WorldWideScience

Sample records for azoto mineral durante

  1. Produção de azoto mineral durante a compostagem de fracção sólida de chorume da pecuária leiteira intensiva Production of mineral nitrogen during composting of dairy cattle slurry solid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de duas explorações de pecuária leiteira intensiva foi compostada: (i em 2004, sobre o solo, incluindo, ou não, palha, e com diferentes níveis de revolvimento; e (ii em 2005, sobre uma tela de cobertura do solo, com e sem revolvimento, com diferentes coberturas e diferentes volumes. O teor de matéria seca (MS da FSC da primeira exploração (30% apresentou um valor superior, embora o rendimento da máquina separadora da FSC tenha sido inferior (1 m³ hora-1 relativamente ao observado na segunda exploração (4 e 3 m³ hora-1 correspondendo a 22% e 24% de MS, respectivamente, em 2004 e 2005. A FSC1 com 30% de MS atingiu elevadas temperaturas logo após a sua separação mas o mesmo não aconteceu com a FSC2 com menor teor de MS, particularmente quando foi compostada sem palha. O pH da FSC variou entre 8 e 9 durante a compostagem e a razão C/N foi semelhante entre tratamentos para o mesmo período de compostagem. O teor de N-NH4+ foi muito elevado durante a fase termófila da compostagem, após a qual diminuiu, acentuadamente, enquanto que o teor de N-NO3-foi mínimo naquela fase e aumentou após três meses de compostagem. O maior teor de MS inicial da FSC1 em comparação com a FSC2 e a mistura com palha associaram-se a concentrações mais baixas de azoto amoniacal (NNH4+. Considerando estas observações e, ainda, que as elevadas temperaturas durante a compostagem e o pH alcalino da FSC potenciam, eventualmente, a volatilização de amoníaco, a redução deste tipo de perdas de N poderá ser conseguida: (i diminuindo o rendimento da máquina separadora da FSC; (ii misturando a FSC com um material com elevada razão C/N; e (iii diminuindo o número de revolvimentos.Screw pressed dairy cattle slurry solid fraction (CSSF was collected during 2004 and 2005 from two dairy farms with 30% and 22% -24% dry matter (DM content and the effects of covered either with black polyethylene or with polypropylene

  2. Mineralização de azoto de diferentes resíduos orgânicos em incubação laboratorial de longa duração Nitrogen mineralization from different organic residues in long-term laboratory incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Carneiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo do presente trabalho foi determinar, em condições laboratoriais e através de um ensaio de incubação de longa duração (443 dias, a mineralização do N orgânico resultante da incorporação de lamas de depuração, compostado de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU, chorume de bovinos e lamas celulósicas, num Solo Litólico de granito. À excepção das lamas celulósicas (80 kg N ha-1, os resíduos orgânicos foram incorporados em duas doses (80 e 160 kg N ha-1. A avaliação da mineralização do N orgânico dos resíduos foi efectuada através da medição do teor de N mineral acumulado ( N-NH4+ e N-NO3 no solo com resíduo, tendo as amostragens sido efectuadas aos 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 11, 15, 22, 29, 36, 46, 59, 74, 88, 120, 144, 186, 249, 338 e 443 dias após o início da incubação. O chorume e as lamas de depuração foram os correctivos orgânicos que promoveram teores iniciais de N mineral no solo mais elevados, tendo o chorume disponibilizado no final do ensaio, na média das duas doses, 50% do N total incorporado, e as lamas 76%. As lamas celulósicas e o compostado de RSU originaram imobilização de azoto, tendo-se observado esse efeito durante todo o ensaio e por um período de 4-5 meses, respectivamente. Em relação ao N total aplicado, e após 443 di-as de incubação, o tratamento com lamas apresentou uma imobilização de 43%, enquanto que no tratamento com compostado de RSU a mineralização foi de 26%. Os resíduos orgânicos utilizados apresentaram um comportamento muito distinto no que respeita à disponibilização de azoto após a sua incorporação ao solo. Face a essa diferença, a aplicação de chorume e das lamas de depuração deverá ser acompanhada na prática pela redução das adubações azotadas imediatas, enquanto que na utilização de compostado de RSU e, sobretudo de lamas celulósicas, poderse-á impor um reforço da adubação azotada de fundo e de cobertura.The aim of this study was to

  3. Efeito de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos na produção de Azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.: produção de matéria seca e azoto aparentemente recuperado Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers in the ryegrass yield (Lolium multiflorum L.: Dry matter yield and apparent N recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arrobas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o azoto disponibilizado para as plantas a partir de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos, foi instalado um ensaio em vasos com azevém anual. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: Casca de Castanha (CC com 0,6% de azoto (N; Estrume de Bovino (EB, com 2,3% de N; Beira Adubo (BA, um guano comercial com 3,0% de N; Nitrato de Amónio (NA, com 20,5% de N, Entec (En, adubo com um inibidor da nitrificação, com 26% de N; e Fertigafsa (Fg, adubo composto ternário 4-16-12. Estabeleceu-se também uma modalidade Testemunha (T sem N. Todos os fertilizantes foram aplicados em dose equivalente a 200 mg de N por kg da fracção terra fina de um solo com textura franco-limosa, com pH (H2O 5,2 e 27 g kg-1 de matéria orgânica. Em todos os vasos foi aplicada uma solução nutritiva sem N. A sementeira foi efectuada a 1 de Outubro de 2004. Após germinação, foram mantidas 50 plantas por vaso. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada em 6 cortes, entre 9 de Novembro de 2004 e 4 de Agosto de 2005. Foi avaliada a produção de biomassa, o N exportado e o N aparentemente recuperado (NAR. A produção média acumulada de matéria seca variou significativamente entre 1,7 e 4,1 g/vaso em T e NA, respectivamente. A modalidade NA registou a exportação mais elevada (167 mg N/vaso e o maior valor de NAR (64%. Entre os fertilizantes minerais destacou-se o menor valor de NAR associado a En (45%, enquanto que os materiais orgânicos BA e EB tiveram comportamento semelhante entre si (24 e 22%, respectivamente. Nestas condições, os fertilizantes orgânicos (BA e EB e En foram pouco efectivos na libertação de N para a cultura. Os resultados fazem antever dificuldades na gestão destes fertilizantes em culturas anuais de ciclo curto, uma vez que estas podem ficar privadas de N durante fases importantes do seu desenvolvimento.A pot experiment with italian ryegrass was carried out to evaluate the N release from several fertilisers and organic amendments. The

  4. Estudo do ciclo do azoto : Uma Aplicação para o ensino

    OpenAIRE

    Militão, Cristina Maria Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    O ciclo do azoto desempenha um papel fundamental na manutenção do equilíbrio da biosfera. O azoto molecular é o gás mais abundante na atmosfera terrestre, porém, as formas combinadas de azoto são relativamente escassas no solo e na água. O azoto é um constituinte importante de proteínas, ácidos nucleicos e coenzimas. Poucos seres vivos, no entanto, podem usar o azoto atmosférico directamente como fonte de azoto. Assim, a disponibilidade dos compostos azotados nos ecossistemas está largamente ...

  5. Comportamiento de la humedad durante el secado solar del mineral laterítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo L. Rojas-Purón

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En las empresas cubanas del níquel que utilizan el proceso Caron, el contenido elevado de humedad en la material prima mineral incide en el aumento del consumo de combustible en los secadores durante el secado térmico. Se evaluó de forma experimental la humedad durante el secado solar del mineral laterítico a la intemperie. El método de análisis de la humedad utilizado fue el de diferencias de pesadas. Se empleó la regression lineal multiple para establecer los modelos matemáticos de las masas de trabajo. El estudio demostró que los parámetros climatológicos más influyentes en el secado solar del mineral laterítico son la temperatura del medio ambiente, las precipitaciones, la velocidad del viento y la temperatura del punto de rocío, así como que solamente el agua no estructural es la que puede ser eliminada. La humedad se redujo en un 13 %.

  6. O comportamento de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sujeitos a diferentes níveis de azoto e potássio Influence of nitrogen and potassium on Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mother plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos sistemas de propagação vegetativa de plantas o estado nutricional dos pés-mãe é determinante para o sucesso do enraizamento das estacas que estes originam. Como tal, a recente implementação, em Portugal, da técnica de propagação vegetativa de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus por enraizamento de estacas caulinares, justifica plenamente o estudo da fertilização de pés-mãe desta espécie e o seu efeito no enraizamento das estacas. Assim, e com o objectivo de avaliar o efeito do azoto e do potássio no crescimento de pés-mãe de E. globulus e no enraizamento das estacas obtidas, foi instalado um ensaio de fertilização que decorreu durante um período de 2 anos. No ensaio utilizaram-se 2 clones desta espécie (HD161 e CN5 e testaram-se 6 modalidades de fertilização, correspondentes à combinação de 3 níveis de azoto (50, 100, 200 mg N L-1 e 2 de potássio (50 e 100 mg K L-1 na solução nutritiva utilizada. No primeiro ano de crescimento (1998 os pés-mãe foram sujeitos a uma poda de formação, tendo-se avaliado a biomassa recolhida. No segundo ano (1999, para além da biomassa recolhida, determinou-se também o número de estacas produzidas por pé-mãe e a capacidade de enraizamento dessas estacas. Com o delineamento experimental utilizado não se observaram, em todos os parâmetros avaliados, diferenças significativas entre os dois níveis de potássio, nem interacções significativas entre o potássio e os restantes factores em estudo. Relativamente ao azoto, a análise dos dados obtidos permitiu concluir que o aumento da concentração de azoto na solução nutritiva, de 50 para 200 mg L-1, originou aumentos significativos da biomassa recolhida nas podas, da produção de estacas e da percentagem de enraizamento das estacas, contrariando a ideia que o aumento da disponibilidade de azoto pode conduzir uma redução do enraizamento. Os resultados permitem assim concluir que o azoto é determinante para o

  7. Comportamiento del arrastre de partículas en los gases durante el secado del mineral laterítico en tambores cilíndricos rotatorios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis García-Pérez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utiliza un método estadístico-matemático de planificación de experimentos para la investigación del comportamiento del arrastre de partículas finas en los gases durante el secado del mineral laterítico en uno de los secadores en condiciones normales de operación. En un segundo se eliminaron los levantadores sectoriales en el último tercio del equipo, y se analizó en ambos la influencia de los gases residuales provenientes de la planta de hornos de reducción. Se obtiene la correlación y regresión entre las variables de entrada más importantes que intervienen en el proceso: velocidad de los gases en el interior del cilindro (V, contenido de humedad de los gases (W, y el arrastre de partículas (A como variable de salida. Los resultados obtenidos ofrecen alentadoras perspectivas sobre la generalización industrial de la propuesta.

  8. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  9. Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Vidal; Maritza Vidal; Santiago Cabrera; Eduardo Ortega; Vicente Santiváñez; Jorge Polo; Jorge Barnaby; Rolando Vargas; Angélica del Castillo

    2008-01-01

    La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la gestación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio ...

  10. Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la gestación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio a nivel renal, pero la desmineralización temporal del esqueleto materno parece ser el mecanismo más importante. Los estudios que emplean absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA son escasos, por el riesgo de radiación materna y fetal; pero, con otras técnicas, como el ultrasonido cuantitativo, se ha descrito una pérdida de masa ósea durante la gestación predominantemente dependiente del hueso trabecular. Mediante marcadores bioquímicos del remodelamiento óseo se ha demostrado que los suplementos de calcio reducen la tasa de remodelamiento durante el embarazo y parecen tener efecto benéfico sobre la pérdida ósea materna. Estudios longitudinales que emplean ultrasonido cuantitativo también han encontrado una disminución de la pérdida ósea, entre las mujeres que recibieron aporte o suplemento adecuado de calcio durante la gestación.

  11. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  12. Efeito do tipo de solo na imobilização do azoto por palha em decomposição no Sul de Portugal Effect of soil type on the N immobilization by decomposing straw at the South of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alpendre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available É frequente em muitos sistemas agrícolas do Sul de Portugal deixarem-se os resíduos das culturas sobre o solo após a colheita, sendo posteriormente queimados ou incorporados no solo durante o Outono. Não sendo correcta a queima destes resíduos ricos em C, é preferível incorporá-los no solo, promovendo-se a imobilização do azoto (N mineral, derivado da mineralização da Matéria Orgânica do Solo (MOS e dos resíduos. Reduz-se deste modo a elevada perda potencial de nitrato (NO3- por lixiviação, devido aos elevados montantes de precipitação que podem ocorrer no período de Outono/Inverno do clima do Sul de Portugal. É necessário encontrarem-se meios para diminuir a perda de N por lixiviação, nos diferentes sistemas agrícolas e identificar as medidas correctas para reter o N durante mais tempo no sistema solo-planta. Uma das possibilidades é sincronizar, a mineralização do N dos resíduos, com o respectivo consumo pelas plantas, ou através da imobilização do N pelos microorganismos nos resíduos ricos em C. O objectivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de dois solos contrastantes na sua fertilidade, na imobilização e posterior remineralização do N, respectivamente num solo franco-arenoso (Pmg de Évora e num argiloso (Bvc de Beja. Incubou-se palha de trigo dentro de sacos de rede de nylon, com períodos de 1, 4, 8 e 12 meses de amostragem. O ensaio consistiu em três tratamentos: sem N, com adição de 15NH4NO3 e adição de NH4(15NO3. Determinou-se a concentração total em N e em C na palha e nos solos e mediu-se a abundância em 15N. Comparou-se a proporção remanescente do montante inicial de palha incubada, a concentração em N-total nos resíduos e a imobilização em 15N no resíduo da palha. Durante o primeiro mês o 15N foi sendo incorporado à medida que a massa do resíduo e o teor de N-total decresceram. Subsequentemente ocorreu imobilização líquida e o teor de N-total aumentou, apesar de com taxas

  13. Benefícios da aplicação de azoto, potássio e boro na fisiologia da oliveira em condições de sequeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Bacelar, E.A.; Correia, C.M.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.M.; Gonçalves, Berta; Arrobas, Margarida; Pavão, Francisco; Lopes, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Rodrigues, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    O azoto, o potássio e o boro são nutrientes que frequentemente condicionam a fisiologia da oliveira (Olea europaea L.). O azoto apresenta um papel primordial por ser constituinte de vários compostos orgânicos, em especial proteínas, ácidos nucleicos, hormonas e clorofila. O boro influencia directamente a produção por proporcionar maior desenvolvimento radicular, maximizando o aproveitamento da água e dos fertilizantes, bem como por estar directamente envolvido na formação da parede celular, c...

  14. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  15. Exigências de minerais para cabras durante a gestação: Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn Minerals requirements of goats during the pregnancy: Na, K, Mg, S, F and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar a retenção e a exigência líquida dos minerais Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn durante a gestação de cabras com um ou dois fetos. A estimativa de retenção foi baseada na diferença entre o total de cada mineral depositado no feto, útero, membranas, fluídos fetais e glândula mamária dos animais nas diferentes etapas da gestação e o total de cada mineral armazenado nas cabras vazias, utilizando-se o modelo de predição ln=A+Bx+Cx2, em que x=tempo de gestação. Os conteúdos de Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn, durante as gestações de um e dois fetos foram de: 13,2 e 21,4 mg; 13,3 e 21,3 g; 2,1 e 3,7 mg; 5,5 e 9,3 mg; 575,5 e 981,0 mg; 112,6 e 164,7 mg nas gestações, resultando em exigências líquidas diárias de 0,13 e 0,11 g; 0,21 e 0,31 g; 0,06 e 0,11g; 0,17 e 0,21 g; 22,94 e 40,51 mg; 2,63 e 2,78 mg, respectivamente.This work was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the retention and the requirement of Ca e P minerals during the pregnancy of goats with one or two foetus. The estimate of retention was based in the difference between the total of each mineral stored in the foetus, uterus, membranes, fetals fluids and mammary gland of animals in the differents phases of pregnancy and the total of each mineral stored in the empty goats, using the model of prediction ln=A+Bx+Cx2, where x=time of pregnancy. The comparison of the estimative with the real values obtained show that the suggested model explained with coherence and precision the biological behavior of minerals retention during all pregnancy. The contend of Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn was: 13.2 and 21.4 mg; 13.3 and 21.3 g; 2.1 and 3.7 mg; 5.5 and 9.3 mg; 575.5 and 981.0 mg; 112.6 and 164.7 mg in the pregnancy of one and two foetus, respectively, that resulted in a diary liquid requirement of 0.13 and 0.11 g; 0.21 and 0.31 g 0.06 and 0.11g; 0.17 and 0.21 g; 22.94 and 40.51 mg; 2.63 and 2.78 mg, respectively.

  16. Suplemento de vitaminas y minerales durante el períodico de gestión Vitamins and minerals supplements during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Restrepo Baena

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre la necesidad de suplementar la dieta de la embarazada con las diferentes vitaminas y minerales y se resumen los componentes de la alimentación más ricos en cada uno de ellos. Se concluye que, con excepción del hierro y, en casos específicos, el ácido fólico no se justifican tales suplementos si la embarazada ingiere una dieta adecuada.

    The need for supplementing the diet during pregnancy with vitamins and minerals is reviewed. Their main alimentary sources are summarized. It is concluded that, with the exception of Iron and of folic acid in specific situations such supplements are usually not needed If the pregnant woman receives an adequate diet.

  17. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  18. Composição mineral, qualidade e degenerescência de polpa de maçãs 'Fuji' em diferentes porta-enxertos durante armazenamento em atmosfera controlada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Roseli Corrêa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de três porta-enxertos sobre a composição mineral em maçãs 'Fuji', bem como a qualidade e incidência de degenerescência de polpa dos frutos, armazenados em duas condições de atmosfera controlada (AC. Frutos provenientes de árvores com três porta-enxertos (MM-106, Marubakaido e Marubakaido com filtro M-9 provenientes de São Joaquim - SC foram armazenados por oito meses em duas condições de AC (1,2 kPa O2 + <0,5 kPa CO2 e 1,2 kPa O2 + 2,0 kPa CO2. Sete dias após a retirada das câmaras, determinaram-se: taxa de produção de etileno, cor da epiderme (hº, força para a penetração da polpa, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, incidência e severidade de degenerescência de polpa e composição mineral (Ca, Mg e K na polpa dos frutos. Entre condições de AC, os frutos armazenados com 2,0 kPa de CO2 apresentaram um retardo no amadurecimento se comparados aos frutos armazenados nas condições de <0,5 kPa de CO2. Quanto aos diferentes porta-enxertos, na condição de armazenamento com 2,0 kPa CO2, os frutos de plantas com Marubakaido e Marubakaido com filtro-M9 apresentaram maior incidência de degenerescência de polpa se comparados aos frutos de plantas com MM-106, que apresentaram maiores teores de Ca e menores teores de K, e menor relação K/Ca. A qualidade de maçãs 'Fuji' é influenciada principalmente pela condição de armazenamento em AC e muito pouco pelo tipo de porta-enxerto. Plantas enxertadas com MM-106 proporcionam frutos com menor predisposição à degenerescência de polpa, que por sua vez está relacionada à composição mineral do fruto.

  19. Levels of mineral mixture and urea in supplementation of crossbred heifers, with Gyr predominance, reared at pasture during the dry season Níveis de mistura mineral e ureia na suplementação de dietas para novilhas mestiças, com predominância de Gir, recriadas a pasto durante o período da seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pietsch Cunha Mendonça

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated several levels of mineral mixture and urea for crossbred heifers, with Gyr predominance, in the dry season period in Zona da Mata region in Minas Gerais. The experiment was carried out in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture area, divided in five paddocks of 3.5 hectares. It was used 35 heifers distributed in a 2 õ 2 + 1 factorial scheme, composed of two levels of urea (10 and 25%, two levels of mineral salt (10 and 25% and a control diet (only mineral salt, totaling five diets, each one evaluated with seven replicates. The supplements were based on ground corn, urea, ammonia sulfate and mineral mixture with 32 to 72% crude protein, and they composed the following diets: MM ( mineral mix, 10:10 (10% mineral mix, 10% urea and 80% corn; 10:25 (10% mineral mix, 25% urea and 65% corn; 25:10 (25% mineral mix, 10% urea and 65% corn, and 25:25 (25% mineral mix, 25% urea and 50% corn. Urea and mineral salt are effective in controlling supplement intake by bovines growing on pastures during dry season because the higher their levels, the lower the intake of supplements. Diets with 25% urea and 10% mineral salt provided higher daily weight gain and higher weight gain:supplemment intake ratio.Avaliaram-se diversos níveis de mistura mineral e ureia para novilhas mestiças, com predominância de Gir, no período da seca na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. O experimento foi realizado em uma área de pastagem formada de Brachiaria decumbens, dividida em cinco piquetes de 3,5 ha. Utilizaram-se 35 novilhas distribuídas em um esquema fatorial tipo 2 õ 2 + 1, composto de dois níveis de ureia (10 e 25%, dois níveis de sal mineral (10 e 25% e uma dieta controle (somente sal mineral, totalizando cinco dietas, cada uma avaliada com sete repetições. Os suplementos foram à base de milho moído, ureia, sulfato de amônia e mistura mineral, com 32 a 72% de proteína bruta, e compuseram as seguintes dietas: MM (mistura mineral; 10:10 (10% de

  20. Dinámica del nitrógeno mineral y la biota edáfica durante la descomposición de enmiendas orgánicas en un ambiente semiárido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEYER, J.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso de leguminosas como abonos verdes, puede proveer una cantidad importante de nitrógeno para el cultivo posterior, dependiendo de la velocidad de descomposición de los residuos. La necesidad de siembra directa (SD en los suelos frágiles no permite el enterramiento de los residuos, dificultando su descomposición y la liberación de nitrógeno inorgánico (Ni. En este trabajo se estudió la relación entre descomposición de abonos verdes de vicia con y sin adición de estiércol, la liberación de Ni y la dinámica de las poblaciones microbianas asociadas a estos procesos en el semiárido de la provincia de San Luis, Argentina. En macetas con suelo de la región se incubó suelo solo, dos dosis de vicia y dos dosis de vicia+estiércol durante un año en condiciones reales de temperatura y humedad. Bolsas conteniendo residuos de planta entera de vicia con y sin estiércol fueron ubicadas en superficie (simulando SD y a 10 cm de profundidad (simulando una labranza mínima en el suelo de las macetas. Se tomaron muestras de suelo para medir Ni (Nitratos y Amonio y grupos funcionales microbianos (amonificantes, nitrificantes y celulolíticos. Al mismo tiempo, se retiraron bolsas para medir la velocidad de descomposición del residuo. El contenido de amonio en el suelo aumentó en 6,7 (D1, 28 (D2, 7,3 (D3 y 26 (D4 mg/Kg en un año; por otra parte, el contenido de nitratos aumentó 17 (D1, 32 (D2, 23 (D3 y 41 (D4 mg/Kg. El aumento en el contenido de Ni coincidió con la evolución de las poblaciones de microorganismos amonificantes y nitrificantes. La descomposición en los residuos enterrados (p una importante cantidad de Ni en el primer año (aún en presencia del estiércol que influye en los equilibrios de mineralización inmovilización por su alta relación C/N, pero para su mayor disponibilidad es recomendable realizar una labranza minima

  1. Del asentamiento minero al espacio continental: Chuquicamata (Chile y la contribución de la minería a la configuración del territorio y el desarrollo social y económico de la Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIO GARCES FELIÚ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente paper tiene por objetivo analizar las contribuciones de Chuquicamata al desarrollo territorial, social y económico de la II Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX, a partir de su condición de complejo industrial y company town minero, que evoluciona desde las rentas y aportes propios de un campamento del cobre hasta su despliegue a escala regional, con alcances y encadenamientos continentales, contribuyendo al desarrollo social y económico de la región y el país. En esta perspectiva, el Norte de Chile y, en particular esta región, ostentan importantes ventajas comparativas y competitivas, extensivas al siglo XXI, tanto para la explotación de minerales como para su encadenamiento con otros sectores productivos, en un proceso que genera nuevas configuraciones de ordenamiento territorial, basadas no sólo en la dinámica urbana de los company totvns sino que también en la extensión y complejidad del "territorio minero", activado económicamente por la minería.This article analyzes the contributions of Chuquicamata to the territorial, social and economic development of the II Region of Antofagasta during the twentieth century. The process begins with the local contributions of an industrial complex and company town, that evolves from profits and contributions specific to a copper mining settlement to a situation of regional significance, generating continental economic relations and linkages which contribute to the social and economic development of the region and he country. From this perspective, Northern Chile, and this region in particular, hold important comparative and competitive advantages that extend into the twenty first century, both for the exploitation of mineral resources and for increasing linkages with other productive sectors, in a process that generates new spatial configurations, based not only on the urban dynamics of the company town, but also through the extent and complexity of the mining territory

  2. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os portugueses são dos maiores apreciadores mundiais de brássicas. A couve Tronchuda é cultivada em Portugal em área superior a 1000 ha. O seu consumo é sobretudo apreciado na quadra natalícia. Neste trabalho reportam-se resultados da fertilização com azoto e boro, na forma de adubos convencionais, e da utilização de Dix10 (com ˜10 % N total, um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em agricultura biológica. Plantas de raiz protegida foram transplantadas a 29 de Agosto de 2005 num compasso 0,8x0,5 m. O solo, de textura franca, continha 0,83 % matéria orgânica, 5,2 pH(H2O e teores em P e K médios e altos, respectivamente. Foram estabelecidas seis modalidades: sem adubação (SAd; Dix10, em dose equivalente a 80 kg N/ha; modalidades com 80 (NB e 160 (N+ kg N/ha, na forma de ureia; e modalidades sem B (B- e com aplicação de 2,2 (NB e 4,4 (B+ kg B/ha. Todas as modalidades de B foram fertilizadas com 80 kg N/ha e as de N com 2,2 kg B/ha, coincidindo na modalidade NB as doses médias de N e B. As plantas SAd produziram 13,7 Mg biomassa/ha e exportaram 33,9 kg N/ha e 40,9 g B/ha, valores significativamente inferiores às modalidades fertilizadas. Dix10 produziu 18,0 Mg de biomassa/ha e exportou 45,1 kg N/ha e 51,3 g B/ha. A modalidade NB originou maior produção de biomassa (38,6 Mg/ha e N exportado (107,9 kg/ha que as modalidades SAd e Dix10. A modalidade N+ não registou aumento de produção nem de N exportado comparativamente com NB. B+ não influenciou a produção de biomassa mas aumentou a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado. N+ reduziu significativamente a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado, sugerindo um efeito de antagonismo da aplicação de N sobre a absorção de B. As produções obtidas e a recuperação aparente de nutrientes mostraram que a redução de produção de biomassa nas modalidades SAd e Dix10 se deveu à reduzida disponibilidade de N no solo durante a estação de crescimento

  3. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  4. Uso de hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang,Du Young; Carvajal,Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: Los hipoglicemiantes orales son una alternativa emergente en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG), pero existe poca información acerca de su uso durante la lactancia. Objetivo: Revisar la evidencia respecto a la seguridad del uso de los hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia. Resultados: Encontramos 3 trabajos que evaluaron el paso de metformina a la leche materna: hubo traspaso de metformina a leche materna en todos los casos. La concentración de metfo...

  5. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  6. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  7. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  8. Fatiga de vigilancia (fatigatio vigilantiae) durante epidemias

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Álvarez, Daniel; Peterson, A. Townsend; Escobar, Luis E

    2017-01-01

    Se presenta el concepto de "fatiga de vigilancia" (fatigatio vigilantiae) para describir un escenario epidemiológico en el que es evidente el subreporte de casos durante epidemias abrumadoras. Revisamos epidemias pasadas y encontramos que la fatiga de vigilancia es un patrón común, por lo tanto, puede ser un concepto útil en la epidemiología moderna. This manuscript presents the concept of "surveillance fatigue" (fatigatio vigilantiae), to describe an epidemiological scenario of an evident...

  9. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  10. Avaliação da libertação de azoto a partir de correctivos orgânicos utilizando membranas de troca aniónica e um medidor de clorofila SPAD-502 Nitrogen release from organic amendments assessed by using anion exchange membranes and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho divulgam-se resultados de experiências em vasos em que membranas de troca aniónica (MTA foram inseridas directamente no solo para monitorar o teor de nitratos ao longo do tempo, e em que o estado nutritivo dasplantas foi avaliado através de um medidor de clorofila SPAD-502. Na estação quente foi cultivado milho e no período outono-inverno nabiça e centeio. O milho foi semeado a 5 de Junho de 2004 e a nabiça e o centeio a 23 de Setembro de 2004. As plantas foram sujeitas aos seguintes tratamentos fertilizantes: Nutrisoil (Nut; Beiraadubo (Bei; Phenix (Phe; e Vegethumus (Veg, quatro correctivos orgânicos comerciais; estrume de bovino (EB; casca de castanha (CC; nitrato de amónio (NA; e um tratamento sem azoto (T. Os resultados das MTA e os valores SPAD foram relacionados com a matéria seca produzida e o N exportado. Em Junho, na primeira amostragem, a concentração média de nitratos nos extractos das MTA variou entre 18,3 e 239,4 mg L-1, nos tratamentos CC e NA. Na primeira semana de Agosto, foram registados valores médios de nitratos no solo de 12,9 a 52,3 mg L-1 nos tratamentos CC e Bei. Na última amostragem, em Setembro, os valores médios de nitratos no solo variaram entre 9,7 e 67,9 mg L-1 nos tratamentos CC e Nut. As MTA revelaram boa capacidade para discriminar a forma como os diferentes fertilizantes libertaram o azoto ao longo do tempo e como este aspecto condicionou a absorção do nutriente e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Os valores SPAD revelaram-se bons indicadores do estado nutritivo azotado do milho, em condições em que foi possível controlar grande parte da variabilidade experimental. Os valores SPAD estiveram linearmente relacionados com a produção de matéria seca e o N exportado. Nas condições deste ensaio, em que a lixiviação e a desnitrificação foram controladas, as culturas intercalares centeio e nabiça recuperaram o N residual da cultura anterior até próximo do limite da sua

  11. Os mineiros de carvão, seus patrões e as leis sobre trabalho: conflitos e estratégias durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial Coal miners, their employers, and labor laws: conflicts and strategies during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Gontarski Speranza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina uma série de conflitos ocorridos entre trabalhadores das minas de carvão e seus patrões no Rio Grande do Sul em 1943, relacionados à pressão pelo cumprimento de leis. Tais conflitos tiveram desdobramentos diretos no Judiciário, indicando uma opção dos militantes sindicais pela estratégia legal e política como forma de garantir direitos. Essa estratégia combinava um discurso de aparente confiança e apoio ao governo de Getúlio Vargas, e de júbilo e elogio pela instalação da Justiça do Trabalho, porém associados a uma cobrança intensa pelo cumprimento da legislação social e à utilização ativa dos instrumentos jurídico-legais.The article examines a series of conflicts between coal miners and the Rio Grande do Sul mining companies in 1943, all of which were related to pressure to enforce laws. These conflicts had direct legal consequences, indicating that labor activists chose a political and legal strategy as a means of ensuring labor rights. This strategy combined apparent confidence in and support for the Getulio Vargas government, as well as great joy with and praise for the creation of the Labor Court, associated with strong pressure for the implementation of social legislation and the active use of legal instruments.

  12. Fontes protéicas suplementadas com aminoácidos e minerais para a tilápia do Nilo durante a reversão sexual Protein sources supplemented with amino acids and minerals to Nile tilapia during sex reversal phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente experimento, comparar o efeito da origem da fonte protéica e da suplementação com lisina e metionina ou cálcio e fósforo para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, durante a reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 200 larvas, distribuídas em 20 aquários de 12 litros, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. A temperatura pela manhã e à tarde, o oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica da água foram, respectivamente, de 22,6 ± 0,1ºC, 24,1±0,4ºC; 6,77 ± 0,38 mg/L, 7,75 ± 0,16; e 173,4 ± 2 mS/m. Os tratamentos foram compostos por quatro rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas: uma somente com ingredientes de origem animal (FA; outra com ingredientes de origem vegetal (FV e duas com ingredientes de origem vegetal, uma com adição dos aminoácidos lisina e metionina (FAA e outra com cálcio e fósforo (FP. Os valores médios finais de peso e comprimento dos animais submetidos à ração FA foi superior aos demais tratamentos, seguido pelo FP e FV, que não diferiram da FAA. O tratamento FA apresentou os maior valores de biomassa final, seguido do FP e FAA, que foram semelhantes ao FV. O fator de condição dos peixes do tratamento FA foi superior aos FAA e FV, porém o FP foi semelhante aos demais. A sobrevivência dos tratamentos FA, FV e FP foram semelhantes entre si e superiores ao FAA. Para a fase de reversão sexual da tilápia do Nilo, rações formuladas com ingredientes de origem animal foram mais eficientes que as formuladas com ingredientes de origem vegetal, mesmo quando estas foram suplementadas com lisina e metionina ou cálcio e fósforo.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of protein source origin and lysine and methionine or phosphorus and calcium supplementation to Nile tilapia during sex reversal phase. Two hundred fries were assigned to a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications, in twenty 12 L

  13. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  14. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  15. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  16. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  17. Efeito da rega com injecção de ar na humidade do solo, dis­ponibilidade de azoto nítrico, condutividade eléctrica e pro­dutividade da alface cultivada em estufa plástica Effects of irrigation with injection of air in soil moisture, nitrate avail­ability, electrical conductivity and lettuce productivity grown in plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Pivetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objectivo veri­ficar se a injecção de ar junto a água de rega gota-a-gota enterrada, afecta a humi­dade do solo, a disponibilidade de azoto nítrico, a condutividade eléctrica e o cres­cimento e produtividade da alface. Para tal realizou-se um ensaio com a alface variedade “Mention” cultivada em estufa plástica e localizada na Herdade Experi­mental da Mitra-ICAAM, da Universida­de de Évora -Portugal. Utilizou-se o deli­neamento experimental blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, com os tratamen­tos: rega com injecção de ar (CAR, e rega sem injecção de ar (SAR. O ar foi introdu­zido na água de rega por meio de um injector “Mazzei”. O teor de humidade na camada superficial (0-0,05 m foi seme­lhante para os dois tratamentos, alcançan­do valores em torno de zero. Em termos de concentração de azoto nítrico (NO 3- os valores observados na camada 0,10­0,20 m, aos 35 e 47 dias após a transplan­tação, foram mais elevados no tratamento CAR. Aos 47 dias após a transplantação, os níveis médios de NO3-foram de 95,33 e 67,94 ppm nos tratamentos CAR e SAR, respectivamente. A densidade radical no tratamento CAR na camada de 0-0,10 m do solo foi 34 % superior em relação ao SAR. A produção comercial não foi afectada pelo tratamento. A falta de resposta da cultura ao acréscimo de azoto nítrico e da densidade radical pode estar relacionada com o curto ciclo da cultura e/ou com o elevado teor de azoto presente no solo, ou ainda com a profundidade que os goteja­dores foram instalados e não com a fun­cionalidade do injector de ar.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the air injection through subsurface drip irrigation (oxyga­tion in soil moisture, availability of nitro­gen oxide, and electrical conductivity, plant growth and yield of lettuce, variety "Men­tion", cultivated in plastic greenhouse. The experiment was carried out at the Mitra-ICAM, an Experimental

  18. ERCP during pregnancy CPRE durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Cano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: ERCP during pregnancy is always challenging for the entire team performing the endoscopic intervention. In this study techniques and different interventional aspects used at several centres about the clinical experience on ERCP in pregnant women are analyzed. Patients and methods: the practice on ERCP in pregnant women in six centers during a period of ten years is reported. Results: eleven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 30.6 years. Indication for ERCP was always symptomatic common bile duct stone (CBDS disease. Before the procedure abdominal ultrasound was performed at all times and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in four occasions. Conscious sedation by means of midazolam and fentanyl or meperidine was applied. Sphincterotomes and guidewires were used for bilary cannulation. Sometimes, rapid exchange platforms with short-length guidewires controlled by the same endoscopist were employed. Biliary cannulation was confirmed in 9 occasions by bile aspiration. In five procedures, a mean of 30 seconds of fluoroscopy was used, both to verify cannulation and to corroborate complete CBDS clearance. These patients had the pelvic zone protected with a lead shield and radiation dose was measured. Ten biliary sphincterotomies were performed followed by CBDS extraction. Two plastic stents were inserted. Relief of biliary obstruction was attained in all circumstances. Only one patient had hyperamylasemia after ERCP. All pregnant women had healthy foetuses with normal deliveries. Conclusions: with experience, ERCP appears to be a safe technique during pregnancy. With simple measures fluoroscopic time can be diminished or even abolished. It seems that ERCP during pregnancy is underused in our working areas, although it has shown to be a useful technique for relieving biliary obstruction.Antecedentes y objetivos: la CPRE realizada durante el embarazo constituye siempre un reto para todo el equipo que participa

  19. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  20. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  1. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  2. Nuevos datos sobre el uso de materia colorante durante el Neolítico antiguo en las comarcas centrales valencianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García Borja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización mineralógica de materias colorantes procedentes de los yacimientos valencianos de la Cova de l'Or, la Cova de la Sarna y la Cova Fosca de la Vall d'Ebo demuestra el uso de dos tipos de materia colorante durante el Neolítico Antiguo: Hematites y Cinabrio. Las características y distribución geográfica de cada una de ellas nos remiten a dos estrategias distintas de obtención y. probablemente. de utilización de las mismas.

  3. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  4. Vivências da sexualidade durante a gravidez

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Maria Diana Fernandes da

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Enfermagem Sumário Durante o período de gravidez, existem uma série de mudanças biológicas, psicológicas, culturais e sociais, estas podem ter influência na vivência da sexualidade. A vivência da sexualidade durante esta fase pode ser entendida de diversas formas pela gestante, muitas vezes pode ser um factor importante para a satisfação das necessidades acrescidas d...

  5. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  6. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  7. vARIATIONS MENSUELLES DURANT TROIS ANNÉES DU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Université .... ont reçu une alimentation à base de pâturage de. Panicum maximum avec ... Variations mensuelles durant trois années du nombre de spermatozoïdes par éjaculat et des paramètres de spermocytogramme du sperme de bélier ...

  8. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  9. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  10. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  11. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  12. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  13. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  14. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  15. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  16. Minería de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Jacqueline; Miranda, Natalia Carolina; Guerrero, Roberto A.; Piccoli, María Fabiana

    2006-01-01

    Durante los últimos años, la proliferación de los medios digitales ha creado la necesidad del desarrollo de herramientas para la eficiente representación, acceso y recuperación de información visual. La minería de imágenes se ha convertido en una importante rama de investigación a causa del potencial que posee en descubrir patrones característicos a partir de un importante conjunto de imágenes. No obstante, la minería de imágenes es más que una simple extensión de la minería de datos al domin...

  17. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  18. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  19. Mineral commodity summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  20. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  1. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  2. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  3. Uso indicado e uso referido de medicamentos durante a gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos descrevem a utilização de medicamentos na gravidez com detalhamento de práticas prescritivas. A pesquisa integra grande inquérito sobre atenção perinatal em hospitais do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A natureza do hospital - se pública, contratada/conveniada ao SUS ou privada - determinou estratificação de 10.072 puérperas internadas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevista e por consulta a prontuários, cobrindo medicamentos utilizados durante a gravidez e prescritos durante a internação hospitalar quando do parto. Medicamentos foram classificados pela ATC e outro sistema para casos especiais de uso referido. Houve média de 2,08 medicamentos prescritos no parto e 2,3 usados durante a gestação, sendo os mais prescritos anestésicos, antibióticos, ocitocina e analgésicos, com diferenças significativas entre estratos, e os mais referidos sulfato ferroso, vitaminas, escopolamina e paracetamol. Para interromper a gravidez, 49,7% relatam o uso de chás e 9,2% de misoprostol. O perfil de utilização é corroborado pela literatura. A pesquisa oferece oportunidade de conhecimento de padrões de prescrição ao parto e de uso referido durante a gestação nos setores público e privado.

  4. Uso indicado e uso referido de medicamentos durante a gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio-de-Castro Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos descrevem a utilização de medicamentos na gravidez com detalhamento de práticas prescritivas. A pesquisa integra grande inquérito sobre atenção perinatal em hospitais do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A natureza do hospital - se pública, contratada/conveniada ao SUS ou privada - determinou estratificação de 10.072 puérperas internadas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevista e por consulta a prontuários, cobrindo medicamentos utilizados durante a gravidez e prescritos durante a internação hospitalar quando do parto. Medicamentos foram classificados pela ATC e outro sistema para casos especiais de uso referido. Houve média de 2,08 medicamentos prescritos no parto e 2,3 usados durante a gestação, sendo os mais prescritos anestésicos, antibióticos, ocitocina e analgésicos, com diferenças significativas entre estratos, e os mais referidos sulfato ferroso, vitaminas, escopolamina e paracetamol. Para interromper a gravidez, 49,7% relatam o uso de chás e 9,2% de misoprostol. O perfil de utilização é corroborado pela literatura. A pesquisa oferece oportunidade de conhecimento de padrões de prescrição ao parto e de uso referido durante a gestação nos setores público e privado.

  5. La fidelidad cubana durante la edad de las revoluciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuethe, Allan J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La historiografía cubana tradicional explica la fidelidad de la perla de las Antillas durante las revoluciones americanas por razón del miedo al intimidante ejército español acuartelado en la isla y por miedo a que cualquier división política diera aliento a una sublevación de la masiva población esclava. Este artículo plantea la tesis de que el asunto fue mucho más complicado que lo que estas explicaciones dan a entender. Por una parte, el ejército de la isla llegó a estar esencialmente controlado por cubanos y, por otra, un movimiento revolucionario nació entre los elementos ilustrados; pero falló por la oposición abrumadora que surgió dentro de la propia clase criolla. La fidelidad cubana no se explica actualmente tanto por los temores como por las relaciones positivas que se crearon entre la corona española y las elites cubanas durante el siglo XVIII, sobre todo durante el reinado de Carlos III, relaciones que resultaron sumamente ventajosas para los azucareros que dominaban la vida económica y política de la isla.

  6. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  7. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  8. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  9. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  10. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  11. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  12. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  13. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  14. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  15. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  16. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  18. Alteraciones oftalmológicas durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriel Cuan Aguilar

    Full Text Available Los trastornos oftalmológicos son muy comunes durante el embarazo. Se realiza la presente revisión con el objetivo de documentar las variadas condiciones oculares que podrían aparecer durante la gestación o se podrían modificar por esta, lo que conllevaría estar bien atentos sobre las gestantes que aquejan trastornos visuales. Durante el período de gestación las mujeres se exponen a variados cambios tanto a nivel sistémico como ocular. A partir de algunos de estos cambios, el embarazo origina alteraciones a nivel ocular, los cuales son la mayoría de las veces transitorias, aunque en ocasiones pueden establecerse de forma permanente. Los efectos oculares del embarazo pueden ser fisiológicos, patológicos o pueden ocasionar modificaciones de condiciones prexistentes. De esta manera, pueden observarse en este período cambios a nivel de los párpados, la córnea, el cristalino, la presión intraocular, el campo visual, entre otros. También exacerbaciones de patologías como retinopatía diabética, enfermedad de Grave y retinitis por toxoplasma, así como complicaciones provocadas por el propio embarazo como preclampsia-eclampsia, desprendimiento de retina seroso, ceguera cortical, síndrome de HELLP, retinopatía serosa central, etcétera. Se relacionan además alteraciones neuroftalmológicas y complicaciones oftálmicas en relación con el parto, como trombosis del seno venoso, adenoma pituitario, hipertensión intracraneal benigna, neuritis óptica, así como retinopatía y síndrome de Sheehan.

  19. Violência durante o sono Violent behavior during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Poyares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Casos de comportamento violento (CV durante o sono são relatados na literatura. A incidência de comportamento violento durante o sono não é muito conhecida. Um estudo epidemiológico mostra que cerca de 2% da população geral apresentava comportamento violento dormindo e eram predominantemente homens. Neste artigo, os autores descrevem aspectos clínicos e médico-legais envolvidos na investigação do comportamento violento. O comportamento violento se refere a ferimentos auto-infligidos ou infligidos a um terceiro durante o sono. Ocorre, muito freqüentemente, seguindo um despertar parcial no contexto de um transtorno de despertar (parassonias. Os transtornos do sono predominantes diagnosticados são: transtorno de comportamento REM e sonambulismo. O comportamento violento poderia ser precipitado pelo estresse, uso de álcool e drogas, privação do sono ou febre.Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias. The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever.

  20. Comunicación y conflicto familiar durante la adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Jiménez, Águeda; Oliva Delgado, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar los patrones de comunicación y conflicto familiar durante la adolescencia. Una muestra de 221 chicos y 292 chicas de edades comprendidas entre 13 y 19 años completaron un cuestionario que incluía medidas de la frecuencia de la comunicación con sus progenitores, la frecuencia de aparición de episodios conflictivos, la intensidad emocional con que dichos conflictos eran percibidos, y la autonomía funcional ...

  1. Autonomía emocional durante la adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Delgado, Alfredo; Parra Jiménez, Agueda

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la relación entre la autonomía emocional respecto a los padres y el tipo de relaciones establecidas entre padres e hijos durante la adolescencia. También pretendíamos analizar las características socio-emocionales de aquellos chicos y chicas que manifiestan una alta autonomía emocional, así como el papel moderador jugado por el género y la calidad del contexto familiar sobre las relaciones entre la desvinculación afectiva y el desarro...

  2. Consumo de antioxidantes durante tratamento quimioterápico

    OpenAIRE

    Rohenkohl,Caroline Cavali; Carniel,Ana Paula; Colpo,Elisângela

    2011-01-01

    RACIONAL: O câncer é definido como enfermidade multicausal crônica, em que as células possuem crescimento descontrolado. Resulta de vários fatores, sendo um dos principais, a dieta inadequada. As fases de iniciação, promoção e progressão de carcinogênese têm sido frequentemente relacionadas ao estresse oxidativo. OBJETIVO: Verificar o consumo de antioxidantes em pacientes com câncer durante os diferentes ciclos de quimioterapia. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo exploratório, incluindo pacientes em ...

  3. Las fluctuaciones del nivel del mar durante el Cuaternario

    OpenAIRE

    Pousa, Jorge Lorenzo; Isla, Federico Ignacio; Schnack, Enrique Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Los cambios del nivel del mar han ejercido una fuerte influencia en la evolución del planeta y en la historia de la humanidad. En una escala de tiempo geológico, las variaciones de los niveles oceánicos han dejado un registro ampliamente distribuido en la forma de depósitos sedimentarios. El descenso del nivel del mar durante la Ultima Glaciación, que alcanzó unos 120 metros hace 18.000 años, permitió la emergencia del estrecho de Bering y la migración humana desde Eurasia hacia América. Se e...

  4. El periodismo gráfico durante la dictadura

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, César Luis

    2017-01-01

    Este volumen del Centro de Estudios en Historia/Comunicación/Periodismo/Medios (CEHICOPEME), está dedicado al examen de ocho de los principales medios gráficos argentinos durante la última dictadura cívico-militar. Se trata de una decena de artículos que si bien fueron realizados como obras en sí mismas, no pueden ser aisladas de una forma de concebir la disciplina que las contiene, cuya matriz de producción se gestó en esta Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Social (UNLP) hace poco más de...

  5. Irregularidad menstrual y exposición a mercurio en la minería artesanal del oro en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar

    2015-08-01

    Conclusiones. La exposición al mercurio elemental durante el proceso artesanal de la minería del oro podría estar asociada con una mayor prevalencia de irregularidad del ciclo menstrual, pero no con la presentación de abortos.

  6. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  7. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  8. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El periodo gestacional se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de caries dental, aunque la asociación entre gestación e incremento de caries no ha podido aún ser científicamente demostrada. Se propuso realizar un estudio para determinar la presencia de caries dental y algunos factores de riesgo asociados en el primer y tercer trimestre del embarazo, para detectar la aparición de lesiones cariosas nuevas y cambios relacionados con los factores de riesgo entre ambos trimestres. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal desde diciembre de 2006 a febrero de 2008 en el municipio de Florida, Camagüey, Cuba. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 38 embarazadas y la muestra por 21, que fueron interrogadas y examinadas en ambos trimestres con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de caries y los factores de riesgo asociados como: higiene bucal deficiente, dieta cariogénica, pH salival bajo, ocurrencia de vómitos y embarazo previo. La información necesaria fue recogida en un formulario confeccionado al efecto. En el primer trimestre el 80,95 % estaban afectadas por caries dental y se observó aparición de lesiones nuevas en 6 embarazadas, en el tercer trimestre. Los factores de riesgo presentados con mayor frecuencia en el primer trimestre fueron la dieta cariogénica en el 66,66 % y la higiene bucal deficiente en el 47,61 % de las pacientes. Ninguna embarazada modificó la dieta durante el embarazo, sin embargo la higiene bucal deficiente persistió en el 14,28 %. El 52,38 % de las embarazadas afectadas en el primer trimestre consumían dieta cariogénica y el 47,61 % habían tenido embarazo previo. Se concluyó que hubo afectación por nuevas caries durante el embarazo, los factores de riesgo que predominantes fueron la dieta cariogénica, la higiene bucal deficiente y el embarazo previo. Las pacientes no modificaron la dieta durante el embarazo, pero sí mejoraron la higiene bucal. Todas las que presentaban vómitos y pH salival

  9. Rearranjo estrutural de PET durante compressão plana

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luis Gasparotto Denardin

    2004-01-01

    As características da tensão – deformação do Poli(tereftalato de etileno) (PET) durante o processo de deformação por compressão plana tem sido estudadas. Amostras de PET com e sem tratamento térmico obtidas por injeção foram deformadas a diferentes temperaturas de deformação, abaixo e acima da temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg) utilizando diferentes taxas de deformação e tensões finais aplicadas. O comportamento mecânico foi analisado através das curvas de tensão – deformação obtidas por de...

  10. Sexualidad femenina durante la gestación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Labrador

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre diferentes criterios de la conveniencia, presencia y frecuencia de las relaciones sexuales durante el proceso de gestación, y brindamos resultados de algunos trabajos realizados al respecto. Los tabúes, los prejuicios, la desinformación y muchas veces el desconocimiento alrededor de este tema que tanta atención precisa, han llevado a que se le investigue poco o se trate de forma equivocadaA review of the various criteria about the convenience, presence and frequency of sexual relations during pregnancy was made and the results of some papers are also presented. Taboos, prejudices, distorted information and lack of knowledge about this topic that requires so much attention have led to insufficient research or to wrong analyses of the subject

  11. La fidelidad cubana durante la edad de las revoluciones

    OpenAIRE

    Kuethe, Allan J.

    1998-01-01

    Not available.

    La historiografía cubana tradicional explica la fidelidad de la perla de las Antillas durante las revoluciones americanas por razón del miedo al intimidante ejército español acuartelado en la isla y por miedo a que cualquier división política diera aliento a una sublevación de la masiva población esclava. Este artículo plantea la tesis de que el asunto fue mucho más complicado que lo que estas explicaciones dan a entender. Por una parte, el ejército de la isl...

  12. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  13. Carbonizing bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-05-01

    A process for carbonizing bituminous minerals, like oil-shale, in a furnace with addition of air in the presence of heat-receiving material is characterized by the fact that to the feed such solid or liquid material (with the exception of oil) is added, which, through vaporization or heat-binding decomposition or conversion, hinders the establishment of excessive temperatures.

  14. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1967-01-01

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  15. MANIFESTACIONES OCULTAS DE VIOLENCIA, DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DEL RECREO ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny María Artavia Granados

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación de Occidente, en Costa Rica. Este tiene como fin determinar si durante el desarrollo de los recreos se suscitan manifestaciones de violencia implícitas u ocultas entre las y los estudiantes II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. En el proceso del estudio se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales desarrolladas durante los recreos escolares y que podrían propiciar violencia escolar implícita u oculta. Se procuró identificar la existencia de enfrentamientos y conflictos entre estudiantes, que conllevan amenazas, manifestaciones de exclusión, persecuciones e intimidaciones entre las y los niños. Se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de la población estudiantil investigada manifiesta recibir amenazas, y que estas, en mayor número, se producen entre las niñas. Asimismo, un alto porcentaje de esta población estudiada indica que ha sido excluida en la dinámica del recreo por diferentes motivos, entre los que destacan: características físicas, género, condición social y situaciones particulares educativas que presentan algunos niños o niñas en edad escolar.

  16. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  17. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  18. Indústria mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran F. Machado

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A INDÚSTRIA mineral brasileira é analisada, de modo sucinto, face aos desafios impostos pela globalização contemporânea. As mudanças profundas ocorridas no contexto internacional na última década, abrangendo as esferas política, econômica, social e institucional, exigem uma reflexão aprofundada sobre o papel a ser desempenhado pelo Brasil no comércio internacional de bens minerais. De um lado, as oportunidades de aproveitamento de jazidas de classe internacional, principalmente na Amazônia, são bastante promissoras. Por outro, não se deve ignorar que: a explotação dessas reservas terá de obedecer a critérios de sustentabilidade, seguindo paradigmas já adotados em países desenvolvidos; o Brasil terá de garantir a sua competitividade diante dos seus principais concorrentes (Austrália, CEI, China e Índia. A questão dos minerais estratégicos é também abordada, com ênfase nas preocupações demonstradas pelo Departamento de Estado dos EUA. Finalmente, são alinhados três cenários possíveis para o desempenho futuro da mineração brasileira, instando-se o governo a dedicar maior atenção ao destino do nosso subsolo.THE MINERAL industry of Brazil is briefly analysed vis-à-vis the challenges imposed by the cruenta globalization process. The profound changes that occurred in the international framework during the last decade, encompassing the political, economic, social, and institutional structures, demand a thorough appraisal about the role to be played by Brazil in the international market of mineral commodities. On one hand, the opportunities open for world class deposits, mainly in the Amazon, are very promising. On the other hand, it is mandatory to take into account that: the exploitation of these reserves shall comply with sound sustainability criteria, following guidelines already adopted by some developed countries; Brazil will have to demonstrate its competitiveness among the major competitors (Australia

  19. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  20. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A [Norman White Associates, London (UK)

    1979-06-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals - defined as fossil fuels and fissile minerals - is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. A brief comparison is also made between energy and non-energy minerals.

  1. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  2. The bismuth miners study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, B.; Kreuzer, M.; Kreisheimer, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Tschense, A.; Gottschalk, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Radiation Protection Office carried out a retrospective cohort study on some 60,000 former employees of the SAG/SDAG Wismut. The purpose of the study was to validate the radon-related risk of acquiring lung cancer previously calculated from 11 jointly evaluated studies among miners on the basis of an independent, homogeneous data record of comparable size. A further goal was to study the risk of acquiring extrapulmonal tumours. This paper only briefly describes the sampling, design and methods used in the study, as these were already presented during the Radon Status Talks. The first follow-up on the cohort was completed in 2003. Around this time a job exposure matrix (JEM) suitable for scientific inquiries was made available by the professional miners' association and the roof organisation of professional trade associations (HVBG). This paper is the first to report on the outcome of the risk analysis in direct comparison with the results found by BEIR

  3. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  4. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  5. Emissions monitoring in conveyed gas flow: (a) sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides expressed respectively as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, (b) inorganic chlorine and fluorine compounds as gases and vapours expressed as HCl and HF; Rilevamento delle emissioni in flussi gassosi convogliati: (a) ossidid di zolfo e ossidi di azoto espressi rispettivamente come SO{sub 2} e NO{sub 2}, (b) composti inorganici del cloro e del fluoro sotto forma di gas e vapore espressi rispettivamente come HCl e HF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemacki, G.; Viviano, G. [ed.] [Isituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Gruppo di lavoro `Modifiche per il rilevamento delle emissioni in atmosfera da impianti industriali`

    1998-03-01

    The method (a) enables the determination of sulfur oxides (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub 2}) in conveyed atmospheric emissions. A stream of flue gas is a sampled by a heated with a filter housing and absorbed by an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate. The absorption solution is analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography for the determination of sulfate ion and nitrate ion as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}. The method (b) enables the determination of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) in conveyed atmospheric emissions. A stream of flue gas is sampled by a heated probe with a filter housing and absorbed by an alkaline solution (NaOH). The absorption solution is analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography for the determination of chloride ion and fluoride ion as HCl and HF. [Italiano] Il metodo a) consente la determinazione, in emissioni atmosferiche convogliate, degli ossidi di zolfo (SO{sub 2}) e degli ossidi di azoto (NO{sub 2}). Il campionamento viene effettuato mediante sonda riscaldata, munita di sistema filtrante, e sistema di assorbimento in soluzione alcalina di permanganato di potassio. La soluzione di assorbimento viene analizzata mediante cromatografia a scambio ionico, determinando le concentrazioni di ioni solfato e nitrato come SO{sub 2} ed NO{sub 2}. Il metodo b) consente la determinazione, in emissioni atmosferiche convogliate, dell`acido cloridrico (HCl) e dell`acido fluoridrico (HF). Il campionamento viene effettuato mediante sonda riscaldata, munita di sistema filtrante, e sistema di assorbimento in soluzione alcalina (NaOH). La soluzione alcalina viene quindi analizzata mediante cromatografia a scambio ionico, deter,mminando le concentrazioni di ioni cloro e fluoro come HCl e HF.

  6. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  7. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  8. Flotation of sulphide minerals 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssberg, K S.E. [ed.; Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing

    1991-01-01

    A total of 27 papers presented at the workshop on flotation of sulphide minerals, reprinted from the International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 33, nos. 1-4, are included in this book. They cover various aspects of flotation of such minerals as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, malachite and pyrite.

  9. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  10. Manifestaciones ocultas de violencia, durante el desarrollo del recreo escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artavia Granados, Jenny María

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación de Occidente, en Costa Rica. Este tiene como fin determinar si durante el desarrollo de los recreos se suscitan manifestaciones de violencia implícitas u ocultas entre las y los estudiantes II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. En el proceso del estudio se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales desarrolladas durante los recreos escolares y que podrían propiciar violencia escolar implícita u oculta. Se procuró identificar la existencia de enfrentamientos y conflictos entre estudiantes, que conllevan amenazas, manifestaciones de exclusión, persecuciones e intimidaciones entre las y los niños. Se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de la población estudiantil investigada manifiesta recibir amenazas, y que estas, en mayor número, se producen entre las niñas. Asimismo, un alto porcentaje de esta población estudiada indica que ha sido excluida en la dinámica del recreo por diferentes motivos, entre los que destacan: características físicas, género, condición social y situaciones particulares educativas que presentan algunos niños o niñas en edad escolar.This article is the product of a research process carried out in a school at Dirección Regional de Occidente (Western Regional Bureau of Education, in Costa Rica. This is intended to determine if during the development of school recesses manifestations of violence, implied or hidden, arise among the students of II Cycle of the General Basic Education. The process of the study took into account aspects related to recreational activities and personal interactions developed in school recess and that could lead to implied or hidden school violence or bullying. It was aimed to identify the existence of confrontations and conflicts between students

  11. Perfil de actividad durante el juego en futbolistas infantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Barbero Álvarez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En fútbol, el patrón de actividad de jugadores adultos, tanto masculinos como femeninos, ha sido ampliamente estudiado, pero son escasos los estudios que han centrado su atención en el análisis de los desplazamientos de los jugadores de categorías infantiles. Un mayor conocimiento de las demandas de este deporte en las etapas iniciales permitiría la confección de programas de entrenamiento más acordes con las características de los chicos de estas edades. El objetivo del presente estudio fue cuantificar de los desplazamientos en jugadores de fútbol de categoría infantil (12,2 ± 0,6 años; 156 ± 0,8 cm y 51 ± 5,2 kg que pertenecían a la selección de la ciudad autónoma de Melilla, mediante la aplicación de dispositivos basados en tecnología GPS. Los resultados obtenidos certifican que el fútbol infantil es una especialidad deportiva intermitente en la que se intercalan actividades de alta intensidad con situaciones del juego que permiten que el jugador recupere estando parado, andando o con una velocidad de carrera muy baja. La tasa trabajo-descanso fue de 1:3,5 y la distancia media recorrida por minuto fue aproximadamente de 100 m. Esta distancia varía disminuyendo de forma lineal conforme transcurre el partido, existiendo diferencias significativas entre el inicio y el final del juego, lo que indicaría la aparición de la fatiga. Los esfuerzos de alta intensidad que se realizan implican el 6,1% del tiempo de juego y el 16,3 % de la distancia recorrida, efectuando un sprint máximo de entre 10 y 15 m de media, cada 141 segundos. La aplicación de tareas que reproduzcan la intensidad del juego durante cortos periodos de tiempo (no superiores a 10 minutos aseguraría una elevada intensidad de trabajo durante los entrenamientos.

  12. Reformismo e intervencionismo militar durante la Guerra Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón SALAS LARRAZÁBAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El reformismo militar ha sido durante nuestra historia contemporánea una obsesión que cayó en manía, tal vez porque nunca se hizo una verdadera reforma y el intervencionismo de los militares en la política, un hábito que llegó a adquirir caracteres patológicos endémicos. Del centenar largo de españoles que ocuparon una o varias veces la cartera de la guerra desde la convocatoria de Cortes en 1.809 hasta nuestra Guerra Civil, raro fue el que no llevaba en sus bolsillos al incorporarse a su puesto un proyecto de reforma militar y lo mismo podría decirse de los que en número sensiblemente igual se sucedieron en el Ministerio de Marina, todos los cuales eran portadores de su personal programa naval. Del mismo modo también puede afirmarse que en casi todas las situaciones en que, con éxito o sin él, se produjo un cambio sustancial en el funcionamiento de las Instituciones, los que lo protagonizaron o eran militares o buscaron y encontraron apoyo en las Fuerzas Armadas.

  13. Síndrome de Brugada durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Reyna Villasmil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Brugada es una causa común de muerte súbita de origen cardiaco. Los cambios electrocardiográficos característicos del síndrome están relacionados con las alteraciones de los canales de sodio. Las características clínicas y moleculares del síndrome han progresado rápidamente desde la descripción inicial. Existen escasos reportes de esta enfermedad en el embarazo. Se describe un caso de síndrome de Brugada durante el embarazo en una mujer joven que se presentó con síncope y taquicardia ventricular. Brugada syndrome during pregnancy Brugada syndrome is a common cause of cardiac-origin sudden death. The characteristic electrocardiographic changes of the syndrome are linked to sodium channel alterations. Clinical and molecular characterization of the syndrome has progressed rapidly since its initial description. There are few reports of this disease in pregnancy. We describe a case of revelation of Brugada syndrome during pregnancy in a young woman who presented syncope and ventricular tachycardia.

  14. La prescripción de medicamentos durante la lactancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Cárdenas

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Al formular cualquier medicamento durante la lactancia, surgen algunos interrogantes por parte del médico y de la paciente lo cual permite una subestimación del riesgo que tiene el lactante o una sobreestimación del potencial tóxico, hecho que facilita una poca adhesión de la paciente al esquema de tratamiento ya que aún falta información acerca de la transferencia de los fármacos desde el plasma a la leche materna y la proporción en que estos la hacen. Por tal motivo es importante conocer las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los fármacos que favorezcan su paso a la leche, al igual que algunos factores maternos y del lactante, para lograr hacer una aproximación sobre la cantidad de fármaco que toma el niño en cada ingesta de leche.

  15. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  16. Minerals and rumen function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms are discussed of some clinical disorders, characteristic only of ruminants and related to the effects of abnormal mineral intake on rumen function. With particular attention to tropical conditions, consideration is given to: (a) the possible effects of phosphorus deficiency on rumen microbial activity; (b) the depression of rumen microbial synthesis in sulphur deficiency; (c) the inhibition of magnesium absorption from the forestomachs; and (d) the involvement of the rumen microorganisms in leading to copper and vitamin B 12 deficiencies as a result of low intakes of cobalt. (author)

  17. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  18. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    The work on this volume began in January 1972, but in a broader sense its production began many years ago. The chapters were written by geologists most of whom have had many years of experience studying the geology of mineral deposits, and more particularly the commodities about which they have written here. A total of nearly 2,300 man-years of professional experience in the geology of mineral resources is represented by the authors of the volume, and about 30 man-years went directly into its preparation. Each chapter contains not only a synthesis of the state of knowledge of the geology of the commodity, but also an appraisal of the known resources, and an examination of the geologic possibilities for finding additional deposits. In January 1972, responsibility for the preparation of the volume was assigned to us as co-editors, and we were given a tentative list of commodities and authors. We provided each author with a suggested outline of general topics to be covered, and some guidelines as to scope and philosophy of approach, but beyond that we avoided any attempt to fit each chapter into a stereotype. Moreover, the types of commodities range from the major metals and industrial minerals such as copper, silver, and fluorspar, which have been the subject of geologic research for years, to other commodities that are of such varied geologic nature (such as pigments or gemstones) or of such minor present importance (such as scandium or thallium) that they cannot be treated from the same viewpoint as the major minerals. The chapters range, therefore, from comprehensive summary reports to general essays that reflect the individuality of the authors as well as the variation among commodities. Throughout the book the emphasis is on geology, but each chapter contains some summary information on uses, technology, and economics. These summaries are not meant to be exhaustive, however, and additional details are in the 1970 edition of "Mineral Facts and Problems" (Bulletin

  19. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  20. RELATIVE TRACE MINERAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rchard D. Miles; Peter R. Henry

    2006-01-01

    Para determinar a eficiência de utilização de elementos minerais dietéticos, deve-se conhecer a biodisponibilidade relativa de cada elemento de um determinado ingrediente ou de uma ração completa. Análises químicas da dieta ou de um determinado ingrediente não indicam a efetividade biológica de um nutriente. Existem muitos fatores que influenciam a biodisponibilidade dos minerais, especialmente dos minerais-traço, tais como: nível de consumo do mineral, forma química, digestibilidade da dieta...

  1. Qualidade de biodiesel de soja, mamona e blendas durante armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio R. Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se monitorar o armazenamento dos biodieseis provenientes da transesterificação homogênea alcalina do óleo de soja e mamona via rota metílica, avaliando a indução oxidativa pela norma EN14112 e pelo método PetroOxy durante o período de 120 dias, também observou-se o comportamento dos biodieseis inseridos em blendas nas proporções de 20, 30, 40 e 50% v/v de biodiesel de mamona ao biodiesel de soja denominadas de M20, M30, M40 e M50 (em recipientes de aço-carbono fechado. Conforme análises físico-químicas, as especificações para ambos biodiesel e blendas satisfizeram as exigências dos limites permitidos pelo Regulamento Técnico nº 14/2012 da Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis. Exceção das análises de estabilidade oxidativa (M0, M20, M30 e M40, do índice de acidez após 60 dias (M50, após 90 dias (M40 e M50, após 120 dias (M100 e da viscosidade cinemática (M40, M50 e M100 que apresentaram valores fora dos limites estabelecidos pela norma. As propriedades fluidodinâmicas apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes para os biodieseis metílicos e blendas, assim, nestas concentrações o biodiesel metílico de mamona atua como um aditivo natural ao biodiesel metílico de soja. Através do método EN 14112 verificou-se que a blenda M50 é mais resistente ao processo de oxidação durante armazenamento de 120 dias.Quality of biodiesel soy, castor beans and blends during storageAbstract: The objective of the study was to monitor the storage of biodiesels from alkaline homogeneous transesterification of soybean and castor oil via methyl route, and to evaluate the oxidative induction by the EN14112 standard and the PetroOxy method over the period of 120 days. We observed the behavior of the inserted biodiesels in blends in the ratios of 20, 30, 40 and 50% v / v biodiesel from castor beans of soybean biodiesel named M20, M30, M40 and M50 (closed carbon steel containers . As physical and chemical

  2. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Destructive textures around radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montel, J.M.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In most of the rocks, natural uranium and thorium are concentrated in some minerals which provide favourable crystallographic sites. These minerals are thus submitted to an intense auto-irradiation which may transform them. Using conventional investigation methods (petrographic or scanning electronic microscopy, electronic micro-probe) and less conventional ones (transmission electronic microscopy), the authors studied the interfaces between radioactive minerals and their host minerals. They comment the possible mechanical and structural aspects of this interaction by irradiation, and the influence of geological events

  6. Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; McClung, James P; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2007-01-01

    Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function...

  7. Silicoaluminous minerals analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, Celia; Fina, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A group of silicoaluminous minerals of known composition have been analyzed by means of an energy dispersive electron microprobe. The analysis has been performed using a standarless semiquantitative method. The concentration was calculated using the program included in the software of the on-line computer, based on the ZAF correction. It is well known that it is difficult to analyze Si, Al and Na by this method because the absortion correction in the range of 0.9 to 2.0 KeV is not very accurate and the background substraction is also questionable. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the errors involved in these measurements and the best operation conditions. (Author) [es

  8. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  9. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l -1 , which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  10. Incidencia de la sífilis durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Herrera Gómez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo en el Departamento de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual del Policlínico Docente "Nguyen Van Troi" en el trienio 1993 al 1995, con el objetivo de disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad por enfermedades de transmisión sexual en las gestantes. Se revisaron las encuestas epidemiológicas realizadas a todas las embarazadas con serologías positivas por el Departamento de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual y de cada una de ellas se extrajeron las variables necesarias para estudiar las gestantes que finalmente se diagnosticaron con sífilis. Como resultado de nuestro trabajo encontramos una incidencia de sífilis durante el embarazo de 28,66 x 1 000 gestantes. Existe un elevado porcentaje de gestantes con sífilis en edades comprendidas entre 15 y 19 años, la mayoría pertenecían a la raza negra. Llama la atención la gran proporción de mujeres casadas y con bajo nivel cultural. En cuanto a la categoría ocupacional, predominó el ama de casa y un gran número de casos se diagnosticó en el primer trimestre. Del total de casos, sólo 4 presentaron manifestaciones dermatológicas y 34 recibieron el tratamiento de elección. No se reportó ningún caso de sífilis congénita.A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the "Nugyen Van Troi" Teaching Polyclinic from 1993 to 1995, aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality due to sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women. All the epidemiological surveys applied to pregnant women with positive serology by this Departament were reviewed. All the variables necessary to study these women who finally had a syphilis diagnosis were used. As a result of our work we found an incidence of syphilis during pregnancy of 28.66 x 1 000 pregnant women. There is a high percentage of syphilis at ages between 15 and 19 years. Most of them are black women. The number of married women with low cultural

  11. Vivencias educativas durante la Época Franquista en Zújar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaret Martínez Heredia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la realización de este estudio hemos pretendido conocer los testimonios y vivencias educativas durante la época franquista en el municipio de Zújar, situado en la parte noroccidental de la comarca de Baza, en la provincia de Granada. Para ello analizamos cuatro entrevistas en profundidad, utilizando una metodología de carácter cualitativo desarrollando un estudio biográfico-narrativo de corte hermenéutico. Se obtuvieron fotografías e imágenes de objetos de interés por parte de los entrevistados que completaron y complementaron la construcción de la historia de vida y nos proporcionaron una visión más completa del objeto de estudio. Como principales hallazgos destacamos dificultades en la escolarización, grandes situaciones de analfabetismo, épocas de escasez, y, cómo no, la precariedad del sistema educativo en Zújar. Las relaciones intergeneracionales, la realización de las entrevistas, así como su transcripción literaria nos han permitido conocer poco a poco tanto las formas de vida como las necesidades procedentes de una época marcada por la Dictadura. Concluimos con las grandes diferencias existentes, tanto en la escolarización como en la vida cotidiana entre la época actual y la época franquista en España, debemos decir que la construcción del género en la época franquista se realizaba mostrando la relación existente entre mujer y familia, resaltando su papel como educadora de los hijos, ser la mujer perfecta y educada dentro de su hogar… destacando la existencia de un currículum dirigido a las chicas, en el que se impartían asignaturas escolares para las mujeres sobre tareas domésticas con el objetivo de enseñarlas a bordar, coser… Del mismo modo destacamos el peso de la Religión dentro de las escuelas, junto a la necesidad de rezar a la entrada y la salida de la escuela.

  12. Of minerals and men. [Discovery of new mineral species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, S.W. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1983-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new mineral species appears to be on the increase in Southern Africa and classification and nomenclature, once haphazard, are now subject to international scientific screening and rules. Earlier names entrenched in the literature provide a fascinating background to the minerals scene.

  13. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  14. Radioisotopes in plant mineral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    Extensive investigations on mineral composition of different plant species growing on various soils, helped in realizing that neither the presence nor the concentration of a mineral element in a plant can be regarded as a criterion for essentially. Plants have a limited capability for selective uptake of those mineral elements which are essential for their growth. They also take up mineral element which are not necessary for growth and may even be toxic. The mineral composition of plants growing in soils cannot, therefore, be used to establish essentially of a mineral element. Once this fact was appreciated, both water and sand culture experiments were carried out in which particular mineral elements were omitted. Von Sach and Knop are credited with reintroduction of the solution culture method using which they demonstrated the absolute requirement of ten macronutrients. As evident, these techniques made possible a more precise characterization of essentially of mineral elements and led to a better understanding of their role in plant metabolism. By the beginning of 20"t"h century importance of micronutrients like B, Mn, Cu, Mo and CI was also established

  15. Miners' strike 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.

    1985-01-01

    References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.

  16. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  17. Ways to defuse miners' anger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger

  18. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... auditor and to certify the audit. In addition, Section 13(p) requires the report to include a description.... Auditor Independence iii. Audit Objective 4. Recycled and Scrap Minerals a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on... Minerals Report must also identify the independent private sector auditor \\23\\ and certify the independent...

  19. Estructura administrativa de la Provincia de Bogotá durante el periodo comprendido entre 1832- 1857

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Robledo, Luz Marina

    2010-01-01

    El estudio de la estructura administrativa de la provincia de Bogotá en el siglo IX es importante por cuanto se muestra por primera vez cuales fueron los primeros entes administrativos que se crearon durante este periodo, fundamentalmente durante la vigencia de la constitución de 1832. El régimen territorial de las provincias se dividió a su vez en cantones y éstos, en distritos parroquiales.

  20. La literatura médica española sobre los riesgos del amianto durante el franquismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is a fibrous mineral used since the early 20th century in a wide range of manufacturing processes and industrial products for its fireproofing and abrasion-resistant properties. Asbestos exposure has had harmful effects on the health of workers and of the general population. Asbestos risks have attracted scant historiographical attention in Spain, contributing to the idea of a lack of medical and public concerns about this issue until the 1980s. The aim of this paper was to analyze the emergence of such concerns during the Franco regime by exploring the medical literature and the legislation drafted to address asbestos hazards.

    El amianto o asbesto es un mineral fibroso de propiedades ignífugas y resistente a la abrasión que ha sido empleado masivamente en procesos industriales y productos manufacturados desde comienzos del siglo XX. Su uso ha provocado graves problemas de salud en los trabajadores expuestos y en la población general. La atención historiográfica a los riesgos del amianto en España ha sido casi inexistente, lo que ha contribuido a consolidar la idea de una ausencia de preocupación por este problema en nuestro país hasta la década de los ochenta. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el surgimiento de dicha preocupación durante el periodo franquista, mediante un análisis de la producción científica y de la normativa aprobada para enfrentar los riesgos del amianto.

  1. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by structure type

  2. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  3. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  4. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  5. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  6. herbage mineral nutrition indexed as tools for rapid mineral status

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    mineral indices were calculated from chemical analysis with a view to generate relevant fertilisation recommenda- tions. Although the dry .... P, and K established in temperate climate (Blanfort ..... like rotational grazing rhythms or stocking rates.

  7. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B H

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  8. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Are ... you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your body needs ...

  9. 76 FR 44892 - Information Collection; Locatable Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Locatable Minerals AGENCY: Forest... on the extension of a currently approved information collection, Locatable Minerals-36 CFR part 228...: Comments concerning this notice should be addressed to: USDA, Forest Service, Minerals and Geology...

  10. Isotope analysis of closely adjacent minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development. It comprises: searching for a class of minerals in a mineral specimen comprising more than one class of minerals; identifying in the mineral specimen a target sample of the thus searched for class; directing thermally pyrolyzing laser beam radiation onto surface mineral substance of the target sample in the mineral specimen releasing surface mineral substance pyrolysate gases therefrom; and determining isotope composition essentially of the surface mineral substance from analyzing the pyrolysate gases released from the thus pyrolyzed target sample, the isotope composition including isotope(s) selected from the group consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes; determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development of the target mineral from thus determined isotope composition of surface mineral substance pyrolysate

  11. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  13. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  14. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  15. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  16. (MEPE) mineralization ability in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    matrix proteins and is associated with bone and teeth mineralization. We developed .... acetic acid) and bands were visualized by dynamic integrated exposure using .... approximate agreement with the expected molecular size. Purification of.

  17. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Clark, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  18. Hydrometalurgical processes for mineral complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barskij, L.A.; Danil'chenko, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements for the technology of the processing of ores including uranium ores and principal stages of the working out of technological schemes are described in brief. There are reference data on commercial minerals and ores including uranium-thorium ores, their classification with due regard for physical, chemical and superficial properties which form the basis for ore-concentrating processes. There are also presented the classification of minerals including uranium minerals by their flotation ability, flotation regimes of minerals, structural-textural characteristics of ores, genetic types of ore formations and their concentrating ability, algorithmization of the apriori evaluation of the concentration and technological diagnostics of the processing of ores. The classification of ore concentration technique is suggested

  19. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  20. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  1. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  2. BLM Colorado Federal Mineral Estate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This Federal Mineral Estate (Subsurface) dataset is a result of combining data sets that were collected at each BLM Colorado Field Office and using...

  3. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  4. Inhalation hazards to underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    Massive radon-daughter exposures to miners have caused lung cancer for centuries. Exposures in US uranium mines have been regulated for 15 years and, during this time, relatively few miners have been exposed to over 4 WLM year. Present trends are toward lower annual exposures and shorter working lives. The net effect has been to hold cumulative lifetime exposures well below the level at which statistically significant excess risk has been shown

  5. La misurazione dei processi di regolazione cognitiva e metacognitiva durante lo studio con gli ipermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L’apprendimento autoregolato rappresenta una modalità di apprendimento di fondamentale importanza quando ci si avvale del supporto di ambienti ipermediali. Obiettivo di questo articolo è presentare quattro assunzioni chiave che consentono la misurazione dei processi cognitivi e metacognitivi attivati durante l’apprendimento tramite ipermedia. Innanzi tutto, assumiamo che sia possibile individuare, tracciare, modellare e favorire processi di apprendimento auto-regolato durante lo studio con gli ipermedia. La seconda assunzione si focalizza sul comprendere come la complessità dei processi regolatori che avvengono durante l’apprendimento mediato da sistemi ipermediali sia importante per determinare il perché alcuni processi vengono messi in atto durante l’esecuzione di un compito. Le terza assunzione è relativa al considerare che l’utilizzo di processi di apprendimento auto-regolato possa dinamicamente cambiare nel tempo e che tali processi sono di natura ciclica (influenzati dalle condizioni interne ed esterne e da meccanismi di feedback. Infine, l’identificazione, raccolta e classificazione dei processi di apprendimento autoregolato utilizzati durante lo studio con sistemi ipermediali, può risultare un compito alquanto difficoltoso.

  6. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  7. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  9. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  10. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  11. Aumento de la temperatura en la superficie dental durante la foto-polimerización

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Douglas Jarquín; Bonilla, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    ResumenSe sabe que durante el fotocurado de los materiales dentales se libera calor, ya sea por parte de la fuente emisora de luz o por la reacción de polimerización del compuesto utilizado. Este aumento de temperatura se transmite a los tejidos, el cual puede repercutir en ellos. Debido a esto, se realiza un estudio comparativo de la temperatura alcanzada durante la obturación y reconstrucción de piezas dentales in vitro, utilizando lámparas de fotocurado de tipo cuarzo-tungsteno-halógeno (Q...

  12. Efectos estructurales en el transporte de materia durante el secado de frutas

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Andrea Bibiana

    2004-01-01

    El secado comercial de frutas involucra usualmente tratamientos de presecado (escalcado y deshidratación osmótica utilizando azúcares) dirigidos ya sea a mejorar la calidad del producto final o a mejorar la cinética de secado. La literatura sobre el efecto de estos tratamientos en la velocidad de transporte de humedad durante el secado convencional es aparentemente contradictoria. Ello puede atribuirse a la complejidad del proceso simultáneo de transferencia de calor y de masa durante el seca...

  13. Violencia en la sierra de Piura colonial durante el siglo XVIII*

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Flener, Milagros

    2015-01-01

    El tema de la violencia durante la época colonial generalmente ha sido estudiado en relación a levantamientos o rebeliones, pero no como tema aislado con contenido propio, es decir, en tanto violencia cotidiana. Jorge Pinto Rodríguez cita en su trabajo "La violencia en el corregimiento de Coquimbo durante el siglo xviii" algunos estudios para el caso chileno, mientras que en el Perú se cuenta tan solo con el estudio de Ward Stavig "Violencia cotidiana de los naturales de Quispicanchis, Canas ...

  14. El comercio exterior durante la década revolucionaria: un acercamiento preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Kuntz Ficker

    2001-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es realizar un primer acercamiento sistemático al análisis del comercio exterior de México durante la década de 1910. Tal objetivo se ha visto obstaculizado en el pasado por la escasez de fuentes cuantitativas de procedencia mexicana para los años de la revolución. Para suplir esta carencia, este artículo recurre a las estadísticas comerciales publicadas por los principales socios de México durante estos años (Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Francia). A pa...

  15. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  16. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the definition...

  17. Hyperspectral analysis of clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki Rama Suresh, G.; Sreenivas, K.; Sivasamy, R.

    2014-11-01

    A study was carried out by collecting soil samples from parts of Gwalior and Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh in order to assess the dominant clay mineral of these soils using hyperspectral data, as 0.4 to 2.5 μm spectral range provides abundant and unique information about many important earth-surface minerals. Understanding the spectral response along with the soil chemical properties can provide important clues for retrieval of mineralogical soil properties. The soil samples were collected based on stratified random sampling approach and dominant clay minerals were identified through XRD analysis. The absorption feature parameters like depth, width, area and asymmetry of the absorption peaks were derived from spectral profile of soil samples through DISPEC tool. The derived absorption feature parameters were used as inputs for modelling the dominant soil clay mineral present in the unknown samples using Random forest approach which resulted in kappa accuracy of 0.795. Besides, an attempt was made to classify the Hyperion data using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm with an overall accuracy of 68.43 %. Results showed that kaolinite was the dominant mineral present in the soils followed by montmorillonite in the study area.

  18. Mineral matter reactions in cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Some cokes appear to be particularly susceptible to weakening in the blast furnace. A mechanism which has been postulated to explain this is silica reduction by coke. Thus this project was initiated to ascertain the behaviour of quartz and silicates in coke with an emphasis on the role of the clay minerals. It is now possible to obtain quantitative mineralogical data and, the case of coal, to also obtain quantitative data on mineral grain size, shape and association through the use of automated electron beam image analysis techniques. This new ability can allow relationships between the amount of minerals in a coke and its reactivity to be established for the first time. Samples of five Australian coking coals were selected based upon quartz and clay mineral contents, mineral grain size and association. Samples were also provided by BlueScope Steel of coal, feed coke, and tuyere coke samples from the bosh, deadman and raceway regions of the blast furnace. The analytical work program conducted was as follows: Preparation of cokes by CSIRO; Petrography of starting coals and cokes; QEMSCAN of coals; LTA and XRD of starting coals and cokes; Coke reactivity tests (NSC and small scale); Petrography, LTA and XRD of reacted cokes; Petrographic and XRD examination of heat treated cokes. This study indicates that the NSC reactivity test does not adequately reflect the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace. Further investigation of the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace is required.

  19. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  20. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  1. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  2. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  3. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1997-01-01

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  4. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A

    1978-09-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals--defined as fossil fuels and fissile materials--is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. Genuine shortages of energy minerals are now of a very long-term nature, whereas artificial ones may occur at any time and have a serious effect on the world economy due to the dependence of most OECD countries on imports of energy minerals. This paper argues that events over the last decade will progressively lead to a major, long-lasting transformation of the energy scene worldwide. This transformation will encompass demand, in terms of conservation and efficiency, the supply mix of the various energy minerals, the supply system and the structure of the different energy industries. It is already affecting the role of governments and reaching into the question of national sovereignty, thereby making energy minerals a key area of international relations. In all these respects, this paper concludes that we have entered an era that is quite different from those we have experienced in the past. As well as requiring many new technological innovations, more importantly, attention must be focused on the development of new approaches to meeting the energy industries' capital requirements in the decades ahead--first, because of the changing character of the energy industries and the magnitude of their financial requirements; secondly, because of the nature of the uncertainties with which they are faced; and thirdly, because of the constantly shifting and increasingly complex world capital market conditions.

  5. Economical characteristics of base types of minerals. 1. Metallic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic minerals is raw materials base of black and colour metallurgy. In this article of book author describes the group of black metals (iron, manganese, chromium), group of tempers (titanium, vanadium, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten), colour metals (copper, lead, zinc, aluminium, tin, mercury, antimony, bismuth) and etc.

  6. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  7. Platinum-group element mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewaldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the geological processes responsible for the abnormal enrichment of the platinum-group elements (PGE) in the mineralized layers of the Bushveld Complex. Questions asked are: what processes caused enrichment of the Bushveld magma in the PGE ; by what processes were these PGE concentrated in the mineralized layers ; was contamination of the Bushveld magma from external sources important in the formation of the PGE enriched layers ; what are the effects of fractional crystallization on the PGE ratios

  8. Irregularidad menstrual y exposición a mercurio en la minería artesanal del oro en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar; Diana Carolina Jaimes; Adelaida Manquián-Tejos; Luz Helena Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Introducción. El proceso de extracción del oro por amalgamación con mercurio es común en la minería artesanal. Los efectos sobre la reproducción de la exposición al mercurio elemental en el contexto de la minería del oro, no han sido suficientemente estudiados. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la exposición al mercurio elemental durante la minería del oro, sobre la regularidad del ciclo menstrual y la presentación de abortos en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio analítico ...

  9. Irregularidad menstrual y exposición a mercurio en la minería artesanal del oro en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Jaimes, Diana Carolina; Manquián-Tejos, Adelaida; Sánchez, Luz Helena

    2015-01-01

    Introducción. El proceso de extracción del oro por amalgamación con mercurio es común en la minería artesanal. Los efectos sobre la reproducción de la exposición al mercurio elemental en el contexto de la minería del oro, no han sido suficientemente estudiados. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la exposición al mercurio elemental durante la minería del oro, sobre la regularidad del ciclo menstrual y la presentación de abortos en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio analítico de cor...

  10. PSA (:60) Cuide su salud emocional durante una emergencia (Coping With Disaster)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    Este anuncio de servicio público de 60 segundos habla sobre cómo cuidar su salud emocional durante una emergencia.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  11. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanueva Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTADOS. En las tres evaluaciones durante la gestación las concentraciones de vitamina A fueron de 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 y 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectivamente, lo cual muestra una disminución significativa. Sin embargo, sólo 1/30 se ubicó por debajo del punto de corte aceptado para considerar riesgo de deficiencia y ninguno para deficiencia. Durante el posparto las concentraciones se conservaron relativamente constantes, alrededor de 2.10 µmol/L. La práctica de la lactancia no tuvo impacto sobre las concentraciones séricas de retinol, no así la pérdida de peso. CONCLUSIONES. En la población estudiada no se documentaron casos de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el periodo perinatal. La pérdida de peso materna tiene influencia sobre las concentraciones de retinol en el posparto.

  12. MINERAL WATERS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES, TIAGO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder affecting nearly 1% of adult population. First-line therapies include disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, but creno-balneotherapyis often prescribed in rheumatic disorders and RA is no exception. Objectives: To know the efficacy of creno-balneotherapy in RA. Methods: A Medline based search was made using MeSH terms “balneology” and “rheumatoid arthritis”. Articles concerning the use of mineral waters in RA treatment were included. Results: In RA, two traditional ways of employing mineral waters are commonly used: immersion and peliotherapy. Each owns their benefits to non-specific or hydrotherapeutic effects and specific or crenotherapeutic effects. Mineral waters must be regarded as an adjuvant therapy in quiescent, stable or non-progressive RA. Significant benefits have been accomplished with radonenriched and sulphurous waters. Isothermal or hyperthermal waters should be preferred. Conclusions: Although there is a global lack of evidence, mineral waters are a safe and effective therapy to be considered in RA.

  13. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  14. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  15. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  16. Lagoa Real design - Mineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the works realized, in course and to realize of Lagoa Real Design, including the works for implantation of Mineral-Industrial complex with the production capacity of 1.000 ton of U sub(3) O sub(8) per year from 1988. (author)

  17. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  18. Minerals Industry' 97. Survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this annual survey is to provide timely and accurate financial data such as production, price movements, profitability, distribution of assets by activity, employment and labour cost and taxation on the Australian minerals industry. It aims to facilitate more informed debate on the industry's role and importance in the economy. The report also includes information on the safety and health performance and overseas exploration expenditure of the minerals industry. This twenty-first survey relates to the year ended 30 June 1997. The proportion of activity covered in this year's survey is comparable with the 1996 survey. The mineral industry is defined as including exploration for, extraction and primary processing of minerals in Australia. The oil, gas, iron and steel industries are excluded. As for the uranium industry, increased mine capacity over the medium term saw a switch away from spot market purchases to long term contracts for uranium in 1996. This, coupled with announced releases from the US stockpile, saw downward pressure on spot market prices for uranium during 1996/97. The average spot market price for U 3 O 8 fell by an average of 6 percent during 1996/97 and was approximately 16 percent lower than three years ago. General uncertainty over the future profitability of coal industry is compounded by the likely softness of future coal prices

  19. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10 -4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10 -4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10 -2 Sv -1 . Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  20. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  1. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  2. Assessment of nitrate dynamic in soil after 12 years of continuous treatments with mineral fertilizers or sewage sludges; Dinamica dei nitrati in suoli fertilizzati con fanghi di depurazione o concimi minerali dopo 12 anni di trattamenti continuativi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovi, P.; Cortellini, L. [Centro Ricerche Produzioni Animali SpA, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results on soil nitrate migration following the application of mineral fertilizers and sewage sludge. Soil nitrate concentration was monitored from April 1999 to July 2000 in the context of a long term agronomical experimentation in progress since 1988 in Ravenna, in the Easter Po Valley about the utilisation of sewage sludges and mineral fertilizers on a short term rotation on crop plants (winter wheat - sugarbeet - maize rotation). In this study 10 different treatments were compared, 4 of which with inorganic dressing and 6 with organic fertilisation. Inorganic dressing consists of in 4 rates of urea (0-33-66 and 100% of recommended input, i.e. 180, 120 and 300 kg N ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 for wheat, sugar beet and maize, respectively). Organic fertilizations consist in treatments with liquid , dewatered and composted sewage sludge at two rates, 5 and 10 t DM ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1. Soil from each plot was sampled 4 times in strategical moments of the agricultural cycle, up to a depth of 160 cm (5 strata). Each sample was analysed for nitrate nitrogen. Results shows that nitrate accumulation occurs in soils treated with the highest rates of mineral fertilisers or sewage. [Italian] Nell'ambito di una sperimentazione agronomica sull'impiego di fanghi di depurazione e concimi chimici su colture erbacee (frumento, bietola e mais in avvicendamento), condotta da 12 anni a Ravenna, e' stata controllata la dinamica dei nitrati nel corso di 16 mesi da aprile 1999 a luglio 2000. Sono stati confrontati 10 diversi trattamenti di cui 4 con sola concimazione minerale, corrispondenti allo 0-33-66 e 100% della dose massima consigliabile per le diverse colture nelle condizioni in cui e' condotta la sperimentazione (180, 120 e 300 kg N ha{sup -}1 a{sup -}1 rispettivamente per frumento, bietola e mais), e 6 con fanghi di depurazione liquidi, disidratati e compostati impiegati alle due dosi di 5 e 10 t s.s. ha{sup -}1 a{sup -}1. Per

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  4. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  5. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  6. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  7. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  8. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelli...

  9. Radiogenic cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple studies have yielded remarkably consistent results relating radon daughter exposure to lung cancer risk in underground mining populations. The U.S. uranium miner study appears to be at variance with the other results. The primary reason is that the doses in the U.S. miner study were systematically overestimated, resulting in a risk coefficient that is lower than all the others. The significance of these findings for radiogenic lung cancer goes well beyond mining populations, because one is now aware of the implications of radon daughters detected in homes. The highest cumulative levels from radon exposures within homes have been found in Sweden, evidently because of their unusual geology with uranium-bearing ores near the surface. The Swedish authorities view this as a major public health problem that needs to be addressed

  10. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Using both large and small experimental animals, this project is investigating levels of uranium-mine air contaminants that produce respiratory system disease in miners. Lung cancer incidence and deaths from degenerative lung disease are significantly elevated among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathological data for 100-working-level (WL) exposure rates show a significant increase in lung tumor risk over 1000-WL exposure rates for comparable cumulative radon-daughter exposures. Exposure of rats to radon daughters and other contaminants continues; the exposure of beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone was terminated. Renal function and hematology data on ore-dust-exposed dogs are reported. 1 figure, 5 tables

  11. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    This project is investigating levels or uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema

  12. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1982-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological) and their exposure levels that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumonconiosis and emphysema

  13. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  14. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  15. Minor sources of miner exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Green, N.; Brown, K.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of radiation exposure to miners in non-coal mines in addition to radon daughters are thoron daughters in mine air, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rocks. A crude estimate of the total annual effective dose equivalent from these minor sources is 2 - 5 mSv which is of secondary importance compared to the dose from radon daughters. (UK)

  16. Epidemiological studies of Czech miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    1995-01-01

    Lung cancer risk from radon was analysed in three cohorts of uranium (N=4320+5628) and burnt clay (N=915) miners. The follow-up of miners was extended up to 1990. Most of the cases (708) have been observed in the oldest (S) cohort followed since 1952. The other two cohorts, 18 years younger in average with substantially lower exposures, contributed 72 cases. Therefore, the main analyses of risk from radon were based on the S cohort. The data of the S cohort were subjected to checks both as for the individual exposures of the miners and the completeness of follow-up. The present mortality analyses from other causes suggest the follow-up is correct. The general patterns of mortality from violent deaths and diseases other than lung cancer show similar features in all the three cohorts, i.e. decreasing trend with time since first exposure in the first case, and increasing trend in the second one, confirming thus the healthy worker effect, in the first 20 years. A raised mortality was observed in later periods in respiratory and circulatory diseases and also in cancers other than lung cancer, suggesting that smoking habits among miners might be more frequent than in the general population. The estimates of lung cancer risk from radon exposure were based on relative linear models, where cumulative exposures were lagged by 5 years. The linear effect of cumulative exposure was substantially modified by time since exposure, exposure rate, and age at exposure. From the estimated intercept, it can be deduced that in the absence of exposure to radon, the estimated mortality from lung cancer in the cohort is about 1.5 times higher than in the general population. (orig.) [de

  17. Utilización del mineral de manganeso (pirolusita en la producción de aceros al carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerles Batista-Cabrera

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos tradicionales de producción de acero utilizan el ferromanganeso para obtener el porcentaje de Mn en la marca establecida según la norma cubana, pero este compuesto es altamente costoso. Se ensayó, en la producción del Ac 35, sustituir el ferromanganeso por el mineral pirolusita (MnO2 con el fin de reducir los costos. Se evaluaron dos variantes de sustitución: la primera consiste en añadir el mineral con virutas de aluminio y coque (o residuos de electrodos sobre la escoria del metal durante el proceso de reducción, en tanto que la segunda variante emplea el mineral de manganeso en lugar del de hierro durante el proceso de oxidación de las impurezas. Se encontró que ambas variantes son factibles y que la segunda resulta, además, ser más económica

  18. "Análise da carga mecânica no joeho durante o agachamento"

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Pessoto Hirata

    2006-01-01

    Existe um conceito difundido entre professores de educação física, fisioterapeutas e ortopedistas que o joelho não deve ser demasiadamente anteriorizado em relação à ponta do pé na direção ântero-posterior durante qualquer tipo de agachamento de modo a diminuir a carga mecânica imposta ao joelho. No entanto, são escassas as evidências quantitativas que corroboram este conceito. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estimar forças e torque na articulação do joelho em indivíduos saudáveis durante o e...

  19. Estrategias cognitivas desarrolladas durante el juego por tenistas de diferente nivel de pericia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García González

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar las estrategias cognitivas utilizadas por jugadores de tenis durante el juego real de competición, comparando la planificación táctica desarrollada en función del nivel de pericia de los sujetos. La investigación fue realizada con 6 tenistas, 3 jugadores noveles y 3 jugadores expertos. Los deportistas fueron entrevistados nada más terminar la acción de juego para que verbalizaran sobre qué estaban pensando en ese momento. El análisis de contenido de los informes verbales se ha realizado mediante un sistema de categorías propuesto originalmente por McPherson (1999, 2000. Los resultados muestran que los expertos poseen una estructura de conocimiento mayor, más compleja y más sofisticada, que les permite planificar mejor sus posteriores decisiones durante el juego.

  20. Alterações metabolicas induzidas pela cafeina durante o exercicio intermitente

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo dos Reis Silveira

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: A cafeína porser uma droga muito comum nos dias atuais e capaz de alterar a performace durante o exercicio fisico, tem sido usada como um recurso ergogênico durante as competições esportivas em várias modalidades. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de verifiar a influência da cafeína no tempo de endurance, nas concentrações plasmáticas de ácidos graxos livres antes do exercício, nas concentrações de TBARS em amostras de urina no final do exercício, nas concentrações sanguíneas de lactato ...

  1. ALIMENTACIÓN DURANTE EL TRABAJO DE PARTO: ¿ES NECESARIO EL AYUNO?

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia S.,María Teresa; Abarca C.,Cristian; Astudillo S.,Roxana; Llevaneras M.,Silvana; Quiroga T.,Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Estudio analítico de corte transversal sobre las características de alimentación e hidratación de 602 mujeres durante el trabajo de parto durante dos periodos. La información fue extraída por medio de una entrevista y la revisión de fichas clínicas. Para el análisis se utilizó t Student y Chi cuadrado. Entre 9,7 y 19,4% de las mujeres recibe comida en preparto y entre 30,4 y 33,2% recibe agua. No existen diferencias en la proporción de ingesta de agua y comida entre las madres con y sin patol...

  2. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably incident...

  3. Contribution of the Minerals Industry towards Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a leading producer of a number of mineral commodities, and the minerals industry is a key driver of the South African economy. Ensuring that this mineral wealth is exploited in a manner consistent with the principles of sustainable development requires policies and strategies that are underpinned by a ...

  4. Recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossinet, J

    1881-12-31

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals, consisting in that the mineral is extracted with mineral oil, which is recovered by distilling the raw asphalt and distilling the solution to obtain on the one hand the liquid oil contained in the raw asphalt for use in the extraction and on the other hand distilled asphalt.

  5. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  6. Chemical dissolution of sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical dissolution treatments involving the use of aqua regia, 4 N HNO3, H2O2-ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, KClO3+HCl, and KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 were applied to specimens of nine common sulfide minerals (galena, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite, orpiment, pyrite, stibnite, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite) mixed individually with a clay loam soil. The resultant decrease in the total sulfur content of the mixture, as determined by using the Leco induction furnace, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each chemical treatment. A combination of KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 boiling gently for 20 min has been shown to be very effective in dissolving all the sulfide minerals. This treatment is recommended to dissolve metals residing in sulfide minerals admixed with secondary weathering products, as one step in a fractionation scheme whereby metals in soluble and adsorbed forms, and those associated with organic materials and secondary oxides, are first removed by other chemical extractants.

  7. Lead isotope in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date state-of-the-art review of lead isotopes in mineral exploration. Beginning with an historical review on suggested uses of lead isotopes in mineral exploration, the author then outlines the theoretical aspects of lead isotopes and illustrates that the method is based on well-known principles of radioactive decay, from which isotopic signatures for different styles of mineralization are derived. The varying isotopic signatures are then introduced. The major part of the book details over 40 case histories for base and precious metals, uranium and tin using sampling media such as sulfides, gossans, soils, weathered bedrock, vegetation and groundwaters. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Examples are given of the use of lead isotopes in testing conceptual models for exploration. The success rate and cost-effectiveness of the method are illustrated by actual exploration examples. Analytical advances which should lower the cost of the method and future uses are outlined. Many of the case histories use recently published or unpublished data, 27 tables of which are given in an appendix. Details of sampling, the methods for obtaining the isotope ratios, and a commercially-available integrated lead isotope service are also provided. (Auth.)

  8. Morosidad bancaria en España durante los años de la crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Pérez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo trata sobre las causas y consecuencias de la crisis financiera actual, el funcionamiento de las titulizaciones, los riesgos que estas conllevan y su influencia en el sistema financiero tanto a nivel internacional como a nivel nacional. Por último se examinan diversas variables que se ven afectadas durante el periodo de crisis y su relación con la tasa de morosidad bancaria, como puede ser el PIB, la tasa de desempleo u otras variables. Universidad de Sevilla. Grado en Finanzas...

  9. MANIFESTACIONES DE VIOLENCIA EXPLÍCITA O EVIDENTE DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DEL RECREO ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny María Artavia Granados

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación Occidente. Su finalidad fue determinar si en el intervalo de los recreos de la escuela en estudio, se suscitaban manifestaciones de violencia escolar explícita entre estudiantes de IV, V y VI año del II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. Durante el desarrollo del estudio, se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales que se presentaban en estos espacios escolares. Sobre todo, los que podrían propiciar violencia escolar explícita; los mecanismos de prevención y estrategias empleadas por la escuela para contrarrestar la violencia escolar; también el nivel de integración del personal docente y administrativo de la escuela durante el periodo de los recreos. Asimismo, se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de niños y niñas manifiesta que existen enfrentamientos entre estudiantes, durante el desarrollo de los recreos, y que estos se perciben a través de comportamientos de violencia tanto física como verbal. Las manifestaciones de violencia más comunes son peleas, golpes así como el uso de un lenguaje soez y ofensivo. Los motivos de los enfrentamientos varían según el nivel escolar entre el estudiantado. Los mecanismos empleados por la escuela para contrarrestar la violencia que se suscita durante los recreos, se basan en el uso de procedimientos sancionadores y la aplicación de medidas preventivas.

  10. Escurecimento interno de pêra asiática 'Ya Li' durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRACKMANN AURI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A pêra 'Ya Li' apresenta escurecimento da polpa poucos dias após o armazenamento refrigerado. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar condições de armazenamento visando a diminuir os danos pela baixa temperatura inicial em peras 'Ya Li'. As condições iniciais estabelecidas foram: 1 0ºC; 2 5ºC, nos 10 primeiros dias, com redução de 0,7ºC por dia, durante sete dias; 3 10ºC nos 10 primeiros dias, com redução de 1,4ºC por dia, durante sete dias; 4 10º C nos 10 primeiros dias, com redução de 1,4ºC por dia, durante sete dias, sempre em atmosfera controlada (2,0kPa de O2 e < 1,0kPa de CO2; 5 10ºC nos 10 dias iniciais, com posterior exposição direta dos frutos a 0ºC. Em seqüência aos tratamentos iniciais, os frutos foram submetidos ao armazenamento refrigerado a 0ºC, com exceção do tratamento "4" que foi mantido continuamente em atmosfera controlada. Após 52 dias de armazenamento, verificou-se escurecimento interno, superior a 68% em todos os tratamentos. As temperaturas mais elevadas, no início, não evitaram a ocorrência do escurecimento durante o armazenamento.

  11. Mecanismos de licuación y flujo de suelos granulares durante sismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Alarcón Guzmán

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Una amplia evidencia experimental ha mostrado que vibraciones de pequeña amplitud producen una disminución progresiva del volumen en suelos granulares; ello ocurre aún en el caso de arenas densas que podrían dilatar durante carga monotónica o unidireccional bajo un cierto nivel de esfuerzos de confinamiento. Por tanto, cuando un depósito de arena saturada se ve sometido a las ondas de corte que se propagan durante un Sismo, la estructura de la arena tiende a densificarse. Sin embargo, como la duración de aplicación de los esfuerzos de corte cíclicos es, en general, muy pequeña en comparación con el tiempo necesario para que ocurra algún drenaje, la tendencia de la arena a disminuir de volumen durante cada ciclo se refleja en un incremento progresivo de la presión de poros (8,14. Esto produce una reducción continua del esfuerzo efectivo y consecuentemente una disminución en la resistencia al corte de la arena. Una disminución considerable de la resistencia puede conducir a fallas por corte, que en algunas ocasiones son de consecuencias catastróficas.

  12. Las relaciones entre Chile y Suecia durante el primer gobierno de Olof Palme, 1969-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Camacho Padilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el primer gobierno del socialdemócrata Olof Palme, las relaciones bilaterales entre Chile y Suecia fueron las más intensas de toda su historia, tanto en cercanía como en conflictividad. La razón la encontramos en los distintos fenómenos políticos que vivió Chile en ese periodo, puesto que Palme coincidió temporalmente con tres gobiernos claramente diferenciados: la Democracia Cristiana, la Unidad Popular y el Régimen Militar. Si las relaciones sueco-chilenas tuvieron su mejor momento durante el mandato de Salvador Allende, el golpe de Estado significó todo lo contrario. El compromiso que tuvo el embajador de Suecia, Harald Edelstam, por quienes eran perseguidos en Chile le llevó a su expulsión, lo que se tradujo en un claro deterioro de las relaciones y el inicio de una nueva etapa marcada por el gran contingente de exiliados que comenzaron a llegar a Suecia. Este trabajo analiza los principales acontecimientos diplomáticos ocurridos entre Chile y Suecia así como las consecuencias que tuvieron durante el gobierno de Olof Palme.

  13. Narrativas de la corporeidad en ciclistas colombianos durante su proceso formativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Anzola-Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El cambio de paradigmas del cuerpo en el deporte, del cuerpo máquina al embodiment del deportista, requiere comprender el cuerpo vivido, la experiencia encarnada del ciclista, durante su proceso formativo. Objetivo. Comprender el sentido y significado de la corporeidad de ciclistas profesionales colombianos durante su proceso formativo. Materiales y métodos. El estudio fue cualitativo de tipo histórico-hermenéutico, por medio de biografía con entrevista abierta a cuatro ciclistas profesionales colombianos, tres hombres y una mujer nacidos entre 1987 y 1990. Se utilizó el software Atlas Ti 7.0. La categoría principal de análisis fue el embodiment desde las potencialidades y los desgastes. Resultados. Se identificaron potencialidades y desgastes en la corporeidad de los ciclistas durante el proceso formativo. Las categorías relacionadas con la corporeidad de los ciclistas fueron: historicidad del proceso formativo, soporte, orientación, entorno, causas y efectos. El sistema categorial permitió identificar las tendencias, relacionar las categorías e interpretar la corporeidad como expresión del cuerpo vivido. Conclusión. La corporeidad narrada significa la vida de los ciclistas y da sentido a sus vivencias en la identidad del cuerpo ciclista. Se debe reconocer el cuerpo vivido como expresión única de lo humano en movimiento y su abordaje desde la determinación social.

  14. COMPORTAMIENTO ESTRUCTURAL DE PUENTES EXTRADOSADOS DURANTE CONSTRUCCIÓN POR VOLADIZOS SUCESIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benjumea Royero

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el estudio del comportamiento durante construcción por voladizos sucesivos de un puente extradosado en concreto de tres luces (60+100+60 m, modelado numéricamente mediante elementos finitos en el software SAP2000. La fluencia y contracción del concreto, al igual que los efectos P-delta, se incluyeron en el modelamiento. El estudio se concentró en el comportamiento del tablero, los cables y los pilares, durante construcción y desde el momento del cierre hasta cincuenta años después, tiempo en el cual han ocurrido los efectos diferidos. Los resultados encontrados permiten vislumbrar la importancia de la consideración de estos efectos en el análisis por etapas del puente. Por ejemplo, en el tablero ocurren variaciones considerables en fuerzas internas y desplazamientos en el tiempo, y en los cables tiene lugar una pérdida de tensión máxima del 10 % con respecto a la tensión al final de construcción. En los pilares, los efectos diferidos en el tiempo causan desplazamientos horizontales de magnitud considerable en la corona, generando momentos flectores excesivos en la base. Lo anterior obliga a introducir una fuerza durante la construcción de la dovela de cierre para corregir dicho fenómeno.

  15. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains

  16. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  17. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Richard M.; Niermeyer, Karl E.

    1970-01-01

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  18. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Richard M; Niermeyer, Karl E [Anaconda Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  19. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  20. Perencanaan Strategik SBU Mineral PT Sucofindo (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Suprapto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning requires an organization in the face of today's business competition and a more complex future. Likewise, Mineral Gas Station also requires this strategic planning as a newly formed business unit of 2015. Therefore, the company analyzed its internal and external factors as well as a future review of the mineral service industry to stay afloat, grow and develop. The objectives of this study were to identify the internal performance and core competencies of Mineral Gas Station, to identify the external macro environment condition and external micro intensity of mineral service industry competition, to map the current position of the company, to recommend appropriate business strategy in facing competition pressure, and to develop the objectives and program of the company. This research used descriptive and quantitative analysis methods with a purposive sampling technique. The results show that the position of Mineral Gas Station on the intensity of mineral service competition is 'moderate' and is in quadrant of 'grow and build'. Therefore, the appropriate strategy is intensive strategy (market penetration, market development and product development. Mineral Gas Station require to conduct customer satisfaction surveys related to customer perspectives which becomes the most important strategic factor with a focus on customer complaint factor. Further research is needed by involving all external parties so that the results will be more independent.Keywords: mineral services, strategic planning, competition, mineral gas station, SucofindoABSTRAKPerencanaan strategik dibutuhkan organisasi dalam menghadapi persaingan bisnis saat ini dan masa depan yang semakin komplek. Demikian juga yang dibutuhkan SBU Mineral sebagai unit bisnis yang baru terbentuk 2015, dengan menganalisis faktor internal dan ekternal perusahaan serta tinjauan masa depan industri jasa mineral untuk tetap bertahan, tumbuh dan berkembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah

  1. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  2. Análisis de las Fuerzas Absolutas y las Circunferencias de Volumen Durante el Período Preparatorio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Freyre Vázquez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la relación de dependencia entre los resultados de las fuerzas absolutas de los planos musculares brazo, tronco y pierna, en correspondencia con las circunferencias máximas de volumen de los miembros superiores e inferiores durante la preparación de fuerza a que fueron sometidos los atletas de baloncesto de la categoría juvenil durante el periodo preparatorio. De esta forma estaríamos hablando de la estrecha relación que existe en cuanto a esta variable, repercutiendo en los resultados a alcanzar por el equipo durante el proceso de entrenamiento.

  3. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records development and performance of the Australian mineral industry during the calendar year 1984. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1. 'general review' after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy, prices, exploration expenditure, investment, income tax, royalties, structural data, wages and salaries, industrial disputes, and government assistance, legislation, and controls. Part 2. 'commodity review' covers individual mineral commodity groups, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3, 'mining census', tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by state departments of mines and their equivalents. Listed in appendices are: principal mineral producers; ore buyers and mineral dealers; government mining services; analytical laboratories; state mines departments and equivalents; industry, professional and development organisations and associations, etc; summary of mineral royalties payable in the states and territories; and summary of income tax provisions and federal government levies.

  4. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records the development and performance of the industry during the calendar year 1986. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1, 'General Review', after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole. Part 2, 'Commodity Review', covers individual mineral commodities and commodity groups including brown coal, black coal and peat. Part 3, 'Mining Census', tabulates statistics extracted from the Mining Census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the Manufacturing Census. Part 4, tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by the State departments of mines and their equivalents. The commodity review of black coal has been abstracted separately.

  5. The radioactivity of bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrakova, M.; Babarikova, F.; Belanova, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral waters with increased contents of minerals (total mineralization ranging from 1000 to 4000 mg.dm -3 ) can also contain increased concentrations of natural radionuclides. For this reason it is necessary to monitor radioactivity of mineral and thermal springs. Hundreds of springs which are used for drinking purposes are spread in many regions all over Slovakia. In our laboratory we determined these radionuclides in mineral waters: total alpha, total beta, volume activity 222 Rn, concentration of U nat , volume 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Po. From values of determined volume activities of radionuclides we calculated total effective dose from reception mineral waters. By calculation of effective dose we supposed consumption of mineral water 150 dm 3 .year -1 (0.4 dm 3 .day -1 ) for adults (according to UNSCEAR). Conversion factors are initiated in the regulation of Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic (MZ SR No.12/2001). (authors)

  6. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  7. Bone mineral content measurement by bone mineral analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Itsuo; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Fukunaga, Masao; Torizuka, Kanji; Kosaka, Tadako.

    1976-01-01

    With a bone mineral analyzer (Studsvik Bone Scanner 7102), bone mineral content (BMC) was validated using various concentrations of standard CaCO 3 . Seventy-five normal subjects, nineteen patients with rheumathoid arthritis (RA) and twenty-two patients with abnormal thyroid function were investigated by this method. Some inherent problems concerning the present measurements were also discussed. Reproducibility of BMC in sixteen normal subjects during a four months interval was +-4% on the mid-shaft of the radius and +-5% on the distal head of the radius, respectively. Although correlation of the single energy method and the dual energy method with the bone scanner was high (r=0.970), the single energy method was probably underestimated due to the fat layer. BMC in normal subjects was highest in 30th and 40th decades for both males and females, and gradually decreased with aging. Males had higher BMC and BMC/bone width than did females. All of the stage 1 group of RA patients, according to roentgenographic staging, revealed normal BMC, but most of stage 2 and 3 groups had abnormally low BMC, suggesting that progression of the disease may be an important factor in BMC values. The BMC of hyperthyroid patients was low, whereas that of euthyroid patients was normal. Serial measurements of BMC in a hyperparathyroid patient and a hyperthyroid patient revealed distinct recurrence of BMC after treatment. (Evans, J.)

  8. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  9. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... males, but it also stresses the fact that the strong covariation between the examined variables is a shortcoming of the cross-sectional design....

  10. Strata control in mineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art of strata control practice both in the United States and abroad with respect to strata reinforcement by rock bolting, long wall mining technology and innovations in energy development, such as mining for oil and tunneling for storage of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories. It features coverage of design concepts in rock engineering and rockbolt systems, stability of rock pillars, rockbursts, shaft design and construction and a detailed consideration of mineral and energy needs in the United States

  11. Reducing the extraction of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel Taboada

    2015-01-01

    Mass consumption and shortening product lifecycles have increased worldwide production. Consequently, more raw materials such as minerals are used, and available landfills are filling up. Companies are urged to effectively incorporate sustainability issues such as End-of-life (EOL) management...... and Reverse Logistics (RL) practices to close the loop and diminish the amount of raw materials used in their production systems. However, implementing RL implies dealing with its barriers. The purpose of this article is to focus on the recovery of EOL products that use mostly raw materials from the mining...

  12. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  13. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless...

  14. Los asentamientos mineros en la minería aurífera de Nueva Granada durante la época colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Orche García, Enrique; Puche Riart, Octavio

    2000-01-01

    El Virreinato de Nueva Granada ocupaba el área que hoy comprende, total o parcialmente, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela y Panamá. Desde las primeras incursiones en este vasto territorio, los españoles constataron la enorme riqueza aurífera existente tanto en los aluviales de sus ríos como en los innumerables filones de cuarzo aflorantes en su agreste orografía y, por ello, acometieron la explotación sistemática de los yacimientos de oro en cuanto obtuvieron todo el metal que los indios fueron ca...

  15. Consecuencias adversas inesperadas durante el uso de antimicrobianos: Cuándo el tratamiento puede ser peligroso para la salud

    OpenAIRE

    WOLFF R., MARCELO

    2002-01-01

    Los efectos adversos de medicamentos en general y antimicrobianos en particular, son comunes y esperados de enfrentar durante la atención de los pacientes. La mayoría de ellos consiste en intolerancia, efectos colaterales y secundarios, alergia, idiosincrasia, sobredosis o interacciones farmacológicas indeseables. Durante el empleo de antimicrobianos con fines terapéuticos o preventivos en infecciones documentadas o sospechadas, pueden presentarse efectos adversos inesperados o consecuencias ...

  16. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  17. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  18. FACTORES AMBIENTALES QUE AFECTAN LOS COMPONENTES DE PRODUCCION Y PRODUCTIVIDAD DURANTE LA VIDA DE LAS CERDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Enrique Ek Mex

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir algunos factores ambientales que influyen sobre los componentes de producción y productividad durante la estancia de las cerdas en el hato. La productividad de la cerda puede ser medida como el número o kilogramos de cerdos nacidos vivos o destetados por camada, por año o durante la estancia en el hato. El efecto de año y granja son importantes fuentes de variación, se deben principalmente a los cambios climatológicos y diferencias en el manejo. El efecto de época en las regiones tropicales es debido al estrés calórico y la alta humedad en la época de calor. Las cerdas de primer parto tienen intervalo entre partos e intervalo destete a la concepción mayor y camadas pequeñas en comparación con las cerdas multíparas. La productividad durante la vida productiva es afectada por el manejo particular de cada unidad de producción, la edad y el número de lechones nacidos al primer parto y la causa de desecho. La mayoría de los estudios son en zonas templadas. En conclusión, la productividad de las cerdas es afectada por las diferentes condiciones climáticas de cada región y a diferencias de manejo entre granjas en diferentes años y épocas, así como por el número de parto, por lo que es importante realizar la caracterización de las condiciones específicas de cada granja o región.

  19. Estado, iglesia y sistema educativo durante la república en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Caiceo Escudero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones realizadas en los últimos 28 años, tanto en la Universidad Católica deChile (1979 -1994 como en la Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación(desde 1996 a la fecha, en el ámbito de la Historia de la Educación Chilena, le hanentregado al autor de este trabajo una visión bastante acotada de las relaciones que tanto laIglesia Católica como el estado han tenido respecto a la educación en el país. Por lomismo, el objetivo de esta exposición consiste en describir los diferentes aportes queambos agentes educativos han realizado en Chile desde el siglo XIX a la fecha, analizandoy comparando las diferentes posiciones que esas instituciones encarnan. La metodologíautilizada es la propia de los estudios históricos, recurriendo a fuentes primarias ysecundarias; se han analizado textos originales de diferentes autores y se han realizadoentrevistas a testigos presenciales de los últimos cincuenta años. Durante estos años se hanefectuado diferentes investigaciones sobre aspectos puntuales, se han dirigido tesis depostgrado y, especialmente, se ha analizado la presencia de Dewey en Chile y la vida y elpensamiento de los diferentes Premios Nacionales de Educación. Las conclusiones másimportantes apuntan a que la Iglesia y el Estado han sido actores relevantes de la educaciónen Chile durante los dos últimos siglos y que, a pesar que a veces ha habidoenfrentamientos en cuanto a posiciones ideológicas diferentes, siempre ha primado el biencomún del país, el cual se ha beneficiado con las miles de escuelas, liceos y universidadesque tanto la Iglesia como el Estado han creado durante estos 200 años.

  20. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  1. Minerals Policy Statement 2: controlling and mitigating the environmental effects of minerals extraction in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    Minerals Policy Statement 2 (MPS2) sets out the policies and considerations that the UK Government expects Mineral Planning Authorities to follow when preparing development plans and in considering application for minerals development. This supercedes Minerals Policy Guidance 11 (MPG 11). Annex 1: Dust to MPS2 sets out the policy considerations in relation to dust from mineral workings and associated operations, and how they should be dealt with in local development plans and in considering individual applications. Annex 2: Noise to MPS2 addresses policy in relation to noise from mineral workings. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database. 58 refs., 2 apps.

  2. Canadian minerals yearbook : 2004 review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of the CMY publication is the non-fuel mineral industry, together with uranium, although all mineral fuels are normally included when the total value of Canada's mineral production is reported. The Yearbook includes chapters devoted to each major mineral commodity produced in Canada: aluminum, coal, copper, diamonds, gold, iron ore, magnesium, nickel, potash, salt, silica, and uranium. The subject matter spans all stages of mineral industry activity from geoscience and exploration, through mining and processing, to markets and use. Although domestic issues receive the greatest attention in each chapter, international developments may also be reviewed because of the global nature of the mineral industry and the significant impact that such developments could have on the Canadian industry

  3. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  4. QFD na garantia da qualidade do produto durante seu desenvolvimento: caso em uma empresa de materiais

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Filho,Leonel Del Rey de; Cheng,Lin Chih

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta uma aplicação do método QFD em uma empresa de materiais. A intervenção foi para garantia da qualidade de um produto durante seu redesenvolvimento, em atendimento ao desejo do cliente único de ter uma característica do produto aumentada, sem prejuízo a outras. Foram efetuados dois desdobramentos associados: qualidade positiva e tecnologia do processo. A estratégia de pesquisa adotada foi a de pesquisa-ação. Utilizou-se também um guia para intervenção do QFD. O desdobramen...

  5. Bacterias en superficies contactadas durante las tomas radiográficas intraorales

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Guihan; Calderón-Ubaquí, Victor; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de bacterias mediante el análisis microbiológico en las superficies contactadas por el operador durante la toma y procesado de radiografías intraorales en diferentes momentos del día en el Servicio de Radiología Oral de la UPCH. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un muestreo en nueve superficies del servicio de radiología oral. Las muestras se tomaron en dos momentos por el mismo investigador; al inicio y al finalizar las actividades en el servicio, se realizó ...

  6. Composición del plancton en la Puntilla Santa Elena durante agosto 2002 (Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, G.; Calderón, G.; Franco, V.; Cedeño, E.; Calderón, T.; Salazar, E.

    2004-01-01

    Esta investigación comprende los estudios del fitoplancton-zooplancton-ictioplancton, realizados en tres sitios de la Península Santa Elena durante agosto 2002, área designada para la proyección de "Arrecife Artificial de las Fuerzas Militares del Ecuador": un avión, barco y tanque de guerra, estructuras artificiales consideradas como basura chatarra (de gran tamaño), que serían recicladas para la bio-exploración artificiales hacia la seguridad de los recursos marinos del Ecuador. En el Estud...

  7. Monitoreo de la Temperatura durante la Anestesia: ¿Es realmente necesario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln de Parte Pérez

    Full Text Available La temperatura corporal debe ser monitoreada en todos los pacientes a los que se les realiza procedimientos quirúrgicos con el objetivo de detectar precozmente sus variaciones, así como las complicaciones que se presentan con las variaciones de esta, como son: fiebre, hipertermia maligna e hipotermia accidental y para el monitoreo de la hipertermia inducida. Se muestra una revisión de los factores que producen hipotermia durante el transoperatorio, así como la prevención y tratamiento de ella.

  8. Presencia y fortuna de los hombres de negocios genoveses durante la crisis hispana de 1640

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Ayán, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    El protagonismo de los financieros genoveses en los tratos con la Monarquía Hispánica bajo Felipe II, Felipe III y hasta la suspensión de pagos de 1627 con Felipe IV, fue un hecho evidente. En la década de 1630, aunque no ejercieron el monopolio de antes por la irrupción en el de panorama financiero de los judeoconversos portugueses, continuaron siendo mayoritarios en las negociaciones de provisiones generales. Sin embargo, la especial coyuntura que la Monarquía atravesó durante la década de ...

  9. Uso da Ciprofloxacina durante a Prenhez de Ratas: efeitos sobre a Mãe e Fetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Approbato Mário Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos da ciprofloxacina sobre a taxa de abortos, ganho de peso durante a gravidez, morte materna e fetal, malformações fetais grosseiras, número de recém-nascidos, peso dos filhotes e análise dos reflexos neurológicos dos filhotes. Métodos: foram utilizadas 30 ratas da linhagem Wistar, divididas em três grupos. Os grupos tratados receberam ciprofloxacina e o grupo controle soro fisiológico, uma vez ao dia, durante os primeiros 7 dias após o cruzamento. As doses para os grupos D50 e D100 foram, respectivamente, de 50 e 100 mg de ciprofloxacina por kg de peso corporal por dia. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: o ganho de peso durante a prenhez, a prevalência de abortamentos, mortes fetal e materna e malformações fetais grosseiras. Nos 217 filhotes nascidos analisamos o número, o peso e reflexos neurológicos (postural, preensão e orientação no 1º, 3º, 5º e 10º dia de vida por ninhada. Resultados: não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas no número de ratas que ficaram prenhes, na média de ganho de peso materno ou número de filhotes. Os filhotes apresentaram diferenças significativas nos pesos das observações do 3º, 5º e 10º dia (p = 0,006, 0,01 e 0,03, respectivamente, sendo a média menor no grupo D100. Observamos alteração significativa (p = 0,002 na positividade do reflexo de orientação no primeiro dia de vida, alteração que não se manteve nas outras observações. Não se observou caso de abortamento ou malformações grosseiras nos recém-nascidos. Conclusões: a ciprofloxacina alterou o peso ao nascimento e o reflexo dos filhotes nos primeiros dias de vida. Portanto, deve-se estudar a restrição ao seu uso durante a gravidez.

  10. Legrado uterino o nifedipina durante el posparto en pacientes con preeclampsia severa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Bolívar, Joel; Guerra-Velásquez, Mery; Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia del legrado uterino o la nifedipina durante el posparto en pacientes con preeclampsia severa. Ambiente: Maternidad “Dr. Nerio Belloso”, Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona”, Maracaibo. Estado Zulia. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación en 60 pacientes con diagnóstico de preeclampsia severa que fueron divididas de la siguiente manera: grupo A (n = 30) que fueron sometidas a legrado uterino inmediatamente después del parto y grupo B (n = 30) que recibieron nifedipin...

  11. Mortalidad por enfermedades respiratorias en Chile durante 1999 MORTALITY DUE TO RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CHILE-1999

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE SZOT M.

    2003-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio descriptivo que presenta características sobre la mortalidad por causas respiratorias (CR) en Chile durante 1999. Se muestra que las CR constituyen la tercera causa de muerte en el país. La "neumonía por agente no especificado" (NANE) es la primera causa aislada de muerte respiratoria en ambos sexos con un 64%, seguida de enfermedades respiratorias crónicas que originan un 30% de las defunciones. Por lo anterior se hace necesario prevenir la ocurrencia de la NANE, asegu...

  12. Franco y Mussolini revisitados : la política exterior hispanoitaliana durante la guerra mundial

    OpenAIRE

    García Queipo de Llano, Genoveva

    1994-01-01

    En el presente trabajo no se pretende resumir de una manera global la relación existente entre España e Italia durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial y tampoco alguno de sus aspectos; tampoco se pretende desvelar alguna fuente radicalmente nueva acerca del particular sino que su propósito es mucho más modesto. Consiste en tratar de elaborar un «estado de las cuestiones» a partir de una monografía coelaborada por la autora hace ya una decena de años con el propósito de incorporar la nueva informaci...

  13. Evaluación del estado nutricional durante el estirón puberal

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Manjón, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    La adolescencia va a consistir en una fase de la vida en la que se da la confluencia entre los cambios fisiológicos y aquellos que dan lugar a una maduración emocional y social, tan esenciales que marcarán un punto de inflexión en el desarrollo del individuo hacia la vida adulta. Durante esta etapa se va a producir un hecho de notable trascendencia: el crecimiento. Estudiar los cambios morfológicos que se producen en la etapa conocida como el estirón puberal, junto con los propios cambios ana...

  14. Evaluación del estado nutricional durante el estirón puberal

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Manjón, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    La adolescencia va a consistir en una fase de la vida en la que se da la confluencia entre los cambios fisiológicos y aquellos que dan lugar a una maduración emocional y social, tan esenciales que marcarán un punto de inflexión en el desarrollo del individuo hacia la vida adulta. Durante esta etapa se va a producir un hecho de notable trascendencia: el crecimiento. Estudiar los cambios morfológicos que se producen en la etapa conocida como el estirón puberal, junto con los propios cambios ana...

  15. Escuela, educación e infancia durante la Guerra Civil en Euskadi

    OpenAIRE

    Rekalde Rodríguez, Itziar

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación pone de manifiesto las actividades educativoculturales acometidas durante la guerra civil española en Euskadi. La doble dimensión desde donde se aborda el análisis (institucional y humana), así como los espacios, tiempos y agentes educativos de los que se dan cuenta, hacen de él un interesante estudio. This research work shows the educational-cultural activities undertaken during the Spanish Civil War in the Basque Country. The double dimension from which the ...

  16. Crecimiento económico y equidad en Boyacá durante 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Rodríguez Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento económico no trae consigo mejoras inmediatas en la distribución del ingreso. Las políticas redistributivas pueden contribuir a corregir la inequidad social. El autor analiza cuál ha sido la incidencia del crecimiento de la economía boyacense, durante el periodo 2000-2011, en aspectos tales como pobreza, equidad distributiva, desarrollo humano y desempeño delmercado laboral, determinando que no existe una asociación positiva concluyente entre el dinamismo económico y sus correlatos sociales.

  17. Mujeres violentadas durante el embarazo y el parto: experiencias de parteras en Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor F, Martha; Laureano E, Jorge; Mejía M, Martha L; Valadez F, Isabel; Márquez A, José M; González A, Jaime A

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO: explorar la experiencia y perspectiva de parteras con mujeres violentadas durante el embarazo y el parto en Jalisco, México. METODOLOGIA: se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo en zona rural de Jalisco, México, entre mayo y octubre de 2011 con 24 parteras, utilizando la entrevista individual, modalidad historia de vida pautada y la asamblea participativa regional como técnicas de indagación; posteriormente, los discursos fueron analizados bajo el modelo actancial semiótico. RESULTAD...

  18. Comportamiento Sexual de Varones Durante el Embarazo: Casos en la Ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    Sapién, José S; Córdoba, Diana I

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo fue reportar el comportamiento sexual de varones en el embarazo, sus experiencias y significaciones. Participaron 6 hombres de la Ciudad de México, de 23 a 35 años de edad, casados, con escolaridad y ocupación distintas. Fueron entrevistados sobre sus experiencias sexuales durante la gestación de su hijo. Cada varón constituyó un caso: suspensión del sexo preservando un embarazo difícil de obtener; interrupción del sexo para cuidar a la pareja embarazada y no lastimar al bebé; dis...

  19. España y Portugal durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristán Lucas, Esther; Gómez de las Heras Hernández, María Soledad

    1989-01-01

    Cuando las relaciones internacionales entran en franco deterioro en el escenario europeo, el entendimiento político entre España y Portugal presentaba a la Península Ibérica como un bloque relativamente unido ante la conflagración mundial. La política exterior de estos dos Estados durante la segunda guerra mundial se enmarca dentro de unas coordenadas, que son tenidas en cuenta por los diplomáticos de ambas naciones, de los beligerantes y neutrales: la coincidencia del talante político e ideo...

  20. Water mineralization and its importance for health

    OpenAIRE

    N. Babio; C. Ferreira-Pêgo; F. Maraver Eyzaguirre; I. Vitoria Miñana; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2016-01-01

    Water mineralization and its importance for health La mineralización del agua y su importancia para la salud. Water is essential for life, participating in the metabolism of all the living organisms. In recent years, the consumption of tap water has decreased and the consumption of bottled water has increased worldwide. The mineral quality and composition of natural mineral water is known and constantly over the year, and their potential effects on health must be determined. Only magnes...

  1. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrea G; Pasteris, Jill D; Genin, Guy M; Daulton, Tyrone L; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  2. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  3. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  4. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  5. Increasing strategic role for SA's minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The strategic importance of South Africa's vast mineral resources has been strongly underlined by the Minister of Defence, Mr P.W. Botha. It was pointed out that South Africa ranked among the world's five biggest suppliers of nonfuel minerals and that she has demonstrated her potential as the West's most important source of minerals and strategic raw materials. South Africa therefore exercise a very important stabilising influence on the supply and prices of critical, strategic minerals and raw materials, regarded as of the greatest importance to the Western economy

  6. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Dioscorea dumetorum, proximate composition, mineral analysis, phytochemical screening ... were analyzed using atomic absorption ... determined using a Hack Dr/200 Spectrophotometer. ... Lead Acetate. +. +. + .... cosmetics.

  7. Plasmid-mediated mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, M.S.; Hooper, S.W.; Sayler, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Strains of Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from a mixed culture already proven to be proficient at complete mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls. These strains were shown to harbor a 35 x 10(6)-dalton plasmid mediating a complete pathway for 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) oxidation. Subsequent plasmid curing of these bacteria resulted in the abolishment of the 4CB mineralization phenotype and loss of even early 4CB metabolism by Acinetobacter spp. Reestablishment of the Alcaligenes plasmid, denoted pSS50, in the cured Acinetobacter spp. via filter surface mating resulted in the restoration of 4CB mineralization abilities. 4CB mineralization, however, proved to be an unstable characteristic in some subcultured strains. Such loss was not found to coincide with any detectable alteration in plasmid size. Cultures capable of complete mineralization, as well as those limited to partial metabolism of 4CB, produced 4-chlorobenzoate as a metabolite. Demonstration of mineralization of a purified 14 C-labeled chlorobenzoate showed it to be a true intermediate in 4CB mineralization. Unlike the mineralization capability, the ability to produce a metabolite has proven to be stable on subculture. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel plasmid, or evolved catabolic plasmid, that mediates the complete mineralization of 4CB

  8. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  9. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathologic data from rats are shown for approximately 300- to 10,000-working-level-month (WLM) radon-daughter exposures. Exposure of male rats to radon daughters and uranium ore dust continues, along with exposure of male and female beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone. 4 tables

  10. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1986-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system diseases. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies uranium mine air agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathologic data from serially sacrificed rats are reported for approximately 20- to 640- working-level-month (WLM) radon-daughter exposures delivered at one-tenth the rate of previous exposures. Exposure of male rats to radon daughters and uranium ore dust continues, along with exposure of male and female beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone

  11. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  12. The mineralization and mechanism of the endogenetic mineral deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    In the process of mineralization, due to the difference in rank, scale and order of structures orebody, mine colomn or rich ore bag are often produced in the specific structural parts. Obviously, it is controlled by favourite structure. The important and direct control of the structure to metal endogenetic mineralization evolution are representative on the affect of pulse action of structure to the multi-stage of mineralization evolution. According to the formation environment of the mineralization, it can be classified as collision orogeny mineralization, release(extension)mineralization, slide draw-division basin mineralization and shear zone extension mineralization. Throng the discuss of endogenetic deposit in the geological evolution, structure and formation machenism, the metallogenic model was preliminary established,and the criteria for delineating favourable metallogenic area was identified. (authors)

  13. Mode of distribution of uranium mineralization and sequence of the formation of minerals in albitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechishnikov, N.P.; Kramar, O.A.; Rapovich, F.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and generalization of factural material data on the distribution nature of accessory uranium mineralization in albitites permitting to judge of the role and textural-structural peculiarities of enclosing rocks in mineralization localization are given. It is shown that the uranium mineral formation is closely related with the albitite formation and proceeded during two stages. A main mass of primary uranium minerals (brannerites and uraninites) in the form of impregnated mineralization was formed during the first uraninite-brannerite-albitite stage. Uranium oxides, silicates and titanates in the shape of veines formed. During the second coffinite-pitchblende-chloritic stage the formation of uranium oxides, silicates and titanates occured. Uranium mineralization in albitites developes in zones of cataclasm, small jointing, mylonitization localizing in fine-grained aggregates. A main mass of primary uranium minerals in albitites (brannerite, uraninite relates to neogenic during metasomatosis dark-coloured minerals (riebenite, aegirine, chlorite)

  14. Rede social de apoio durante transições familiares decorrentes do nascimento de filhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessen Maria Auxiliadora

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O suporte da rede de apoio é fundamental à família e ao indivíduo no enfrentamento de transições normativas e não normativas no processo de desenvolvimento. Este estudo descreve as transformações nessa rede durante transições decorrentes do nascimento de filhos. Quinze pais de classe social baixa e suas respectivas esposas/companheiras, subdivididas em dois grupos (A: mães grávidas; B: mães com bebês de até seis meses, participaram de uma entrevista semi-estruturada e responderam um questionário. A principal alteração na rede, segundo as mães, foi o aumento do apoio psicológico recebido; para os pais, foi o aumento da ajuda financeira e material. O apoio do marido/companheiro foi considerado, por todas as mães, mais importante que os demais. Os dados sugerem que, para compreender as alterações na rede social de apoio e no envolvimento do pai na vida familiar durante transições decorrentes do nascimento de filhos, é preciso conhecer as relações desenvolvidas entre os subsistemas familiares e o contexto social no qual as famílias estão inseridas.

  15. Taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel K. Saad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el embarazo aumentan el metabolismo basal, el consumo de O2, la frecuencia cardíaca, el volumen sistólico, el volumen minuto y la volemia y disminuyen la tensión arterial y la resistencia periférica. Diferentes estudios han demostrado que durante este período la posibilidad de que ocurra una arritmia cardíaca o se produzca la exacerbación de una arritmia preexistente es mayor. No obstante, en su enorme mayoría carecen de importancia pronóstica tanto para la madre como para el feto. La taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho es una arritmia poco frecuente y su aparición se ha correlacionado con el aumento del tono adrenérgico. Se presentan los casos de dos pacientes que mostraron en el curso de la gestación reiterados episodios de taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho. Se analiza la asociación del embarazo con la ocurrencia de trastornos del ritmo cardíaco.

  16. Efecto de niveles crecientes de seudotallo de guineo en combinación con ensilaje de maíz, sobre el crecimiento de terneras jersey, durante la época seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herberth Dormond

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el efecto biologico y economico del seudotallo de guineo (Musa ABB, en combi- nacion con ensilaje demaiz, como mezcla forraje- ra en la alimentacion de temeras Jersey en desarro- 110, durante la epoca seca. Se utilizaron 20 temeras Jersey, bajo estabulacion total, con un peso inicial promedio de 154 kg. Las 4 mezclas forrajeras eva- luadas fueron: 0: 100%; 40:60%; 50:50% y 60:40%, seudotallo:ensilaje de mafz, en base fres- ca. A cada grupo de 5 animales se Ie suministro por dfa 1.5 kg de concentrado proteico (30% PC y 50 g de sal mineral completa. Se les peso una vez por semana. El perfodo de experimentacion fue de 63 dfas, tras 7 dfas de adaptacion al consumo de las dietas. Durante los 3 ultimos dfas se efectuo una prueba de digestibilidad aparente. Los consumos de MS, PC y FDN se redujeron (P

  17. Composición química del huevo de tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea) y evaluación de su calidad física y microbiológica durante su almacenamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Castro, Randall; Chaves Quirós, Ana Cecilia

    1997-01-01

    Se determinó la composición química de los huevos de tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea) y se evaluó su calidad física y microbiológica durante el almacenamiento a 5 °C y 25 °C y a una humedad relativa de 92 %. Se encontró que los huevos de tortuga lora tienen una masa promedio de 27,9 g y están constituidos por un 58,0 % de yema, un 38,0 % de clara y un 4,0 % de cáscara. La cáscara contiene un 37,0 % de humedad, un 28,2 % de proteína y un 36,0 % de materia mineral. En la clara el compone...

  18. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  19. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  20. Mineral exploration, Australia, March quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This publication contains annual and quarterly statistics of exploration for minerals in Australia. Part 1 sets out statistics of exploration for minerals and oil shale for which data are no longer available for separate publication. Part 2 gives details of petroleum exploration.

  1. Chinese Human Rights Guidance on Minerals Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    in the minerals sector and due diligence to ensure socially responsible sourcing of minerals with a particular focus on human rights, the guidelines refer to international human rights standards and are designed to be consistent with guidance issued by the OECD. The article discusses the Chinese guidelines...

  2. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  3. Preliminary report about minerals raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    1965-01-01

    The group of experts entrusted to construct the bases to study the mineral matters has established priorities for the development of mineral resources during the next ten years: 1) aerial photography, 2) geological map, 3) mechanisms for the exploitation, 4) budget

  4. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: potash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  6. Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about mineral oils, which can raise the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly of the scrotum. Workers in a variety of manufacturing industries are most commonly exposed to mineral oils, as are workers in engine repair, copper mining, and commercial printing.

  7. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  8. Near infrared detection of ammonium minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Altaner, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic near-infrared spectral features have been identified for minerals with ammonium (NH4+) bound in the crystal structure. Near-infrared detection of NH4-bearing minerals may provide useful information for prospecting for certain ore deposits and may provide a better understanding of the nitrogen cycle within geologic environments.-from Authors

  9. Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas

  10. Intracellular transport of ions in mineralizing tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.L.

    This study resulted in the development of a new model for bone cell physiology and has provided the means for studying the mechanism and site of action of bone affecting hormones and vitamin metabolites and has provided new information on mechanisms of mineralization and mineralization defects

  11. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our present study, we have investigated the thermophysical properties of two minerals (pyrope-rich garnet and MgAl2O4) under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant () and bulk modulus (T) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (T) as ...

  12. Isotope analysis of molybdenum in selected minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method is described for the mass spectrometric determination of molybdenum abundance values. The results of analyses of three molybdenum mineral samples are presented and compared with the results of other authors. It is shown that the fine variations of molybdenum in natural minerals cannot be analysed with currently available mass spectrometers

  13. Radioactive mineral occurrences in the Bancroft area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterly, J

    1958-12-31

    The report summarizes three years of field work conducted in the Bancroft area investigating occurrences of radioactive minerals, and also includes accounts of properties in the area for which drill logs and survey reports have been filed. It begins with a history of exploration and development of radioactive mineral deposits in the area, a review of the area`s general geology (Grenville metasediments, plutonic rocks), and general descriptions of the types of radioactive mineral deposits found in the area (deposits in granitic and syenitic bodies, metasomatic deposits in limy rocks, hydrothermal deposits). It also describes the mineralogy of radioactive minerals found in the area and the Geiger counter technique used in the investigation. The bulk of the report consists of descriptions of radioactive mineral properties and mine workings, containing (where available) information on exploration history, general and economic geology, and production.

  14. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  16. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mineral exploration with ERTS imagery. [Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolais, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Ten potential target areas for metallic mineral exploration were selected on the basis of a photo-lineament interpretation of the ERTS image 1172-17141 in central Colorado. An evaluation of bias indicated that prior geologic knowledge of the region had little, if any, effect on target selection. In addition, a contoured plot of the frequency of photo-lineament intersections was made to determine what relationships exist between the photo-lineaments and mineral districts. Comparison of this plot with a plot of the mineral districts indicates that areas with a high frequency of intersections commonly coincide with known mineral districts. The results of this experiment suggest that photo-lineaments are fractures or fracture-controlled features, and their distribution may be a guide to metallic mineral deposits in Colorado, and probably other areas as well.

  18. Characterization of Mexican zeolite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    50% of the Mexican territory is formed by volcanic sequences of the Pliocene type, which appear extensively in the northwest states (Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango) and west of Mexico (Jalisco and Nayarit), in central Mexico (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo) and south of Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca); therefore, it is to be expected that in our country big locations of natural zeolites exist in its majority of the clinoptilolite type. The present study was focused toward the characterization of two Mexican natural zeolite rocks presumably of the clinoptilolite and filipsite types, one of them comes from the state of Chihuahua and the other of a trader company of non metallic minerals, due that these materials are not characterized, its are not known their properties completely and therefore, the uses that can be given to these materials. In this investigation work it was carried out the characterization of two Mexican zeolite rocks, one coming from the Arroyo zone, municipality of La Haciendita, in the state of Chihuahua; and the other one was bought to a trader company of non metallic minerals. The two zeolites so much in their natural form as conditioned with sodium; they were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum and elementary microanalysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis. To differentiate the heulandite crystalline phase of the other clinoptilolite rock, its were carried out thermal treatments. The quantification of Al, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe was carried out in solution, by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantity of Si was determined by gravimetry. The zeolite rocks presented for the major part the crystalline heulandite and clinoptilolite phases for the most part, and it was found that the zeolite coming from the state of Chihuahua possesses a bigger content of heulandite and the denominated filipsite it is really a zeolite

  19. An overview of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow is an integral part of hydrothermal mineralization, and its analysis and characterization constitute an important part of a mineralization model. The hydrodynamic study of mineralization deals with analyzing the driving forces, fluid pressure regimes, fluid flow rate and direction, and their relationships with localization of mineralization. This paper reviews the principles and methods of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization, and discusses their significance and limitations for ore deposit studies and mineral exploration. The driving forces of fluid flow may be related to fluid overpressure, topographic relief, tectonic deformation, and fluid density change due to heating or salinity variation, depending on specific geologic environments and mineralization processes. The study methods may be classified into three types, megascopic (field observations, microscopic analyses, and numerical modeling. Megascopic features indicative of significantly overpressured (especially lithostatic or supralithostatic fluid systems include horizontal veins, sand injection dikes, and hydraulic breccias. Microscopic studies, especially microthermometry of fluid inclusions and combined stress analysis and microthermometry of fluid inclusion planes (FIPs can provide important information about fluid temperature, pressure, and fluid-structural relationships, thus constraining fluid flow models. Numerical modeling can be carried out to solve partial differential equations governing fluid flow, heat transfer, rock deformation and chemical reactions, in order to simulate the distribution of fluid pressure, temperature, fluid flow rate and direction, and mineral precipitation or dissolution in 2D or 3D space and through time. The results of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization can enhance our understanding of the formation processes of hydrothermal deposits, and can be used directly or indirectly in mineral exploration.

  20. Reposição de nutrientes durante três cultivos de alface em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backes Fernanda Alice A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em estufa plástica na UFSM, de agosto a novembro/99. Avaliou-se cinco formas de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva com base na condutividade elétrica (CE, no sistema 'NFT' (Nutrient Film Technique e duas cultivares de alface: Regina e Deisy, cultivadas em bancadas de sustentação formadas por telhas de fibro-cimento revestidas com tinta betuminosa Neutrolâ. Foram dispostas 14 plantas por canal para cada repetição e uma cultivar em cada três canais, totalizando 84 plantas por bancada de produção. Comparou-se a eficiência de métodos de reposição de nutrientes na produção de alface, assim como a utilização da mesma solução, com reposição de nutrientes, durante três cultivos consecutivos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 5x2. Os resultados demonstraram que o desempenho das cultivares avaliadas não foi influenciado pelos métodos de reposição de nutrientes. A ausência de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva, durante um cultivo, permitiu maior produtividade da cultura, não se recomendando a reposição quando o objetivo for renovar a solução ao final do cultivo. As formas de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva, durante o primeiro e segundo cultivos, não alteraram a produtividade da cultura em relação à renovação completa da solução nutritiva ao final do cultivo hidropônico. Para a reutilização de solução nutritiva, recomenda-se a reposição de nutrientes sempre que a CE diminuir 50% da inicial, possibilitando a produção por pelo menos três cultivos.

  1. Manifestaciones cardiacas del dengue: Reporte de una serie de casos durante la epidemia colombiana de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Saldarriaga G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el dengue es la enfermedad viral transmitida por vectores de diseminación más frecuente en el mundo. Su espectro clínico incluye las manifestaciones atípicas, entre ellas el compromiso cardiaco, del cual sólo se han reportado pocas series de casos en la literatura. OBJETIVO: reportar las características clínicas de los pacientes atendidos por casos confirmados por serología de dengue con manifestaciones cardiovasculares en un centro de referencia cardiovascular colombiano durante la epidemia de 2010. METODOLOGÍA: estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo, en el que se incluyeron los pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias, a quienes se les realizó un diagnóstico confirmado de dengue y tuvieron manifestaciones cardiovasculares de la enfermedad. RESULTADOS: se encontraron 7 pacientes; el 50% no tenía antecedentes previos de enfermedad cardiovascular. Los trastornos del ritmo fueron la manifestación cardiaca más frecuente (42,8%, entre ellos la fibrilación auricular de novo (14,2%, el bloqueo auriculoventricular completo y transitorio (14,2%, la bradicardia sinusal concomitante con derrame pericárdico (14,2% y la disfunción ventricular leve (28,5%; un paciente presentó un síndrome coronario agudo con elevación de ST durante la infección y dos descompensación aguda de insuficiencia cardiaca. No se reportaron muertes. CONCLUSIÓN: la incidencia de las complicaciones cardiacas asociadas a la infección por dengue varía de una serie a otra y su fisiopatología no se conoce por completo. Durante la epidemia que se desató en Colombia en 2010 se encontraron pocos casos de manifestaciones cardiovasculares pero con una morbilidad importante que debe alertar respecto a su identificación temprana.

  2. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTERCELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tovar-Franco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el período perinatal el cerebro utiliza sustratos alternativos a la glucosa para mantener su desarrollo, pues en este momento sus niveles están disminuidos. El acetato es metabolizado por las neuronas y los astrocitos durante la prelactancia. La utilización del acetato por estas células puede verse mejorada por lasreacciones fijadoras de CO2, algunas de las cuales participan en el mantenimiento de los intermediarios del TCA, que son reducidos por la producción y liberación de aminoácidos, suministrando los recursos para la producción de energía y sustratos que son compartimentados intercelularmente.Se estudió el efecto de la fijación de CO2 en procesos metabólicos intercelulares donde está involucrado el acetato. En incubaciones con neuronas y astrocitos de 7 y 14 días de cultivo, utilizando acetato (5 mM y [14C]-bicarbonato de sodio (10 µ Ci (500-1000 dpm/nmol, se determinó la incorporación en metabolitos marcados en células y en sustratos estables liberados al medio. Adicionalmente, se realizaron experimentos similares utilizando inhibidores como el aminooxiacetato (AOA, dicloroacetato (DCA, α-ciano-4-hidroxicinnamato (α-CN, butilmalonato (BM y bencenotricarboxílato (BT, cuantificando porcromatografía de capa delgada la concentración en el medio de incubación de alanina, aspartato, glutamato y glutamina.Los resultados indican que las neuronas tienen una menor capacidad para fijar carbonos en estructuras celulares, durante la prelactancia, pero utilizan mejor el acetato vía acetil-CoA mitocondrial (AceCS2 para la producción de energía y aminoácidos. En los astrocitos, estas reacciones favorecen la utilización del acetato vía citrato liasa y Acetil-CoA citosólica (AceCS1 para la producción de estructuras y sustratos utilizados por las neuronas, que para la producción de aminoácidos.

  3. Fútbol y conflictividad sociopolítica durante la dictadura de Franco. Un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor García Lázaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación es ahondar la relación existente entre el fútbol y la conflictividadsociopolítica durante los períodos de dictadura. Para ello nos centramos en estudiar los desórdenespúblicos que tienen lugar durante y después del encuentro que enfrenta a la Unión Deportiva LasPalmas contra el Córdoba en el Estadio Insular el 4 de marzo de 1962. Nos basamos principalmenteen la documentación generada por las autoridades franquistas, como es el caso del Servicio de Informaciónde la Guardia Civil, la Dirección General de Seguridad y el Gobernador Civil de Las Palmas;la prensa oficial de la época y la de las organizaciones antifranquistas. Explicamos este conflicto comofruto de las condiciones económicas, sociales y políticas que se viven durante los años anteriores enla ciudad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, que generan un gran descontento entre todas las clases socialescon la dictadura imperante. De esta investigación se desprende el cariz nacionalista del conflictoy la importancia que el mismo tuvo para las autoridades franquistas, que emprendieron una serie deacciones para mejorar la situación de las islas.The aim of this research is to deepen the relationship between football and socio-political conflictduring periods of dictatorship. For this study we focus on public disorder occurring during and afterthe match pitting the Union Deportiva Las Palmas against Córdoba at Estadio Insular March 4, 1962.To do this we rely primarily on the documentation generated by the Francoist authorities, such as theInformation Service of the Civil Guard, the Dirección General de Seguridad and the Civil Governorof Las Palmas; the official press of the time and the propaganda of the anti-Franco organizations. Weexplain this conflict as a result of the economic, social and political conditions that is lived in the yearsbefore on the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, that generate a lot of discontent among all

  4. Los trastornos de ansiedad durante la transición a la menopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvajal-Lohr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La menopausia es la interrupción definitiva de las menstruaciones resultado de la pérdida de la actividad folicular del ovario. El periodo inmediatamente antes de la menopausia y el primer año después de la misma se conoce como perimenopausia. La posmenopausia se define como el periodo que transcurre desde un año a partir de la fecha de última menstruación, sin importar si la menopausia fue inducida o espontánea. Debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida en la mujer mexicana, mayor número de ellas alcanzan la edad promedio de la menopausia (45-59 años y pasan una parte significativa de su vida en la posmenopausia. Se ha observado que los trastornos psiquiátricos son más frecuentes en mujeres que en hombres, y que la perimenopausia es una etapa en la cual se incrementan los síntomas psicológicos, así como el riesgo de sufrir depresión mayor y trastornos de ansiedad. Se debe diferenciar cuando la ansiedad es un síntoma normal ante determinadas situaciones cotidianas de estrés y cuando comienza a tener una presentación irracional por un estímulo ausente, por una intensidad excesiva con relación al estímulo, o cuando la duración es prolongada y presenta recidivas sin motivo, ocasionando grave disfuncionalidad en el paciente. En esta revisión presentamos datos acerca de los síntomas de ansiedad durante la transición a la menopausia y hacemos alusión al trastorno de ansiedad generalizada y trastorno de pánico, ya que se ha observado una mayor prevalencia de estas patologías durante la transición a la menopausia, probablemente debido a los cambios hormonales que se viven durante esta etapa.

  5. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements. An...

  6. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals. The...

  7. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area, the protective measures a miner... occurred during the miner's absence and that could adversely affect the miner's health or safety. (1) A... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING...

  8. Mineral extraction and transport device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, K.

    1991-08-21

    A device for the extraction and transport of stratified mineral deposits notably coal, having a transport run with lengths of transport troughing, an extraction run with lengths of extraction troughing, and a power-driven traction chain guided round return devices and carrying extraction bodies together with optional transport units. The transport and extraction troughing have guide members on which the extraction bodies and the transport units are guided with the aid of guide formations. Each extraction body consists of a headpiece having two laterally protruding guide formations, and an endpiece having two laterally protruding guide formations and a centrepiece. The headpiece and the endpiece are swivellably linked to the centrepiece through an axis running substantially at right angles to the traction axis of the traction chain and substantially at right angles to the floor of the lengths of transport troughing in the transport run. The centrepiece has an additional articulation about an axis substantially orthogonal to the swivel axis of the headpiece and the endpiece. Guide members are additionally provided in the vicinity of the return devices whereby the guide formations on each headpiece and endpiece receive continued guidance.

  9. Mineral oils, tars. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, A M; Handmarch, E

    1933-08-11

    Hydrocarbon materials such as mineral oils and tars from coal, shale, lignite, or peat are freed from phenols and like oxy-bodies by heating under pressure in a closed vessel to a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect reduction of the oxy-bodies, and then removing the water formed by the reaction. 350/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C. for 30 to 60 minutes is suitable. Any wax-like constituents are converted to liquids of lower viscosity and settling point. The product may be fractionated to give light oils and a residue of aviation Diesel fuel. In an example, oil from the low-temperature distillation of coal and having a tar acid content of 30 per cent is treated in a tubular converter at 380/sup 0/C. and 400 lb. per sq. in for 40 min., and the benzine toluol, and xylol distilled; the residue has a tar acid content of only 7.6 per cent.

  10. Regulación de las metalotioneínas durante el estrés y la inflamación, y su influencia durante la respuesta inflamatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Trancoso, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Regulación de las metalotioneínas durante el estrés y la inflamación, y su influencia durante la respuesta inflamatoria. Las metalotioneínas (MTs) son unas proteínas de bajo peso molecular (6-7 kDa) con capacidad para ligar metales pesados como el Zn y el Cu. En los roedores existen cuatro isoformas diferentes denominadas MT-I, -II, -III y IV. Las MT-I y MT-II se expresan prácticamente en todos los tejidos del organismo y son inducibles por metales pesados, agentes oxidantes, hormonas, la inf...

  11. La historia medieval sobre Castilla y León durante el periodo 1975-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ESTEPA DÍEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizar una síntesis y una valoración sobre la producción historiográfica del medievalismo durante el último decenio constituye una difícil tarea. Soy consciente del riesgo que comporta el mostrar de una manera sucinta lo aportado respecto a Castilla y León, ya que una tendencia al detalle nos puede llevar inevitablemente a un mero recuento bibliográfico, pero unos planteamientos generales dejarán evidentes lagunas y aproximaciones a veces un tanto particularizadas. Con todo, esta tarea resulta necesaria y, aún con defectos, creo que será al menos de cierta utilidad.

  12. La hojalatería en Málaga durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gómez Zotano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria malagueña, amparada en el resurgir socioeconómico registrado en la provincia durante el siglo XVIII, alcanzó un considerable progreso tecnológico. Este propició la aparición de los primeros proyectos de industrialización, canalizados fundamentalmente por las constantes prospecciones mineras y la construcción en el valle del Genal de industrias derivadas de la hojalatería como la Real Fábrica de Hoja de Lata de San Miguel. En este trabajo analizamos cómo fue el proceso de instalación y consolidación de la industria de la hojalatería en el sector occidental de la provincia de Málaga y cuales fueron sus repercusiones medioambientales.

  13. Deshidratación de banano y cambio químicos ocurridos durante el proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reyes de

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Como el banano es una fruta muy alterable, es necesario transformarlaa estados más estables para prolongar su conservación.Uno de los procesos más sencillos y fáciles de realizar es la deshidratación; en nuestro país ya se efectúa pero necesita una tecnificación y un estudio químico a fondo sobre los cambios ocurridosa los diferentes constituyentes de la pulpa de banano.En este trabajo se buscaron las condiciones óptimas en lascuales podría realizarse la deshidratación del banano, para que lapérdida de nutrientes fuera mínima, y se evaluaron los cambiosquímicos ocurridos durante dicho proceso.

  14. Monitoreo de la Temperatura durante la Anestesia: ¿Es realmente necesario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln de Parte Pérez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available La temperatura corporal debe ser monitoreada en todos los pacientes a los que se les realiza procedimientos quirúrgicos con el objetivo de detectar precozmente sus variaciones, así como las complicaciones que se presentan con las variaciones de esta, como son: fiebre, hipertermia maligna e hipotermia accidental y para el monitoreo de la hipertermia inducida. Se muestra una revisión de los factores que producen hipotermia durante el transoperatorio, así como la prevención y tratamiento de ella.Body temperature should be monitored in all patients undergoing surgical procedures in order to detect its variations early, as well as the complications appearing with them, such as malignant hyperthermia and accidental hypothermia and for monitoring induced hyperthermia. A review of the factors producing hypothermia during the transoperative is made. Its prevention and treatment are also dealth with.

  15. Efeito de bioterápico na eosinofilia durante a SLMV experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Camillo; Sandra Regina Pereira de Oliveira; Rosa Domingues Ribeiro; Joice Margareth de Almeida Rodolpho; Gabriel Henrique Gomes Caroccia; Sérgio de Albuquerque; Fernanda de Freitas Anibal

    2014-01-01

    O Toxocara canis (Tc) é um parasito pertencente ao filo Nematódeo que possui como hospedeiro definitivo os cães, O homem é hospedeiro paratênico e contamina-se acidentalmente ao ingerir ovos contendo larvas infectantes (L3) do parasito, as quais são liberadas e atravessam a mucosa intestinal, atingem a circulação, Durante este processo migratório, antígenos de excreção e secreção (TES) são liberados provocando intensa reação inflamatória, do tipo Th2, caracterizando a síndrome, denominada Lar...

  16. VOCES Y SILENCIOS: LA PRENSA ARGENTINA DURANTE LA DICTADURA MILITAR (1976-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borrelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone analizar las condiciones de funcionamiento de la gran prensa diaria argentina durante la última dictadura militar argentina (1976-1983, sus principales posiciones editoriales frente a acontecimientos relevantes del periodo y cuáles fueron las políticas más importantes de parte del régimen militar hacia los medios de prensa. El trabajo pone un especial énfasis en el rol que adquirió la prensa diaria en el marco del sistema represivo clandestino conocido como terrorismo de estado y de las intenciones de refundación social de los militares en el poder.

  17. Hidratação durante o exercício: a sede é suficiente?

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Moreira, Christiano Antônio; Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão sobre a hidratação e discutir se, durante o exercício, a reposição de líquidos de acordo com a sede é suficiente para hidratar o indivíduo. A perda hídrica pela sudorese induzida pelo exercício, especialmente realizado em ambientes quentes, pode levar à desidratação, pode alterar o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico, dificultar a termorregulação e, assim, representar um risco para a saúde e/ou provocar uma diminuição no desempenho esportivo. Tem sido ci...

  18. Geografía política del caucho durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Domínguez Ossa

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundia el dominio de los recursos estratégicos jugó un papel geopolítico muy grande. Uno de estos recursos, el caucho, tuvo enormes implicaciones sobre el movimiento de fuerzas beligerantes en todo el planeta. en Asia Suroriental significó invasiones armadas y matanzas enormes. En América Latina, especialmente en la Amazonia, fue uno de los recursos estratégicos que marcaron el esfuerzo de guerra latinoamericano junto a los aliados. En realidad, los resultados de la llamada "batalla del caucho" fueron más del orden político que económico: los Estados Unidos impusieron finalmente el paramericanismo liderado por esa gran potencia y los pueblos aeropuerto que sirvieron para el embarque del caucho se conviertieron en enclaves para el dominio territorial del Estado colombiano sobre su Amazonia.

  19. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  20. Entramados de la seda en México durante el siglo XIX y principios del XX

    OpenAIRE

    García Corzo, Rebeca Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación es realizar un panorama general del desarrollo de la industria de la seda en México durante el siglo XIX y principios del XX desde una perspectiva CTS a través de la secuencia de proyectos efímeros que constituyó el proceso. La hipótesis defendida es que aunque los grandes proyectos fueron efímeros la iniciativa para la puesta en práctica de la industria de la seda no fue abandonada porque se consiguió mantener el apoyo de la sociedad de la época. Esto se logró...

  1. España y Portugal durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sacristán Lucas

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando las relaciones internacionales entran en franco deterioro en el escenario europeo, el entendimiento político entre España y Portugal presentaba a la Península Ibérica como un bloque relativamente unido ante la conflagración mundial. La política exterior de estos dos Estados durante la segunda guerra mundial se enmarca dentro de unas coordenadas, que son tenidas en cuenta por los diplomáticos de ambas naciones, de los beligerantes y neutrales: la coincidencia del talante político e ideológico de los regímenes de Salazar y Franco se sumaba a la importancia estratégica de la Península, que obligaba a un entendimiento entre ambos Estados, siempre amenazados por el peligro de un ataque proveniente del exterior.

  2. La Educación de la Mujer Mexicana en la prensa femenina durante el Porfiriato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelos Torres Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es producto de una investigación sobre las publicaciones mexicanas dirigidas al público femenino durante el porfiriato, las cuales desempeñaron una importante función educativa. El principal objetivo de la investigación es analizar, comprender, comparar e interpretar las principales propuestas que aparecían en estas respecto a la educación de la mujer, a partir de los artículos editoriales o de las columnas destacadas en cada uno de los medios. La investigación ofrece un panorama que permite conocer las posturas más relevantes en el debate planteado en las revistas sobre la educación femenina. El método utilizado consistió en la revisión y análisis de la hemerografía de época, para lo cual fueron estudiadas diversas publicaciones, de las cuales se seleccionaron diez como las más representativas. Posteriormente se utilizó un marco teórico hermenéutico, el cual permitió analizar, comprender y posteriormente interpretar el proceso histórico, el discurso educativo y el contenido ideológico de los medios referidos. La investigación concluye que los contenidos educativos de las publicaciones corresponden al concepto de "educación informal"; asimismo, que existieron principalmente dos posturas antagónicas en torno a la educación de las mujeres: una conservadora, que recomendaba educarlas, y otra liberal o modernizadora, que proponía instruirlas. En este sentido, la principal hipótesis de la que se parte propone que ambas posturas trataban de determinar, por medio de la educación, el perfil que debía tener la mujer mexicana durante esa época.

  3. Estudio antropológico de redes sociales de madres adolescentes durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Pasarin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La atención de la salud incluye a diversos actores sociales, por ello en su estudio debe contemplarse el papel que adquieren los contextos socioculturales. El estudio de las redes sociales resulta conveniente para abordarlos. Este trabajo presenta una aplicación del análisis de redes sociales como complemento de abordaje metodológico al estudio de las prácticas y comportamientos relacionados con la salud de madres adolescentes durante el período prenatal. Utilizando la herramienta EgoNet, se analiza la estructura de las redes personales identificando redes integradas principalmente por familiares que brindan consejos y prestan ayuda instrumental, actuando como facilitadoras respecto a la realización de los controles de salud. La perspectiva de análisis de redes sociales permitió destacar el papel decisivo que cobran ciertas relaciones personales, funcionando como lazos eficaces que afectan significativamente el accionar de las adolescentes respecto a su salud durante el embarazo.The health care includes several social actors, this implies that its study should consider the role of the sociocultural contexts. The study of social networks is appropriate to address them. This paper presents an application of social network analysis as a complement of the methodological approach for the study of practices and health-related behaviors in adolescents mothers. This structure of personal networks is analyzed by EgoNet sofware. That structure is disscussed by identifying family networks that offer advices and provide instrumental assistance, acting as facilitators for the prenatal health controls. The social networks analysis perspective allows to emphasize the critical role acquired by certain personal relationships, which operate affecting significantly the health actions of the teenagers mothers during pregnancy.

  4. CARACTERIZACION FISICOQUIMICA DEL MANGO COMUN (Mangifera indica L. DURANTE SU PROCESO DE MADURACION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR QUINTERO C

    Full Text Available El proceso de maduración del mango está gobernado bajo una serie de reacciones bioquímicas al interior del fruto que se caracterizan por cambios en la textura, color, en el contenido de azúcares, ácidos, aromas, entre otros. Las sustancias acumuladas durante el desarrollo se transforman de manera lenta y progresiva hasta que el fruto alcanza las condiciones de aroma y jugosidad que permita clasificarlo como maduro. Se realizó una cinética de maduración durante nueve días, determinando parámetros físicos y químicos como color en pulpa y en cáscara, textura, actividad de agua, sólidos solubles, pH y acidez titulable. Se modeló cinéticamente el comportamiento de cada una estas variables y se pudo determinar que los sólidos solubles tienen una tendencia explicada con un modelo de regresión multiplicativo y la actividad de agua con un modelo de regresión reciproco de X mientras el pH y la acidez con una ecuación de regresión de raíz cuadrada de X, de la misma manera el cambio de color en cáscara y en pulpa presento una regresión reciproca de X. Por último en el caso de la textura se observó y se ajustó modelos lineales tanto para cáscara como para pulpa.

  5. Teores de nutrientes de dois cultivares de oliveira durante o crescimento vegetativo e o florescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoni Pereira de Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Para o planejamento de adubações, visando a manter os níveis de nutrientes adequados para as plantas, é importante monitorar seu estado nutricional durante as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, sendo a análise foliar o melhor método para avaliar os níveis de nutrientes na planta. Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar os teores de nutrientes em dois cultivares de oliveira, nas fases de crescimento vegetativo e na floração. Foram avaliados espécimes dos cultivares 'Grappolo' e 'Barnea', com dois anos de idade, obtidos a partir do enraizamento de estacas, plantadas no espaçamento de 5 m entre linhas e 3 m entre plantas. Utilizou-se o esquema de parcela sub-dividida, tendo na parcela o fatorial 2 x 2, sendo duas cultivares e duas fases de emissão fenológicas: plantas com brotações vegetativa e reprodutivas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e sete plantas por parcela. As amostras de folhas foram retiradas em quatro épocas: junho (na ocasião do plantio e repetidas em agosto, setembro e outubro, quando as plantas iniciaram a emissão de brotações vegetativas e de flores. Na fase de florescimento, a oliveira apresentou menores teores de nutrientes que as plantas em fase vegetativa. O cultivar 'Barnea', por seu hábito de crescimento rápido, apresentou menores teores de nutrientes, durante as fases vegetativa e reprodutiva.

  6. CASTIGO FEMENINO EN CHILE DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Neira Navarro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo permitió generar una serie de categorías de castigos femeninos, considerando que durante buena parte del siglo XIX la policía pudo aplicar "justicia correccional", es decir, sancionar delitos menores. De un universo de más de 32.000 arrestos efectuados en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile entre los años 1830 a 1840 y utilizando el criterio "femenino", el levantamiento logró una muestra que alcanzó al 12% del total. Los datos sistematizados permiten señalar que durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX el delito femenino fue parte importante de la actividad represiva en Chile y dio origen a un castigo relacionado a la Cárcel Correccional. Aunque también se observan otras penas como trabajo de casa formal o encierro en monasterios, forman parte de un circuito restrictivo en función del encierro de mujeres.The present article allowed to generate a series of categories of female punishments, considering that during a great part of the XIX century the police could apply "correctional justice", in other words, punish minor offences. In a universe of more than 32,000 arrest in the city of Santiago, Chile between the years 1830 and 1840 and using a "female" criteria, the uprising achieved a sample that reached 12% of the total. The systematized information shows that during the firt half of the xix century the female offence was an important part of the repressive activity in Chile and it gave origin to a punishment related to a correctional. Even though some other punishments were observed such a work in a formal house or monastery confinemet, they formed part of a restricting circuit functioning with the confinement of women.

  7. Crecimiento económico de China durante la crisis financiera mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Villezca Becerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito global, China se sigue haciendo cada vez más fuerte. La evidencia más contundente proviene de su sobresaliente desempeño económico durante los años 2008 y 2009 en el entorno de la crisis financiera mundial más grave desde la Gran Depresión de los años treinta. Aun cuando algunos de sus principales indicadores económicos muestran un crecimiento más lento durante estos años, la economía china experimentó una rápida recuperación, revirtiendo los efectos negativos de la crisis. En este contexto, el presente trabajo revisa los logros económicos y el manejo de su política económica para enfrentar la crisis e intenta explicar las razones de su éxito. El gobierno central implementó políticas fiscales y monetarias expansivas y aplicó un conjunto de incentivos económicos, a fin de impulsar la demanda interna y sostener el crecimiento económico frente a la reducción de la demanda externa. Como resultado, los aspectos fundamentales de la economía: el crecimiento económico, la producción industrial, el comercio internacional y la inversión extranjera directa, estuvieron mucho mejor que los del resto de las economías del mundo. La evidencia indica que las diferencias se deben a las características distintivas de su modelo de desarrollo, entre las que resalta el papel que juega la intervención del gobierno para implementar una economía dirigida, o guiada de mercado, en contraste con el libre mercado occidental.

  8. Comportamiento de Rhodnius robustus Larousse, 1927 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae durante su alimentación en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Rubio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. A pesar del control de los insectos domiciliados, se siguen presentando casos de enfermedad de Chagas con la participación en la transmisión de especies peridomiciliarias y selváticas,una de las cuales es Rhodnius robustus, especie reportada con infecciones naturales de Trypanosoma cruzi y T. rangeli. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de R. robustus durante su alimentación en condiciones delaboratorio.Materiales y métodos. En cada estadio de desarrollo de R. robustus se analizó el tiempo promedio para alcanzar la repleción, número promedio de deyecciones, porcentaje de individuos que defecan durante la comida y ganancia de peso después de la alimentación. Resultados. Rhodnius robustus tardó entre 19:26 y 44:55 (minutos:segundos en alimentarse arepleción; los insectos defecaron en todos sus diferentes estadios durante la alimentación. El porcentaje de individuos que defecan durante la alimentación varía de 13,3 % a 93,3 %. Por otro lado, el consumo promedio de sangre en el quinto estadio, 337,19 mg, duplica la cantidad ingerida por los adultos, 161,25 mg. Conclusiones. En todos los estadios de R. robustus hay defecación durante la alimentación, factor que favorece su competencia vectorial. Sin embargo, el tiempo para la primera deyección, el porcentaje dedeyecciones y los individuos que defecan durante la comida, así como la cantidad de sangre ingerida, varían entre los estadios, lo cual indica que el comportamiento alimenticio está mediado por variables dependientes de la edad/estadio.   http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.743

  9. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  10. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  11. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Adsorption of dextrin on hydrophobic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Beattie, David A

    2009-09-01

    The adsorption of dextrin on talc, molybdenite, and graphite (three naturally hydrophobic minerals) has been compared. Adsorption isotherms and in situ tapping mode atomic force microscope (TMAFM) imaging have enabled polymer adsorbed amount and morphology of the adsorbed layer (area coverage and polymer domain size) to be determined and also the amount of hydration water in the structure of the adsorbed layer. The effect of the polymer on the mineral contact angles, measured by the captive bubble method on cleaved mineral surfaces, indicates clear correlations between the hydrophobicity reduction of the minerals, the adsorbed amount, and the surface coverage of the adsorbed polymer. Predictions of the flotation recovery of the treated mineral phases have been confirmed by performing batch flotation experiments. The influence of the polymer surface coverage on flotation recovery has highlighted the importance of this key parameter in the predictions of depressant efficiency. The roles of the initial hydrophobicity and the surface structure of the mineral basal plane in determining adsorption parameters and flotation response of the polymer-treated minerals are also discussed.

  13. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Rn daughter exposure to U miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L

    1982-04-01

    Radon exposures to U.S. uranium miners under present conditions average about 1.3 WLM per year approximately or equal to 60 WLM per full working lifetime. This is intermediate between the lowest exposures for which there have been excess lung cancers reported among U.S. miners (120-240 WLM) and average environmental radon exposures (16 WLM), so models based on these two situations are used to estimate expected effects on present uranium miners. In Model A, the loss of life expectancy is 45 days, the SMR (standardized mortality ratio) for lung cancer is 1.10, and the SMR for all causes between ages 18 and 65 is 1.013. In Model B these are 10 days, 1.03 and 1.002 respectively. It is shown that the radon exposures to miners are similar to those to millions of Americans from environmental exposure, and that miner health risks are comparable to those of other radiation workers. Their lung cancer risk from radon is 7-50 times less than their job-related accident mortality risk, and represents 0.7-4% of their total risk in mining. Miners suffer from many diseases with SMR very much larger than that for radon-induced lung cancer, and there are many other occupations and industries with far higher SMR for lung cancer than that from radon exposure to miners.

  15. Marketing mix of chosen Slovak mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhanová Silvia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering its small area, Slovakia abounds in many sources of mineral waters and a considerable amount of them can be used for the commercial utilization. STN 86 8000 divides mineral waters in the natural mineral waters, natural mineral table waters and the natural mineral healing waters. Natural mineral water is, after the present norm, in effect water, which rises from natural trapped sources. This type of water contains more than 1 gram of dissolved substances or 1 gram of dissolved CO 2 in 1 litter. Natural mineral table water is water that, with its chemical composition as well as its physical and sensorial attributes is suitable as a refresher. It contains at least 1 gram of melted CO2 and up to 6 grams of dissolved illiquid substances in 1 litter. The mentioned substances are not characterised by any marked pharmacological effect. Natural mineral healing water is water, which with an eye to its chemical composition and physical properties, have a scientifically demonstrable effects to the human health and it is generally used for healing purposes. In the present contribution, an attention is orientated to the occurrence of listed types of waters in Slovakia, in connection with geological conditions of their circulation and accumulation and especially with possibilities of their use on the Slovak buyer’s market.The marketing mix is a complex of information, which can be regulated. Firms accumulate this information to satisfy a customer. Marketing mix of mineral waters includes information about four variables: product (characteristics of product, quality, packing, design..., prices, advertisement, distribution (the way how to get product to customer. Data listed in the contribution come from the sectional market research, which was performed between December 1st and December 22nd 2000 in twenty groceries in

  16. Batteri lattici non starter durante la stagionatura del formaggio: sopravvivenza, crescita e produzione di molecole potenzialmente coinvolte nella formazione dell'aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Sgarbi, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    I batteri lattici (LAB) costituiscono un gruppo eterogeneo di batteri tradizionalmente utilizzati nella produzione di formaggi. Essi possono svolgere diversi ruoli durante la caseificazione, gli starter LAB (SLAB) sono i protagonisti del processo di fermentazione, mentre i non starter LAB (NSLAB) esplicano il loro ruolo durante la maturazione del formaggio. Il lavoro di ricerca di questo dottorato si è focalizzato sullo studio del contributo dei NSLAB durante la stagionatura del formaggio. In...

  17. Análisis de perfiles de temperatura durante el proceso de calentamiento de frutas por microondas

    OpenAIRE

    Arballo, Javier Ramiro; Campañone, Laura Analia; Mascheroni, Rodolfo Horacio

    2017-01-01

    La transferencia de energía durante el proceso de calentamiento por microondas de frutas fue estudiada teórica y experimentalmente mediante el modelado y simulación numérica. Con el fin de describir los fenómenos de transporte puestos en juego durante el proceso de calentamiento, en primer lugar se planteó el balance microscópico de energía con propiedades globales en función de la temperatura; la generación interna de calor debida a la interacción del alimento con la energía electromagnética...

  18. Efecto de la ingesta sobre la volemia durante la sesión de hemodiálisis

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Mejías, Patricia; Quesada Armenteros, María Trinidad; Ruiz Almería, Sonia; Liébana Pamos, Beatriz; Esquinas Marta, Miriam; Martínez Aranda, M.ª Amor

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: Desde el punto de vista enfermero nos planteamos si los pacientes pueden o no ingerir alimentos durante la sesión de hemodiálisis. Objetivo: Con este estudio nos proponemos evaluar la repercusión hemodinámica de la ingesta intrahemodiálisis en relación con la caída de volumen sanguíneo y la tensión arterial. Material y Método: Se realiza un estudio prospectivo, observacional, transversal en 22 pacientes adultos en programa de hemodiálisis crónica, recogiendo datos durante tres s...

  19. Persistencia y/o transformación de tricotecenos durante algunas etapas del procesamiento de trigo

    OpenAIRE

    Samar, María Margarita

    2003-01-01

    La finalidad del presente trabajo fue obtener informaciónsobre la persistencia y / o transformación de tricotecenos durante algunas etapas de procesamiento del trigo para contribuir a la estimación de la exposición como consecuencia de la ingesta de alimentos elaborados con trigo potencialmente contaminados por tricotecenos en la Argentina. Las tendencias identificadas en los métodos analíticos para la determinación de tricotecenos, durante los años 1990-2000 en diferentes partes del mundo, m...

  20. Fractal analysis of sulphidic mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklúšová Viera

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of fractal theory in the characterization of fragmented surfaces, as well as the mass-size distributions are discussed. The investigated mineral-chalcopyrite of Slovak provenience is characterised after particle size reduction processes-crushing and grinding. The problem how the different size reduction methods influence the surface irregularities of obtained particles is solved. Mandelbrot (1983, introducing the fractal geometry, offered a new way of characterization of surface irregularities by the fractal dimension. The determination of the surface fractal dimension DS consists in measuring the specific surface by the BET method in several fractions into which the comminuted chalcopyrite is sieved. This investigation shows that the specific surface of individual fractions were higher for the crushed sample than for the short-term (3 min ground sample. The surface fractal dimension can give an information about the adsorption sites accessible to molecules of nitrogen and according to this, the value of the fractal dimension is higher for crushed sample.The effect of comminution processes on the mass distribution of particles crushed and ground in air as well as in polar liquids is also discussed. The estimation of fractal dimensions of particles mass distribution is done on the assumption that the particle size distribution is described by the power-law (1. The value of fractal dimension for the mass distribution in the crushed sample is lower than in the sample ground in air, because it is influenced by the energy required for comminution.The sample of chalcopyrite was ground (10min in ethanol and i-butanol [which according to Ikazaki (1991] are characterized by the parameter µ /V, where µ is its dipole moment and V is the molecular volume. The values of µ /V for the used polar liquids are of the same order. That is why the expressive differences in particle size distributions as well as in the values of

  1. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  2. Radiotracer techniques in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewlocki, K.

    1991-01-01

    The value of the smelter metal content in currently exploited polymetallic ores mostly does not exceed 2%. Before metallurgical treatment, ore must pass through the concentration process. The benefication process usually starts from the comminution of excavated material and terminates at the flotation and drying of the concentrate. These operations consume vast quantities of energy. To be economically justified, the process requires optimization and, if possible, automatic control. Radioactive tracers were found to be useful in the identification of particular technological subsystems and their subsequent optimization. A great deal of experience has been gathered in this field so far. The industrial radiotracer test (RTT) is carried out using very sensitive multidetector recording systems which have digital data acquisition capabilities. The optimization strategy consists of periodically adjusting technological process and set points of controlled variables according to certain improvement procedures. If computer facilities are available, data interpretation and calibration of the mathematical models describing the technical process itself can be performed on the spot. This significantly accelerates the whole procedure as RTT may be repeated for particular system configurations. The procedure of plant optimization by means of RTT is illustrated in the paper using the example of the copper ore enrichment process, assuming that it is representative of the whole mineral industry. Identification by RTT of the three main operations involved in the ore enrichment process, such as comminution, flotation and granular classification, is discussed in detail as particular case studies. In reference to this, it is also shown how the technological process can be adjusted to be most efficient. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  3. Airborne Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory CIP Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne-Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory project is a special multi-year investment to expand the knowledge base of Alaska's mineral resources and catalyze private-sector mineral development...

  4. Uranium mineralization of migmatite in southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingyue

    1987-09-01

    The uranium mineralization occurs in migmatite in the form of disseminated uraninite is a new type found in southern China. According to the forms of uraninite existence in orebodies, it can be divided into primary and reworked subtypes. The principal uranium mineral in the deposits of primary subtype is uraninite, but those in reworked subtype are pitchblende and relict uraninite. The formation of uranium mineralization is considered as a result of remobilization, migration and local concentration caused by preferential melting of the uranium-rich strata.

  5. Uranium mineralization of migmatite in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue.

    1987-01-01

    The uranium mineralization occurs in migmatite in the form of disseminated uraninite is a new type found in southern China. According to the forms of uraninite existence in orebodies, it can be divided into primary and reworked subtypes. The principal uranium mineral in the deposits of primary subtype is uraninite, but those in reworked subtype are pitchblende and relict uraninite. The formation of uranium mineralization is considered as a result of remobilization, migration and local concentration caused by preferential melting of the uranium-rich strata

  6. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, N. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Fachgebiet Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    This first systematic survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, is currently being extended to neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals, like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we examine if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally to support the interpretation of pertinent experiments. A further facet of these studies is to account also for the dynamic nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamic simulations.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  8. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  9. Volcán Poás: vulnerabilidad económica durante su cierre y espacio de preparación durante la calma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte González, Eliécer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se resumen algunas ideas para aportar a la discusión sobre vulnerabilidad y riesgo volcánico. Por razones actuales se abordará en mayor profundidad la vulnerabilidad económica de comunidades y grupos comerciales que dependen del normal funcionamiento del Parque Nacional volcán Poás. Se pretende, generar la inquietud acerca de la delicada dependencia que puede dar entre algunos comerciantes y la visitación turística al cráter activo. Si bien el interés por parte de nacionales y extranjeros, por visitar la cima es primarlo; otras alternativas turísticas en su entorno pueden reducir esa dependencia económica durante la reactivación y el cierre del volcán. Repentinamente las amenazas de un volcán, pasan a un segundo piano con respecto a las decisiones que se toman y a su impacto económico; provocando efectos en un segmento de la población comercial de la región. Se alcanzan algunas conclusiones que desnudan la necesidad de un compromiso colectivo entre organizaciones e instituciones en la región con aquellos actores que se declaran afectados con el cierre del volcá This essay summarizes some of the ideas to contribute to the discussion about volcanic vulnerability and risk. Due to current reasons, the area that will be more profoundly analyzed will be the one of economic vulnerability of the community and commercial groups that depend on the normal operation of the Poas Volcano National Park. The objective is to question the subtle dependence that could be among some merchants and the touristic visits to the active crater. The main interest from national and foreign visitors is to visit the top, other touristic options in the area could reduce that economic dependence during the volcano reactivation and closure. Suddenly, the volcano threats become less important in relation to the decisions that have to be made and their economic impact; causing effects into a sector of the commercial population of the region

  10. Study of blood pressure among coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandon; Dhar, B.B.; Singh, A.K.P.; Sahay, L.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work was to assess the prevalence of hypertension among 2772 coal miners and to establish the relationship of hypertension with family history, living conditions, dietary habits, and other associated medical parameters. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Contributions of Fe Minerals to Abiotic Dechlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most applications of enhanced in situ bioremediation are based on biological reductive dechlorination. Anaerobic metabolism can also produce reactive minerals that allow for in situ biogeochemical transformation of chlorinated organic contaminants such as PCE, TCE, and cis-DCE. ...

  12. Status of mineral resources evaluation and forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hanfeng; Li Ziying; Luo Yi; Li Shengxiang; Sun Wenpeng

    2007-01-01

    The work of resources evaluation and forecast is a focus to the governments of every country in the world, it is related to the establishment of strategic policy on the national mineral resources. In order to quantitatively evaluate the general potential of uranium resources in China and better forecast uranium deposits, this paper briefly introduces the method of evaluating total amount of mineral resources, especially 6 usual prospective methods which are recommended in international geology comparison programs, as well as principle of usual mineral resources quantitative prediction and its steps. The work history of mineral resources evaluation and forecast is reviewed concisely. Advantages and disadvantages of each method, their application field and condition are also explained briefly. At last, the history of uranium resources evaluation and forecast in China and its status are concisely outlined. (authors)

  13. Statistical models for optimizing mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, T.K.; DeGeoffroy, J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of mineral exploration is to discover ore deposits. The emphasis of this volume is on the mathematical and computational aspects of optimizing mineral exploration. The seven chapters that make up the main body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models. These chapters include: (1) the optimal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting selected areas, (2) designing airborne and ground field programs for the optimal coverage of prospecting areas, and (3) delineating and evaluating exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of statistical modeling. Many of these statistical programs are innovative and are designed to be useful for mineral exploration modeling. Examples of geomathematical models are applied to exploring for six main types of base and precious metal deposits, as well as other mineral resources (such as bauxite and uranium)

  14. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  15. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  16. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1999-01-01

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  17. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of metamict minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, A.; Baptista, N.R.

    1989-01-01

    The used techniques in different analysis about metamict minerals, its results and conclusions. These samples went on Minas Gerais State, and they belong at the mineralogical collection of National Museum is presented. (C.M.)

  19. Mineral exploration in Austria, possibilities and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the present situation in Austria for mineral exploration. He considers the geological chances of finding new resources, presents a short description of commodities and finally gives proposals for a natural resources inventory. (Auth.)

  20. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy in Mineral Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for rapid identification of minerals and gemstones. Raman spectrometers also allow PL studies for authentication of samples and geological provenance, diamond type screening and detection of HPHT treatments.

  1. Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance ... benefits the poor, more effective social and environmental policies, and respect for human ... Who should claim responsibility for local crime prevention and security?

  2. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  4. Experiencia de las madres durante el contacto piel a piel al nacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. García May

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Introducción y objetivo: Las madres disfrutan la experiencia del contacto piel a piel inmediatamente después del nacimiento y se plantea la posibilidad de que tal contacto pueda ayudar a estas madres a sentirse más seguras con sus bebés. Objetivo: describir la experiencia de las madres durante el contacto piel a piel al nacer por parto y cesárea. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, observacional, prospectivo, realizado en la Unidad Tocoquirúrgica del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, en la Ciudad de México, durante el contacto piel a piel madre-hijo al nacimiento, en los recién nacidos a término sanos, durante el período comprendido desde el 1 de septiembre de 2015 al 31 de julio de 2016. Se les pidió a las madres describir su experiencia durante el contacto piel con piel al nacimiento. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando Wizard Pro Versión 1.9.7. Resultados: Se obtuvo entrevista de 779 mamás, a las que se les realizó contacto piel a piel al nacimiento durante 11 meses. Se categorizó por nivel de satisfacción como muy satisfactorio, satisfactorio y poco satisfactorio, encontrando que 570 casos (73.2% se categorizaron como muy satisfactorio, 201 (25.8% como satisfactorio y 8 (3% como poco satisfactorio. En cuanto al nivel de satisfacción y la vía de nacimiento, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0.212, por lo que podemos inferir que el grado de satisfacción de la madre es independiente de la vía de nacimiento. Conclusiones: La colocación del recién nacido sobre el pecho de la madre después del nacimiento es una experiencia feliz y muy satisfactoria para la gran mayoría de la madres. Abstract: Introduction and objective: Mothers enjoy the experience of skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth, and this raises the possibility that such contact can help these mothers feel more secure with their babies

  5. Equipment for extracting and conveying stratified minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, G.; Kunzer, H.; Plaga, K.

    1991-08-14

    This invention relates to equipment for extracting stratified minerals and conveying the said minerals along the working face, comprising a trough shaped conveyor run assembled from lengths, a troughed extraction run in lengths matching the lengths of conveyor troughing, which is linked to the top edge of the working face side of the conveyor troughing with freedom to swivel vertically, and a positively guided chain carrying extraction tools and scrapers along the conveyor and extraction runs.

  6. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  7. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

  8. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  9. Two types of mineral-related matrix vesicles in the bone mineralization of zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L; Zhang, Y; Cui, F Z

    2007-01-01

    Two types of mineral-related matrix vesicle, multivesicular body (MVB) and monovesicle, were detected in the skeletal bone of zebrafish. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the vesicular inclusions reveal that both types of vesicles contain calcium and phosphorus, suggesting that these vesicles may be involved in mineral ion delivery for the bone mineralization of zebrafish. However, their size and substructure are quite different. Monovesicles, whose diameter ranges from 100 nm to 550 nm, are similar to the previously reported normal matrix vesicles, while MVBs have a larger size of 700-1000 nm in nominal diameter and possess a substructure that is composed of smaller vesicles with their average size around 100 nm. The presence of mineral-related MVBs, which is first identified in zebrafish bone, indicates that the mineralization-associated transportation process of mineral ions is more complicated than is ordinarily imagined

  10. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  11. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  12. Organización musical y repertorio en la catedral de bogotá durante el siglo xvi

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Egberto

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo la consideración del repertorio de música religiosa del siglo XVI contenido en el Archivo Capitular de la Catedral de Bogotáa la luz de la organización de la actividad musical en dicha iglesia durante el mismo período.

  13. Parámetros de calidad durante la cosecha de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. “Rubidoux”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisney Alessandra Bastidas Parrado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El durazno es una fruta de importancia agrícola como parte de los cultivos caducifolios producidos en Colombia; su calidad y aceptacion comercial, asi como el momento de la cosecha, estan definidos en funcion de sus características fisicoquimicas. Esta investigacion tuvo como propósito caracterizar algunos parametros de calidad de durazno variedad Rubidoux durante el periodo de cosecha, a partir de la seleccion hecha por operarios en campo, de acuerdo al color de la piel como indicador de madurez. Durante seis semanas de la cosecha se evaluaron muestras de frutos, considerando aspectos como peso fresco, contenido de solidos solubles (oBrix, categoria comercial de acuerdo al diametro ecuatorial y color del fruto. Se registro un peso fresco promedio de 130,7 g por fruto, con un contenido de solidos solubles promedio de 11,8 oBrix, parametro que incremento progresivamente de la semana uno a la cinco. La clasificacion visual por el color de la piel permitio definir siete categorias, tres predominaron durante la cosecha (pinton, pinton-maduro y maduro, estos se correspondieron con el contenido de solidos solubles; es asi como el analisis de varianza mostro diferencias estadisticas entre oBrix y el color de piel. Durante el periodo evaluado, se cosecharon con mayor frecuencia duraznos pintones y frutos con diametro entre 60 mm a 70 mm.

  14. Respuesta de una cuenca de cabecera durante eventos de crecida (Aixola, País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigüedad, I.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity (T, FNU, discharge (Q, l/s and precipitation (P, mm are being continuously monitored in the gauging station located at the outlet of Aixola catchment (Gipuzkoa, 5 km2 since October 2003. Several data sets recorded during flood events occurred between 2003 and 2005 were used to estimate continuous suspended sediment concentration (SSC. Electrical conductivity was also measured in samples taken during runoff events. Several event (discharge, precipitation and suspended sediment concentration and pre-event (discharge and precipitation factors are calculated for all the events registered. With them a correlation matrix was developed. Good correlation between precipitation (P, discharge (Q and suspended sediment (SS variables is found in general but pre-event conditions don’t show correlation with event parameters. Analysis of SSC-discharge evolutions through the events showed that four different kinds of hysteretic loops can be observed in Aixola. Hysteretic loops have also been related to event and pre-event factors. Evolution of electrical conductivity of waters during events shows that the catchment has a considerable regulation capacity.

    La turbidez (T, FNU, el caudal (Q, l/s y la precipitación (P, mm se están midiendo en continuo en la estación de aforo situada en la salida de la cuenca de Aixola (Gipuzkoa, 5 km2 desde octubre 2003. Se han utilizado los datos recogidos en los eventos ocurridos entre octubre 2003 y octubre 2005 para establecer la relación turbidez-concentración de sedimentos en suspensión (CSS, y así, estimar las series continuas de CSS. Además, también se ha medido la conductividad eléctrica en muestras tomadas durante las crecidas. Por otro lado, se cuantificaron varios parámetros del evento (P, Q y CSS y anteriores al mismo (Q y P para todos los eventos registrados. Se observa un nivel significativo de correlación entre las variables de precipitación, caudal y sedimentos

  15. Uso de medicamentos durante a lactação Breastfeeding and maternal medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. Chaves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Contribuir com informações para o uso racional de medicamentos durante a amamentação. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foram selecionados artigos na base de dados MEDLINE, de 1993 a 2004, e no Lilacs, de 1995 a 2004, em português, espanhol e inglês, usando as palavras-chave aleitamento, lactação, drogas e medicamentos. Outras referências recentes encontradas em artigos e livros foram incluídas a fim de fornecer subsídios para a realização deste artigo. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A maior parte dos fármacos é compatível com a amamentação. Poucos são contra-indicados (antineoplásicos, radiofármacos, drogas de abuso; alguns requerem cuidados devido ao risco de efeitos adversos em lactentes ou de redução do volume de leite. Porém, ainda é necessário maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos para a criança de muitos fármacos durante a amamentação. CONCLUSÕES: O princípio fundamental da prescrição de medicamentos para mães em lactação baseia-se no conceito de risco e benefício. Deve-se fazer opção, sempre que possível, por uma droga já estudada, que seja pouco excretada no leite materno e que não tenha risco aparente para a saúde da criança. Medicamentos que reduzem a produção de leite pela nutriz devem ser evitados durante a lactação, e o uso dos galactagogos está reservado para situações especiais. Dessa maneira, só excepcionalmente o aleitamento materno precisa ser desencorajado ou descontinuado quando a mãe necessitar de tratamento farmacológico.OBJECTIVE: To contribute with information about the adequate administration of drugs during breastfeeding. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE articles from 1993 to 2004, and Lilacs articles from 1995 to 2004 were selected in Portuguese, Spanish and English, by including the following keywords: breastfeeding, lactation, drugs and medicines. Other update references found in articles and books were also included in this review, in order to provide additional information. SUMMARY OF

  16. Acumulación originaria: explotación laboral y generación de ganancia en la minería de México

    OpenAIRE

    Azamar Alonso, Aleida

    2016-01-01

    La tesis de investigación titulada: “Acumulación originaria: Explotación laboral y generación de ganancia en la minería en México” tiene como objetivo demostrar la existencia de la acumulación originaria como forma iterativa y necesaria para la generación del plusvalor en el sistema productivo capitalista, para ello se analizó el sector minero mexicano durante el periodo de 1980 a 2013. El concepto de acumulación originaria es de origen marxista y ha sido ampliamente debatido desde su present...

  17. Efeito de inoculante bacteriano sobre a qualidade da silagem e perda de matéria seca durante a ensilagem de sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso André de Faria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de um inoculante bacteriano comercial, contendo Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus faecium e Pediococcus acidactili, sobre a qualidade da silagem e perda de matéria seca (MS durante a ensilagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por dois tipos de silagem de sorgo duplo-propósito colhido no estádio farináceo: sem (controle e com inoculante; três posições dentro de cada silo (região do terço inicial, região central e do terço final, correspondendo a três períodos de coleta (52, 65 e 71 dias de fermentação e três repetições em cada posição. Cada repetição foi constituída por um saco de tela plástica de malha fina, contendo aproximadamente 4 kg de forragem, sendo a parcela representada por uma amostra de aproximadamente 1 kg de forragem. A silagem com inoculante apresentou menor teor de cinza (matéria mineral, nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido láctico e níveis mais elevados de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido. A silagem com inoculante não diferiu do controle em relação ao pH, à proteína bruta, energia bruta e porcentagem de perda da MS.

  18. Interplay between black carbon and minerals contributes to long term carbon stabilization and mineral transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Chiang, C. C.; Liu, C. C.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon receives increasing global wide research attention due to its role in carbon sequestration, soil fertility enhancement and remediation application. Generally considered chemically stable in bulk, the reactive surface of BC can interplays with minerals and form strong chemical bondage, which renders physical protection of BC and contributes to its long term stabilization. Using historical BC-rich Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), we probe the in-situ organo-mineral association and transformation of BC and minerals over a millennium scale using various synchrotron-based spectroscopic (XANES, FTIR) and microscopic (TXM) methods. Higher content of SRO minerals was found in BC-rich ADE compare to adjacent tropical soils. The iron signature found in BC-rich ADE was mainly ferrihydrite/lepidocrocite, a more reactive form of Fe compared to goethite, which was dominant in adjacent soil. Abundant nano minerals particles were observed in-situ associated with BC surface, in clusters and layers. The organo-mineral interaction lowers BC bioavailability and enhances its long-term stabilization in environment, while at the same time, transforms associated minerals into more reactive forms under rapid redox/weathering environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding. The scale up application of BC/biochar into agricultural systems and natural environments have long lasting impact on the in-situ transformation of associated minerals.

  19. El papel de supervisión del personal docente durante el desarrollo del recreo escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny María Artavia-Granados

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El recreo es un espacio escolar que procura alcanzar múltiples propósitos, entre otros: descanso y juego para los estudiantes, pero también, constituye una buena oportunidad para que los docentes observen los comportamientos y conductas que asumen sus estudiantes fuera del salón de clases. El proceso de supervisión del recreo por parte del personal docente y administrativo, resulta ser una tarea fundamental para lograr la prevención o solución de los conflictos que se puedan presentar durante este período escolar. Este artículo expone el desarrollo del proceso de supervisión del recreo escolar, que lleva a cabo el personal docente de una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación Occidente, a partir de los resultados obtenidos de una investigación de tipo cualitativa denominada “Juegos e interacción social en los recreos y su relación con los comportamientos violentos: El caso de las y los estudiantes de VI año de una escuela”. Entre los objetivos específicos, se procuró analizar el papel que desempeña el personal docente y administrativo, durante el desarrollo de los recreos. Ante el fenómeno de la violencia, la escuela tiene el compromiso social de brindar una solución pacífica a los conflictos que se puedan presentar. Sin embargo, como parte de las conclusiones obtenidas, se halló que el personal docente no asumió a cabalidad la supervisión del recreo, que la mayoría de docentes consideraron que no les correspondía supervisar, y que existen importantes diferencias entre la forma conceptualizar la supervisión del recreo por parte de la dirección del centro educativo y los docentes.

  20. Naos, clima y glaciares en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto, María del Rosario

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es lograr una aproximación al clima y a los fenómenos de glaciación ocurridos en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI y parte del XVII a través de registros históricos. Se complementan los resultados obtenidos por investigadores de otras disciplinas paleoclimáticas en el área, verificándose si las fuentes históricas corroboran las conclusiones de esos autores, quienes postulan un intervalo muy frío entre 1520 y 1670. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los “diarios o relaciones de navegación” de los primeros marinos españoles que pasaron por el Estrecho, recopilados en su mayor parte en Archivos históricos españoles. A través de la técnica del análisis de contenido se verificó la estabilidad en el vocabulario referido al clima y los glaciares a lo largo de esas centurias y se calificó los eventos de acuerdo a su magnitud. Se determinaron diversas categorías de las cuales se han seleccionado precipitaciones sólidas y líquidas, temperatura, dirección del viento y ocurrencia de tormentas para analizar en este trabajo. Se estudió especialmente la presencia de témpanos en el Estrecho y las descripciones de los glaciares fueguinos y del sur de la Patagonia chilena como indicadores de bajas temperaturas. Se concluye que existen referencias directas a la presencia de témpanos proveniente de glaciares en el Estrecho, sólo en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI. El avance de los hielos supondría una acentuación de las condiciones de frío durante esa centuria, lo que puede ser corroborado por los datos de los navíos que consignan temperaturas estivales frías y muy frías en la vertiente pacífica. Estos datos coincidirían con los resultados de R. Villalba en cuanto a que el intervalo 1520 a 1670 fue uno de los más fríos de la Pequeña Edad Glaciar.

  1. Experiencias de las mujeres durante el trabajo de parto y parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Isabel Giraldo Montoya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Develar las experiencias de las mujeres durante el trabajo de parto y parto en una Unidad Materno Infantil de Medellín, durante el año 2013. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo, de tipo fenomenológico. Muestreo representado en la saturación teórica, con la participación de 13 mujeres a quienes se les aplicó la entrevista a profundidad. Se construyeron las categorías descriptivas, posteriormente se agruparon en categorías de orden axial y finalmente se obtuvieron las de orden selectivo para determinar las categorías núcleo. Se desarrolló la triangulación a través de grupos focales y la observación. El estudio obtuvo la aprobación del Comité de Ética y se utilizó el consentimiento informado por escrito. Resultados: Surgieron tres categorías principales: Los síntomas desagradables, La soledad y Yo quiero ver a Camila. Desde la teoría de rango medio de los síntomas desagradables, se encontró que el dolor, la fatiga y la sed son experiencias altamente significativas que comprometen el bienestar y la satisfacción materna. La soledad estuvo presente en todo el proceso, sin embargo el apoyo espiritual y la presencia del personal de salud fueron una fuente de acompañamiento. A pesar del sufrimiento y el dolor del trabajo de parto, el nacimiento las hizo olvidar estos acontecimientos y consideraron que el proceso del parto las reafirmaba frente a la adopción de su rol materno. Conclusiones: Se deben cambiar los métodos tradicionales de cuidado y propiciar otras formas de atención más humanizadas para que las mujeres asuman su rol de madres con seguridad y decisión.

  2. O envolvimento paterno durante a gestação Father's involvement during the gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O período de gestação da companheira exige uma série de adaptações por parte do pai, que precisa se preparar para os novos papéis que deverá assumir frente ao bebê e à sua nova família. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar como se dá o envolvimento paterno durante o 3º trimestre de gestação. Participaram deste estudo 35 pais que esperavam seu primeiro filho, com idades entre 21 e 40 anos. Os pais foram entrevistados individualmente e as suas respostas foram examinadas através de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados indicaram que muitos pais estiveram envolvidos de diversas maneiras durante a gestação de suas companheiras, mostrando-se emocionalmente conectados à gestante e ao bebê. No entanto, alguns pais ainda encontravam dificuldades quanto ao envolvimento com seu filho, parecendo não percebê-lo como real e apresentando uma baixa ligação emocional com a gestação. Estes dados apontam para indícios de uma modificação quanto à paternidade já no período da gestação, a qual se encontra cada vez menos restrita ao universo feminino.The gestational period requires a series of adaptations from the father's side, who needs to prepare himself for the new role he will assume vis-à-vis the baby and his/her new family. The present study aimed at investigating father's involvement during the third trimester of gestation. Thirty-five fathers, aged 21 to 40, who were expecting their first child, took part in the study. The fathers were interviewed individually and their answers were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that many fathers were involved in different ways during their partner's pregnancy, being emotionally connected with the baby and their partner. However, some fathers still found difficulties concerning involvement with their child, seeming not to perceive him/her as real and showing low emotional connection with pregnancy. These data point to signs of change

  3. Catalans i genovesos durant el segle XIII: El declivi d'una amistat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer i Mallol, Maria Teresa

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Catalano-Genoese friendship was forged as a result of their joint struggle against Islam in the Xllth century and was maintained during the Xlllth century, in spite of the Catalan maritime expansion that might have become a rivalry for Genoa. The friendship and cooperation was made evident in the granting of commercial franchises to the Genoese who were trading in Catalonia and in the lands they subsequently conquered. Catalans, for their part, had the same commercial franchises in Genoa and in the districts under their control. The war of Genoa against Pisa led as a consequence to an increase of maritime conflict between Catalan and Genoese, especially during the two last decades of Xlllth century, due to the major presence of Catalans in the Pisan ports and the transport of goods for Pisa, at that moment when Genoa was trying to block Pisa. All during the reign of James II, the alienation of the two competitors grew until it led to war. All these points are analyzed in the article in the light of unpublished records.[fr] L'amitié catalano-génoise s'est forgée dans la lutte conjointe contre l'Islam au XIIᵉ siècle et s'est maintenue durant le XIIIᵉ siècle, malgré l'expansion maritime catalane, qui pouvait représenter une concurrence pour Gênes. L'amitié et la collaboration se sont traduites par l'octroi de franchises commerciales pour les Génois en Catalogne, étendues aux territoires conquis postérieurement, et qu'eurent leur pendant à Gênes et dans sa zone d'influence, pour les Catalans. La guerre de Gênes contre Pise entraîna une recrudescence des incidents maritimes entre Catalans et Génois, à partir des années 1280, en raison de la fréquentation dels ports sous juridiction pisane et du transport de marchandises pour Pise, par les Catalans, au moment où Gênes tentait de neutraliser cette ville. Durant le règne de Jacques II, commença une distance politique qui dégénéra en guerre. Ces éléments sont analys

  4. Los donativos de la ciudad de Sevilla durante el reinado de Carlos II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Escalona Jiménez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La petición de cantidades extraordinarias de dinero bajo la denominación de donativos, para atender a los gatos derivados sobre todo del mantenimiento de las tropas durante las campañas militares y el abastecimiento de la Armada, fue una costumbre puesta en práctica a partir del reinado de Felipe II y continuada por sus sucesores. En el reinado de Carlos II se quiso suavizar la presión fiscal, eliminando las peticiones extraordinarias de dinero. Pero cuando surgían los conflictos bélicos el único recurso posible era el donativo, pues el resto de las cantidades recaudadas estaban ya empeñadas en otros menesteres. La ciudad de Sevilla, que se había caracterizado por la generosidad de los donativos ofrecidos al rey, no disponía ya durante la época de Carlos II del poder económico de antaño y tenía grandes dificultades para recaudar las cantidades ofrecidas y hacer frente al mismo tiempo a los donativos del reinado anterior aún pendientes, ya que los arbitrios que se imponían no daban el fruto apetecido. Por lo tanto, al final del siglo xvii no quedó otra solución que la de limitar al máximo esta forma de contribución extraordinaria a la Monarquía.The request for an extra amount of money, called donativo, in order to meet the expenses originated by the maintenance of troops during military campaigns and the suppiying of the Navy, was a practice held from Philipp ITs reign and continued by his sucessors. In Charles II's reign, a lessening of tax pression was intended, by means of removing the requests of extra money. But, in the occasion of war conflicts, the only possible resources were the donativos, because the other taxes had been already used for other needs. Seville, which would stand out for the generosity of its donativos, had not the same economic power as in past times, and was in great trouble to collect the money for the new and the oíd financial help granted to the king, because the taxes did not produce the

  5. Cambios reológicos del queso Colonia durante el proceso de maduración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El queso Colonia es un queso típico uruguayo, elaborado según los criterios de calidad y tradición quesera de los inmigrantes suizos radicados en la cuenca lechera del departamento de Colonia. En la actualidad no se reporta información publicada acerca de los cambios reológicos que ocurren en el queso durante su maduración. Su investigación y publicación aportan conocimiento para la difusión de un proceso que aún no presenta denominación de origen protegida. En el presente trabajo se midieron los cambios reológicos mediante el ensayo de relajación-compresión, durante el proceso de maduración realizado a 8 ºC y 85 % de humedad relativa hasta el día 13. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan la existencia de un cambio importante del comportamiento a partir del día 11 de maduración, momento en que ocurre un notorio ablandamiento del queso. Esto concuerda con la práctica industrial que tradicionalmente realiza el cambio de los quesos para continuar su maduración en cámara caliente a partir del onceavo día. Este estudio demuestra la importancia de esperar hasta el onceavo día para asegurar la elasticidad necesaria en el queso para una adecuada formación de ojos en la cámara caliente.Abstract“Colonia” cheese is a typical Uruguayan cheese, elaborated following the quality standards and cheese making tradition of the swiss inmigrants established at the uruguayan department of Colonia and sourrondings. Actually there is no available information about the reological changes that happen in this kind of cheese during its ripeness. The study and publication of this process (which does not present a protected designation of origin (DOP yet gives knowledge for its spread.Rheological changes were analyzed with the stress relaxation test along the ripeness process made at 8 ºC and a humidity of 85 % until the 13th day. The results indicate that an important performance change exists after the 11th ripeness day, where a remarkable

  6. Hipertrigliceridemia familiar grave durante a gestação Severe familial hypertriglyceridemia during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Casulari

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A presença de hipertrigliceridemia grave durante a gravidez é rara, mas comporta grande possibilidade de desenvolver complicações, como a pancreatite aguda, que coloca em risco a mãe e o feto. Apresentamos o relato da evolução da gestação de uma paciente portadora de hipertrigliceridemia grave que havia apresentado pancreatite aguda dois meses antes da fecundação. Foi tratada durante o pré-natal com dieta e 3,0 g de ácidos graxos de cadeia ômega-3 (ácidos eicosapentaenóico 14% e docosahexaenóico 11,13%. Os níveis de triglicerídeos foram mantidos abaixo de 800 mg/dl, sendo este limite considerado seguro para evitar o desenvolvimento de pancreatite aguda. A gestação evoluiu, sem intercorrências, para parto vaginal, a termo. O recém-nato não apresentou alterações morfológicas ao nascimento. Concluímos que, nesta paciente grávida e portadora de hipertrigliceridemia grave, uma dieta adequada e o emprego de ácidos graxos de cadeia ômega-3 foram eficazes em prevenir a pancreatite aguda. Esta abordagem terapêutica pode ser uma alternativa para as gestantes portadoras de hipertrigliceridemia familiar.Severe hypertriglyceridemia during pregnancy rarely occurs but it frequently produces complications, such as acute pancreatitis, a serious health risk both for the mother and the fetus. The treatment of a patient who had had acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceridemia = 5100 mg/dl two months before fecundation is presented in this paper. During gestation, bezafibrate was substituted for 3.0 g omega-3 fatty acids (14% eicosapentaenoic and 11.13% docosahexaenoic acids. With this therapy, the triglyceride levels were maintained below 800 mg/dl, which is considered to be the safe limit to avoid acute pancreatitis. No complication occurred during pregnancy, the patient delivered vaginally (40 weeks, and the newborn (3075 g did not present any morphological alterations. We conclude that an adequate diet and the

  7. La itinerancia de la corte de Castilla durante la primera mitad del siglo XV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Paula CAÑAS GÁLVEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo intentará explicar las diferentes causas que hicieron del centro de la meseta el núcleo político y burocrático de la Corona de Castilla y León a finales de la Edad Media. Aquel espacio geográfico, comprendido en sus líneas generales entre Burgos y Toledo, concentró, efectivamente, una parte muy significativa de la actividad política e institucional de la Monarquía en un periodo de especial relevancia en la formación del Estado Moderno en tierras castellanas. Este largo proceso, si bien pergeñado durante los siglos XIII y primera mitad del XIV, únicamente se consolidaría tras la llegada al trono castellano de la nueva dinastía Trastámara, en especial durante los reinados de Enrique III y Juan II, alcanzando su madurez plena en tiempos de los Habsburgo con el asentamiento de la hasta entonces corte itinerante, y de buena parte de su aparato burocrático, en Madrid.Ce travail vise à expliquer les différentes causes qui ont fait du centre de la Meseta le noyau politique et administratif de la couronne de Castille et León. Cet espace géographique, compris grosso modo entre Burgos et Tolède a  effectivement concentré une part importante de la vie politique et institutionnelle de la monarchie à une période cruciale pour la formation de l’État moderne en terre castillane. Ce vaste processus, esquissé au cours du XIIIe siècle et de la première moitié du XIVe siècle, ne s’est consolidé qu’avec l’avènement de la nouvelle dynastie Trastamare, en particulier pendant les règnes d’Henri III et de Jean II, pour atteindre sa pleine maturité au temps des Habsbourg, avec la sédentarisation à Madrid de la cour jusque-là itinérante et d’une  bonne partie de l’appareil bureaucratique.

  8. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTRACELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barrios-Socha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En la transición a la vida extrauterina, el recién nacido sufre un período de ayuno (prelactancia que transcurre entre el cese de la nutrición placentaria y la instauración de la lactancia. El gasto de energía por las neuronas es tan alto en estas circunstancias, que la glucogenólisis es incapaz de restablecer los niveles de glucosa en la sangre. En consecuencia, durante la prelactancia debe haber otros sustratos energéticos y lipogénicos, que adicionalmente ayuden a mantener la síntesis de neurotransmisores.Este trabajo establece la importancia de acetato en el metabolismo oxidativo y del lipogénico en neuronas durante la prelactancia. Se determinaron las velocidades de oxidación y lipogénesis en cultivos quiescentes de neuronas fetales de rata incubadas con acetato (5 mM, [1- 14C]-acetato, [2- 14C]-acetato y [U- 14C]-acetato(200-300dpm/nmol Adicionalmente, se utilizaron inhibidores enzimáticos como el dicloroacetato(1 mM y el aminooxiacetato (5 mM, e inhibidores del transporte como el α-ciano-4-hidroxicinnamato(2 mM, butilmalonato (5 mM y 1,2,3-bencenotricarboxilato (5 mM.Los resultados en su conjunto indican que las neuronas pueden metabolizar acetato más como sustrato energético que lipogénico, lo que nos permite pensar que este sustrato puede llegar a ser más importante para ayudar a mantener el metabolismo oxidativo, favoreciendo el reciclaje de carbonos en la prelactancia.Adicionalmente, se evidenció con el uso de [1-14C]-acetato una alta actividad anaplerótica sobre todo cuando las neuronas requieren mantener los reservorios de oxalacetato y acetil-CoA para mantener la respiración. Estos resultados señalan a la acetil-CoA sintetasa (AceCS2 y la enzima málica (mME mitocondriales, como enzimas claves para mantener el funcionamiento de las neuronas en la prelactancia.Con el uso de [2-14C]-acetato, los resultados sugieren que las neuronas tienen un alto requerimiento de carbonos, principalmente para la síntesis de

  9. Abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez y revictimización de las mujeres mexicanas durante la edad adulta Physical and sexual abuse during childhood and revictimization during adulthood in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Rivera-Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la asociación que existe entre el abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez y la violencia durante la edad adulta en una muestra representativa de usuarias de los servicios de salud en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos provenientes de una encuesta nacional, con una muestra de 26 042 mujeres mayores de 14 años, quienes acudieron a consulta a los servicios públicos de salud entre octubre de 2002 y marzo de 2003, en los 32 estados de la República. Se utilizaron dos modelos: a Modelo de regresión logística politómica múltiple para explorar las asociaciones entre violencia física y sexual por parte de la pareja y violencia durante la niñez. b Modelo de regresión logística múltiple para evaluar la asociación entre violación durante la edad adulta y violencia durante la niñez. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una asociación entre experimentar violencia física durante la niñez, y padecer violencia física y sexual por parte de la pareja o sufrir violación durante la edad adulta. Cuando la mujer informó que había recibido golpes "casi siempre" durante la niñez, era más probable que experimentara violencia física y sexual (RM=3.1; IC95% 2.6-3.7 y violación (RM=2.9; IC95% 2.4-3.6 durante la edad adulta. Además, mientras más frecuente había sido la violencia durante la niñez, era mayor la posibilidad de que la mujer sufriera violencia posteriormente. Asimismo, se encontró una asociación positiva entre violencia física y sexual por parte de la pareja y abuso sexual antes de los 15 años de edad. (RM=2.8; IC95% 2.2-3.5. La violación sufrida en la edad adulta también estuvo asociada al abuso sexual antes de los 15 años de edad (RM=11.8; IC95% 10.2-13.7. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia sufrida durante la niñez crea un cuadro de resultados negativos, tanto psicológicos como físicos, y uno de ellos es la revictimización. Es decir, las mujeres que son víctimas de violencia durante la niñez tienen

  10. Absenteeism due to sickness in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczykiewicz, K.

    1980-01-01

    During two consecutive years sickness absence of 8005 miners from two pit coal mines (A and B) of different geological structure and mechanization degree was analysed. It was found that in mine ''A'' 37% had no sick leaves, whereas in mine ''B''--28%. Absence rate was similar in both mines (though the miners' work and living conditions differed), i.e. 5.21% in mine ''A'', and 5.98% in mine ''B''. Thus work and living conditions do not determine general sickness absence rate. The highest absence in both mines was that of miners frequently falling ill for a long time (approx. 5.5% miners). For the group the number of work disablement days was 28.8 and 26.7, respectively. Underground miners' sickness absence was higher than that of surface workers, the rate being 3.8 and 4.0 and 1.1 and 2.1, respectively. The highest absence was that of miners travelling to work on motor cycles (7.1 and 7.3) and bicycles (6.4 and 6.7). Those working regularly in the first shift were more frequently absent from work than those working in different shifts. Miners living in worse conditions had higher absence rate than those living in flats of a higher standard. Also elderly employees and those having children represented a higher absence rate. The highest absence rate was that of workers having four children, the lowest--that of single persons. In addition, specific absence rate of men, especially due to respiratory and circulatory system diseases, was found to be enhanced by smoking. Absence rate of smokers was 2--3 times higher than that of non-smokers.

  11. NRE58/2: Programaci??n del Plan de Control Interno, auditorias y otras actividades a desarrollar por la Oficina de Control Interno durante el 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2012-01-01

    Programaci??n del Plan de Control Interno, auditorias y otras actividades a desarrollar por la Oficina de Control Interno durante el 2012. Resoluci??n del Rectorado de la Universidad de Granada por la que se aprueba la programaci??n del Plan de Control Interno, auditorias y otras actividades a desarrollar por la Oficina de Control Interno durante el 2012

  12. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  13. El cultivo del trigo en Nueva Galicia durante el siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René de León Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia los factores que determinaron el desarrollo y consolidación del cultivo del trigo en varias comarcas del reino de Nueva Galicia durante el siglo xvii tomando como referencia la última fundación de Guadalajara. Destaca lo vital que fue para esta industria la mano de obra indígena a través del sistema de repartimiento forzado y la vigencia de este hasta el siglo xviii en contraste con Nueva España donde fue suprimido desde 1633. La hipótesis aquí planteada es que la escasez de trigo y harina que constantemente sufrieron los habitantes de la ciudad de Guadalajara se debió a la confabulación de las autoridades del Cabildo con los comerciantes y productores para acapararlos, esconderlos y luego venderlos a precios elevados. La política que los regidores implementaron de no instalar una alhóndiga que concentrara y regulara la venta de esos productos confirma el anterior aserto.

  14. O SUPORTE SOCIAL DURANTE A TRANSIÇÃO FAMILIAR NO PÓS-DESASTRE NATURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación cualitativa de base analítica-interpretativa que tuvo como objetivo presentar las percepciones de las familias sobre el soporte social en la transición del postdesastre natural. Fueron entrevistados seis núcleos familiares residentes en una localidad rural del Sur del Brasil, y que fue afectada por un desastre natural en el año 2008. Los datos fueron obtenidos en el 2010, a partir de la observación participativa, entrevista narrativa, genograma y ecomapa. Las narraciones obtenidas fueron analizadas siguiendo las etapas del método de Fritz Schütze. Los resultados revelan la ayuda recibida durante la fase de transición, la falta de ayuda esperada, el soporte emocional de familiares y amigos y los recursos recordados por las familias en sus ecomapas, los cuales tuvieron una importancia fundamental para la fase inicial de recuperación postdesastre. El estudio contribuye para la comprensión del contexto de recuperación de las familias y destaca la pertinencia del soporte social como un medio de enfrentar los cambios.

  15. El proceso de reforma administrativa de la renta del Tabaco en Navarra durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Solbes Ferri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está centrado en la evolución de la gestión administrativa del monopolio fiscal del tabaco en Navarra durante la centuria dieciochesca. Su inicio se sitúa en el arrendamiento del estanco en 1717 por el Gobierno central a la Hacienda foral de Navarra -propietaria del mismo desde su creación en 1642- y analiza las sucesivas fases a través de las cuáles dicha administración central fue progresivamente adquiriendo el control absoluto de la renta en este territorio.The present paper is specially based in the evolution of the administration of the tobacco state monopoly in the Kingdom of Navarre during the eighteen century. We start in the lease of the income in 1717 to his old owner (the Foral Administration since 1642 and analyse the following phases through the Central Government was getting the control of the monopoly in this territory.

  16. Voce ja comeu DNA hoje? Divulgacao cientifica durante a Semana da Ciencia e Tecnologia no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Abrao Possik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante a Primeira Semana Nacional de Ciências e Tecnologia, em 2004, centros e museus de ciência, universidades e escolas implementaram atividades com o objetivo de divulgar ciência para a população. O DNA Vai à Escola se juntou ao Conselho de Informação e Biotecnologia e praticou a extração de DNA de frutas em supermercados de 11 cidades brasileiras. Este artigo descreve a formação da rede nacional de pessoas interessadas em transmitir informações sobre genética para o público leigo e a implementação de uma atividade de divulgação científica de baixo orçamento em vários pontos do país, simultaneamente. Apresenta ainda o impacto causado pela atividade e as percepções daqueles envolvidos na sua organização.

  17. La influencia del manual en el pensamiento económico colombiano durante el siglo xx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mayor Mora

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso de los manuales en economía ha sido masivo en su profesionalización y ha repercutido en las ideas económicas colombianas. Durante el siglo XX se presentaron cuatro etapas; la primera de ellas se dio a inicios del siglo, cuando predominó el autodidactismo en los manuales franceses, entre profesores, políticos y hombres de empresa de Bogotá y Medellín. La segunda etapa se caracterizó por el contacto de algunos protoeconomistas con el pensamiento económico original en el exterior, lo que ocasionó el inicio de la crítica a la utilización de manuales. La tercera surgió con las primeras facultades de Economía, en los años 40, época en que se reemplazó el manual francés por el anglosajón neoclásico; y la última etapa se inicia desde 1980, cuando se hace una crítica coherente al manual y comienza la producción de textos “criollos”, que ofrecen facilidades pedagógicas con pensamiento teórico de vanguardia.

  18. La producción de armas blancas en Bilbao durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas Beraiz, Germán

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available They are few notices published about swords manufacture in Spain during the 16th century. One of the most unknown productions centers is the city of Bilbao, wich developed an important production of arms in part destined to its export to the British Islands. This article studies some documents, it is specialy interesting an unpublished document about the litigation hold up in 1569 between Bilbao swordsmiths and the «Corregidor» from Bilbao. Thanks of them it has been posible to compile names, marks and information about the activity of this craftsmen.

    Son escasas las noticias que poseemos sobre las zonas donde se fabricaban espadas en España. Uno de los centros más desconocidos es el de la ciudad de Bilbao, que desarrolló durante todo el siglo XVI, una importante producción de armas en parte destinadas a su exportación a las Islas Británicas. Gracias a una serie de documentos, entre los que figura uno inédito que recoge el pleito que los espaderos de Bilbao mantuvieron en 1569 con el Corregidor de Vizcaya, se han podido recoger algunos nombres y datos que permiten conocer más sobre la actividad de estos artesanos.

  19. Operaciones secretas inglesas en España durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alpert

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aigunos miembros de los servicios ingleses de Información involucrados en la Guerra Civil, sobre todo Kim Philby y el capitán de Navio Hillgarth, siguieron ocupando cargos de importancia en los servicios secretos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Las principales actividades de los servicios secretos ingleses en España incluían preservar la seguridad de Gibraltar, contrarrestar el trabajo de los agentes alemanes en el Estrecho, y desenmascarar a los espías españoles dirigidos por el Abwehr. Este artículo se ocupa especialmente de las dificultades de organizar el trabajo del llamado Special Operations Executive, en relación con la planificación de actividades guerrilleras y de sabotajes en caso de una ocupación de España por fuerzas militares alemanas.British specialists such as Kim Philby and Captain Alan Hillgarth, who had been involved in Intelligence services during the Spanish Civil War, contributed to the activities of the British Secret Services in Spain during the Second World War. Their main activities included the security of Gibraltar, counteracting German Intelligence in the Straits, and unmasking Spanish agents controlled by the Abwehr. This article concentrates on the particular difficulties of organising the work of the Special Operations Executive and its plans for guerrilla-type activity in the case of a German military occupation of Spain, whose neutrality, in the view of Great Britain, had to be carefully preserved.

  20. LUTERO E OS MOVIMENTOS SOCIAIS NA ALEMANHA DURANTE O PERÍODO DE 1517-1525

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio de Santa Ana

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo de todo este ano, diversos setores das Igrejas cristãs e da comunidade internacional comemoram o 500º aniversário do nascimento de Martinho Lutero. As igrejas de confissão luterana celebram a quem, há quase cinco séculos, sentou as bases de uma poderosa corrente de pensamento teológico. Outras igrejas protestantes se unem a esta celebração, recordando o homem de fé que, a 31 de Outubro de 1517, tornou públicas suas 95 teses sobre as indulgências, abrindo assim o caminho à reforma da igreja no século XVI. Outras confissões cristãs, a Igreja Católica Romana e as Ortodoxas, participam de diversas maneiras nestas comemorações. Estas não são exclusivas dos cristãos: por exemplo, no Brasil foi emitido um selo postal durante o mês de abril passado em homenagem à sua pessoa.

  1. El trabajo artesanal en Augusta Emerita durante los ss. I-IV d. C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena BUSTAMANTE ÁLVAREZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en la antigua capital lusitana es posible examinar, además de los restos arquitectónicos de sus edificios públicos y de una espléndida musivaria en ámbito doméstico, los indicios de otras producciones locales a las que hasta ahora no se les había concedido más que un interés de tipo secundario. En el presente trabajo damos a conocer una síntesis de las evidencias arqueológicas existentes del artesanado emeritense durante los ss. I-IV d. C. Este tema había sido revisado de manera aislada y esporádica en este solar. Aquí se valoran las estructuras, modos productivos y posibles evidencias de la mano de obra usada. Las constantes excavaciones que se han desarrollado en las últimas décadas han sacado a la luz 33 hornos cerámicos, 2 molinos alimentarios, 7 fullonicae, 1 officina infectae, 4 talleres de vidrio, 1 lanifricaria, 2 talleres de hueso, 2 pistrinae, 2 hornos metalúrgicos y 3 caleras que permiten el desarrollo de estudios de cierta envergadura. La industrial textil, la alfarera, alimentaria o metalúrgica, entre otras, son analizadas arqueológicamente. A partir de ello ha sido posible establecer un mapa de distribución de las distintas áreas manufactureras y de sus posibles zonas de influencia.

  2. O uso dos estereótipos turísticos durante o regime militar brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fino, Patrícia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1964 a 1985, o Brasil viveu sob uma ditadura militar, marcada por forte repressão política/ideológica. Esta pesquisa se propôs a investigar se os estereótipos turísticos foram utilizados como forma de promover a ideologia proposta pelos militares, com objetivo de obter um maior controle da população. Nesta etapa da pesquisa foram utilizados os seguintes procedimentos metodológicos: revisão bibliográfica e levantamento documental. Brasil: terra do sol e do mar, das belas mulheres, do povo alegre e hospitaleiro! Este foi o Brasil reiteradamente apresentado nos discursos correntes no período analisado. Nesta pesquisa, ainda em andamento, a história será revista e reexaminada. Acredita-se que o ineditismo e a importância histórica do tema justificam a relevância do trabalho proposto.

  3. MITIGACIÓN DEL ESTRÉS CALÓRICO DURANTE EL PREPARTO EN VACAS LECHERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. TOFFOLI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 30 vacas en preparto que se alojaron en un corral seco con acceso a sombra artificial durante el verano. Las vacas fueron distribuidas en dos grupos: sin refrescado (TS y con refrescado (TR en el sector comedero. El peso corporal y la condición corporal fueron evaluadas al inicio y a los 25 días. La frecuencia respiratoria se realizó dos veces por semana en cuatro momentos del día. El registro de comportamiento dos veces a la semana. Los datos de analizaron con t Student y χ2. El peso y condición corporal no presentaron diferencia signifi cativa. Se observó un efecto del tratamiento en el día y horario para la frecuencia respiratoria (p<0,0001. La conducta de parado a la sombra fue al que dedicaron mayor tiempo en ambos tratamientos 27 % en TS y 29 % en TR. No hubo diferencias en la producción lechera entre TS y TR: 31,4 l/v/d y 30,6 l/v/d respectivamente.

  4. PESCADORES DE LOS RAUDALES DEL RÍO MAGDALENA DURANTE EL PERIODO FORMATIVO TARDÍO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de la investigación realizada en el yacimiento arqueológico de Arrancaplumas, localizado en la zona de raudales del río Magdalena, entre la cuenca alta y media (Honda - Tolima y Puerto Bogotá - Cundinamarca, indican que este lugar fue habitado por largas temporadas anuales entre los siglos V y I A.C. Los pobladores emplearon en sus actividades cotidianas a lo largo de toda la ocupación una misma clase de cerámica y elaboraron una industria lítica que no presenta cambios significativos a través del tiempo.  El predominio de líticos lascados probablemente están relacionados con actividades derivadas de la pesca y la caza. La producción de alimentos vegetales se redujo principalmente al cultivo esporádico de maíz y papaya, y la recolección de frutos de palma. Durante toda la secuencia de ocupación la pesca constituyó la principal actividad de la cual derivaron su subsistencia.

  5. La «Educación personalizada» en Argentina durante la última dictadura militar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Garatte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como propósito comprender el alcance de la denominada «educación personalizada» en la carrera de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, durante la última dictadura militar, entre 1976 y 1983. En ese período, esta perspectiva se identificó con la obra del reconocido educador Víctor García Hoz, quien resultó una figura clave en la definición de las políticas curriculares promovidas por el Ministerio de Educación de la Nación. Indagamos, en primer lugar, las concepciones que perfilan su matriz ideológica espiritualista, católica y tecnicista que favorecieron su recepción por parte de los intelectuales y funcionarios del Proceso militar. Confrontamos, las obras de García Hoz con los contenidos de formación pedagógica de la mencionada carrera y, por último, analizamos las prácticas formativas que resultaban de la puesta en práctica de esas propuestas, recuperando la mirada de quienes fueron docentes y estudiantes de Pedagogía en el período indicado.

  6. Durante la administración de rojas pinilla 1953 a 1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Pacheco Vargas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, se basa en el proyecto de investigación sobre la evolución de las finanzas de la Universidad Pedagógica de Colombia en Tunja, durante los años de gobierno del tunjano, Teniente General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla. Se analiza así mismo, los antecedentes y disposiciones presupuestales, el origen de los ingresos recaudados y el destino de los mismos y el impacto en el desarrollo institucional especialmente en las nuevas dependencias y en las ya existentes, incorporadas con motivo de su creación; medible a través de la participación en el gasto ejecutado.Lo que finalmente, permite establecer el balance financiero de la institución. A manera de conclusión, se determina el costo real promedio por estudiante para cada año en la Sección Universitaria. En los años de 1955 y 1957, se comparan las dependencias, la proporción de estudiantes, el presupuesto ejecutado, el costo por alumno, el número de docentes y empleados, y los correspondientes índices de crecimiento. De esta manera, se calcula el costo por escolar para toda la institución, sin importar el nivel de enseñanza de la misma; confrontando los datos con los cálculos hechos por ASCUN-FUN.

  7. El derecho de asilo en España durante la Edad Moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Aguirreolea, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After a long medieval evolution, especially in the peninsular territories of greater Castilian influence, the right of asylum remained completely defined, and it became an exclusive prerogative of the Church. The ministers of the Church defended this right, and they caused to respect it during three centuries, and were faced even to the highest civil authorities. This legal figure had a routine and real effectiveness, and it was one of the exits that the first the delinquents responded that intended to elude the justice.

    Después de una larga evolución medieval, sobre todo en los territorios peninsulares de mayor influencia castellana, el derecho de asilo quedó completamente definido, constituyendo una prerrogativa exclusiva de la Iglesia. Los ministros de la Iglesia defendieron este derecho, haciéndolo respetar durante tres siglos, enfrentándose incluso a las más altas autoridades civiles. Esta figura jurídica tuvo una efectividad real y cotidiana, constituyendo una de las salidas a las que primero acudían los delincuentes que pretendían eludir la justicia.

  8. Los hogares latinoamericanos durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX: una perspectiva sociodemográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida García

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los cambios sociodemográficos más significativos ocurridos en los hogares latinoamericanos durante la segunda mitad del siglo xx. Para ello se tienen en cuenta dos aspectos fundamentales: la posible convergencia hacia las familias pequeñas y nucleares; y la naturaleza e incremento de los hogares con jefatura femenina. Se intenta no sólo sintetizar el conocimiento existente sobre dichos temas, sino también dar cuenta de las conexiones entre los cambios sociodemográficos de los hogares y la desigualdad social y de género persistente en América Latina. Algunas de las principales conclusiones son: a A pesar de la existencia de un claro proceso de nuclearización en los hogares latinoamericanos, la importancia de los arreglos familiares de tipo extendido continúa siendo distintiva del sistema familiar en la región, especialmente entre la población de escasos recursos; y b los hogares encabezados por mujeres muestran un claro incremento, y posiblemente éste se aprecie en diversos sectores de nuestras sociedades.

  9. Breve historia de los refugiados en Argentina durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Cicogna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Argentina ha sostenido, desde la letra escrita de la Constitución Nacional, ser un país receptor de inmigración, aunque en los hechos ha demostrado lo contrario. A pesar de ello, durante el siglo XX se instalaron grupos de exiliados, solicitantes de refugio y refugiados de las más diversas nacionalidades. Este artículo mostrará los contingentes que conformaron el mapa multicultural de la Argentina a partir del desarrollo de una cronología creada a en base a los trabajos de investigación que analizaron el establecimiento de las diversas comunidades._________________ABSTRACT:According to National Constitution Argentina has been an open doors country to immigration, although it has demonstrated the opposite. In spite of it, during XX century groups of exiles, asylum seekers and refugees of different nationalities settled in the country. Based in a chronology created from varied researches which analyzed the establishment of the diverse communities this article will show the groups that shape the multicultural map of Argentina.

  10. Respuestas de elección durante el contraste negativo sucesivo consumatorio en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia López Seal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En ratas, el cambio de una solución preferida (aguaazucarada al 32% por otra menos preferida (aguaazucarada al 4% produce una caída del consumopor debajo de un grupo control no devaluado, elcual siempre recibe acceso a la solución de valorbajo. Este fenómeno denominado contraste negativosucesivo consumatorio ocurre incluso cuandola devaluación coincide con cambios en las clavesambientales o gustativas y cuando hay múltiplesopciones de respuesta (con el reforzador de valorbajo disponible en varios lugares. En este artículose presenta un experimento donde un grupo de ratasse entrenó en la fase pre-cambio con una soluciónpreferida con sabor a almendra (32%A y otro conuna menos preferida (4%A. La fase post-cambio serealizó en un contexto distinto y novedoso, dondetodos los animales pudieron elegir entre consumir4% o 4%A. Se observó un efecto de contrastenegativo en los animales que experimentaron ladevaluación y una preferencia por la solución conel sabor a almendra utilizado durante la fase precambioen los sujetos de ambos grupos.

  11. OBTENCIÓN DE FRACCIONES ENRIQUECIDAS DURANTE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ACEITES ESENCIALES CRUDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Guala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La destilación por arrastre con vapor es uno de los métodos más utilizados para la obtención de aceite esencial crudo (AEC. Muchas aplicaciones requieren fracciones de AEC, enriquecidas en un componente o grupo de ellos, para lo cual se utiliza destilación al vacío. En este trabajo se propone realizar un fraccionamiento del aceite esencial crudo (AEC durante el proceso de extracción por destilación con arrastre de vapor, para lo cual se colectaron distintos cortes, en lugar de una única mezcla final que es la metodología tradicionalmente utilizada. Las experiencias se llevaron a cabo utilizando frutos, hojas y tallos de aguaribay (Schinus molle L.. La composición de las distintas muestras obtenidas se determinó por cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a espectroscopía de masas. Los resultados muestran diferentes componentes (y concentraciones para los diferentes cortes, lo que indica que se puede lograr una apreciable separación utilizando esta metodología.

  12. Determinantes de la presión fiscal en las empresas mexicanas durante 1992 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fernández-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los factores determinantes del Tipo Impositivo Efectivo (TIE soportado por las compañías cotizadas mexicanas por razón del impuesto sobre bene¿cios. Para ello, se utiliza un panel de datos extraídos de la base de datos Compustat correspondiente a 79 empresas durante el período 1992- 2009 y se aplica el estimador del método generalizado de los momentos en primeras diferencias (GMM diseñado por Arellano y Bond (1991. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que el TIE soportado por estas compañías es mani¿estamente inferior al tipo estatutario y que la presión ¿scal de un ejercicio está condicionada por la soportada previamente. Además se constata una relación no lineal entre tamaño y TIE, soportando menor presión ¿scal las empresas más grandes. Asimismo, presentan menores TIEs cuando el coste de la deuda y las amortizaciones son más elevados.

  13. Analgesia e sedacao durante a instalacao do cateter central de insercao periferica em neonatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar as estratégias de analgesia e sedação em neonatos submetidos à instalação do cateter central de inserção periférica (CCIP e relacioná-las ao número de punções venosas, duração do procedimento e posicionamento da ponta do cateter. Estudo transversal com coleta prospectiva de dados, realizado em uma unidade de cuidados intensivos neonatais de um hospital privado na cidade de São Paulo, no período de 31 de agosto de 2010 a 01 de julho de 2011, em que foram avaliadas 254 inserções do CCIP. A adoção de estratégias analgésicas ou sedativas ocorreu em 88 (34,6% instalações do cateter e não esteve relacionada ao número de punções venosas, duração do procedimento ou posicionamento da ponta do cateter. As estratégias mais frequentes foram a administração endovenosa de midazolam em 47 (18,5% e fentanil em 19 (7,3% inserções do cateter. Recomenda-se maior adoção de estratégias analgésicas antes, durante e após o procedimento.

  14. LA COLECTIVIDAD BRITÁNICA EN VALPARAÍSO DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALDOMERO ESTRADA TURRA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos la importancia de la colectividad británica en el desarrollo económico de Valparaíso (Chile, pese a su limitada presencia, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Se hace notar el predominio de la colectividad el comercio internacional como también en la actividad industrial especialmente en aquellas que poseían un mayor desarrollo tecnológico. La disminución de la importancia económica y también demográfica de la colectividad británica en Valparaíso, a partir de la década de 1920, se relaciona directamente con la perdida de influencia británica, en nuestro Continente, luego de la Primera Guerra MundialIn this work we analyze the importance of the british immigrants in the economic development of Valparaiso during the first half of twenty century. We highlight their predominance in the international trade and in the industrial activity especially those that reveal a high technological development. The economic and demographic decline of the british immigrants from 1920 is in close relation with the lost of the british influence in Latin America after the First World War

  15. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling of...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1979b - Reduced minerals whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced minerals whey. 184.1979b Section 184.1979b... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979b Reduced minerals whey. (a) Reduced minerals whey is the substance obtained by the removal of a portion of the minerals from whey. The dry product...

  17. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  18. [Histochemical stains for minerals by hematoxylin-lake method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model by histological staining methods for minerals. After intraperitoneal injections of minerals, precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Liver tissues were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as minerals containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for minerals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for minerals. Hematoxylin-lake was found of capable of staining minerals in tissue. A simple technique used was described for light microscopic detection of minerals.

  19. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  20. Leukaemia and lymphoma among Czech uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.; Malatova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Leukaemia is one of the most sensitive cancers in relation to ionizing radiation. It is surprising that in studies of uranium miners, no risk of leukaemia in relation to cumulated radon exposure was observed (Darby et al, 1995). However, when the risk among Czech uranium miners was analyzed in dependence on duration of exposure, the trend was significant. These results were based on 10 cases (Tomasek, 1993). Since then the original cohort of 4320 miners has been extended by another cohort, now including nearly 10 000 uranium miners and the follow-up is longer by 10 years. The present report aims to analyze the risk of haemopoietic cancers in the Czech cohort accounting for both external and internal doses, similarly as reported by Jacobi and Roth (1995), and using available data on metal content and airborne particulates for dose estimates.The present results of follow-up show that increased risk of leukaemia among uranium miners is significantly associated with cumulated equivalent red bone marrow doses which is dominated by exposures to long lived alpha radionuclides in airborne particulates. The increased mortality is mainly observed decades after exposure and is consistent with estimated internal dose to red bone marrow. The estimated risk coefficient for leukaemia is consistent with results from other studies, however, further studies are needed to reduce uncertainty in the risk estimates. (N.C.)

  1. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F.; Mukendi-Ngalula, David; Waanders, Frans B.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  2. Impacts of Nickel Nanoparticles on Mineral Carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO2 and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO2 mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags, on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO2 bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting.

  3. Leukaemia and lymphoma among Czech uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, L.; Malatova, I. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Leukaemia is one of the most sensitive cancers in relation to ionizing radiation. It is surprising that in studies of uranium miners, no risk of leukaemia in relation to cumulated radon exposure was observed (Darby et al, 1995). However, when the risk among Czech uranium miners was analyzed in dependence on duration of exposure, the trend was significant. These results were based on 10 cases (Tomasek, 1993). Since then the original cohort of 4320 miners has been extended by another cohort, now including nearly 10 000 uranium miners and the follow-up is longer by 10 years. The present report aims to analyze the risk of haemopoietic cancers in the Czech cohort accounting for both external and internal doses, similarly as reported by Jacobi and Roth (1995), and using available data on metal content and airborne particulates for dose estimates.The present results of follow-up show that increased risk of leukaemia among uranium miners is significantly associated with cumulated equivalent red bone marrow doses which is dominated by exposures to long lived alpha radionuclides in airborne particulates. The increased mortality is mainly observed decades after exposure and is consistent with estimated internal dose to red bone marrow. The estimated risk coefficient for leukaemia is consistent with results from other studies, however, further studies are needed to reduce uncertainty in the risk estimates. (N.C.)

  4. Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Carbajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.

  5. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auty, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  6. Taxation and our future mineral resources. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R D

    1976-05-01

    Canada's known reserves of minerals are estimated in general to be adequate to meet domestic requirements and current export demands until the mid-1980's. Beyond that time, an increasing proportion of reserves needed to maintain, let alone increase, present mineral production must come from mineral deposits not yet discovered, delineated or developed. The major question for Canada is whether present tax and regulatory programs will provide sufficient incentives for the industry to spend the large amounts required--perhaps $1.2 billion annually--in the exploration and development of mineral resources. Without such a major capital commitment to the development of new mineral resources, Canada will not be able to maintain the relative importance of its mining sector, or the contribution that the sector has made to our balance of payments, employment, and the opening of new frontiers. However, present levels of exploration and development expenditures are likely to be totally inadequate in maintaining, let alone increasing present production. The article refers to two major new reports that provide new information on Canada's resource industries and their future.

  7. Niger Republic mineral planning (part five): recommendations and suggestions for the developement of mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, A.

    1986-06-01

    The mineral planning present a comprehensive program of prospecting in order to increase mineral industry sector participation to the economc development of the country. Subjects taken in consideration in this volume are: setting up structural and technical means; projects proposal; summary of projects, financial cost estimation and proposals for activities forward looking calendar [fr

  8. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Choice of methods depends on the objective; • Basics: – Know your mineral system (deposit-type): SCIENCE; – Create useful datasets: A MUST; • Mineral system approach can be rewarding. For successful examples visit GA’s website; • Don’t overdo or oversell it (only detailed exploration such as drilling can find a deposit)

  9. Inhibition of Mineralization of Urinary Stone Forming Minerals by Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Mohamed Farook

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mineralization of urinary stone forming minerals by medicinal plants i.e. Achyranthes aspera Linn, Passiflora leschenaultii DC, Solena amplexicaulis (Lam. Gandhi, Scoparia dulcis Linn and Aerva lanata (Linn. been investigated. The inhibition efficiency was studied. Increased intake of fruits juice and seed extract of our plants would be helpful in urinary stone prophylaxis.

  10. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  11. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.A.; Lunel, T.; Daniel, F.; Swannell, R.; Lee, K.; Stoffyn-Egli, P.

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to simulate the process of oil-mineral interaction in seawater. Thirteen different crudes, emulsions and oil products were used in the study. The objective was to improve the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of oils and minerals that influence the process. The findings of an initial phase of studies based on the swirling flask and marine simulation procedures were also described. Oil content associated with flocs to oil and mineral characteristics were discussed. Emulsions were prepared at 10 degrees C by vigorously mixing the oil with excess artificial seawater in a Kilner jar using a high shear homogenizer. Topped oils were prepared by distillation to 250 degrees C. The biodegraded oil was prepared from the topped crude oil. Biodegradation was achieved over a 28 day period using natural seawater and naturally occurring hydrocarbon degraders. The relationships between oil concentration, oil density and mineral exchange capacity were determined. The study showed that greater oil concentrations in the water column could be expected with (1) the presence of mineral fines, (2) minerals with greater cation exchange rates, (3) minerals with finer sizes, and (4) oils of lower viscosity and density. It was determined that in coastal waters the viscosity of the oil/emulsion will likely be the main factor affecting oil-mineral interactions. The viscosity limit for allowing oil fines interaction is likely to be dependent on the energy in the coastal zone affected by the oil pollution. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  12. Electronic microscopy application in artificial minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L E.

    1995-07-01

    One of the uses of electronic microscopy in combination with the analysis microprobe EDAX is to characterize the properties of the minerals. The technique consist of studying the chemical composition by elements or by oxides of particles which can be enlarged successfully up to 100000x. With the help of the optical microscope one is able to determine the textual characteristics, the form, cleavage and other cristallographic properties which, combined with microprobe analysis enable one to determine its classification. The industrial processes which use ovens usually have problems due to the formation of impurities, spots and abnormal aspects which are reflected in a lower quality of the final material produced. These types of defects appear in minerals which are made in laboratories; knowing the natural minerals one can exercise a better quality control since this permits to know the behaviour of the raw material at a particular temperature and its reactions depending on the additives used

  13. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  14. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  15. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  16. Radioactivity and the French uranium bearing minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiollard, P.Ch.; Boisson, J.M.; Leydet, J.C.; Meisser, N.

    1998-01-01

    This special issue of Regne Mineral journal is entirely devoted to the French uranium mining industry. It comprises 4 parts dealing with: the uranium mining industry in France (history, uranium rush, deposits, geologic setting, prosperity and recession, situation in 1998, ore processing); radioactivity and the uranium and its descendants (discovery, first French uranium bearing ores, discovery of radioactivity, radium and other uranium descendants, radium mines, uranium mines, atoms, elements and isotopes, uranium genesis, uranium decay, isotopes in an uranium ore, spontaneous fission, selective migration of radionuclides, radon in mines and houses, radioactivity units, radioprotection standards, new standards and controversies, natural and artificial radioactivity, hazards linked with the handling and collecting of uranium ores, conformability with radioprotection standards, radioactivity of natural uranium minerals); the French uranium bearing minerals (composition, crystal structure, reference, etymology, fluorescence). (J.S.)

  17. Bone mineralization in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, L K

    1993-08-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis depends on establishing adequate peak bone mass in the first two decades of life. Achievement of this goal requires an understanding of factors that promote skeletal health. Genetic factors are important determinants of adult bone mass, but nonheritable variables, including body mass, calcium nutriture, sex steroids, and activity can strongly influence whether maximal bone mineral is achieved. Acquisition of bone mineral continues throughout childhood and adolescence, reaching a lifetime maximum in early adulthood. Adolescence is a particularly critical time for bone mineral accretion as more than half of the bone calcium is normally laid down during the teen years. Chronic illness, malnutrition, or endocrine deficiencies at this age may result in profound deficits in bone mass, which may not be fully reversible. These risk factors contribute to the osteopenia associated with anorexia nervosa, exercise-induced amenorrhea, delayed puberty, Turner's syndrome, and growth hormone deficiency.

  18. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  19. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  20. KeyPathwayMiner 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch; Batra, Richa

    2014-01-01

    release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain...... (avoid) genes provided in a positive (negative) list. Finally the new release now also provides a set of novel visualization features and has been implemented as an app for the standard bioinformatics network analysis tool: Cytoscape. CONCLUSION: With KeyPathwayMiner 4.0, we publish a Cytoscape app...

  1. Potencial y plan exportador agua mineral BE

    OpenAIRE

    López Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Rojas Isaza, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Agua Mineral BE Ltda es una empresa dedicada a la extracción, embotellado y comercialización de agua mineral colombiana, originada en las cordilleras de los Andes. Se caracteriza por ser de alta pureza y ser una bebida funcional, que trae beneficios adicionales a la salud por su composición de minerales, oligoelementos y electrolitos. Las condiciones de la empresa resultaron ser muy atractivas para desarrollar una investigación, por otro lado, el dueño y gerente general mostro gran interés en...

  2. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  3. Process and apparatus for distilling bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrier, J A

    1922-03-27

    This process of distillation of bituminous minerals and particularly bituminous limestone is characterized by the fact that the minerals are introduced into the retort where they stand only the temperature necessary to distill the water and lighter oils that they contain and then are drawn out into the hearth and serve for heating the retort. The apparatus is characterized by the fact that the retort has a screw conveyor, placed in the flue of the hearth, supplied with a chamber for evacuation below this hearth.

  4. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V; Krivovichev, Sergey V; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  5. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  6. Sorption of radionuclide technetium on minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Fan Xianhua; Wei Liansheng; Zhang Yingjie; Jiao Haiyang

    2004-01-01

    The study on adsorption behavior of technetium on antimonial minerals is performed in batch experiments and the influence of adsorption time, mineral granularity, solid-liquid ratio, initial concentration, pH value and reducing ion. On technetium adsorption are considered according to adsorption ratios of hepta valent and quadrivalent technetium on stibnite and antimony ocher, the results show that reduction of technetium from heptavelence to quadrivalence could improve adsorption ratios, which provide reference data for selecting buffer-backfill materials in high level rad waste deep geological diplosal. (author)

  7. Overview of the Malaysian mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, A.R.B. (Department of Mines (Malaysia))

    1992-08-01

    The article describes the status of the mining industry in Malaysia. Tin dominated the industry until a price fall caused closure of many mines in 1987-1990. Other minerals mined include copper, gold, iron ore, bauxite, barite, kaolin, limestone, clays, sand and gravel. Coal production in Malaysia resumed when an opencast mine was opened in July 1988 in Sarawak. Another started operation in early 1989 by the underground method. At the end of 1990 there was a total of 53 exploration rights granted for gold, coal, base metals and industrial minerals. A few coalfields have been identified. Generally the industry has suffered a decline because of lack of new investment. 1 fig.

  8. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks

  9. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  10. Radioactive minerals - Multimedias strategies for their divulgation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Aldano, Ana; Fonseca, Pedro; Cabral, Tiago; Nobre, José

    2014-05-01

    The region corresponding to Sortelha-Penalobo - Bendada, located deep in the transition zone between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira in the central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, county Sabugal. This region is characterized by great mineral wealth combined with geomorphology of recognized landscape value. Under the scientific point of view, this region is the origin of the mineral sabugalite (HAl(UO2)4(PO4)4.16H2O) that was described by the famous American mineralogist Clifford Frondel (1907-2002) in the fifties of the 20th century. Uranium minerals of Sabugal region were also associated with the radioactivity studies made by the well-known French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934). In 2007, U. Kolitsch et al described the Bendadaite (Fe (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2 • 4H2O), which corresponds to a new mineral from the group arthurite. The mineral wealth of this region is responsible for a rich history of mining and to highlight the importance until the 1990s the extraction of uranium minerals. The main uranium minerals extracted were the tobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 12 H2O), the metatobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 8 H 2 O), the autonite (Ca (UO2) 2 (PO4 ) 2 • 12H2O-10) and sabugalite (HAL (UO2) 4 (PO4) 4 16H2O). Due to the high radioactivity of these minerals, their handling becomes infeasible for disclosure purposes. An integrated and multidisciplinary museological strategy aims to access 3D images by QR codes, using multitouch as the primary means of interaction with the user, and can handle even the virtual samples, access various magnifications and enjoy explanations supplied by a mascot, in a fun way. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and

  11. [Mineral and bone disorders in renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Chapurlat, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The deregulation of bone and mineral metabolism during chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a daily challenge for physicians, its management aiming at decreasing the risk of both fractures and vascular calcifications. Renal transplantation in the context of CKD, with pre-existing renal osteodystrophy as well as nutritional impairment, chronic inflammation, hypogonadism and corticosteroids exposure, represents a major risk factor for bone impairment in the post-transplant period. The aim of this review is therefore to provide an update on the pathophysiology of mineral and bone disorders after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. VARIACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS FISICOQUIMICOS DURANTE UN PROCESO DE COMPOSTAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Farias Camero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos procesos de compostaje a partir de residuos lignocelulósicos de rosas durante 165 días aproximadamente. En uno de los procesos la descomposición del material fue realizada sólo por microorganismos (compostaje directo y en el otro fuera de los microorganismos se adicionaron lombrices de tierra Eisenia foetida (compostaje indirecto. El compostaje directo fue realizado en un sistema de compostación denominado "camas" y el proceso indirecto se desarrolló en la etapa inicial en un sistema de "panelas" siendo trasladado posteriormente a una cama. Los dos procesos se manejaron con adiciones de cal, NH4NO3 (20%N y microorganismos. Se tomaron muestras periódicas en diferentes lugares de las pilas y se midió semanalmente la temperatura. En cada una de las muestras se determinaron los siguientes parámetros fisicoquímicos: % humedad, color, pH en relaciones muestra: agua 1:5 y 1:10, cenizas, materia orgánica. Cíe libre de cenizas, carbono, nitrógeno y relación C/N. En el extracto acuoso se determinaron el contenido de carbono orgánico total y nitrógeno, la relación C/N y el porcentaje de hidrosolubles y se hizo un ensayo de germinación en el que se calculó el porcentaje de semillas de berro (Lepidium sativum que germinaron en el extracto. La variación de los parámetros en cada uno de los procesos permifió establecer que los mayores cambios en el material se llevan a cabo durante las etapas iniciales del proceso (fases termófila y mesófila, siendo la presencia de microorganismos el factor limitante de la dinámica del proceso; así mismo la adición de lombrices de tierra no aceleró la mineralización de la materia orgánica. A nivel metodológico se estableció que la determinación del color no es un parámetro efectivo para evaluar el estado de madurez del compost y que, medidas de la temperatura y el porcentaje de germinación pueden realizarse rutinariamente para determinar el avance del proceso. Para

  13. Muerte fetal en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza durante el periodo agosto 2003-noviembre 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Milla Vera

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar las causas de los casos de muerte fetal, así como sus características sociodemográficas, clínicas, patológicas, y la tasa. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo. Se buscaron los casos de muerte fetal en el libro de registros del servicio de obstetricia del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza entre agosto 2003 y noviembre 2004. Se buscaron las historias clínicas e informes anatomopatológicos correspondientes recopilándose los hallazgos. Resultados: Se encontraron 61 casos de muerte fetal, 47 se incluyeron en el estudio. Se registraron 4 524 nacidos vivos. La tasa de muerte fetal fue 13,48 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. Edad gestacional promedio fue de 28,29 semanas y peso promedio de 1 277,86 g. La edad menor a 35 años (76,59%, ausencia de control prenatal o control prenatal inadecuado (66,66%, paridad menor a 4 (86,96%, antecedente de aborto (21,73%, pequeño para edad gestacional (PEG (28,26%, hemorragia del tercer trimestre (HTT (17,39%, preeclampsia (8,69% y hallazgos anormales placentarios (23,28% fueron las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y patológicas más frecuentes. El 59,27% de los casos presentaba informe de patología. No se logró inferir causa alguna en 36,2%. Conclusiones: Los casos de muerte fetal durante el periodo de estudio no contenían los datos tanto clínicos como patológicos suficientes para identificar claramente las causas de muerte fetal. (Rev Med Hered 2005;16:260-265.

  14. Las ciudades disidentes durante la independencia de Venezuela: el caso de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulimar Maldonado Viloria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio de caso se analizan las particularidades del proceso histórico que vivió Maracaibo durante los primeros años de la Independencia Venezolana. Es de interés para la historiografía venezolana y latinoamericana profundizar en el análisis de la realidad que explica la reacción de una “ciudad disidente” como Maracaibo, cuya elite prefirió seguir los lineamientos de la Regencia, elegir su diputado para las Cortes de Cádiz y defender su autonomía, antes que aceptar la propuesta de emancipación caraqueña. Bajo esta perspectiva se pretende esclarecer si la elite maracaibera fue realmente “disidente” del movimiento caraqueño por inercia histórica, larga herencia hispánica, o su actuación estuvo apegada a la legitimidad del momento como una opción política para lograr reafirmar y acrecentar su autonomía dentro del régimen monárquico. La investigación se ubica en la actual corriente historiográfica europea e hispanoamericana que sale al paso a los tradicionales análisis sustentados en una visión fáctica y localista, ignorando la amplitud temporal y espacial del proceso; se centra en el conocimiento que aporta el estudio comparado de la actitud de Maracaibo ante la Independencia con su desarrollo en el resto del país y acontecimientos en el mundo hispánico.

  15. El cine norteamericano durante la Gran Depresión (1929-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mainer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El cine comienza su andadura a finales del siglo XIX como un mero entretenimiento de masas, revelando a un público ávido de novedades las posibilidades del reciente descubrimiento. Será a partir de la Revolución bolchevique de 1917 cuando los organismos de poder descubran la capacidad de la imagen en movimiento como herramienta de propaganda ideológica. Los regímenes comunista y fascista se sirvieron del cine para difundir su doctrina y en la democracia de Estados Unidos, durante el período del New Deal (1933-1939, el cine clásico de Hollywood desempeñará la misma función propagandística, aunque haciendo uso de lenguajes y géneros variados y, con frecuencia, mucho más sofisticados. Es precisamente esta faceta del Séptimo Arte, su uso como agente difusor de ideologías, la que nos interesa y se analiza en el presente artículo.The cinema begins its career in the late nineteenth century as a mere mass entertainment, revealing to an eager audience the possibilities of the new discovery. It was from the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 when the power of the moving image as ideological propaganda tool was discovered by the governments. The communist and fascist regimes used the cinema to spread their doctrines and in the American democracy, during the New Deal period (1933-1939, the classical Hollywood cinema will perform the same propaganda function, but using different languages ​​and genres, and often much more sophisticated. It is this aspect of the cinema, its use as a carier of ideologies, that interests us and analyze this article.

  16. Cuantificación del deterioro funcional durante seis meses en pacientes renales en estadio terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Ortega Pérez de Villar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los pacientes en tratamiento de diálisis presentan una disminución de la función física, sin embargo, no hay estudios que demuestren el ritmo al que se produce este deterioro funcional. El objetivo principal es cuantificar el deterioro funcional de los pacientes en tratamiento de diálisis durante seis meses. Métodos: 43 pacientes en tratamiento de diálisis de dos centros de Valencia (España (edad 61.3 (14.7 años fueron analizados después de 6 meses. Los participantes completaron el Short Physical Performance Battery, equilibrio monopodal, el Timed Up and Go Test, Sit to stand to Sit Test 10 y 60, dinamometría de mano; elevación de talón y 6 minutos marcha. Además se recogieron datos de las historias clínicas y de las analíticas. Resultados: Tres de las pruebas mejoraron significativamente tras el periodo de 6 meses de observación: el Sit To Stand 10, la dinamometría de la mano derecha y la dinamometría de la mano izquierda, pero sin alcanzar un cambio clínico relevante. Por otro lado, otras medidas no obtuvieron un deterioro significativo como fueron el Short Physical Performance Battery, el Sit to Stand 60, la elevación del talón izquierdo y el 6 minutos marcha. Conclusiones: Después de 6 meses, en ninguna de las pruebas de capacidad funcional se observa un deterioro significativo. Se recomienda a los centros de hemodiálisis realizar un seguimiento de capacidad funcional anualmente, ya que con un periodo de 6 meses no se encuentran cambios significativos.

  17. Fiesta y Patria durante la Regeneración en Colombia. Santander (1886-1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Blanco Mejía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    La fiesta patria durante la Regeneración en Colombia, adquiere importancia  no sólo porque es la representación de una nación católica en el país, acorde con el proyecto político implementado por los conservadores, sino además, y lo más importante,  porque cumple un papel de alquimia social, que transforma lo arbitrario en legitimo al  instaurar una rutina. Para comprender esta función, la presente ponencia pasara revista de manera breve a los orígenes de las fiestas nacionales en la región, y posteriormente, se adentrará en el  tema de la Regeneración.

     

    Palabras claves: Fiesta  republicana, regeneración, alquimia social.

     

    Abstract

    The national holiday during Regeneration in Colombia, becomes important not only because was the representation of a Catholic nation in the country, according to the political project implemented by the Conservatives, but also and most importantly, it plays the role of social alchemy, which transforms the arbitrary toward legitimate to establish a routine. To understand this function, this essay  briefly  review of the origins of national holidays in the region, and subsequently, will development  the theme of Regeneration.

     

    Keywords: Republican holiday, regeneration, social alchemy.

  18. Los conflictos político-religiosos en Colombia durante el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Santamaría Lambás

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo está publicado en España como “Los conflictos político-religiosos en Colombia durante el siglo XIX”, publicado en J.J. Caerols (ed., Religio in labyrintho, Madrid, Escolar y Mayo Editores, 2013, pp. 211-225, ISBN 978-84-941056-8-5 incluyendo en él referencia y cita bibliográfica de la publicación originalSUMARIO: 1. Introducción – 2. Las guerras civiles – 2.1. Las guerras por la definición del sujeto político – 2.1.a La guerra de los Supremos (1839-1842 – 2.1.b Las guerras de 1851 y 1854 – 2.2. Las guerras por la definición del sujeto político y el carácter de la educación – 2..2.a La guerra de 1861 – 2.2.b La guerra de 1876 – 2.2.c La guerra de 1885 – 2.3. Las guerras contra la exclusión en las que entran en juego los límites de la centralización – 2.3.a La guerra de 1895 – 2.3.b La guerra de los Mil Días. Abstract: During the nineteenth century in Colombia conflict is settled through political parties, the liberal and conservative, and civil wars, in which the religious element is sometimes the trigger of the conflict and sometimes the convener. We will use the literature to approach these wars and to better understand what happened in reality.Keywords Colombia, civil wars, political parties, religion.

  19. Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em fezes colhidas durante necrópsias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio de Almeida

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificarmos a prevalência de enteroparasitoses, colhemos o conteúdo do tubo digestivo, em três porções distintas, durante a realização de 135 necrópsias completas. As fezes foram conservadas em MIF (mistura de formol, iodo e merthiolate, e analisadas pelo exame protoparasitológico direto. Encontramos enteroparasitas em 40 casos (29,6%, sendo que em 11 deles (27,5% havia poliparasitismo e em 29 casos (72,5% monoparasitismo. As enteroparasitoses mais freqüentes foram o S. stercoralis (31,9%, E. histolytica (23,4%, Ancilostomídeos (19,1% e A. lumbricoides (17%. Os resultados estão de acordo com levantamentos epidemiològicos na região. Além disso, mostram que o exame protoparasitológico de fezes colhidas concomitantemente ao exame necroscópico fornece mais um subsídio ao diagnóstico anatomopatológico.With the Intention to verify the frequency of intestinal parasites, we have taken the inside digestive system material from three differents parts of the intestinal tract while we were doing 135 complete necropsies. The stools were kept in MIF (Formol, iodine and merthiolate mixture being studied in slides by the direct method. We have found intestinal parasites in 40 cases (29.6%, 11 (27.5% with two or more kinds of parasites and 29 cases (72.5% with only one kind ofparasite. The most frequent parasites were: S. stercoralis (31,9%, E. hystolytica (23.4%, hook worm (19.1% and A. lumbricoides (17%. The results are in according with epidemiological research made in this area. Thus, they prove that the parasitological exam made in feces taken during the necroscopy provides further evidence to enrich the anatomo-pathological diagnosis.

  20. Cambios en virus vaccinia durante la síntesis de RNA in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Enrique Ospina

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones al microscopio electrónico de virus vaccinia previamente incubados en una mezcla para la reacción de RNA polimerasa in vitro, demuestran características alteraciones morfológicas en los virus. Estructuras similares a vesículas y ocasionalmente túbulos se formaron a partir de la membrana externa del virus. Uno de los sustituyentes de la reacción de RNA polimerasa in vitro, mercaptoetanol 0.007M, es el causante de esta alteración. El cambio morfológico se acompaña de pérdida de la infectividad viral. La presencia de grupos sulfhidrilo en la mezcla de la reacción enzimática es esencial para la ocurrencia de la síntesis de RNA de vaccinia in vitro. Esta condición no se pudo sustituir por choque térmico a 70C. ni por digestión parcial del virus por tripsina. Una gran variedad de compuestos con grupos sulfhidrilo pueden reemplazar el mercaptoetanol con efectividad variable. El más activo de ellos fué el ditiotreitol. Un período de latencia de 8 minutos ocurre entre la adición de vaccinia a la mezcla completa para la reacción de RNA polimerasa y la detección de síntesis de RNA. Los datos recolectados sugieren que cambios dependientes del mercaptoetanol ocurren durante este período.

  1. Nutrición y desarrollo psicomotor durante el primer semestre de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHÁVEZ ADOLFO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar el desarrollo psicomotor de niños pequeños de una comunidad rural pobre y mal alimentada y relacionarlo con la alimentación y nutrición tanto de su madre como de ellos mismos. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 82 unidades madre-niño, desde antes del quinto mes de embarazo hasta los seis meses de edad del niño, en antropometría y dieta; en el niño se aplicaron pruebas de Brazelton al nacer, de Bayley a los tres y seis meses de edad y de interacción con su madre. Resultados. Varias de las pruebas psicomotoras del niño se correlacionaron positivamente con el peso de la madre y sus pliegues cutáneos, lo mismo que con su propio peso y talla previos. También con el consumo materno de productos animales y frutas durante el embarazo y negativamente con el consumo de tortillas y frijoles. Las correlaciones de varias de las pruebas del niño a los seis meses fueron positivas con su consumo complementario, de energía total y de varios alimentos, sobre todo de huevo, leche y frutas alrededor de los tres meses de edad. Conclusiones. Es importante que dentro del estrato social rural pobre estudiado, pequeñas variaciones de consumo de alimentos y nutrición de la unidad materno-infantil den lugar a cambios en las diversas pruebas de desarrollo psicomotor del niño pequeño, lo que sugiere la necesidad de impulsar más los programas de nutrición aplicados.

  2. CRUZANDO LOS MALLKUS. LAS MIGRACIONES BOLIVIANAS PENDULARES DURANTE LAS GRANDES CRISIS SALITRERAS (1914 - 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González Miranda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proceso migratorio pendular de la población boliviana (especialmente indígena hacia las salitreras de Tarapacá; destacándose la “gran crisis” de 1930 y años siguientes, analizando el desarraigo del retorno a Bolivia. Se sostiene que a partir del término de la Primera Guerra Mundial se inicia la decadencia del ciclo de expansión del salitre, generando procesos migratorios de atracción y expulsión de mano de obra, donde el drama social producto de la cesantía fue el factor común. En otras palabras, se plantea que la crisis del salitre no surgió en la década de los años treinta, como suele reconocerse en la literatura especializada sobre la industria salitrera, sino a partir de la primera guerra mundial se inicia el proceso de decadencia del mercado mundial del nitrato, siendo la década de los años veinte cuando se define el futuro de esta industria. Se estudia, especialmente a través de la prensa y archivos oficiales, los sistemas de enganche, los flujos de ida y venida de trabajadores bolivianos con sus familias, especialmente durante los años de crisis entre 1914 y 1933, donde el drama de la cesantía afectó a miles de bolivianos que debieron regresar a sus comunidades de origen. Este artículo se enmarca dentro de un análisis histórico que rescata la importancia de la sociedad civil en las relaciones entre países fronterizos, como Bolivia y Chile, fenómeno que la disciplina de las relaciones internacionales denomina acertadamente “paradiplomacia”.

  3. La CNT y las alianzas sindicales durante la dictadura de Franco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Herrerín López

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las centrales sindicales CNT y UGT intentaron mantener en los primeros años de posguerra la colaboración que habían llevado a cabo durante la guerra civil española. Pero la represión franquista en España y la división interna en el exilio lo impidieron. En la CNT, el inmoviiismo de los ortodoxos contrastó con la evolución ideológica de los posibilistas, que se aproximaron a los planteamientos socialistas e iniciaron los contactos para la constitución de la alianza sindical a mediados de la década de los cincuenta. La Alianza formada en el exilio tuvo el punto débil en su implantación en España, y puso al descubierto la falta de adaptación de los sindicatos históricos, principalmente de la CNT, a las nuevas posiciones del movimiento obrero.During the first years after de war the trade unions CNT and UGT tried to keep the colaboration that they had accomplished during the spanish civil war. But the francoism repression in Spain and inner división in the exile obstructed it. Inside the CNT, the inmobile position of the orthodox members contrasted with the ideological evolution of the possibilists, who came cióse to the socialist ideas and they started the contacts to make the syndical alliance in the mid-50's. The Alliance created in exile had the vulnerable point in its introduction in Spain, and exposed the maladjustment of the historie unions, prínciply the CNT, to the new positions of the workers movement.

  4. Implicaciones del comercio por el puerto de San Blas durante la guerra de independencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trejo Barajas, Dení

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the importance acquired during the Independence war by the maritime trade coming from other Central and South American ports and operating through the San Blas port. The antecedents of the colonial commerce are studied, as well as the British presence and the consequences of the free trade measures taken by the Spanish government which particularly affected the Nueva Galicia Intendencia and the Pacific coasts of Nueva España. In the end, this highly polemical traffic permitted by the Spanish authorities strengthened Nueva Galicia both politically and economically, and prefigured the regionalism that was to be characteristical in 19th Century Mexico.

    En este artículo se analiza la importancia que adquirió, durante la guerra de Independencia, el comercio marítimo por el puerto de San Blas procedente de Panamá y otros puertos centro y sudamericanos. Se exponen los antecedentes relativos a la crisis del comercio colonial, la presencia inglesa y los efectos de las medidas de libre comercio adoptadas por el gobierno español que afectaron de manera particular a la intendencia de Nueva Galicia y las costas del Pacífico novohispano. Se revisan las consecuencias de este polémico tráfico permitido por las autoridades hispanas y que desembocó en el fortalecimiento político y económico de la Nueva Galicia, prefigurando el regionalismo característico del siglo XIX mexicano.

  5. Natalidad, nupcialidad y fecundidad en Mérida durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un estudio demográfico de Mérida durante el siglo XVI, que ha sido realizado a partir de las actas de bautismo, confirmación y matrimonio, por el procedimiento de la agrupación de familias, o método francés, analizando la natalidad con detalle de partos simples y dobles, las concepciones, las distribuciones temporales y sus tendencias, se fia determinado en número de familias y sus composiciones, obteniendo el coeficiente para la transformación de vecinos cabezas de familia en fiabitantes, tanto el general de la ciudad como los correspondientes a las comunidades cristiana y morisca; se tian determinado las edades de acceso al matrimonio, los intervalos genésicos en las mujeres, los estados prenupciales, la distribución temporal de la nupcialidad y los grupos de ilegítimos, expósitos, esclavos y moriscos.This is a demographic study of Mérida (a town of Castilla, Spain during the XVI century, from fhe baptism, confirmation and marriages registers, according to the process of the association of families by analysing the natality in detall of simple and double childbirths, and the concepcions, the temporal distributions and their tendencies; with the determination of the number of families and their composition, by obtaining the coeffcient in order to transform the neighbours into inhabitants. Both the general one of the town and the one wich belongs to the christian and moorish communities; the age of acces to marriage, genesis inervals in women, prenuptial states, temporal distribution of nupcitiality, ilegitimate groves, abandoned people, slaves and moorishes have been determined.

  6. Estructura salarial de los periodistas en España durante la crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roses

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas informativas están aplicando políticas de reducción de gastos de personal para hacer frente a la crisis económica. Este trabajo describe la Estructura Salarial de los Periodistas en España durante la crisis (2009 a partir de los datos recabados mediante una encuesta telefónica suministrada a una muestra de mil periodistas en activo residentes en España. La descripción de los datos se detalla en función de un conjunto de variables sociolaborales. El estudio se complementa con un análisis bivariable de la asociación entre el nivel salarial de los periodistas encuestados y dichas variables. Los resultados indican que el nivel salarial de los periodistas en España está asociado a su género, edad, experiencia profesional, tipo de medio donde trabaja, tamaño de la empresa informativa, ubicación geográfica de la empresa, categoría profesional, tipo de contrato y antigüedad en la empresa. Sin embargo, el nivel salarial es independiente de nivel de estudios, titulación universitaria en Periodismo o Comunicación, y titulación en estudios de tercer ciclo. Los hallazgos del estudio—de interés para académicos y organizaciones profesionales—permitirán monitorizar en el futuro los efectos de las políticas de reducción de gastos de los medios en las retribuciones de los periodistas.

  7. Granite-related hypothermal uranium mineralization in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Wu, J.; Pan, J.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important geological types, granite-related uranium deposits account for about 29% of the total discovered natural uranium resources in China. Most of the granite-related uranium deposits located in Taoshan - Zhuguang uranium metallogenic belt, South China. In addition to the typical pitchblende vein-type uranium mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, a new type of granite-related uranium mineralization with characteristics of hypothermal matallogenic system was discovered in South China by current studies. However, hypothermal is contact thermal to epithermal mineralization, and not the conventional intrusive high temperature mineralization. Hypothermal uranium mineralization is presented by disseminated uraninite or pitchblende stockwork in fissures in granites normally with extensive alkaline alteration. The high temperature mineral assemblage of uraninite associate with scheelite and tourmaline was identified in hypothermal uranium mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies on this type mineralization indicated the middle to high temperature (>250℃) mineralization with the mixing evidence of ore forming solution derived from deep level, and the boiling and mixing of ore forming solution are regarded as the dominant mineralization mechanism for the precipitating of uranium. In contrast to the mineralization ages of 67 Ma to 87 Ma for typical pitchblende vein mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, the mineralization age is older than 100 Ma for hypothermal uranium mineralization in granite. In the Shituling deposit, Xiazhuang uranium ore field, uraninite and pitchblende micro veins with extensive potassic alteration, chloritization and sericitization are hosted in fissures of Indo-Chinese epoch granites with the uranium mineralization age of 130 Ma to 138 Ma with a mineralization temperature of 290℃ to 330℃ indicated. Other examples sharing the similar characters of hypothermal uranium mineralization have been recognized in

  8. Protozoários ruminais de novilhos de corte criados em pastagem tropical durante o período seco

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Kellerson Luiz da; Duarte,Eduardo Robson; Freitas,Claudio Eduardo Silva; Abrão,Flávia Oliveira; Geraseev,Luciana Castro

    2014-01-01

    Protozoários do rúmen podem representar 40% do nitrogênio total e 60% do produto final da fermentação e apresentam atividade celulolítica. Neste estudo, objetivou-se quantificar e identificar as populações de protozoários no rúmen de novilhos, criados exclusivamente em pastagem, durante o período seco do ano, no Norte de Minas Gerais. Amostras do suco ruminal de 36 novilhos mestiços Nelore foram coletadas diretamente do rúmen, após o abate, durante o inicio, meio ou fim do período de estiagem...

  9. LA DINÁMICA DE LA POBLACIÓN EN LA PROVINCIA DE ALICANTE DURANTE LA GUERRA CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gozálvez Pérez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la guerra civil española de 1936-39, la provincia de Alicante, pese a su situación de retaguardia, tuvo un movimiento natural con graves dificultades, sobre todo en 1939, a resultas del clima de inseguridad y las dificultades económicas creadas por el conflicto; el fuerte aumento de la mortalidad infantil entre 1937 y 1941, así como la sobremortalidad acumulada durante 1936-41, subrayan la fortísima incidencia del con- flicto. La migración neta, negativa para la provincia entre 1888 y 1930, fue muy positiva en 1931-40, debido, entre otras causas, a los desplazamientos provocados por la guerra, especialmente significativos para la ciudad de Alicante.

  10. Violencia de la pareja íntima durante el embarazo y sus repercusiones en la salud mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Lafaurie-Villamil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un estado del arte sobre violencia de la pareja íntima durante el embarazo y sus implicaciones en la salud mental de la madre, partiendo de 13 artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2014, obtenidos mediante búsqueda en bases de datos (Pubmed, Medline, Nursing Consult, sCielo, Dialnet, Redalyc, Lilacs, Index y Bireme, utilizando como palabras clave: embarazo, violencia de la pareja íntima, salud mental e implicaciones. Los hallazgos de este estudio, muestran que la violencia de la pareja íntima durante el embarazo incrementa la depresión y depresión posparto, así como el malestar emocional en la gestante.

  11. Selvas yermas. Los pueblos de indios desaparecidos en la costa sur de la Nueva Galicia durante el periodo colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía, Ramón Goyas

    2017-01-01

    Resumen El presente análisis se centra en la desaparición de los pueblos de indios en la alcaldía mayor de la Purificación perteneciente a la Nueva Galicia durante el virreinato. Para la realización de este trabajo se abordó primero la caracterización físico natural de la región, para posteriormente hacer relevante la relación histórica hombre-naturaleza desde la época precolombina, ello con la finalidad de destacar la importancia de la pérdida de población durante el periodo colonial, como t...

  12. Selvas yermas. Los pueblos de indios desaparecidos en la costa sur de la Nueva Galicia durante el periodo colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Goyas Mejía

    2017-01-01

    El presente análisis se centra en la desaparición de los pueblos de indios en la alcaldía mayor de la Purificación perteneciente a la Nueva Galicia durante el virreinato. Para la realización de este trabajo se abordó primero la caracterización físico natural de la región, para posteriormente hacer relevante la relación histórica hombre-naturaleza desde la época precolombina, ello con la finalidad de destacar la importancia de la pérdida de población durante el periodo colonial, como tema cent...

  13. Médicos y policías durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla (Buenos Aires, 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Galeano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la actuación de médicos y policías durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla que tuvo lugar en la ciudad de Buenos Aires en 1871. Aunque las embestidas de enfermedades infectocontagiosas fueron recurrentes durante el siglo XIX, la epidemia de fiebre amarilla constituye un quiebre, no solo por sus dimensiones cuantitativas y por los efectos materiales sobre la ciudad, sino también por las querellas que suscitó entre discursos en pugna. En particular, se intenta mostrar aquí cómo las figuras de los médicos y los policías fueron posicionadas en relación al tema del héroe y del sacrificado en cumplimiento del deber.

  14. Los colombianos y las redes del narcotráfico en Nueva York durante los años 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sáenz Rovner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La idea que se tiene sobre el narcotráfico desde Colombia es que éste ha sido manejado por “carteles”. Lo que la evidencia empírica muestra es que además de las grandes organizaciones criminales, el narcotráfico durante las últimas décadas, y en particular durante los años 70, objeto de este escrito, ha sido un negocio abierto con innumerables participantes (incluyendo mulas “free lancers” que se constituían en microempresarios del narcotráfico, en buena parte colombianos pero también de otras nacionalidades. De ahí que la idea de carteles que ejercen poderes monopólicos, es equivocada. La información inédita con la que se escribió este ensayo es tomada principalmente de una serie de archivos norteamericanos.

  15. Chemical composition and structural changes of irrigated rice during storageComposição química e alterações estruturais do arroz irrigado durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Kaminski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect storage time at different temperatures (0.5, 20 and 35 °C was periodically evaluated in regard to the chemical composition, elongation capacity and viscoamylographic properties of three irrigated rice varieties (BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 416 and IRGA 417 during 180 days. The alterations in the components of the polished grains were significant (P O efeito do tempo de armazenamento em diferentes temperaturas (0,5; 20 e 35°C foi avaliado sobre a composição química, capacidade de elongação e propriedades viscoamilográficas de três variedades de arroz irrigado (BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 416 e IRGA 417, durante 180 dias. As alterações nos componentes dos grãos polidos foram significativas (P<0,05 para o teor de matéria mineral, compostos fenólicos, amilose e amido resistente, com incrementos nos valores encontrados, principalmente em maiores períodos e temperaturas de armazenamento. As variáveis do experimento (variedade do arroz irrigado, tempo e temperatura do armazenamento influenciaram significativamente (P<0,01 nos parâmetros de elongação dos grãos, com aumentos expressivos durante o armazenamento a 35°C e nas propriedades viscoamilográficas, ou seja, observou-se maior viscosidade, resistência à quebra e retrogradação para as amostras com maior teor de amilose e mantidas a 35°C durante o armazenamento. As alterações nos componentes dos grãos, quando significativas (P<0,05, foram bastante discretas e não diretamente relacionadas às significativas alterações (P<0,01 de elongação e viscosidade. A temperatura se mostrou uma variável de grande influência no processo de envelhecimento do arroz, sugerindo a possibilidade do armazenamento deste cereal em maiores temperaturas para conferir qualidade culinária em menor tempo de armazenamento.

  16. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  17. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

  18. El maltrato infantil como consecuencia de los estereotipos de género durante la tarea escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Caridad Anay Cala-Montoya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El maltrato infantil se manifiesta en el proceso de la tarea escolaro las asignaciones donde los procesos de interacción entre padrese hijos durante la misma han presupuesto la emergencia decomportamientos inadecuados, resultado de las desigualdades degénero que persisten en nuestra sociedad y en el sistema familiar,eje de mira en que se enmarca la presente investigación.

  19. ¿Memoria no es historia? Testimonios de una escuela durante la dictadura militar en Argentina (1976-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén CUCUZZA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo reproduce cuatro testimonios sobre algunos acontecimientos sucedidos a docentes y alumnos de una escuela durante la última dictadura militar en Argentina entre 1976 y 1982. Los relatos son entrelazados con algunas aproximaciones al problema de la memoria y el olvido, a las relaciones entre memoria e historia, a las posibilidades de la historia reciente y al papel de los testimonios en la tarea del historiador.

  20. Rede social durante a expansão da família Rede social durante la expansión de la familia Social net during family expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina Jussani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de natureza qualitativa que estudou a rede de suporte de famílias durante a gravidez. Os dados foram coletados em maio de 2003, através de entrevista semi-estruturada, junto à 16 mulheres. Os resultados revelaram que apenas uma mulher não recorreu à rede de apoio e que diferentes pessoas são procuradas conforme o tipo de problema vivenciado: dificuldades econômicas ou de aceitação da gravidez, necessidade de apoio emocional ou de esclarecimentos, ajuda para os afazeres domésticos, entre outros. Conclui-se que a rede social favorece o bom desenvolvimento da gestação e que para uma assistência mais eficaz é indicado que os profissionais de saúde atentem para o fato de a mulher ter uma rede de suporte com que possa contar durante a gravidez.Estudio descriptivo, de naturaleza cualitativa desarrollado con el objetivo de estudiar la red de soporte de familias durante el embarazo. Los datos han sido colectados en mayo de 2003, a través de entrevista semiestructurada, junto a 16 mujeres. Los resultados han revelado que apenas una mujer no ha recorrido a la red de apoyo durante el embarazo y que diferentes personas son procuradas de acuerdo con el tipo de problemas vivenciado: dificultades económicas o de aceptación del embarazo, necesidad de apoyo emocional o de esclarecimiento, ayuda para los quehaceres domésticos, entre otros. Se concluí que la red social ayuda el buen desarrollo de la gestación y que los profesionales de salud necesitan saber si hay una red de soporte que pueda contar durante el embarazo.This is a research of qualitative nature developed with the objective of studying the support net of families during pregnancy. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, from 16 women in May 2003. The results showed that just one woman did not appeal to the support net during pregnancy and that different people are sought according to the type of problem experienced at the time: economical difficulties or of