days to 90 days of initiation of therapy. Rash was observed in 71 (66.4%) patients, anaemia in 4 (3.7%) patients while only one patient (0.93%) had nausea / vomiting. Thirty (28%) patients reported no side effects. Out of 107 patients, 98 (91.5%) were alive whereas 9 (8.4%) died at the end of the study period. Twelve patients had one hospital admission (11.21%) whereas 9 (8.4%) patients had two admissions during the study period. The first mean CD4 was 325.27 cells /mcL whereas mean last CD4 count was 389.86 cells/mcL. Conclusion: ARVs have very satisfactory outcomes in HIV/AIDS patients

  18. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  19. Uranium-contaminated soil pilot treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Michelotti, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A pilot treatment study is proving to be effective for the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil from a site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by use of a two-step, zero-discharge, 100% recycle system. Candidate uranium-contaminated soils were characterized for uranium content, uranium speciation, organic content, size fractionization, and pH. Geochemical computer codes were used to forecast possible uranium leach scenarios. Uranium contamination was not homogenous throughout the soil. In the first step, following excavation, the soil was sorted by use of the ThemoNuclean Services segmented gate system. Following the sorting, uranium-contaminated soil was remediated in a containerized vat leach process by use of sodium-bicarbonate leach solution. Leach solution containing uranium-carbonate complexes is to be treated by use of ion-exchange media and then recycled. Following the treatment process the ion exchange media will be disposed of in an approved low-level radioactive landfill. It is anticipated that treated soils will meet Department of Energy site closure guidelines, and will be given open-quotes no further actionclose quotes status. Treated soils are to be returned to the excavation site. A volume reduction of contaminated soils will successfully be achieved by the treatment process. Cost of the treatment (per cubic meter) is comparable or less than other current popular methods of uranium-contamination remediation

  20. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

  1. Efficacy of topical azathioprine and betamethasone versus betamethasone-only emollient cream in 2-18 years old patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraji, Fariba; Farhadi, Sadaf; Faghihi, Gita; Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Basiri, Akram; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a considerable burden especially among children. To circumvent the problems related to oral azathioprine (AZT) we aimed to evaluate its topical variant and assess its efficacy in patients aged 2–18. Materials and Methods: In a single-blind trial, we randomized the patients into two groups, one treated with topical emollient containing AZT and betamethasone (BM), and the other treated solely with topical emollient of BM. The treatments were administered twice a day for 8 weeks in both groups. The efficacy, recurrence, and the presence of side effects were evaluated using SPSS 20. Results: The amount of reduction in severity scoring for atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) score was significantly greater in the group treated with the topical AZT (P = 0.024). Incidentally, there were no difference between two treatments in difference in proportions of recurrence and adverse effects as well as SCORAD reduction in subgroups of sex and age (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed the superiority of topical AZT over BM with a low recurrence and adverse effects. No expectation of severe side effects, like those of oral AZT, is the major advantage of topical AZT. The sample size was an issue in uncovering the value of AZT in the subgroups. Conducting prolonged studies of quality-of-life and comparing the topical AZT potency relative to the common alternatives are recommended areas of future work. PMID:26623403

  2. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2007-01-01

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  3. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  4. PIXE studies of osteoporosis preventive treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ynsa, M.D.; Pinheiro, T.; Ager, F.J.; Alves, L.C.; Millan, J.C.; Gomez-Zubelbia, M.A.; Respaldiza, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear microprobe (NMP) have been used in an exploratory work to study elemental alterations in tissues of experimental animals submitted to osteoporosis preventive treatments. Osteopathologies have been associated with several factors, such as hormonal disturbances, metabolic aberrations, low dietary Ca and vitamin D intake, excess of iron, among other possible factors. Hormonal treatments seem to be beneficial to the incorporation of Ca in bone but breast and endometrial cancers constitute significant side effects that cannot be ignored. Wistar female rats were used to test the effect of estrogen therapy in osteoporosis progression. The variations of elemental concentrations in uterus and the Ca content of femoral bones of ovariectomised rats under estrogen therapy were investigated. PIXE, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and secondary electron microscopy techniques were applied for the characterisation of biological materials, with respect to morphology and trace element distribution determination. The increase of Ca and Fe concentrations in uterus and the variations for Ca distribution patterns in bone of rats submitted to estrogen therapy were the major features observed

  5. Self-reported adherence to treatment: A study of socioeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Adherence to treatment is important and relevant in HIV treatment. Previous studies in sub Sahara Africa and south western Nigeria reported that psychiatric morbidity influence treatment adherence. The present study was to examine treatment adherence among the male and the female patients with HIV infection ...

  6. A microbiological study on sewage sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermkiattipong, Ngamnit; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1990-09-01

    Isolation and identification of salmonellae in sewage sludge cake and radiation sensitivities of the isolated strains were studied. Disinfection of the sludge by heat or radiation and effect of such treatment on composting were also carried out. Five groups of O-antigen and seven serotypes of salmonellae were identified from the sludge cakes. D 10 values of the salmonellae in phosphate buffer were ranged from 0.16 to 0.22 kGy and those in sludge were about three times larger. Total bacterial counts and coliforms in the sludges were determined to be 4.6 x 10 7 - 5.1 x 10 9 and 1.3 x 10 5 - 1.1 x 10 9 colony forming unit (cfu/g). After irradiation at 20 kGy by gamma ray or electron beam, decrease of total bacterial count was 5 - 7 log cycles and a dose of 5 kGy was enough to eliminate all of the coliforms. Coliforms decreased rapidly by heating at 65degC, but only one log cycle decrease was observed in total bacterial count. By heating at 100degC, total bacterial count decreased rapidly. Two peaks were observed in CO 2 evolution curves of radiation disinfected sludge composting, but only one peak in heat disinfected sludge composting. (author)

  7. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  8. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiotherapy. Treatment feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.G.; Martin, T.; Kolotas, C.; Hey, S.; Schneider, L.; Templin, T.; Zamboglou, N.; Dornoff, W.; Kettner, H.

    1997-01-01

    with 5x18 Gy/week up to 59.4 to 73.8 Gy. - VII. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation for gliomas of the brain: 100 mg/m 2 paclitaxel as a 3-hour infusion weekly for 6 weeks simultaneous with radiotherapy in shrinking field technique with 5x2 Gy/week up to 60 Gy. Results: Our initial experiences with weekly application of paclitaxel as a 3-hour infusion in the dosages we used for simultaneous radiochemotherapy of malignancies in different anatomical sites has shown that this treatment concept is feasible, safe and effective. Conclusions: Whether this combined modality will enhance the response rates or influence survival rates has yet to be confirmed in phase-III studies. (orig.) [de

  9. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Field Monitoring,Treatment Facility Monitoring and Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is a compilation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) related field monitoring data from the 2015 bloom season, treatment plant monitoring data from the 2013 and 2014 bloom seasons, and bench-scale treatment study data from 2015.

  10. New studies on clozapine treatment in psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Bogers, J.P.A.M.; Touw, D.J.; Kosterink, J.W.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Hemocue leuco+diff and DBS are two recent technological advances that can beneficially affect clozapine treatment in the near future. 1. Hemocue Leuco+diff is a new point of care instrument that provides both a total white blood cel count as that of the five most common types of leucytes

  11. Gambling Disorder: Exploring Pre-treatment and In-treatment Dropout Predictors. A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in a sample of gamblers attending a specialist clinic for gambling disorder. We analysed data on 846 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Firstly, we investigated differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables between treatment completers and pre-treatment dropouts, as well as between treatment completers and during-treatment dropouts. Subsequently, variables were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify significant predictors of pre-treatment and in-treatment dropout. Overall, 44.8% of clients did not complete the treatment: 27.4% dropped out before starting it, while 17.4% dropped out during the treatment. Younger age and use of drugs were associated with pre-treatment dropout, while family history of gambling disorder, a lower PGSI score, and being a smoker were related with in-treatment dropout. Our findings suggest that pre-treatment dropouts differ from in-treatment dropouts, and, thus, further research will benefit from considering these groups separately. In addition, this newly gained knowledge will also be helpful in increasing treatment retention in specific subgroups of problem gamblers.

  12. Study on treatment of dust by dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    1987-01-01

    In dismantling of nuclear reactors, various kinds of treatment of dust generated by cutting or dismantling concrete structures of components of reactors are evaluated for safety, cost, and performance comparing the work in air with water. A method of dust treatment for work in air is discussed. The dry method has an easy operation in practice and a good performance in the equipment, but has problem on the prevention from radioactive contamination by diffusion of dust in air. For the purpose of advancing the strong points and eliminating the weak points in dry method, an improved venturi scrubber system is proposed for dismantling work as a dust collecting system. The system consists of dust absorbing pipe, dust collector, separator of dust and water and dust transfer equipment to a storage of waste. This system would be expected to have better performance and lower operating cost in decommissioning nuclear reactors, especially, the number of dust filters, for example, HEPA filters, will be considerably saved

  13. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response

  14. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  15. Study of surgical treatment on neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Nü Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of two surgical methods on neovascular glaucoma(NVG. METHODS: The clinical date of 46 cases(57 eyeswith NVG underwent surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed and followed-up. Patients were divided into Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGVimplantation group(group A, 24 cases, 31 eyesand semiconductor diode laser transscleral ciliary body photocoagulation(TSCPCgroup(group B, 22cases, 26 eyesaccording to the surgical approach. The intraocular pressure, visual acuity and postoperative complications were compared before and after operation. RESULTS: The intraocular pressure postoperative in two groups were significantly lower than those preoperative(P P>0.05. The changes of visual acuity postoperative showed no statistical difference between the two groups(P>0.05. The postoperative complications of group A was significantly lower than that in group B, in which the incidence of eye pain, anterior chamber bleeding were significant differences between two groups(P CONCLUSION: AGV implantation treatment and TSCPC for NVG are both valid, but AGV implantation is filtration surgery, and TSCPC isciliary body destructive surgery, and the latter has higher rate of postoperative complications.

  16. Refusal of Emergency Medical Treatment: Case Studies and Ethical Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Brenner, Jay M; Kraus, Chadd K; McGrath, Norine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2017-11-01

    Informed consent is an important component of emergency medical treatment. Most emergency department patients can provide informed consent for treatment upon arrival. Informed consent should also be obtained for emergency medical interventions that may entail significant risk. A related concept to informed consent is informed refusal of treatment. Patients may refuse emergency medical treatment during their evaluation and treatment. This article addresses important considerations for patients who refuse treatment, including case studies and discussion of definitions, epidemiology, assessment of decisional capacity, information delivery, medicolegal considerations, and alternative care plans. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying oily sludge treatment by thermo chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guolin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays surfactants were used to wash oily sludge and reclaim oil. This paper presents the optimum conditions for washing oily sludge with surfactant solutions using the single factor experiment. The agents tested are AEO-9, Peregal O, TritonX-100, sodium metasilicate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS. In the experiments, four factors affecting residual oil rate are investigated which include liquid/solid mass rate, reaction temperature, reaction time and eluent mass fraction. Results obtained through experimental runs were compared and used to select a kind of agent, in order to get the best cleaning effect. The optimum parameters of these agents are different from others, and under the optimum conditions their treatment effects are better. And the washing effect of Na2SiO3·9H2O is best and its residual oil rate is only about 1.6%.

  18. Azilsartan increases levels of IL-10, down-regulates MMP-2, MMP-9, RANKL/RANK, Cathepsin K and up-regulates OPG in an experimental periodontitis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurigena Antunes de Araújo

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of azilsartan (AZT on bone loss, inflammation, and the expression of matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK, osteoprotegerin (OPG, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and cathepsin K in periodontal tissue in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each: (1 nonligated, water; (2 ligated, water; (3 ligated, 1 mg/kg AZT; (4 ligated, 5 mg/kg AZT; and (5 ligated, 10 mg/kg AZT. All groups were treated with saline or AZT for 10 days. Periodontal tissues were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANKL, RANK, OPG, and cathepsin K. Levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and glutathione (GSH were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Treatment with 5 mg/kg AZT resulted in reduced MPO (p<0.05 and IL-1β (p<0.05, increased levels of IL-10 (p<0.05, and reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANK, RANKL, cathepsin K, and increased expression of OPG. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that AZT increases anti-inflammatory cytokines and GSH and decreases bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  20. Comprehensive Stuttering Treatment for Adolescents: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Craig E

    2018-01-09

    This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment and treatment strategies and approaches are discussed. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model can help guide clinicians through the assessment and treatment process to ensure that all areas of stuttering are considered. Comprehensive assessment and treatment helps clinicians address all relevant elements of a stuttering disorder, rather than focusing exclusively on reducing speech disruptions.

  1. Comparative study of two treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Lupiani Castellanos, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study of the comparison of the clinical dosimetry between planners can deduce that the differences are in the majority of the cases below 3%, and only in cases where the field size is small, we found significant discrepancies, although justifiable. On the one hand it is different calculation algorithm and implementation on the other, the modeling of the accelerator. (Author)

  2. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  3. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  4. Studies of testicular function after treatment for testicular tumor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhata, Akihiko; Ogawa, Katsuaki; Hosaka, Masahiko; Sugawara, Toshimichi.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the treatment for testicular tumor has improved. Preservation of testicular function in the treatment of testicular tumor is important, because the majority of the patients are young. We investigated the testicular function of patients with testicular tumor before, during and after treatment. As a part of this study, the fertility of patients with testicular tumor before and after treatment was evaluated. 1. Fourteen of 78 married patients (18 %) showed sterility for two or more years before treatment. 2. When semen was examined in 31 patients before treatment, only seven patients (23 %) showed normal sperm counts of more than 40 x 10 6 /ml, and 19 (61.3 %) showed oligospermia or azoospermia with sperm counts of less than 10 x 10 6 /ml. 3. Of 20 patients who underwent retroperitoneal lymphnode dissection, 15 developed ejaculation deficiency. Four other patients also developed ejaculation deficiency but recovered, and three of them rendered their wives pregnant. 4. Of 23 patients given radiotherapy, nine produced children both before and after treatment, nine produced children before treatment but showed sterility after treatment, and five showed sterility both before and after treatment. 5. Examination of semen was performed in 17 patients given radiotherapy and in five given chemotherapy. Many patients developed oligospermia or azoospermia after the treatments, but revealed a tendency to recover with time. Based on the results mentioned above, it is inferred that the ability to produce sperm in patients with testicular tumor after treatment decreases but the decrease tends to recover to normal with time. (author)

  5. Physical exercise in treatment of AUDs – a dropout study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Sengül; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    Background: The Healthy Lifestyle Study is one out of five alcohol research studies in the RESCueH research project. It is a randomized controlled study which aims to understand the effect of physical exercise on alcohol, fitness and wellness outcomes for outpatients in treatment of alcohol use...... disorders. Relapse rates in treatment of AUD ranges between 60 and 90 % in the first year after treatment. The Healthy Lifestyle Study offers physical exercise as add on treatment to better maintenance. However intervention studies with physical exercise can suffer from high dropout rates. To gain a better...... understanding of lived lives of dropouts from The Healthy Lifestyle Study, a qualitative interview study was conducted. Objective: This interview study aims to gain better understanding of and more in depth knowledge about how alcohol patients experience, think and feel about physical exercise when...

  6. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility

  7. PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR TREATMENT WETLAND APPLICATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN DISPERSED DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the conducted analyses of pre-feasibility study of different approaches for wastewater management in a settlement of 180 persons. In the assessment both technical and economic aspects were analyzed. The costs were calculated for three different and, at the same time, most popular as well as possible technical solutions like: (i construction of local wastewater treatment plant with gravitational and pressurized networks, (ii construction of single family wastewater treatment plants, (iii construction of sealed septic tanks. Carried out analyses of investment and maintenance costs revealed that at the stage of construction the most expensive is local sewer network with treatment plant, while the construction of a single family treatment plant has similar cost regardless of the technology used. When the long term operation and investment cost are accounted the most economical reasonable solution is the application of wetland treatment for household wastewater treatment.

  8. Studying Treatment Intensity: Lessons from Two Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Nicole; Jones, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Determining how best to meet the needs of learners with Down syndrome requires an approach to intervention delivered at some level of intensity. How treatment intensity affects learner acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of skills can help optimize the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of interventions. There is a growing body of research…

  9. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  10. Comprehensive Stuttering Treatment or Adolescents: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Craig E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Method: Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment…

  11. Patients' experiences of safety during haemodialysis treatment - a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, M.H.; Kars, M.C.; Man-van Ginkel, J.M. de; Schoonhoven, L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the experiences of safety of adult patients during their haemodialysis treatment. BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis is a complex treatment with a risk for harm that causes anxiety among many patients. To date, no in-depth study of haemodialysis patients' emotional responses to conditions of

  12. Future prospects of antiarrhythmic treatment based on experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on recent experimental studies, a number of speculations about future developments are made regarding the treatment of atrial fibrillation, the problem of proarrhythmia in patients with heart failure, and the treatment of ventricular tachycardia developing during the first 6 weeks following

  13. Design of the Monitored Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (MOTAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, C E; Fielder, A R; Stephens, D A; Moseley, M J

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: The effectiveness of occlusion therapy for the treatment of amblyopia is a research priority. The authors describe the design of the Monitored Occlusion Treatment for Amblyopia Study (MOTAS) and its methodology. MOTAS will determine the dose-response relation for occlusion therapy as a function of age and category of amblyopia.

  14. [Broader indication for treatment with statins; the 'heart protection study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Stuyt, P.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of statins has been a breakthrough in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Statins are safe and effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in the general population. The 'Heart protection study' has provided evidence for the benefit of statin treatment in much

  15. A qualitative study of treatment burden among haemodialysis recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidou, Christina; Weinman, John; Horne, Rob

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the experience of renal patients undergoing dialysis treatment focusing on beliefs about their illness, prescribed treatment and the challenge of adherence. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the accounts of seven haemodialysis patients. Patients have a range of beliefs about their illness and their treatment consistent with the self-regulatory model of illness, that is, identity, cause, consequences, timeline and cure. Patients sometimes consciously did not act in accordance to advice when they considered an aspect of treatment less important or less easy to adhere to. Psychological factors like beliefs might play a role in non-adherence behaviour.

  16. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel

  17. Improving treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders: recommendations based on preclinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Kyzar, E.J.; Stewart, A.M.; Nguyen, M; Poudel, M.K.; Echevarria, D.J.; Collier, A.D.; Gaikwad, S.; Klimenko, V.M.; Norton, W.; Pittman, J.; Nakamura, S.; Koshiba, M.; Yamanouchi, H.; Apryatin, S.A.; Scattoni, M.L.; Diamond, D.M.; Ullmann, J.F.; Parker, M.O.; Brown, R.E.; Song, C.; Kalueff, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are common and severely debilitating. Their chronic nature and reliance on both genetic and environmental factors makes studying NDDs and their treatment a challenging task. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors discuss the neurobiological mechanisms of

  18. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... periodontitis were included in the study. ... Conclusion: Single visit RCT is a viable treatment option for teeth having irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis ... been previously root treated, required surgical endodontic.

  19. Treatment of hemophilia: A qualitative study of mothers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lippe, Charlotte; Frich, Jan C; Harris, Anna; Solbraekke, Kari Nyheim

    2017-01-01

    In Norway, boys with hemophilia usually begin treatment after their first bleeding episode. Boys with severe hemophilia usually start prophylactic treatment around 18-24 months. Health professionals administer factor concentrate initially, but when boys are around 4 years old most parents start treating their children at home. There is a lack of research on how parents, and especially how carrier mothers, experience the medical treatment for their sons' hemophilia. Our aim was to investigate how carrier mothers experience this treatment in the hospital setting and at home. In this qualitative study, we interviewed 16 mothers of boys or men with hemophilia A or B. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive thematic analytical approach. Mothers experienced both practical and emotional challenges in relation to their sons' treatment, and repeated venipuncture was especially difficult emotionally. Parents preferred home treatment to hospital treatment because it was less time-consuming, less disruptive to family life, and provided a greater sense of control. Encountering healthcare professionals who were unfamiliar with hemophilia was a second major stress factor, especially when parents felt that health professionals lacked competence and were unwilling to seek advice. While home treatment for hemophilia enables freedom, flexibility, and autonomy for the boys as well as for the family, mothers may experience treatment of hemophilia as a burden. Health professionals should provide tailored practical and emotional support to parents by probing into their experiences with treating their sons' hemophilia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  1. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  2. Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioural Group Treatment for Hoarding Disorder: A Naturalistic Treatment Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulding, Richard; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Kyrios, Michael; Osborne, Debra; Mogan, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to test whether a 12-week publically rebated group programme, based upon Steketee and Frost's Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based hoarding treatment, would be efficacious in a community-based setting. Over a 3-year period, 77 participants with clinically significant hoarding were recruited into 12 group programmes. All completed treatment; however, as this was a community-based naturalistic study, only 41 completed the post-treatment assessment. Treatment included psychoeducation about hoarding, skills training for organization and decision making, direct in-session exposure to sorting and discarding, and cognitive and behavioural techniques to support out-of-session sorting and discarding, and nonacquiring. Self-report measures used to assess treatment effect were the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), Savings Cognition Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Pre-post analyses indicated that after 12 weeks of treatment, hoarding symptoms as measured on the SI-R had reduced significantly, with large effect sizes reported in total and across all subscales. Moderate effect sizes were also reported for hoarding-related beliefs (emotional attachment and responsibility) and depressive symptoms. Of the 41 participants who completed post-treatment questionnaires, 14 (34%) were conservatively calculated to have clinically significant change, which is considerable given the brevity of the programme judged against the typical length of the disorder. The main limitation of the study was the moderate assessment completion rate, given its naturalistic setting. This study demonstrated that a 12-week group treatment for hoarding disorders was effective in reducing hoarding and depressive symptoms in an Australian clinical cohort and provides evidence for use of this treatment approach in a community setting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A 12-week group programme delivered in a community setting was effective for helping with

  3. Guidelines for reporting case studies on extracorporeal treatments in poisonings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Ouellet, Georges; Bouchard, Josée

    2014-01-01

    A literature review performed by the EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup highlighted deficiencies in the existing literature, especially the reporting of case studies. Although general reporting guidelines exist for case studies, there are none in the specific field...... of extracorporeal treatments in toxicology. Our goal was to construct and propose a checklist that systematically outlines the minimum essential items to be reported in a case study of poisoned patients undergoing extracorporeal treatments. Through a modified two-round Delphi technique, panelists (mostly chosen...... reports containing data on extracorporeal treatments in poisoning published in Medline in 2011 were reviewed during the external validation rounds. Twenty-one panelists (20 from the EXTRIP workgroup and an invited expert on pharmacology reporting guidelines) participated in the modified Delphi technique...

  4. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  5. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  6. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  7. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  8. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  9. The Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study: What have we learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Roger D; Rao, Vinod

    2017-04-01

    The multi-site Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS), conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, was the largest clinical trial yet conducted with patients dependent upon prescription opioids (N=653). In addition to main trial results, the study yielded numerous secondary analyses, and included a 3.5-year follow-up study, the first of its kind with this population. This paper reviews key findings from POATS and its follow-up study. The paper summarizes the POATS design, main outcomes, predictors of outcome, subgroup analyses, the predictive power of early treatment response, and the long-term follow-up study. POATS examined combinations of buprenorphine-naloxone of varying duration and counseling of varying intensity. The primary outcome analysis showed no overall benefit to adding drug counseling to buprenorphine-naloxone and weekly medical management. Only 7% of patients achieved a successful outcome (abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) during a 4-week taper and 8-week follow-up; by comparison, 49% of patients achieved success while subsequently stabilized on buprenorphine-naloxone. Long-term follow-up results were more encouraging, with higher abstinence rates than in the main trial. Patients receiving opioid agonist treatment at the time of follow-up were more likely to have better outcomes, though a sizeable number of patients succeeded without agonist treatment. Some patients initiated risky use patterns, including heroin use and drug injection. A limitation of the long-term follow-up study was the low follow-up rate. POATS was the first large-scale study of the treatment of prescription opioid dependence; its findings can influence both treatment guidelines and future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiota-based Signature of Gingivitis Treatments: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Zhen; He, Tao; Bo, Cunpei; Chang, Jinlan; Li, Lin; He, Yanyan; Liu, Jiquan; Charbonneau, Duane; Li, Rui; Xu, Jian

    2016-04-20

    Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles. A comparison of plaque microbiota changes was also performed between these two treatments and a third dataset where 50 subjects received regimen of dental scaling. Only Actinobaculum, TM7 and Leptotrichia were consistently reduced by all the three treatments, whereas the different microbial signatures of the three treatments during gingivitis relieve indicate distinct mechanisms of action. Our study suggests that microbiota based signatures can serve as a valuable approach for understanding and potentially comparing the modes of action for clinical treatments and oral-care products in the future.

  11. Preliminary study of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yukuan; Chen Hanwei; Li Kaifang; Jiang Zaibo; Ma Zhuang; Liu Huanling

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value and methods of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy. Methods: Two different methods were used in the interventional treatment of 18 patients with tubal pregnancy, which were transvaginal tubal intra-gestational methotrexate (MTX) injection and intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion. The former was selected for the treatment of 8 patients and the latter for 10 patients. Cook-fallopian tube catheterization set and the general angiographic catheters of 4.1 Fr Cobra were used. After the treatment, conditions of the patients, β-HCG level and ultrasound changes of the pregnant bladder were the main indexes for monitoring the therapeutic effect in this study. Results: The successful rate, cure rate, embryo killing rate reached 100%, 88.9%(16/18) and 94.4% (17/18) respectively. Two cases of intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion treatment failed, β-HCG was reduced to normal level with an average of 11.2 +- 11.6 d (3-28 d). In 10 cases, the ultrasound showed that the pregnancy bladder disappeared in 2-3 weeks, accounting for 76.9% (10/13). The longest time was 60 days. The range of menstruation recovery was 37 +- 9 d (21-50 d). Conclusions: Interventional treatment of tubal pregnancy is effective, reliable and easy for operation. It will be especially effective by arterial procedure. Interventional treatment will be a important method for terminating tubal pregnancy

  12. Radiation chemical studies on the treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumoto, Akihisa; Miyata, Teijiro; Arai, Michimasa; Arai, Hidehiko

    1982-10-01

    The radiation induced reaction in aqueous solution was studied to develope the radiation treatment as a new technique for waste water and to elevate the effectiveness of radiation. The effectiveness of radiation was enhanced by combination of radiation induced reaction with conventional methods such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment. The synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was studied by using phenol and ethylene glycol. The chain reaction was observed in the radiation induced oxidation. The combination of radiation and ozone is considered to be one of the most useful method. In this report, the mechanism of each reaction and the applicability of the reaction to the treatment of waste water are discussed. (author)

  13. Slaughterhouse sewage treatment using gamma radiation - economical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rita; Botelho, M. Luisa; Branco, Joaquim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a financial viability study for the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry. Five scenarios were studied, including the current practice, representing different types of treatments and goals, e.g.: water reuse and/or sludge add value as agriculture fertilizers. Cost-benefit analysis, including the net present value (NPV) of each scenario, was used as a technique to compare the relative value of various strategies. Taking in account that the initial investment is amortized after 20 years, the implementation of Co-60 treatment with 20% water reuse and sludge application as agriculture fertilizers represents the most profitable project with the highest NPV. Therefore, the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry is not only technically viable as well as economically feasible. (author)

  14. [International multicenter studies of treatment of severe traumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talypov, A E; Kordonsky, A Yu; Krylov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Despite the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Standards and recommendations on conservative and surgical treatment of TBI patients should be based on concepts and methods with proven efficacy. The authors present a review of studies of the treatment and surgery of severe TBI: DECRA, RESCUEicp, STITCH(TRAUMA), CRASH, CRASH-2, CAPTAIN, NABIS: H ll, Eurotherm 3235. Important recommendations of the international group IMPACT are considered.

  15. A control study on treatment for benzodiazepine dependence with trazodone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hong-ju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of trazodone in the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence. Methods Forty insomnia patients who met the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders in China Third Edition (CCMD-3 of dependence syndrome due to benzodiazepine were involved in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to trazodone group and placebo group for 3 months. The efficacy were assessed by Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA and polysomnography (PSG. Adverse events were assessed by Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS. Results The Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist of trazodone group was significantly lower after 7 d treatment than that of placebo group (P = 0.000, and HAMA score of the trazodone group was also significantly lower after 15 d treatment than that of placebo group (P = 0.000. There were no difference in Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist and HAMA of placebo group before and after treatment. Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist and HAMA of the trazodone group were decreased after treatment (P = 0.000. In comparison with placebo group, sleep parameters of the trazodone, including total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency (SL and slow wave sleep (SWS time presented improvement after 7 d treatment (P = 0.000, for all. After trazodone treatment, total sleep time, slow wave sleep time, sleep efficiency and sleep latency were improved (P = 0.000, for all. No obvious adverse reaction occurred. There were no significant differences in TESS scores between pre? and post?treatment in both groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion Trazodone is markedly effective and safe in the treatment for benzodiazepine dependence.

  16. Electromagnetictherapy for Treatment of Insomnia: A clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sadeghi movahhed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Insomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders in the world. It causes disruption in daily activities and increases the risk of major depression. Hence, clinically the appropriate and persistent treatment of insomnia is very important. Using of hypnotic drugs such as benzodiazepines is the common treatment for insomnia but they show several side effects and it seems that new medications should be used for treatment of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was comparison between the effects of electromagnetic therapy and conventional drug usage in the treatment of insomnia.   Methods: In a blind randomized clinical trial study, 60 people referred to the private office of the psychiatrist and experienced more than 3 months extended primary insomnia were selected. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria and had no other underlying problems. The subjects were divided in two groups: 30 people in each and treated electromagnetically or with Alprazolam for 3 weeks. Before treatment, immediately and one month after treatment, quality of sleep and severity of the insomnia were evaluated by using the standard questionnaires and finally, the results were analyzed statistically.   Results : In this study, 60 individuals participated from whom 28 were male (46.7% and 32 patients were female (53.3%.The mean age was 37.3 years old in a range of 17- 65. The mean point of each questionnaire, before and immediately after treatment significantly didn't show any difference but one month after treatment, there was a significant difference in both groups.   Conclusion : To treat insomnia, electromagnetic therapy appears to be used as a replacement for sedative medicines. It also has more stability in comparison with other sedative medicines and no side effects have been reported yet.

  17. Extraction protocols for orthodontic treatment: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnevi N Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Various extraction protocols have been followed for successful orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extraction protocols in patients who had previously undergone orthodontic treatment and also who had reported for continuing orthodontic treatment from other clinics. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty eight patients who registered for orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry were divided into 10 extraction protocols based on the Orthodontic treatment protocol given by Janson et al. and were evaluated for statistical significance. Results: The descriptive statistics of the study revealed a total of 40 (29% patients in protocol 1, 43 (31.2% in protocol 2, 18 (13% in protocol 3, 16 (11.6% in protocol 5, and 12 (8.7% in Type 3 category of protocol 9. The Type 3 category in protocol 9 was statistically significant compared to other studies. Midline shift and collapse of the arch form were noticed in these individuals. Conclusion: Extraction of permanent teeth such as canine and lateral incisors without rational reasons could have devastating consequences on the entire occlusion. The percentage of cases wherein extraction of permanent teeth in the crowded region was adopted as a treatment option instead of orthodontic treatment is still prevalent in dental practice. The shortage of orthodontists in Malaysia, the long waiting period, and lack of subjective need for orthodontic treatment at an earlier age group were the reasons for the patient's to choose extraction of the mal-aligned teeth such as the maxillary canine or maxillary lateral incisors.

  18. adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Zambia: a qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients\\' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for effective medical treatment of HIV/AIDS. We conducted a qualitative interview study in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia in 2006. The aim of the study was to explore patients\\' and health care professionals\\' perceived barriers and facilitators to patients\\' ...

  19. Technological feasibility studies on combination treatments for subtropical fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Linde, H.J. van der

    1981-01-01

    Research with subtropical fruits such as papayas and mangoes had advanced beyond the experimental stage in South Africa. This may be attributed to the potential economic benefits likely to be obtained from the combination of heat and irradiation treatments. The outcome of recent marketing trials, however, revealed several problem areas which need further investigation. Some of these problems were studied in greater detail and are reported in this presentation. The effect of time delays between hot-water and irradiation treatments on the efficacy in disease control in the fruit, has received particular attention in the investigations. Efforts have also been made to correlate these results with those obtained in fungal studies in the laboratory. These and other factors relating to the technological feasibility in the use of combined treatments for the preservation of mangoes and papayas are discussed and recommendations or guidelines for future studies are given in this paper. (author)

  20. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled open-quotes Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Resultsclose quotes (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was open-quotes to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.close quotes The study also open-quotes identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.close quotes This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete open-quotes cradle-to-graveclose quotes systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews

  1. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  2. Treatment of operator actions in the HTGR risk assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Silady, F.A.; Hannaman, G.W.

    1979-12-01

    Methods are presented for the treatment of operator actions, developed in the AIPA risk assessment study. Some examples are given of how these methods were applied to the analysis of potential HTGR accidents. Realistic predictions of accident risks required a balanced treatment of both beneficial and detrimental actions and responses of human operators and maintenance crews. Th essential elements of the human factors methodology used in the AIPA study include event tree and fault tree analysis, time-dependent operator response and repair models, a method for quantifying common cause failure probabilities, and synthesis of relevant experience data for use in these models

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Iordache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP of Moreni city (Romania. In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process like A2/O (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic and VIP (Virginia Plant Initiative aswastewater tertiary treatments. In order to asses the efficiency of the proposed treatment schemata based on the datamonitored at the studied WWTP, it were realized computer models of biological nutrient removal configurations basedon A2/O and VIP process. Computer simulation was realized using a well-known simulator, BioWin by EnviroSimAssociates Ltd. The simulation process allowed to obtain some data that can be used in design of a tertiary treatmentstage at Moreni WWTP, in order to increase the efficiency in operation.

  4. Evaluation of Water Treatment Problems: Case Study of Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP and Maiduguri Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Idris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water remains the most useful universal solvent to human being and other animals, because of its derivative importance. However, effort to improve on raw water treatment would continue to be a subject of concern, because the process procedures are been violated or not properly upheld. This study was carried out in order to identify peculiar problems associate with water treatment at the Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP. This research study was based on prompt time-schedules and plant site-visits, interviewed questions were made and accessing the technology adopted in the process stages. Analytical data were obtained through the use of sampling bottles, camera, record sheets and other necessary laboratory equipment. The analysis showed that treated water contained excess chlorine and aluminum with 1.10mg/l and 0.68mg/l respectively. From this study, the following are the root causes: poor facility lay out, poor organizational and functional structures, wear of pump impellers and surface deterioration in the transmission line, lack of calibration test, constant head system not operation properly, lack of jar test conduction, improper maintenance of filter system, and the use of chemical coagulant. Inferences were made at the end of the research to enhance process efficiency, healthier and more economical treatment MWTP.

  5. Fertility Treatment and Childhood Epilepsy - a Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types of treatm......BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types...... of treatment and indications, as well as subtypes of epilepsy. METHODS: In this nationwide birth cohort study, we included all pregnancies in Denmark resulting in live-born singletons, 1995-2003. Children conceived by fertility treatment and children developing epilepsy (until 2013) were identified from Danish...... national registers. RESULTS: A total of 565,116 pregnancies were included; 8,071 children (1.4%) developed epilepsy. Children conceived after ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination had a slightly higher risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1...

  6. Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambalam, T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations

  7. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  8. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios

  9. Nimh Treatment Study of ADHD Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of changes in medication use between 14 and 24 months follow-up on effectiveness (symptom ratings and growth (height and weight measures were analyzed, comparing 4 groups of patients, in the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA reported by the MTA Cooperative Group.

  10. Studies on diagnosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Krijnen (Pieta)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes studies on ~onosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis in patients with drug-resistant hypertension. In Chapter 1, the clinical problem of renal artery stenosis is discussed. Renal artery stenosis, a narrowing of the renal artery, is a potential cause of

  11. Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking behaviours in Abeokuta, south-west Nigeria. ... Self-diagnosis for the disease was more common (60.8%) among the participants, compared to other measures; seeking laboratory test (26.5%) and clinical diagnosis (9.1%). A good proportion of the ...

  12. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  13. A bibliometric study on Chinese herbal medicine treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aims of this study are to evaluate and summarize the scientific production in the field of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A systematic bibliometric search was performed based on the PubMed database covering relative publications between January 1, ...

  14. Naturalistic study of olanzapine in treatment-resistaant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naturalistic study of olanzapine in treatment-resistaant schizophrenia and acute mania, depression and obsessional disorder. ... Whereas the Fiji government provides all aspects of mental health care services free of charge to its citizens, many schizophrenics have failed to respond to classical antipsychotic drugs.

  15. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  16. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyeong Hwan; Jung, K. J.; Baik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to offer the advanced technology of the RSLW treatment during the Decontamination and Decommission(D and D) work of the TRIGA research reactors. Basis concept of the RSLW treatment and relating the equipment were investigated in this year of the project. The experimental equipments such as the rotary vacuum filtration equipment and the centrifuge equipment are designed and developed in order to treat the RSLW considering the minimization of the effective dose for operator and the protection of the diffusion by of the radioactive material.

  17. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyeong Hwan; Jung, K. J.; Baik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to offer the advanced technology of the RSLW treatment during the Decontamination and Decommission(D and D) work of the TRIGA research reactors. Basis concept of the RSLW treatment and relating the equipment were investigated in this year of the project. The experimental equipments such as the rotary vacuum filtration equipment and the centrifuge equipment are designed and developed in order to treat the RSLW considering the minimization of the effective dose for operator and the protection of the diffusion by of the radioactive material

  18. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  19. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  20. Study of two different radioactive sources for prostate brachytherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Neves, Lucio; Perini, Ana Paula; Souza Santos, William de; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Belinato, Walmir

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluated two radioactive sources for brachytherapy treatments. Our main goal was to quantify the absorbed doses on organs and tissues of an adult male patient, submitted to a brachytherapy treatment with two radioactive sources. We evaluated a 192 Ir and a 125 I radioactive sources. The 192 Ir radioactive source is a cylinder with 0.09 cm in diameter and 0.415 cm long. The 125 I radioactive source is also a cylinder, with 0.08 cm in diameter and 0.45 cm long. To evaluate the absorbed dose distribution on the prostate, and other organs and tissues of an adult man, a male virtual anthropomorphic phantom MASH, coupled in the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.0, was employed.We simulated 75, 90 and 102 radioactive sources of 125 I and one of 192 Ir, inside the prostate, as normally used in these treatments, and each treatment was simulated separately. As this phantom was developed in a supine position, the displacement of the internal organs of the chest, compression of the lungs and reduction of the sagittal diameter were all taken into account. For the 192 Ir, the higher doses values were obtained for the prostate and surrounding organs, as the colon, gonads and bladder. Considering the 125 I sources, with photons with lower energies, the doses to organs that are far from the prostate were lower. All values for the dose rates are in agreement with those recommended for brachytherapy treatments. Besides that, the new seeds evaluated in this work present usefulness as a new tool in prostate brachytherapy treatments, and the methodology employed in this work may be applied for other radiation sources, or treatments. (authors)

  1. Study of two different radioactive sources for prostate brachytherapy treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Neves, Lucio; Perini, Ana Paula [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, 38400-902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Souza Santos, William de; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, IPENCNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Departamento de Ensino, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia, Campus Vitoria da Conquista, Zabele, Av. Amazonas 3150, 45030-220 Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this study we evaluated two radioactive sources for brachytherapy treatments. Our main goal was to quantify the absorbed doses on organs and tissues of an adult male patient, submitted to a brachytherapy treatment with two radioactive sources. We evaluated a {sup 192}Ir and a {sup 125}I radioactive sources. The {sup 192}Ir radioactive source is a cylinder with 0.09 cm in diameter and 0.415 cm long. The {sup 125}I radioactive source is also a cylinder, with 0.08 cm in diameter and 0.45 cm long. To evaluate the absorbed dose distribution on the prostate, and other organs and tissues of an adult man, a male virtual anthropomorphic phantom MASH, coupled in the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.0, was employed.We simulated 75, 90 and 102 radioactive sources of {sup 125}I and one of {sup 192}Ir, inside the prostate, as normally used in these treatments, and each treatment was simulated separately. As this phantom was developed in a supine position, the displacement of the internal organs of the chest, compression of the lungs and reduction of the sagittal diameter were all taken into account. For the {sup 192}Ir, the higher doses values were obtained for the prostate and surrounding organs, as the colon, gonads and bladder. Considering the {sup 125}I sources, with photons with lower energies, the doses to organs that are far from the prostate were lower. All values for the dose rates are in agreement with those recommended for brachytherapy treatments. Besides that, the new seeds evaluated in this work present usefulness as a new tool in prostate brachytherapy treatments, and the methodology employed in this work may be applied for other radiation sources, or treatments. (authors)

  2. Study on the treatment of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Qiao, Bao-Ping; Liu, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Xian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Acute thallium poisoning rarely occurs but is a serious and even fatal medical condition. Currently, patients with acute thallium poisoning are usually treated with Prussian blue and blood purification therapy. However, there are few studies about these treatments for acute thallium poisoning. Nine patients with acute thallium poisoning from 1 family were treated successfully with Prussian blue and different types of blood purification therapies and analyzed. Prussian blue combined with sequential hemodialysis, hemoperfusion and/or continuous veno-venous hemofiltration were effective for the treatment of patients with acute thallium poisoning, even after delayed diagnosis. Blood purification therapies help in the clearance of thallium in those with acute thallium poisoning. Prussian blue treatment may do the benefit during this process.

  3. Abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence to treatment is one of the hindering factors in the process of smoking cessation. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status and motivation among smokers who maintained or abandoned treatment to stop smoking, and to analyze associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study on 216 smokers who were attended at healthcare units in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. METHODS: The instruments used were the Fagerström, URICA and CAGE questionnaires. Data from the initial evaluation was analyzed using the two-proportion test (α < 0.05. The patients were monitored for six months and those who abandoned treatment were accounted for. Bivariate analysis was conducted, using crude prevalence ratios and 5% significance level (P < 0.05, with abandonment of treatment as the outcome variable. Associations with P < 0.20 were selected for multiple robust Poisson regression (RPa. RESULTS: The abandonment rate was 34.26%. Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake predominated in the dropout group. In the final model, gender (RPa 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.10 and age group (RPa 3.77; 95% CI: 1.47-9.67 remained associated with abandonment. CONCLUSION: Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake more frequently abandoned the treatment. Male gender and younger age group were associated with abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment.

  4. A retrospective study of Class II mixed-dentition treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heesoo; Baumrind, Sheldon; Korn, Edward L; Dugoni, Steven; Boero, Roger; Aubert, Maryse; Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To consider the effectiveness of early treatment using one mixed-dentition approach to the correction of moderate and severe Class II malocclusions. Three groups of Class II subjects were included in this retrospective study: an early treatment (EarlyTx) group that first presented at age 7 to 9.5 years (n = 54), a late treatment (LateTx) group whose first orthodontic visit occurred between ages 12 and 15 (n = 58), and an untreated Class II (UnTx) group to assess the pretreatment comparability of the two treated groups (n = 51). Thirteen conventional cephalometric measurements were reported for each group and Class II molar severity was measured on the study casts of the EarlyTx and LateTx groups. Successful Class II correction was observed in approximately three quarters of both the EarlyTx group and the LateTx group at the end of treatment. EarlyTx patients had fewer permanent teeth extracted than did the LateTx patients (5.6% vs 37.9%, P < .001) and spent less time in full-bonded appliance therapy in the permanent dentition than did LateTx patients (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 2.6 ± 0.7years, P < .001). When supervision time is included, the EarlyTx group had longer total treatment time and averaged more visits than did the LateTx group (53.1 ± 18. 8 vs 33.7 ± 8.3, P < .0001). Fifty-five percent of the LateTx extraction cases involved removal of the maxillary first premolars only and were finished in a Class II molar relationship. EarlyTx comprehensive mixed-dentition treatment was an effective modality for early correction of Class II malocclusions.

  5. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  6. Study on the Development of Household Wastewater Treatment Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadi Ghawi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Iraq in general and the city of Al Diwaniyah in particular are characterized by the fact that the majority of households use septic tank to dispose of sewage, leading to contamination of ground and surface water and a disturbance to the environment. The objective of this study is to protect the water and soil sources from the risk of pollution, eliminate the process of perfusion and thus, reduce costs, maintain public health, as well as design and implement the proposed purification unit for domestic wastewater treatment. A domestic wastewater treatment unit has been improved to meet the standard specifications for the quality of the effluent wastewater. In this study, a compact non-electric sewage treatment unit was improved and implemented. Treatment is based on an effective modern biological purification process. Experimental verification and analysis of results were performed to demonstrate the improvement of physical and chemical parameters. The performance of the septic tanks-bioreactor gave satisfactory results. The removal efficiencies of Total Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, NH4-N, Total Nitrogen and Total Suspended Solid (TSS were 96.9%, 84.6%, 78.8%, 79.9% and 95.3%, respectively.

  7. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  8. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  9. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    , dialysis-related complications, dialysis-related expenses. RESULTS: The quality-of-life studies showed that significantly more time for work, family, and social activities was available to patients on APD compared to those on CAPD (p ...) treatment with respect to quality of life and clinical outcomes in relation to therapy costs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized multicenter study. SETTING: Three Danish CAPD units. PATIENTS: Thirty-four adequately dialyzed patients with high or high-average peritoneal transport characteristics were included...... were assessed at baseline and after 6 months by the self-administered short-form SF-36 generic health survey questionnaire supplemented with disease- and treatment-specific questions. Therapy costs were compared by evaluating dialysis-related expenses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-of-life parameters...

  10. Study of Ag and PE interface after plasma treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Bočan, Jiří; Švorčík, V.; Pavlík, J.; Strýhal, Z.; Sajdl, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2008), s. 964-967 ISSN 1862-6351. [9th International workshop on plasma based ion implantation and deposition. Leipzig, 02.09.2007-06.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : RBS and AFM study * metal-polymer interface * plasma treatment Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  11. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

    1996-07-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

  12. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

    1996-07-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na 2 O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137 Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

  13. Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gotler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT in vital and necrotic pulps and after retreatment. Methodology. A prospective study. Participants were all patients (=274 who underwent RCT in teeth with vital pulp, necrotic pulp, or vital pulp that had been treated for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or who received root canal retreatment, by one clinician, during an eight-month period. Exclusion criteria were swelling, purulence, and antibiotic use during initial treatment. A structured questionnaire accessed age, gender, tooth location, and pulpal diagnosis. Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1–5 point scale. Results. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and severity of PEP (63.8%; 2.46 ± 1.4, resp. than RCT of teeth with necrotic pulp (38.5%; 1.78 ± 1.2, resp. or of retreated teeth (48.8%; 1.89 ± 1.1, resp.. No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and intensity of PEP compared to teeth with necrotic pulp or retreated teeth.

  14. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  15. Electronic problem-solving treatment: description and pilot study of an interactive media treatment for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartreine, James Albert; Locke, Steven E; Buckey, Jay C; Sandoval, Luis; Hegel, Mark T

    2012-09-25

    Computer-automated depression interventions rely heavily on users reading text to receive the intervention. However, text-delivered interventions place a burden on persons with depression and convey only verbal content. The primary aim of this project was to develop a computer-automated treatment for depression that is delivered via interactive media technology. By using branching video and audio, the program simulates the experience of being in therapy with a master clinician who provides six sessions of problem-solving therapy. A secondary objective was to conduct a pilot study of the program's usability, acceptability, and credibility, and to obtain an initial estimate of its efficacy. The program was produced in a professional multimedia production facility and incorporates video, audio, graphics, animation, and text. Failure analyses of patient data are conducted across sessions and across problems to identify ways to help the user improve his or her problem solving. A pilot study was conducted with persons who had minor depression. An experimental group (n = 7) used the program while a waitlist control group (n = 7) was provided with no treatment for 6 weeks. All of the experimental group participants completed the trial, whereas 1 from the control was lost to follow-up. Experimental group participants rated the program high on usability, acceptability, and credibility. The study was not powered to detect clinical improvement, although these pilot data are encouraging. Although the study was not powered to detect treatment effects, participants did find the program highly usable, acceptable, and credible. This suggests that the highly interactive and immersive nature of the program is beneficial. Further clinical trials are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00906581; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00906581 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6A5Ni5HUp).

  16. [A retrospective study of orthodontic treatment of children with clefts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, I; Bar-Abudi, R; Abed, Y; Ben-Bassat, Y; Harari, D; Zilberman, Y

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the population of cleft patients treated in a Department of Orthodontics and the types of treatment modalities provided. Demographic, cleft related and treatment related data existing in the patients' files were supplemented by questionnaires. Comparisons were conducted among 3 cleft groups: cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP) and cleft palate (CP). The response rate was 36% (n = 152). The distribution of the patients in the 3 cleft groups, the sidedness, the male predominance and association with additional anomalies were similar to the reports in the literature. Most of the patients were the 3rd born (or more) and were of normal birth weight. Consanguity in the cleft families was at least 2.5 times more prevalent than that of the Israeli population and 30% reported on additional cleft in the family. Low birth weight and additional anomalies were found mainly in the CP group. Orthodontic involvement spanned 3 developmental periods: immediate postnatal presurgical treatment, phase I between the ages 6-8 years and full orthodontic treatment at a later age. Up to the age of 5 years only one lip operation was performed for 60% of the lip-affected children and one palate operation for 65% of the palate affected patients. 1. The distribution of the various cleft-related parameters in this retrospective study was similar to the findings in the literature. 2. The high prevalence of additional anomalies found emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the cleft babies. 3. Orthodontic treatment was rendered in one and two phase protocols in addition to immediate postnatal pre-surgical intervention.

  17. Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

  18. Treatment dose-response in amblyopia therapy: the Monitored Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (MOTAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Catherine E; Moseley, Merrick J; Stephens, David A; Fielder, Alistair R

    2004-09-01

    Amblyopia is the commonest visual disorder of childhood. Yet the contributions of the two principal treatments (spectacle wear and occlusion) to outcome are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the dose-response relationship of amblyopia therapy. The study comprised three distinct phases: baseline, in which repeat measures of visual function were undertaken to confirm the initial visual deficit; refractive adaptation: an 18-week period of spectacle wear with six weekly measurements of logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity; occlusion: in which participants were prescribed 6 hours of "patching" per day. In the latter phase, occlusion was objectively monitored and logMAR visual acuity recorded at 2-week intervals until any observed gains had ceased. Data were obtained from 94 participants (mean age, 5.1 +/- 1.4 years) with amblyopia associated with strabismus (n = 34), anisometropia (n = 23), and both anisometropia and strabismus (n = 37). Eighty-six underwent refractive adaptation. Average concordance with patching was 48%. The relationship between logMAR visual acuity gain and total occlusion dose was monotonic and linear. Increasing dose rate beyond 2 h/d hastened the response but did not improve outcome. More than 80% of the improvement during occlusion occurred within 6 weeks. Treatment outcome was significantly better for children younger than 4 years (n = 17) than in those older than 6 years (n = 24; P = 0.0014). Continuous objective monitoring of the amount of patching therapy received has provided insight into the dose-response relationship of occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Patching is most effective within the first few weeks of treatment, even for those in receipt of a relatively small dose. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural basis for the dose-response functions. Copyright Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology

  19. Case study on utilization of radiation in sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Waichiro

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of radiation to sludge treatment has been studied as a case study of the utilization of radiation to environmental protection by the society for the utilization of radiation in Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., and the result is presented in this paper. The examined radiation sources to sterilize sludge were γ-ray and electron beam, and sludge was irradiated in the forms of slurry or cake. Four treatment conditions by the combination of the radiation sources and the sludge conditions were examined. From the examined results, it was estimated that in the case one (γ-ray and slurry), the output of 25 kW or 1.6 million curie was required for the sludge treatment capacity of 250 tons/day, in the case two (electron beam and slurry), an accelerator of 20 mA or 60 mA was required for the capacity of 250 or 750 tons/day, respectively, in the case three (γ-ray and cake), a radiation source of 0.6 million curie was required for the capacity of 50 tons/day, and in the case four (electron beam and cake), an accelerator of 4 mA or 12 mA was required for the capacity of 50 tons/day or 150 tons/day. (Yoshitake, I.)

  20. Reclassification and treatment of odontogenic keratocysts: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophir Ribeiro-Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC is a recurrent cyst that has been recently reclassified from an odontogenic tumor to an odontogenic cyst. The aim of the present study was to investigate its treatment and address issues related to its association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS. Lesions from the cohort of patients included in the present study consisted of 40 OKCs, of which 27 lesions were treated by enucleation (GE and 13 underwent decompression (GD. Complementary treatment occurred in 38 (95% lesions, of which 10 underwent isolated peripheral ostectomy (GO and 28 underwent peripheral ostectomy combined with Carnoy's solution (GC. Thirteen lesions were associated with NBCCS (GS, while the others (n=27 were non-syndromic lesions (GnS. The recurrence-free periods (RFP in the sample groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier function and log-rank test at a significance level of 5% (p 0.05 or increased CRR for the decompression (15.4% over five years. Application of Carnoy's solution did not increase the efficacy of the peripheral ostectomy, but was related to a CRR of 0% for the syndromic lesions over five years. Therefore, 1 decompression did not increase the recurrence risk; 2 peripheral ostectomy demonstrated a similar efficacy as the combination with Carnoy's solution; 3 the association of NBCCS did not seem to significantly influence OKC recurrence; and 4 syndromic lesions seem to behave in the same manner as non-syndromic lesions when submitted to complementary treatments.

  1. [Topical haemotherapy as treatment for necrotic angiodermatitis: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courivaud, D; Ségard, M; Darras, S; Carpentier, O; Thomas, P

    2005-03-01

    Necrotic angiodermatitis is a variety of leg ulcer, characterized by very painful and rapidly spreading lesions. Healing takes time, a mean of 4 to 11 months. Current treatment is difficult and rarely satisfactory. Only early skin grafts lead to rapid sedation of pain and stop the lesion from extending. However, this technique, performed during a progressive phase, enhances the risk of losing a certain number of grafts. We wanted to confirm the efficacy of local auto-haemo-therapy proposed in 2 non-controlled studies. Eleven patients with necrotic angiodermatitis were included in our non-controlled prospective study. The topical hemotherapy was applied three times a week for one month, with initial hospitalization for 15 days. The criteria of assessment were: evolution of pain, surface of the ulcer, colorimetric scale and the date of disappearance of the purple halo. Ten patients were relieved by the treatment, with progressive withdrawal of the analgesics. The progression of the lesion had stopped and the purple halo had disappeared in general by D6 (range: 2 to 21 days). The percentage of granulation tissue with regard to the surface of the ulcer was of 45.4 p. 100 on D0, 80 p. 100 on D14 and 85 p. 100 on D28. Topical hemotherapy applied during the initial phase of treatment would reduce the pain and prepare the lesion for a secondary skin graft.

  2. Fate of triclocarban during soil aquifer treatment: Soil column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2010-04-01

    There are current concerns about the presence of persistent chemicals in recharge water used in soil aquifer treatment systems. Triclocarban (TCC) has been reported as a persistent, high production volume chemical with the potential to bioaccumulate in the environment. It is also known to have adverse effects such as toxicity and suspected endocrine disruption. This study was carried out to study the fate of TCC in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) through laboratory simulations in a soil column. The system performance was evaluated with regards to TCC influent concentration, sand (column) depth, and residence time. Results obtained confirmed the ability of SAT to reduce TCC concentrations in wastewater. Sorption and biodegradation were responsible for TCC removal, the latter mechanism however being unsustainable. The removal efficiency was found to be dependent on concentration and decreased over time and increased with column depth. Within the duration of the experimental run, TCC negatively impacted on treatment performance through a reduction in COD removals observed in the column. © IWA Publishing 2010.

  3. Characterization of the enhanced apoptotic response to azidothymidine by pharmacological inhibition of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Claudia; Minutolo, Antonella; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Grelli, Sandro; Frezza, Caterina; Mastino, Antonio; Macchi, Beatrice

    2015-04-15

    The present study addresses the issue of enhanced apoptotic response to AZT following co-treatment with an NF-kB inhibitor. To investigate this issue, different cell lines were assayed for susceptibility to AZT-mediated apoptosis without or with the addition of the NF-kB inhibitor Bay-11-7085. For further investigation, U937 cells were selected as good-responder cells to the combination treatment with 32 or 128 μM AZT, and 1 μM Bay-11-7085. Inhibition of NF-kB activation by Bay-11-7085 in cells treated with AZT was assayed through Western blot analysis of p65 expression and by EMSA. Involvement of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in mechanisms underlying the improved effect of AZT following Bay-11-7085 co-treatment, was evaluated by assaying the cytochrome c release and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) status using the JC-1 dye. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of both anti- and pro-apoptotic genes in U937 cells after combination treatment was quantitatively evaluated through real-time PCR. We found that the combined treatment induced high levels of cytochrome c release and of MMP collapse in association with evident changes in the expression of both anti- and pro-apoptotic genes of the Bcl-2 family. Overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly suppressed the sensitization of U937 cells to an enhanced apoptotic response to AZT following co-treatment with the NF-kB inhibitor. The new findings suggest that a combination regimen based on AZT plus an NF-kB inhibitor could represent a new chemotherapeutic tool for retrovirus-related pathologies.

  4. Study population and treatment titration in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M J; Castaigne, A; de Leeuw, P W; Mancia, G; Rosenthal, T; Ruilope, L M

    1998-12-01

    To ascertain the baseline characteristics of the high-risk hypertensive patients entering the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT). To determine the success of single and combination therapy in achieving target blood pressures in such a population. INSIGHT is a double-blind, prospective outcome trial comparing the efficacy of the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine GITS, and the thiazide, co-amilozide, in preventing myocardial infarction and stroke. We recruited 2996 men and 3454 women, aged 55-80 years, with blood pressure during placebo run-in >150/95 mmHg or isolated systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg from nine countries. Treatment allocation to nifedipine GITS 30 mg daily or co-amilozide (hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg) once daily was performed by minimization rather than randomization to balance additional risk factors. This was followed by four optional increases in treatment: dose-doubling of the primary drug, addition of atenolol 25/50 mg or enalapril 5/10 mg, and then any other hypotensive drug excluding calcium blockers or diuretics. Target blood pressure was 140/90 mmHg or a fall > or = 20/10 mmHg. Blood pressure at randomization was 172+/-15 / 99+/-9 mmHg. Thirteen per cent of the patients were previously untreated. The proportions of each additional risk factors were: smoking > 10/day, 29%; cholesterol > 6.43 mmol/l, 52%; family history of premature myocardial infarction or stroke, 21%; diabetes mellitus 20%; left ventricular hypertrophy, 10%; previous myocardial infarction, other presentations of coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease, each 6%; proteinuria, 3%. Fifty-five per cent of patients had one additional risk factor, whereas 33%, 9% and 3% had two, three or more additional risk factors, respectively. The blood pressure (and falls in blood pressure) at the end of titration and at 1 year after minimization was 139+/-12 / 82+/-7 mmHg (33+/-15 / 17+/-9) in the 5226

  5. Treatment Readiness as a Determinant of Treatment Participation in a Prison-Based Rehabilitation Program: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Anouk Q; Kunst, Maarten J J; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The current study had three aims. First, it measured treatment readiness among offenders who entered the Prevention of Recidivism program. This is a prison-based rehabilitation program in the Netherlands that aims to lower re-offending rates among offenders with a prison sentence of at least for months and that is carried out during the final months of incarceration. Second, the study evaluated whether treatment readiness was associated with treatment participation. Third, the study examined whether treatment readiness measured with a validated instrument predicted treatment participation above and beyond a clinical assessment of treatment readiness, currently used as a criterion to include offenders in rehabilitation programs. To address these aims, data were used from the fourth wave of a research project studying the effects of imprisonment on the life of detainees in the Netherlands. Results indicated that treatment readiness as measured with a validated instrument was a significant predictor of treatment participation. Also, the current study showed that treatment readiness measured with a validated instrument improved the prediction of treatment participation above and beyond a clinical assessment of treatment readiness. Outcomes were discussed in light of study limitations and implications.

  6. Telepsychiatrists' Medication Treatment Strategies in the Children's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Telemental Health Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Yuet Juhn; Fesinmeyer, Megan D.; Garcia, Jessica; Myers, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the prescribing strategies that telepsychiatrists used to provide pharmacologic treatment in the Children's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Telemental Health Treatment Study (CATTS). Methods: CATTS was a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the superiority of a telehealth service delivery model for the treatment of ADHD with combined pharmacotherapy and behavior training (n=111), compared with management in primary care augmented with a telepsychiatry consultation (n=112). A diagnosis of ADHD was established with the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (CDISC), and comorbidity for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorders (AD) was established using the CDISC and the Child Behavior Checklist. Telepsychiatrists used the Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project (TCMAP) for ADHD to guide pharmacotherapy and the treat-to-target model to encourage their assertive medication management to a predetermined goal of 50% reduction in ADHD-related symptoms. We assessed whether telepsychiatrists' decision making about making medication changes was associated with baseline ADHD symptom severity, comorbidity, and attainment of the treat-to-target goal. Results: Telepsychiatrists showed high fidelity (91%) to their chosen algorithms in medication management. At the end of the trial, the CATTS intervention showed 46.0% attainment of the treat-to-target goal compared with 13.6% for the augmented primary care condition, and significantly greater attainment of the goal by comorbidity status for the ADHD with one and ADHD with two comorbidities groups. Telepsychiatrists' were more likely to decide to make medication adjustments for youth with higher baseline ADHD severity and the presence of disorders comorbid with ADHD. Multiple mixed methods regression analyses controlling for baseline ADHD severity and comorbidity status indicated that the telepsychiatrists

  7. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  8. Telemedicine of family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa: A protocol of a treatment development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen E; Byrne, Catherine; Goodyear, Alexandria; Reichel, Ryan; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Family-based treatment is an efficacious treatment available for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Yet the implementation of this treatment, at least in the United States, is challenging due to a limited number of trained family-based treatment therapists and the concentration of these therapists in a limited number of urban centers. The use of telemedicine in the delivery of family-based treatment can increase access to this therapy for this patient population. This two-year treatment development study (December 2013-November 2015) follows a two-wave iterative case series design. The study is ongoing and addresses the treatment needs of families in remote, rural, or underrepresented parts of the United States by delivering family-based treatment via telemedicine (video chat). The first six months of the study was dedicated to selecting a cloud-based secure telemedicine portal for use with participants. Recruitment for the first of two consecutive case series (N = 5) began during month seven. After these five patients completed treatment, a systematic review of treatment via feedback from participants and therapists related to the delivery of this model and use of technology was completed. A second wave of recruitment is underway (N = 5). At the end of both waves (N = 10), and after a second review of treatment, we should be able to establish the feasibility and acceptability of family-based treatment delivered via telemedicine for this patient population. This study is the first attempt to deliver family-based treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa via telemedicine. If delivering family-based treatment in this format is feasible, it will provide access to an evidence-based treatment for families heretofore unable to participate in specialist treatment for their child's eating disorder.

  9. Study of wastewater treatment plants efficiency using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawi, W. D. A.

    2010-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate and diagnose hydrodynamic behavior of the Military Hospital wastewater treatment plant. The plant comprises two units of treatment, each of them has a separate system. The investigation was carried out using ''1''3''1I as a radiotracer. The concept of residence time distribution (RTD) was used to investigate the efficiency of the aeration tanks, secondary clarifiers and chlorine tanks. Preliminary treatment and modeling of the trace data was performed using two software package applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) namely 4621 counter version 1.0.0 and RTD software. Plug flow pattern (parallel flow) was detected in the aeration tank and secondary clarifier of system 1 in one unit, while no homogeneous mixing was observed in the chlorine tank. Short - circuiting (by - passing) was evident in the aeration tank of system 2 in the other unit, which significantly reduced the operating efficiency. The percentage of dead volumes clearly suggests that the aeration tank and secondary clarifier were well utilized in the whole plant. (Author)

  10. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  11. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  12. Studies on radioactive liquid waste treatment by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Akio; Shimoura, Kazukuni; Tsutsui, Tenson

    1982-01-01

    Reverse osmosis is a simple process and has relatively high decontamination factor comparing to other processes used for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste. Furthermore the quantity of secondary waste of this process is small. In this study, test solution containing nine elements such as cesium, strontium, cobalt etc. in chloride forms are treated by reverse osmosis. Permeate rate decreases as the increase of osmotic pressure of feed solution and is expressed by linear equation. Decontamination factor of cations of univalency is more than ten, and about one tenth of that of bivalency. Decontamination factors of all the elements used in this experiment are approximately estimated using the solution-diffusion model. (author)

  13. Early Discontinuation of Montelukast Treatment; A Danish Nationwide Utilization Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Rahmo I; Damkier, Per; Christiansen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, was marketed in 1998 as an oral supplementary treatment to patients with mild to moderate asthma. The aim of this study was to describe the early discontinuation pattern among montelukast users in Denmark in the period of 1 March 1998 to 31 December....... Early discontinuation was defined as failing to fill a second prescription for montelukast within at least a year after the initial montelukast prescription. Among 135,271 included montelukast users, 47,480 (35%) discontinued the use of montelukast after a single redeemed prescription. The trend...

  14. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  15. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with photodynamic therapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranzena Panneer Selvam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Oral leukoplakia (OL is the most common potentially malignant disorder that may transform into oral carcinoma. By treating leukoplakia in its incipient stage, the risk of occurrence of oral carcinoma can be prevented. In this aspect, photodynamic therapy (PDT can serve as a useful treatment modality. The aim of the study is to treat patients with OL using PDT in which 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is used as a photosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Five patients with OL were included in the study. They were treated with 10% ALA mediated PDT (light source: Xenon lamp, power: 0.1 W, wavelength: 630 ± 5 nm, total dose: 100 J/cm 2 per session for 6-8 sessions. Follow-up was done for a period of 1 year. Results: One month (4 weeks after ALA-PDT, the response was evaluated based on clinical examination. It was as follows: Complete response: Two patients; partial response: Two patients; and no response: One patient. There was no recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusion: There was satisfactory reduction in the size of the OL lesion without any side-effects. Thus, ALA mediated PDT seems to be a promising alternative for the treatment of OL.

  16. Engineering study radioactive liquid waste treatment plant refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suazo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study will investigate the opportunities, restrictions and cost impact to refurbish the existing Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (RLWTP) while utilizing the same basic criteria that was used in the development of the new Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The objective of this study is to perform a more in-depth analysis of refurbishing the existing than has been done in the past so as to provide a basis for comparison between refurbishing the existing or constructing a new. The existing plant is located at Technical Area 50 (TA-50) within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The initial structure was built in 1963. Over the ensuing years, the building has been modified and several additions have been constructed. In 1966, laboratories, ion exchange and pretreatment functions were added. The decontamination and decommissioning activities and ventilation equipment were added in 1984. The following assumptions are the basic parameters considered in the development of a design concept to refurbish the RLWTP: (1) Allow continued operation of the during retrofit construction. (2) Design the necessary expansion within the site constraints. (3) Satisfy National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) permit conditions and other environmental regulations. (4) Comply with present DOE Orders and building code requirements. The refurbishment concept is a phased demolition and construction process

  17. Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna; Lev, Lihi Bar; Yablecovitch, Doron; Yablekovitz, Doron; Half, Elisabeth; Konikoff, Fred M

    2011-08-01

    The marijuana plant cannabis is known to have therapeutic effects, including improvement of inflammatory processes. However, no report of patients using cannabis for Crohn's disease (CD) was ever published. To describe the effects of cannabis use in patients suffering from CD. In this retrospective observational study we examined disease activity, use of medication, need for surgery, and hospitalization before and after cannabis use in 30 patients (26 males) with CD. Disease activity was assessed by the Harvey Bradshaw index for Crohn's disease. Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly after treatment with cannabis. The average Harvey Bradshaw index improved from 14 +/- 6.7 to 7 +/- 4.7 (P disease in humans. The results indicate that cannabis may have a positive effect on disease activity, as reflected by reduction in disease activity index and in the need for other drugs and surgery. Prospective placebo-controlled studies are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy and side effects of cannabis in CD.

  18. Maternal Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Use During Pregnancy Is Not Associated With Adverse Perinatal Outcomes Among HIV-infected East African Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Baeten, Jared M; Celum, Connie; Mugo, Nelly; Ngure, Kenneth; Were, Edwin; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; John-Stewart, Grace; Heffron, Renee A

    2017-12-19

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is commonly used in antiretroviral treatment (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis regimens. We evaluated the relationship between adverse perinatal outcomes and prenatal TDF use. Longitudinal data were analyzed from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women who became pregnant during 2 HIV prevention studies conducted among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Pregnancies included were singleton, not terminated by an induced abortion, and had documented 3-drug ART use. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the association of prenatal TDF and perinatal outcomes. The most frequent ART regimens were TDF/3TC/EFV (39%) and AZT/3TC/NVP (34%); 49% of pregnancies had prenatal TDF exposure and 6% used a protease inhibitor. Neonatal death, preterm birth, and pregnancy loss occurred in 2%, 8%, and 12% of pregnancies, respectively. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without exposure to TDF in the frequency of pregnancy loss (adjusted prevalence rate ratio [aPRR] 1.19, P = .8) or neonatal death (aPRR 0.68, P = .6). Preterm birth occurred less frequently among pregnancies exposed to TDF (aPRR, 0.34, P = .02). Maternal TDF use did not adversely affect perinatal outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. HPA axis response to psychological stress and treatment retention in residential substance abuse treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B; Richards, Jessica M; Gorka, Stephanie M; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-12-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs are often characterized by high rates of premature treatment dropout, which increases the likelihood of relapse to drug use. Negative reinforcement models of addiction emphasize an individual's inability to tolerate stress as a key factor for understanding poor substance use treatment outcomes, and evidence indicates that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis contributes to an individual's inability to respond adaptively to stress. The aim of the current study was to examine whether HPA axis response to stress is predictive of treatment retention among a sample of drug users in residential substance abuse treatment. Prospective study assessing treatment retention among 102 individuals enrolled in residential substance abuse treatment. Participants completed two computerized stress tasks, and HPA axis response to stress was measured via salivary cortisol at five time points from baseline (pre-stress) to 30 min post-stress exposure. The main outcome measures were treatment dropout (categorical) and total number of days in treatment (continuous). A significantly higher salivary cortisol response to stress was observed in treatment dropouts compared to treatment completers. Further, Cox proportional hazards survival analyses indicated that a higher peak cortisol response to stress was associated with a shorter number of days to treatment dropout. Results indicate that a higher salivary cortisol level in response to stress is associated with an inability to remain in substance abuse treatment. These findings are the first to document a biological marker of stress as a predictor of substance abuse treatment dropout, and support the development and implementation of treatments targeting this vulnerability.

  20. Clinical treatment strategies and experimental studies in polytrauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wessem, K.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the clinical treatment of polytrauma patients and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms causing injury-induced inflammatory response. Even though the treatment of polytrauma patients has improved over the years, trauma is still the leading cause of death

  1. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Andriesse, B.; Kernick, D.; Reis, R.; Ferrari, M.D.; Assendelft, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic

  2. Study of multilayer polymer materials after ionization treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasyuk, V. T.; Semkina, A. A.; Solovyeva, V. I.; Fedotova, D. D.; Strokova, N. E.; Malenko, D. M.; Baranov, O. V.; Bakumenko, A. V.; Puchkov, S. N.; Prokopenko, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Electron-beam technologies of food products processing involves the use of modern packaging materials in form of polymer films of different composition. The objective of the research is to study the impact of accelerated electrons on the structure of the polymeric packaging materials used for storage of agricultural products. It was investigated radiation exposure on film material PE/PA (80/20) with a thickness of 80 mkm. This film used for storage of vegetables and fruits and has the necessary indicators for gas and vapor permeability. Electron beam treatment of the films was performed on a compact radiation sterilization installation with local bio-protection with electron energy of 5 MeV. A polymer films were irradiated with doses from 1 to 10 kGy. Changing the structure of the film composition was monitored by IR spectrometry. As a result of irradiation by accelerated electrons with doses up to 18 kGy is established that the polymer film is modification of the polymeric material in the form of a partial degradation with subsequent intra-molecular crosslinking. This improves the physico-mechanical properties in the transverse direction, and such film can be used for food packaging before electron-beam treatment.

  3. Treatment abandonment in feline sporotrichosis - study of 147 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, A R; de Campos, M P; Barros, M B L; do Carmo, C N; Gremião, I D F; Pereira, S A; Schubach, T M P

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the epidemiological, clinical and mycological aspects of feline sporotrichosis cases attending the Laboratory of Clinical Research on Dermatozoonosis in Domestic Animals - Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (LAPCLIN-DERMZOO/IPEC/FIOCRUZ), from 1998 to 2005. It was possible to get in contact with 147 (19.2%) cat owners. One hundred and thirteen (76.9%) cats were male, 117 (79.6%) had no defined race and 87 (59.2%) were sexually intact. The age ranged from 72 to 216 months (median = 108 months). Nineteen cats were reassessed: eleven (57.8%) were male, thirteen (36.8%) were breed and fifteen (47.3%) castrated. Fourteen (52.6%) animals lived at home and did not roamed the streets. Seven (36.8%) had normal clinical findings and negative mycological examination. Twelve (63.1%) cats had skin lesions compatible with sporotrichosis. Thirty-one (21%, n = 147) cats disappeared after abandoning treatment, 36 (24.5%, n = 147) were alive and 80 (54.4%, n = 147) had died. Causes of death informed by the owners were: sporotrichosis in 35 (43.7%, n = 80), accidental death in 27 (33.7%, n = 80) and other diseases in 18 (22.5%, n = 80). Withdrawal of treatment occurred mainly at the time of clinical improvement and may represent a serious obstacle to the control of sporotrichosis. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. USHERING IN THE STUDY AND TREATMENT OF PRECLINICAL ALZHEIMER DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Lopera, Francisco; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Caselli, Richard J.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Reiman, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have begun to characterize the subtle biological and cognitive processes that precede the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), and to set the stage for accelerated evaluation of experimental treatments to delay the onset, reduce the risk of or completely prevent clinical decline. Here, we provide an overview of the experimental strategies, and brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures that are used in early detection and tracking of AD, highlighting at-risk individuals who could be suitable for preclinical monitoring. We discuss how these advances have contributed to reconceptualization of AD as a sequence of biological changes that occur during progression from preclinical AD, to mild cognitive impairment and finally dementia, and we review recently proposed research criteria for preclinical AD. Advances in the study of preclinical AD have driven the recognition that efficacy of at least some AD therapies may depend on initiation of treatment before clinical manifestation of disease, leading to a new era of AD prevention research. PMID:23752908

  5. Honeybee propolis extract in periodontal treatment: A clinical and microbiological study of propolis in periodontal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing as assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters.

  6. Family centered brief intensive treatment: a pilot study of an outpatient treatment for acute suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Trena T; Humphries-Wadsworth, Terresa; Pepper, Carolyn M; Pearson, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    Family Centered Brief Intensive Treatment (FC BIT), a hospital diversion treatment program for individuals with acute suicidal ideation, was developed to treat suicidal clients and their families. Individuals who met criteria for hospitalization were treated as outpatients using FC BIT (n = 19) or an intensive outpatient treatment without the family component (IOP; n = 24). Clients receiving FC BIT identified family members or supportive others to participate in therapy. FC BIT clients had significantly greater improvement at the end of treatment compared to IOP clients on measures of depression, hopelessness, and suicidality. Further research is needed to test the efficacy of FC BIT. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  7. [Comparative study of two treatment methods for acute periodontal abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong-mei; Wang, Wei-qian

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this short-term study was to compare the clinical efficacy of 2 different methods to treat acute periodontal abscesses. After patient selection, 100 cases of acute periodontal abscess were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated by supra- and subgingival scaling, while the control group was treated by incision and drainage. A clinical examination was carried out to record the following variables: subjective clinical variables including pain, edema, redness and swelling; objective clinical variables including gingival index(GI), bleeding index(BI), probing depth(PD),suppuration, lymphadenopathy and tooth mobility. The data was analyzed with SPSS 19.0 software package. RESULES: Subjective clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant improvements with both methods from the first day after treatment and lasted for at least 30 days(P0.05), but the experimental group showed more improvement in edema and redness than the control group(Pperiodontal abscesses.

  8. Feasibility study of cyclone incineration treatment for radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lianquan; Wang Peiyi; Ma Mingxie; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Qiu Mingcai; Zhang Xiaobin; Dong Jingling; Lu Xiaowu; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    Feasibility study of cyclone incineration treatment for radioactive solid waste is introduced. The structure of cyclone incineration furnace is defined according to test results. The results show: under given conditions of technology: i.e., inlet flowrate ≥30 m/s, total volume ≥210 Nm 3 /h, the mixed solid material with more than 40% of plastics and rubber can completely be incinerated after suitable smash and mixing. The advantages of the furnace are: simple structure, high strength of volume heat, no preheating and combustion-supporting of assistant fuel, bridging and melt leak can be avoided in the stuff. The pretreatment of solid waste is simple, and a little amount of non-combustible substance in the waste can be allowed

  9. Study on hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces improved by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jiangnan; Sunderland, Bob; Xue Jianming; Yan, Sha; Zhao Weijiang; Folkard, Melvyn; Michael, Barry D.; Wang Yugang

    2006-01-01

    Surface properties of polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples treated by microwave-induced argon plasma have been studied with contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanned electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that plasma treatment modified the surfaces both in composition and roughness. Modification of composition makes polymer surfaces tend to be highly hydrophilic, which mainly depended on the increase of ratio of oxygen-containing group as same as other papers reported. And this experiment further revealed that C=O bond is Key factor to the improvement of the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces. Our SEM observation on PET shown that the roughness of the surface has also been improved in micron scale and it has influence on the surface hydrophilicity

  10. A study of the treatment of oral multiple primary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takayuki; Kamata, Shin-etsu; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The subjects were 30 multiple primary cancers (out of 2,169 oral squamous cell carcinoma including lip cancers), which were treated at the Division of Head and Neck, Cancer Institute Hospital. Seven synchronous carcinomas and 23 metachronous cases were seen. The most common site of the primary cancer was the tongue. Surgical treatment was performed for the first treatment in 5 cases of the 7 synchronous cancers. On the other hand, radical treatment was performed in 11 cases of the 23 metachronous cancers. Fourteen of the 18 cases were treated by surgical treatment and controlled. It is suggested that surgical treatment is the most effective for oral multiple primary cancers. (author)

  11. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA study: Design challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Cristan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone to the effect of the first (stimulant. We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic. Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual

  12. Fertility treatment for the transgender community: a public opinion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H; Kaser, Daniel J; Missmer, Stacey A; Farland, Leslie V; Scout; Ashby, Rachel K; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2017-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate public opinion regarding fertility treatment and gamete cryopreservation for transgender individuals and identify how support varies by demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional web-based survey study completed by a representative sample of 1111 US residents aged 18-75 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of support for/opposition to fertility treatments for transgender people by demographic characteristics, adjusting a priori for age, gender, race, and having a biological child. Of 1336 people recruited, 1111 (83.2%) agreed to participate, and 986 (88.7%) completed the survey. Most respondents (76.2%) agreed that "Doctors should be able to help transgender people have biological children." Atheists/agnostics were more likely to be in support (88.5%) than Christian-Protestants (72.4%; OR = 3.10, CI = 1.37-7.02), as were younger respondents, sexual minorities, those divorced/widowed, Democrats, and non-parents. Respondents who did not know a gay person (10.0%; OR = 0.20, CI = 0.09-0.42) or only knew a gay person without children (41.4%; OR = 0.29, CI = 0.17-0.50) were more often opposed than those who knew a gay parent (48.7%). No differences in gender, geography, education, or income were observed. A smaller majority of respondents supported doctors helping transgender minors preserve gametes before transitioning (60.6%) or helping transgender men carry pregnancies (60.1%). Most respondents who support assisted and third-party reproduction also support such interventions to help transgender people have children.

  13. Clinical study on the treatment of vertigo by ant vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Chongxian; Hao, Shaojun; Lian, Linlin; Chen, Weiliang; Wang, Hongyu; Guan, Zhijiang; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the clinical curative effect of antiglare granule in the treatment of hypertension, cerebral arteriosclerosis, vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency, Meniere's disease, autonomic dysfunction caused by vertigo etc, the patients with vertigo were randomly divided into 300 cases of cerebral arteriosclerosis, vertebral basilar artery insufficiency, Meniere's disease into three groups, treatment group: control group 1, 2 groups of. 3 times a day, 30 days for a course of treatment, once a two treatment, observation and treatment effect. Control group: conventional doses of Yangxue Qingnao Granule, enteric coated aspirin treatment ibid. After 2 courses of treatment were observed and recorded the key concept of vertigo degree change number. Compare the outcome of TCM symptom medication after February, the total effective rate of treatment group was 96%, 1 in the control group the total efficiency of 69.7%, 2 in the control group the total efficiency of 71.7%, the treatment group curative effect on the treatment of hypertension, cerebral arteriosclerosis, vertebral basilar artery insufficiency vertigo, Meniere's disease, head weight light, walking foot stable curative effect is better than that of Yangxue Qingnao Granule, enteric coated aspirin effect. Aanti glare granule in the treatment of hypertension, cerebral arteriosclerosis and vertebral basilar artery insufficiency, Meniere's disease, autonomic dysfunction caused by vertigo has good clinical curative effect.

  14. The treatment of spleen injuries: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehli, Trond; Bågenholm, Anna; Trasti, Nora Christine; Monsen, Svein Arne; Bartnes, Kristian

    2015-10-29

    Hemorrhage after blunt trauma is a major contributor to death after trauma. In the abdomen, an injured spleen is the most frequent cause of major bleeding. Splenectomy is historically the treatment of choice. In 2007, non-operative management (NOM) with splenic artery embolization (SAE) was introduced in our institution. The indication for SAE is hemodynamically stable patients with extravasation of contrast, or grade 3-5 spleen injury according to the Abbreviated Organ Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008. We wanted to examine if the introduction of SAE increased the rate of salvaged spleens in our trauma center. All patients discharged with the diagnosis of splenic injury in the period 01.01.2000 - 31.12.2013 from the University Hospital of North Norway Tromsø were included in the study. Patients admitted for rehabilitation purposes or with an iatrogenic injury were excluded. A total of 109 patients were included in the study. In the period 2000-7, 20 of 52 patients were splenectomized. During 2007-13, there were 6 splenectomies and 24 SAE among 57 patients. The reduction in splenectomies is significant (p < 0.001). There is an increase in the rate of treated patients (splenectomy and SAE) from 38 to 53 % in the two time periods, but not significantly (p = 0.65). The rate of salvaged spleens has increased after the introduction of SAE in our center. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identification number NCT01965548.

  15. Treatability studies in support of the nonradiological wastewater treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Fowler, V.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Project (NRWTP) will treat nonradiological wastewaters generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to pollutant levels acceptable under restrictions imposed by the effluent limits of best available technology (BAT) regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), according to the goals established by the Clean Water Act. A three-phase treatability study was conducted to resolve many of the uncertainties facing the NRWTP. The first phase consisted of batch simulation of the proposed NRWTP flowsheet in the laboratory. The Phase I results revealed no major problems with the proposed flowsheet. Phase II consisted of more-detailed parametric studies of the flowsheet processes at a bench-scale level in the laboratory. The Phase II results were used to guide the planning and design of the Phase III study, which consisted of flowsheet simulation on a continuous basis using a mini-pilot plant (MPP) facility. This facility is contained within two connected semitrailer vans and an analytical trailer.

  16. CONTRACT Study - CONservative TReatment of Appendicitis in Children (feasibility): study protocol for a randomised controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Natalie; Wood, Wendy; Reading, Isabel; Walker, Erin; Blazeby, Jane M; Van't Hoff, William; Young, Bridget; Crawley, Esther M; Eaton, Simon; Chorozoglou, Maria; Sherratt, Frances C; Beasant, Lucy; Corbett, Harriet; Stanton, Michael P; Grist, Simon; Dixon, Elizabeth; Hall, Nigel J

    2018-03-02

    Currently, the routine treatment for acute appendicitis in the United Kingdom is an appendicectomy. However, there is increasing scientific interest and research into non-operative treatment of appendicitis in adults and children. While a number of studies have investigated non-operative treatment of appendicitis in adults, this research cannot be applied to the paediatric population. Ultimately, we aim to perform a UK-based multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the clinical and cost effectiveness of non-operative treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis in children, as compared with appendicectomy. First, we will undertake a feasibility study to assess the feasibility of performing such a trial. The study involves a feasibility RCT with a nested qualitative research to optimise recruitment as well as a health economic substudy. Children (aged 4-15 years inclusive) diagnosed with acute uncomplicated appendicitis that would normally be treated with an appendicectomy are eligible for the RCT. Exclusion criteria include clinical/radiological suspicion of perforated appendicitis, appendix mass or previous non-operative treatment of appendicitis. Participants will be randomised into one of two arms. Participants in the intervention arm are treated with antibiotics and regular clinical assessment to ensure clinical improvement. Participants in the control arm will receive appendicectomy. Randomisation will be minimised by age, sex, duration of symptoms and centre. Children and families who are approached for the RCT will be invited to participate in the embedded qualitative substudy, which includes recording of recruitment consultants and subsequent interviews with participants and non-participants and their families and recruiters. Analyses of these will inform interventions to optimise recruitment. The main study outcomes include recruitment rate (primary outcome), identification of strategies to optimise recruitment, performance of trial treatment

  17. 3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine induced deficiency of thymidine kinases 1, 2 and deoxycytidine kinase in H9 T-lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschel, Bettina; Kaufmann, Andreas; Höver, Gerold; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Noordhuis, Paul; Loves, Willem J P; Peters, Godefridus J; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2002-07-15

    Continuous cultivation of T-lymphoid H9 cells in the presence of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) resulted in a cell variant cross-resistant to both thymidine and deoxycytidine analogs. Cytotoxic effects of AZT, 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine as well as different deoxycytidine analogs such as 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dFdC) and 1-ss-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) were strongly reduced in H9 cells continuously exposed to AZT when compared to parental cells (>8.3-, >6.6-, >9.1-, 5 x 10(4)-, 5 x 10(3)-fold, respectively). Moreover, anti-HIV-1 effects of AZT, d4T, ddC and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) were significantly diminished (>222-, >25-, >400-, >200-fold, respectively) in AZT-resistant H9 cells. Study of cellular mechanisms responsible for cross-resistance to pyrimidine analogs in AZT-resistant H9 cells revealed decreased mRNA levels of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and lack of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) mRNA expression. The loss of dCK gene expression was confirmed by western blot analysis of dCK protein as well as dCK enzyme activity assay. Moreover, enzyme activity of TK1 and TK2 was reduced in AZT-resistant cells. In order to determine whether lack of dCK affected the formation of the active triphosphate of the deoxycytidine analog dFdC, dFdCTP accumulation and retention was measured in H9 parental and AZT-resistant cells after exposure to 1 and 10 microM dFdC. Parental H9 cells accumulated about 30 and 100 pmol dFdCTP/10(6) cells after 4hr, whereas in AZT-resistant cells no dFdCTP accumulation was detected. These results demonstrate that continuous treatment of H9 cells in the presence of AZT selected for a thymidine analog resistant cell variant with cross-resistance to deoxycytidine analogs, due to deficiency in TK1, TK2, and dCK.

  18. Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity by Diode Laser: A Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH is characterized by pain after stimuli that usually provoke no symptoms. This study compared the effectiveness of GaAlAs diode laser alone and with topical sodium fluoride gel (NaF. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 10 patients (8 F/2 M, age 25–60 and 115 teeth with DH assessed by air and tactile stimuli measured by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS. Teeth were randomly divided into G1 (34 teeth treated by 1.25% NaF; G2 (33 teeth lased at 0.5 W PW (T on 100 m and T off 100 ms, fluence 62.2 J/cm2 in defocused mode with a 320 μ fiber. Each tooth received three 1′ applications; G3 (48 teeth received NaF gel plus laser at same G2 parameters. NRS was checked at each control. Results. Significant pain reduction was showed. The NRS reduction percentages were calculated, and there was a concrete decrease of DH above all in G3 than G2 and G1. Conclusion. Diode laser is a useful device for DH treatment if used alone and mainly if used with NaF gel.

  19. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin S. Babitha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it’s biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  20. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, S. Babitha; Abirami, M.; Kumar, R. Suresh

    2018-03-01

    Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it's biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant) followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  1. Cigarette Smoking During Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Secondary Outcomes from a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Meichen; Winhusen, Theresa; Vandrey, Ryan G; Ruglass, Lesia M; Covey, Lirio S; Stitzer, Maxine L; Kyle, Tiffany L; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-06-01

    The majority of patients enrolled in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) also use tobacco. Many will continue to use tobacco even during abstinence from other drugs and alcohol, often leading to smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, little research has been conducted to assess the influence of being a smoker on SUD treatment outcomes and changes in smoking during a treatment episode. In this secondary analysis, cigarette smoking was evaluated in participants completing outpatient SUD treatment as part of a multi-site study conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Analyses included the assessment of changes in smoking and nicotine dependence via the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence during the 12-week study among all smokers (aim #1), specifically among those in the experimental treatment group (aim #2), and the moderating effect of being a smoker on treatment outcomes (aim #3). Participants generally did not reduce or quit smoking throughout the course of the study. Among a sub-set of participants with higher baseline nicotine dependence scores randomized to the control arm, scores at the end of treatment were lower compared to the experimental arm, though measures of smoking quantity did not appear to decrease. Further, being a smoker was associated with poorer treatment outcomes compared to non-smokers enrolled in the trial. This study provides evidence that patients enrolled in community-based SUD treatment continue to smoke, even when abstaining from drugs and alcohol. These results add to the growing literature encouraging the implementation of targeted, evidence-based interventions to promote abstinence from tobacco among SUD treatment patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Comorbid Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Pilot Study for their Combined Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy F. Faulconbridge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obese individuals who suffer from major depressive disorder are routinely screened out of weight loss trials. Treatments targeting obesity and depression concurrently have not been tested. Purpose. To test the short-term efficacy of a treatment that combined behavioral weight management and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for obese adults with depression. Methods. Twelve obese females diagnosed with major depressive disorder received weekly group behavioral weight management, combined with CBT for depression, for 16 weeks. Weight, symptoms of depression, and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors were measured at baseline and week 16. Results. Participants lost 11.4% of initial weight and achieved significant improvements in symptoms of depression and CVD risk factors. Conclusions. Obese individuals suffering from major depressive disorder can lose weight and achieve improvements in symptoms of depression and CVD risk factors with 16 weeks of combined treatment. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this treatment.

  3. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  4. A comparative study of albendazole and levamisole treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes using albendazole and levamisole was monitored in a herd of cattle following a poor state of health and maintenance of high faecal strongyle egg count after repeated therapeutic treatment with albendazole. Thirty-six animals were selected and randomly divided into three ...

  5. Intralesional Cryotherapy for Treatment of Keloid Scars: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.C.E.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Bulstra, A.E.J.; Galindo Garre, F.; Molier, J.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Niessen, F.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intralesional cryotherapy is a novel treatment for keloid scars in which the scar is frozen from inside. Published results are promising, but the treatment has only been tested in a Caucasian patient population. Therefore, the authors evaluated intralesional cryotherapy in a patient

  6. Treatment of Hallux Valgus with Hyaluronic Acid: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižlhan Sezer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hallux valgus is the deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP joint with abduction and valgus rotation of the great toe, combined with a medially prominent first metatarsal head. Hyaluronic acid injection has been used in the treatment of degenerative disorders of several joints successfully. In this research, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with hallux valgus. Material and Method: Eleven female and two male patients with hallux valgus were included in this pilot study. Only patients with mild and moderate hallux valgus were included in the study. 1 cc hyaluronic acid was injected into the affected MTF joint three times, at one-week intervals. Visual analogue scale(VAS score, walking time without pain, walking distance, and daily analgesic needs of the patients were recorded. All clinical outcomes were assessed before, and then one and three months after the first injection. Results:The mean VAS score was 83.08±4.58. One month after the first injection, VAS scores of patients had decreased significantly (30±4.38, P: 0.001. Also, increased walking time and distance and decreased daily analgesic need were observed at the first month of postinjection follow-up (P: 0.001. After 3 months, the positive outcomes remained significant compared to preinjection evaluations. Discussion: According to our preliminary results, we suggest thathyaluronic acid injectionsmay be effective in reducing pain and increasing walking time and distance in patients with hallux valgus.Future studies are needed to clarify the beneficial effects of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with hallux valgus.

  7. Study on innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guang; Guo Anxi; Xu Zhaomei

    1992-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co gamma rays on pork Trichinella spiralis and nutritional hygiene evaluation of irradiated Trichinella spiralis pork were studied by using animal infestation test and artificial gastric juice digestion method. The results showed that when mouse was infested by Trichinella spiralis pork irradiated with a dose of 0.04 kGy, the number of the second generation larvae and the parasitism in the muscle were reduced. 0.08 kGy irradiation could render the intestine Trichinella spiralis sterile. 0.1 kGy blocked the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted from the body four days after infestation. 0.2-0.8 kGy irradiation could severely block the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted completely from the body within forth-eight hours when irradiated with 7 kGy and 8 kGy, the Trichinella spiralis body was not found in the intestine within twenty-four hours. 0.3 kGy and 1 kGy irradiation had no harmful effect on nutrition and wholesomeness of Trichinella spiralis pork. Innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork is practicable, and the lowest dose should be 0.3 kGy

  8. Technology transfer for Ukrainian milk treatment: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.; Walker, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive fission products have contaminated the food chain in the Ukraine. The highest doses to humans are a result of cesium contamination in milk. The milk produced in the Ukraine contains radioactive cesium at levels up to 10 times the acceptance standards. Bradtec has developed and demonstrated technology for the US Department of Energy for the treatment of groundwater and effluent water. This technology has also been tested and demonstrated for the Ukrainian government for the purpose of treating contaminated milk. Bradtec, a small business offering specialized technologies in the field of environmental remediation and waste management, has successfully worked with a consortium of businesses, National Laboratories and DOE Headquarters staff to develop and implement a technology demonstration strategy which has led to the implementation of a series collaboration agreements with Ukrainian officials. This paper describes, in a case study approach, the path followed by Bradtec and its collaboration partners in successfully implementing a technology transfer strategy. Also presented is an update on new programs that can provide benefit to private sector companies as DOE seeks to assist the private sector in joint venture/technology transfer relationships with the NIS (New Independent States). This paper should be of interest to all businesses seeking to participate in business opportunities in the NIS

  9. Improving treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders: recommendations based on preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R; Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Nguyen, Michael; Poudel, Manoj K; Echevarria, David J; Collier, Adam D; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Klimenko, Viktor M; Norton, William; Pittman, Julian; Nakamura, Shun; Koshiba, Mamiko; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Apryatin, Sergey A; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Diamond, David M; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Parker, Matthew O; Brown, Richard E; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are common and severely debilitating. Their chronic nature and reliance on both genetic and environmental factors makes studying NDDs and their treatment a challenging task. Herein, the authors discuss the neurobiological mechanisms of NDDs, and present recommendations on their translational research and therapy, outlined by the International Stress and Behavior Society. Various drugs currently prescribed to treat NDDs also represent a highly diverse group. Acting on various neurotransmitter and physiological systems, these drugs often lack specificity of action, and are commonly used to treat multiple other psychiatric conditions. There has also been relatively little progress in the development of novel medications to treat NDDs. Based on clinical, preclinical and translational models of NDDs, our recommendations cover a wide range of methodological approaches and conceptual strategies. To improve pharmacotherapy and drug discovery for NDDs, we need a stronger emphasis on targeting multiple endophenotypes, a better dissection of genetic/epigenetic factors or "hidden heritability," and a careful consideration of potential developmental/trophic roles of brain neurotransmitters. The validity of animal NDD models can be improved through discovery of novel (behavioral, physiological and neuroimaging) biomarkers, applying proper environmental enrichment, widening the spectrum of model organisms, targeting developmental trajectories of NDD-related behaviors and comorbid conditions beyond traditional NDDs. While these recommendations cannot be addressed all in once, our increased understanding of NDD pathobiology may trigger innovative cross-disciplinary research expanding beyond traditional methods and concepts.

  10. Clinicopathological studies on three preoperative combined treatments for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yuji; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Iizuka, Ryouji; Hagiwara, Akeo; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Toshio

    1995-01-01

    To prevent postoperative local recurrence of rectal cancer, we treated patients using preoperative hyperthermia (5-6 times), irradiation (total 30 Gy) and 5-fluorouracil suppository (2,000-2,500 mg). The subjects were 31 patients given combined treatments and 28 patients given surgery alone. The results were as follows: Histologically, therapeutic effects were recognized in 80.6% of patients receiving combined treatments. The mean distance from the adventitia to the site of cancer infiltration was 6.54 mm in the combined treatments group and 3.35 mm in the surgery alone group. The difference between the two was significant (p<0.05). The rate of local recurrence in the combined treatments group was less than that in the surgery alone group. No systemic side effects nor severe complications were observed during hospitalization in the combined treatments group. The survival rate of the combined treatments group was higher than that of the surgery alone group. It was considered that combined preoperative treatments for rectal cancer were beneficial to survival and local control. (author)

  11. Unicameral bone cyst: a retrospective study of three surgical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Anthony D; Anderson, Megan E; Zurakowski, David; Hornicek, Francis J; Gebhardt, Mark C

    2008-10-01

    Between 1979 and 2004, 167 patients younger than 20 years were treated surgically for humeral or femoral unicameral bone cysts with either injection of corticosteroids (steroids), curettage plus bone grafting (curettage), or a combination injection of steroids, demineralized bone matrix, and bone marrow aspirate (SDB) at Children's Hospital of Boston and Massachusetts General Hospital (mean followup, 7.3 years; range, 1 month-27 years). Outcomes included treatment failure (defined clinically as subsequent pathologic fracture or need for retreatment to prevent pathologic fracture) and complications. Information was obtained from medical records and by telephone questionnaire. After one treatment, 84% of cysts treated with steroids experienced failed treatment versus 64% with curettage and 50% with SDB. For unicameral bone cysts requiring retreatment (regardless of first treatment), 76% retreated with steroids had failed treatment versus 63% with curettage and 71% with SDB. Curettage was associated with the lowest rate of posttreatment pathologic fractures and highest rate of pain and other complications. Multivariate logistic regression indicated treatment with steroids alone and younger age were independent predictors of failure. We believe SDB is a reasonable first treatment for unicameral bone cysts in the humerus and femur in patients younger than 20 years, being less invasive yet comparable to curettage in preventing recurrence.

  12. Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafeyisetan O. Adebiyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7 were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT (groups I, II III, 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T (groups IV, V, VI and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII. Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy.

  13. Dental treatment and caries prevention preceding treatment under general anaesthesia in healthy children and adolescents: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindefjord, M; Persson, J; Jansson, L; Tsilingaridis, G

    2018-04-01

    This was to examine healthy children and adolescents treated under general anaesthesia (GA) and a matched control group not receiving GA to compare treatment and preventive care received prior to GA treatment. This retrospective cohort study included 71 healthy subjects and 213 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The treatment group had been consecutively referred from the Public Dental Health Service (PDS) in Stockholm to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Eastman Institute, Stockholm during 2006-2007. Data was extracted from the patient records at the PDS, including variables such as number of dental visits, treatment/prophylaxis prior to GA, number of missed and cancelled appointments, and number of decayed teeth. On average, the treatment group had significantly more decayed teeth (p general dentists to paediatric specialists had no behaviour management treatment and nearly half, no preventive treatment, despite receiving significantly more operative treatment compared with matched controls. General dentists should target high caries-risk patients for additional behaviour management and preventive care to reduce the need for treatment under GA.

  14. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  15. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt study: one-year treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Panos G; Kalenak, Jeffrey W; Zurakowski, David; Tsai, James C; Kammer, Jeffrey A; Harasymowycz, Paul J; Ahmed, Iqbal I K

    2011-11-01

    To report the 1-year treatment outcomes of the Ahmed Versus Baerveldt (AVB) Study. Multicenter randomized clinical trial. A total of 238 patients were enrolled in the study, including 124 in the Ahmed group and 114 in the Baerveldt group. Patients aged 18 years or older with uncontrolled glaucoma refractory to medicinal, laser, and surgical therapy were randomized to undergo implantation of an Ahmed-FP7 valve (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) or a Baerveldt-350 implant (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA), to be followed for 5 years. The primary outcome measure was failure, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) out of target range (5-18 mmHg with ≥ 20% reduction from baseline) for 2 consecutive visits after 3 months, vision-threatening complications, additional glaucoma procedures, or loss of light perception. Secondary outcome measures included IOP, medication use, visual acuity, complications, and interventions. There were no significant differences in baseline ocular or demographic characteristics between the study groups with the exception of sex. Preoperatively, the study group had a mean IOP of 31.4 ± 10.8 mmHg on a mean of 3.1 ± 1.0 glaucoma medications with a median Snellen acuity of 20/100. The cumulative probability of failure a 1-year was 43% in the Ahmed group and 28% in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.02). The mean IOP at 1 year was 16.5 ± 5.3 mmHg in the Ahmed group and 13.6 ± 4.8 mmHg in the Baerveldt group (P glaucoma medications required was 1.6 ± 1.3 in the Ahmed group and 1.2 ± 1.3 in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.03). Visual acuity was similar in both groups at all visits in the first year (P = 0.66). In the first year after surgery, there were a similar number of patients who experienced postoperative complications in the 2 groups (45% Ahmed, 54% Baerveldt, P = 0.19), but a greater number of patients in the Baerveldt group required interventions (26% Ahmed vs. 42% Baerveldt, P = 0.009). The Baerveldt-350 group had a higher

  16. Fate of triclocarban during soil aquifer treatment: Soil column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H A; Amy, Gary L.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2010-01-01

    There are current concerns about the presence of persistent chemicals in recharge water used in soil aquifer treatment systems. Triclocarban (TCC) has been reported as a persistent, high production volume chemical with the potential to bioaccumulate

  17. Study on the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Hengfu Shui; Zhanning Pei; Jinsheng Gao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal was carried out under 0.1 MPa (initial pressure) nitrogen and different temperature. Effects of hydrothermal treatment on the structure and the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal were investigated by the ultimate and proximate analyses, the FTIR measurements and TG analyses of hydrothermally treated coals, and the characterizations of extraction and swelling properties, and the batch hydro-liquefaction of treated coal were also carried out. The results indicate that hydrothermal treatment above 200{sup o}C can increase the hydrogen content of treated coal and decrease the yield of volatiles and the content of ash, especially a large amount of CO and CH{sub 4} are found in gas products obtained by the hydrothermal treatment above 250{sup o}C. Hydrothermal treatment disrupts the weak covalent bond such as ether, ester and side-chain substituent by hydrolysis and pyrolysis, and changes the distribution of H-bond in coal. The swelling ratio and the Soxhlet extraction yield of treated coal decrease with the increase of hydrothermal treatment temperature. The conversion of liquefaction and the yield of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction at ambient temperature are enhanced by hydrothermal treatment at 300{sup o}C. Therefore hydrogen donation reactions and the rupture of non-covalent bond and weak covalent bonds present in the process of hydrothermal treatment resulting in the changes of structure and reactivity of Shenhua coal. The results show that the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment between 250{sup o}C and 300{sup o}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Effluent treatment plant for pharmaceutical unit at Bahipheru - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.

    1997-01-01

    This project has been awarded to environ (Pvt) Ltd., on turnkey basis, and is an integrated waste treatment facility for pharmaceuticals companies, manufacturing paracetamole, aspirin and various pharmaceuticals intermediates, from phenol as basic raw material. A highly toxic waste water, containing high concentrations of phenolics and sulfate ions is generated at this plant and has to be treatment before final disposal into an irrigation channel. (author)

  19. A summary of studies on mine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yao; Hu Baoqun; Sun Zhanxue

    2006-01-01

    The composition of mine wastewater is complicated and is harmful to the environment. The mine wastewater treatment methods include mainly neutralization, constructed wetland and microorganism methods. The three methods are summarized, with focus on the microorganism method. The mechanisms, characteristics and influencing factors of the sulfate reducing bacteria and the iron oxidizing bacteria are described in detail. The treatment methods of uranium mine wastewater are presented. (authors)

  20. Do physiotherapy staff record treatment time accurately? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Pam; Hudson, Mary; Green, John; Forster, Anne; Young, John

    2009-09-01

    To assess the reliability of duration of treatment time measured by physiotherapy staff in early-stage stroke patients. Comparison of physiotherapy staff's recording of treatment sessions and video recording. Rehabilitation stroke unit in a general hospital. Thirty-nine stroke patients without trunk control or who were unable to stand with an erect trunk without the support of two therapists recruited to a randomized trial evaluating the Oswestry Standing Frame. Twenty-six physiotherapy staff who were involved in patient treatment. Contemporaneous recording by physiotherapy staff of treatment time (in minutes) compared with video recording. Intraclass correlation with 95% confidence interval and the Bland and Altman method for assessing agreement by calculating the mean difference (standard deviation; 95% confidence interval), reliability coefficient and 95% limits of agreement for the differences between the measurements. The mean duration (standard deviation, SD) of treatment time recorded by physiotherapy staff was 32 (11) minutes compared with 25 (9) minutes as evidenced in the video recording. The mean difference (SD) was -6 (9) minutes (95% confidence interval (CI) -9 to -3). The reliability coefficient was 18 minutes and the 95% limits of agreement were -24 to 12 minutes. Intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement between the two methods was 0.50 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.73). Physiotherapy staff's recording of duration of treatment time was not reliable and was systematically greater than the video recording.

  1. Study protocol for a non-inferiority trial of a blended smoking cessation treatment versus face-to-face treatment (LiveSmokefree-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Siemer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation can significantly reduce the risk of developing smoking-related diseases. Several face-to-face and web-based treatments have shown to be effective. Blending of web-based and face-to-face treatment is expected to improve smoking cessation treatment. The primary objective of this study is to compare the prolonged abstinence rate of the blended smoking cessation treatment with the face-to-face treatment. Secondary objectives are to assess the benefits of blended treatment in terms of cost effectiveness and patient satisfaction, and to identify mechanisms underlying successful smoking cessation. Methods/Design This study will be a single-center randomized controlled non-inferiority-trial with parallel group design. Patients (n = 344 will be randomly assigned to either the blended or the face-to-face group. Both treatments will consist of ten sessions with equal content held within 6 months. In the blended treatment five out of ten sessions will be delivered online. The treatments will cover the majority of behavior change techniques that are evidence-based within smoking cessation counseling. All face-to-face sessions in both treatments will take place at the outpatient smoking cessation clinic of a hospital. The primary outcome parameter will be biochemically validated prolonged abstinence at 15 months from the start of the smoking cessation treatment. Discussion This RCT will be the first study to examine the effectiveness of a blended smoking cessation treatment. It will also be the first study to explore patient satisfaction, adherence, cost-effectiveness, and the clinically relevant influencing factors of a blended smoking cessation treatment. The findings of this RCT are expected to substantially strengthen the base of evidence available to inform the development and delivery of smoking cessation treatment. Trial registration Nederlands Trialregister NTR5113 . Registered 24 March 2015.

  2. A national study of the retention of Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, Louise

    2012-07-02

    Background: Retention in treatment is a key indicator of methadone treatment success. The study aims to identify factors that are associated with retention. Objectives: To determine retention in treatment at 12 months for Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment and to indicate factors that increase the likelihood of retention. Methods: National cohort study of randomly selected opiate users commencing methadone treatment in 1999, 2001, and 2003 (n = 1269). Results: Sixty-one percent of patients attending methadone treatment remained in continuous treatment for more than 1 year. Retention in treatment at 12 months was associated with age, gender, facility type, and methadone dose. Age and gender were no longer significant when adjusted for other variables in the model. Those who attended a specialist site were twice as likely to leave methadone treatment within 12 months compared with those who attended a primary care physician. The most important predictor of retention in treatment was methadone dose. Those who received <60 mg of methadone were three times more likely to leave treatment. Conclusion: Retention in methadone treatment is high in Ireland in a variety of settings. The main factors influencing retention in methadone treatment was an adequate methadone dose and access to a range of treatment settings including from primary care physicians. Scientific Significance: Providing an adequate dose of methadone during treatment will increase the likelihood of treatment retention. Methadone treatment by the primary care physician is a successful method of retaining opioid users in treatment.

  3. Nonoperative Treatment of Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures : A Prospective Randomized Study of Different Treatment Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouder, Agnita; Buskens, Erik; Vergroesen, Diederik A.; Fidler, Malcolm W.; de Nies, Frank; Oner, F. C.

    Objectives: To evaluate and compare nonoperative treatment methods for traumatic thoracic and lumbar compression fractures and burst fractures. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up. Setting: Two general hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients/Participants: Patients

  4. Economic evaluation of 3-drug antiretroviral regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkunya; Tantivess, Sripen; Kullert, Nareeluk; Tosanguan, Kakanang; Butchon, Rukmanee; Voramongkol, Nipunporn; Boonsuk, Sarawut; Pilasant, Songyot; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-03-01

    The current program for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Thailand recommends a 2-drugs regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women with a CD4 count >200 cells/mm(3). This study assesses the value for money of 3 antiretroviral drugs compared with zidovudine (AZT)+single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP). A decision tree was constructed to predict costs and outcomes using the governmental perspective for assessing cost-effectiveness of 3-drug regimens: (1) AZT, lamivudine, and efavirenz and (2) AZT, 3TC, and lopinavir/ritonavir, in comparison with the current protocol, AZT+sd-NVP. The 3-drug antiretroviral regimens yield lower costs and better health outcomes compared with AZT+sd-NVP. Although these 3-drug regimens offer higher program costs and health care costs for premature birth, they save money significantly in regard to pediatric HIV treatment and treatment costs for drug resistance in mothers. The 3-drug regimens are cost-saving interventions. The findings from this study were used to support a policy change in the national recommendation. © 2013 APJPH.

  5. Compromised local control due to treatment interruptions and late treatment breaks in early glottic cancer: Population-based outcomes study supporting need for intensified treatment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groome, Patti A.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Mackillop, William J.; Jackson, Lynda D.; Schulze, Karleen M.Math.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Warde, Padraig R.; Schneider, Ken M.; Mackenzie, Robert G.; Hodson, D. Ian; Hammond, J. Alex; Gulavita, Sunil P.P.; Eapen, Libni J.; Dixon, Peter F. M.B.; Bissett, Randy J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This population-based study describes the treatment of early glottic cancer in Ontario, Canada and assesses whether treatment variations were associated with treatment effectiveness. Methods and Materials: We studied 491 T1N0 and 213 T2N0 patients. Data abstracted from charts included age, sex, stage, treatment details, disease control, and survival. Results: The total dose ranged from 50 to 70 Gy, and the daily dose ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 Gy. In 90%, treatment duration was between 25 and 50 days. Field sizes, field reductions, beam arrangement, and beam energy varied. Late treatment breaks occurred in 13.6% of T1N0 and 27.1% of T2N0 cases. Local control was comparable to other reports for T1N0 (82% at 5 years), but was only 63.2% in T2N0. Variables associated with local failure in T1N0 were age less than 49 years (relative risk [RR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-6.90) and >3 treatment interruption days (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.00-5.91). In T2N0, these were field reduction (RR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.23-4.42) and late treatment breaks (RR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.09-4.41). Conclusion: Some aspects of treatment for early glottic cancer were associated with worse local control. Problems with protracted treatment are of particular concern, underscoring the need for randomized studies to intensify radiotherapy

  6. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  7. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  8. 12-month follow-up study of drug treatment in pathological gamblers: a primary outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Musin, Ernest; Gonopolsky, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and highly disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychotherapeutic agents including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antiepileptic drugs, and opioid antagonists are shown to be effective in the short-term treatment of PG. The use of a wide range of pharmacological treatments for PG is consistent with the observation that PG shares features of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, impulse control disorders, and addictive disorders. The aim of the study is to assess the rate of relapse in treatment-responder pathological gamblers after discontinuation of the active treatment. Our study sample was composed of 43 male pathological gamblers who had been full responders to 1 of 4 drug treatment regimens (fluvoxamine, topiramate, bupropion SR, or naltrexone) from several previous acute open-label (12-week) comparison studies. Full response was defined as the absence of gambling for a 1-month duration together with improvement on the Clinical Global Improvement scale. The 43 full responders were then followed prospectively for an additional 9 months, which included a 3-month open-label continuation phase and a 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Follow-up visits were performed on a monthly basis throughout the duration of study. At every follow-up visit, a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation was performed on all patients, and patients were assessed for symptoms of gambling using a self-report instrument and collateral family reports. The Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale was also administered at every follow-up visit. Raters were blind to the previous drug treatment. Most patients did not relapse during the 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Three of 6 patients with fluvoxamine, 3 of 9 with topiramate, 7 of 18 with bupropion SR, and 4 of 10 with naltrexone relapsed. Relapse was strictly defined as gambling behavior at any time during the 6-month medication-free follow

  9. Hypnosis in the treatment of Morgellons disease: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Ashley M; Dolan, Sara L; Stanford, Matthew S; Elkins, Gary R

    2011-04-01

    Morgellons Disease is a condition involving painful skin lesions, fibrous growths protruding from the skin, and subcutaneous stinging and burning sensations, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and memory and attention deficits. The etiological and physiological bases of these symptoms are unclear, making the diagnosis controversial and challenging to treat. There are currently no established treatments for Morgellons Disease. The following case example depicts treatment of a woman with Morgellons Disease using hypnotherapy. Data from this case example suggest that hypnotherapy is a promising intervention for the physical and psychological symptoms associated with Morgellons Disease.

  10. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  11. Participation in a novel treatment component during residential substance use treatment is associated with improved outcome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kathleen P; Peglow, Stephanie L; Samples, Carl R

    2014-05-16

    A person-centered substance use treatment component, the Natural Recovery Program, was developed. The Natural Recovery Program is comprised of small group therapy combined with pursuit of hobbies. This was a pilot study of the program and was not randomized. A retrospective record review of 643 veterans in an inpatient mental health recovery and rehabilitation program was analyzed to determine if participants of Natural Recovery had a different rate of treatment completion than those who elected to participate in the core program alone. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on: participation in the Natural Recovery Program; co-morbid psychiatric disorders; and legal, medical, and psychiatric issues. Participation in Natural Recovery was significantly associated with successful treatment completion when analyzed by univariate analysis (p = 0.01). Other significant variables associated with successful completion included: no co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, fewer prior suicide attempts, and no homelessness prior to admission. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that participation in Natural Recovery was associated with improved treatment completion, even when other variables were considered (p = 0.01). Treatment retention was longer for patients who participated in Natural Recovery, even if they did not complete treatment. The Natural Recovery Program was associated with improved outcomes, as measured by treatment retention in the first 60 days and by treatment completion. Participants of Natural Recovery with co-morbid psychiatric disorders completed treatment at a higher rate than those with co-morbid psychiatric disorders who participated in the core program. Patients reported high satisfaction with the program. This program may be a valuable adjunct to residential treatment.

  12. The Ahmed versus Baerveldt study: three-year treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Panos G; Tsai, James C; Kalenak, Jeffrey W; Zurakowski, David; Cantor, Louis B; Kammer, Jeffrey A; Ahmed, Iqbal I K

    2013-11-01

    To compare 2 commonly used aqueous drainage devices for the treatment of refractory glaucoma. International, multicenter, randomized trial. Patients aged 18 years or older with uncontrolled or high-risk glaucoma refractory to maximum medical therapy, many of whom had failed trabeculoplasty and trabeculectomy. Eligible patients were randomized to an Ahmed-FP7 valve implant (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) or a Baerveldt-350 implant (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) using a standardized surgical technique. The primary outcome was failure, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) outside of the target range (5-18 mmHg, with ≥20% reduction from baseline) for 2 consecutive visits after 3 months, vision-threatening complications, de novo glaucoma procedures, or loss of light perception. Secondary outcome measures include IOP, medication use, visual acuity, complications, and interventions. A total of 238 patients were enrolled and randomized; 124 received the Ahmed implant and 114 received the Baerveldt implant. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Half the study group had secondary glaucoma, and 37% had previously failed trabeculectomy. The mean preoperative IOP was 31.4±10.8 mmHg on 3.1±1.0 glaucoma medications. Median baseline Snellen visual acuity was 20/100. At 3 years, the cumulative probability of failure was 51% in the Ahmed group and 34% in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.03). Mean IOP was 15.7±4.8 mmHg in the Ahmed group (49% reduction) and 14.4±5.1 mmHg in the Baerveldt group (55% reduction; P = 0.09). Mean number of glaucoma medications was 1.8±1.4 in the Ahmed group (42% reduction) and 1.1±1.3 in the Baerveldt group (65% reduction; P = 0.002). There was a moderate but similar decrease in visual acuity in both groups (PAhmed, 62% Baerveldt; P = 0.12); however, the Baerveldt group had a higher rate of hypotony-related vision-threatening complications (0% Ahmed, 6% Baerveldt; P = 0.005). More interventions were

  13. A case study on acupuncture in the treatment of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the use of acupuncture as an add on treatment for a patient with chronic schizophrenia. The 63-year-old woman suffered from persistent hallucinations and even physical pain as a result of the hallucination of a black bird that kept pecking her back. The patient received 12

  14. Examination of Studies Targeting Social Skills with Pivotal Response Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkus Genc, Gulden; Vuran, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    In early education, especially in effective teaching to children with autism spectrum disorders, the teaching methods which are applicable in natural settings like pivotal response treatment (PRT) are commonly used. It is one of the naturalistic intervention models aiming to facilitate the stimulant-response generalization, decrease the dependency…

  15. Feasibility study and treatment of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouslama, N.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with the over costs of food irradiation compared to the costs of traditional food treatments in Tunisia. Food irradiation techniques imply appropriate facilities and special storage conditions that face producers and consumers to new economic choices. This approach is applied to dates (N.H.)

  16. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  17. Progresses in studies on radiation treatment of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Shen Zhongqun; Yang Ruiyuan; Ma Hongjuan; Zhao Jun; Wang Wenfeng

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives a review on recent progresses in E-beam purification of flue gases, radiation degra- dation of volatile organic compounds, and radiation treatment of sewerage and industrial wastewater. And research activities in this area at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics are given in particular details. (authors)

  18. Comparative study of household water treatment in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents the household treatment of drinking water samples in a rural community in Nigeria by boiling and water guard. The physicochemical parameters of the raw water samples with exception of chloride, BOD and dissolved oxygen were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) ...

  19. Economic study of the treatment of surface water by small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibility of utilising an ultrafiltration process for the treatment of water from the dam in the Kabylia region of Algeria and, in particular, for the provision of drinking water to people living in dispersed small villages. The water quality was determined by measuring turbidity, and ...

  20. Public and Private Management of Wastewater Treatment: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The costs and performance of contract management of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered, using information from a nationwide empirical examination of evidence from individual plants, municipalities, and regulatory agencies. The broad issues arising in the evaluation are outlined as the specifics are discussed. (SLD)

  1. Genetic influence on methadone treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaan Z

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–4 Monica Bawor,3,4 Brittany B Dennis,2,3 Carolyn Plater,5 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeffrey Daiter,5 Andrew Worster,5,6 David C Marsh,5,7 Charlie Tan,8 Dipika Desai,3 Lehana Thabane,2,9,10 Guillaume Pare11 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 4MiNDS Neuroscience Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 9Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, 11Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Introduction: Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results: The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and

  2. Time to treatment as a quality metric in lung cancer: Staging studies, time to treatment, and patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Liao, Kai-Ping; Swisher, Stephen G.; Blumenschein, George R.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Prompt staging and treatment are crucial for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We determined if predictors of treatment delay after diagnosis were associated with prognosis. Materials and methods: Medicare claims from 28,732 patients diagnosed with NSCLC in 2004–2007 were used to establish the diagnosis-to-treatment interval (ideally ⩽35 days) and identify staging studies during that interval. Factors associated with delay were identified with multivariate logistic regression, and associations between delay and survival by stage were tested with Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: Median diagnosis-to-treatment interval was 27 days. Receipt of PET was associated with delays (57.4% of patients with PET delayed [n = 6646/11,583] versus 22.8% of those without [n = 3908/17,149]; adjusted OR = 4.48, 95% CI 4.23–4.74, p < 0.001). Median diagnosis-to-PET interval was 15 days; PET-to-clinic, 5 days; and clinic-to-treatment, 12 days. Diagnosis-to-treatment intervals <35 days were associated with improved survival for patients with localized disease and those with distant disease surviving ⩾1 year but not for patients with distant disease surviving <1 year. Conclusion: Delays between diagnosing and treating NSCLC are common and associated with use of PET for staging. Reducing time to treatment may improve survival for patients with manageable disease at diagnosis

  3. Early discontinuation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug treatment: a danish nationwide drug utilization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, B. K.; Kortegaard, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of patterns of treatment discontinuation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment is of importance, for both the clinical practice and the study of long-term treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe early discontinuation of ADHD drug treatme...

  4. 78 FR 11207 - Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...] Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation; Guidance for... devices intended for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. DATES: Submit either electronic or written... Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation'' to the Division of...

  5. When the Goals of Therapists and Patients Clash: A Study of Pedophiles in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C.; Brunet, Louis

    2004-01-01

    This article first reports the main results and conclusions from a study on 24 pedophile sex abusers in treatment in a Canadian specialized institution. The aims of this study were to better understand what motivates abusers to enter treatment as well as how they experience the treatment on a daily basis and consider it to be helpful. In…

  6. Treatment outcomes in the DRy Eye Amniotic Membrane (DREAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald MB

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marguerite B McDonald,1 Hosam Sheha,2–5 Sean Tighe,2,3 Susan B Janik,6 Frank W Bowden,7 Amit R Chokshi,8 Michael A Singer,9 Seema Nanda,10 Mujtaba A Qazi,11 Damon Dierker,12 Adam T Shupe,13 Brittany J McMurren14 1Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Lynbrook, NY, USA; 2Ocular Surface Center and TissueTech, Inc., Miami, FL, USA; 3Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Hofstra University School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA; 5Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt; 6Solinsky Eye Care, Kensington, CT, USA; 7Bowden Eye & Associates, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 8Florida Eye Specialists, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 9Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, San Antonio, TX, USA; 10TX Eye Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 11Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, MO, USA; 12Eye Surgeons of Indiana, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 13Royo Eye Care, Marysville, CA, USA; 14Gordon and Weiss Vision Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserved amniotic membrane (CAM in reducing signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED in a large patient population. Methods: A retrospective chart review at 10 clinical sites was done of patients with refractory DED who received CAM and completed at least 3 months of follow-up. Data collected were demographics; medical history including previous and current ocular treatment, diagnosis, clinical presentations, comorbidity, duration and frequency of treatment with CAM; and concomitant medications. The primary outcome was the change in dry eye workshop (DEWS score after treatment. Results: A total of 97 eyes of 84 patients exhibited severe dry eye despite maximal medical treatments including topical artificial tears, cyclosporine-A, serum, antibiotics, and steroids. Patients manifested with superficial punctate keratitis (86%, filamentary keratitis (13%, exposure keratitis (19%, neurotrophic keratitis (2%, and corneal epithelial defect (7%. After CAM

  7. Treatment with antidepressants and lithium is associated with increased risk of treatment with antiparkinson drugs: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Nielsen, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk for persons treated with antidepressants or lithium of subsequent treatment with antiparkinson drugs (APD). METHODS: The Danish national prescription database supplied data on all persons who received antidepressants, lithium, or antidiabetics (first control group......). A second control group was included comprising persons from the general population. Outcome was purchase of APD and the study period was 1995 to 1999. RESULTS: In total, 1 293 789 persons were included. The rate ratio of treatment with APD after treatment with antidepressants was 2.27 (95% CI 2.14 to 2.......42) for men and 1.50 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.58) for women. Figures for lithium were almost identical. CONCLUSION: Persons treated with antidepressants or lithium are at increased risk of subsequently treatment with APD, showing an association between anxiety/affective disorder and Parkinson's disease....

  8. Counselor Treatment of Coexisting Domestic Violence and Substance Abuse: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, Nicole D.; Culbreth, John R.

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the philosophical issues hindering the linkage of substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. Results suggest that counselors tend to use treatment models that could not concurrently assign responsibility and address either present or past victimization. (Author)

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of clozapine nonresponders suffering from schizophrenia--an open label study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kho, K. H.; Blansjaar, B. A.; de Vries, S.; Babuskova, D.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Linszen, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This open label study describes the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as adjunctive treatment in clozapine nonresponders suffering from schizophrenia. METHOD: The results of clozapine and ECT treatment in 11 clozapine nonresponders suffering from schizophrenia are reported in

  10. Introduction to the study of the treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.; Araujo, J.A. de; Matsuda, H.T.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is made to the study of the treatment of spent nuclear fuels. Main topics discussed are: basic information, volatilization processes, treatment of thorium based fuels (Thorex process), analytical chemistry of spent nuclear fuel and design of industrial facilities

  11. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  12. Treatment of mycosis fungoides with topical nitrosourea compounds: Further studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackheim, H S; Epstein, E H

    1975-12-01

    Twenty-six patients with mycosis fungoides were treated topically with three nitrosourea compounds: carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU), and 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea. A high percentage experienced good to excellent results. Remissions following treatment of individual lesions varied from one month to at least three years. Remissions following total body surface treatment varied from two weeks to at least four months. Two of 13 patients treated over the entire body suffered temporary bone marrow depression, indluding one with severe pancytopenia. This toxic effect was attributed to lomustine and was not seen in patients treated with carmustine alone. Thirteen patients highly allergic to mechlorethamine hydrochloride showed no cross-sensitivity to nitrosourea compounds. A primary irritant dermatitis occurred in about one half of the patients and telangiectasia in two. Two patients developed hypersensitivity to nitrosourea compounds. Carmustine is the preferred nitrosourea compound for topical therapy of mycosis fungoides.

  13. Pediatric achalasia. Single-center study of interventional treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grabowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Esophageal achalasia is a rare entity in children. However, young age is a factor of failure of conservative treatment, emphasizing the role of surgery. In our institution laparoscopic Heller’s cardiomyotomy is the chosen procedure for surgical treatment. Aim: To assess the outcome of surgery for achalasia treatment in children operated on in a single institution. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive patient records from the years 1997 to 2014 was performed. There were 11 patients. Their mean age was 13 years, ranging from 6 to 17. Duration of symptoms was 2 to 36 months, mean 16. All 11 patients were operated on with a laparoscopic approach. Pneumatic dilatation was used both pre- and postoperatively but in no case was sufficient on its own. Collected data included patient demographics, preoperative symptoms and their duration, diagnostic findings and therapeutic means. Surgical procedures, complications and long-term follow-up were analyzed. The follow-up lasted from 1 to 10 years and finished when the patient reached 18 years of age. Results: Twelve laparoscopic cardiomyotomies were performed with concomitant fundoplications, 10 Toupet and 2 Dor and one redo procedure. There were no deaths. Two perforations were repaired promptly. The success rate was 82%, though with subsequent dilatations. One failure was due to serious progression of the disease. Conclusions : In our opinion, laparoscopic Heller’s myotomy is the procedure of choice for treating achalasia in children. Endoscopic balloon dilatation may be used as a complementary treatment, especially as a primary redo procedure.

  14. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with 90yttrium. Follow up studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuber, J.; Baenkler, H.W.; Regler, G.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1978-01-01

    90 Yttrium-silicate was injected into 131 knee-joints from patients with rheumatoid arthritis with stadium II-IV according to Steinbrocker. The observation period lasted until two years. After three months about 80% and after 24 months still more than 50% of the patients treated showed complete or partial remission. Side-effects as formerly observed with 198 -goldpreparations did not occur. Therefore the treatment with 90 Yttrium-silicate offers an alternative to surgical synovectomy. (orig.) [de

  15. Early nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of HIV: a brief history of stavudine (D4T) and its comparison with other dideoxynucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John C; Hitchcock, Michael J M; De Clercq, Erik; Prusoff, William H

    2010-01-01

    The occasion of this 25th anniversary issue encouraged us to reminisce about the important history of the discovery of the dideoxynucleoside analogues for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and to chronicle our thoughts about a particular exciting and rewarding period of our scientific careers. Following the identification of the anti-HIV activity of zidovudine (AZT), we participated in the urgent quest to discover optimal treatments of HIV infection and AIDS. A number of previously synthesized nucleoside analogues were comparatively evaluated, and stavudine (D4T) emerged as a promising candidate for development. Following clinical evaluation, D4T became a mainstay of the initial antiretroviral combination therapy, prolonging and saving numerous lives. It has only recently been supplanted by better-tolerated treatments. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, vol. 85, issue 1, 2010. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of light ion accelerators for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1997-07-01

    This review addresses several issues, such as possible advantages of light ion therapy compared to protons and conventional radiation, the complexity of such a system and its possible adaptation to a hospital environment, and the question of cost-effectiveness compared to other modalities for cancer treatment or to other life saving procedures. Characteristics and effects of different types of radiation on cells and organisms will be briefly described; this will include conventional radiation, protons and light ions. The status of proton and light ion cancer therapy will then be described, with more emphasis on the latter; on the basis of existing experience the criteria for the use of light ions will be listed and areas of possible medical applications suggested. Requirements and parameters of ion beams for cancer treatment will then be defined, including ion species, energy and intensity, as well as parameters of the beam when delivered to the target (scanning, time structure, energy spread). Possible accelerator designs for light ions will be considered, including linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons and their basic features given; this will be followed by a review of existing and planned facilities for light ions. On the basis of these considerations a tentative design for a dedicated light ion facility will be suggested, a facility that would be hospital based, satisfying the clinical requirements, simple to operate and reliable, concluding with its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other modalities for treatment of cancer

  17. Case study of physiotherapeutic treatment of patient with diagnosis facial nerve peripheral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Zahrádková, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Title of Bachelorʼs thesis: Case study of physiotherapeutic treatment of patient with diagnosis facial nerve peripheral palsy. Aim of thesis: Summary of theoretical findings of patientʼs diagnosis, study metodology of physiotherapeutic care, treatment design, monitoring of treatment, and evaluate the effect of patient with diagnosis facial nerve peripheral palsy. Summary: This thesis comprehensively summarizes the findings of of peripheral facial nerve palsy and it's treatment with physiotera...

  18. Treatment actions and treatment failure: case studies in the response to severe childhood febrile illness in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Amy A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate home management of illness is vital to efforts to control malaria. The strategy of home management relies on caregivers to recognize malaria symptoms, assess severity and promptly seek appropriate care at a health facility if necessary. This paper examines the management of severe febrile illness (presumed malaria among children under the age of five in rural Koulikoro Region, Mali. Methods This research examines in-depth case studies of twenty-five households in which a child recently experienced a severe febrile illness, as well as key informant interviews and focus group discussions with community members. These techniques were used to explore the sequence of treatment steps taken during a severe illness episode and the context in which decisions were made pertaining to pursing treatments and sources of care, while incorporating the perspective and input of the mother as well as the larger household. Results Eighty-one participants were recruited in 25 households meeting inclusion criteria. Children's illness episodes involved multiple treatment steps, with an average of 4.4 treatment steps per episode (range: 2–10. For 76% of children, treatment began in the home, but 80% were treated outside the home as a second recourse. Most families used both traditional and modern treatments, administered either inside the home by family members, or by traditional or modern healers. Participants’ stated preference was for modern care, despite high rates of reported treatment failure (52%, n=12, however, traditional treatments were also often deemed appropriate and effective. The most commonly cited barrier to seeking care at health facilities was cost, especially during the rainy season. Financial constraints often led families to use traditional treatments. Conclusions Households have few options available to them in moments of overlapping health and economic crises. Public health research and policy should focus on

  19. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  20. ENGINEERING STUDY FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) SECONDARY WASTE TREATMENT OF PROJECTED FUTURE WASTE FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an engineering study conducted to evaluate alternatives for treating secondary waste in the secondary treatment train (STT) of the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The study evaluates ETF STT treatment alternatives and recommends preferred alternatives for meeting the projected future missions of the ETF. The preferred alternative(s) will process projected future ETF influents to produce a solid waste acceptable for final disposal on the Hanford Site. The main text of this report summarizes the ETF past and projected operations, lists the assumptions about projected operations that provide the basis for the engineering evaluation, and summarizes the evaluation process. The evaluation process includes identification of available modifications to the current ETF process, screens those modifications for technical viability, evaluates the technically viable alternatives, and provides conclusions and recommendations based on that evaluation

  1. Studies on murine plasmocytoma treatment with mistletoe lectin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, F.; Storch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Mistletoe lectin I was tested in vivo and in vitro for its cytotoxic activity against murine plasmacytoma cells P3/X63-Ag8. As a result of this treatment, 30 to 60% of the BALB/c mice developed complete tumor regressions. 83% of the mice treated with mistletoe lectin I were resistant to viable tumor cell challenge after 100 days. The cytotoxic activity in vitro tested by 3 H-thymidine incorporation into P3/X63-Ag8 cells was very high. The rate was markedly reduced at concentrations up to 0.07 ng/ml. (author)

  2. Benfotiamine in treatment of alcoholic polyneuropathy: an 8-week randomized controlled study (BAP I Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, H; Lehrl, S; Bitsch, R; Köpcke, W

    1998-01-01

    A three-armed, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled double-blind study was used to examine the efficacy of benfotiamine vs a combination containing benfotiamine and vitamins B6 and B12 in out-patients with severe symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy (Benfotiamine in treatment of Alcoholic Polyneuropathy, BAP I). The study period was 8 weeks and 84 patients fulfilled all the prerequisite criteria and completed the study as planned. Benfotiamine led to significant improvement of alcoholic polyneuropathy. Vibration perception (measured at the tip of the great toe) significantly improved in the course of the study, as did motor function. and the overall score reflecting the entire range of symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy. A tendency toward improvement was evident for pain and co-ordination; no therapy-specific adverse effects were seen.

  3. Group vs. Individual Treatment for Acute Insomnia: A Pilot Study Evaluating a “One-Shot” Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Boullin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite undeniable evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I, the potential for its widespread dissemination and implementation has yet to be realised. A suggested reason for this is that traditional CBT-I is considered too burdensome for deployment, in its current form, within the context of where it would be most beneficial—Primary Care. One strategy, aimed to address this, has been to develop briefer versions of CBT-I, whilst another has been to deliver CBT-I in a group format. An alternative has been to attempt to address insomnia during its acute phase with a view to circumventing its progression to chronic insomnia. The aim of the present study was to compare a brief version of CBT-I (one-shot when delivered individually or in groups to those with acute insomnia. Method: Twenty-eight individuals with acute insomnia (i.e., meeting full DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder for less than three months self-assigned to either a group or individual treatment arm. Treatment consisted of a single one-hour session accompanied by a self-help pamphlet. Subjects completed measures of insomnia severity, anxiety and depression pre-treatment and at one-month post-treatment. Additionally, daily sleep diaries were compared between pre-treatment and at the one-month follow up. Results: There were no significant between group differences in treatment outcome on any sleep or mood measures although those in the group treatment arm were less adherent than those who received individual treatment. Furthermore, the combined (group and individual treatment arms pre-post test effect size on insomnia symptoms, using the Insomnia Severity Index, was large (d = 2.27. Discussion: It appears that group treatment is as efficacious as individual treatment within the context of a “one shot” intervention for individuals with acute insomnia. The results are discussed with a view to integrating one-shot CBT

  4. Adjunctive treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment resistant depression: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang LIU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex is a promising antidepressant treatment but the appropriate duration of treatment andits effect on cognitive symptoms in treatment resistant patients is uncertain.Hypotheis: Patients with treatment resistant depression on standard antidepressant medication who receive four weeks of adjunctive treatment with high-frequency rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex will have better clinical outcomes and better cognitive functioning than those who receive sham rTMS treatments.Methods: Thirty patients with treatment resistant depression (defined as failure to respond to two or more antidepressants of different classes administered for at least 6 weeks at or above two-thirds of the recommended maximum dose receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors wererandomly assigned to receive adjundive treatment with either real rTMS (n=15 or sham rTMS (n=15 5 times a week for 4 conseculive weeks. Blinded pre-post evaluations were conducted using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, the severity of illness measure from the Clinical Global Impression Rating scale(CGI-S, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaIe (WAIS, the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, and the Wisconsjn Card Sorting Test(WC5T.Results:14 subjects from each group completed the study. There was no significant difference in the HAMD total scores between the two groups after 2 weeks of treatment but after 4 weeks of treatment the mean percentage drop in the HAMD total score was significantly greater in the real rTMS group (49%, SD=19% than in the sham rTMS group(29%, SD=25%, with a mean difference of 20% [95%CI=3%-37%;t26=2.42; P=0.023]. At 4 weeks the mean (SD reduction in the MADRS total score was also greater in the real rTMS group [47%(23% vs 16%(40

  5. Dosimetric Study of Current Treatment Options for Radiotherapy in Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldebawy, Eman [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Children' s Cancer Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@mcgill.ca [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Abdel Rahman, Wamied [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the best treatment technique for patients with retinoblastoma requiring radiotherapy to the whole eye. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 3 patients with retinoblastoma were developed using 10 radiotherapy techniques including electron beams, photon beam wedge pair (WP), photon beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), photon volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and helical tomotherapy (HT). Dose-volume analyses were carried out for each technique. Results: All techniques provided similar target coverage; conformity was highest for VMAT, nine-field (9F) IMRT, and HT (conformity index [CI] = 1.3) and lowest for the WP and two electron techniques (CI = 1.8). The electron techniques had the highest planning target volume dose gradient (131% of maximum dose received [D{sub max}]), and the CRT techniques had the lowest (103% D{sub max}) gradient. The volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20Gy}) for the ipsilateral bony orbit was lowest for the VMAT and HT techniques (56%) and highest for the CRT techniques (90%). Generally, the electron beam techniques were superior in terms of brain sparing and delivered approximately one-third of the integral dose of the photon techniques. Conclusions: Inverse planned image-guided radiotherapy delivered using HT or VMAT gives better conformity index, improved orbital bone and brain sparing, and a lower integral dose than other techniques.

  6. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  7. A Study of Ballast Water Treatment Using Engine Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Rajoo; Yaakob, Omar; Koh, Kho King; Adnan, Faizul Amri bin; Ismail, Nasrudin bin; Ahmad, Badruzzaman bin; Ismail, Mohd Arif bin

    2018-05-01

    Heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat can be an advantageous option complementing any proven technology. A treatment system was envisaged based on the ballast system of an existing, operational crude carrier. It was found that the available waste heat could raise the temperatures by 25 °C and voyage time requirements were found to be considerable between 7 and 12 days to heat the high volumes of ballast water. Further, a heat recovery of 14-33% of input energies from exhaust gases was recorded while using a test rig arrangement representing a shipboard arrangement. With laboratory level tests at temperature ranges of around 55-75 °C, almost complete species mortalities for representative phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were observed while the time for exposure varied from 15 to 60 s. Based on the heat availability analyses for harvesting heat from the engine exhaust gases(vessel and test rig), heat exchanger designs were developed and optimized using Lagrangian method applying Bell-Delaware approaches. Heat exchanger designs were developed to suit test rig engines also. Based on these designs, heat exchanger and other equipment were procured and erected. The species' mortalities were tested in this mini-scale arrangement resembling the shipboard arrangement. The mortalities realized were > 95% with heat from jacket fresh water and exhaust gases alone. The viability of the system was thus validated.

  8. [Study on causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di-kai; Li, Xiu-yun; Yang, Dong-zi; Kuang, Jian-quan

    2006-07-01

    To explore the causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood in order to improve its prevention and treatment. Fifty-one girls with repeated vulvovaginitis (age vulvovaginitis and 14 ones (27%) suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula with in 51 patients. Five girls (10%) were smitten with vulval ulcer and 3 ones (6%) had been were found with vaginal foreign bodies. One girl (2%) was smitten with adhesion of labia minora. The vaginal discharges taken from 21 girls were cultured. Seventeen cases found bacteria. The positive rate of bacteria culture in the 21 cases reached 81%, in which, E.coli accounted for 5 cases (24%), staphylococcus and streptococcus accounted for 3 cases (14%) respectively. Patients suffering from non-specific vulvovaginitis and vulval ulcer accepted external lotion, antibiotic ointment or combining with antibiotics. Patients suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula accepted fistulectomy. Three girls who found vaginal foreign bodies took out of foreign bodies by hysteroscope. Fifty-one girls all were cured after appropriate therapy. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic diagnosis in girlhood. The principal cause of repeated invasion is non-specific vulvovaginitis and the secondly one is posterior recto-vaginal fistula. It need overhaul during the diagnosis. It is very availability to use hysteroscopy and do bacteria culture + antibiotic sensitivity test for repeated pediatric vulvovaginitis.

  9. Preliminary Clinical Study On Ms Treatment With Hyperbaric Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulewicz Kazimierz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted the preliminary clinical investigation on 16 multiple sclerosis (Sclerosis multiplex patients of median disease duration 9.33 years and symptoms evaluated on Kurtzke’s scale. The patients underwent between 25 and 30 hyperbaric oxygen exposures at a pressure of 2 ata in intervals spread over a few days. The patients were qualified and classified to the treatment symptomatologically according to Fisher but the obtained results were evaluated according to the standardised Disability Status Scale by Kurtzke. During the investigations the authors carried out additional quantitative immunoglobulin and complement activity determination, lymphocyte T and B determinations as well as the usually applied clinical and laboratory investigations. Evident clinical improvement was observed in 14 patients, but in the case of one patient a deterioration was observed after 15 hyperbaric expositions (resulting in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment being stopped, whilst in another case no curative effect could be observed. By utilising the 50% haemolysis method, within the examined immunological parameters the authors observed an increase of complement fractions and its activity, white lymphocytes T and B examined qualitatively did not maintain the characteristic shift. The authors are still discussing the obtained results.

  10. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  11. Treatment Tank Corrosion Studies For The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Patterns Across Europe: A Population-based Multi-database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Jetty A; Heintjes, Edith M; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Blin, Patrick; Lassalle, Régis; Hall, Gillian C; Lapi, Francesco; Bianchini, Elisa; Hammar, Niklas; Bezemer, Irene D; Herings, Ron M C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment patterns in daily practice in 5 European countries and whether these reflect differences in guidelines. Prescriptions for drugs used in diabetes treatment during a 5-year study period were obtained from electronic databases. Patients initiating T2DM treatment during the study period were included. An SAS analysis tool was developed to create episodes of use of drug classes, which resulted in treatment patterns. A total of 253,530 patients initiating T2DM treatment during the study period were included; 52% to 55% were male, and the mean age ranged from 62 to 67 years. Metformin was the most common initial treatment in all countries. After initial therapy, most patients in the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom switched to a combination of metformin + a sulfonylurea derivative (SU). In Italy, metformin in combination with an SU was outnumbered by "other treatment," mainly because of repaglinide use. In France, treatments including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were most frequent as second- and fourth-line treatment. Metformin monotherapy was again most commonly observed as the third line of treatment in all countries. Fourth treatment was a combination of metformin + an SU in the Netherlands and Spain; in the United Kingdom and France, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were the most frequently used fourth line of treatment. This study provides a comprehensive overview of T2DM treatment patterns among patients initiating T2DM treatment in 5 European countries. There were differences, especially regarding the uptake of newer incretin-based treatments, which are usually prescribed as a second and/or third treatment in agreement with local guidelines. These variations reflect the differences between the national guidelines of these countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of treatment interruption among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Bhgath Gorityala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB is a rising peril of the TB control in India caused mostly by incomplete treatment. Aim: The aim was to assess the treatment interruption among pulmonary TB (PTB patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 9 months among PTB patients. Patients admitted with active pulmonary Koch′s and history of anti-TB treatment (ATT for 1-month or more from any source and who returns to treatment after not taking ATT consecutively for 2 months or more were included in the study. The data were collected from the patients or their caretakers to obtain the source of treatment given previously before default, number of treatment interruptions, phase and reasons for treatment interruption treatment. Results: A total of 107 defaulters were identified during the study period. In the present study, 62.6% of the patients interrupted treatment only once, 55.34% of the patient′s early continuation (3-4 months treatment, and 47.66% of the patient′s only one reason for the treatment interruptions during the course of the treatment. The most common reason for the treatment interruptions were felt well with TB treatment (29.53% followed by side effects (16.06%, lack of money (8.29%, and other reasons. Conclusion: The study revealed that most of the defaulters were in the age group between 35 and 60 years, male gender, illiterates, daily wage labor, and married. The treatment interruptions were minimized by putting the efforts to improve direct supervision; pretreatment counseling and retrieve treatment interrupters were recommended.

  14. [Surgical treatment of diffuse adult orbital lymphangioma: two case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthout, A; Jacomet, P V; Putterman, M; Galatoire, O; Morax, S

    2008-12-01

    Orbital lymphangioma is a rare vascular malformation; it is a benign but severe anomaly because of its infiltrative, diffuse, and hemorrhagic nature, and its high morbidity rate. Surgical resection is a real challenge on account of the intricate architecture of the lesion. The authors report their surgical experience concerning two cases of diffuse orbital lymphangioma whose diagnosis was established in adulthood and whose surgical treatment was successful. Two patients presented with adult orbital lymphangioma. Progression was slow during the first decade and then was quickly followed by complications: major exorbitism, compressive optic neuropathy, and corneal exposure. Neuroimaging showed a diffuse and cystic orbital malformation. Surgical resection was performed as completely as possible, in one case with a Krönlein orbitotomy and in the other case only via a conjunctive route. An aspirate drain was put in the orbit for 48 h so as to prevent dead spaces forming after resection, an essential risk factor of hemorrhagic or cystic recurrence. Systemic corticotherapy was administered for the 5 days following surgery. The resection was total in one case and subtotal in the other. The surgical follow-up was uneventful with an excellent aesthetic result and an improvement in visual acuity. After 12 months, no tumoral or hemorrhagic recurrence was noted. The surgical treatment of orbital lymphangiomas is challenging because of their infiltrative nature. In diffuse forms, a complete resection is rarely possible because of the risk of sacrificing visual function. In the two cases reported herein, the resection of the extraconal portion was complete, but the intraconal portion was completely removed only in one case. Using the aspirate drain, negative pressure was maintained in the orbital cavity, preventing the formation of chocolate cysts induced by surgery. Although the clinical result was very satisfying, long-term follow-up is necessary to evaluate recurrence

  15. Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

    2012-01-01

    Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

  16. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, S.Aa. (Departments of Psychology, University of Stockholm (Sweden)); Neppe, V. (Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hoffman, H. (Department of Psychology, Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Washington, Settle (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.).

  17. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christianson, S.Aa.; Neppe, V.; Hoffman, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.)

  18. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  19. Clinical Study on Treatment of Depression with Combined Acupuncture & Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong; WANG Qiao-chu; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe and compare the curative effects of combined acupuncture and medicine with simple herbal medicine on treatment of depression. Method Altogether 63 cases were enrolled according to the determination of internationally accepted self-evaluation depression scales (SDS), among them 33 cases were treated with combination of acupuncture and herbal medicine (acupuncture-medicine group) and the other 30 cases were in treated with herbal medicine alone (herbal medicine group) Results The total effective rate of acupuncture-medicine group was 90.9% and that of herbal group was 80.0%. And there was significant statistics difference between the curative effects of two groups (P <0.05) without obvious adverse reaction. Conclusion Combination of acupuncture and medicine has better effect in treating depression than herbal medicine group.

  20. Studies on the reverse osmosis treatment of uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    The aqueous effluent generated in uranium processing, particularly in the nuclear fuel fabrication step, contains mainly uranium nitrate. This requires treatment before discharge into the environment to meet stringent standards. This paper presents the performance of cellulose acetate membranes with regard to rejection of uranium under reverse osmotic conditions for feed concentrations up to 200 mg/l of uranium, which corresponds to the levels normally prevalent in the effluents. The use of additives like the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium sulfate for the improvement of reverse osmosis performance of the above membranes was also investigated. In the light of the experimental results, the suitability of reverse osmosis for the decontamination of uranium effluents is discussed

  1. Patient satisfaction relating to implant treatment by undergraduate and postgraduate dental students--a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, P

    2009-08-01

    Recordings of patient satisfaction with provision of dental implant treatment are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate satisfaction amongst patients attending for provision of implant treatment by training undergraduate and postgraduate students at Dublin Dental School and Hospital (DDSH). A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to 100 individuals randomly selected from records of patients who had received implant treatment via student clinics in the previous 5 years. The response rate was 68%. Results showed a high overall level of satisfaction with treatment received.

  2. Are Treatment Outcomes Determined by Type of Gambling? A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Bayston, Andrew; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2018-01-30

    One of the main difficulties faced in treating gambling disorder is compliance with psychological treatment. Gambling takes many forms and can differ greatly in its features such as speed of play and skill requirements. The type of gambling a pathological gambler opts for may play a key role in treatment compliance. The aim of the present study was to determine whether within treatment seeking sample of gambling disorder clients, gambling activity has any correlation with their resultant treatment outcomes. The study incorporated 524 treatment-seeking individuals who are clients of the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. All of the clients were assessed prior to treatment and fulfilled the Problem Gambling Severity Index criteria for problem gambling. Data concerning clients' gambling behavior over the previous year was gathered using self-reports. Subsequently, the data was fitted to a multinomial logistic regression model, with the treatment outcome (i.e. pre-treatment dropouts, during treatment dropouts, and completed treatment) as the dependent variable and gambling behavior as the independent variable, whilst controlling for socio-demographic factors. The use of gaming machines was a significant predictor of dropping out pre-treatment (p gambling activities. Further research into the salient features of these gambling activities may help to further explain pre-treatment and during treatment dropouts within this population.

  3. Treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures : A multicenter prospective randomized study of operative versus nonsurgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenga, Jan; Leferink, Vincent J. M.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. Th. M.; Rommens, Pol M.; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Multicenter prospective randomized trial. Objective. To test the hypotheses that thoracolumbar AO Type A spine fractures without neurologic deficit, managed with short-segment posterior stabilization will show an improved radiographic outcome and at least the same functional outcome as

  4. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-06-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and COD(Cr) of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms.

  5. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-01-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and CODCr of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms. PMID:15909347

  6. Rehabilitation exercise for treatment of vestibular disorder: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Feazadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, there are different interpretations of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a 56 year old woman with complains of positional vertigo for 35 consecutive years. She suffered from a sudden onset of rotatory, unilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The symtoms started a day after falling from a bus, where she injured her head. Otherwise her medical history was unremarkable. She was treated with an individualized home exercise program of eye movement exercises, Brandt/Daroff exercises, and general conditioning exercises (i.e., laying on the left side from sitting on the bed, while the head rotated 45 degrees to the right, waiting for about one minue; twice a day on gradual basis, not laying on the side all the way, but to use enough pillows to lay about at 60 degrees. Four weeks from the start of physical therapy, the patient was free of symptoms, even when her neck was in the extended position.

  7. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10 -4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  8. Factors associated with post-treatment E. coli contamination in households practising water treatment: a study of rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwic, Aaron; Kim, Erin; Khema, Cinn; Phanna, Chet; Sophary, Phan; Cantwell, Raymond E

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in rural households in Cambodia that have adopted household water treatment. The following factors were significantly associated (α E. coli contamination: cleaning the drinking vessel with untreated water, not drying the cup (with a cloth), accessing treated water by the use of a scoop (ref: using a tap), having more than one untreated water storage container, having an untreated water storage container that appeared dirty on the outside, and cows living within 10 m of the household. This study provides further evidence confirming previous studies reporting an association between inadequate cleanliness of water storage containers and household drinking water contamination, and identifies practical recommendations statistically associated with reduced post-treatment E. coli contamination in the household setting in rural Cambodia.

  9. Treatment Development and Feasibility Study of Family-Focused Treatment for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Collinger, Katelyn A.; Axelson, David A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Birmaher, Boris; Miklowitz, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) are associated with increased illness severity and functional impairment among adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). Previous psychosocial treatment studies have excluded adolescents with both BD and SUD. Studies suggest that integrated interventions are optimal for adults with BD and SUD. Methods We modified family-focused treatment for adolescents with BD (FFT-A) in order to explicitly target comorbid SUD (FFT-SUD). Ten adolescents with BD who had both SUD and an exacerbation of manic, depressed, or mixed symptoms within the last 3 months were enrolled. FFT-SUD was offered as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy, with a target of 21 sessions over 12 months of treatment. The FFT-SUD manual was iteratively modified to integrate a concurrent focus on SUD. Results Six subjects completed a mid-treatment 6-month assessment (after a mean of 16 sessions was completed). Of the 10 subjects, 3 dropped out early ( after ≤ 1 session); in the case of each of these subjects, the participating parent had active SUD. No other subjects in the study had a parent with active SUD. Preliminary findings suggested significant reductions in manic symptoms and depressive symptoms and improved global functioning. Reduction in cannabis use was modest and did not reach significance. Limitations Limitations included a small sample, open treatment, concurrent medications, and no control group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that FFT-SUD is a feasible intervention, particularly for youth without parental SUD. FFT-SUD may be effective in treating mood symptoms, particularly depression, despite modest reductions in substance use. Integrating motivation enhancing strategies may augment the effect of this intervention on substance use. Additional strategies, such as targeting parental substance use, may prevent early attrition. PMID:24847999

  10. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....

  11. Studies on pathogenesis and treatment of experimental immune complex glomerulonephrtis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, Gerard Johannes Maria

    1976-01-01

    Chapter 1. In this thesis an investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms of epimembranous immune complex depostion in the glomeruli was described. For this study we used two related models of experimental immune complex glemerulonephritis: the heterologous and the autologous immune complex

  12. Treatment of Encopresis in a Classroom Setting: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E.

    1977-01-01

    This study describes the procedure and results of a behavior modification program carried out in the classroom and aimed at eliminating encopresis (involuntary defecation) in an 8-year-old boy. (Editor/RK)

  13. Chemical treatment of zinc surface and its corrosion inhibition studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Department of PG Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, ... cations and is mainly used for the corrosion protection of ... provide a greater resistance to corrosion, but when exposed to humid ...

  14. Studies on electrochemical treatment of wastewater contaminated with organotin compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, Eduardo [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, Wolfgang [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: calmano@tuhh.de

    2007-07-31

    Different anode materials were tested to evaluate their suitability to eliminate organotin compounds electrochemically from shipyard process waters. The capacity of two types of anode materials was investigated: niobium coated with boron-doped diamond (BDD) and titanium coated with iridium dioxide (Ti/IrO{sub 2}). The aim of this work was to characterize the performance of the process using both anode materials at different current densities, and also to evaluate the generation of by-products. A further objective of this work was to evaluate if operating at low potentials with BDD anodes (to avoid the generation of elemental oxygen) the consumption of energy for degradation of pollutants could be minimized. The processes were tested on synthetic and real shipyard water containing approximately 25,000 ng L{sup -1} of tributyltin (TBT) (as Sn) and 5000 ng L{sup -1} dibutyltin. The range of current densities was between 6 and 70 mA cm{sup -2}. The results showed that electrochemical treatment is suitable to eliminate organotins down to very low concentrations following a stepwise debutylation mechanism. Both anode materials exhibited a similar performance with energy consumption in the range of 7-10 kWh m{sup -3} in order to decrease organotins down to 100 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn). For the water composition tested, BDD did not outperform Ti/IrO{sub 2} as initially expected, most probably because organotins were not only oxidized by {center_dot}OH, but also by active chlorine compounds generated by the oxidation of chloride present in the wastewater (1.6 g L{sup -1}, Cl{sup -}) with both anode materials. It was also found that the residual oxidants remaining in the treated effluent had to be eliminated if the water is to be discharged safely in the aquatic environment.

  15. Studies on electrochemical treatment of wastewater contaminated with organotin compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, Eduardo; Calmano, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Different anode materials were tested to evaluate their suitability to eliminate organotin compounds electrochemically from shipyard process waters. The capacity of two types of anode materials was investigated: niobium coated with boron-doped diamond (BDD) and titanium coated with iridium dioxide (Ti/IrO 2 ). The aim of this work was to characterize the performance of the process using both anode materials at different current densities, and also to evaluate the generation of by-products. A further objective of this work was to evaluate if operating at low potentials with BDD anodes (to avoid the generation of elemental oxygen) the consumption of energy for degradation of pollutants could be minimized. The processes were tested on synthetic and real shipyard water containing approximately 25,000 ng L -1 of tributyltin (TBT) (as Sn) and 5000 ng L -1 dibutyltin. The range of current densities was between 6 and 70 mA cm -2 . The results showed that electrochemical treatment is suitable to eliminate organotins down to very low concentrations following a stepwise debutylation mechanism. Both anode materials exhibited a similar performance with energy consumption in the range of 7-10 kWh m -3 in order to decrease organotins down to 100 ng L -1 (as Sn). For the water composition tested, BDD did not outperform Ti/IrO 2 as initially expected, most probably because organotins were not only oxidized by ·OH, but also by active chlorine compounds generated by the oxidation of chloride present in the wastewater (1.6 g L -1 , Cl - ) with both anode materials. It was also found that the residual oxidants remaining in the treated effluent had to be eliminated if the water is to be discharged safely in the aquatic environment

  16. Azidothymidine and cisplatin increase p14ARF expression in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaskivuo, Liisa; Rysae, Jaana; Koivuperae, Johanna; Myllynen, Paeivi; Vaskivuo, Tommi; Chvalova, Katerina; Serpi, Raisa; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Puistola, Ulla; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    p14 ARF tumor suppressor protein regulates p53 by interfering with mdm2-p53 interaction. p14 ARF is activated in response to oncogenic stimuli but little is known of the responses of endogenous p14 ARF to different types of cellular stress or DNA damage. Azidothymidine (AZT) is being tested in several clinical trials as an enhancer of anticancer chemotherapy. However, the knowledge of the relationship between AZT and cellular pathways, e.g. p53 pathway, is very limited. In this study, we show that AZT, cisplatin (CDDP) and docetaxel (DTX) all induce unique molecular responses in OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells carrying a mutated p53, while in A2780, ovarian carcinoma and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells with wild type p53, all of these drugs cause similar p53 responses. We found that endogenous p14 ARF protein in OVCAR-3 cells is down-regulated by DTX but induced by AZT and a short CDDP pulse treatment. In HT-29 colon carcinoma cells with a mutated p53, all treatments down-regulated p14 ARF protein. Both CDDP and AZT increased the expression of p14ARF mRNA in OVCAR-3 cells. Differences in cell death induced by these drugs did not explain the differences in protein and mRNA expressions. No increase in the level of either c-Myc or H-ras oncoproteins was seen in OVCAR-3 cells after AZT or CDDP-treatment. These results suggest that p14 ARF can respond to DNA damage without oncogene activation in cell lines without functional p53

  17. Some comments on clinical studies in orthodontics and their applications to orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1999-06-01

    This article indicates the origins and background of the current series of National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research-funded, university-based clinical studies of orthodontic treatment. It suggests that future studies should be less focused on refining our estimates of mean changes during treatment and concentrate research on the systematic analysis of individual differences among patients' responses to treatment, and study how skilled clinicians make in-course corrections in response to unexpected changes in treatment conditions. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning optimization of decision making in the presence of uncertainty.

  18. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt Study: Five-Year Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Panos G; Kalenak, Jeffrey W; Tsai, James C; Zurakowski, David; Kammer, Jeffrey A; Harasymowycz, Paul J; Mura, Juan J; Cantor, Louis B; Ahmed, Iqbal I K

    2016-10-01

    To compare 2 frequently used aqueous shunts for the treatment of glaucoma. International, multicenter, randomized trial. Patients aged 18 years or older with uncontrolled glaucoma despite maximum tolerated medical therapy, many of whom had failed or were at high risk of failing trabeculectomy. Eligible patients were randomized to receive an Ahmed-FP7 valve implant (New World Medical, Inc, Rancho Cucamonga, CA) or a Baerveldt-350 implant (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc, Santa Ana, CA) using a standardized surgical technique. The primary outcome was failure, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) outside the target range (5-18 mmHg) or reduced glaucoma surgery. Secondary outcomes measures included IOP, medication use, visual acuity, complications, and interventions. A total of 238 patients were randomized; 124 received the Ahmed-FP7 implant, and 114 received the Baerveldt-350 implant. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Mean preoperative IOP was 31.4±10.8 mmHg on 3.1±1.0 glaucoma medications. At 5 years, the cumulative failure rate was 53% in the Ahmed group and 40% in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.04). The main reason for failure in both groups was high IOP, and the cumulative de novo glaucoma reoperation rate was 18% in the Ahmed group and 11% in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.22). Hypotony resulted in failure in 5 patients (4%) in the Baerveldt group compared with none in the Ahmed group (P = 0.02). Mean IOP was 16.6±5.9 mmHg in the Ahmed group (47% reduction) and 13.6±5.0 mmHg in the Baerveldt group (57% reduction, P = 0.001). Mean medication use was 1.8±1.5 mmHg in the Ahmed group (44% reduction) and 1.2±1.3 mmHg in the Baerveldt group (61% reduction, P = 0.03). The 2 groups had similar complication rates (Ahmed 63%, Baerveldt 69%) and intervention rates (Ahmed 41%, Baerveldt 41%). Most complications were transient, and most interventions were slit-lamp procedures. Both implants were effective in reducing IOP and the need for glaucoma

  19. Proposal of a model for multidisciplinary treatment program of chronic migraine with medication overuse: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzi, L; Prunesti, A; Bussone, G

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic migraine associated with medication overuse is challenging in clinical practice; different strategies of treatment have been recently developed, multidisciplinary treatment approaches have been developed in academic headache centers. Education and support of patients are necessary to improve patients' adherence to pharmacological treatments as well as to non-pharmacological therapies. This study reports a clinical experience conducted at our Headache center with a group of female patients, suffering from chronic migraine complicated by medication overuse, treated by a multidisciplinary approach and followed for a period of 1 year after withdrawal. Results confirm the efficacy of a multifaceted treatment to manage this problematic category of patients.

  20. In-situ TEM Studies : Heat-treatment and Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been well known as a powerful characterisation tool to understand the structure and composition of various materials down to the atomic level. Over the years, several TEM studies have been carried out to understand the compositional, structural and

  1. A study on reverse osmosis permeating treatment for yarn dyeing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a fuzzy linear regression model for estimation of reverse osmosis permeating parameters conditions. The proposed model can effectively take on non-crisp, fuzzy and crisp data. This study model used for estimation of reverse osmosis permeating parameters data from Tirupur examines the variables that ...

  2. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study | Edionwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teeth having irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis or periapical periodontitis were included in the study. RCT and obturation was done at a single visit. The patients were monitored over 6 months. Results: Forty.five teeth were treated in 21 females and 24 males, aged 18.56 years (34.4+/.12.7). Preoperatively, pain was present ...

  3. Essential role of radiation therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Novel study concepts and established treatment recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobiasch, Sophie; Goerig, Nicole L.; Fietkau, Rainer; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors and the incidence has increased over the last 6 years. In the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis where surgery, the only curative treatment, is no longer an option and explains the still abysmal overall survival. The role of radiation therapy as treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer is controversially discussed although radiation oncology has emerged as a central pillar in the combined oncological treatment. The present manuscript gives an overview of advanced radiotherapeutic strategies in the context of chemotherapy and surgery according to the current American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines in comparison with the German guidelines and to elucidate the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Advanced modern radiotherapeutic techniques in combination with individualized high-precision radiation concepts are new therapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer in a multimodal setting with tolerable side effects. Several clinical studies together with experimental approaches are in process, to deliver further evidence and ultimately allow true personalized medicine. (orig.) [de

  4. Moessbauer study of sediment alteration produced by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labenski de Kanter, F.; Duhalde, S.; Saragovi, C.; March, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Pincenvent (France) cooking-place silt-like sediments have been studied by using Moessbauer spectroscopy and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sediments were treated at 400, 600, 800 and 1000 C under oxidizing conditions. We discuss the results and we suggest a ''Moessbauer thermometer'' to be used to recognize the temperatures and atmosphere ancient people used in their cooking-places. (orig.)

  5. Clinimetrics corner: choosing appropriate study designs for particular questions about treatment subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Hancock, Mark; Petersen, Ditte H.D

    2010-01-01

    that are inappropriate given the randomized controlled trial design used. The research design to choose, when developing a study protocol that investigates the effect of treatment subgroups, depends on the particular research question. Similarly, the inferences that can be drawn from an existing study will vary...... receive the same treatment?'; and (4) 'Are outcomes for a number of treatments better if those treatments are matched to patients in specific subgroups, than if the SAME treatments are randomly given to patients?'. Illustrative examples of these studies are provided. Conclusion: If the clinical usefulness......Background: Many clinicians and researchers believe that there are subgroups of people with spinal pain who respond differently to treatment and have different prognoses. There has been considerable interest in this topic recently. However, problems occur when conclusions about subgroups are made...

  6. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojala, A.; Lanning, F.; Paakko, E.; Lanning, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  7. Treatment with docetaxel and cisplatin in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma, a phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Pawlak, W Z; Petersen, P M

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with a poor response to chemotherapy. Cisplatin is the most widely investigated drug in the treatment of ACC and in vitro studies have indicated activity of taxanes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin...... combined with docetaxel as first-line treatment of advanced ACC....

  8. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.; Lanning, F.; Paakko, E.; Lanning, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  9. Old age and forgoing treatment: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Pereira, S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Heide, A.; van Delden, J.J.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing of the population raises the need to study forgoing treatment decisions among older people. Aim To describe the incidence and decision-making of forgoing treatment and identify age-related differences. Methods A nationwide study of a stratified sample from the Statistics

  10. Old age and forgoing treatment : a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Sandra Martins; Pasman, H. Roeline; van der Heide, Agnes; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    Background The ageing of the population raises the need to study forgoing treatment decisions among older people. Aim To describe the incidence and decision-making of forgoing treatment and identify age-related differences. Methods A nationwide study of a stratified sample from the Statistics

  11. Managing childhood eczema: qualitative study exploring carers' experiences of barriers and facilitators to treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Burgess, Hana; Yardley, Lucy; Ersser, Steven J; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Muller, Ingrid; Hugh, Catherine; Little, Paul

    2013-11-01

    To explore parents and carers' experiences of barriers and facilitators to treatment adherence in childhood eczema Childhood eczema is common and causes significant impact on quality of life for children and their families, particularly due to sleep disturbance and itch. Non-adherence to application of topical treatments is the main cause of treatment failure. Qualitative interview study. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 31 carers from 28 families of children with eczema. Participants were recruited through primary care and included if they had a child aged 5 or less with a diagnosis of eczema. Interviews were carried out between December 2010-May 2011. Data were analysed using a constant comparative approach. Barriers to treatment adherence included carer beliefs around eczema treatment, the time consuming nature of applying topical treatments, and child resistance to treatment. Families employed a range of strategies in an attempt to work around children's resistance to treatment with varying success. Strategies included involving the child in treatment, distracting the child during treatment, or making a game of it, using rewards, applying treatment to a sleeping child or, in a few cases, physically restraining the child. Some carers reduced frequency of applications in an attempt to reduce child resistance. Regular application of topical treatments to children is an onerous task, particularly in families where child resistance develops. Early recognition and discussion of resistance and better awareness of the strategies to overcome this may help carers to respond positively and avoid establishing habitual confrontation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Consumer attitudes about opioid addiction treatment: a focus group study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohler, Nancy L; Weiss, Linda; Egan, James E; López, Carolina M; Favaro, Jamie; Cordero, Robert; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2013-01-01

    To develop effective programs for people who are opioid dependent and to impact the opioid epidemic in New York City, it is crucial to monitor attitudes about opioid addiction treatments among opioid users who have experienced barriers to engagement and retention in addiction treatment. The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus groups. Six focus groups in three needle exchanges in New York City were audio recorded, transcribed, and systematically coded. The authors report on the main themes related to the study objectives. Participants of each needle exchange who were opioid dependent and had some knowledge of both methadone and buprenorphine were eligible. There were four main findings. Participants felt the following: 1) buprenorphine is an appropriate option for those heroin users who are motivated to stop using, 2) they have less control over their addiction treatment with methadone than they would have with buprenorphine, 3) buprenorphine treatment is not accessible to many New York City residents who would benefit from this treatment, and 4) lack of access to buprenorphine treatment is a cause of treatment-related diversion. Both methadone maintenance and buprenorphine treatment opportunities are necessary to address the diverse treatment needs of opioid-dependent people in New York City. However, the current medical model of buprenorphine treatment may be too restrictive for some opioid-dependent people and may be contributing to the use of illicit buprenorphine. New models to deliver buprenorphine treatment may address these problems.

  13. Enhancing treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain by boosting expectancy: A functional neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kong

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expectation can significantly modulate pain and treatment effects. This study aims to investigate if boosting patients' expectancy can enhance the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA, and its underlying brain mechanism. Methods: Seventy-four KOA patients were recruited and randomized to three groups: boosted acupuncture (with a manipulation to enhance expectation, standard acupuncture, or treatment as usual (TAU. Each patient underwent six treatments before being debriefed, and four additional treatments after being debriefed. The fMRI scans were applied during the first and sixth treatment sessions. Results: We found significantly decreased knee pain in the boosted acupuncture group compared to the standard acupuncture or TAU groups after both six and ten treatments. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC analyses using the nucleus accumbens (NAc as the seed showed rsFC increases between the NAc and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the boosted group as compared to the standard acupuncture group after multiple treatments. Expectancy scores after the first treatment were significantly associated with increased NAc-rACC/MPFC rsFC and decreased knee pain following treatment. Conclusions: Our study provides a novel method and mechanism for boosting the treatment of pain in patients with KOA. Our findings may shed light on enhancing outcomes of pharmacological and integrative medicines in clinical settings. Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis, Expectancy, Acupuncture, Reward, Resting state functional connectivity

  14. Studies on treatment and manufacturing of industrial materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Woong; Kim, Chi Kwon; Hwang, Seon Kook [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    For the technical development on utilization of domestic unused resources, the study on the production and the process of industrial raw materials was carried out. This study is divided into five articles and their main results are summarized as follows. 1. The utilization of chromic oxide wastes: This study was carried out to develop the optimum process for recovering precious and valuable metals from chrome oxide wastes. The following subjects such as, feasibility on the recovery of precious and valuable metals, recovery rate of precious and valuable metals, purification of extracted precious and valuable metals, and environmental aspects of recovery process, were investigated. 2. The production of ultramarine from nonmetal minerals: The aims were the determination of the optimum conditions of calcination of raw materials and the investigation of the synthesis mechanism of ultramarine green and blue. 3. The synthesis in fine calcium carbonate powder and it`s characteristics: The transformation process of amorphous CaCO{sub 3} obtained from the reaction between aqueous solution of Ca(OH){sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at 10, 15, 20 and 25 degree was traced continuously by measuring the electrical conductivity of the reaction solution and the influences of reaction temperature, electrical conductivity value of the reaction solution on the products after transformation were examined by x-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy. 4. Mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals: Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. This aimed to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. 5. Synthesis of nitride material by plasma method: DC plasma torch which is a non-transferred type was constructed and silicon nitride powders were produced. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Study of tokamaks carbon deposits after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richou, M.; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Delhaes, P.; Couzi, M.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problem of tokamak is the interaction plasma-wall. The wall component is the graphite. Meanwhile it is submitted to erosion phenomena, deposition and co-deposition with the hydrogen. This carbon deposits have been studied and show an oval shape. In order to obtain more information on the structure and the growth of these deposits, the authors heated them till 2500 C. Raman spectroscopy, transmission microscopy, magnetic and density measurements have been realized and compared for two types of samples: from Tore Supra and from Textor. (A.L.B.)

  16. Study on application of ethanolamine in NPP secondary water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Xie Yang; Cui Huaiming

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolamine (ETA) is an organic amine which has stronger alkalinity and lower volatility than ammonia. The paper analyzes the influence of ETA used in the secondary system and calculates its distributing status at the different nodes of the secondary system. The study shows that ETA can enhance the pH value in liquid phase of vapor-liquid two phase regions, effectively inhibit the flow-accelerated corrosion, reduce the corrosion rate of the secondary system materials and improve the economy of the in-service nuclear power plants. It is concluded that ETA as a pH additive to the secondary side of pressurized water reactor is completely viable. (authors)

  17. The Basal study on medical treatment by 'Yayoi', 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Akira.

    1977-09-01

    Continuing to the last report, the results of the basal study of therapeutic irradiation by ''Yayoi'' were reported as follows: The dose was measured in July, November, December, 1975 and April, June, 1976, and the calculation on one dimensional transportation was made in June, July, October, 1976. To obtain the most effective irradiation system for the patients under the circumstances of ''Yayoi'', the places to insert graphite and iron layers and polyethylene layer were improved, and the system to get better neutron flux was advocated. Using a human body type phantom, improvements of the human body permeability and of exposure to other than the affected part, etc, were discussed. (Kobatake, H.)

  18. Histopathological study of healing in periapical lesions following endodontic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khayat

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was perfomed on twenty five teeth which showed radiographic lesions( 6mm over 25 mm. the teeth were arranged in seven different groups and root canal therapy ( by warm Gutta-percha technique as surgical intervention were performed at various time intervals. In this investigation, histologic studies of the periapical tissues begin shortly after elimination of the root canal system with or without root  canal obturation. This healing demonstrated with a replacement of granulation tissue by connective tissue, inflammatory cells diminish in number and densityb fibroblastic activity and their differentiation of osteoblastc osteoblastic activity forming osteoid and trabecular bone. The newly formed trabeculae extend from the periphery of the lesion to the center and root surfacesd nonorganized periodontal ligament fibers return to their original orientation soon after the newly formed trabeculae reach the apical root surface and form lamina duraInflammatory responses may continue simultaneously with periapical tissue regeneration and bone formation. Chronic inflammatory cells seem to be present occasionally in marrow spaces of the newly formed bone. Cellular activity and bone formation are demonstrated in the presence of the lining epithelium. This is seen between newly formed bone and apical root tip and might be suggestive of healing of the periapical cyst. 

  19. Can adaptive treatment improve outcomes in family-based therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa? Feasibility and treatment effects of a multi-site treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel; Agras, W Stewart; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Jo, Booil; Accurso, Erin; Forsberg, Sarah; Anderson, Kristen; Arnow, Kate; Stainer, Maya

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), treated with family-based treatment (FBT) who fail to gain 2.3 kg by the fourth week of treatment have a 40-50% lower chance of recovery than those who do. Because of the high risk of developing enduring AN, improving outcomes in this group of poor responders is essential. This study examines the feasibility and effects of a novel adaptive treatment (i.e., Intensive Parental Coaching-IPC) aimed at enhancing parental self-efficacy related to re-feeding skills in poor early responders to FBT. 45 adolescents (12-18 years of age) meeting DSM TR IV criteria for AN were randomized in an unbalanced design (10 to standard FBT; 35 to the adaptive arm). Attrition, suitability, expectancy rates, weight change, and psychopathology were compared between groups. There were no differences in rates of attrition, suitability, expectancy ratings, or most clinical outcomes between randomized groups. However, the group of poor early responders that received IPC achieved full weight restoration (>95% of expected mean BMI) by EOT at similar rates as those who had responded early. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible to use an adaptive design to study the treatment effect of IPC for those who do not gain adequate weight by session 4 of FBT. The results also suggest that using IPC for poor early responders significantly improves weight recovery rates to levels comparable to those who respond early. A sufficiently powered study is needed to confirm these promising findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): phenomenology and treatment outcome in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conelea, Christine A; Walther, Michael R; Freeman, Jennifer B; Garcia, Abbe M; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has shown that youth with co-occurring tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment responsiveness. A broad definition of "tic-related" was used to examine whether children with tics in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II differed from those without tics in terms of demographic and phenomenological characteristics and acute treatment outcomes. Participants were 124 youth aged 7 to 17 years, inclusive, with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) trial. Participants were randomized to medication management, medication management plus instructions in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication management plus full CBT. Tic status was based on the presence of motor and/or vocal tics on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Tics were identified in 53% of the sample. Those with tic-related OCD did not differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of age, family history of tics, OCD severity, OCD-related impairment, or comorbidity. Those with tics responded equally in all treatment conditions. Tic-related OCD was very prevalent using a broad definition of tic status. Results suggest that youth with this broad definition of tic-related OCD do not have increased OCD severity or inference, higher comorbidity rates or severity, or worsened functioning, and support the use of CBT in this population. This highlights the importance of not making broad assumptions about OCD symptoms most likely to occur in an individual with comorbid tics. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Pediatric OCD for SRI Partial Responders; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00074815. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic studies on purification capability of channel flow type wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, S [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan); Furukawa, K; Kim, J [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1990-10-01

    In order to develop a wastewater treatment process of secondary effluent and a wastewater treatment process of a farm village, some experiments have been carried out using bench scale and full scale hydroponic type wastewater treatment plant. This wastewater treatment system mainly consists of water channels and hydroponic water tanks. The authors carried out of a kinetic study for purification capability of the water channels while assuring the growth of microorganism in the treatment scheme. It was shown experimentally that the channel flow type wastewater treatment plant had a high TOC removal capability regardless of the kind of contact material and treatment time. Activated sludge microorganism concentration in water channels was obtained by kinetic estimation from the measured effluent suspended solid concentration. Estimated amount of activated sludge in water channels comprised only 11.5-37.4 percent of the measured amounts of withdrawn sludge, indicating high photosynthesis production of algae in water channels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the populati...

  3. Castor and Pollux - shielded cells for studying fuel treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudot, G.; Bathellier, A.

    1969-01-01

    CASTOR and POLLUX, two alpha, beta, gamma cells are described in the present paper. They are located in the CEN at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). They are designed for improvement studies of the various aqueous separation processes used in irradiated fuels reprocessing plants. Located in the same air-tight steel encasement, they arc inter-connected by a pneumatic transfer. These two cells have a similar in-line conception and they include: a gamma shielding in lead of 10 cm of thickness; an inner air-tight box, made with stainless steel and plexiglas, is maintained in lowering in comparison to room pressure. Eleven Hobson model seven master-slave manipulators allow inner manipulations. Then the inner equipment is described briefly. (author) [fr

  4. Mandibular kinematics after orthognathic surgical treatment a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Ugolini, Alessandro; Rocchetta, Davide; Galante, Domenico; Mapelli, Andrea; Giannì, Aldo Bruno

    2010-03-01

    We recorded three-dimensional mandibular movements, while the mouth was being opened and closed, using an optoelectronic motion analyser in 14 patients (5 skeletal Class II, 9 skeletal Class III) who were being assessed 7-49 months after orthognathic operations, and in 44 healthy subjects. All 14 patients had satisfactory healing on clinical examination, and function had been restored. Mandibular movement was divided into its rotational and translational components. On maximum mouth opening, the patients had significantly less total displacement of the mandibular interincisor point (p=0.05), and more mandibular movement that was explained by pure condylar rotation (p=0.006), than control subjects. There was no significant relation between maximum mouth opening and percentage rotation. While mandibular motion was well restored clinically by orthognathic surgery, the kinematics of the joint were modified. Larger studies and longitudinal investigations are necessary to appreciate the clinical relevance of the variations in condylar rotational and translational components.

  5. Tomographic study of temporomandibular joints before orthodontic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jeong [Kyung Hee Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To determine whether there is a relationship between abnormal temporomandibular joint radiographic findings and age or gender in a sample of preorthodontic patients. Individualized corrected sagittal tomographs of 188 temporomandibular joints in 94 preorthodontic patients, aged 11 to 29 years, were taken and viewed by an observer blinded to clinical records. The study population was divided into 2 aged groups (11-15 years and 16-29 years) for comparative purpose. Temporomandibular joint radiographic findings were classified as normal or abnormal. There was no difference in ratio of abnormal to normal findings between the both aged groups. The frequency of osseous abnormalities was similar with that of abnormalities of condylar position. Abnormalities in CP and JS were most frequent in all aged groups. There is no significant difference between ages or genders for temporomandibular joint radiographic abnormalities.

  6. A radiographic study on the conventional endodontic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Kwon, Hyuck Choon; You, Dong Soo

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial and postoperative radiographic features of the endodontic treated teeth. The author examined the radiographs which comprise 114 teeth with 155 canals of 64 persons. The following factors were considered; Age, sex, tooth location, number of root canal, postoperative periods, initial diagnosis, and radiographic findings, postoperative radiographic findings. The apical levels of the root fillings were 76.8% to apex, 19.0% underfilling, 3.9% overfilling. The following results were obtained. 1. Of the 93 teeth which revealed initial periapical rarefaction, 66 teeth(71.0%) had showed complete bone healing, 19 teeth (20.4%) decreased rarefaction, 6 teeth (6.5%) no change, 2 teeth (2.2%) increased rarefaction after 20.0 months mean healing time. 2. 21 teeth which had on initial periapical rarefaction showed no occurrence of new periapical rarefaction. 3. Of the 66 teeth completely healed, 53 teeth (80.3%) had showed reappearance of laminadura, 64 teeth (97.0%) reappearance of periodontal ligament space after 23.4 months mean healing time.

  7. Wound shock: a history of its study and treatment by military surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The treatment of wounds has received considerable attention from the time of the Trojan War. However, it was not until the American Civil War that shock was described as an entity distinct from the wounds themselves and that efforts were directed at more than just treatment of the wound. The need for fluid resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock was first recognized in the Spanish American War, as was the association of sepsis with shock. World War I showed the need for blood in the treatment of "wound shock," a lesson that had to be relearned in World War II through bitter experience. Studies in the Korean War described the concept of disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ failure, and the existence of disseminated intravascular coagulation was confirmed by studies in Vietnam. The treatment of hemorrhagic shock is now very effective, but the treatment of traumatic and septic shock remains unsatisfactory.

  8. Response to "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2014-01-01

    Last November, the European Journal of Psychotraumatology published an interesting paper entitled "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study". This article

  9. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  10. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  11. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  12. Lived experiences of breast cancer survivors after diagnosis, treatment and beyond: qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Faustine; Jeanetta, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of breast cancer survivors has increased since 1990 due to advances in biomedical technology that lead to an increase in early diagnosis and treatment. Research on survivorship has focused on the psychological and treatment aspects of the disease. The goal of this study was focused on exploring the lived experiences of breast cancer survivors from diagnosis, treatment and beyond. Objective To understand the lived experiences of women who are breast cancer surviv...

  13. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Junior, B.S.; Bezerra, L.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  14. A Clinical Pilot Study Comparing Sweet Bee Venom parallel treatment with only Acupuncture Treatment in patient diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yong-jeen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was carried out to compare the Sweet Bee Venom (referred to as Sweet BV hereafter acupuncture parallel treatment to treatment with acupuncture only for the patient diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain and find a better treatment. Methods: The subjects were patients diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain and hospitalized at Suncheon oriental medical hospital, which was randomly divided into sweet BV parallel treatment group and acupuncture-only group, and other treatment conditions were maintained the same. Then,VAS (Visual Analogue Scale was used to compare the difference in the treatment period between the two groups from VAS 10 to VAS 0, from VAS 10 to VAS 5, and from VAS 5 to VAS 0. Result & Conclusion: Sweet BV parallel treatment group and acupuncture-only treatment group were compared regarding the respective treatment period, and as the result, the treatment period from VAS 10 to VAS 5 was significantly reduced in sweet BV parallel treatment group compared to the acupuncture-only treatment group, but the treatment period from VAS 5 to VAS 0 did not show a significant difference. Therefore, it can be said that sweet BV parallel treatment is effective in shortening the treatment period and controlling early pain compared to acupuncture-only treatment.

  15. Expectation requires treatment to boost pain relief: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Lieven A; Sprenger, Christian; Geuter, Stephan; Büchel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a possible interaction between topical analgesic treatment and treatment expectation on pain at the behavioral and neuronal level by combining topical lidocaine/prilocaine treatment with an expectancy manipulation in a 2 by 2 within-subject design (open treatment, hidden treatment, placebo, control). Thirty-two healthy subjects received heat pain stimuli on capsaicin-pretreated skin and rated their experienced pain during functional magnetic resonance imaging. This allowed us to separate drug- and expectancy-related effects at the behavioral and neuronal levels and to test whether they interact during the processing of painful stimuli. Pain ratings were reduced during active treatment and were associated with reduced activity in the anterior insular cortex. Pain ratings were lower in open treatment compared with hidden treatment and were related to reduced activity in the anterior insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the secondary somatosensory cortex, and the thalamus. Testing for an interaction revealed that the expectation effect was significantly larger in the active treatment conditions compared with the no-treatment conditions and was associated with signal changes in the anterior insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum. In conclusion, this study shows that even in the case of a topical analgesic, expectation interacts with treatment at the level of pain ratings and neuronal responses in placebo-related brain regions. Our results are highly relevant in the clinical context as they show (i) that expectation can boost treatment and (ii) that expectation and treatment are not necessarily additive as assumed in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Essential role of radiation therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Novel study concepts and established treatment recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobiasch, Sophie [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Goerig, Nicole L.; Fietkau, Rainer [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors and the incidence has increased over the last 6 years. In the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis where surgery, the only curative treatment, is no longer an option and explains the still abysmal overall survival. The role of radiation therapy as treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer is controversially discussed although radiation oncology has emerged as a central pillar in the combined oncological treatment. The present manuscript gives an overview of advanced radiotherapeutic strategies in the context of chemotherapy and surgery according to the current American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines in comparison with the German guidelines and to elucidate the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Advanced modern radiotherapeutic techniques in combination with individualized high-precision radiation concepts are new therapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer in a multimodal setting with tolerable side effects. Several clinical studies together with experimental approaches are in process, to deliver further evidence and ultimately allow true personalized medicine. (orig.) [German] Das Pankreaskarzinom gehoert zu den aggressivsten menschlichen Tumoren und verzeichnete in den letzten 6 Jahren eine steigende Inzidenz. Die Diagnose wird meist erst im fortgeschrittenen Stadium gestellt; dies schliesst haeufig eine primaer kurative Intervention mithilfe der chirurgischen Resektion aus und bedingt die hohe Mortalitaet. Obwohl die Strahlentherapie im multimodalen Therapieansatz des Pankreaskarzinoms eine zentrale Saeule darstellt, wird die Rolle der Strahlentherapie in der Literatur kontrovers diskutiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag bietet eine Uebersicht moderner Bestrahlungsstrategien im interdisziplinaeren Konzept gemaess der Leitlinien der American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) im Vergleich zu den

  17. Work-Focused Treatment of Common Mental Disorders and Return to Work: A Comparative Outcome Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.E.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two individual-level psychotherapy interventions: (a) treatment as usual consisting of cognitive– behavioral therapy (CBT) and (b) work-focused CBT (W-CBT) that integrated work aspects early into the treatment. Both interventions were carried

  18. Patients' experiences of safety during haemodialysis treatment--a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, Marleen H; Kars, Marijke C; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the experiences of safety of adult patients during their haemodialysis treatment. BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis is a complex treatment with a risk for harm that causes anxiety among many patients. To date, no in-depth study of haemodialysis patients' emotional responses to conditions of

  19. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING AFTER TREATMENT FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX - A COMPARATIVE AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULTZ, WCMW; VANDEWIEL, HBM; BOUMA, J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual

  20. Noradrenergic augmentation strategies in the pharmacological treatment of depression and schizophrenia : An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Linnér, Love

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of depression and schizophrenia, two major psychiatric disorders, is largely based on modulation of central monoaminergic neurotransmission. However, currently available pharmacological treatment alternatives possess a relatively modest clinical efficacy, making them less than optimal. The present series of studies, using in vivo electrophysiological, biochemical and behavioral techniques in rats, aim at the disclosure of mechanisms whereby an ...

  1. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  2. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  3. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  4. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  5. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG).

  6. Co-morbidity and treatment outcomes of elderly pharyngeal cancer patients : A matched control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Thomas T. A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Plaat, Boudewijn; Wedman, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Halmos, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Treatment choice in elderly pharyngeal cancer patient is disputed. This study was aimed to asses association of co-morbidity, complications and survival in different treatment modalities of pharyngeal cancer patients. Retrospective analysis of pharyngeal cancer patients, diagnosed between 1997 and

  7. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies

  8. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  9. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN COMMUNITY ORAL HEALTH PROBLEMS: A STUDY ON DENTAL TREATMENT DISCONTINUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aryadi Joelimar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The low value of F/DMF-T ration on Performed Treatment Index in Indoneisa gives an indication of great problems in dental treatment utilization. Dental treatment utilization is affected by several obstacles, the greatest among which is psychosocial obstacles. In this study the psychosocial obstacles were detected through Intrinsic Obstacles, Obstacles in Transportation, and Obstacles in Dental Clinic related to their effects on their discontinuation of dental treatments at Balkesmas Kiara, Kecamatan Senen, Jakarta Pusat. The discontinuation of dental treatments was mostly affected by Intrinsic Obstacles, through its components as Types of Cases, Dental Anxiety Scale, and Intrinsic Motivation. Generally Obstacles in Transportation had no effects, excpet its components of Travel Time and Tiredness. Obstacles in Dental Clinic had a significant effect on the discontinuation of dental treatments through the unpleasant manner of the druggist, the hot waiting room, and the high expense on drugs.

  10. Thiamphenicol in the treatment of chancroid. A study of 1,128 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda Junior, W; Siqueira, L F; Fagundes, L J

    2000-01-01

    Thiamphenicol, an aminic derivate of hydrocarbilsulfonil propandiol, was used for the treatment of 1,171 chancroid bearing patients. Each patient was medicated with 5.0 g of granulated thiamphenicol, orally, in a single dose, and was reevaluated 3, 7 and 10 days after the treatment. Ten patients (0.89%) did not respond to the proposed treatment. 133 patients presented healed ulcers after 3 days of treatment, 976 patients healed chancres on the seventh day after the treatment, and 39 patients took 10 days to present healed chancres. The results of this study indicate that the rate of patients that were cured, the low incidence of side effects, and the practicality of administration make of thiamphenicol an excellent choice for the treatment of chancroid.

  11. Perceptual relearning of binocular fusion after hypoxic brain damage: four controlled single-case treatment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Schmidt, Lena; Kuhn, Caroline; Summ, Miriam; Adams, Michaela; Garbacenkaite, Ruta; Leonhardt, Eva; Reinhart, Stefan; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxic brain damage is characterized by widespread, diffuse-disseminated brain lesions, which may cause severe disturbances in binocular vision, leading to diplopia and loss of stereopsis, for which no evaluated treatment is currently available. The study evaluated the effects of a novel binocular vision treatment designed to improve binocular fusion and stereopsis as well as to reduce diplopia in patients with cerebral hypoxia. Four patients with severely reduced convergent fusion, stereopsis, and reading duration due to hypoxic brain damage were treated in a single-subject baseline design, with three baseline assessments before treatment to control for spontaneous recovery (pretherapy), an assessment immediately after a treatment period of 6 weeks (posttherapy), and two follow-up tests 3 and 6 months after treatment to assess stability of improvements. Patients received a novel fusion and dichoptic training using 3 different devices designed to slowly increase fusional and disparity angle. After the treatment, all 4 patients improved significantly in binocular fusion, subjective reading duration until diplopia emerged, and 2 of 4 patients improved significantly in local stereopsis. No significant changes were observed during the pretherapy baseline period and the follow-up period, thus ruling out spontaneous recovery and demonstrating long-term stability of treatment effects. This proof-of-principle study indicates a substantial treatment-induced plasticity after hypoxia in the relearning of binocular vision and offers a viable treatment option. Moreover, it provides new hope and direction for the development of effective rehabilitation strategies to treat neurovisual deficits resulting from hypoxic brain damage.

  12. A clinical study of autogenic training-based behavioral treatment for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, M

    1996-03-01

    The present study investigated the effect of autogenic training-based behavioral treatment for panic disorder and identified the predictors of treatment outcome. Thirty-four patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder received autogenic training-based behavioral treatment from October 1981 to December 1994. They were treated individually by the author. The medical records of the patients were investigated for the purpose of this study. The results showed that this autogenic training-based behavioral treatment had successful results. Fifteen patients were cured, nine much improved, five improved, and five unchanged at the end of the treatment. Improvement trends were found as for the severity of panic attack and the severity of agoraphobic avoidance. No consistent findings about predictors emerged when such pretreatment variables as demographics and severity of symptoms were used to predict the outcome. Also, three treatment variables showed useful predictive power. First, practicing the second standard autogenic training exercise satisfactorily predicted better outcomes. Second, application of in vivo exposure was found to be positively associated with the treatment outcome in patients with agoraphobic avoidance. Third, longer treatment periods were associated with better outcomes. These findings suggested that the autogenic training-based behavioral treatment could provide relief to the majority of panic disorder patients.

  13. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication.

  14. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment: a cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Garde, Ewoudt M. W.; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; van der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  15. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment : A cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Garde, Ewoudt M W; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; Van Der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  16. Adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John; Johnson, Ilona; Popat, Hashmat; Morgan, Maria Z; Gill, Paul

    2018-04-24

    For effective risk communication, clinicians must understand patients' values and beliefs in relation to the risks of treatment. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information. Five focus groups were carried out with 32 school/college pupils aged 12-18 in Wales, UK. Participants were purposively selected and had all experienced orthodontic treatment. A thematic approach was used for analysis and data collection was completed at the point of data saturation. Four themes emerged from the data; (a) day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment, (b) important orthodontic risk information, (c) engaging with orthodontic risk information and (d) managing the risks of orthodontic treatment. Day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment that were affecting participants "here and now" were of most concern. Information about preventing the risks of treatment was deemed to be important. Participants did not actively seek risk information but engaged passively with information from convenient sources. Perceptions of risk susceptibility influenced participants' management of the risks of orthodontic treatment. This study demonstrates that adolescent patients can understand information about the nature and severity of orthodontic treatment risks. However, adolescent patients can have false perceptions if the risks are unfamiliar, perceived only to have a future impact or if seen as easy to control. Adolescent patients must be provided with timely and easily accessible risk information and with practical solutions to prevent the risks of treatment. The views and experiences gathered in this study can assist clinicians to better understand their young patients' beliefs about treatment risks, facilitate effective risk communication and contribute to improved patient-centred care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of acupuncture treatment on depression insomnia: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yuan-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 70% of patients with depression who see their doctors experience insomnia. Insomnia treatment is a very important link for depression treatment. Furthermore, antidepression treatment is also important for depression insomnia. In acupuncture, LU-7 (Lie Que and KID-6 (Zhao Hai, which are two of the eight confluence points in meridian theory, are used as main points. An embedded needle technique is used, alternately, at two groups of points to consolidate the treatment effect. These two groups of points are BL-15 (Xin Shu with BL-23 (Shen Shu and BL-19 (Dan Shu with N-HN-54 (An Mian. The effectiveness of these optimized acupuncture formulas is well proven in the practice by our senior acupuncturists in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM. This study has been designed to examine whether this set of optimized clinical formulas is able to increase the clinical efficacy of depression insomnia treatment. Methods/design In this randomized controlled multicenter trial, all the eligible participants are diagnosed with depression insomnia. All participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups in a ratio of 1:1 and receive either conventional acupuncture treatment or optimized acupuncture treatment. Patients are evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQIand the Hamilton rating scale(HAMD for depression. The use of antidepression and hypnotics drugs is also considered. Results are obtained at the start of treatment, 1 and 2 months after treatment has begun, and at the end of treatment. The entire duration of the study will be approximately 36 months. Discussion A high quality of trial methodologies is utilized in the study, and the results may provide better evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for depression insomnia. The optimized acupuncture formula has potential benefits in increasing the efficacy of treating depression insomnia. Trial registration The trial was registered in

  18. Motives for Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment and Effect of Treatment on Psychosocial Well-Being and Satisfaction: A Prospective Study of 118 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oland, J.; Jensen, J.; Elklit, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective, controlled study of consecutive surgical-orthodontic patients was performed to assess how treatment affects the patients' psychosocial well-being. We evaluated patients' treatment motivations and motive fulfillment in relation to their satisfaction with the treatment and a...

  19. What Sex Abusers Say about Their Treatment: Results from a Qualitative Study on Pedophiles in Treatment at a Canadian Penitentiary Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C.; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis…

  20. Predicting changes in drug use and treatment entry for local programs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, E W; Olsen, K; Bencivengo, M

    1980-01-01

    Recent sharp decline in treatment admissions by opiate abusers stimulated the conduct of a study designed to provide timely data to treatment system administrators for the next cycle of program and budgetary planning. The process of designing the study involved definition of required study characteristics, review of four categories of drug abuse research, and generation of seven locally relevant hypotheses. Interviews were conducted with 335 heroin adicts: 196 new admissions to treatment and 139 "street" addicts not currently in treatment. Major findings were a marked reduction in the quality, availability, and price of heroin; very negative perceptions of methadone maintenance, especially by female respondents; decline in heroin popularity and increase in reported use of alcohol, amphetamines, and barbiturates; and differing perceptions of treatment by sex of respondent. Response patterns suggest that users who are not entering treatment are less "strung-out than those entering treatment because of decline in availability and quality of heroin and consequent increased mixing of drugs. The emphasis in the report is on the conduct of a study which can be timely, feasible, and useful to local planners. The study weaknesses and recommended remedies are discussed, as well as the characteristics which made the findings immediately useful to administrators and planners.

  1. Fast track multi-discipline treatment (FTMDT trial versus conventional treatment in colorectal cancer--the design of a prospective randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiao-Jiao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment are both increasingly used in colorectal cancer treatment, for their short-time benefits of enhanced recovery and short hospital stays. However, the benefits of the integration of the Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment, and even with the Xelox chemotherapy, are still unknown. In this study, the three treatments integration is defined as "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment Model" for colorectal cancer and this model extends the benefits to the whole treatment process of colorectal cancer. The main purpose of the study is to explore the feasibility of "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" model in treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods The trial is a prospective randomized controlled study with 2 × 2 balanced factorial design. Patients eligible for the study will be randomized to 4 groups: (I Laparoscopic surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (II Open surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (III Laparoscopic surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy; (IV Open surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study is the hospital stays. The secondary endpoints are the quality of life, chemotherapy related adverse events, surgical complications and hospitalization costs. Totally, 340 patients will be enrolled with 85 patients in each group. Conclusions The study initiates a new treatment model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for colorectal cancer, and will provide feasibility evidence on the new model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for patients with colorectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01080547

  2. A study of reasons of non-compliance of psychiatric treatment and patients' attitudes towards illness and treatment in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Dafeeah, Elnour E; Salem, Mohamad O

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent of psychiatric patients' compliance and non-compliance with treatment and examine the factors that affect compliance. Patients were recruited who were between 16 and 60 years of age and who were hospitalized with a psychiatric disorder and treated in the outpatient clinics of the psychiatry department. A total of 689 patients were approached and 564 patients agreed to participate in the study, a response rate of 81.8%. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that asked about socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, nationality, level of education, occupation, marital status, and life style habits); medication(s) prescribed and the participant's response; the degree of social supervision (rated subjectively by the patient as "poor," "good," or "very good"); data also were obtained from clinical records. Data analyses explored significant associations between compliance and non-compliance and a group of relevant variables. Of the 564 patients studied, 328 (58.2%) were compliant with treatment and 236 (41.8%) were non-compliant. There was no significant difference between compliance and non-compliance in terms of gender (p = 0.471). Patients between 21-30 years of age were significantly more compliant with drug treatment than not. Non-compliance was more common among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (28.4%), followed by depression (14.4%), and bipolar affective disorder (12.7%) (p = 0.001). Only 25% of compliant patients and 26.3% of non-compliant patients used non-psychotropic medication. Social supervision (40%) was very poor in non-compliant patients whereas 49.4% of compliant patients had very good family support. Notable reasons for non-compliance were irregular attendance to clinic (55.5%), ignorance about side effects of medication (61%), free medicine (45.8%), and a lack of education about medication (58.1%). This study revealed that non-compliance rates among psychiatry patients

  3. Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, M. M.; de Milliano, I.; Roseboom, M. G.; Benninga, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Studies in constipated adults with a Bifidus yoghurt (containing Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) showed a significant increase in defecation frequency. The aim of

  4. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child soldiers. ... applied an unvarying standard of prevention in response to every occurrence ... encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of

  5. The effect of alcohol treatment on social costs of alcohol dependence: results from the COMBINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkin, Gary A; Bray, Jeremy W; Aldridge, Arnie; Mills, Michael; Cisler, Ron A; Couper, David; McKay, James R; O'Malley, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    The COMBINE (combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral intervention) clinical trial recently evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapies, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Previously, the cost and cost-effectiveness of COMBINE have been studied. Policy makers, patients, and nonalcohol-dependent individuals may be concerned not only with alcohol treatment costs but also with the effect of alcohol interventions on broader social costs and outcomes. To estimate the sum of treatment costs plus the costs of health care utilization, arrests, and motor vehicle accidents for the 9 treatments in COMBINE 3 years postrandomization. A cost study based on a randomized controlled clinical trial. : The study involved 786 participants 3 years postrandomization. Multivariate results show no significant differences in mean costs between any of the treatment arms as compared with medical management (MM) + placebo for the 3-year postrandomization sample. The median costs of MM + acamprosate, MM + naltrexone, MM + acamprosate + naltrexone, and MM + acamprosate + combined behavioral intervention were significantly lower than the median cost for MM + placebo. The results show that social cost savings are generated relative to MM + placebo by 3 years postrandomization, and the magnitude of these cost savings is greater than the costs of the COMBINE treatment received 3 years prior. Our study suggests that several alcohol treatments may indeed lead to reduced median social costs associated with health care, arrests, and motor vehicle accidents.

  6. Comparative study between cryotherapy and salicylic acid in the treatment of plantar warts in Erbil - Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Naz Hoshyar Muhamad Tahir; Alaa Abdulrahman Sulaiman

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: Plantar warts are hard, grainy growths that usually appear on the heels or balls of feet. Plantar warts are caused by the human papillomavirus, usually self-limiting, but treatment is generally recommended to lessen symptoms, decrease duration, and reduce transmission. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of topical 40% salicylic acid in comparison to cryotherapy in the treatment of plantar wart. Methods: This study was conducted from March 2...

  7. Efficacy of topical honey therapy against silver sulphadiazine treatment in burns: A biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Nagane, N. S.; Ganu, J. V.; Bhagwat, V. R.; Subramanium, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal injury is associated with biochemical changes. The present study was undertaken to investigate relation of oxidative free radical generation and related biochemical parameters in burn trauma. The specific aim was to compare the levels of serum lipid peroxide, Ceruloplasmin and Uric Acid in burn patients during treatment with Silver Sulfadiazine Cream and honey therapy. It is a single blind prospective controlled study involving comparison of biochemical changes after treatment with si...

  8. Study on Integration Treatment Technology of Waste Emulsion from Machining Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-dong Li; Wan-fu Huang

    2013-01-01

    The study studied the treatment technology of high concentration emulsion wastewater in metal machining plant. By analyzing the properties of emulsion wastewater, the author used the combination process of membrane technology + Fe-C micro-electrolysis + membrane bioreactor to treat the wastewater. Through the ceramic membrane, the removal rate of CODCr can reach 95%. Fe-C micro-electrolysis treatment can improve the biodegradability of wastewater, lastly through the membrane bioreactor treatm...

  9. Long-term outcomes from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; Provost, Scott E; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McDermott, Katherine A; Srisarajivakul, Emily N; Dodd, Dorian R; Dreifuss, Jessica A; McHugh, R Kathryn; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2015-05-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of prescription opioid dependence, longitudinal studies have not examined long-term treatment response. The current study examined outcomes over 42 months in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS). POATS was a multi-site clinical trial lasting up to 9 months, examining different durations of buprenorphine-naloxone plus standard medical management for prescription opioid dependence, with participants randomized to receive or not receive additional opioid drug counseling. A subset of participants (N=375 of 653) enrolled in a follow-up study. Telephone interviews were administered approximately 18, 30, and 42 months after main-trial enrollment. Comparison of baseline characteristics by follow-up participation suggested few differences. At Month 42, much improvement was seen: 31.7% were abstinent from opioids and not on agonist therapy; 29.4% were receiving opioid agonist therapy, but met no symptom criteria for current opioid dependence; 7.5% were using illicit opioids while on agonist therapy; and the remaining 31.4% were using opioids without agonist therapy. Participants reporting a lifetime history of heroin use at baseline were more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence at Month 42 (OR=4.56, 95% CI=1.29-16.04, popioid abstinence. Eight percent (n=27/338) used heroin for the first time during follow-up; 10.1% reported first-time injection heroin use. Long-term outcomes for those dependent on prescription opioids demonstrated clear improvement from baseline. However, a subset exhibited a worsening course, by initiating heroin use and/or injection opioid use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Patients' experience with nonsurgical treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; Ammendolia, Carlo; Schneider, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a highly prevalent disease in older adults that causes significant limitations in walking and other daily activities. Research into optimal nonsurgical treatment approaches for LSS is lacking. The purpose of this qualitative study is to assess the opinions of participants in a randomized clinical trial of nonsurgical LSS treatments regarding the interventions they received, factors contributing to adherence to the interventions, and methods of outcomes assessment. This study used a qualitative focus group design conducted at an academic research center. Individuals participating in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) for non-surgical LSS treatment were invited to discuss their study treatments and general experiences with LSS. The three treatment arms in the study were medical care, community-based group exercise, and clinic-based manual therapy and individual exercise. Following coding of qualitative data, kappa statistic was used to calculate agreement between observers. Themes were identified and agreed upon by both coders. This study was funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Fifty individuals (28 women, mean age 73±7.7 years) participated in a focus group. Two focus groups based on modified grounded theory were held for participants of each of the three treatment arms, for a total of six focus groups. Discussion topics included perceived effectiveness of the assigned treatment, suggestions for improvement, barriers and facilitators to completing treatment, and opinions of research outcome measures. Several themes were evident across all treatment groups. First, patients prefer individualized treatment that is tailored to their specific impairments and functional limitations. They also want to learn self-management strategies to rely less upon formal health care providers. Participants consistently stated that exercise improved their pain levels and physical function. However, they noted that these

  11. Effectiveness of an Internet-based preparation for psychosomatic treatment: Results of a controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Benjamin; Moessner, Markus; Wolf, Markus; Minarik, Carla; Kindermann, Sally; Bauer, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Patients often have to sustain long waiting periods between the time they first apply for psychotherapy and the actual uptake of the treatment. To support patients who are on a wait-list for inpatient psychosomatic treatment an Internet-based preparatory treatment (VORSTAT) was developed. In a randomized controlled trial, VORSTAT proved to increase treatment motivation prior to intake and to accelerate the accommodation phase at the beginning of inpatient treatment. No impact of VORSTAT on inpatient treatment outcome was found. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of VORSTAT after implementing the service into routine care. A large naturalistic observational study comparing VORSTAT participants (N=911) against non-participants (N=1721) was conducted. Propensity scores were used to control for potential confounding variables due to the non-randomized group allocation. Reliable improvement of self-reported impairment achieved during inpatient treatment was used as outcome measure. VORSTAT participants showed higher rates of reliable improvement in physical impairment (50.8% vs. 44.9%), psychological impairment (41.2% vs. 29.9%), and social problems (22.3% vs. 15.2%). An Internet-based preparation for psychotherapy is an effective approach to improve outcome of inpatient psychosomatic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Costs of infertility treatment: Results from an 18-month prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Patricia; Showstack, Jonathan; Smith, James F.; Nachtigall, Robert D.; Millstein, Susan G.; Wing, Holly; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Pasch, Lauri A.; Croughan, Mary S.; Adler, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine resource use (costs) by women presenting for infertility evaluation and treatment over 18 months, regardless of treatment pursued. Design Prospective cohort study in which women were followed for 18 months. Setting Eight infertility practices. Patients 398 women recruited from infertility practices. Data collection Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline, and after 4, 10, and 18 months of follow-up. Medical records were abstracted after 18 months to obtain details of services used. Main outcome measures Per-person and per-successful-outcome costs Results Treatment groups were defined as highest intensity treatment use. 20% of women did not pursue cycle-based treatment; about half pursued in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Median per-person costs ranged from $1,182 for medications only, to $24,373 and $38,015 for IVF and IVF-donor egg groups, respectively. Estimates of costs of successful outcomes (delivery or ongoing pregnancy by 18 months) were higher – $61,377 for IVF, for example – reflecting treatment success rates. Within the timeframe of the study, costs were not significantly different for women who were successful and women who were not. Conclusions While individual patient costs vary, these cost estimates developed from actual patient treatment experiences may provide patients with realistic estimates to consider when initiating infertility treatment. PMID:21130988

  13. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  14. QMG and MG-ADL correlations: Study of eculizumab treatment of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, James F; Freimer, Miriam; O'Brien, Fanny; Wang, Jing Jing; Collins, Stephen R; Kissel, John T

    2017-08-01

    A phase 2 study of eculizumab for treating myasthenia gravis (MG) used the quantitative myasthenia gravis score (QMG) and myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile (MG-ADL) to evaluate baseline disease severity and treatment response. Correlations were then analyzed between these assessments. Patients were given eculizumab or placebo during the first 16-week treatment period of the crossover study, with treatment assignments reversed for the second treatment period following a 5-week washout. QMG and MG-ADL scores at baseline and endpoint of each treatment period generated correlation coefficients for baseline status and treatment response during eculizumab therapy. Correlation strength between QMG and MG-ADL scores was higher for treatment response (R = 0.726; 95% confidence interval, 0.264-0.907; P = 0.0036) than for assessing baseline disease status (R = 0.552; 95% confidence interval, -0.022-0.839; P = 0.0495). MG-ADL may be more sensitive for assessing treatment response than point-in-time disease status. Muscle Nerve 56: 328-330, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Suicidal events in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan G; Rohde, Paul; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Kennard, Betsy D; Reinecke, Mark A; Mayes, Taryn L; Posner, Kelly; May, Diane E; March, John S

    2009-04-21

    The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) database was analyzed to determine whether suicidal events (attempts and ideation) occurred early in treatment, could be predicted by severity of depression or other clinical characteristics, and were preceded by clinical deterioration or symptoms of increased irritability, akathisia, sleep disruption, or mania. TADS was a 36-week randomized, controlled clinical trial of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments involving 439 youths with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Suicidal events were defined according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicidal Assessment. Patients were randomly assigned into the study between spring 2000 and summer 2003. Forty-four patients (10.0%) had at least 1 suicidal event (no suicide occurred). Events occurred 0.4 to 31.1 weeks (mean +/- SD = 11.9 +/- 8.2) after starting TADS treatment, with no difference in event timing for patients receiving medication versus those not receiving medication. Severity of self-rated pretreatment suicidal ideation (Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire adapted for adolescents score > or = 31) and depressive symptoms (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale score > or = 91) predicted occurrence of suicidal events during treatment (P depression and insufficient improvement without evidence of medication-induced behavioral activation as a precursor. Severity of self-rated suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms predicted emergence of suicidality during treatment. Risk for suicidal events did not decrease after the first month of treatment, suggesting the need for careful clinical monitoring for several months after starting treatment. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Location of prosthodontic treatment and oral health-related quality of life--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Smitha; John, Mike T; Schierz, Oliver; Aarabi, Ghazal; Reissmann, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Prosthodontic treatment has a positive effect on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL); however, there is a paucity of studies assessing the impact of OHRQoL based on where in the mouth ("location") the treatment is performed. This exploratory study investigated the association of the location (anterior, posterior region) of prosthodontic treatment with magnitude and nature of OHRQoL changes. In this non-randomized prospective clinical study, 190 adult patients (17-83 years) were recruited at baseline and 104 were available for the follow-up analyses. Of those, 50 patients received treatment only in the posterior segment and 54 patients in both anterior and posterior regions. Treatment included conventional fixed partial prostheses, removable prostheses or a combination of both. OHRQoL was assessed with the German language version of the 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) at baseline and the questionnaire was repeated 4-6 weeks post-treatment. Magnitude and effect size of changes in summary and sub-scale scores were calculated and data analyzed. Patients experienced a substantially impaired OHRQoL (mean OHIP score: 32.3 points) at baseline and an improvement in OHRQoL of 6.8 OHIP points following treatment. This study showed a greater improvement in OHRQoL in patients treated in both regions compared to those treated in the posterior region alone, especially in the function and aesthetic domains. This explorative study suggests that OHRQoL improvement is affected by where prosthodontic treatment is performed in the mouth. Greater understanding of qualitative aspects of reconstructive therapies is needed for improved treatment planning and patient consent. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Rasagiline in daily clinical use. Results of a treatment study of Parkinson patients with a combination treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, W H; Klasser, M; Reichmann, H

    2008-10-01

    Rasagiline (Azilect) is a potent, highly selective and irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type B of the second generation. Rasagiline is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) as monotherapy (without levodopa) or as adjunct therapy (with levodopa) in patients with end of dose fluctuations. The efficacy and tolerability of rasagiline has been demonstrated in large-scale, controlled clinical studies in patients with early PD as well as with more advanced PD. This multicentred post-marketing observational study included an investigation of the efficacy and tolerability of rasagiline in a large patient population under conditions of the daily routine in neurologic practice with a special attention on the collection of data regarding a patients' subjective evaluation of quality of life. A total of 754 patients with Parkinson's disease were enrolled, 545 of the patients (63% male patients, mean age 68 years, mean duration of PD 6 years, Hoehn & Yahr stage II to III in 69% of the patients) started rasagiline 1 mg/day as adjunct therapy for up to 4 months. The PD symptoms were rated by the physicians using the Columbia University Rating Scale (CURS) and the clinical fluctuations subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part IV B). Different aspects of quality of life were rated by the patients using the self-rating Parkinson's Disease Questionaire (PDQ-39). In addition, patients documented the number of hours spend in the OFF-state in "24-hour" home diaries prior to each of the assessment visits. During the treatment period rasagiline was most frequently co-administered with levodopa/DCI (81.7%) and/or dopamine agonists (65.8%). The mean treatment duration was 117.4 (+/-36.4) days, during which PD medication remained unchanged in 86.6% of the cases. The improvement rates in each of the CURS items ranged between 31.1% to 48.4% and the total score was reduced by 22% under the therapy of rasagiline. In the motor part (tremor

  18. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Watts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. Methods A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL. Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Results Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Conclusions Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment

  19. Surgical and Antimicrobial Treatment of Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infections at Different Surgical Sites: A Retrospective Study of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzi, Luigia; Gurke, Lorenz; Battegay, Manuel; Widmer, Andreas F.; Weisser, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about optimal management of prosthetic vascular graft infections, which are a rare but serious complication associated with graft implants. The goal of this study was to compare and characterize these infections with respect to the location of the graft and to identify factors associated with outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study over more than a decade at a tertiary care university hospital that has an established multidisciplinary approach to treating graft infections. Cases of possible prosthetic vascular graft infection were identified from the hospital's infectious diseases database and evaluated against strict diagnostic criteria. Patients were divided into groups according to the locations of their grafts: thoracic-aortic, abdominal-aortic, or peripheral-arterial. Statistical analyses included evaluation of patient and infection characteristics, time to treatment failure, and factors associated specifically with cure rates in aortic graft infections. The primary endpoint was cure at one year after diagnosis of the infection. Results Characterization of graft infections according to the graft location did show that these infections differ in terms of their characteristics and that the prognosis for treatment seems to be influenced by the location of the infection. Cure rate and all-cause mortality at one year were 87.5% and 12.5% in 24 patients with thoracic-aortic graft infections, 37.0% and 55.6% in 27 patients with abdominal-aortic graft infections, and 70.0% and 30.0% in 10 patients with peripheral-arterial graft infections. In uni- and multivariate analysis, the type of surgical intervention used in managing infections (graft retention versus graft replacement) did not affect primary outcome, whereas a rifampicin-based antimicrobial regimen was associated with a higher cure rate. Conclusions We recommend that future prospective studies differentiate prosthetic vascular graft infections according to the location of the

  20. Predictors of Dropout From Inpatient Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Helle Wessel; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Walderhaug, Espen; Otterholt, Eli; Nordfjærn, Trond

    2018-01-01

    Dropout from inpatient treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this study was to identify demographic, substance use, and psychological factors that predict dropout from postdetoxification inpatient SUD treatment. A total of 454 patients from 5 inpatient SUD centers in Central Norway were consecutively included in this naturalistic, prospective cohort study. A total of 132 patients (28%) did not complete the planned treatment stay (dropped out). Cox regression analysis showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation for changing personal substance use reduced the dropout risk (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.79). Higher levels of mental distress were associated with an increased risk for dropout (adjHR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11-1.97). The role of mental health and motivation in reducing dropout risk from inpatient SUD treatment should be targeted in future prospective intervention studies.

  1. Helical tomotherapy for SIB and hypo-fractionated treatments in lung carcinomas: A 4D Monte Carlo treatment planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, Edmond; Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Goossens, Samuel; Wanet, Marie; Lee, John A.; Delor, Antoine; Bol, Vanesa; Vynckier, Stefaan; Gregoire, Vincent; Geets, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of intra-fraction motion induced by regular breathing on treatment quality for helical tomotherapy treatments. Material and methods: Four patients treated by simultaneous-integrated boost (SIB) and three by hypo-fractionated stereotactic treatments (hypo-fractionated, 18 Gy/fraction) were included. All patients were coached to ensure regular breathing. For the SIB group, the tumor volume was delineated using CT information only (CTV CT ) and the boost region was based on PET information (GTV PET , no CTV extension). In the hypo-fractionated group, a GTV based on CT information was contoured. In both groups, ITVs were defined according to 4D data. The PTV included the ITV plus a setup error margin. The treatment was planned using the tomotherapy TPS on 3D CT images. In order to verify the impact of intra-fraction motion and interplay effects, dose calculations were performed using a previously validated Monte Carlo model of tomotherapy (TomoPen): first on the planning 3D CT (“planned dose”) and second, on the 10 phases of the 4D scan. For the latter, two dose distributions, termed “interplay simulated” or “no interplay” were computed with and without beamlet-phase correlation over the 10 phases and combined using deformable dose registration. Results: In all cases, DVHs of “interplay simulated” dose distributions complied within 1% of the original clinical objectives used for planning, defined according to ICRU (report 83) and RTOG (trials 0236 and 0618) recommendations, for SIB and hypo-fractionated groups, respectively. For one patient in the hypo-fractionated group, D mean to the CTV CT was 2.6% and 2.5% higher than “planned” for “interplay simulated” and “no interplay”, respectively. Conclusion: For the patients included in this study, assuming regular breathing, the results showed that interplay of breathing and tomotherapy delivery motions did not affect significantly plan delivery accuracy. Hence

  2. Professional ballet dancers' experience of injury and osteopathic treatment in the UK: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Smith, Tobias; Thomson, Oliver P

    2017-01-01

    Professional dancers suffer significant musculoskeletal injuries during the course of their careers. Treatment-seeking behaviour is important in all patient populations, yet is rarely investigated amongst professional dancers. This qualitative study aimed to form a better understanding of how dancers decide to seek treatment, and in particular to explore their experiences of receiving osteopathic care for their injuries. A qualitative study design using grounded theory was used as a methodological framework for data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore professional dancers' experience of injury and decision-making to seek professional healthcare. Five themes were constructed that explain and describe dancers' experience of injuries and their views and perspectives of treatment, these were; the growing dancer, the fear factor, learning to cope, effective treatment, and returning autonomy. The personal development of each dancer consisted of an amalgam of internal and external pressures. These pressures combine with experiences of pain and injury to influence a dancer's decision-making behaviour when injured and deciding to seek treatment. The study also provide factors relevant in the effective treatment of dancers, and outlined participants' preference for a global physical approach to assessment and treatment of their musculoskeletal pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of anorexia nervosa with long-term risperidone in an outpatient setting: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracke, Elsa J; Tosh, Aneesh K

    2014-01-01

    There are currently few studies focusing on the efficacy of long-term atypical antipsychotics to treat anorexia nervosa in the pediatric population. This case report follows the treatment of a 17 year-old female with anorexia nervosa over her four-year undergraduate career. After two years of multidisciplinary treatment, low-dose risperidone was initiated due to persistence of her disease. She expressed decreased rigidity around meal times, her weight improved and she had resumption of menses. She was compliant with treatment through graduation and maintained her weight gain. Atypical antipsychotics are a treatment option in the management of anorexia nervosa. Risperidone has not been studied as frequently as olanzapine for eating disorders. Risperidone was chosen for its more favorable side effect profile and decreased cost to the patient. Previous studies on anorexia nervosa treatment have occurred during inpatient treatment and have limited follow-up due to patients' refusal to initiate or maintain medication compliance. This case presents 17 months of outpatient data. The efficacy of risperidone therapy was evaluated with frequent weight checks, subjective decrease in rigidity, serial complete metabolic panels, and restoration of menses. In this case report, an adolescent female treated with low-dose risperidone had decreased rigid thinking, weight gain and resolution of secondary amenorrhea without medication side effects. Therefore, the atypical antipsychotic risperidone may be an effective long-term outpatient treatment option for patients with anorexia nervosa.

  4. Study of heat treatment parameters for large-scale hydraulic steel gate track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-zhou Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance external hardness and strength, a large-scale hydraulic gate track should go through heat treatment. The current design method of hydraulic gate wheels and tracks is based on Hertz contact linear elastic theory, and does not take into account the changes in mechanical properties of materials caused by heat treatment. In this study, the heat treatment parameters were designed and analyzed according to the bearing mechanisms of the wheel and track. The quenching process of the track was simulated by the ANSYS program, and the temperature variation, residual stress, and deformation were obtained and analyzed. The metallurgical structure field after heat treatment was predicted by the method based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves. The results show that the analysis method and designed track heat treatment process are feasible, and can provide a reference for practical projects.

  5. Treatment decision making and adjustment to breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A L; Estes, M A; Estes, N C; Cameron, C L; Danoff-Burg, S; Irving, L M

    1998-04-01

    This study monitored women (N = 76) with breast cancer from diagnosis through 1 year, and tested constructs from subjective expected utility theory with regard to their ability to predict patients' choice of surgical treatment as well as psychological distress and well-being over time. Women's positive expectancies for the consequences of treatment generally were maintained in favorable perceptions of outcome in several realms (i.e., physician agreement, likelihood of cancer cure or recurrence, self-evaluation, likelihood of additional treatment, partner support for option, attractiveness to partner). Assessed before the surgical decision-making appointment, women's expectancies for consequences of the treatment options, along with age, correctly classified 94% of the sample with regard to election of mastectomy versus breast-conserving procedures. Calculated from the point of decision making to 3 months later, expectancy disconfirmations and value discrepancies concerning particular treatment consequences predicted psychological adjustment 3 months and 1 year after diagnosis.

  6. A comparative study of single-dose treatment of chancroid using thiamphenicol versus Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Walter; Di Chiacchio, Nilton G; Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Romiti, Ricardo; Criado, Paulo R; Velho, Paulo Eduardo N Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001). The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002) and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.

  7. Substance use disorders and PTSD: an exploratory study of treatment preferences among military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Sudie E; Killeen, Therese K; Teer, Andrew P; Hartwell, Emily E; Federline, Amanda; Beylotte, Frank; Cox, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur among Veterans and are associated with poor treatment outcomes. Historically, treatments for SUDs and PTSD have been delivered sequentially and independently. More recently, however, integrated treatments have shown promise. This study investigated Veterans' perceptions of the interrelationship between SUDs and PTSD, as well as treatment preferences. Participants were 35 Veterans of recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and prior operations, who completed the Treatment Preferences Questionnaire as well as an in-depth interview. The majority (94.3%) perceived a relationship between their SUD and PTSD symptoms. Veterans reported that PTSD symptom exacerbation was typically (85.3%) associated with an increase in substance use, and PTSD symptom improvement was typically (61.8%) followed by a decrease in substance use (pdevelopment and provision of care for Veterans with SUDs and PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Enhancing the management of secondary encopresis by assessing acceptability of treatment: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, M W; Harper, D C

    1989-12-01

    This clinical case study utilized a behavioral treatment sequence to assist an 11-year-old encopretic male who had been refractory to prior treatments. The sequence included: (1) positive reinforcement of bowel movements and the non-occurrence of soiling accidents; (2) self-evaluation; (3) positive practice; (4) milk of magnesia; (5) diet modifications; and (6) a numbered underwear strategy. The treatment was initiated on a pediatric inpatient unit and then generalized to the child's home environment. Parental acceptability of treatment was assessed during a three-day home visit while the procedure was implemented by the parents. The combination of behavioral treatment with milk of magnesia eliminated soiling accidents and increased the frequency of appropriate bowel movements. Results were maintained throughout a one-year follow-up.

  9. A comparative study of single-dose treatment of chancroid using thiamphenicol versus Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Junior

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001. The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002 and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.

  10. Clinical Studies Applying Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E. Jäkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC seems to be resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and the general treatment regimen of cytokine therapy produces only modest responses while inducing severe side effects. Nowadays standard of care is the treatment with VEGF-inhibiting agents or mTOR inhibition; nevertheless, immunotherapy can induce complete remissions and long-term survival in selected patients. Among different adoptive lymphocyte therapies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells have a particularly advantageous profile as these cells are easily available, have a high proliferative rate, and exhibit a high antitumor activity. Here, we reviewed clinical studies applying CIK cells, either alone or with standard therapies, for the treatment of RCC. The adverse events in all studies were mild, transient, and easily controllable. In vitro studies revealed an increased antitumor activity of peripheral lymphocytes of participants after CIK cell treatment and CIK cell therapy was able to induce complete clinical responses in RCC patients. The combination of CIK cell therapy and standard therapy was superior to standard therapy alone. These studies suggest that CIK cell immunotherapy is a safe and competent treatment strategy for RCC patients and further studies should investigate different treatment combinations and schedules for optimal application of CIK cells.

  11. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Danish National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Greisen, Gorm; la Cour, Morten

    2016-04-01

    One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark. A retrospective, register-based cohort study. The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration number. Each of the 31 candidate risk factors were evaluated in univariate analyses, while adjusted for known risk factors (i.e., gestational age [GA] at delivery, small for gestational age [SGA], multiple births, and male sex). Significant outcomes were analyzed thereafter in a backward selection multiple logistic regression model. Treatment-demanding ROP and its associations to candidate risk factors. Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.08; P large study population, blood transfusion and mechanical ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment-demanding ROP during a recent birth period (2003-2008). Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  13. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  14. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications

  15. Patient expectations of treatment for back pain - A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos; Sengers, Marie-José; Riemens, Linda; Haafkens, Joke

    2004-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies. Objectives. To summarize evidence from studies among patients with low back pain on their expectations and satisfaction with treatment as part of practice guideline development. Summary of Background Data. Patients are often

  16. Vitrification Studies with DOE Low-Level Mixed Waste Wastewater Treatment Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.; Hewlett, K.J.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification studies with simulated Low Level Mixed Waste (LLMW) sludges were performed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). These studies focused on finding the optimum glass compositions for four simulated LLMW wastewater treatment sludges and were based on both crucible-scale and pilot-scale studies. Optimum compositions were determined based on the maximum waste loading achievable without sacrificing glass integrity

  17. Desensitization And Study-Skills Training As Treatment For Two Types of Test-Anxious Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhouse, Robert A.

    1972-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and training in efficient study methods for reducing test anxiety among subjects selected on the basis of two types of self reported anxiety. Desensitization offered more promise as a treatment method for test anxiety than did training in study skills. (Author)

  18. Quality of life and psychosocial outcomes after fixed orthodontic treatment: a 17-year observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter; Brennan, David; Spencer, A John

    2011-12-01

    There is little evidence to suggest that orthodontic treatment can prevent or reduce the likelihood of dental caries or of periodontal disease or dental trauma and temporomandibular disorders, but there is a modest association between the presence of malocclusion/orthodontic treatment need and quality of life. However, little is known of the long-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. This study reports on the longitudinal follow-up of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes of orthodontic treatment among a cohort of adults who were examined as adolescents in 1988/1989. Children who were examined in 1988/1989 were invited to a follow-up in 2005/2006. Respondents completed a questionnaire, which collected information on quality of life, receipt of orthodontic treatment and psychosocial factors, and were invited for a clinical examination. Oral health conditions including occlusal status using the Dental Aesthetic Index were recorded. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between the measured factors. There was no statistically significant association between occlusal status at adolescence and quality of life at adulthood. Those individuals who had orthodontic treatment but did not need orthodontic treatment had higher self-esteem (23.1, SD 5.2) and were more satisfied with life (18.5, SD 3.7) than other treatment groups (self-esteem range, 20.0-22.7; life satisfaction range, 16.4-18.1), anovaP life, P life. Orthodontic treatment was negatively associated with psychosocial factors (life satisfaction; fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) β = -0.91, P = 0.02 and self-esteem; FOT β = -1.39, P life and psychosocial factors. Receipt of fixed orthodontic treatment does not appear to be associated with oral health-related quality of life but appears to be negatively associated with self-esteem and satisfaction with life. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Study of Blood Leptin Levels before and After Treatment with Metformin in Diabetes Type Ii Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Didehdar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptin is a fat tissue hormone that has 176 amino acids with a molecular weight of 16 KD . Leptin has effects on the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues resulting in decreased food absorption and increased energy consumption that finally reduces the body weight and BMI. The aim of this research was to investigate the blood levels of leptin before and after treatment with Metformin in type II diabetic patients. Methods: 25 type II diabetic patients without any previous drug treatment history were investigated. This study was a clinical trail before and after treatment with Metformin. Results: There was no particular difference in BMI, average body weight, fat mass and free fat mass before and after treatment. Similarly, the difference in concentration levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, tri-glycerides and LDL-cholesterol before and after treatment was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference in the average concentration of leptin and insulin before and after treatment Conclusion: This result showed that although metformin decreased glucose and lipid levels during the treatment period, (1 month it did not have an effect on leptin, Insulin and other related factors during treatment.;

  20. Treatment Seeking and Ebola Community Care Centers in Sierra Leone: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Simone E; O'Reilly, Marion; Frith-Powell, Jack; Umar Kargbo, Alpha; Byrne, Daniel; Niederberger, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Ebola Treatment Units were able to provide only 60% of necessary treatment beds in Sierra Leone. As a result, the Government of Sierra Leone decided to construct Community Care Centers. These were intended to increase treatment-seeking behavior and reduce the community-level spread of Ebola by facilitating access to care closer to communities. Through qualitative data collection in 3 districts, this study seeks to understand the perceived impact that proximity to such Centers had on treatment-seeking behavior. Feedback from community members and Community Health Volunteers indicates that proximity to treatment reduced fears, especially those arising from the use of ambulances, lack of familiarity with medical Centers, and loss of contact with family members taken for treatment. Participants report that having a Center close to their home enables them to walk to treatment and witness survivors being discharged. Living close to Centers also enables communities to be involved in their design and daily operation, helping to build trust in them as acceptable treatment facilities. Further research is required to understand the appropriate design, operation, and epidemiological impact of Centers. Further investigation should incorporate the effect of an outbreak's severity and the stage (duration) of the outbreak on potential acceptance of Centers.

  1. Gender differences in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder: a study of 7354 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanti, Alina; Bobeck, Christian; Osterman, Maja; Kardell, Mathias; Tidemalm, Dag; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael

    2015-03-15

    Gender differences in treatment that are not supported by empirical evidence have been reported in several areas of medicine. Here, the aim was to evaluate potential gender differences in the treatment for bipolar disorder. Data was collected from the Swedish National Quality Assurance Register for bipolar disorder (BipoläR). Baseline registrations from the period 2004-2011 of 7354 patients were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to study the impact of gender on interventions. Women were more often treated with antidepressants, lamotrigine, electroconvulsive therapy, benzodiazepines, and psychotherapy. Men were more often treated with lithium. There were no gender differences in treatment with mood stabilizers as a group, neuroleptics, or valproate. Subgroup analyses revealed that ECT was more common in women only in the bipolar I subgroup. Contrariwise, lamotrigine was more common in women only in the bipolar II subgroup. As BipoläR contains data on outpatient treatment of persons with bipolar disorder in Sweden, it is unclear if these findings translate to inpatient care and to outpatient treatment in other countries. Men and women with bipolar disorder receive different treatments in routine clinical settings in Sweden. Gender differences in level of functioning, bipolar subtype, or severity of bipolar disorder could not explain the higher prevalence of pharmacological treatment, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy in women. Our results suggest that clinicians׳ treatment decisions are to some extent unduly influenced by patients׳ gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative study of perceived causes of tuberculosis treatment default among health care workers in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizub, D; Ghali, I; Sabouni, R; Bourkadi, J E; Bennani, K; El Aouad, R; Dooley, K E

    2012-09-01

    In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) treatment default is increasing in some urban areas. To provide a detailed description of factors that contribute to patient default and solutions from the point of view of health care professionals who participate in TB care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 62 physicians and nurses at nine regional public pulmonary clinics and local health clinics. Participants had a median of 24 years of experience in health care. Treatment default was seen as a result of multilevel factors related to the patient (lack of means, being a migrant worker, distance to treatment site, poor understanding of treatment, drug use, mental illness), medical team (high patient load, low motivation, lack of resources for tracking defaulters), treatment organization (poor communication between treatment sites, no systematic strategy for patient education or tracking, incomplete record keeping), and health care system and society. Tailored recommendations for low- and higher-cost interventions are provided. Interventions to enhance TB treatment completion should take into account the local context and multilevel factors that contribute to default. Qualitative studies involving health care workers directly involved in TB care can be powerful tools to identify contributing factors and define strategies to help reduce treatment default.

  3. Botulinum toxin therapy in Frey's syndrome: a retrospective study of 440 treatments in 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S; Jerowski, M; Ludwig, L; Fischer-Krall, E; Beutner, D; Grosheva, M

    2017-04-01

    Frey's syndrome is characterised as sweating, redness and warmth of the parotideal area and is often treated with botulinum toxin A. The objective of this retrospective study was to prove whether the toxin dosage and time-to-treatment intervals change after repeated botulinum toxin injections. The charts of patients, who were treated for Frey's syndrome during the last 16 years, were assessed. Three brands of botulinum toxin A were available for therapy. The Minor test was used to confirm the sweating before each treatment and to determine the toxin dosage. Constant amount of botulinum toxin was injected per cm 2 of the affected area. Patients consulted our department for the next treatment as soon as they felt disturbed by recurring sweating and when the sweating was objectively evident in the Minor test. Time intervals between treatments and injected toxin dosages were assessed. In total, 100 patients received 440 treatments in 16 years. Repeated injections, median 4.0, were carried out in 70.5% of patients. Median time interval to the first injection was 2.8 years. Median time interval between treatments was 12.0 months and showed to be steady (anova, P = .49, F = 1.01). Duration of effect of botulinum toxin on Frey's syndrome was long-lasting and stable with no significantly different time intervals between treatments. The extent of the sweating area did not vary significantly after repeated treatments and required a constant dose of botulinum toxin A. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Study on the perception of orthodontic treatment according to age: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonji

    2017-07-01

    This questionnaire study aimed to estimate the overall frequencies of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment among adults categorized according to age, sex, and area of living, and to identify barriers or negative perceptions preventing them from receiving orthodontic treatment. The participants included 598 adults aged over 20 years (230 men and 368 women) who visited the Dental Hospital of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The participants' opinions regarding their consideration of receiving orthodontic treatment were recorded using a specially designed questionnaire. The overall rate of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment was 48.5%. Compared to adults in their 20s (63.2%), those in their 40s and 50s had a lower percentage of interest in orthodontic treatment (46.2% and 45.1%, respectively; p orthodontic treatment. The middle-aged had a relatively high percentage of interest (above 45%) in orthodontic treatment. However, demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with the positive interest. These results highlight the need for educating the middle-aged about the limitations and possibilities of orthodontic treatment to increase its acceptance.

  5. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  6. Treatment for spontaneous intracranial dissecting aneurysms in childhood: a retrospective study of 26 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisen Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to assess the clinicoradiological features and treatment outcome of intracranial dissecting aneurysms (IDAs in childhood.Methods We conducted a retrospective study of pediatric patients who were treated for spontaneous IDAs in our institute between January 2010 and December 2015. The clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, treatment modality, and outcome were studied. Results We studied 26 pediatric patients (mean age, 13.4 years; range, 4–18 years with 31 IDAs who comprised 6.9% of all IDA patients treated during the same period. Seventeen (65.4% patients were male and nine (34.6% were female. The incidence of large (≥10mm in size or giant aneurysms (≥25mm in size was 65.5%. Twenty-one (80.8% patients underwent endovascular or surgical treatment and five (19.2% received conservative treatment. Perioperative complications occurred in three patients, in whom two eventually recovered completely with a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score of 5 and one partially recovered with a GOS score 4. Overall, 25 (96.2% patients had a favorable outcome and one (3.8% had an unfavorable outcome at a mean follow-up of 22.8 months (range, 6–60 months.Conclusions Pediatric IDAs are rare. In this series, endovascular management was a relatively safe and effective method of treatment for pediatric IDAs. However, continued follow-up is required because of the possibility of aneurysm recurrence and de novo aneurysm formation after treatment.

  7. A study of flare-ups following single-visit root canal treatment in endodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhoro, Feroze Ali; Mirza, Assad Javed

    2009-07-01

    To determine the frequency of flare-ups in single-visit endodontic treatment and the associated factors. Observational. Baqai Dental College Hospital, Karachi, from November 2005 to May 2006. One hundred patients were assigned for single-visit root canal treatment. Patients that defaulted after the first appointment (incomplete treatment) were excluded from the study. For each tooth treated, the clinical factors and conditions existing before and after the completion of treatment were recorded. This data included patient's age, gender, type of tooth, pre-operative status of pulp and periapical tissues and recording pain and swelling (flare-ups) postoperatively after 1 day, 7 days and 1 month. The significance of results was obtained by applying paired-sample t-test and Pearson X2 test. Three of one hundred cases showed flare-ups after treated in single appointment. On the other hand, a marked number (n=97) of cases did not show flare-ups during the study period. None of the studied variables showed any statistically significant bearing on rate of flare-ups in single appointment root canal treatment. The single-visit root canal treatment was safe in terms of endodontic flare-ups as far as results of this study are concerned. It was safer in both vital and non-vital teeth, and even in teeth with periapical pathosis.

  8. The effectiveness of Korean medicine treatment in male patients with infertility: a study protocol for a prospective observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Ii; Jo, Junyoung

    2018-01-01

    Male factor subfertility has increasingly been considered the cause of infertility in couples. Many men with male infertility have sperm problems such as oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, or teratozoospermia. Because abnormal semen parameters are idiopathic to some extent, no standard therapy has been established to date. Herbal medicine has been reported to have beneficial properties in the treatment of subfertility, especially in improving semen quality both in vivo and in human studies. Therefore, we intend to investigate the effectiveness and safety of treatment using Korean medicine (KM) for infertile male patients with poor semen quality.This will be a single-center, prospective, case-only observational pilot study. About 20 male patients with infertility who visit Conmaul Hospital of Korean Medicine will be recruited. We will follow the standard treatment protocol, which has shown good results in the treatment of male infertility. The protocol is composed mainly of a 10-week herbal decoction treatment; acupuncture and/or pharmacopuncture are added when needed. Semen samples, quality of life, and the scrotal temperatures of infertile men will be observed before and after the 10-week treatment with KM.The study has received ethical approval from the Public Institutional Review Board (approval number: P01-201708-21-008). The findings will be disseminated to appropriate audiences via peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. Korean Clinical Trial Registry (CRIS), Republic of Korea: KCT0002611.

  9. Treatment planning for SBRT using automated field delivery: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Timothy A.; Owen, Dawn; Brooks, Cassandra M.; Stenmark, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning and delivery can be accomplished using a variety of techniques that achieve highly conformal dose distributions. Herein, we describe a template-based automated treatment field approach that enables rapid delivery of more than 20 coplanar fields. A case study is presented to demonstrate how modest adaptations to traditional SBRT planning can be implemented to take clinical advantage of this technology. Treatment was planned for a left-sided lung lesion adjacent to the chest wall using 25 coplanar treatment fields spaced at 11° intervals. The plan spares the contralateral lung and is in compliance with the conformality standards set forth in Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group protocol 0915, and the dose tolerances found in the report of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 101. Using a standard template, treatment planning was accomplished in less than 20 minutes, and each 10 Gy fraction was delivered in approximately 5.4 minutes. For those centers equipped with linear accelerators capable of automated treatment field delivery, the use of more than 20 coplanar fields is a viable SBRT planning approach and yields excellent conformality and quality combined with rapid planning and treatment delivery. Although the case study discusses a laterally located lung lesion, this technique can be applied to centrally located tumors with similar results

  10. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  11. Treatment of lifelong vaginismus in traditional Islamic couples: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasan, Aziz; Akdeniz, Nurten

    2009-04-01

    As sexual values and the meaning of sexuality are culturally dependent, the efficacy of sex therapy models may not necessarily be similar across cultures. The aim was to address two questions; the first was to identify whether a group of patients with lifelong vaginismus living in traditional Islamic culture benefited from the sex therapy. The second question addressed was how Muslim culture affects sex therapy in the treatment of vaginismus. Data were obtained from all patients with lifelong vaginismus who attended an outpatient clinic in the course of 1 year. Forty-four couples were investigated in the initial session. Thirty-six couples who completed the treatment were assessed after 3 months. In the final evaluation, pleasurable full vaginal penetration after active penile insertion was accepted as a successful outcome treatment for the present study. In the study, 36 patients who had completed treatment were determined, 29 of whom had successful outcome of treatment, while eight dropped out. The model building process variable resulted in "married by matchmaker without consent (OR = 0.060, CI = 0.046-0.771, P = 0.031)" and "not allowing pelvic examination (OR = 0.124, CI = 0.016-0.941, P = 0.044)" as negative predictors for successful outcome of treatment. Sex therapy is a feasible method of treatment for vaginismus within the cultural environment investigated, although some modifications may be needed in some setting such as for those married by matchmaker without their consent.

  12. Case Study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy Therpy of the Tarsal tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Na-ra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : In order to estimate clinical effects of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy therapy of Tarsal tunnel Syndrome Methods : From 5th November, 2008 to 8th November, 2008, 1 male patient diagnosed as Tarsal tunnel syndrome(clinical diagnosed was treated with general oriental medicine therapy (acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, physical therapy, herbal medication and acupotomy. Results : The patient's Rt foot paresthesia, pain were remarkably improved. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acuputomy therapy has notable effect in improving symptoms of tarsal tunnel syndrome. as though we had not wide experience in this treatment, more research is needed.

  13. A mindful eating group as an adjunct to individual treatment for eating disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Natasha S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention using the EAT-26. Significant reductions were found on all subscales of the EAT-26 with large effect sizes. No significant differences were identified between eating disorder diagnoses. Results suggest potential benefits of an adjunct mindfulness group intervention when treating a variety of eating disorders. Limitations are discussed.

  14. Comparisons of treatment means when factors do not interact in two-factorial studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei; Carroll, Raymond J.; Harden, Kathryn K.; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-01-01

    Scientists in the fields of nutrition and other biological sciences often design factorial studies to test the hypotheses of interest and importance. In the case of two-factorial studies, it is widely recognized that the analysis of factor effects is generally based on treatment means when the interaction of the factors is statistically significant, and involves multiple comparisons of treatment means. However, when the two factors do not interact, a common understanding among biologists is that comparisons among treatment means cannot or should not be made. Here, we bring this misconception into the attention of researchers. Additionally, we indicate what kind of comparisons among the treatment means can be performed when there is a nonsignificant interaction among two factors. Such information should be useful in analyzing the experimental data and drawing meaningful conclusions.

  15. Treatment Study Plan for Nitrate Salt Waste Remediation Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The two stabilization treatment methods that are to be examined for their effectiveness in the treatment of both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt wastes include (1) the addition of zeolite and (2) cementation. Zeolite addition is proposed based on the results of several studies and analyses that specifically examined the effectiveness of this process for deactivating nitrate salts. Cementation is also being assessed because of its prevalence as an immobilization method used for similar wastes at numerous facilities around the DOE complex, including at Los Alamos. The results of this Treatment Study Plan will be used to provide the basis for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit modification request of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit for approval by the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the proposed treatment process and the associated facilities.

  16. Patient-Controlled Biofeedback Device for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damin, Daniel C; Hommerding, Felipe; Schirmer, Delber; Sanches, Paulo R S; Silva Junior, Danton P; Müller, André F; Thome, Paulo R O

    2017-06-01

    Although biofeedback has been used as a first-line therapy for fecal incontinence, it is known to be time consuming and demands attendance to a hospital during the whole period of treatment. In this study, we describe a new biofeedback device specifically developed for home treatment of fecal incontinence, which consists of a microprocessor controlled unit able to register and store the anal pressure waves corresponding to exercises performed by patients at home. In order to test the new device, a pilot study including ten patients with fecal incontinence was conducted. Evaluation of patients before and after the biofeedback training showed significant improvement in manometric and clinical parameters of anal continence. The new method may improve compliance of patients with the training program and reduce their need to be supervised during the treatment. It might represent a new alternative for the treatment of fecal incontinence.

  17. Comparisons of treatment means when factors do not interact in two-factorial studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei

    2011-05-06

    Scientists in the fields of nutrition and other biological sciences often design factorial studies to test the hypotheses of interest and importance. In the case of two-factorial studies, it is widely recognized that the analysis of factor effects is generally based on treatment means when the interaction of the factors is statistically significant, and involves multiple comparisons of treatment means. However, when the two factors do not interact, a common understanding among biologists is that comparisons among treatment means cannot or should not be made. Here, we bring this misconception into the attention of researchers. Additionally, we indicate what kind of comparisons among the treatment means can be performed when there is a nonsignificant interaction among two factors. Such information should be useful in analyzing the experimental data and drawing meaningful conclusions.

  18. Predictors of antiviral treatment initiation in hepatitis C virus-infected patients: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Obel, N; Christensen, P B

    2009-01-01

    Predictive factors for initiation of antiviral therapy in chronically infected hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine predictive factors for initiation of treatment with standard or pegylated interferon either alone or combined...... with ribavirin. A Danish cohort of individuals chronically infected with HCV was used and observation time was calculated from the date of inclusion in the cohort to date of death, last clinical observation, 1 January 2007, or start of HCV antiviral treatment in treatment-naïve patients. Kaplan-Meier survival...... analysis was used to construct time to event curves. Cox regression was used to determine the incidence rate ratios as estimates of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 1780 patients were enrolled in the study. The cumulative chance of treatment initiation over 5 years was 33...

  19. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17?75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign?, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengt...

  20. The Study of Environmental Pollution by the Waste of Drinking Water after the Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Hasani; , F. Sallaku; , N. Balaj; , S. Kadiri; , I. Lushi; , G. Hodolli

    2016-01-01

    In this study are presented the results of the radiation dose level of some radionuclide of waste during and after the treatment of drinking water, in the Water Treatment Plant - Shajkoc, Podujevo, Regional Water Company J.S.C.K.U.R."Pristina"- Kosovo. Samples were taken from the above mentioned locations and are treated in terms of physic-chemical in the Centre for Nuclear Applied Physics in Tirana. The Field measurements were carried out by the detector: Gamaspectrometer Gr-130; I...

  1. Hyperthyroidism treatment by iodine 131: about a study on 270 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    This study constitutes a starting point for a thought about the use of iodine 131 in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The therapies are different depending on the teams, for the iodine 131 activities to deliver and their calculation modes; The use of synthesis anti-thyroid drugs before therapy is discussed. The radiation protection is an important factor in the decision of a metabolic radiotherapy. The indications of the treatment by radioactive iodine are different in Europe and in Usa. (N.C.)

  2. Reducing procrastination using a smartphone-based treatment program: A randomized controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Aljoscha Lukas; Matthias Berking

    2018-01-01

    Background: Procrastination affects a large number of individuals and is associated with significant mental health problems. Despite the deleterious consequences individuals afflicted with procrastination have to bear, there is a surprising paucity of well-researched treatments for procrastination. To fill this gap, this study evaluated the efficacy of an easy-to-use smartphone-based treatment for procrastination. Method: N=31 individuals with heightened procrastination scores were randomly a...

  3. Treatment of urinary incontinence in women in general practice: observational study.

    OpenAIRE

    Seim, A.; Sivertsen, B.; Eriksen, B. C.; Hunskaar, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine what is attainable when treating urinary incontinence in women in general practice. DESIGN--Observational study with 12 months' follow up. Interview and clinical examination before, during, and after treatment of women seeking help for urinary incontinence in general practice. SETTING--General practice in the rural district of Rissa, Norway. SUBJECTS--105 women aged 20 or more with urinary incontinence. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with pelvic floor exercises, electrostimula...

  4. A survey of orthodontists’ perspectives on the timing of treatment: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shayea, Eman I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to outline orthodontists’ perspectives at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment and also sought to assess the relationship between orthodontists’ views and their genders, types of practice, and experience levels. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent electronically to 165 practicing orthodontists at different regions in Saudi Arabia. The orthodontists were asked to consider at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment for a chil...

  5. Hypertension: adherence to treatment in rural Bangladesh – findings from a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Khanam, Masuma Akter; Lindeboom, Wietze; Koehlmoos, Tracey Lynn Perez; Alam, Dewan Shamsul; Niessen, Louis; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Poor adherence has been identified as the main cause of failure to control hypertension. Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment is a significant cardiovascular risk factor, which often remains unrecognized. There are no previous studies that examined adherence with antihypertensive medication or the characteristics of the non-adherent patients in Bangladesh.Objective: This paper aims to describe hypertension and factors affecting adherence to treatment among hypertensive per...

  6. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhtej Sahni

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  7. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability: results from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Arnold, L Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychaitry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The treatment of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in China: a study comparing expectations and treatment satisfaction in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Xudong, Zhao; Anselm, Kathrin; Kern, Stephanie; Wirsching, Michael; Schaefert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) in China. This study investigates the treatment expectations and treatment satisfaction of patients with MUS in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In a cross-sectional survey, n = 96 (10.3%) out of 931 participating patients were screened positive for multiple somatoform symptoms. These patients answered questionnaires concerning symptom duration, number of doctor visits, functional impairment, emotional distress, treatment expectations, treatment satisfaction, and empathy in the consultation. The physicians filled in a questionnaire about applied or recommended treatment. Most of the patients from psychosomatic medicine wanted psychotherapy. In TCM, 55% of the patients had already received TCM treatment and most of them wanted to continue TCM treatment. Patients in biomedicine did not express clear expectations; most of them had had no previous treatment. A combination of treatment methods was most prevalent in biomedicine in comparison to psychosomatic medicine and TCM. The outcome from the patients' point of view was significantly better in TCM than in psychosomatic medicine and biomedicine. Psychosomatic medicine's strength was the empathetic physician-patient interaction. From a biopsychosocial perspective, these results suggest that various treatment approaches with various emphases can be effective depending on the patient's complaints, his illness beliefs, and what the physician offers. The results will be verified in a larger multicenter longitudinal study.

  9. Systemic barriers accessing HIV treatment among people who inject drugs in Russia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Achieving 'universal access' to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with people living with HIV with current or recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts were analysed thematically, and supplemented here with an illustrative case study. Three core themes were identified: 'labyrinthine bureaucracy' governing access to ART; a 'system Catch 22' created by an expectation that access to ART was conditional upon treated drug use in a setting of limited drug treatment opportunity; and 'system verticalization', where a lack of integration across HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and drug treatment compromised access to ART. Taken together, we find that systemic factors play a key role in shaping access to ART with the potential adverse effects of reproducing treatment initiation delay and disengagement from treatment. We argue that meso-level systemic factors affecting access to ART for PWID interact with wider macro-level structural forces, including those related to drug treatment policy and the social marginalization of PWID. We note the urgent need for systemic and structural changes to improve access to ART for PWID in this setting, including to simplify bureaucratic procedures, foster integrated HIV, TB and drug treatment services, and advocate for drug treatment policy reform.

  10. Lived experiences of breast cancer survivors after diagnosis, treatment and beyond: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Faustine; Jeanetta, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors has increased since 1990 due to advances in biomedical technology that lead to an increase in early diagnosis and treatment. Research on survivorship has focused on the psychological and treatment aspects of the disease. The goal of this study was focused on exploring the lived experiences of breast cancer survivors from diagnosis, treatment and beyond. To understand the lived experiences of women who are breast cancer survivors. A purposive sampling strategy was used to recruit participants from two Missouri cancer centres. A total of 15 women breast cancer survivors were interviewed. Three major themes emerged that described the lived experiences of the women. These were factors from the diagnosis and treatment management impacting survivorship, relationship and support system and implication of survivorship. Participants noted that coping with the diagnosis and treatment was a stressful journey and required lots of adjustment and changes. Some developed various techniques such as journaling their activities which provided comfort. In addition, support from family was shared as the key which gave them strength and courage through the different stages of treatment. However, they found it difficult to articulate what survivorship meant. Using in-depth interview techniques, this study shed light on the experiences of women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and have completed treatment. They acknowledged frustration with their diagnosis and body changes. Support received from family and friends helped them cope through their treatment. However, they felt abandoned once the treatment phase was over and were uncertain what survivorhood meant to them. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physical comorbidity and 12-week treatment outcomes in Korean patients with depressive disorders: the CRESCEND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Stewart, Robert; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Yang, Su-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2011-11-01

    Physical and depressive disorders frequently co-occur, but effects of physical health on depression treatment outcomes have received little research. This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes between people with depressive disorder with and without comorbid physical disorders. A Korean nationwide sample of 723 people with depressive disorder initiated on antidepressant treatment, and re-evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks later. Assessment scales for evaluating depressive symptoms (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), global severity (CGI-s), and functioning (SOFAS) were administered at baseline and every follow-up visit. Achievement of remission or response was defined only when these were maintained to the 12 weeks study endpoint or to the last follow-up examination, if earlier, with the date of the first observed remission point applied as the timing of remission. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Of the sample, 247 (34%) had at least one physical disorder. This was associated with lower socioeconomic status and more severe depressive symptoms at baseline, but was not associated with any treatment related characteristics including antidepressant type and regimen, concomitant medications, side effects, and duration of treatment period. After adjustment, patients with physical comorbidity responded more slowly and less often - particularly in domains of anxiety, global severity, and functioning (all p-values depressive disorders in people with physical comorbidity. Future comparative studies between conventional and integrated treatment approaches are indicated for depressive disorders with physical comorbidity. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Collagen powder dressing in the treatment of pressure ulcer. Multicenter comparative study assessing effectiveness and cost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Torra, Joan-Enric; Soldevilla Agreda, J Javier; Martínez Cuervo, Fernando; Rueda López, Justo

    2002-09-01

    Pressure ulcers are lesions that usually occur to people to whom the social and economical repercusions are quite serious. Although present treatments with moisture cure dressings are efficient and have a lot of advantages than traditional cure, they do not solve the problem in a significant group of patients, whose ulcers do not heal or need a much longer treatment. Collagen dressings represent an important improvement, since collagen is a key element for wound scarring. We conducted a prospective, comparative and multicentrical study with Catrix, using as a control the same lesion. We compared pressure ulcers that had been previously treated on an average of 6 months without success with Catrix treatment within 7 weeks. We compared different variables, efficacy, opinion on the use of Catrix and economic cost. We included 104 pressure ulcers that fulfilled the inclusion requirements in the study. Three of them were excluded from the efficiency analysis because of a lack of data since they passed away 7 weeks later. We performed a statistical analysis on all the ulcers (GT) and we also analyzed the pressure ulcer subgroup (SG) included in this study because of a deterioration or a stagnation of the lesion despite previous treatments. Seven weeks after the beginning of the treatment with Catrix the healing or the stage change was observed in 73.3% of lesions of GT group and in 77.8% of lesions of SG group (p cost and nursing cost from all the lesions that scarred within 7 weeks (n = 39) with previous treatment was 17.234, 10 euros and 10.920 euros with Catrix. The average material cost per lesion used in the previous treatments was 441.9 euros and 280 euros with Catrix. These results prove that the treatment with Catrix significantly reduces the treatment length and therefore leads to a reduction of the sanitary cost in this kind of patients. Adding Catrix to the pressure ulcers treatment helps to increase significantly the scarring and improvement percentage of

  13. Thermal treatment technology study and data base for Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Steverson, E.M.; Balo, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a wide variety of waste streams that must be treated to meet various regulations before final disposal. One category of technologies for treating many of these waste streams is thermal treatment. A study of known thermal treatment technologies was conducted to aid DOE in the development of strategies to meet its waste management needs. The study was specifically addressed to mixed waste, but it is also applicable to hazardous and radioactive wastes. The data collected in the study, along with other waste management data, are being included in a comprehensive data base that DOE is developing. 3 refs., 1 fig

  14. A Study of the Effect of Age of Onset of Treatment on the Observed Development of Down's Syndrome Babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M. T.; Menendez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Studied how early treatment affected the development of a sample of 30 Down syndrome babies incorporated into the study at different ages. Found that development quotients descended significantly at 18 months of age as the period in treatment shortened. (AJH)

  15. Response to Various Treatments in the Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B; A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common chronic viral infections worldwide, especially in developing countries. The insufficient treatment of the disease increases the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which impose heavy costs to the patient and the society. Different studies evaluated several protocols for the treatment of the disease. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the response rate of the different treatments in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 89 patients with CHB who were referred to Infectious Diseases Clinics during 2004 to 2009 were studied. Serological and biochemical outcomes to the different treatments were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results CHB was more frequent in men (74.2% than women (25.8%. The mean age of the patients was 36 ± 1.36 years. Fifty-three patients (59.6% had active CHB while 36 (40.4% were asymptomatic carriers. Serologic and biochemical responses to the treatment were 50% and 69.44%, respectively. However, 50% of the patients with positive HBeAg showed serologic response to the treatment, 37.5% showed HBeAb as well as reduced amounts of HBeAg, and 12.5% just showed reduced amounts of HBeAg. Patients treated by lamivudine showed the highest serologic response rate (75%. Conclusions Serologic and biochemical response to the different treatments in the patients were better than other similar studies. Besides, it is recommended to begin antiviral therapy against CHB infection with lamivudine alone as a first-line therapy.

  16. Short-term cognitive behavioral partial hospital treatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Edmund C; Christopher, Michael; Jacob, Karen; Guillaumot, Julien; Burns, James P

    2007-09-01

    Brief, cost-contained, and effective psychiatric treatments benefit patients and public health. This naturalistic pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 2-week, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) oriented partial hospital program. Study participants were 57 patients with mood, anxiety, and/or personality disorders receiving treatment in a private psychiatric partial hospital (PH) setting. A flexible treatment model was used that adapts evidence-based CBT treatment interventions to the PH context with emphases on psychoeducation and skills training. Participants completed self-report measures at admission and after 1 and 2 weeks, to assess stabilization and functional improvements, with added attention to the acquisition of cognitive and behavioral skills. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analyses of variance and correlation. Participants reported a decrease in symptoms and negative thought patterns, improved satisfaction with life, and acquisition and use of cognitive and behavioral skills. Skill acquisition was correlated with symptom reduction, reduced negative thought patterns, and improved satisfaction with life. Results of this pilot study suggest that a 2-week PH program can be effective for a heterogeneous patient population with mood, anxiety, and/or personality disorders. These findings are promising given the prevalence of treatments of such brief duration in private sector PH programs subject to the managed care marketplace. Future studies are planned to test this flexible PH treatment model, with particular attention to the effectiveness of the CBT approach for the treatment of different disorders and to whether effectiveness is sustained at follow-up. Further study should also examine whether skill acquisition is a mechanism of change for symptom reduction and functional improvements.

  17. [Treatment of interstitial cystitis by intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid: A prospective study on 31 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Agt, S; Gobet, F; Sibert, L; Leroi, A-M; Grise, P

    2011-03-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of hyaluronate acid instillation for treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). From March 2008 to May 2009, a prospective study included 31 patients. We used the new definition of IC established by the ICS in 2002. Patients have a urinalysis, a cystoscopy, a hydrodistension test and bladder biopsies. The urodynamic evaluation was not systematic. Patients received weekly six instillations of 40mg (50ml) intravesical hyaluronate acid. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of treatment with two specific questionnaires of interstitial cystitis filled before and after 6 weeks of treatment: the O'Leary-Sant and Pelvic pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF). Four groups were defined: good response, partial response, poor response and no response. They were composed by 14 patients (45%), two (7%), seven (22%) and eight patients (26%). We obtained 52% positive response (good response and partial response) after 6 weeks of treatment. Patients with cystoscopy and histology abnormal had a response rate of 60%. No serious side effects were observed. Hyaluronate acid has a place in the treatment of interstitial cystitis with an efficiency comparable to other treatments and good tolerance. The response rate to treatment can be improved by better selection of patients, particularly those having a cystoscopy and histology abnormal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of enamel demineralization during orthodontic treatment: an in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichu, Yashodhan M; Kamat, Nandini; Chandra, Pavan Kumar; Kapoor, Aditi; Razmus, Thomas; Aravind, N K S

    2013-01-01

    Enamel demineralization is considered to be the most prevalent and significant iatrogenic effect associated with fixed orthodontic treatment and can seriously jeopardize both tooth longevity and dental esthetics. This in vitro study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of four different commercially available surface treatment medicaments for the inhibition of enamel demineralization. Seventy-five intact maxillary premolars extracted from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were divided into five equal groups and were subjected to one of the following protocols: no treatment (control group) or treatment with one of the following four medicaments: fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector [FP]), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (GC Tooth Mousse [TM]), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (SHY-NM), and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (GC Tooth Mousse Plus [TMP]). All the teeth were subjected to ten Cate demineralization solution?for 96 hours and subsequently evaluated under polarized light microscopy to obtain the mean depths of enamel demineralization. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni comparison tests were used to obtain statistically significant differences between the five different groups at P < .05. All four surface treatment medicaments provided statistically significant reduction in the depths of enamel demineralization as compared with the control group. FP provided the greatest protection of enamel surface in terms of reduction of lesion depth, followed by TMP, SHY-NM, and TM. The use of these commercially available medicaments could prove to be beneficial for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and who are at a risk for developing enamel decalcification.

  19. Reasons of repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, J; Bagher, S; Felemban, O; Rich, A; Loo, C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this chart review study was to investigate the common factors that exist in paediatric patients requiring a repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA2) within four years after the initial dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA1). The Electronic Health Records of one to 12 year-old children who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) between April 2004 and October 2009 were identified and analysed by a single examiner. Children who had GA2, within a four year period following GA1 were categorised as cases. Children who had only one dental treatment under GA were considered the control pool. Each case was matched to three controls based on sex and age range at GA1 of ± 6 months. Other recorded variables included: date of birth, date of GAs (GA1 and GA2 for cases; GA1 for controls), type of payment, dmfs before GA1, dental treatments provided under GA, return of 1-week post-GA1 follow-up, frequency of recare/recall visits following one-year post-GA1 visit and the type and frequency of post GA1 emergency visits. Out of 581 subjects, 29 (4.99%) cases were matched to 87 controls. Medically compromised patients had four times the risk of GA2. At GA1, cases received statistically significant less sealants (p=0.026), less extractions (pdental treatment under general anaesthesia were more likely to have a repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia within 4 years.

  20. Study about the integrated treatment of chemical and radioactive effluents, introducing the zero release concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierzwa, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    An Integrated System to the treatment of Chemical and Radioactive Effluents to the Centro Experimental Aramar is proposed and evaluated, introducing the Effluent Zero Release concept, where factors related to the environmental regulation in vigor in the country, as well as the availability of hydrological resources in the place where CEA have been implanted, are considered. Through a literature analysis of the main effluents treatment techniques available nowadays and after a case of study selection, take into account two industrial installations that will be implanted at CEA, it was defined an arrangement to compose the Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents, focusing the Zero Release concept consolidation. A defined arrangement uses a combination among three treatment processes, it means chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis and evaporation, that were experimentally evaluated. The proposed arrangement was evaluated using synthetic effluents, that were prepared based on data from literature and conception documents of the installation considered in this work. Three kinds of effluents were simulated, one arising from a nuclear reactor laundry, one arising from the water refrigeration system and demineralized water production to the nuclear reactor and the other one arising from a nuclear material production laboratory. Each effluent were individually submitted to the selected treatment processes, to get the best operational conditions for each treatment process. The results got during the laboratory assays show that the proposed Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents is feasible, consolidating the Effluent Zero Release concept, which is the proposition of this work. (author)

  1. A qualitative study of determinants of PTSD treatment initiation in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Nina A; Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Spoont, Michele; Murdoch, Maureen; Parker, Louise E; Chiros, Christine; Rosenheck, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Although there are effective treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), many PTSD sufferers wait years to decades before seeking professional help, if they seek it at all. An understanding of factors affecting treatment initiation for PTSD can inform strategies to promote help-seeking. We conducted a qualitative study to identify determinants of PTSD treatment initiation among 44 U.S. military veterans from the Vietnam and Afghanistan/Iraq wars; half were and half were not receiving treatment. Participants described barriers to and facilitators of treatment initiation within themselves, the post-trauma socio-cultural environment, the health care and disability systems, and their social networks. Lack of knowledge about PTSD was a barrier that occurred at both the societal and individual levels. Another important barrier theme was the enduring effect of experiencing an invalidating socio-cultural environment following trauma exposure. In some cases, system and social network facilitation led to treatment initiation despite individual-level barriers, such as beliefs and values that conflicted with help-seeking. Our findings expand the dominant model of service utilization by explicit incorporation of factors outside the individual into a conceptual framework of PTSD treatment initiation. Finally, we offer suggestions regarding the direction of future research and the development of interventions to promote timely help-seeking for PTSD.

  2. Periodontal parameters following orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis: A before-after clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Afshin; Paknejad, Mojgan; Yaghobee, Siamak; Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza Rasouli; Bashizadefakhar, Hourieh; Khatami, Masoomeh; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The success of combined periodontal and orthodontic approach in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis patients with the pathologic extruded anterior teeth is a main concern and stability of the treatment results is an important factor to evaluate the treatment. The present study investigated the periodontal parameters at the end of the orthodontic treatment in patients with the aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with an aggressive periodontal disease, extruded maxillary incisors, infrabony defects and probing depth of ≥5 mm were enrolled in this clinical trial (before, after). After periodontal therapy, orthodontic treatment was carried out for intrusion and alignment of teeth. Plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla, root length (RL), and defect dimensions (depth and width) were examined at the end of treatment and three as well as 6 months afterward. The data were subjected to repeated measure ANOVA test. P orthodontic approach would be a successful treatment with acceptable stability in the case of regular follow-up visits and controlled oral hygiene habits. PMID:24379862

  3. Topical tocopherol for treatment of reticular oral lichen planus: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, C; Vanzo, V; Frigo, A C; Stellini, E; Sbricoli, L; Valente, M

    2017-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessed the efficacy of topical tocopherol acetate compared with placebo in easing oral discomfort in patients with reticular oral lichen planus (ROLP). Thirty-four patients with clinically diagnosed and histologically confirmed ROLP were randomly assigned to two groups, which received first one of two treatments (treatment 1 or 2) for a month, then the other (treatment 2 or 1) for another month, with a two-week washout between them. One treatment contained tocopherol acetate and the other only liquid paraffin. The primary outcome was less discomfort, measured on a visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were as follows: length of striae measured and photographed at each follow-up; surface area of lesions; and a modified Thongprasom score. No statistically significant differences emerged between the two treatments (1 vs 2) in terms of VAS scores (P > 0.05; 0.8624) or length of striae (P = 0.0883). Significant differences were seen for surface area of lesions (P < 0.05, P = 0.0045) and modified Thongprasom scores (P = 0.0052). The two treatments differed only in terms of the surface area of the lesions and Thongprasom scores, not in VAS scores for discomfort or the length of patients' striae. Topical tocopherol proved effective in the treatment of ROLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Clinical study of integrative medicine in treatment of nephropathy: strategy and innovation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping

    2008-05-01

    The author analyzed the main issues in current clinical study of integrative medicine in treatment of renal diseases, and proposed the target-oriented strategy for clinical study of different renal diseases, emphasizing the importance of method improvement for academic innovation.

  5. Criminal Violence and Drug Use: An Exploratory Study among Substance Abusers in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…

  6. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia: an international prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Renteln, Daniel; Fuchs, Karl-Hermann; Fockens, Paul; Bauerfeind, Peter; Vassiliou, Melina C.; Werner, Yuki B.; Fried, Gerald; Breithaupt, Wolfram; Heinrich, Henriette; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Kersten, Jan F.; Verlaan, Tessa; Trevisonno, Michael; Rösch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Pilot studies have indicated that peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) might be a safe and effective treatment for achalasia. We performed a prospective, international, multicenter study to determine the outcomes of 70 patients who underwent POEM at 5 centers in Europe and North America. Three months

  7. Quality of pain treatment after caesarean section : Results of a multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, H.; Gerbershagen, H. J.; Peelen, Linda M.; Aduckathil, S.; Kappen, T. H.; Kalkman, C. J.; Meissner, W.; Stamer, U. M.; Peelen, LM

    BackgroundA large cohort study recently reported high pain scores after caesarean section (CS). The aim of this study was to analyse how pain after CS interferes with patients' activities and to identify possible causes of insufficient pain treatment. MethodsWe analysed pain scores, pain-related

  8. Treatment of the Theme Islam in German Geographical Education: Case Study of Bavarian Geographical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie; Popp, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies have looked at the treatment of Islam and Muslim culture in western curricula. However in Germany, especially in Bavaria where Muslim immigration has been growing since the 1990s, no recent research has covered this theme. As a first step, an exploratory study of Islamic themes in the curricula of Bavarian secondary…

  9. Effect of smoking and periodontal treatment on the subgingival microflora : A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U; Varoufaki, A; Hutter, JW; Xu, L; Timmerman, MF; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Loos, BG

    Background: The effect of smoking on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens after periodontal treatment is still not clear. Some studies found no effect of the smoking status on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens after therapy, whereas others did. The aim of this retrospective study was to

  10. Case studies on the homeopathic treatment of binge eating in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Homeopathy seeks to treat holistically. The role of homeopathy for treating binge eating however remains poorly explored. Objective: To determine the efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment on binge eating. Method: This was a nine-week pilot study using a case study design. Individualized ...

  11. Clinical outcome after standardized versus dosimetric radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism: an equivalence study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, S. W.; Smit, J. W.; de Craen, A. J.; Goslings, B. M.; van Eck-Smit, B. L.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the equivalence in outcome of standardized versus uptake-adjusted dosing of radioactive iodine (131I) for hyperthyroidism. We performed a 1-year follow-up study of two patient cohorts: 326 patients referred for 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism in Graves'

  12. Snake bites in Nigeria: A study of the prevalence and treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Although snake bites occur frequently in Benin City, the prevalence has not been documented. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the orthodox treatment of victims. Methods: The study was retrospective and data on victims of snake bite covering a period of twenty ...

  13. Patients' experiences of dental implant treatment: A literature review of key qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashbour, W A; Rousseau, N S; Ellis, J S; Thomason, J M

    2015-07-01

    To identify and summarise the findings of previous qualitative studies relating to patients' experience of dental implant treatment (DIT) at various stages of their implant treatment, by means of textual narrative synthesis. Original articles reporting patients' experience with dental implant were included. A two-stage search of the literature, electronic and hand search identified relevant qualitative studies up to July 2014. An extensive electronic search was conducted of databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Database and Google Scholar. Included primary studies (n=10) used qualitative research methods and qualitative analysis to investigate patients' experiences with dental implants treatment. While the growing interest in implant treatment for the replacement of missing dentition is evident, it is essential to investigate patients' perceptions of different aspects of implant treatment. This textual narrative synthesis conducted to review qualitative studies which provided insight into patients' experience of two types of implant prostheses namely ISOD (implant-supported overdenture) and FISP (fixed implant supported prostheses). Primary reviewed studies tended to include samples of older patients with more extensive tooth loss, and to focus on experiences prior to and post-treatment rather than on the treatment period itself. Findings across reviewed studies (n=10) suggested that patients with FISP thought of implant treatment as a process of 'normalisation'(1) and believed that such implant restorations could be similar to natural teeth, whereas patients with ISOD focused more on the functional and social advantages of their implant treatment. The growing interest in qualitative research is evident in several branches of clinical dentistry and dental implantology is not an exception. Qualitative studies concerning the patients account of their experience of dental implants is however limited. The aim of this review is to

  14. Hypothyroidism during second-line treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, R; Khalid, N; Daniel, H; Dittmann, H; Reimold, M; Gallwitz, B; Schmotzer, C

    2016-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is an adverse effect of certain anti-tuberculosis drugs. This is a prospective study of the frequency and possible pathomechanisms associated with hypothyroidism due to second-line treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Fifty human immunodeficiency virus negative patients and 20 controls were included. All participants underwent ultrasonography of the thyroid and measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH levels were checked every 3 months. If hypothyroidism was present, T3, T4 and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies were measured, and imaging extended to scintigraphy and repeated ultrasonography. Before treatment, 7 patients (14%) and 1 control (5%) were hypothyreotic. During the first 6 months of treatment, TSH levels increased in 41 patients (82%), 39 (78%) had values above the normal range and 19 (38%) had overt hypothyroidism. As none of the patients had signs of autoimmune thyroiditis, interaction with anti-tuberculosis drugs was assumed to be the cause of hypothyroidism. Nine patients died during treatment, all of whom had developed hypothyroidism. In seven, the metabolic situation at their death was known, and they had become euthyreotic following levothyroxine substitution. TSH levels should be checked before initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment and after 3 and 6 months to start timely replacement of levothyroxine. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact pathomechanism involved in hypothyroidism and whether hypothyroidism can be used as predictor of treatment failure.

  15. Psychological problems associated with diagnosis and treatment of lymphomas. II: Prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlen, J; Maguire, P; Phillips, P; Crowther, D

    1987-10-17

    A prospective study of 120 patients newly diagnosed as having Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was conducted to determine the nature, extent, and timing of the psychiatric and social morbidity associated with the diagnosis and treatment. Patients were interviewed at diagnosis and two, six, and 12 months later by trained interviewers using standardised questionnaires. Psychiatric morbidity was greatest in the three months before treatment, but new episodes of anxiety and depression developed throughout the year of follow up. Altogether 39 patients suffered a depressive illness or anxiety state, or both, and a further 37 experienced borderline anxiety or depression, or both, during the 15 months of assessment. The most common adverse effects of treatment were hair loss, nausea, vomiting, sore mouth, and changes in perception of taste. Toxicity of treatment was associated with psychiatric morbidity. Conditioned responses to chemotherapy were experienced by 32 patients. Social morbidity was low, although difficulties in returning to work and to previous levels of leisure activity were noted. Although most patients were no longer receiving treatment and were free of disease at the one year follow up, 51 patients continued to complain of loss of energy, 24 of loss of libido, 38 of tiredness, 23 of irritability, 18 of poor concentration, and 23 of memory impairment. These results confirm our retrospective study and suggest that a high price is paid for long term survival by a substantial proportion of patients receiving treatment for Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  16. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case-control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078-265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658-415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249-22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default.

  17. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case–Control Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case–control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078–265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658–415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249–22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default. PMID:26839480

  18. Patient-Centered Outcomes and Treatment Preferences Regarding Sexual Problems: A Qualitative Study Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Holly N; Hamm, Megan; Hess, Rachel; Borrero, Sonya; Thurston, Rebecca C

    2017-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in midlife women and can have a significant negative impact on quality of life. Although treatments exist, there is little research on which sexual function outcomes and treatments midlife women prefer. To better understand the sexual function outcomes that were most important to sexually active women 45 to 60 years old and the types of treatments they would prefer from individual interviews and focus groups. Twenty individual interviews and three focus groups (N = 39) were led by a trained facilitator, audio recorded, and transcribed. Two investigators developed a codebook, and the primary investigator coded all data. A second investigator coded five randomly selected interviews to ensure intercoder reliability. Codes relating to outcomes and treatment preferences were examined to identify central themes. The mean age was 52.8 years (range = 45-59). When asked what they would want a sexual dysfunction treatment to do, women sought solutions to specific sexual problems: low desire, vaginal pain and dryness, and decreased arousal or ability to achieve orgasm. However, when asked about the most important aspect of their sex life, most women indicated emotional outcomes, such as enhanced intimacy with their partner, were most important to them. Most women preferred behavioral over pharmaceutical treatments, citing concerns about side effects. These women felt that behavioral treatments might be better equipped to address physical and psychological aspects of sexual problems. This study highlights the importance of considering not only physical but also emotional outcomes when evaluating and treating sexual dysfunction in midlife women. It also emphasizes the importance of developing behavioral treatments in addition to pharmaceutical treatments. By using a qualitative approach, this study allowed women the time and space to speak their own words about their experiences with sexuality at midlife. In addition, different racial and ethnic

  19. A population-based study of stimulant drug treatment of ADHD and academic progress in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Rothman, Kenneth J; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the hypothesis that later start of stimulant treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder adversely affects academic progress in mathematics and language arts among 9- to 12-year-old children. METHODS: We linked nationwide data from the Icelandic Medicines Registry...... and the Database of National Scholastic Examinations. The study population comprised 11,872 children born in 1994-1996 who took standardized tests in both fourth and seventh grade. We estimated the probability of academic decline (drop of ≥ 5.0 percentile points) according to drug exposure and timing of treatment...... start between examinations. To limit confounding by indication, we concentrated on children who started treatment either early or later, but at some point between fourth-grade and seventh-grade standardized tests. RESULTS: In contrast with nonmedicated children, children starting stimulant treatment...

  20. Study of ablation efficiency of 3600 MBq of I-131 in the treatment of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar, A.; Eftekhari, M.; Fard-Esfahani, A.; Beiki, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The basic question of threshold for the ablation of thyroid remnant after surgery remains unanswered. However, radioiodine therapy is still being used as a standard method of treatment. In present investigation treatment responses of 100 patients with thyroid cancer treated with 3600 MBq of 131 I is studied. Response to treatment of 100 patients (33 males and 67 females) was evaluated by serum TSH, Tg levels and areas of thyroid remnant as measured by whole body scan with 131 I performed 6 months after therapy. Treatment response was evident by decreased or lack of 131 I uptake in the thyroid bed and Tg 5 ng/ml. Remnant area was decreased about 74.5% in females and 75.5% in males. No significant difference between sex groups was observed. Because of radiation protection concerns and socioeconomic reasons, lower ablations doses of 131 I ( 1110 MBq) might be as effective, and should be evaluated. (author)

  1. Waiting time disparities in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment: a population-based study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinié, F; Leux, C; Delafosse, P; Ayrault-Piault, S; Arveux, P; Woronoff, A S; Guizard, A V; Velten, M; Ganry, O; Bara, S; Daubisse-Marliac, L; Tretarre, B

    2013-10-01

    Waiting times are key indicators of a health's system performance, but are not routinely available in France. We studied waiting times for diagnosis and treatment according to patients' characteristics, tumours' characteristics and medical management options in a sample of 1494 breast cancers recorded in population-based registries. The median waiting time from the first imaging detection to the treatment initiation was 34 days. Older age, co-morbidity, smaller size of tumour, detection by organised screening, biopsy, increasing number of specimens removed, multidisciplinary consulting meetings and surgery as initial treatment were related to increased waiting times in multivariate models. Many of these factors were related to good practices guidelines. However, the strong influence of organised screening programme and the disparity of waiting times according to geographical areas were of concern. Better scheduling of diagnostic tests and treatment propositions should improve waiting times in the management of breast cancer in France. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of critical dependence of stable phases in Nitinol on heat treatment using electrical resistivity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchil, J.; Mohanchandra, K.P.; Kumara, K.G.; Mahesh, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Phase transformations in 40% cold-worked Nitinol as a function of heat treatment have been studied using electrical resistivity variation with temperature. The stabilisation of austenitic, rhombohedral and martensitic phases is shown to critically depend on the temperatures of heat treatment by the analysis of temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in heating and cooling parts of the cycle. Characteristic values of electrical resistivity of the stable phases are determined. The R-phase has been found to form continuously with increasing heat-treatment temperature starting from room temperature and to suddenly disappear beyond heat-treatment at 683 K. The observed presence or absence of R-phase is confirmed by heat capacity measurements as a function of temperature. (orig.)

  3. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment.

  4. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment

  5. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF A TREATMENT MANUAL FOR VIDEO GAME ADDICTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Hellandsjø; Molde, Helge

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a manualized therapy for video game addiction in 12 males, ages 14-18 yr. The manual was based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, short-term strategic family therapy, solution-focused therapy, and motivational interviewing. Treatment response was reported by the patients, their mothers, and the therapists. The patients reported moderate (but statistically non-significant) improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The mothers, however, reported large effects and statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The therapists reported marked or moderate treatment response in six of the 12 patients. The ratings of change by mothers converged well with the views of change of both the patients and therapists, whereas the convergence of views on change between the two latter sources was far lower.

  6. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) need retrofitting in order to better handle changes in the wastewater flow and composition, reduce operational costs as well as meet newer and stricter regulatory standards on the effluent discharge limits. In this study, we use an optimization based...... technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  7. A Study of Atmospheric Plasma Treatment on Surface Energetics of Carbon Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Jin; Chang, Yong Hwan; Moon, Cheol Whan; Suh, Dong Hack; Im, Seung Soon; Kim, Yeong Cheol

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the atmospheric plasma treatment with He/O 2 was conducted to modify the surface chemistry of carbon fibers. The effects of plasma treatment parameters on the surface energetics of carbon fibers were experimentally investigated with respect to gas flow ratio, power intensity, and treatment time. Surface characteristics of the carbon fibers were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Zeta-potential, and contact angle measurements. The results indicated that oxygen plasma treatment led to a large amount of reactive functional groups onto the fiber surface, and these groups can form together as physical intermolecular bonding to improve the surface wettability with a hydrophilic polymer matrix

  8. A historiographic study of psychiatric treatments in Brazil: mentalism and organicism from 1830 to 1859.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida de Oliveira, Carlos Francisco; Martins Eulálio, Carlos Evandro; Campelo, Viriato; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Dening, Tom

    2016-12-01

    Our aim is to investigate two major tendencies in nineteenth-century Brazilian alienism: mentalism and organicism, by conducting a descriptive study of original Brazilian documents on medical health treatments in the 1830s, 1840s and 1850s. Primary sources of Brazilian alienism were theses, memoirs, official reports, and documents written by clinicians and asylum directors. We analysed early mental treatment in Brazilian lunatic asylums, exploring the relative contributions of two main theoretical orientations: moral treatment (based on Pinel and Esquirol) and 'medical-organicist therapeutic orientation'. Intertextuality was used to assess reports of medical organicist treatment in Brazil. We concluded that contemporaneous textual sources indicate that mid-nineteenth-century alienism in Brazil was predominantly influenced by organicism exported from European countries. Pinel's mentalist view, nevertheless, remained the reference point for clinical issues associated with the doctor-patient relationship. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Preliminary Turkish study of psychiatric in-patients' competence to make treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin Er, Rahime; Sehiralti, Mine; Aker, Ahmet Tamer

    2013-03-01

    Competence is a prerequisite for informed consent. Patients who are found to be competent are entitled to accept or refuse the proposed treatment. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in studies examining competence for treatment in psychiatric patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the decision-making competencies of inpatients with a range of psychiatric diseases. This study was carried out at the psychiatry clinic of Kocaeli University Hospital in Turkey from June 2007 to February 2008. Decision-making competence was assessed in 83 patients using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T). The study groups consisted of patients with mood (39.8%), psychotic (27.7%) and anxiety disorders (18.1%), and alcohol/substance addiction (14.5%). There was a significant relation between decision-making competence and demographic and clinical characteristics. Appreciation of the given information was more impaired in psychotic disorder patients than in other patients, but understanding and reasoning of the given information was similar in all groups. These results reveal the importance of evaluating decision-making competencies of psychiatric patients before any treatment or intervention is carried out to ascertain their ability to give informed consent to treatment. Institutional and national policies need to be determined and put into practice relating to the assessment and management of competence in patients with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. A review of studies concerning treatment adherence of patients with anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lívia Santana1, Leonardo F Fontenelle1–31Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Institute of Community Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil; 3D’Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilObjective: This paper aimed at describing the most consistent correlates and/or predictors of nonadherence to treatment of patients with different anxiety disorders.Method: The authors retrieved studies indexed in PubMed/MedLine, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge using the following search terms: attrition OR dropout OR attrition rates OR patient dropouts OR treatment adherence AND anxiety disorders. Research was limited to articles published before January 2010.Results: Sixteen studies were selected that investigated the impact of sociodemographic, clinical, or cognitive variables on adherence to treatment for anxiety disorders. While no consistent pattern of sociodemographic or clinical features associated with nonadherence emerged, all studies that investigated cognitive variables in panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder found that expectations and opinions about treatment were related to adherence.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that it is essential to consider anxiety disorder patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment strategies to increase their compliance with the therapeutic plan.Keywords: attrition, dropout, OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder

  11. Response of Treatment in Patients with Primary Headaches and Hypertension: A Prospective Observational Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Cüneyt Hocagil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the priority in the treatment of patients with primary headaches accompanied by high blood pressure. In our study, we investigated whether there was a relationship between the decline in headache after treatment and the change in the average arterial pressure. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was performed with 101 patients who were admitted to the hospital emergency department with primary headache accompanied by high blood pressure. After treatment, the decrease in the severity of headaches, mean arterial pressure, and percentage value for the drop of mean arterial pressure were calculated for all patients. Results: In the study, 25 (24.8% patients’ headache decreased 3 levels, 43 (42.6% patients’ headache decreased 2 levels, and 23 (22.8% patients’ headache decreased one level. The mean arterial pressure value at admission was 118.58±12.65 mmHg, and after treatment at the 30th minute decreased to 98.41±13.43 mmHg. Although there was a statistically significant (p0.05 drop in the mean arterial pressure value of the patients with one level decrease in headache severity after treatment. Conclusion: This study showed that when a primary headache, which is often associated with high blood pressure, was treated instead of treating high blood pressure as a secondary cause of headache, blood pressure decreased spontaneously

  12. A comparative study of olanzapine versus asenapine in acute treatment of manic episode: A 3-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Sidana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of bipolar disorders has evolved over the years from conventional mood stabilizers to second-generation antipsychotics. Among the atypical antipsychotics, few have been approved by Food and Drug Administration as treatment of bipolar disorders. Aim: To study the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine and asenapine in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode in a 3-week randomized prospective study. Materials and Methods: A 3-week randomized, prospective, comparative, flexible doses of olanzapine (5-30 mg/day and asenapine (10-20 mg/day for acute treatment of bipolar disorder-current manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms in hospitalized patients. Results: The end-point reduction in mean score of Young Mania rating scale in the olanzapine group was 15.82 in comparison to 6.88 in the asenapine group. Mean score on clinical global impression for bipolar disorder and positive and negative syndrome scale was significantly less in the olanzapine group at the end of the study. 81.81% patients in olanzapine group and 17.60% patients in asenapine group had clinical response. There was significant average weight gain in the olanzapine group - 1.9 kg in comparison to 0.87 kg in asenapine group. Conclusion: The clinical response with olanzapine is significantly higher than the asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms. However, there is significant weight gain in olanzapine-treated patients.

  13. Treatment experiences among LGBT veterans with discrimination-based trauma exposure: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipherd, Jillian C; Ruben, Mollie A; Livingston, Nicholas A; Curreri, Andrew; Skolnik, Avy A

    2018-01-01

    Past research suggests that rates of trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are elevated among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans compared to heterosexual and cisgender veterans. Given higher rates of trauma exposure and PTSD, and the culture associated with the Department of Defense's history of policies excluding LGBT people, it is important to understand if LGBT veterans are seeking PTSD treatment following discrimination-based traumatic events, where they seek care, and if they are satisfied with treatment. This study aimed to describe the experiences of discrimination-based trauma-exposed LGBT veterans' (n = 47) experiences with PTSD treatment, including location of treatment (Veterans Health Administration [VHA] versus non-VHA) and satisfaction with care. The majority of veterans had received a PTSD diagnosis from a health-care provider in their lifetimes (78.72%, n = 37), and over half reported currently experiencing PTSD symptoms. Approximately 47% of LGBT veterans with discrimination-based trauma histories preferred to seek PTSD treatment exclusively at VHA (46.81%) or with a combination of VHA and non-VHA services (38.30%). Veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from VHA reported higher satisfaction ratings (7.44 on 0-9 scale) than veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from outside VHA (5.25 on 0-9 scale). For veterans who sought PTSD treatment at both VHA and non-VHA facilities, there were no significant differences regarding satisfaction ratings for their PTSD treatment in the two settings. Results are discussed in terms of VHA's continued efforts to establish equitable, patient-centered health care for all veterans and the importance of non-VHA facilities to recognize veteran identities.

  14. The effect of targeted treatment on people with patellofemoral pain: a pragmatic, randomised controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Benjamin T; Conaghan, Philip G; Smith, Toby O; Selfe, James; Redmond, Anthony C

    2017-08-04

    Targeted treatment, matched according to specific clinical criteria e.g. hip muscle weakness, may result in better outcomes for people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, to ensure the success of future trials, a number of questions on the feasibility of a targeted treatment need clarification. The aim of the study was to explore the feasibility of matched treatment (MT) compared to usual care (UC) management for a subgroup of people with PFP determined to have hip weakness and to explore the mechanism of effect for hip strengthening. In a pragmatic, randomised controlled feasibility study, 24 participants with PFP (58% female; mean age 29 years) were randomly allocated to receive either MT aimed specifically at hip strengthening, or UC over an eight-week period. The primary outcomes were feasibility outcomes, which included rates of adherence, attrition, eligibility, missing data and treatment efficacy. Secondary outcomes focused on the mechanistic outcomes of the intervention, which included hip kinematics. Conversion to consent (100%), missing data (0%), attrition rate (8%) and adherence to both treatment and appointments (>90%) were deemed successful endpoints. The analysis of treatment efficacy showed that the MT group reported a greater improvement for the Global Rating of Change Scale (62% vs. 9%) and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (-5.23 vs. 1.18) but no between-group differences for either average or worst pain. Mechanistic outcomes showed a greatest reduction in peak hip internal rotation angle for the MT group (13.1% vs. -2.7%). This feasibility study indicates that a definitive randomised controlled trial investigating a targeted treatment approach is achievable. Findings suggest the mechanism of effect of hip strengthening may be to influence kinematic changes in hip function in the transverse plane. This study was registered retrospectively. ISRCTN74560952 . Registration date: 2017-02-06.

  15. Contingency management for tobacco smoking during opioid addiction treatment: a randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscough, Tom Stephen; Brose, Leonie S; Strang, John; McNeill, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Smoking rates among individuals in treatment for opioid addiction are close to five times that of the general public. Moreover, drug-addicted smokers have a premature mortality rate four times greater than drug-addicted non-smokers. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether contingency management (CM) can be successfully added to evidence-based stop smoking treatment in individuals undergoing treatment for opioid addiction and assess preliminary evidence for its impact. Forty tobacco smokers currently undergoing treatment for opioid addiction. Escalating with reset CM as an adjunct to standard smoking cessation treatment. Financial incentives will be administered over a 5-week period for either biochemically verified abstinence from smoking or attendance at the clinic. Participants will be randomised to conditions stratified on current levels of smoking (high or low). To assess whether a CM intervention can be successfully added to standard stop smoking services treatment, in patients undergoing outpatient treatment for opioid addiction. This will be measured as the number of people completing the 5 weeks of the intervention. Ethics approval for the study was granted on the 16 June 2016 by the London-city and east (reference 16/LO/0990) ethics committee. The pilot study was retrospectively registered on clincaltrials.gov in January 2017 (ID: NCT03015597). A SPIRIT checklist and figure are available for this protocol. It is planned that the results of this study will be published in an academic journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A comprehensive review of 46 exercise treatment studies in fibromyalgia (1988–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters-Stone Kerri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this review was to: (1 locate all exercise treatment studies of fibromyalgia (FM patients from 1988 through 2005, (2 present in tabular format the key details of each study and (3 to provide a summary and evaluation of each study for exercise and health outcomes researchers. Exercise intervention studies in FM were retrieved through Cochrane Collaboration Reviews and key word searches of the medical literature, conference proceedings and bibliographies. Studies were reviewed for inclusion using a standardized process. A table summarizing subject characteristics, exercise mode, timing, duration, frequency, intensity, attrition and outcome variables was developed. Results, conclusions and comments were made for each study. Forty-six exercise treatment studies were found with a total of 3035 subjects. The strongest evidence was in support of aerobic exercise a treatment prescription for fitness and symptom and improvement. In general, the greatest effect and lowest attrition occurred in exercise programs that were of lower intensity than those of higher intensity. Exercise is a crucial part of treatment for people with FM. Increased health and fitness, along with symptom reduction, can be expected with exercise that is of appropriate intensity, self-modified, and symptom-limited. Exercise and health outcomes researchers are encouraged to use the extant literature to develop effective health enhancing programs for people with FM and to target research to as yet understudied FM subpopulations, such as children, men, older adults, ethnic minorities and those with common comorbidities of osteoarthritis and obesity.

  17. Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW

  18. The application of the electron beam process in water and wastewater treatment: Fundamental and applied studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.J.; Tobien, T.

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a three phase research project that has as the overall goal to better understand the application of the EB process to water, wastewater and sludge treatment. We have conducted studies to examine bimolecular rate constants for several halogenated methanes, several of which are common disinfection by-products when chlorination is practised. The second phase examines the ability to destroy odour causing compounds, we have selected thioanisole as the model compound, in wastewater and sludge treatment. The third phase of our study is to better understand the destruction mechanism and kinetic modelling of the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether, a common ground water contaminant in the US. We report here several new and re-evaluated bimolecular rate constants and the results of large scale EB treatment of water containing the compounds under study. ( author)

  19. Spasmodic Dysphonia in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment With Botulin Toxin A: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stadio, Arianna; Bernitsas, Evanthia; Restivo, Domenico Antonio; Alfonsi, Enrico; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario

    2018-04-09

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of botulin toxin A in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) affected by spasmodic dysphonia (SD) and to show the safety and effectiveness of this treatment in long-term observation. This is a pilot study on three relapsing-remitting MS patients with SD and their response to botulin toxin A. None of the patients reported dysphagia or other adverse events. Significant improvement was observed in terms of both voice quality and laryngostroboscopy results. The treatment effect was durable for 6-8 months. Botulin toxin A is a safe treatment that can be successfully used to treat SD in patients with MS. Larger studies are necessary to confirm our results. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NAOMI: The trials and tribulations of implementing a heroin assisted treatment study in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laliberté Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease and remains a major public health challenge. Despite important expansions of access to conventional treatments, there are still significant proportions of affected individuals who remain outside the reach of the current treatment system and who contribute disproportionately to health care and criminal justice costs as well as to public disorder associated with drug addiction. The NAOMI study is a Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing injectable heroin maintenance to oral methadone. The study has ethics board approval at its Montréal and Vancouver sites, as well as from the University of Toronto, the New York Academy of Medicine and Johns Hopkins University. The main objective of the NAOMI Study is to determine whether the closely supervised provision of injectable, pharmaceutical-grade opioid agonist is more effective than methadone alone in recruiting, retaining, and benefiting chronic, opioid-dependent, injection drug users who are resistant to current standard treatment options. Methods The case study submitted chronicles the challenges of getting a heroin assisted treatment trial up and running in North America. It describes: a brief background on opioid addiction; current standard therapies for opioid addiction; why there is/was a need for a heroin assisted treatment trial; a description of heroin assisted treatment; the beginnings of creating the NAOMI study in North America; what is the NAOMI study; the science and politics of the NAOMI study; getting NAOMI started in Canada; various requirements and restrictions in getting the study up and running; recruitment into the study; working with the media; a status report on the study; and a brief conclusion from the authors' perspectives. Results and conclusion As this is a case study, there are no specific results or main findings listed. The case study focuses on: the background of the study; what it took to get

  1. Directed funding to address under-provision of treatment for substance use disorders: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Trafton, Jodie; Wallace, Amy; Neuman, Matthew; Pizer, Steven

    2013-07-18

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a substantial problem in the United States (U.S.), affecting far more people than receive treatment. This is true broadly and within the U.S. military veteran population, which is our focus. To increase funding for treatment, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has implemented several initiatives over the past decade to direct funds toward SUD treatment, supplementing the unrestricted funds VA medical centers receive. We study the 'flypaper effect' or the extent to which these directed funds have actually increased SUD treatment spending. The study sample included all VA facilities and used observational data spanning years 2002 to 2010. Data were analyzed with a fixed effects, ordinary least squares specification with monetized workload as the dependent variable and funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics the key dependent variable, controlling for unrestricted funding. We observed different effects of dedicated SUD specialty clinic funding over the period 2002 to 2008 versus 2009 to 2010. In the earlier period, there is no evidence of a significant portion of the dedicated funding sticking to its target. In the later period, a substantial proportion--38% in 2009 and 61% in 2010--of funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics did translate into increased medical center spending for SUD treatment. In comparison, only five cents of every dollar of unrestricted funding is spent on SUD treatment. Relative to unrestricted funding, dedicated funding for SUD treatment was much more effective in increasing workload, but only in years 2009 and 2010. The differences in those years relative to prior ones may be due to the observed management focus on SUD and SUD-related treatment in the later years. If true, this suggests that in a centrally directed healthcare organization such as the VA, funding dedicated to a service is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for increasing resources expended for that service.

  2. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants: A literature study. Pt. 9. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, L.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sterilization of medical aid articles (e.g. catheters, one-way syringes) with ionizing radiation is a successful practice in many countries. During recent years, the results from numerous experiments of radiosterillization of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants have likewise been published. Experience has shown that radiation treatment, in many cases, is leading to transformations of the irradiated substances. In the present part IX of the bibliographic study on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants the results of experiments on ca. 80 substances from 36 different sources have been evaluated. In all parts of the study results of about 560 experiments on 360 substances from 176 different sources are present. (orig.)

  3. A study on the assessment of treatment technologies for efficient remediation of radioactively-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Shin, Seung Su; KIm, Sun Il [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Soil can be contaminated by radioactive materials due to nuclide leakage following unexpected situations during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Soil decontamination is necessary if contaminated land is to be reused for housing or industry. The present study classifies various soil remediation technologies into biological, physics/chemical and thermal treatment and analyzes their principles and treatment materials. Among these methods, this study selects technologies and categorizes the economics, applicability and technical characteristics of each technology into three levels of high, medium and low by weighting the various factors. Based on this analysis, the most applicable soil decontamination technology was identified.

  4. Binocular treatment of amblyopia using videogames (BRAVO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Lam, Carly S Y; Dai, Shuan; Gao, Tina Y; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kowal, Lionel; Parag, Varsha; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Walker, Natalie; Wadham, Angela; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-10-18

    Amblyopia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is characterised by visual impairment in one eye and compromised binocular visual function. Existing evidence-based treatments for children include patching the nonamblyopic eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Currently there are no widely accepted treatments available for adults with amblyopia. The aim of this trial is to assess the efficacy of a new binocular, videogame-based treatment for amblyopia in older children and adults. We hypothesise that binocular treatment will significantly improve amblyopic eye visual acuity relative to placebo treatment. The BRAVO study is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre trial to assess the effectiveness of a novel videogame-based binocular treatment for amblyopia. One hundred and eight participants aged 7 years or older with anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia (defined as ≥0.2 LogMAR interocular visual acuity difference, ≥0.3 LogMAR amblyopic eye visual acuity and no ocular disease) will be recruited via ophthalmologists, optometrists, clinical record searches and public advertisements at five sites in New Zealand, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia. Eligible participants will be randomised by computer in a 1:1 ratio, with stratification by age group: 7-12, 13-17 and 18 years and older. Participants will be randomised to receive 6 weeks of active or placebo home-based binocular treatment. Treatment will be in the form of a modified interactive falling-blocks game, implemented on a 5th generation iPod touch device viewed through red/green anaglyphic glasses. Participants and those assessing outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is the change in best-corrected distance visual acuity in the amblyopic eye from baseline to 6 weeks post randomisation. Secondary outcomes include distance and near visual acuity, stereopsis, interocular suppression, angle of strabismus (where applicable) measured at

  5. [Rational Rehabilitation in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasoa, A T; Appelo, M T

    2007-01-01

    In a randomised controlled study, a type of cognitive behavior therapy known as Rational Rehabilitation proved effective in the treatment of patients with chronic mental symptoms. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a serious illness that occurs frequently and can last for many years. Rational Rehabilitation may also be an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. To investigate, via a pilot study, on the effect of Rational Rehabilitation in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, whether a randomised controlled study is called for. Nineteen patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, who were awaiting regular treatment, opted to join the study. The effect of Rational Rehabilitation was studied in relation to: symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, degree of happiness experienced, autonomy, social support and need for further treatment. results Rational Rehabilitation seems to have a positive effect on all outcome measures, except flashbacks. A controlled study of the effect of Rational Rehabilitation in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder seems justified.

  6. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of prevention and treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Hay, Phillipa; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2018-04-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental disorders and are associated with substantial economic and social burden. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of both preventive and treatment interventions for eating disorder. Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, CINAHL complete, Health Business Elite, Econlit, Health Policy Reference Center and ERIC) were searched for published cost-effectiveness studies of eating disorder prevention and treatment including papers published up to January 2017. The quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. In all, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria as full cost-effectiveness studies and 8 were published since 2011. The studies included three modelled and one trial-based study focused on prevention, two trial-based and one modelled study for anorexia nervosa treatment and three trial-based studies for bulimia nervosa treatment. The remaining studies targeted binge-eating disorder or non-specific eating disorder treatment. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 71% (standard deviation 21%). Eating disorder interventions were mainly cost-saving or more effective and more costly compared to comparators; however, some results did not reach statistical significance. In the two studies that achieved 100% CHEERS checklist, one study reported that a cognitive dissonance intervention might be cost-effective for prevention of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with a 90% participation rate and the second study supported lisdexamfetamine to be cost-effective in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Insufficient evidence for long-term cost-effectiveness (e.g. over 2 years) was found. Cost-effectiveness studies in eating disorder appear to be increasing in number over the last 6 years. Findings

  7. A Study on the Effect of Applying Cast Splints in Treatment of Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarezadeh

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tennis elbow is a common orthopedic disease affecting elbow in middle aged people. Ninety percent of patients are cured using conservative treatments. In the past, emphasis was placed on the use of long arm splints for its treatment; however, recent studies put doubt on the use of this method of treatment for the complications arising from the application of splints. The results of using long arm splints for the treatment of Methods: This was a case series non randomized clinical trial involving 25 patients treated with long arm castsplints, and 25 patients treated without the use of splint. Local corticosteroid injections and oral NSAIDs were administered for all patients. The two groups were compared in the third week, third month and sixth month of their treatment for the presence of local tenderness and pain in passive flexion test of wrist and fingers against resistance. Using SPSS 9.0, data were analyzed via repeated measurements test of ANOVA Results: Patients in case and control groups had mean ages 43.6 ± 7.2 and 43.6 ± 6 years, respectively. Prior to any treatments, all patients in this study suffered from pain and tenderness in the origin of forearm extensor muscles. Their pain exacerbated upon passive flexion of wrist and fingers against resistance. No significant difference was seen in third week, third month and sixth month (P value =0.32, and no significant difference was seen in the results of our tests regarding the presence of local tenderness and pain in passive flexion of wrist and fingers against resistance between the two groups Conclusions: After a follow-up period of six months, this study demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the two groups treated with and without long arm splints. Keywords: Tennis elbow, Conservative treatment, Laterals epicondylitis, Cast splint

  8. Evaluation of treatment response in depression studies using a Bayesian parametric cure rate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santen, Gijs; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    Efficacy trials with antidepressant drugs often fail to show significant treatment effect even though efficacious treatments are investigated. This failure can, amongst other factors, be attributed to the lack of sensitivity of the statistical method as well as of the endpoints to pharmacological activity. For regulatory purposes the most widely used efficacy endpoint is still the mean change in HAM-D score at the end of the study, despite evidence from literature showing that the HAM-D scale might not be a sensitive tool to assess drug effect and that changes from baseline at the end of treatment may not reflect the extent of response. In the current study, we evaluate the prospect of applying a Bayesian parametric cure rate model (CRM) to analyse antidepressant effect in efficacy trials with paroxetine. The model is based on a survival approach, which allows for a fraction of surviving patients indefinitely after completion of treatment. Data was extracted from GlaxoSmithKline's clinical databases. Response was defined as a 50% change from baseline HAM-D at any assessment time after start of therapy. Survival times were described by a log-normal distribution and drug effect was parameterised as a covariate on the fraction of non-responders. The model was able to fit the data from different studies accurately and results show that response to treatment does not lag for two weeks, as is mythically believed. In conclusion, we demonstrate how parameterisation of a survival model can be used to characterise treatment response in depression trials. The method contrasts with the long-established snapshot on changes from baseline, as it incorporates the time course of response throughout treatment.

  9. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Luo, X; Li, Q; Yin, N; Fu, X; Zhang, H; Qi, H

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficiency of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery. Enrolled into this study between September 2011 and September 2013 were 12 patients who had been diagnosed with placenta accreta following vaginal delivery and who had stable vital signs. All patients were treated using an ultrasound-guided HIFU treatment system. As indication of the effectiveness of the treatment we considered decreased vascular index on color Doppler imaging, decrease in size of residual placenta compared with pretreatment size on assessment by three-dimensional ultrasound with Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis, reduced signal intensity and degree of enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging and avoidance of hysterectomy following treatment. To assess the safety of HIFU treatment, we recorded side effects, hemorrhage, infection, sex steroid levels, return of menses and subsequent pregnancy. Patients were followed up in this preliminary study until December 2013. The 12 patients receiving HIFU treatment had an average postpartum hospital stay of 6.8 days and an average period of residual placental involution of 36.9 days. HIFU treatment did not apparently increase the risk of infection or hemorrhage and no patient required hysterectomy. In all patients menstruation recommenced after an average of 80.2 days, and sex steroid levels during the middle luteal phase of the second menstrual cycle were normal. Two patients became pregnant again during the follow-up period. This preliminary study suggests that ultrasound-guided HIFU is a safe and effective non-invasive method to treat placenta accreta patients after vaginal delivery who have stable vital signs and desire to preserve fertility. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Catatonia: Etiopathological diagnoses and treatment response in a tertiary care setting: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Catatonia is caused by a variety of psychiatric and organic conditions. The onset, clinical profile, and response to treatment may vary depending on the underlying cause. The study is an attempt to explore clinical profile, possible etiological correlates with neurotic/psychotic spectrum illnesses, and response to treatment and outcome in patients of catatonia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart analysis by using semistructured data sheet for the analysis of sociodemographic data, clinical profile, precipitating event, and response to treatment in patients with catatonic symptoms admitted to IHBAS (Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, India from January 2009 to December 2010 was undertaken. Results: Catatonia was commonly observed in patients with the following profile - late twenties, female, Hindu religion, urban background, and housewives. Psychotic spectrum disorder (57%, N=35 was the most commonly entertained diagnosis and affective disorder (18%, N=11 being the second common. Thirty four percent of the subjects responded to lorazepam treatment and rest required modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT. Conclusion: Catatonia is more likely to be associated with Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders in Indian settings. Majority of patients responded to therapy either by lorazepam alone or to its augmentation with modified ECT. The study being a retrospective one, the sample being representative of the treatment seeking group only, and unavailability of the follow up data were the limitations of the study

  11. A Comparative Study of Two Techniques of Cryotherapy in the Treatment of Seborrheic Kreatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Seborrheic keratosis is a benign epidermal tumour that is generally pigmented and develop from the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. In this study, two different techniques, spray or probe applications used cryotherapy during the treatment of seborrheic keratosis were compared in terms of efficiency and undesired effects. By this way, it is aimed to find the most suitable technique in seborrheic keratosis treatment. Method: Eighty lesions were included in the study with the diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis. These 80 lesions were divided randomly into two groups of 40; to one of which spray cryotherapy to the second cryotherapy with probe were applied. If clinical improvement were seen treatment was accepted as successful. The patiens were evaluated 2 and 4 months after the therapy for the comparison of two treatment. The patients in both groups scored their pain from 1 to 10 during the cryotherapy.Results: In the study, great success was achieved in the treatment of seborrheic keratosis by using different cryotherapy methods. All the patients in both groups were diagnosed with hipopigmentation. They were found to continue hipopigmentation in the second and fourth months. It was found that the intensity of the pain which those in the probe cryotherapy group suffered was significantly greater statistically.Conclusion: It was concluded that spray cryotherapy should be preferred since it was less painful and required less equipment than probe cryotherapy.

  12. Assessment of UASB-DHS technology for sewage treatment: a comparative study from a sustainability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Namita; Nomoto, Naoki; Tagawa, Tadashi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uemura, Shigeki; Khalil, Nadeem; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2018-04-06

    This paper assesses the technical and economic sustainability of a combined system of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) for sewage treatment. Additionally, this study compares UASB-DHS with current technologies in India like trickling filters (TF), sequencing batch reactor (SBR), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), and other combinations of UASB with post-treatment systems such as final polishing ponds (FPU) and extended aeration sludge process (EASP). The sustainability of the sewage treatment plants (STPs) was evaluated using a composite indicator, which incorporated environmental, societal, and economic dimensions. In case of the individual sustainability indicator study, the results showed that UASB-FPU was the most economically sustainable system with a score of 0.512 and aeration systems such as MBBR, EASP, and SBR were environmentally sustainable, whereas UASB-DHS system was socially sustainable. However, the overall comparative analysis indicated that the UASB-DHS system scored the highest value of 2.619 on the global sustainability indicator followed by EASP and MBBR with scores of 2.322 and 2.279, respectively. The highlight of this study was that the most environmentally sustainable treatment plants were not economically and socially sustainable. Moreover, sensitivity analysis showed that five out of the seven scenarios tested, the UASB-DHS system showed good results amongst the treatment system.

  13. Cost analysis of facial injury treatment in two university hospitals in Malaysia: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperi, Bin Sulong; Ramli, Roszalina; Ahmed, Zafar; Muhd Nur, Amrizal; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Rashdi, Muhd Fazlynizam; Nordin, Rifqah; Rahman, Normastura Abd; Yusoff, Azizah; Nazimi, Abd Jabar; Abdul Rahman, Roselinda; Abdul Razak, Noorhayati; Mohamed, Norlen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Facial injury (FI) may occur in isolation or in association with injuries to other parts of the body (facial and other injury [FOI]). The objective of this study was to determine the direct treatment costs incurred during the management of facial trauma. Materials and methods A prospective cohort study on treatment cost for FIs and FOIs due to road-traffic crashes in two university hospitals in Malaysia was conducted from July 2010 to June 2011. The patients were recruited from emergency departments and reviewed after 6 months from the date of initial treatment. Direct cost analysis, comparison of cost and length of hospital stay, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were performed. Results A total of 190 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 83 (43.7%) had FI only, and 107 (56.3%) had FOI. The mean ISS was 5.4. The mean length of stay and costs for patients with FI only were 5.8 days with a total cost of US$1,261.96, whereas patients with FOI were admitted for 7.8 days with a total cost of US$1,716.47. Costs doubled if the treatment was performed under general anesthesia compared to local anesthesia. Conclusion Treatment of FI and FOI imposes a financial burden on the health care system in Malaysia. PMID:28223831

  14. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy S; Fonseca, Elize M; Bastos, Francisco I; Gruskin, Sofia; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-11-13

    Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r) have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs: patented lopinavir

  15. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005.We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs

  16. Treatment planning for carcinoma of the cervix: a patterns of care study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C. Clifton; Smith, Alfred R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Owen, Jean B.; Brickner, Theodore J.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The Patterns of Care Study (PCS) of patients treated in 1988-89 included 'patterns of treatment planning' for radiotherapy of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A Consensus Committee of radiation physicists and oncologists established current guidelines and developed questionnaires to assess the treatment planning process (i.e., the general structure, methodology, and tools) of institutions involved in the Patterns of Care Study. This paper reports the findings of the assessment. Methods and Materials: The PCS surveyed 73 radiotherapy facilities, of which 21 are academic institutions (AC), 26 hospital-based facilities (HB), and 26 free-standing centers (FS). In total, 242 cases were assessed with 39% from academic centers, 33% from hospital-based centers, and 28% from free-standing centers. The survey collected treatment planning information such as the use of computed tomography (CT), simulation procedure, contouring of patient outline, tumor or target delineation, identification of critical structures, method of dose prescription (point or isodose), etc. Data was also obtained concerning implant boosts, e.g., radioisotope used, use of midline block for external beam treatment, availability of remote afterloader, practice of interstitial implants, combination with hyperthermia, etc. Results: There is a high degree of compliance relative to the basic treatment planning standards. For example, 171 cases (out of 173) from AC and HB institutions included simulation and 169 used port film; for cases from FS centers, 61 out of 69 involved simulation and 66 out of 69 included port film. Most institutions used linacs (231 out of 242); in five cases, Co-60 units and in six cases betatron was used. In terms of treatment planning, 53% used skin contours, but only 14% had target volume delineation, with AC and HB being slightly more conscientious in these efforts. Critical organs did not appear to be explicitly considered in external beam treatment planning, with only

  17. Clinical study of emergency treatment and selective closed reduction for the treatment of supracondylar humerus fracture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of emergency treatment, selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation on the treatment of Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture. Methods: Children who sustained the Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar fractures of humerus treated with selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. They were divided into group A (emergency operation group and group B (selective operation group according to different operation timing. Perioperative situation, blood biochemical parameters, swelling degree and elbow joint function of affected limb were compared between two groups. Results: Operation time for patients of group A was significantly shorter than that of group B [(17.19 ± 2.85 vs. (21.43 ± 3.91 min], and frequency of fluoroscopy during operation of group A was obviously less than that of group B [(6.03 ± 0.95 vs. (7.61 ± 0.92 times]. Swelling index of affected limb in group A at 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after injury was all significantly lower than that in group B [(1.20 ± 0.17 vs. (1.38 ± 0.14, (1.13 ± 0.13 vs. (1.30 ± 0.18, (1.02 ± 0.15 vs. (1.22 ± 0.15]. Hospital for special surgery score at 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 and 4 weeks after removing Kirschner wire had no significant difference between group A and B (88.75 ± 10.18 vs. (89.14 ± 10.52, (94.22 ± 10.85 vs. (93.85 ± 11.08, (95.52 ± 11.27 vs. (95.92 ± 12.19, (95.43 ± 10.96 vs. (96.02 ± 11.38. Contents of serum alanine transaminase, aspertate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin and C-reactive protein in perioperative period had no obvious difference between patients in group A and B. Conclusions: Emergency closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation for Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture in children has less trauma, low swelling degree

  18. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing primary medical treatment with primary trabeculectomy for people with newly diagnosed advanced glaucoma-study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony J; Fernie, Gordon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer M; Garway-Heath, Ted; Sparrow, John M; Vale, Luke; Hudson, Jemma; MacLennan, Graeme; McDonald, Alison; Barton, Keith; Norrie, John

    2017-10-26

    Presentation with advanced glaucoma is the major risk factor for lifetime blindness. Effective intervention at diagnosis is expected to minimise risk of further visual loss in this group of patients. To compare clinical and cost-effectiveness of primary medical management compared with primary surgery for people presenting with advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design : A prospective, pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT). Twenty-seven UK hospital eye services. Four hundred and forty patients presenting with advanced OAG, according to the Hodapp-Parish-Anderson classification of visual field loss. Participants will be randomised to medical treatment or augmented trabeculectomy (1:1 allocation minimised by centre and presence of advanced disease in both eyes). The primary outcome is vision-related quality of life measured by the National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire-25 at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include generic EQ-5D-5L, Health Utility Index-3 and glaucoma-related health status (Glaucoma Utility Index), patient experience, visual field measured by mean deviation value, logarithm of the mean angle of resolution visual acuity, intraocular pressure, adverse events, standards for driving and eligibility for blind certification. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) based on EQ-5D-5L and glaucoma profile instrument will be estimated. The study will report the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of medical treatment against augmented trabeculectomy in patients presenting with advanced glaucoma in terms of patient-reported health and visual function, clinical outcomes and incremental cost per QALY at 2 years. Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study will be the first RCT reporting outcomes from the perspective of those with advanced glaucoma. ISRCTN56878850, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  20. Numerical study of entrainment of the human circadian system and recovery by light treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ho; Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, MooYoung

    2018-05-09

    While the effects of light as a zeitgeber are well known, the way the effects are modulated by features of the sleep-wake system still remains to be studied in detail. A mathematical model for disturbance and recovery of the human circadian system is presented. The model combines a circadian oscillator and a sleep-wake switch that includes the effects of orexin. By means of simulations, we characterize the period-locking zone of the model, where a stable 24-hour circadian rhythm exists, and the occurrence of circadian disruption due to both insufficient light and imbalance in orexin. We also investigate how daily bright light treatments of short duration can recover the normal circadian rhythm. It is found that the system exhibits continuous phase advance/delay at lower/higher orexin levels. Bright light treatment simulations disclose two optimal time windows, corresponding to morning and evening light treatments. Among the two, the morning light treatment is found effective in a wider range of parameter values, with shorter recovery time. This approach offers a systematic way to determine the conditions under which circadian disruption occurs, and to evaluate the effects of light treatment. In particular, it could potentially offer a way to optimize light treatments for patients with circadian disruption, e.g., sleep and mood disorders, in clinical settings.

  1. Assessing methods for dealing with treatment switching in randomised controlled trials: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latimer Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate methods used to analyse the results of clinical trials with survival outcomes in which some patients switch from their allocated treatment to another trial treatment. These included simple methods which are commonly used in medical literature and may be subject to selection bias if patients switching are not typical of the population as a whole. Methods which attempt to adjust the estimated treatment effect, either through adjustment to the hazard ratio or via accelerated failure time models, were also considered. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of each method in a number of different scenarios. Results 16 different scenarios were identified which differed by the proportion of patients switching, underlying prognosis of switchers and the size of true treatment effect. 1000 datasets were simulated for each of these and all methods applied. Selection bias was observed in simple methods when the difference in survival between switchers and non-switchers were large. A number of methods, particularly the AFT method of Branson and Whitehead were found to give less biased estimates of the true treatment effect in these situations. Conclusions Simple methods are often not appropriate to deal with treatment switching. Alternative approaches such as the Branson & Whitehead method to adjust for switching should be considered.

  2. Treatment planning for adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid: a patterns of care study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, Robert W.; Smith, Alfred R.; Coia, Lawrence R.; Owen, Jean B.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Wallace, Marsha; Hanks, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a study of the process of treatment planning and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid in the United States, and to compare survey results to consensus guidelines. Methods and Materials: A consensus committee developed guidelines for the radiotherapeutic management of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid, and also developed a survey form that was used to gather data to evaluate the practice patterns for patients treated in 1989 and 1990 against the consensus guidelines. Seventy-three facilities were randomly selected for site visits from the 1321 radiation therapy facilities in the US: 21 academic, 26 hospital based, and 26 free standing. During the site visits, the radiotherapy records were examined by the surveyor physicist and radiation oncologist to extract and record the required data. Data collected included items related to treatment specific parameters, including treatment planning considerations. Analyses included stratification as to the types of institutions, academic, hospital based, or free standing. Results: For many treatment parameters there are discrepancies between the patterns of practice determined by the surveys and the consensus guidelines for radiotherapy treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid. Significant differences in practice among the stratified institution types were found in only a few parameters

  3. Metastatic breast cancer: do current treatments improve quality of life? A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Amado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In metastatic breast cancer cases, the currently available therapeutic approaches provide minimal improvement in survival. As such, quality of life (QOL becomes one of the main objectives of treatment. It is not known whether current treatments derived from trials improve QOL. The aim was to evaluate changes in QOL among metastatic breast cancer patients receiving treatment derived from trials. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational QOL survey in a tertiary cancer center. METHODS: To evaluate the influence of current treatments on patients' QOL, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied on three occasions: before starting treatment and at the 6th and 12th weeks, to consecutive metastatic breast cancer patients over a one-year period. RESULTS: We found an improvement in QOL in the sample evaluated (n = 40, expressed by changes in the overall SF-36 score (p = 0.002 and the BDI (p = 0.004. Taken individually, the SF-36 components Pain, Social Functioning and Mental Health also improved significantly. Patients with worse initial performance status and secondary symptoms displayed greater improvement than those with better initial performance status and asymptomatic disease (p < 0.001. Patients who received more than one type of therapy showed larger gains than those given only one type (p = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: In our environment, current metastatic breast cancer treatments can improve QOL, especially among symptomatic patients and those with low performance status.

  4. Study on bubble column humidification and dehumidification system for coal mine wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Penghui; Zhang, Meng; Du, Yuji; Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Donghai

    2018-04-01

    Water is important resource for human survival and development. Coal mine wastewater (CMW) is a byproduct of the process of coal mining, which is about 7.0 × 10 10 m 3 in China in 2016. Considering coal mine wastewater includes different ingredients, a new bubble column humidification and dehumidification system is proposed for CMW treatment. The system is mainly composed of a bubble column humidification and dehumidification unit, solar collector, fan and water tank, in which air is used as a circulating medium. The system can avoid water treatment component blocking for reverse osmosis (RO) and multi effect distillation (MED) dealing with CMW, and produce water greenly. By analysis of heat and mass transfer, the effects of solar radiation, air bubble velocity and mine water temperature on water treatment production characteristics are studied. Compared with other methods, thermal energy consumption (TEC) of bubble column humidification and dehumidification (BCHD) is moderate, which is about 700 kJ/kg (powered by solar energy). The results would provide a new method for CMW treatment and insights into the efficient coal wastewater treatment, besides, it helps to identify the parameters for the technology development in mine water treatment.

  5. Treatment delay of bone tumours, compilation of a sociodemographic risk profile: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurr, Christoph; Pippan, Mathias; Stuetzer, Hartmut; Delank, Karl S; Michael, Joern WP; Eysel, Peer

    2008-01-01

    Bone tumours are comparatively rare tumours and delays in diagnosis and treatment are common. The purpose of this study was to analyse sociodemographic risk factors for bone tumour patients in order to identify those at risk of prolonged patients delay (time span from first symptoms to consultation), professional delay (from consultation to treatment) or symptom interval (from first symptoms to treatment). Understanding these relationships might enable us to shorten time to diagnosis and therapy. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 265 patients with bone tumours documenting sociodemographic factors, patient delay, professional delay and symptom interval. A multivariate explorative Cox model was performed for each delay. Female gender was associated with a prolonged patient delay. Age under 30 years and rural living predisposes to a prolonged professional delay and symptom interval. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are required for successful management of most bone tumour patients. We succeeded in identifying the histology independent risk factors of age under 30 years and rural habitation for treatment delay in bone tumour patients. Knowing about the existence of these risk groups age under 30 years and female gender could help the physician to diagnose bone tumours earlier. The causes for the treatment delays of patients living in a rural area have to be investigated further. If the delay initiates in the lower education of rural general physicians, further training about bone tumours might advance early detection. Hence the outcome of patients with bone tumours could be improved

  6. Case studies in residual use and energy conservation at wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a study to document energy conservation activities and their effects on operation costs, regulatory compliance, and process optimization at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS). The purpose of this report is to review the efforts of wastewater treatment Facilities that use residuals as fuels. Case histories are presented for facilities that have taken measures to reduce energy consumption during wastewater treatment. Most of the WWTPs discussed in this report have retrofitted existing facilities to achieve energy conservation. The case studies of energy conservation measures found no effects on the facilities` ability to comply with NPDES permits. Indeed, energy conservation activities enhance environmental compliance in several ways.

  7. Acupuncture for treatment of hospital-induced constipation in children: a retrospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Eric Falk; Findeisen, Annette; Nowak, Andreas; Rüdiger, Mario; Usichenko, Taras Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Acupuncture is a promising option in the treatment of functional bowel disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of acupuncture for the treatment of hospital-induced constipation (HIC) in children. Bilateral stimulation of acupuncture point LI11 was applied in 10 children with HIC using fixed indwelling acupuncture needles (0.9 mm long) before considering starting conventional local constipation therapy with laxative suppositories. The clinical records were studied retrospectively for feasibility, acceptance and effectiveness of acupuncture. Acupuncture was feasible in all children and application of the indwelling needles was tolerated without fear. Side effects were not observed. After a median of 3 days of HIC, all children defaecated within 2 h after LI11 stimulation. No patient required conventional local constipation therapy. Acupuncture for the treatment of HIC is feasible and acceptable. Its effect should be verified in a randomised controlled trial.

  8. Understanding experiences and outcomes in treatment of binge eating disorder and obesity: A mixed method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Lene; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    Background: Binge eating disorder (BED) has recently been recognized as a diagnosis in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders). BED is a severe eating disorder with physical, social and psychological consequences. The prevalence of BED is 2-3% and the majority develop weight problems...... and obesity. Treatment is found effective in reducing eating disorder symptomatology, but rarely leads to weight loss. It is still unknown how the issue of obesity can be addressed in BED treatment without increasing the risk of binge eating relapse. Objectives: The study is an explorative investigation...... of the outcome of a newly developed group based treatment that combines psychotherapy and either weight loss or well-being components for patients with binge eating disorders and obesity. Methods: The study uses a convergent mixed methods design. Qualitative and quantitative data are gathered using in...

  9. Study of the aerobic biological treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben yahmed, Nesrine

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the performance of aerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by a side-stream membrane bioreactor (MBR) with semi-frontal filtration and to evaluate the sludge production generated by this system treatment. The MBR was fed with a flow rate of 5 L/d. The wastewater used in this study was collected from the WWTP Ellouhoum following pretreatment operations. They are characterized by an average total COD concentration of approximately 2 g/L. The mass load applied to the system was 0.18 g COD/gVSS.d. The results show that COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies are respectively estimated at 90.66 pour cent and 92.86 pour cent. Treatment with MBR also allows a total elimination of TSS, fecal coliforms and pathogens. With a total biomass recycling, low sludge yield (Yobs) of 0.106 gTSS/g COD eliminated was obtained.

  10. A pilot study of the effects of behavioral weight loss treatment on fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jennifer R; Anderson, Drew A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have found a relation between weight loss and pain severity in various chronic pain populations. However, there has been little research examining the relation between body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and FMS symptoms and to determine if FMS symptoms would decrease following weight loss. Overweight and obese women participated in a 20-week behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants, on average, lost 9.2 lbs (4.4% of their initial weight), and there were significant pre-postimprovements on several outcome measures. Although weight was not significantly related to pain at baseline, weight loss significantly predicted a reduction in FMS, pain interference, body satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment could be included in the treatment for overweight/obese women with FMS.

  11. Patient preferences for outcomes of depression treatment in Germany: a choice-based conjoint analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Thomas M; Clouth, Johannes; Elosge, Michael; Heurich, Matthias; Schneider, Edith; Wilhelm, Stefan; Wolfrath, Anette

    2013-06-01

    In general, treatment efficacy in depressed patients is evaluated mainly based on the core symptoms of depression. However, patients might consider different outcomes. This study used choice-based conjoint analysis (CBC) to evaluate patient preferences for depression treatment outcomes. Adult subjects from Germany, currently or previously on antidepressant treatment, were presented with 18 pairs of hypothetical treatment outcome scenarios, differing in eight attributes (2-3 factor levels each): depressed mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, loss of energy/fatigue, sleep disturbance, feelings of guilt, depression-related pain, treatment duration, side effects after 2 weeks. Attributes and factor levels were defined by literature review, expert consultations, and in-depth subject interviews. Data were analyzed using multinomial logit modeling; individual part-worth utilities were estimated using hierarchical Bayes routines. Two hundred twenty-seven subjects (89.4% currently treated with antidepressants, 30.0% with depression-related pain) completed the survey. They valued the relative importance of outcomes as follows: loss of energy/fatigue 18.5%, side effects after 2 weeks 14.2%, loss of interest and enjoyment 13.5%, depression-related pain 12.0%, sleep disturbance 12.0%, feelings of guilt 11.5%, treatment duration 9.9%, depressed mood 8.5%. Participants were not required to meet ICD-10 or DSM-IV criteria for depression and had heterogeneous disease severity. CBC analysis was able to reveal patient preferences for outcomes of depression treatment. Subjects valued the ability to cope with activities of everyday living highest. They considered being free of depression-related pain and side effects more important than being free of depressed mood. These findings should be considered when making treatment decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on Spheroidization and Related Heat Treatments of Medium Carbon Alloy Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisha S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medium carbon steels as engineering materials is reflected by the fact that out of the vast majority of engineering grade ferrous alloys available and used in the market today, a large proportion of them are from the family of medium carbon steels. Typically medium carbon steels have a carbon range of 0.25 to 0.65% by weight, and a manganese content ranging from 0.060 to 1.65% by weight. Medium carbon steels are more resistive to cutting, welding and forming as compared to low carbon steels. From the last two decades a number of research scholars reported the use of verity of heat treatments to tailor the properties of medium carbon steels. Spheroidizing is the novel industrial heat treatment employed to improve formability and machinability of medium/high carbon low alloy steels. This exclusive study covers procedure, the effects and possible outcomes of various heat treatments on medium carbon steels. In the present work, other related heat treatments like annealing and special treatments for property alterations which serve as pretreatments for spheroidizing are also reviewed. Medium carbon steels with property alterations by various heat treatment processes are finding increased responsiveness in transportation, aerospace, space, underwater along with other variegated fields. Improved tribological and mechanical properties consisting of impact resistance, stiffness, abrasion and strength are the main reasons for the increased attention of these steels in various industries. In the present scenario for the consolidation of important aspects of various heat treatments and effects on mechanical properties of medium carbons steel, a review of different research papers has been attempted. This review may be used as a guide to provide practical data for heat treatment industry, especially as a tool to enhance workability and tool life.

  13. Study Protocol for a Randomized Double Blind, Treatment Control Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Micronutrient Formula to a Single Vitamin Supplement in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick-Brown, Hannah; Rucklidge, Julia; Blampied, Neville

    2016-12-07

    Background: The recent addition of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (5th ed.) has highlighted the seriousness of this disorder. Many alternatives to psychoactive medication in the form of vitamins, minerals, and plant extracts have been trialled by women seeking a natural treatment approach. We plan to explore whether a well validated micronutrient formula, EMPowerplus Advanced, can outperform a recognized single nutrient treatment, vitamin B6, for the treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Methods: This will be a randomized treatment control study. Eighty women will be recruited and assigned to one of two treatment groups; EMPowerplus Advanced or vitamin B6. Baseline daily data will be collected for an initial two cycles, followed by three months of active treatment. A natural follow up will take place three cycles post treatment. Results: The primary outcome measure will be PMS change scores as based on results from the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP). The number of treatment responders for each of the two groups will yield a comparison score between the two treatments, with participants deemed as a responder if they show a total PMS score improvement of 50% from their baseline scores on the DRSP. Conclusion: If a micronutrient formula proves more effective for treating PMS, not only does it give women suffering from the condition a viable treatment option, but it may also suggest one cause of PMS; that is insufficient minerals and vitamins.

  14. Text Messaging (SMS) Helping Cancer Care in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Treatment: a Pilot Study.

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    Rico, Timóteo Matthies; Dos Santos Machado, Karina; Fernandes, Vanessa Pellegrini; Madruga, Samanta Winck; Noguez, Patrícia Tuerlinckx; Barcelos, Camila Rose Guadalupe; Santin, Mateus Madail; Petrarca, Cristiane Rios; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho

    2017-10-09

    Cancer treatment is an extremely stressful life experience that is accompanied by a range of psychological, social, physical, and practical difficulties. Cancer patients need to receive information that helps them to better understand the disease, assists them in decision-making, and helps them deal with treatment. Patients are interested in receiving such information. The degree of satisfaction with the information received has been associated with positive health outcomes, specifically regarding quality of life, severity of side effects, and psychological well-being. This study investigates a method of guiding cancer patients, in relation to outpatient chemotherapy treatment, using SMS (short message service) text messaging. A smartphone application called cHEmotHErApp was developed, and its primary function is to send out SMS text messages with guidance for self-care and emotional support for oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the acceptance and perception of patients of the receipt of these SMS messages, as well as to evaluate the possible benefits reported by the participants. Adult patients diagnosed with cancer, who started the first outpatient chemotherapy treatment scheme between August and November 2016 at the School Hospital (HE) of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), were invited to participate in this pilot study. In total, 14 cancer patients were adherent to this study. Each of these patients received a daily text message on their cell phone with some guidance on encouraging self-care and emotional support. Patients reported that, because of the SMS text messages they received, they felt more confident in their treatment, felt more supported and encouraged, and that the text messages facilitated self-care. In addition, patients reported that the SMS text messages they received helped them to take better care of themselves and to continue further treatment.

  15. Participation rate of cancer patients in treatment decisions: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cancer is one of the most common diseases and the second reason of death in Iran. Giving decision making authority to patients is one of the fundamental principles of the protection of patients. Patients have rights as consumers of health care services that nurses, physician and other health professionals are responsible for maintaining and protecting it. This study aimed to determine cancer patients’ involvement in treatment decisions making. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out as descriptive-analytic with practical purpose in 2017 in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. The study population included 1,000 patients who had cancer that whom 450 patients were selected by simple random sampling. To measure patient participation in treatment decisions, was used of Levente Kristona standard questionnaire. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed (coefficient = 0.82. For data analysis used of software spss21 with descriptive statistics and chi-square tests Results: among the patients, 197 men (53% and 177 women (47% with a mean age of 31 years were examined. The results of this study showed that the score of mean participation in treatment decisions among the cancer patients was 30 ± 12 and it was in low level. The patients’ participation in treatment decisions had a significant relationship with education level (P = 0.027, however, it was not statistical significant with gender, age, income, occupation and type of cancer and other demographic variables (P> 0.05. Conclusion: In general, that patients' participation in clinical decision making is weak and low. Since patients’ participation in clinical decisions could affect the quality of treatment decisions, therefore, health care providers should attention more to this fact. Also, culturalizating and education according to patients’ knowledge and use of treatment techniques are recommended for clinical decision making promotion