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Sample records for azoto mineral durante

  1. Produção de azoto mineral durante a compostagem de fracção sólida de chorume da pecuária leiteira intensiva Production of mineral nitrogen during composting of dairy cattle slurry solid fraction

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    L. M. Brito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de duas explorações de pecuária leiteira intensiva foi compostada: (i em 2004, sobre o solo, incluindo, ou não, palha, e com diferentes níveis de revolvimento; e (ii em 2005, sobre uma tela de cobertura do solo, com e sem revolvimento, com diferentes coberturas e diferentes volumes. O teor de matéria seca (MS da FSC da primeira exploração (30% apresentou um valor superior, embora o rendimento da máquina separadora da FSC tenha sido inferior (1 m³ hora-1 relativamente ao observado na segunda exploração (4 e 3 m³ hora-1 correspondendo a 22% e 24% de MS, respectivamente, em 2004 e 2005. A FSC1 com 30% de MS atingiu elevadas temperaturas logo após a sua separação mas o mesmo não aconteceu com a FSC2 com menor teor de MS, particularmente quando foi compostada sem palha. O pH da FSC variou entre 8 e 9 durante a compostagem e a razão C/N foi semelhante entre tratamentos para o mesmo período de compostagem. O teor de N-NH4+ foi muito elevado durante a fase termófila da compostagem, após a qual diminuiu, acentuadamente, enquanto que o teor de N-NO3-foi mínimo naquela fase e aumentou após três meses de compostagem. O maior teor de MS inicial da FSC1 em comparação com a FSC2 e a mistura com palha associaram-se a concentrações mais baixas de azoto amoniacal (NNH4+. Considerando estas observações e, ainda, que as elevadas temperaturas durante a compostagem e o pH alcalino da FSC potenciam, eventualmente, a volatilização de amoníaco, a redução deste tipo de perdas de N poderá ser conseguida: (i diminuindo o rendimento da máquina separadora da FSC; (ii misturando a FSC com um material com elevada razão C/N; e (iii diminuindo o número de revolvimentos.Screw pressed dairy cattle slurry solid fraction (CSSF was collected during 2004 and 2005 from two dairy farms with 30% and 22% -24% dry matter (DM content and the effects of covered either with black polyethylene or with polypropylene

  2. Mineralização de azoto de diferentes resíduos orgânicos em incubação laboratorial de longa duração Nitrogen mineralization from different organic residues in long-term laboratory incubation

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    J.P. Carneiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo do presente trabalho foi determinar, em condições laboratoriais e através de um ensaio de incubação de longa duração (443 dias, a mineralização do N orgânico resultante da incorporação de lamas de depuração, compostado de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU, chorume de bovinos e lamas celulósicas, num Solo Litólico de granito. À excepção das lamas celulósicas (80 kg N ha-1, os resíduos orgânicos foram incorporados em duas doses (80 e 160 kg N ha-1. A avaliação da mineralização do N orgânico dos resíduos foi efectuada através da medição do teor de N mineral acumulado ( N-NH4+ e N-NO3 no solo com resíduo, tendo as amostragens sido efectuadas aos 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 11, 15, 22, 29, 36, 46, 59, 74, 88, 120, 144, 186, 249, 338 e 443 dias após o início da incubação. O chorume e as lamas de depuração foram os correctivos orgânicos que promoveram teores iniciais de N mineral no solo mais elevados, tendo o chorume disponibilizado no final do ensaio, na média das duas doses, 50% do N total incorporado, e as lamas 76%. As lamas celulósicas e o compostado de RSU originaram imobilização de azoto, tendo-se observado esse efeito durante todo o ensaio e por um período de 4-5 meses, respectivamente. Em relação ao N total aplicado, e após 443 di-as de incubação, o tratamento com lamas apresentou uma imobilização de 43%, enquanto que no tratamento com compostado de RSU a mineralização foi de 26%. Os resíduos orgânicos utilizados apresentaram um comportamento muito distinto no que respeita à disponibilização de azoto após a sua incorporação ao solo. Face a essa diferença, a aplicação de chorume e das lamas de depuração deverá ser acompanhada na prática pela redução das adubações azotadas imediatas, enquanto que na utilização de compostado de RSU e, sobretudo de lamas celulósicas, poderse-á impor um reforço da adubação azotada de fundo e de cobertura.The aim of this study was to

  3. Efeito de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos na produção de Azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.: produção de matéria seca e azoto aparentemente recuperado Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers in the ryegrass yield (Lolium multiflorum L.: Dry matter yield and apparent N recovery

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    M. Arrobas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o azoto disponibilizado para as plantas a partir de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos, foi instalado um ensaio em vasos com azevém anual. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: Casca de Castanha (CC com 0,6% de azoto (N; Estrume de Bovino (EB, com 2,3% de N; Beira Adubo (BA, um guano comercial com 3,0% de N; Nitrato de Amónio (NA, com 20,5% de N, Entec (En, adubo com um inibidor da nitrificação, com 26% de N; e Fertigafsa (Fg, adubo composto ternário 4-16-12. Estabeleceu-se também uma modalidade Testemunha (T sem N. Todos os fertilizantes foram aplicados em dose equivalente a 200 mg de N por kg da fracção terra fina de um solo com textura franco-limosa, com pH (H2O 5,2 e 27 g kg-1 de matéria orgânica. Em todos os vasos foi aplicada uma solução nutritiva sem N. A sementeira foi efectuada a 1 de Outubro de 2004. Após germinação, foram mantidas 50 plantas por vaso. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada em 6 cortes, entre 9 de Novembro de 2004 e 4 de Agosto de 2005. Foi avaliada a produção de biomassa, o N exportado e o N aparentemente recuperado (NAR. A produção média acumulada de matéria seca variou significativamente entre 1,7 e 4,1 g/vaso em T e NA, respectivamente. A modalidade NA registou a exportação mais elevada (167 mg N/vaso e o maior valor de NAR (64%. Entre os fertilizantes minerais destacou-se o menor valor de NAR associado a En (45%, enquanto que os materiais orgânicos BA e EB tiveram comportamento semelhante entre si (24 e 22%, respectivamente. Nestas condições, os fertilizantes orgânicos (BA e EB e En foram pouco efectivos na libertação de N para a cultura. Os resultados fazem antever dificuldades na gestão destes fertilizantes em culturas anuais de ciclo curto, uma vez que estas podem ficar privadas de N durante fases importantes do seu desenvolvimento.A pot experiment with italian ryegrass was carried out to evaluate the N release from several fertilisers and organic amendments. The

  4. Comportamiento de la humedad durante el secado solar del mineral laterítico

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    Arturo L. Rojas-Purón

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En las empresas cubanas del níquel que utilizan el proceso Caron, el contenido elevado de humedad en la material prima mineral incide en el aumento del consumo de combustible en los secadores durante el secado térmico. Se evaluó de forma experimental la humedad durante el secado solar del mineral laterítico a la intemperie. El método de análisis de la humedad utilizado fue el de diferencias de pesadas. Se empleó la regression lineal multiple para establecer los modelos matemáticos de las masas de trabajo. El estudio demostró que los parámetros climatológicos más influyentes en el secado solar del mineral laterítico son la temperatura del medio ambiente, las precipitaciones, la velocidad del viento y la temperatura del punto de rocío, así como que solamente el agua no estructural es la que puede ser eliminada. La humedad se redujo en un 13 %.

  5. Evolución mineralógica del cemento portland durante el proceso de hidratación

    OpenAIRE

    MANUEL ALEJANDRO GIRALDO M.; JORGE IVÁN TOBÓN

    2008-01-01

    Se presenta la evolución mineralógica del cemento Pórtland tipo I durante el proceso de hidratación, usando las técnicas de caracterización de materiales difracción de rayos X (DRX) y microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM), con el fin de entender los cambios que se dan en los minerales anhidros del cemento (alita, belita, celita y felita entre otros) durante su transformación en las fase estables hidratadas (tobermorita, ortlandita, etringita, etc.). Se encontró que, en gener...

  6. O comportamento de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sujeitos a diferentes níveis de azoto e potássio Influence of nitrogen and potassium on Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mother plants

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    H. M. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos sistemas de propagação vegetativa de plantas o estado nutricional dos pés-mãe é determinante para o sucesso do enraizamento das estacas que estes originam. Como tal, a recente implementação, em Portugal, da técnica de propagação vegetativa de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus por enraizamento de estacas caulinares, justifica plenamente o estudo da fertilização de pés-mãe desta espécie e o seu efeito no enraizamento das estacas. Assim, e com o objectivo de avaliar o efeito do azoto e do potássio no crescimento de pés-mãe de E. globulus e no enraizamento das estacas obtidas, foi instalado um ensaio de fertilização que decorreu durante um período de 2 anos. No ensaio utilizaram-se 2 clones desta espécie (HD161 e CN5 e testaram-se 6 modalidades de fertilização, correspondentes à combinação de 3 níveis de azoto (50, 100, 200 mg N L-1 e 2 de potássio (50 e 100 mg K L-1 na solução nutritiva utilizada. No primeiro ano de crescimento (1998 os pés-mãe foram sujeitos a uma poda de formação, tendo-se avaliado a biomassa recolhida. No segundo ano (1999, para além da biomassa recolhida, determinou-se também o número de estacas produzidas por pé-mãe e a capacidade de enraizamento dessas estacas. Com o delineamento experimental utilizado não se observaram, em todos os parâmetros avaliados, diferenças significativas entre os dois níveis de potássio, nem interacções significativas entre o potássio e os restantes factores em estudo. Relativamente ao azoto, a análise dos dados obtidos permitiu concluir que o aumento da concentração de azoto na solução nutritiva, de 50 para 200 mg L-1, originou aumentos significativos da biomassa recolhida nas podas, da produção de estacas e da percentagem de enraizamento das estacas, contrariando a ideia que o aumento da disponibilidade de azoto pode conduzir uma redução do enraizamento. Os resultados permitem assim concluir que o azoto é determinante para o

  7. Comportamiento del arrastre de partículas en los gases durante el secado del mineral laterítico en tambores cilíndricos rotatorios

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    Alexis García-Pérez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utiliza un método estadístico-matemático de planificación de experimentos para la investigación del comportamiento del arrastre de partículas finas en los gases durante el secado del mineral laterítico en uno de los secadores en condiciones normales de operación. En un segundo se eliminaron los levantadores sectoriales en el último tercio del equipo, y se analizó en ambos la influencia de los gases residuales provenientes de la planta de hornos de reducción. Se obtiene la correlación y regresión entre las variables de entrada más importantes que intervienen en el proceso: velocidad de los gases en el interior del cilindro (V, contenido de humedad de los gases (W, y el arrastre de partículas (A como variable de salida. Los resultados obtenidos ofrecen alentadoras perspectivas sobre la generalización industrial de la propuesta.

  8. Minerals

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    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  9. Exigências de minerais para cabras durante a gestação: Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn Minerals requirements of goats during the pregnancy: Na, K, Mg, S, F and Zn

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    Roberto Germano Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar a retenção e a exigência líquida dos minerais Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn durante a gestação de cabras com um ou dois fetos. A estimativa de retenção foi baseada na diferença entre o total de cada mineral depositado no feto, útero, membranas, fluídos fetais e glândula mamária dos animais nas diferentes etapas da gestação e o total de cada mineral armazenado nas cabras vazias, utilizando-se o modelo de predição ln=A+Bx+Cx2, em que x=tempo de gestação. Os conteúdos de Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn, durante as gestações de um e dois fetos foram de: 13,2 e 21,4 mg; 13,3 e 21,3 g; 2,1 e 3,7 mg; 5,5 e 9,3 mg; 575,5 e 981,0 mg; 112,6 e 164,7 mg nas gestações, resultando em exigências líquidas diárias de 0,13 e 0,11 g; 0,21 e 0,31 g; 0,06 e 0,11g; 0,17 e 0,21 g; 22,94 e 40,51 mg; 2,63 e 2,78 mg, respectivamente.This work was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the retention and the requirement of Ca e P minerals during the pregnancy of goats with one or two foetus. The estimate of retention was based in the difference between the total of each mineral stored in the foetus, uterus, membranes, fetals fluids and mammary gland of animals in the differents phases of pregnancy and the total of each mineral stored in the empty goats, using the model of prediction ln=A+Bx+Cx2, where x=time of pregnancy. The comparison of the estimative with the real values obtained show that the suggested model explained with coherence and precision the biological behavior of minerals retention during all pregnancy. The contend of Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn was: 13.2 and 21.4 mg; 13.3 and 21.3 g; 2.1 and 3.7 mg; 5.5 and 9.3 mg; 575.5 and 981.0 mg; 112.6 and 164.7 mg in the pregnancy of one and two foetus, respectively, that resulted in a diary liquid requirement of 0.13 and 0.11 g; 0.21 and 0.31 g 0.06 and 0.11g; 0.17 and 0.21 g; 22.94 and 40.51 mg; 2.63 and 2.78 mg, respectively.

  10. Suplemento de vitaminas y minerales durante el períodico de gestión Vitamins and minerals supplements during pregnancy

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    Emilio Alberto Restrepo Baena

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre la necesidad de suplementar la dieta de la embarazada con las diferentes vitaminas y minerales y se resumen los componentes de la alimentación más ricos en cada uno de ellos. Se concluye que, con excepción del hierro y, en casos específicos, el ácido fólico no se justifican tales suplementos si la embarazada ingiere una dieta adecuada.

    The need for supplementing the diet during pregnancy with vitamins and minerals is reviewed. Their main alimentary sources are summarized. It is concluded that, with the exception of Iron and of folic acid in specific situations such supplements are usually not needed If the pregnant woman receives an adequate diet.

  11. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

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    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  12. durante el embarazo

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    María Falcón Romero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de drogas de abuso durante el embarazo supone una situación de riesgo objetivo sobre la salud del feto que difícilmente puede justifi carse desde una perspectiva basada únicamente en la libertad de la embarazada. Desde un análisis ético-jurídico parece razonable instaurar una política de prevención basada en la protección de los derechos del ser más vulnerable, en este caso el embrión o el feto. La libertad de decisión supone la capacidad de asumir riesgos de carácter personal, pero no debería suponer la posibilidad de imponer esos riesgos a terceras personas y más aún cuando estos carecen de la capacidad de elegir.

  13. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

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    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os portugueses são dos maiores apreciadores mundiais de brássicas. A couve Tronchuda é cultivada em Portugal em área superior a 1000 ha. O seu consumo é sobretudo apreciado na quadra natalícia. Neste trabalho reportam-se resultados da fertilização com azoto e boro, na forma de adubos convencionais, e da utilização de Dix10 (com ˜10 % N total, um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em agricultura biológica. Plantas de raiz protegida foram transplantadas a 29 de Agosto de 2005 num compasso 0,8x0,5 m. O solo, de textura franca, continha 0,83 % matéria orgânica, 5,2 pH(H2O e teores em P e K médios e altos, respectivamente. Foram estabelecidas seis modalidades: sem adubação (SAd; Dix10, em dose equivalente a 80 kg N/ha; modalidades com 80 (NB e 160 (N+ kg N/ha, na forma de ureia; e modalidades sem B (B- e com aplicação de 2,2 (NB e 4,4 (B+ kg B/ha. Todas as modalidades de B foram fertilizadas com 80 kg N/ha e as de N com 2,2 kg B/ha, coincidindo na modalidade NB as doses médias de N e B. As plantas SAd produziram 13,7 Mg biomassa/ha e exportaram 33,9 kg N/ha e 40,9 g B/ha, valores significativamente inferiores às modalidades fertilizadas. Dix10 produziu 18,0 Mg de biomassa/ha e exportou 45,1 kg N/ha e 51,3 g B/ha. A modalidade NB originou maior produção de biomassa (38,6 Mg/ha e N exportado (107,9 kg/ha que as modalidades SAd e Dix10. A modalidade N+ não registou aumento de produção nem de N exportado comparativamente com NB. B+ não influenciou a produção de biomassa mas aumentou a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado. N+ reduziu significativamente a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado, sugerindo um efeito de antagonismo da aplicação de N sobre a absorção de B. As produções obtidas e a recuperação aparente de nutrientes mostraram que a redução de produção de biomassa nas modalidades SAd e Dix10 se deveu à reduzida disponibilidade de N no solo durante a estação de crescimento

  14. Del asentamiento minero al espacio continental: Chuquicamata (Chile y la contribución de la minería a la configuración del territorio y el desarrollo social y económico de la Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX

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    EUGENIO GARCES FELIÚ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente paper tiene por objetivo analizar las contribuciones de Chuquicamata al desarrollo territorial, social y económico de la II Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX, a partir de su condición de complejo industrial y company town minero, que evoluciona desde las rentas y aportes propios de un campamento del cobre hasta su despliegue a escala regional, con alcances y encadenamientos continentales, contribuyendo al desarrollo social y económico de la región y el país. En esta perspectiva, el Norte de Chile y, en particular esta región, ostentan importantes ventajas comparativas y competitivas, extensivas al siglo XXI, tanto para la explotación de minerales como para su encadenamiento con otros sectores productivos, en un proceso que genera nuevas configuraciones de ordenamiento territorial, basadas no sólo en la dinámica urbana de los company totvns sino que también en la extensión y complejidad del "territorio minero", activado económicamente por la minería.This article analyzes the contributions of Chuquicamata to the territorial, social and economic development of the II Region of Antofagasta during the twentieth century. The process begins with the local contributions of an industrial complex and company town, that evolves from profits and contributions specific to a copper mining settlement to a situation of regional significance, generating continental economic relations and linkages which contribute to the social and economic development of the region and he country. From this perspective, Northern Chile, and this region in particular, hold important comparative and competitive advantages that extend into the twenty first century, both for the exploitation of mineral resources and for increasing linkages with other productive sectors, in a process that generates new spatial configurations, based not only on the urban dynamics of the company town, but also through the extent and complexity of the mining territory

  15. La nutricion durante el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Chanivet, Gwendolin; Aragón Flores, Jose Andrés; Cabeza Garcia, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: durante los primeros meses de embarazo, es cuando se forma los órganos vitales por lo que es muy importante , una buena dieta materna. Existe un estudio que pone de manifiesto la relación de la aparición de alergias en el recién nacido y el estado nutricional materno. Objetivo: evaluar el estado nutricional durante...

  16. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Marine minerals have been center of attraction to mankind since ancient times. The technological advances in the recent years show that the retrieval of underwater minerals from deep-sea can no longer be a dream. Marine minerals are terrigenous...

  17. Evolución de los fluídos hidrotermales durante el proceso de mineralización y alteración en el distrito minero Hualilán, Provincia de San Juan Hydrothermal fluids during mineralization and alteration in the Hualilan Mining District, province of San Juan

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    L. Bengochea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado el estudio detallado de las inclusiones fluidas en los intrusivos dacíticos del distrito minero Hualilán con el fin de evaluar la evolución de los procesos hidrotermales intervinientes durante las etapas de mineralización y alteración que afectaron a estas rocas. Hualilán está ubicado a 120 km al nornoroeste de la ciudad de San Juan. El estudio de muestras de áreas representativas de los sectores norte (Falla Sánchez y sur (Magnata permite establecer que han existido dos períodos de circulación de fluidos hidrotermales con características bien definidas. En el primero, que puede ser considerado como el responsable de la mineralización primaria de sulfuros, la temperatura superó holgadamente los 300ºC, con un episodio de ebullición responsable de la depositación de los minerales de mena. La salinidad promedio fue de 12 % en peso eq. NaCl, con una participación importante de CaCl2. El segundo período tuvo una temperatura inferior a 300ºC, también con un episodio de ebullición, y una salinidad promedio de 4,5 % en peso eq. NaCl, sin participación de calcio. Este segundo episodio puede ser considerado el responsable de la intensa oxidación hipogénica que sufrió la mineralización primaria llegando a desaparecer como tal en amplios sectores y produciendo además el total enmascaramiento de los minerales calco-silicáticos, la alteración de los diques dacíticos, la formación en superficie de cuerpos de jasperoide relacionados a las fallas normales, y la formación de minerales típicos de una alteración ácido-sulfática, sobreimpuestos a la primer alteración de illita, caolinita, adularia. Este segundo episodio ha sido más intenso en el sector norte (Falla Sánchez que en el sector sur.The detailed study of the fluid inclusions in the dacitic intrusions of Hualilan mining district has been carried out to evaluate the evolution of the hydrothermal processes during the stages of mineralization and

  18. portland durante el proceso de hidratación

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    MANUEL ALEJANDRO GIRALDO M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evolución mineralógica del cemento Pórtland tipo I durante el proceso de hidratación, usando las técnicas de caracterización de materiales difracción de rayos X (DRX y microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM, con el fin de entender los cambios que se dan en los minerales anhidros del cemento (alita, belita, celita y felita entre otros durante su transformación en las fase estables hidratadas (tobermorita, ortlandita, etringita, etc.. Se encontró que, en general, el proceso de hidratación ocurre de manera diferente en cada mineral ya sea por la velocidad de reacción, o por los cambios cristalinos experimentados por éstos durante la transformación de fase anhidra a hidratada. Se pudo apreciar la formación de tobermorita gel (CSH, portlandita y etringita primaria. Además, como cambia la apariencia de la pasta a medida que avanza la hidratación.

  19. Efeito da fertirrega com azoto e potássio num olival sobre os teores de nitratos e de potássio do solo Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertigation in an olive grove on soil levels of nitrate and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Encarnação Marcelo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de sistemas de rega localizada permite a aplicação de nutrientes através da água de rega e o seu fornecimento às culturas nas épocas de maior consumo. No caso da oliveira, é cada vez mais frequente a utilização desta técnica cultural, sobretudo nos olivais jovens, embora na maioria dos casos essa fertilização seja efectuada de forma empírica. Com o objectivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrega com azoto e potássio na produção, na qualidade do azeite, nos teores foliares e nos teores de alguns elementos do solo, foi instalado um ensaio num olival da cv. Cobrançosa, plantado em 1990, na região de Safara - Moura, no Alentejo. O ensaio foi delineado com três repetições completamente casualizadas e nove tratamentos experimentais, resultantes da combinação de três níveis de azoto (0, 50 e 100 kg N ha-1 e três níveis de potássio (0, 42 e 84 kg K ha-1. A gestão da rega foi efectuada com base no estado de humidade do solo, avaliado através de método tensiométrico, recebendo as árvores de todos os talhões experimentais a mesma quantidade de água. Os nutrientes foram aplicados através do sistema de rega gota-a-gota, o azoto (solução 32 N entre Março e Setembro e o potássio (sulfato de potássio entre Abril e Outubro. Neste trabalho apresentam-se os resultados respeitantes aos teores de nitratos e de potássio do solo obtidos a diferentes profundidades (0-0,2 m, 0,2-0,4 m, 0,4-0,6 m e 0,6-0,8 m nos dois primeiros anos experimentais. A adubação azotada conduziu a um aumento dos teores de azoto nítrico nas camadas entre os 0,2 e 0,8 m de profundidade. Esse efeito foi mais acentuado nas amostras de terra colhidas nas duas camadas mais profundas e quando se aplicou o nível mais alto de azoto (100 kg ha-1 de N. Relativamente ao potássio, o efeito da adubação com este nutriente apenas se fez sentir nos teores de potássio de troca das amostras colhidas às profundidades 0 a 0,2 m e 0,2 a 0,4 m, enquanto

  20. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  1. Avaliação da libertação de azoto a partir de correctivos orgânicos utilizando membranas de troca aniónica e um medidor de clorofila SPAD-502 Nitrogen release from organic amendments assessed by using anion exchange membranes and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho divulgam-se resultados de experiências em vasos em que membranas de troca aniónica (MTA foram inseridas directamente no solo para monitorar o teor de nitratos ao longo do tempo, e em que o estado nutritivo dasplantas foi avaliado através de um medidor de clorofila SPAD-502. Na estação quente foi cultivado milho e no período outono-inverno nabiça e centeio. O milho foi semeado a 5 de Junho de 2004 e a nabiça e o centeio a 23 de Setembro de 2004. As plantas foram sujeitas aos seguintes tratamentos fertilizantes: Nutrisoil (Nut; Beiraadubo (Bei; Phenix (Phe; e Vegethumus (Veg, quatro correctivos orgânicos comerciais; estrume de bovino (EB; casca de castanha (CC; nitrato de amónio (NA; e um tratamento sem azoto (T. Os resultados das MTA e os valores SPAD foram relacionados com a matéria seca produzida e o N exportado. Em Junho, na primeira amostragem, a concentração média de nitratos nos extractos das MTA variou entre 18,3 e 239,4 mg L-1, nos tratamentos CC e NA. Na primeira semana de Agosto, foram registados valores médios de nitratos no solo de 12,9 a 52,3 mg L-1 nos tratamentos CC e Bei. Na última amostragem, em Setembro, os valores médios de nitratos no solo variaram entre 9,7 e 67,9 mg L-1 nos tratamentos CC e Nut. As MTA revelaram boa capacidade para discriminar a forma como os diferentes fertilizantes libertaram o azoto ao longo do tempo e como este aspecto condicionou a absorção do nutriente e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Os valores SPAD revelaram-se bons indicadores do estado nutritivo azotado do milho, em condições em que foi possível controlar grande parte da variabilidade experimental. Os valores SPAD estiveram linearmente relacionados com a produção de matéria seca e o N exportado. Nas condições deste ensaio, em que a lixiviação e a desnitrificação foram controladas, as culturas intercalares centeio e nabiça recuperaram o N residual da cultura anterior até próximo do limite da sua

  2. Uso de hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: Los hipoglicemiantes orales son una alternativa emergente en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG), pero existe poca información acerca de su uso durante la lactancia. Objetivo: Revisar la evidencia respecto a la seguridad del uso de los hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia. Resultados: Encontramos 3 trabajos que evaluaron el paso de metformina a la leche materna: hubo traspaso de metformina a leche materna en todos los casos. La concentración de metfo...

  3. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  4. Efeito da rega com injecção de ar na humidade do solo, dis­ponibilidade de azoto nítrico, condutividade eléctrica e pro­dutividade da alface cultivada em estufa plástica Effects of irrigation with injection of air in soil moisture, nitrate avail­ability, electrical conductivity and lettuce productivity grown in plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Pivetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objectivo veri­ficar se a injecção de ar junto a água de rega gota-a-gota enterrada, afecta a humi­dade do solo, a disponibilidade de azoto nítrico, a condutividade eléctrica e o cres­cimento e produtividade da alface. Para tal realizou-se um ensaio com a alface variedade “Mention” cultivada em estufa plástica e localizada na Herdade Experi­mental da Mitra-ICAAM, da Universida­de de Évora -Portugal. Utilizou-se o deli­neamento experimental blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, com os tratamen­tos: rega com injecção de ar (CAR, e rega sem injecção de ar (SAR. O ar foi introdu­zido na água de rega por meio de um injector “Mazzei”. O teor de humidade na camada superficial (0-0,05 m foi seme­lhante para os dois tratamentos, alcançan­do valores em torno de zero. Em termos de concentração de azoto nítrico (NO 3- os valores observados na camada 0,10­0,20 m, aos 35 e 47 dias após a transplan­tação, foram mais elevados no tratamento CAR. Aos 47 dias após a transplantação, os níveis médios de NO3-foram de 95,33 e 67,94 ppm nos tratamentos CAR e SAR, respectivamente. A densidade radical no tratamento CAR na camada de 0-0,10 m do solo foi 34 % superior em relação ao SAR. A produção comercial não foi afectada pelo tratamento. A falta de resposta da cultura ao acréscimo de azoto nítrico e da densidade radical pode estar relacionada com o curto ciclo da cultura e/ou com o elevado teor de azoto presente no solo, ou ainda com a profundidade que os goteja­dores foram instalados e não com a fun­cionalidade do injector de ar.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the air injection through subsurface drip irrigation (oxyga­tion in soil moisture, availability of nitro­gen oxide, and electrical conductivity, plant growth and yield of lettuce, variety "Men­tion", cultivated in plastic greenhouse. The experiment was carried out at the Mitra-ICAM, an Experimental

  5. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    in the Indian Ocean. In both fields, hydrothermalism has ceased between 11.000 and 13.000 years ago. The first occurrence (Sonne Field, 2850 m water depth) is located in the 4th segment of the Central Indian Ridge, north of the Rodriguez Triple Junction... structures are composed of sulfides arising out from deep beneath the Earth' crust. These minerals have been dissolved in hot water (350ºC) under great pressures and temperatures. When the water that flows out through the mantle ejects at the mid ocean...

  6. Fontes protéicas suplementadas com aminoácidos e minerais para a tilápia do Nilo durante a reversão sexual Protein sources supplemented with amino acids and minerals to Nile tilapia during sex reversal phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente experimento, comparar o efeito da origem da fonte protéica e da suplementação com lisina e metionina ou cálcio e fósforo para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, durante a reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 200 larvas, distribuídas em 20 aquários de 12 litros, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. A temperatura pela manhã e à tarde, o oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica da água foram, respectivamente, de 22,6 ± 0,1ºC, 24,1±0,4ºC; 6,77 ± 0,38 mg/L, 7,75 ± 0,16; e 173,4 ± 2 mS/m. Os tratamentos foram compostos por quatro rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas: uma somente com ingredientes de origem animal (FA; outra com ingredientes de origem vegetal (FV e duas com ingredientes de origem vegetal, uma com adição dos aminoácidos lisina e metionina (FAA e outra com cálcio e fósforo (FP. Os valores médios finais de peso e comprimento dos animais submetidos à ração FA foi superior aos demais tratamentos, seguido pelo FP e FV, que não diferiram da FAA. O tratamento FA apresentou os maior valores de biomassa final, seguido do FP e FAA, que foram semelhantes ao FV. O fator de condição dos peixes do tratamento FA foi superior aos FAA e FV, porém o FP foi semelhante aos demais. A sobrevivência dos tratamentos FA, FV e FP foram semelhantes entre si e superiores ao FAA. Para a fase de reversão sexual da tilápia do Nilo, rações formuladas com ingredientes de origem animal foram mais eficientes que as formuladas com ingredientes de origem vegetal, mesmo quando estas foram suplementadas com lisina e metionina ou cálcio e fósforo.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of protein source origin and lysine and methionine or phosphorus and calcium supplementation to Nile tilapia during sex reversal phase. Two hundred fries were assigned to a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications, in twenty 12 L

  7. FARMACOTERAPIA ESTOMATOLOGICA DURANTE LA GESTACION Y LACTANCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejos Alvarez, José A.; Profesor del Servicio de Cirugía Bucal y Máxilo-Facial, Fac. De Odontología, Universidad de San Marcos. Miembro Fundador de la Asociación peruana de Cirugía Máxilo-Facial y medicina Estomatológica. Profesor de POST-GRADO, Area de farmacología, sociedad Peruana de Endodoncia. Consultor de Farmacología del Colegio odontológico de Lima, años '96 Y 97'.

    2014-01-01

    Desde hace varias décadas atrás,la administración de fármacos en gestante ha estado rodeada de un halo de misterio combinado con el miedo por parte del profesional médico ú odontólogo. Es cierto que lo ideal es no administrar ningún tipo de medicamento durante el embarazo, pero tambien es cierto, que muchas veces es imposible cumplir con ésto. desde una óptica estomatológica, existen varias circunstancias en las que es necesario, por no decir obligatorio administrar fármacos en una gestante. ...

  8. LA CASA MORELIANA DURANTE EL PORFIRIATO

    OpenAIRE

    Servín Orduño, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio de las ciudades va más allá de un simple análisis urbanístico, arquitectónico o social; todo aquel que pretenda acercarse a ella, palparla y olerla, tendrá que estudiarla como un todo, poniendo atención a todos sus elementos para poder concebirla. El periodo porfiriano a pesar de ser por muchos intelectuales estudiado presenta nuevos retos, sobre todo en lo que refiere al estudio de su arquitectura por ser durante este periodo cuando se gestaron una gran variedad de ...

  9. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  10. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  11. ERCP during pregnancy CPRE durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Cano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: ERCP during pregnancy is always challenging for the entire team performing the endoscopic intervention. In this study techniques and different interventional aspects used at several centres about the clinical experience on ERCP in pregnant women are analyzed. Patients and methods: the practice on ERCP in pregnant women in six centers during a period of ten years is reported. Results: eleven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 30.6 years. Indication for ERCP was always symptomatic common bile duct stone (CBDS disease. Before the procedure abdominal ultrasound was performed at all times and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in four occasions. Conscious sedation by means of midazolam and fentanyl or meperidine was applied. Sphincterotomes and guidewires were used for bilary cannulation. Sometimes, rapid exchange platforms with short-length guidewires controlled by the same endoscopist were employed. Biliary cannulation was confirmed in 9 occasions by bile aspiration. In five procedures, a mean of 30 seconds of fluoroscopy was used, both to verify cannulation and to corroborate complete CBDS clearance. These patients had the pelvic zone protected with a lead shield and radiation dose was measured. Ten biliary sphincterotomies were performed followed by CBDS extraction. Two plastic stents were inserted. Relief of biliary obstruction was attained in all circumstances. Only one patient had hyperamylasemia after ERCP. All pregnant women had healthy foetuses with normal deliveries. Conclusions: with experience, ERCP appears to be a safe technique during pregnancy. With simple measures fluoroscopic time can be diminished or even abolished. It seems that ERCP during pregnancy is underused in our working areas, although it has shown to be a useful technique for relieving biliary obstruction.Antecedentes y objetivos: la CPRE realizada durante el embarazo constituye siempre un reto para todo el equipo que participa

  12. caolinita durante la flotación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAIDA CHACÓN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, se investigó las interacciones entre superficies de caolinita y el colector bromuro cetiltrimetil amonio (CTAB, empleado en el proceso de flotación de la caolinita. Utilizando medidas de potencial zeta y flotación en tubo Hallimond, se confirmó que la flotación de la caolinita es dependiente del pH y de la concentración del colector. Las condiciones de mejor flotabilidad se presentan a pH=4.1 y 3.75*10-4 M de CTAB. La interacción mineral/colector ocurre mediante un mecanismo adsorción/precipitación. La espectroscopia infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FTIR permitió determinar que los cationes de la amina forman enlaces fuertes, tipo puentes de hidrógeno, con los grupos silanol presentes en la superficie mineral. Se observa la evolución de bandas características de especies adsorbidas correspondientes a las vibraciones N-H, O-H, Si-OH y Si(Al-O. La atracción de CTAB sobre la superficie de caolinita causa una reducción en las intensidades de las bandas correspondientes a las vibraciones OH y aparecen nuevas bandas en la región comprendida entre 3500 y 3700 cm-1. Al trabajar con concentraciones del colector de 4.76*10-4M se aprecia la formación de estructuras micelares fuertes sobre la superficie de la caolinita y se observa un decrecimiento en la respuesta de flotación.

  13. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  14. Mineral Supply Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  15. Diez consejos para prevenir infecciones durante el embarazo

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-14

    Este podcast ofrece 10 consejos para prevenir infecciones durante el embarazo.  Created: 12/14/2007 by National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 2/27/2008.

  16. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  17. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in...

  18. Nuevos datos sobre el uso de materia colorante durante el Neolítico antiguo en las comarcas centrales valencianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García Borja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización mineralógica de materias colorantes procedentes de los yacimientos valencianos de la Cova de l'Or, la Cova de la Sarna y la Cova Fosca de la Vall d'Ebo demuestra el uso de dos tipos de materia colorante durante el Neolítico Antiguo: Hematites y Cinabrio. Las características y distribución geográfica de cada una de ellas nos remiten a dos estrategias distintas de obtención y. probablemente. de utilización de las mismas.

  19. Evolución e involución de la actividad minera aurífera en Costa Rica durante las pasadas tres décadas

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta una síntesis de la historia de la minería aurífera en Costa Rica durante los pasados treinta años, discutiendo algunos factores que el autor consideró determinantes en la evolución y posterior involución de esta industria. La minería aurífera en Costa Rica pasó, durante ese período, de ser una actividad industrial relevante y altamente prometedora que contaba con el apoyo del Estado y de la empresa privada, a ser una actividad prohibida por ley. Aún cuando el país cuenta con un po...

  20. Minería de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Durante los últimos años, la proliferación de los medios digitales ha creado la necesidad del desarrollo de herramientas para la eficiente representación, acceso y recuperación de información visual. La minería de imágenes se ha convertido en una importante rama de investigación a causa del potencial que posee en descubrir patrones característicos a partir de un importante conjunto de imágenes. No obstante, la minería de imágenes es más que una simple extensión de la minería de datos al domin...

  1. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  2. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  3. Mineral commodity summaries 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2017-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2016 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  4. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  5. Hipertrigliceridemia familiar grave durante a gestação

    OpenAIRE

    Casulari Luiz Augusto; Wesgueber Myrian; Silva Ricardo Cassiano B.; Soares Henrique F.; Domingues Lucilia

    2001-01-01

    A presença de hipertrigliceridemia grave durante a gravidez é rara, mas comporta grande possibilidade de desenvolver complicações, como a pancreatite aguda, que coloca em risco a mãe e o feto. Apresentamos o relato da evolução da gestação de uma paciente portadora de hipertrigliceridemia grave que havia apresentado pancreatite aguda dois meses antes da fecundação. Foi tratada durante o pré-natal com dieta e 3,0 g de ácidos graxos de cadeia ômega-3 (ácidos eicosapentaenóico 14% e docosahexaenó...

  6. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A

    With increased exploitation of the onshore mineral resources, oceans that cover almost 71% of earth's surface and known as storehouse of minerals, provide a suitable alternative. Amongst the various underwater mineral resources, placer deposits...

  7. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  8. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  9. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  10. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are insufficient at this time concerning neoplastic diseases in refractory ceramic fibres.

  11. Minerals in environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Earth Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Minerals play a key role in the environment; this role is often not well understood, because the emphasis of most environmentalists is on air, water, or the composition of solid wastes as a whole, without paying attention to their mineralogical composition. Several minerals can serve as effective and cheap adsorbents for many toxic chemicals. Several minerals can be used as a cheap substitute for expensive chemicals in environmental technologies. Environmental technologies that produce an economically interesting mineral will have an edge over competing technologies. Most of the problems, overreaction, panicky and expensive measures with regard to exposure from quartz and asbestos stem from a poor understanding of natural levels of common contaminants, a disregard for mineralogy, and a lack of insight into natural processes in general.

  12. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minerals your body needs. But if you're skipping meals, dieting, or if you're concerned that ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Healthy Breakfast Planner Nutrition & Fitness Center Vitamin D Figuring Out ...

  13. Emissions monitoring in conveyed gas flow: (a) sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides expressed respectively as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, (b) inorganic chlorine and fluorine compounds as gases and vapours expressed as HCl and HF; Rilevamento delle emissioni in flussi gassosi convogliati: (a) ossidid di zolfo e ossidi di azoto espressi rispettivamente come SO{sub 2} e NO{sub 2}, (b) composti inorganici del cloro e del fluoro sotto forma di gas e vapore espressi rispettivamente come HCl e HF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemacki, G.; Viviano, G. [ed.] [Isituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Gruppo di lavoro `Modifiche per il rilevamento delle emissioni in atmosfera da impianti industriali`

    1998-03-01

    The method (a) enables the determination of sulfur oxides (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub 2}) in conveyed atmospheric emissions. A stream of flue gas is a sampled by a heated with a filter housing and absorbed by an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate. The absorption solution is analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography for the determination of sulfate ion and nitrate ion as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}. The method (b) enables the determination of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) in conveyed atmospheric emissions. A stream of flue gas is sampled by a heated probe with a filter housing and absorbed by an alkaline solution (NaOH). The absorption solution is analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography for the determination of chloride ion and fluoride ion as HCl and HF. [Italiano] Il metodo a) consente la determinazione, in emissioni atmosferiche convogliate, degli ossidi di zolfo (SO{sub 2}) e degli ossidi di azoto (NO{sub 2}). Il campionamento viene effettuato mediante sonda riscaldata, munita di sistema filtrante, e sistema di assorbimento in soluzione alcalina di permanganato di potassio. La soluzione di assorbimento viene analizzata mediante cromatografia a scambio ionico, determinando le concentrazioni di ioni solfato e nitrato come SO{sub 2} ed NO{sub 2}. Il metodo b) consente la determinazione, in emissioni atmosferiche convogliate, dell`acido cloridrico (HCl) e dell`acido fluoridrico (HF). Il campionamento viene effettuato mediante sonda riscaldata, munita di sistema filtrante, e sistema di assorbimento in soluzione alcalina (NaOH). La soluzione alcalina viene quindi analizzata mediante cromatografia a scambio ionico, deter,mminando le concentrazioni di ioni cloro e fluoro come HCl e HF.

  14. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  15. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  16. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  17. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  18. La fidelidad cubana durante la edad de las revoluciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuethe, Allan J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La historiografía cubana tradicional explica la fidelidad de la perla de las Antillas durante las revoluciones americanas por razón del miedo al intimidante ejército español acuartelado en la isla y por miedo a que cualquier división política diera aliento a una sublevación de la masiva población esclava. Este artículo plantea la tesis de que el asunto fue mucho más complicado que lo que estas explicaciones dan a entender. Por una parte, el ejército de la isla llegó a estar esencialmente controlado por cubanos y, por otra, un movimiento revolucionario nació entre los elementos ilustrados; pero falló por la oposición abrumadora que surgió dentro de la propia clase criolla. La fidelidad cubana no se explica actualmente tanto por los temores como por las relaciones positivas que se crearon entre la corona española y las elites cubanas durante el siglo XVIII, sobre todo durante el reinado de Carlos III, relaciones que resultaron sumamente ventajosas para los azucareros que dominaban la vida económica y política de la isla.

  19. Thorium in mineral products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

    2001-01-01

    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  20. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  1. Bioleaching of Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  2. Mixtures and mineral reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, S.; Ganguly, J.

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the physicochemical evolution of natural rocks through systematic analysis of the compositional properties and phase relations of their mineral assemblages. This book brings together concepts of classical thermodynamics, solution models, and atomic ordering and interactions that constitute a basis of such analysis, with examples of application to subsolidus petrological problems.

  3. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  4. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  5. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  6. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  7. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    1992-01-01

    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  8. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Elisa; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars.

  9. Antioquia durante la federación, 1850-1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Ortiz Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Federalismo en Colombia, formalmente instituido por la Constitución nacional de 1853, imperó entre las décadas de 1850 y 1880, siendo ratificado por las reformas constitucionales de 1858 y 1863. Dichas reformas buscaron trasformar las instituciones coloni ales aún existentes por otras más acordes con las nuevas realidades del capitalismo mundial de libre competencia y con los intereses de los sectores que pugnaban por el control del poder, dando libre circulación a la tierra y a la mano de obra indígena y esclava. Para el caso Antioqueño, la relativa estabilidad económica y política de la que gozó el Estado de Antioquia durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, sumada a “una predominante homogeneidad étnica y cultural de su sociedad”, constituyó un marco más que adecuado para la formación de una de las hegemonías políticas más sólidas del país durante el período. El “federalis mo conservador” que se construyó en Antioquia durante el régimen radical estuvo fundado básicamente en la defensa de la región, en un relativo aislamiento político del centro y de los demás Estados, en el cuidado de sus riquezas por parte de las élites de ambos partidos, en un apoyo irrestricto de la Iglesia católica y en el reconocimiento de su papel como institución de cohesión y ordenamiento social.

  10. Violência durante o sono Violent behavior during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Poyares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Casos de comportamento violento (CV durante o sono são relatados na literatura. A incidência de comportamento violento durante o sono não é muito conhecida. Um estudo epidemiológico mostra que cerca de 2% da população geral apresentava comportamento violento dormindo e eram predominantemente homens. Neste artigo, os autores descrevem aspectos clínicos e médico-legais envolvidos na investigação do comportamento violento. O comportamento violento se refere a ferimentos auto-infligidos ou infligidos a um terceiro durante o sono. Ocorre, muito freqüentemente, seguindo um despertar parcial no contexto de um transtorno de despertar (parassonias. Os transtornos do sono predominantes diagnosticados são: transtorno de comportamento REM e sonambulismo. O comportamento violento poderia ser precipitado pelo estresse, uso de álcool e drogas, privação do sono ou febre.Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias. The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever.

  11. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  12. Tabaquismo durante la adolescencia temprana: estudio en escolares argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Bolzán,Andrés; Peleteiro,Rafael

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: 1) Conocer la prevalencia del tabaquismo durante la adolescencia temprana (11-12 años) y 2) identificar los factores de riesgo de hacerse fumador. DISEÑO: Estudio transversal en 2467 escolares de 19 establecimientos de 7 localidades. Instrumento de registro: encuesta estructurada, autoadministrada a sobre cerrado. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de tabaquismo fue de 15.1% (7.9% en 7º año a 23.9% en 9º año). La edad media de inicio fue de 11.7 años. La influencia de los pares y...

  13. Diario de un privilegiado durante el fascismo: Leo Ferrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Hernández González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Leo Ferrero, Diario de un privilegiado durante el fascismo, es un testimonio de la experiencia de la familia Ferrero Lombroso entre 1926 y 1927, obligada a la reclusión y aislamiento en su propia casa, por parte del régimen de Benito Mussolini. El texto anticipa en una década los escritos de la resistencia partisana. En este artículo se propone un panorama de la cultura en Italia en los años previos a la guerra, según la perspectiva crítica de Leo Ferrero.

  14. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  15. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  16. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  17. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  18. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  19. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  20. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    be covered with shelly or quartz-rich sand. Transport of eroded materials by glaciers occurs in high latitude and snow bound regions. BERM Selective Sorting BERM SCIENCE REPORTER, OCTOBER 201445 and efforts spent and the market value of the metal... was the main global supplier of ilmenite. In 1950, the Department of Atomic Energy established the Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL), a public sector undertaking at Alwaye, Kochi (Kerala). Mining and separation of heavy minerals commenced in 1965...

  1. Mineral metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Martos, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    The present Doctoral Thesis wa metabolism in the feline species. Through a series of studies, the relationship between calcium metabolism and the main hormones involved in it has been determined metabolism during the juvenile stage of growing cats effects linked to feeding calculolytic diets on feline mineral metabolism. The first part of the work was aimed the quantification of intact (I-PTH) and whole PTH) and to characterize the dynamics of PTH secretion, including ...

  2. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  3. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on ... of the minerals that you need. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that ...

  4. Polymer-mediated mesoscale mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShaoFeng; YU ShuHong

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-controlled mineralization in aqueous solution or in a mixed solvent media, as well as its com-bination with the interface of air-water can lead to the formation of minerals with unique structures and morphologies, which sheds light on the possibility to mimic the detailed structures of the natural min-erals.

  5. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  6. Hipertrigliceridemia familiar grave durante a gestação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casulari Luiz Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de hipertrigliceridemia grave durante a gravidez é rara, mas comporta grande possibilidade de desenvolver complicações, como a pancreatite aguda, que coloca em risco a mãe e o feto. Apresentamos o relato da evolução da gestação de uma paciente portadora de hipertrigliceridemia grave que havia apresentado pancreatite aguda dois meses antes da fecundação. Foi tratada durante o pré-natal com dieta e 3,0 g de ácidos graxos de cadeia ômega-3 (ácidos eicosapentaenóico 14% e docosahexaenóico 11,13%. Os níveis de triglicerídeos foram mantidos abaixo de 800 mg/dl, sendo este limite considerado seguro para evitar o desenvolvimento de pancreatite aguda. A gestação evoluiu, sem intercorrências, para parto vaginal, a termo. O recém-nato não apresentou alterações morfológicas ao nascimento. Concluímos que, nesta paciente grávida e portadora de hipertrigliceridemia grave, uma dieta adequada e o emprego de ácidos graxos de cadeia ômega-3 foram eficazes em prevenir a pancreatite aguda. Esta abordagem terapêutica pode ser uma alternativa para as gestantes portadoras de hipertrigliceridemia familiar.

  7. RELATIVE TRACE MINERAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rchard D. Miles

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a eficiência de utilização de elementos minerais dietéticos, deve-se conhecer a biodisponibilidade relativa de cada elemento de um determinado ingrediente ou de uma ração completa. Análises químicas da dieta ou de um determinado ingrediente não indicam a efetividade biológica de um nutriente. Existem muitos fatores que influenciam a biodisponibilidade dos minerais, especialmente dos minerais-traço, tais como: nível de consumo do mineral, forma química, digestibilidade da dieta, tamanho da partícula, interações com outros minerais e nutrientes, agentes quelantes, inibidores, estado fisiológico do animal, qualidade da água, condições de processamento ao qual ingredientes individuais ou uma dieta completa foram expostos e, é óbvio, a idade e a espécie animal. Quando um mineral-traço é ingerido, sua biodisponibilidade é influenciada por propriedades específicas do mineral da maneira como está incluído na dieta. Por exemplo, sua valência e forma molecular (orgânica versus inorgânica são importantes. Por causa dessas propriedades específicas, o mineral pode formar complexos com outros componentes no intestino, o que pode dificultar ou facilitar a absorção pela mucosa, o transporte ou o metabolismo do mineral no organismo. É bem conhecido que certos minerais em sua forma inorgânica competem com outros minerais por sítios de ligação e por absorção no intestino. O conhecimento sobre a biodisponibilidade dos minerais-traço nos ingredientes e fontes suplementares é importante para a formulação econômica de uma ração para garantir ótimo desempenho animal. A biodisponibilidade deve ser entendida como um valor “estimado” que reflete a absorção e a utilização do mineral sobre condições de um experimento específico e não de uma propriedade inerente e específica de um ingrediente ou suplemento de ração. Com a tecnologia disponível, a determinação da biodisponibilidade dentro de

  8. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  9. Reinforcing the mineral layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pishchulin, V.V.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Seryy, A.M.; Shirokov, A.P.

    1980-05-15

    A way of reinforcing the mineral layer includes drilling holes and putting in anchors that are longer than the width of the layer strip being extracted. It also includes shortening the anchors as the strip is mined and reinforcing the remaining part of the anchor in the mouth of the hole. To increase the productivity and safety of the work, the anchors are shortened by cutting them as the strip is mined and are reinforced through wedging. The device for doing this has auxilliary lengthwise grooves in the shaft located along its length at an interval equal to the width of the band being extracted.

  10. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  11. Strategic Minerals of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Wadia

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of disequilibrium in the country's mineral economy may not be harmful in time of international peace, but is a source of double danger to national security in a war emergency, when imports of essential commodities, e.g., petroleum may be jeopardised and the off-take of credit earning exports may be stopped. A healthy economy can be achieved by balancing as near as possible, the surpluses against deficits through building up civilian industrial power of production of substitute for some deficient and sub-marginal commodities and stockpiling of others.

  12. Atelectasia pulmonar em cães durante anestesia geral

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A pressão intrapleural normalmente é menor que a pressão intrapulmonar. Consequentemente , os pulmões tendem ao colapso e se retraem, afastando-se da parede torácica. No início do século XX, Pasteur descreveu a atelectasia pulmonar, que ocorre com frequência durante a indução anestésica, persiste no período pós-operatório e pode contribuir de maneira significativa para a morbidade e o aumento nos gastos com medicamentos. Em medicina veterinária, no entanto, a atelectasia não é frequentemente ...

  13. en Pontevedra durante el año 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio epidemiológico de las intoxicaciones agudas por psicofármacos y drogas de abuso (excluyendo el alcohol, atendidas en el Servicio de Urgencias de adultos del Complejo Hospitalario de Pontevedra (CHOP durante el año 2001. Utilizando el test cualitativo de screening de drogas de abuso Triage TM8 (Biosite Diagnostics, se analizaron 554 orinas, de las cuales 318 resultaron positivas, lo que supone un 0,56% del total de urgencias atendidas en este Centro durante este año. Se observa un claro predominio de las intoxicaciones por psicofármacos (208 casos, seguidos de la cocaína (56 casos, marihuana (28 casos, opiáceos (16 casos y anfetaminas (10 casos. El 55% de los pacientes eran varones, con una edad media de 32,1 años. Entre los antecedentes registrados destaca la drogadicción (78 casos, el tratamiento previo con psicofármacos (60 casos y los antecedentes psiquiátricos (43 casos. Los síntomas neurológicos, en especial los derivados del deterioro del nivel de conciencia, fueron los más frecuentes (37%, relacionados mayoritariamente con el consumo de psicofármacos. El tratamiento más aplicado fue el inespecífico (54% y, aunque casi un 45% precisó ingreso hospitalario, su baja letalidad (<1% confirma el carácter banal y la evolución satisfactoria de la mayoría de los pacientes.

  14. MANIFESTACIONES OCULTAS DE VIOLENCIA, DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DEL RECREO ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny María Artavia Granados

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación de Occidente, en Costa Rica. Este tiene como fin determinar si durante el desarrollo de los recreos se suscitan manifestaciones de violencia implícitas u ocultas entre las y los estudiantes II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. En el proceso del estudio se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales desarrolladas durante los recreos escolares y que podrían propiciar violencia escolar implícita u oculta. Se procuró identificar la existencia de enfrentamientos y conflictos entre estudiantes, que conllevan amenazas, manifestaciones de exclusión, persecuciones e intimidaciones entre las y los niños. Se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de la población estudiantil investigada manifiesta recibir amenazas, y que estas, en mayor número, se producen entre las niñas. Asimismo, un alto porcentaje de esta población estudiada indica que ha sido excluida en la dinámica del recreo por diferentes motivos, entre los que destacan: características físicas, género, condición social y situaciones particulares educativas que presentan algunos niños o niñas en edad escolar.

  15. Mineral fibres and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J C

    1984-04-01

    A synthesis is presented of the salient findings to date from laboratory and epidemiological research, on the health effects of asbestos and other natural and man-made mineral fibres. Experimental evidence suggests that all mineral fibres are capable of causing fibrosis and malignancy, with chrysotile at least as pathogenic as other fibres. However, penetration, retention and phagocytosis are affected by size and shape and reactivity and durability by physico-chemical properties. Thus it is not surprising that in man the results of exposure vary considerably with fibre type and industrial process. A considerable body of evidence suggests that chrysotile has seldom, if ever, caused peritoneal mesothelioma and that the great majority of pleural mesotheliomas are also attributable to crocidolite or amosite. Without more reliable information on intensity and duration of exposure by fibre type, the epidemiological evidence on this point cannot be wholly conclusive. There are stronger grounds from a limited number of cohort studies for believing that in relation to estimated exposure, the risk of lung cancer has been much higher in textile plants than in fibre production or in the manufacture of friction products, with asbestos-cement plants somewhere in between. The data on man-made fibre production remains equivocal. It is concluded that attempts to regulate asbestos without regard for fibre type, although perhaps adequate for lung cancer and fibrosis, may do little to reduce the risk of mesothelioma. The search for safe fibre substitutes for asbestos will remain difficult until the parameters of pathogenicity are better understood.

  16. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  17. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  18. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  19. Manifestaciones ocultas de violencia, durante el desarrollo del recreo escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artavia Granados, Jenny María

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación de Occidente, en Costa Rica. Este tiene como fin determinar si durante el desarrollo de los recreos se suscitan manifestaciones de violencia implícitas u ocultas entre las y los estudiantes II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. En el proceso del estudio se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales desarrolladas durante los recreos escolares y que podrían propiciar violencia escolar implícita u oculta. Se procuró identificar la existencia de enfrentamientos y conflictos entre estudiantes, que conllevan amenazas, manifestaciones de exclusión, persecuciones e intimidaciones entre las y los niños. Se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de la población estudiantil investigada manifiesta recibir amenazas, y que estas, en mayor número, se producen entre las niñas. Asimismo, un alto porcentaje de esta población estudiada indica que ha sido excluida en la dinámica del recreo por diferentes motivos, entre los que destacan: características físicas, género, condición social y situaciones particulares educativas que presentan algunos niños o niñas en edad escolar.This article is the product of a research process carried out in a school at Dirección Regional de Occidente (Western Regional Bureau of Education, in Costa Rica. This is intended to determine if during the development of school recesses manifestations of violence, implied or hidden, arise among the students of II Cycle of the General Basic Education. The process of the study took into account aspects related to recreational activities and personal interactions developed in school recess and that could lead to implied or hidden school violence or bullying. It was aimed to identify the existence of confrontations and conflicts between students

  20. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  1. Mineral Atlas of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the mineral resources of Europe and neighbouring countries were presented as a printed map and a book of exhaustive information and references. This was the first published map inventory of mineral deposits from all parts of the formerly politically divided Europe (East and West), measured and evaluated according to identical geological and mining standards.

  2. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  3. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly sexual- and gender-based violence... conflict free,'' the facilities used to process the conflict minerals, the country of origin of the conflict minerals, and ``the efforts to determine the mine or location of origin with the greatest...

  4. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  5. Síndrome de Brugada durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Reyna Villasmil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Brugada es una causa común de muerte súbita de origen cardiaco. Los cambios electrocardiográficos característicos del síndrome están relacionados con las alteraciones de los canales de sodio. Las características clínicas y moleculares del síndrome han progresado rápidamente desde la descripción inicial. Existen escasos reportes de esta enfermedad en el embarazo. Se describe un caso de síndrome de Brugada durante el embarazo en una mujer joven que se presentó con síncope y taquicardia ventricular. Brugada syndrome during pregnancy Brugada syndrome is a common cause of cardiac-origin sudden death. The characteristic electrocardiographic changes of the syndrome are linked to sodium channel alterations. Clinical and molecular characterization of the syndrome has progressed rapidly since its initial description. There are few reports of this disease in pregnancy. We describe a case of revelation of Brugada syndrome during pregnancy in a young woman who presented syncope and ventricular tachycardia.

  6. Actividad Sísmica en Costa Rica Durante el 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepolt Linkimer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el 2013 la Red Sismológica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE localizó 2547 sismos de los cuales 261 fueron sentidos por la población. Se percibieron en Costa Rica siete sismos con magnitud Mw ≥ 5,0. La mayoría (85% de los sismos percibidos fueron superficiales (< 30 km y el 56% tuvo una magnitud baja (Mw 3,0-3,9. El fallamiento local y regional provocó el 52% de los sismos, seguido por el proceso de subducción de la placa del Coco bajo la placa Caribe y la microplaca de Panamá que originó el 45%. La intensidad máxima observada en el 2013 fue de VI (Mercalli Modificada, MM para la zona de Sixaola (Limón debido al sismo del 27 de mayo (Mw 5,6 con epicentro en el occidente de Panamá.

  7. Reformismo e intervencionismo militar durante la Guerra Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón SALAS LARRAZÁBAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El reformismo militar ha sido durante nuestra historia contemporánea una obsesión que cayó en manía, tal vez porque nunca se hizo una verdadera reforma y el intervencionismo de los militares en la política, un hábito que llegó a adquirir caracteres patológicos endémicos. Del centenar largo de españoles que ocuparon una o varias veces la cartera de la guerra desde la convocatoria de Cortes en 1.809 hasta nuestra Guerra Civil, raro fue el que no llevaba en sus bolsillos al incorporarse a su puesto un proyecto de reforma militar y lo mismo podría decirse de los que en número sensiblemente igual se sucedieron en el Ministerio de Marina, todos los cuales eran portadores de su personal programa naval. Del mismo modo también puede afirmarse que en casi todas las situaciones en que, con éxito o sin él, se produjo un cambio sustancial en el funcionamiento de las Instituciones, los que lo protagonizaron o eran militares o buscaron y encontraron apoyo en las Fuerzas Armadas.

  8. Plateros franceses en Tenerife durante el siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Morales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La estratégica ubicación de Canarias en la ruta de Indias y su apertura a los mercados europeos y americanos han propiciado históricamente la presencia de población foránea en las islas. En el presente artículo abordamos la nomina de plateros franceses establecidos en Tenerife durante el siglo XVII, añadiendo nuevos nombres a los estudiados por el profesor Hernández Perera y la profesora Fraga. Nuestro trabajo de investigación documental nos permite confirmar la doble condición de algunos de estos artífices, que compaginaron su oficio con actividades comerciales, verdadera base de su promoción económica y social.The Canary Islands strategic location, in ten way to the Western Indies, together with its openness to the european and american markets, has been determinant for the cause of foreign population in the islands. The current article approaches the catalogue of names if the Tenerife established French silversmiths during the XVII century, providing new names to the list edited by professors Mr. Hernández Perea and Mrs. Fraga. Our documental research Iabour allowed us to confirm the double condition of some of these craftsmen, who shared the time devoted to their art with a profitable commercial activity, which would, in many cases, be the real base for their economic and social promotion in the island.

  9. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  10. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  11. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  12. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  13. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  14. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  15. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  16. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  17. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  18. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, J L

    1999-07-01

    Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans.

  19. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111673 Cao Ban(Zhejiang Institute of Geological & Mineral Resources,Hangzhou 310007,China);Ma Jun Determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence-Ultraviolet Detector(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(5),2010,p.539-542,2 illus.,4 tables,15 refs.)Key words:liquid chromatography,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,fluorescence analysis

  20. Crisis teatral en Madrid durante el Trienio Liberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cabezón, Rosalía

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring and summer of 1820, the Madrid City Hall systematically failed to comply with the Reglamento de Teatros dictated by the Regency in 1812. The directors of the two troupes, Bernardo Gil and Antonio González, attempted in vain to have the constitutional laws enforced. This provoked a serious crisis made worse by the fact that the spectators also showed a preference for other more political venues. The lack of response on the part of the local authorities led the directors to cancel performances for several days in August and to publish a Manifiesto explaining their decision. When, for the following season, the aldermen drew up a new set of regulations which once again contravened the Regency’s Regulations, Bernardo Gil proposed his own Proyecto de Reforma, dated en April of 1821. Apart from a comprehensive proposal for theatrer reform he advances sound arguments defending the actors’ rights as citizens who make an honest living in an honorable profession.El Ayuntamiento madrileño, en la primavera y verano de 1820, incumple sistemáticamente el Reglamento de Teatros aprobado por la Regencia en 1812, por lo cual los directores de las dos compañías cómicas, Bernardo Gil y Antonio González, efectuarán infructuosas gestiones a fin de que el Consistorio aplique las leyes constitucionales, lo que provoca una grave crisis teatral agudizada porque los espectadores prefieren acudir a otros recintos de carácter más político. Ante la falta de respuesta de las autoridades locales los directores suspenden las funciones durante unos días en el mes de agosto y publican un Manifiesto en el que justifican su postura. Para la temporada siguiente los regidores municipales elaboran una normativa que contraviene el ordenamiento teatral de la Regencia, de ahí que Bernardo Gil redacte un Proyecto de Reforma, fechado en abril de 1821, en el que además de una propuesta dramática integral defenderá con sólidos argumentos los derechos que

  1. Abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez y revictimización de las mujeres mexicanas durante la edad adulta

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Rivera Rivera; Betania Allen; Rubén Chávez Ayala; Leticia Ávila Burgos

    2006-01-01

    Cuantificar la asociación que existe entre el abu-so físico y sexual durante la niñez y la violencia durante laedad adulta en una muestra representativa de usuarias delos servicios de salud en México. Material y métodos. Seanalizaron datos provenientes de una encuesta nacional, conuna muestra de 26 042 mujeres mayores de 14 años, quie-nes acudieron a consulta a los servicios públicos de saludentre octubre de 2002 y marzo de 2003, en los 32 estadosde la República. Se utilizaron dos modelos: a)...

  2. La literatura médica española sobre los riesgos del amianto durante el franquismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is a fibrous mineral used since the early 20th century in a wide range of manufacturing processes and industrial products for its fireproofing and abrasion-resistant properties. Asbestos exposure has had harmful effects on the health of workers and of the general population. Asbestos risks have attracted scant historiographical attention in Spain, contributing to the idea of a lack of medical and public concerns about this issue until the 1980s. The aim of this paper was to analyze the emergence of such concerns during the Franco regime by exploring the medical literature and the legislation drafted to address asbestos hazards.

    El amianto o asbesto es un mineral fibroso de propiedades ignífugas y resistente a la abrasión que ha sido empleado masivamente en procesos industriales y productos manufacturados desde comienzos del siglo XX. Su uso ha provocado graves problemas de salud en los trabajadores expuestos y en la población general. La atención historiográfica a los riesgos del amianto en España ha sido casi inexistente, lo que ha contribuido a consolidar la idea de una ausencia de preocupación por este problema en nuestro país hasta la década de los ochenta. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el surgimiento de dicha preocupación durante el periodo franquista, mediante un análisis de la producción científica y de la normativa aprobada para enfrentar los riesgos del amianto.

  3. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  5. Información sobre las actividades en REDZOOT durante enero/2008‏

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenInformamos que durante el pasado mes de enero la lista interna de REDZOOT, Red Latina de Revistas de Zootecnia, de la que REDVET es miembro fundador, está teniendo una intensa actividad.

  6. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  7. Attivazione delle cellule Natural Killer durante infezione acuta da virus dell'epatite C

    OpenAIRE

    Amadei, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Il virus dell’epatite C (HCV) è l’agente eziologico di epatiti virali che durante la fase acuta sono spesso asintomatiche, e quindi difficili da diagnosticare. Questo virus è in grado di stabilire un’infezione cronica persistente nella maggioranza degli individui esposti e la risposta immunitaria contro HCV gioca un ruolo importante sia nel controllo virale che nella patogenesi della malattia. Molti lavori hanno studiato il ruolo della risposta dell’immunità adattativa durante la fase acuta d...

  8. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  9. QUALIDADE DE LARANJA HAMLIN DURANTE ARMAZENAMENTO EM DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNINI, Maria Amalia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and shelf life of Hamlin orange fruits, packed or not, into polystyrene expanded trays covered with stretching and sticking PVC plastic film, with thickness of 14 µm, during stored at 7 ± 1ºC, with 80-85% RU, 11±1ºC with 90-95% RU, and 24 to 28ºC with 48-70% RU. The orange fruits were evaluated through weight loss, respiration rate, shape, color (L value, Hue and Chroma, firmness, juice yield, titrable acidity, pH, soluble solid, ratio, vitamin C and technology Index. Through the obtained results it is observed that the low temperature storage, associated with packing, reduced the fresh mass loss; the use of the packaging, independent of the storage temperature, may be increase the shelf life with maintenance quality and reduced of the weight loss; the orange fruits packed and stored at 7 ± 1ºC and at 24 to 28ºC had shelf life of 28 days, while the stored orange fruits at 11±1ºC had shelf life of 21 days; the f vitamin C content decreased with the storage time, independent of the treatment. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de temperaturas de armazenamento, associadas ou não a embalagens na qualidade e vida útil de laranjas Hamlin, acondicionadas ou não, em bandejas de poliestireno expandido revestidas externamente com filme plástico de PVC esticável e auto aderente de 14µ, durante armazenamento a7 ± 1ºC, com 80-85% UR; a 11±1ºC, com 90-95% UR e à temperatura de 24 a 28ºC, com 48-70% UR. Os parâmetros avaliados foram perda de massa fresca, respiração, índice de formato, coloração (valor de L, Hue e Chroma, resistência, rendimento em suco, acidez titulável, pH, sólidos solúveis, índice de maturação, vitamina C e índice tecnológico. Considerando os resultados aqui obtidos pode-se concluir que o armazenamento sob baixa temperatura, associada a embalagem, reduziu a perda de massa fresca; o uso de embalagem, independente da temperatura de armazenamento

  10. No fotorealismo y minería de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Durante los últimos años, la proliferación de los medios digitales ha creado la necesidad del desarrollo de herramientas para la eficiente representación, acceso y recuperación de información visual. La minería de imágenes se ha convertido en una importante rama de investigación a causa del potencial que posee en descubrir patrones característicos a partir de un conjunto extenso de imágenes. El reconocimiento de patrones implica la identificación de relaciones invariantes en una colección de ...

  11. Effect of mineral processing wastewater on flotation of sulfide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ming; LIU Run-qing; SUN Wei; QIU Guan-zhou

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mineral processing wastewater on sulfide minerals were investigated by flotation, infrared spectrometry and electrochemistry test. The results show that lead-concentrate water can improve the flotation of galena, while the sulfur-concentrate water has negative effect on flotation of galena compared with distilled water. The flotation behavior of pyrite is contrary to that of galena in three kinds of water. Infrared spectra indicate that the residual collector in the lead-concentrate water is beneficial to the formation of lead xanthate on the surface of galena. Electrochemistry results indicate that electrochemistry reaction on galena surface has apparent change. The anode polarization is improved and cathode polarization is depressed.

  12. Desempenho de novilhos consumindo suplemento mineral proteinado convencional ou com uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanetti Marcus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 48 bovinos mestiços, com a finalidade de testar quatro suplementos minerais comerciais: Tratamento A - Sal proteinado sem uréia (com 20% de proteína bruta; B - Sal proteinado com uréia (com 52,5% de proteína bruta; C - Sal mineral; e D - Sal mineral com uréia (91% de proteína bruta. Os 48 animais foram distribuídos em 24 piquetes de capim Braquiaria decumbens, com suplementação de 10,5 kg de cana-de-açúcar/cab./dia, durante 112 dias, sendo 28 de adaptação e 84 de coleta de dados. Os animais foram pesados no início e no final do experimento, sendo que o controle da ingestão do suplemento mineral foi realizado semanalmente. O ganho de peso e o consumo do suplemento, em g/dia, nos tratamentos A, B, C e D, foram: 86 e 325; 357 e 650; -96 e 57; e 207 e 135, respectivamente. O pior resultado foi obtido pelos animais que receberam apenas sal mineral e o melhor, pelos animais que receberam o suplemento proteinado com uréia. O grupo que recebeu proteinado sem uréia apresentou desempenho semelhante ao do grupo que recebeu apenas sal mineral com uréia.

  13. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  14. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  15. Clay minerals in pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateo, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Argille, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Clay minerals are fundamental constituents of life, not only as possible actors in the development of life on the Earth (Cairns-Smith and Hartman, 1986), but mainly because they are essential constituents of soils, the interface between the solid planet and the continental biosphere. Many, many authors have devoted themselves to the study of clays and clay minerals since the publication of the early modern studies by Grim (1953, 1962) and Millot (1964). In those years two very important associations were established in Europe (Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Argiles, AIPEA) and in the USA (Clay Mineral Society, CMS). The importance of these societies is to put together people that work in very different fields (agronomy, geology, geochemistry, industry, etc.), but with a common language (clays), very useful in scientific work. Currently excellent texts are being published, but introductory notes are also available on the web (Schroeder, 1998).

  16. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  18. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152386 Hao Yuanfang(Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,CGS,Shenyang 110032,China);Xu Yingkui Determination of Calcium Oxide in Nickel Ores with EDTA Titration(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671-1947,CN21-1458/P,23(6),2014,p.580-582,2tables,6 refs.)

  19. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131550 Bai Jinfeng(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Bo Wei Determination of 36Elements in Geochemical Samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,31(5),2012,p.814

  20. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050704 Cheng Lin (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China); Feng Songlin Analysis of Colored Elements in Ancient Colored Glaze by SRXRF (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11 -2131/TD, 23 (2), 2004, p. 113-116, 120, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 6 refs. )

  1. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142093Chen Daohua(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Guangzhou 510075,China);Diao Shaobo The Latest Progress of Geological Marine Testing Technology in China(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,32(6),2013,p.850-859,105refs.)Key words:chemical analysis,China

  2. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...

  3. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070252 Chen Meilan (Biological and Environmental College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China); Li Li Study on Adsorption of Phenol by Modified Organobentonite (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.259-261, 267, 6 illus., 1 table, 11 refs.) Key words: bentonite, benzene, adsorption

  4. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160255 Wang Na(Tianjin Center of Geological Survey,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Teng Xinhua Determination of Low-Content Iron Carbonate in Stream Sediments by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Aluminum Chloride Extraction(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,34(2),2015,p.229

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150874Chen Haidong(Inner Mongolia Institute of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration,Hohhot 010010,China);Li Jiao Zircon U-Pb Dating of the Hypersthene-Plagioclase Granulite in Liangcheng Area of Central Inner Mongolia and Its Geological Significance(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,41(4),2014,p.1136-1142,

  6. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...

  7. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  10. Minería de datos con Oracle Data Miner

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ruiz, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    La intención del proyecto es mostrar las diferentes características que ofrece Oracle en el campo de la minería de datos, con la finalidad de saber si puede ser una plataforma apta para la investigación y la educación en la universidad. En la primera parte del proyecto se estudia la aplicación “Oracle Data Miner” y como, mediante un flujo de trabajo visual e intuitivo, pueden aplicarse las distintas técnicas de minería (clasificación, regresión, clustering y asociación). Para mostrar la ej...

  11. El Movimiento Estudiantil español durante el Franquismo (1965-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gómez Oliver

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Procede-se neste artigo a uma caracterização do movimento estudantil universitário espanhol durante as décadas de 1960 e 1970, observando-o enquanto instrumento fundamental na criação de espaços de liberdade na Espanha franquista, analisando o seu desenvolvimento orgânico, a sua capacidade para alimentar o desenvolvimento de uma cultura de debate, e examinando o papel que desempenhou na aprendizagem de práticas democráticas que depois foram transplantadas para outros ambientes sociais e políticos, tanto durante a fase final de afirmação da oposição antifranquista como mais tarde, durante a fase de transição para a democracia.

  12. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  13. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  14. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  15. Miscellaneous Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  16. Characterization of biological mineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, L.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineralization is an essential requirement for normal skeletal development, which is generally accomplished through the function of two cell types, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Soft tissues do not mineralize under normal conditions, but under certain pathological conditions some tissues like articu

  17. Manejo del dolor con acupuntura durante el trabajo de parto intrahospitalario

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova Gómez, Ana; Bernat Adell, María Desamparados

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El uso de terapias complementarias para el alivio del dolor durante el trabajo de parto es cada vez más común en el medio hospitalario. Los métodos no farmacológicos suponen un aumento de la confianza y la participación de la mujer embarazada, que se siente autónoma en su propio proceso de parto. Este estudio pretende evaluar el uso de la acupuntura como técnica analgésica no farmacológica durante el trabajo de parto intrahospitalario. Metodología: Se realizó un e...

  18. Efectos de la actividad física durante el embarazo: resultados maternos y neonatales

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria Martínez, Gema

    2016-01-01

    El embarazo es un proceso durante el cual se producen una serie de adaptaciones de la mayoría de los órganos y sistemas del organismo materno. Estas adaptaciones se han de producir manteniendo un equilibrio dirigido a favorecer un desarrollo fetal adecuado a la vez que se preserva la salud materna. Los objetivos de esta Tesis Doctoral fueron los siguientes: 1) Analizar la efectividad de programas de ejercicio físico realizados durante el embarazo para reducir la aparición de diabetes ge...

  19. MANEJO LAPAROSCÓPICO DE QUISTES OVÁRICOS COMPLICADOS O PERSISTENTES DURANTE EL EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso J,José Luis; Ricci A,Paolo; Albornoz V,Jaime; Mackenna I,Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes: El incremento en el hallazgo de quistes anexiales durante el embarazo sería el mayor uso de técnicas de reproducción asistida con hiperestimulación ovárica controlada. La complicación más frecuente sigue siendo la torsión anexial. Objetivo: Revisar el manejo de quistes anexiales complicados o persistentes, durante el embarazo, con resolución laparoscópica. Método: Revisión retrospectiva de 9 pacientes consecutivas, ingresadas al Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología Clínica ...

  20. Déficit de yodo durante la gestación

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    El déficit de yodo (DY) durante la gestación puede tener importantes repercusiones en la función tiroidea tanto materna como fetal, pudiendo llegar a desencadenar un hipotiroidismo materno y neonatal. En mujeres en edad fértil, el hipotiroidismo puede reducir la fertilidad e incrementar el número de abortos espontáneos. Además, cuando consiguen un embarazo se altera la adaptación de la glándula tiroides a los cambios que se producen durante la gestación, y pueden presentar una hiperplasia tir...

  1. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTERCELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tovar-Franco; F. Saavedra

    2005-01-01

    Durante el período perinatal el cerebro utiliza sustratos alternativos a la glucosa para mantener su desarrollo, pues en este momento sus niveles están disminuidos. El acetato es metabolizado por las neuronas y los astrocitos durante la prelactancia. La utilización del acetato por estas células puede verse mejorada por lasreacciones fijadoras de CO2, algunas de las cuales participan en el mantenimiento de los intermediarios del TCA, que son reducidos por la producción y liberación de aminoáci...

  2. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTERCELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar Franco, J.; Laboratorio de Neurobioquímica, Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Saavedra, F.; Laboratorio de Neurobioquímica, Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá

    2005-01-01

    Durante el período perinatal el cerebro utiliza sustratos alternativos a la glucosa para mantener su desarrollo, pues en este momento sus niveles están disminuidos. El acetato es metabolizado por las neuronas y los astrocitos durante la prelactancia. La utilización del acetato por estas células puede verse mejorada por las reacciones fijadoras de CO2, algunas de las cuales participan en el mantenimiento de los intermediarios del TCA, que son reducidos por la producción y liberación de aminoác...

  3. La exploración vaginal durante la asistencia al parto

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; López Pay, María Dolores; Martínez Román, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    El tacto vaginal es un procedimiento que se utiliza con mucha frecuencia durante la asistencia a la mujer gestante tanto en el periodo del parto como durante el seguimiento del embarazo. La exploración vaginal, es una de las técnicas diagnósticas fundamentales en el comienzo y el progreso del parto. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es desarrollar un protocolo, teniendo en cuenta las recomendaciones de la evidencia científica, y por otro lado reducir el riesgo de infección intraparto, materna y ...

  4. Efecto del tabaquismo durante el embarazo sobre la antropometría al nacimiento

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de tabaco durante el embarazo sobre el peso y la longitud al nacimiento. Material y métodos. Mediante el análisis secundario de una base de datos de dos estudios de cohorte, realizados en la Ciudad de México de 1993 a 2000 sobre exposición a plomo, se evaluaron las diferencias en el peso y longitud al nacer entre los hijos de mujeres que refirieron haber fumado durante el embarazo y las que no lo hicieron. Las diferencias se estimaron ajustando por otro...

  5. APPLICATION OF MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY TO MINERAL PROCESSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The application of microbial technology to mineral processing has been reviewed with respect to the bioleaching of metals from minerals, the influence of biotreatment on flotation, the biobene ficiation of nonmetallic minerals, and the biotreatment for mine waste reclamation.The application of microbial technology to mineral processing has shown the advantages of high efficiency, low energy and reagent consumption, low capital and operating costs, and low pollution of the environment.

  6. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  7. Bolter miners for longwall development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeming, J.; Flook, S. [Joy Mining Machinery Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom); Altounyan, P. [Rock Mechanics Technology Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

    2001-11-08

    Rapid entry drivage systems are now being applied in European mining conditions with major advantages, not only in terms of drivage rates, costs and longwall productivity, but also with improved safety. This is being achieved through the introduction of bolter miner systems in which the early installation of high strength rockbolts is fully integrated with the drivage system and all ancillary operations. These new systems are fully described with examples of applications in European conditions and procedures for design of rockbolt patterns. (orig.) [German] Schnelle Streckenvortriebssysteme, die jetzt unter typisch europaeischen Bergbaubedingungen eingefuehrt werden, bringen grosse Vorteile, nicht nur hinsichtlich einer Verbesserung der Vortriebsgeschwindigkeiten, Auffahrkosten und Strebleistungen, sondern auch aufgrund des erhoehten Sicherheitsniveaus. Der Erfolg dieses Vortriebsverfahrens kann auf die Einfuehrung des Bolter Miner Systems zurueckgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  8. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122362 Cai Shuwei ( Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanjing 210016,China );Zhu Jiaping Evaluating on Uncertainty of Determination of Manganese Contents in Groundwater by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry ( Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640 / N,32 ( 4 ), 2011,p.307-310,2tables,8refs. ) Key words:inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy,manganese

  9. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101621 Chen Heping (Nanyang Geology Testing & Research Center of Henan Province, Nanyang 473000, China); Sha Yanmei Simultaneous Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Carbonates by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Multi-direction Viewing Mode (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 28(4), 2009, p.367-369, 5 tables, 10 refs.)

  10. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070970 Cheng Jian(Center of Analysis and Testing,Hunan Zhuye Torch Metals Co., Ltd.,Zhuzhou 412004,China)Direct Deter- mination of Lead in Refined Indium by Flume Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN 0254- 5357,CN11-2131/TD,25(1),2006,p.91 -92,94,1 illus.,7 tables,5 refs.) Key words:lead,atomic absorption

  11. Mineral zircon : A novel thermoluminescence geochronometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, HJ; Vainshtein, DI; De Meijer, RJ; Den Hartog, HW; Donoghue, JF; Rozendaal, A

    2002-01-01

    Mineral zircon contains trace amounts (typically 10-1000 ppm) of the alpha-emitters uranium and thorium, which irradiate this mineral internally. This outstanding feature of zircon turns out to be extremely useful when this mineral is applied as a thermoluminescence (TL) dating medium, because the b

  12. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas rights will not be acquired except where the development thereof would interfere with project...

  13. Mineral Status of Myocardial Sarcocystosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GA Kojouri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of minerals on parasite persistency and the interaction between minerals and animal responses to the parasite infestation is not clear. For these reasons, the present re­search was aimed to compare copper, zinc and iron status in sheep with parasitic myocarditis and healthy ones in 2009.Methods: Blood and heart tissue samples were collected from 145 slaughtered sheep and histopa­thological findings were confirmed as myocardial sarcocystosis in 27 cases. Serum and tis­sue mineral level were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Data were analyzed by Sig­mastat program, using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA at the level of P<0.05.Results: Myocardial sarcocystosis significantly increase myocardial concentration of Cu, Zn and Fe (P<0.05.Conclusion: These findings may explain the role of copper, zinc and iron in parasite persistency and may discuss the pathogenesis of sarcocystosis, which relates to evocate mentioned micronutri­ent to cardiac muscle.

  14. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Pasek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973, which were based on the kinetic effects.

  15. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Maheen; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973), which were based on the kinetic effects. PMID:25369744

  16. [Legal aspects of mineral waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callipo, C

    1976-01-01

    The Author takes up the subject of the report in order to carry out a comprehensive legal recognition of the mineral water regulations in Italy and emphasizes that in this field the results of scientific conclusions, or rather of the various scientific branches (medical hydrology, microbiology, chemics, hydrogeology, medical clinics, pharmacology, etc.) supply a cognitive support to the legislator and the substantial contents to the legal standards. He therefore illustrates the two main outlines of the rules, i.e. the hygienic sanitary one and the mineral one: such lay-out is subsequently related to the implementation of the Regions on one hand and to the enforcement of CEE-rules on the other. This has led to the fact that the hygienic-sanitary legislation was confirmed to the State while the mineral one was transferred to the Regions. After having shown up contrasts and expressed the necessity of clearness and uniformity of rules and criteria, the Author connects these requirements mainly with the implementation of hygienic-sanitary surveillance and consequently with the evaluation of the banal bacterical contents under the point of view of merit--i.e. the rules should include the probative results of science--as well as from a point of view of coordinated allotments of competence by the various organisms.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  18. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  19. Arquitectura y estructura urbana en el Rif Central durante la primera mitad del siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Nieto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    La región del Rif Central presenta unas características muy singulares respecto a su arquitectura y urbanización, que se basan en las realizaciones llevadas a cabo durante la primera mitad del siglo XX por la administración española en Marruecos. Ciu

  20. Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schoppen; Pérez Granados, Ana M.; Carbajal, A.; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; J. A. Gómez-Gerique; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral wa...

  1. Quantitative Prediction for Deep Mineral Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Xia Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    On reviewing the characteristics of deep mineral exploration, this article elaborates on the necessity of employing quantitative prediction to reduce uncertainty. This is caused by complexity of mineral deposit formational environments and mineralization systems as increase of exploration depth and incompleteness of geo-information from limited direct observation. The authors wish to share the idea of "seeking difference" principle in addition to the "similar analogy" principle in deep mineral exploration, especially the focus is on the new ores in depth either in an area with discovered shallow mineral deposits or in new areas where there are no sufficient mineral deposit models to be compared. An on-going research project, involving Sn and Cu mineral deposit quantitative prediction in the Gejiu (个旧) area of Yunnan (云南) Province, China, was briefly introduced to demonstrate how the "three-component" (geoanomaly-mineralization diversity-mineral deposit spectrum) theory and non-linear methods series in conjunction with advanced GIS technology, can be applied in multi-scale and multi-task deep mineral prospecting and quantitative mineral resource assessment.

  2. Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

  3. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  4. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanueva Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTADOS. En las tres evaluaciones durante la gestación las concentraciones de vitamina A fueron de 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 y 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectivamente, lo cual muestra una disminución significativa. Sin embargo, sólo 1/30 se ubicó por debajo del punto de corte aceptado para considerar riesgo de deficiencia y ninguno para deficiencia. Durante el posparto las concentraciones se conservaron relativamente constantes, alrededor de 2.10 µmol/L. La práctica de la lactancia no tuvo impacto sobre las concentraciones séricas de retinol, no así la pérdida de peso. CONCLUSIONES. En la población estudiada no se documentaron casos de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el periodo perinatal. La pérdida de peso materna tiene influencia sobre las concentraciones de retinol en el posparto.

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110144 Hu Lan(Anhui Institute of Geological Experiment,Hefei 230001,China);Liu Yueyou Determination of Micro-amount of Bismuth in Polymetallic Ores by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry with Alkaline Mode(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(1),2010,p.87-88,2 tables,10 refs.)Key words:atomic fluorescence spectrometry,bismuthA method for the determination of micro-amount of bismuth in polymetallic ores by hydride gen

  6. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  7. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  8. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110887 Chen Yong(College of Geo-Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum,Qingdao 266555,China);Ge Yunjin Experimental Study on the Modes of Hydrocarbon-Bearing Inclusion Trapped in Carbonate Rock Reservoirs(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(3),2010,p.217-220,1 illus.,16 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:petroleum products,organic inclusion,carbonates20110888 Cheng Zhizhong(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Gu Tiexin Preparation of Nine Iron Ore Reference Materials of GFe-1~GFe-9(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(3),2010,p.305-308,5 tables,13 refs.)Key words:iron ores,type specimens Nine standard reference iron ore samples of GFe-1~GFe-9 were developed.The concentrations of TFe of the samples ranged from 20.17% to 66.87%,which covered a wide iron concentration range from concentrated iron ore powder to poor iron ores and can meet the needs for iron ore exploration and ore-dressing.Powder XRF technique was used for homogeneity test and the analytical results indicated that all elements tested were in good homogeneity.

  9. Mineral fibre persistence and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J C

    1998-10-01

    Epidemiological research during the past 40 years has demonstrated with increasing clarity that amphibole asbestos fibres--crocidolite, amosite and tremolite--are more carcinogenic than chrysotile. A smaller number of well-controlled studies using lung burden analyses, while adding to the specificity of this conclusion, have shown that amphibole fibres also differ from chrysotile in being far more durable and biopersistent in lung tissue. Analyses of mesothelioma and lung cancer in a large cohort of Canadian chrysotile miners and millers have recently shown that the low-level presence of fibrous tremolite in these mines, rather than the chrysotile, may well be responsible. The high risk of lung cancer, but not of mesothelioma, in the chrysotile textile industry remains anomalous and cannot be explained in this way. These various findings are directly relevant to the choice of the experimental methods which should be used for screening man-made fibres for industrial use. Although it is clear that biopersistence is a major determinant of cancer risk in animals, and perhaps also in man, other factors affecting the biological activity of mineral fibres may also be important.

  10. Mineral physics and mineral chemistry at the Australian National University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ian

    Research at the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra into the physics and chemistry of minerals is being actively carried out by a number of different research groups within the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES), the Research School of Chemistry (RSC), and the Department of Geology. The research schools form part of the Institute of Advanced Studies, which is a national center for research and postgraduate training established by the Australian Government in 1946. The Institute of Advanced Studies seeks to ensure flexibility in its approach to research by maintaining an unusually high ratio (>1) of nontenured to tenured staff. Two types of nontenured appointment are available: postdoctoral fellowships of 1-2 yr duration and research fellowships tenable for 3-5 yr. The Department of Geology, as part of the Faculty of Science, is responsible for the provision of undergraduate education in geology, in addition to its role in research and postgraduate training.

  11. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  12. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  13. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  14. Calculation of topological connectivity index for minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Topological method was applied firstly to calculate the topological connectivity index of minerals (TCIM). The reciprocal of effective atomic refractivity of metal dement in minerals was chosen as its valence. The reasonability of TCIM as an activity criterion was tested through comparison of TCIM with two kinds of dectronegativity parameter, i.e. ionic percentage and energy criteria of Yang's electronegativity, solubility product, energy criterion according to the gen eralized perturbation theory and adsorption of flotation reagents on the surface of minerals. The results indicated that TCIM is an effective structural parameter of minerals to study the structure-activity relationship. In addition, different mineral is of different TCIM value, so TCIM brings about convenience in comparison of flotation activity for minerals.

  15. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  16. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  17. MINER: software for phylogenetic motif identification

    OpenAIRE

    La, David; Livesay, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    MINER is web-based software for phylogenetic motif (PM) identification. PMs are sequence regions (fragments) that conserve the overall familial phylogeny. PMs have been shown to correspond to a wide variety of catalytic regions, substrate-binding sites and protein interfaces, making them ideal functional site predictions. The MINER output provides an intuitive interface for interactive PM sequence analysis and structural visualization. The web implementation of MINER is freely available at . ...

  18. Polypeptide Inhibitors of Mineral Scaling and Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    peptides are based on natural protein inhibitors of mineral formation and generally are enriched in aspartic acid and phosphoserine. Specifically, the...the protein inhibitors of mineral formation , we evaluated several methods of preparation of phosphopeptides. These included direct polymerization of 2...number of assays have been developed to measure the ability of the peptides to inhibit mineral formation . These include methods for assessing effects on

  19. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A zone (∼20 µm exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked

  20. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrea G; Pasteris, Jill D; Genin, Guy M; Daulton, Tyrone L; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  1. Genetic Types of Diamond Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.MARAKUSHEV; 桑隆康; 等

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the proposed models of diamond formation both in meteorites and in kimberlite and lamproite bodies.metamorphic complexes and explosive-ring structures ("astroblemes"),The diamond distribution in meteorites(chondrites,iron meteorites and ureilites)is restricted to taente-kamasite phase.The diamond generation here is tied up with the first stage of evolution of the planets,This stage is characterized by high pressure of hydrogen. leading to the formation of the planet envelope,The second stage of planet evolution began with the progressive imopoverishment of their atmospheres in hydrogen due to its predominant emission into the space and to progressive development of oxidative conditions.The model appears to have proved the relict nature of diamond mineraolization in meteorites.Diamond and other high-pressure minerals(its"satellites") were crystallized without any exception in the early intratelluric stages of peridotite and eclogite-pyroxenite magma evolution just before the magma intrusion into the higher levels of the mantle and crust where diamond is not thermodynamically stable,The ultramafic intrusive bodies(bearing rich relict diamonds)in the dase of a platform paaear to be the substrata for the formation of kimberlite-lamproite magma chambers as a result of magmatic replacement.The model explains the polyfacial nature of diamondiferous eclotgites,pyroxenites and peridotites and discusses the process of inheritance of their diamond mineralization by kimberlites and lamproites.Dimond oproductivity of metamorthic complexes is originated by the inheritance of their diamonds from the above-mentioned primary diamondiferous rocks.Large diamondiferous explosive-ring structures were formed by high-energy endogenic explosion of fluid which came from the Earth's core.This high energy differs endogenic impactogenesis from explosive volcanism.It proceeds at very high temperature to create diaplectic galsses(monomineral pseudomorphs)-the product of

  2. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  3. MINER: software for phylogenetic motif identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, David; Livesay, Dennis R

    2005-07-01

    MINER is web-based software for phylogenetic motif (PM) identification. PMs are sequence regions (fragments) that conserve the overall familial phylogeny. PMs have been shown to correspond to a wide variety of catalytic regions, substrate-binding sites and protein interfaces, making them ideal functional site predictions. The MINER output provides an intuitive interface for interactive PM sequence analysis and structural visualization. The web implementation of MINER is freely available at http://www.pmap.csupomona.edu/MINER/. Source code is available to the academic community on request.

  4. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.

  5. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  6. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  7. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  8. Sempre connessi: il media multitasking a lezione e durante lo studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Paoletti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In questa ricerca abbiamo chiesto a 100 studenti universitari di descrivere le modalità d’uso dei propri strumenti tecnologici nei diversi contesti di studio e durante le lezioni in aula. Le risposte ottenute hanno evidenziato un uso esteso e continuo del cellulare per scrivere e rispondere a messaggi, sia a lezione sia durante le attività di studio. Nel gruppo di studenti da noi incontrati risulta essere diffusa l’opinione che fare multitasking, in particolare tramite la ricezione/produzione di messaggi, non abbia effetti sulla qualità dell’apprendimento, ma solo sul tempo dello studio. I partecipanti dichiarano di preferire ambienti privi di distrazioni, ma attribuiscono una valenza positiva alla possibilità di rimanere in relazione continua con la propria rete di contatti.

  9. Las fuerzas armadas durante la Guerra de Reforma (1856-1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONRADO HERNÁNDEZ LÓPEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulta complicado hablar de fuerzas armadas durante la época de Benito Juárez, en particular durante la Reforma y el Segundo Imperio. En general, los ejércitos que contendieron desde 1854 hasta 1867, se organizaron según dos modelos que se originaron a finales del siglo XVIII, cuando la disconformidad en la estructura de las fuerzas armadas reflejó las diferencias en el modelo de Estado a partir de dos proyectos que tendían a fortalecer la autonomía provincial, con la organización de milicias o la función centralizadora del ejército permanente.

  10. La reforma laboral implementada durante el segundo gobierno de Alfonso López Pumarejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óliver Mora Toscano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian los elementos más relevantes de la reforma laboral propuesta y puesta en práctica por el presidente Alfonso López Pumarejo durante su segunda gestión de Gobierno. La reforma fue implementada fundamentalmente a través de la Ley 6ª de 1945. Los elementos más relevantes de la misma fueron la institucionalización y regulación de los movimientos obreros para que contribuyesen de esta forma a la estabilidad del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo empresarial pretendido en ese momento por el Estado colombiano, así como el reconocimiento de un conjunto de reivindicaciones y derechos a los trabajadores urbanos, que hicieron de esta reforma la más avanzada en Colombia en términos sociales durante el siglo XX.

  11. Del valle al cerro: el sitio del Cerro Zapotecas durante el Epiclásico

    OpenAIRE

    Salomón Salazar, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es definir qué tipo de asentamiento era el Cerro Zapotecas durante el periodo Epiclásico (600-900 d.C.), ubicado a escasos tres kilómetros de Cholula. Los antecedentes de investigación en este sitio lo señalan como un centro focal de las actividades del valle de Puebla-Tlaxcala durante la transición del Clásico al Posclásico. Esta investigación llevó a cabo un nuevo recorrido de superficie con el cual se documentó la composición arquitectónica y ...

  12. La Enfermería durante la Guerra Civil Española

    OpenAIRE

    González Chordá, Víctor Manuel; Mateu Barreda, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar el papel de la enfermería durante la Guerra Civil Española, a través de la formación de enfermeras en ambas zonas durante el conflicto. Este análisis permitirá observar la evolución de la enfermería a lo largo de este periodo y su influencia en el desarrollo de la enfermería como una profesión reglada con una formación específica. Desarrollo: La Guerra Civil dividió el país en dos partes geográficamente diferenciadas: nacional y repub...

  13. Género y esclavitud en el Caribe durante la época colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Menjívar Ochoa, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Durante el período de la esclavitud, los hombres y las mujeres que confluyeron en el Caribe, procedentes de África y Europa, debieron realizar significativos ajustes en sus concepciones de género, debido a la construcción de relaciones sociales de nuevo signo. En este sentido, el propósito de este ensayo captar los ajustes de género que hombres y mujeres, procedentes África y Europa, debieron realizar una vez en el Caribe durante la época colonial, así como las condiciones sociales que contri...

  14. ALIMENTACIÓN DURANTE EL TRABAJO DE PARTO: ¿ES NECESARIO EL AYUNO?

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia S,María Teresa; Abarca C.,Cristian; Astudillo S.,Roxana; Llevaneras M.,Silvana; Quiroga T.,Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Estudio analítico de corte transversal sobre las características de alimentación e hidratación de 602 mujeres durante el trabajo de parto durante dos periodos. La información fue extraída por medio de una entrevista y la revisión de fichas clínicas. Para el análisis se utilizó t Student y Chi cuadrado. Entre 9,7 y 19,4% de las mujeres recibe comida en preparto y entre 30,4 y 33,2% recibe agua. No existen diferencias en la proporción de ingesta de agua y comida entre las madres con y sin patol...

  15. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091570 Ge Yunjin(College of Geo-Resource and Information,China University of Petroleum,Dongying 257061,China);Chen Yong Advance in Low Temperature Phase Transition and Raman Spectrum Technique in Composition Determination of Fluid Inclusions(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,27(3),2008,p.207-210,22 refs.)Key words:fluid inclusions,Raman spectraThe principle and development of low-temperature analytical techniques for fluid inclusions were expounded.The traditional low-temperature analytical technology mainly focused on the measurement of inorganic salt using congealed microthermometry,but now it is developed to semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of fluid inclusions using in-situ cryogenic Raman spectrometry.

  16. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P ....001). An inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P

  17. Los castigos durante la esclavitud en la provincia de santa marta 1800-1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Padilla Pinedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Muy a pesar de que la legislación española considero que los esclavos como seres humanos dejando claro como esclavitud no los privaba de su condición humana la sociedad esclavista los trato como animales negándoles el conocimiento estipulado por la ley durante muchos tiempos quedando así el negro esclavo como desprovisto de los más mínimos derechos.

  18. MANIFESTACIONES DE VIOLENCIA EXPLÍCITA O EVIDENTE DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DEL RECREO ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny María Artavia Granados

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación Occidente. Su finalidad fue determinar si en el intervalo de los recreos de la escuela en estudio, se suscitaban manifestaciones de violencia escolar explícita entre estudiantes de IV, V y VI año del II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. Durante el desarrollo del estudio, se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales que se presentaban en estos espacios escolares. Sobre todo, los que podrían propiciar violencia escolar explícita; los mecanismos de prevención y estrategias empleadas por la escuela para contrarrestar la violencia escolar; también el nivel de integración del personal docente y administrativo de la escuela durante el periodo de los recreos. Asimismo, se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de niños y niñas manifiesta que existen enfrentamientos entre estudiantes, durante el desarrollo de los recreos, y que estos se perciben a través de comportamientos de violencia tanto física como verbal. Las manifestaciones de violencia más comunes son peleas, golpes así como el uso de un lenguaje soez y ofensivo. Los motivos de los enfrentamientos varían según el nivel escolar entre el estudiantado. Los mecanismos empleados por la escuela para contrarrestar la violencia que se suscita durante los recreos, se basan en el uso de procedimientos sancionadores y la aplicación de medidas preventivas.

  19. Escurecimento interno de pêra asiática 'Ya Li' durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRACKMANN AURI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A pêra 'Ya Li' apresenta escurecimento da polpa poucos dias após o armazenamento refrigerado. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar condições de armazenamento visando a diminuir os danos pela baixa temperatura inicial em peras 'Ya Li'. As condições iniciais estabelecidas foram: 1 0ºC; 2 5ºC, nos 10 primeiros dias, com redução de 0,7ºC por dia, durante sete dias; 3 10ºC nos 10 primeiros dias, com redução de 1,4ºC por dia, durante sete dias; 4 10º C nos 10 primeiros dias, com redução de 1,4ºC por dia, durante sete dias, sempre em atmosfera controlada (2,0kPa de O2 e < 1,0kPa de CO2; 5 10ºC nos 10 dias iniciais, com posterior exposição direta dos frutos a 0ºC. Em seqüência aos tratamentos iniciais, os frutos foram submetidos ao armazenamento refrigerado a 0ºC, com exceção do tratamento "4" que foi mantido continuamente em atmosfera controlada. Após 52 dias de armazenamento, verificou-se escurecimento interno, superior a 68% em todos os tratamentos. As temperaturas mais elevadas, no início, não evitaram a ocorrência do escurecimento durante o armazenamento.

  20. CAPACIDAD ANATIOXIDANTE DURANTE LA MADURACIÓN DE ARAZÁ (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mauirica Vargas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de conocer la evolución de algunos componentes antioxidantes de la pulpa de arazá durante el almacenamiento de los frutos, éstos se cosecharon en su madurez fisiológica y se almacenaron durante seis días a 25 ºC. Se encontróque los frutos presentan su máximo climatérico luego de dos días de almacenamiento y, al llegar al sexto día, sus características sensoriales están marcadamente deterioradas. Los contenidos de ácido ascórbico y fenólicos disminuyeron durante el almacenamiento. Los niveles encontrados de ácido ascórbico, compuestos fenólicos y la actividad anti-oxidante muestran que la contribución de la pulpa de arazá al potencial antioxidante, cuando se compara con otros alimentos, en la dieta humana es buena.

  1. Mecanismos de licuación y flujo de suelos granulares durante sismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Alarcón Guzmán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Una amplia evidencia experimental ha mostrado que vibraciones de pequeña amplitud producen una disminución progresiva del volumen en suelos granulares; ello ocurre aún en el caso de arenas densas que podrían dilatar durante carga monotónica o unidireccional bajo un cierto nivel de esfuerzos de confinamiento. Por tanto, cuando un depósito de arena saturada se ve sometido a las ondas de corte que se propagan durante un Sismo, la estructura de la arena tiende a densificarse. Sin embargo, como la duración de aplicación de los esfuerzos de corte cíclicos es, en general, muy pequeña en comparación con el tiempo necesario para que ocurra algún drenaje, la tendencia de la arena a disminuir de volumen durante cada ciclo se refleja en un incremento progresivo de la presión de poros (8,14. Esto produce una reducción continua del esfuerzo efectivo y consecuentemente una disminución en la resistencia al corte de la arena. Una disminución considerable de la resistencia puede conducir a fallas por corte, que en algunas ocasiones son de consecuencias catastróficas.

  2. Enfermedades infecciosas probablemente dispersadas por los europeos durante el contacto indirecto en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para la colonización de Norteamérica, ciertos autores sugieren que enfermedades infecciosas actuaron de modo discreto durante un período inicial llamado de Contacto Indirecto. Ello implicaría que los registros históricos con que contamos describan sociedades transformadas. Para Tierra del Fuego, Borrero establece la incertidumbre sobre el tamaño de las poblaciones previas a los primeros relatos de Gusinde y otros. Pretendemos brindar un marco probabilístico sobre las enfermedades infecciosas dispersadas en Tierra del Fuego durante el Contacto Indirecto. Se realizó una evaluación del riesgo de epidemias dentro de las poblaciones nativas (1520-1834. Se consideró el riesgo de contaminación por microorganismos patógenos, según los diversos medios de transporte. Sobre la base de toda la información antes mencionada y de las condiciones ambientales de Tierra del Fuego, construimos un listado de enfermedades infecciosas que probablemente fueron introducidas o aumentadas en frecuencia, dentro del archipiélago durante el período analizado. Este trabajo es parte de un proyecto orientado a analizar la dispersión de las enfermedades en Patagonia Austral

  3. Factores que inciden en el desarrollo metacognitivo de los estudiantes durante la investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuris Chirinos Molero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La metacognición permite en los procesos de investigación reconocer las habilidades y destrezas, así como los obstáculos o limitaciones que se presentan en los estudiantes durante la realización del trabajo de grado. De allí que, el objetivo general de este estudio es diagnosticar los factores que inciden en los procesos metacognitivos de los estudiantes durante la investigación. En lo metodológico, se consideró el paradigma positivista, el tipo de investigación fue descriptivo. El diseño considerado fue de campo, pues se realizó en la Maestría Docencia para Educación Superior del Postgrado de la Universidad Nacional Experimental Rafael María Baralt. Los resultados evidenciaron que durante el proceso de la investigación los estudiantes se encuentran influenciados por el estrés y el escaso acompañamiento institucional, dado que la mayoría respondió que al culminar la escolaridad, algunas veces, sentían el apoyo de la institución. Por lo que la institución deberá promover un plan de acción para mejorar las políticas institucionales con el cumplimiento total de las mismas, con el propósito de incrementar la producción científica.

  4. Aquisição não-linerar durante o processo terapêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keske-Soares, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aquisição não-linear de duas crianças com desvio fonológico durante o tratamento. Participaram da pesquisa dois sujeitos (S1 e S2, do sexo masculino, S1 com 5:1 de idade, apresentava desvio fonológico de grau severo, e o S2 com 4:11 de idade, desvio fonológico moderado-severo. Os sujeitos receberam tratamento pelo modelo ABAB-Retirada e Provas Múltiplas durante 36 sessões de terapia. Observou-se descontinuidade no processo de aquisição fonológica principalmente das líquidas. Conclui-se que a atenção do clínico deve estar voltada para a generalização dos fonemas trabalhados, mas também é importante o conhecimento de que o processo de aquisição fonológica é não-linear, sendo o processo de regressão comum durante o estabelecimento dos fonemas

  5. PODER VITAL DE PUÉRPERAS DURANTE O CUIDADO DE ENFERMAGEM NO DOMICÍLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariely Carmelina Bernardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio cualitativo, caracterizado como convergente-asistencial, con el objetivo de identificar como se manifiestan las variables que pueden interferir en el poder vital de las puérperas durante los cuidados realizados por la enfermera a domicilio, en la perspectiva del Modelo de Cuidado de Carraro. La recolección de datos ocurrió de abril a junio de 2011, utilizándose el Modelo de Cuidado de Carraro durante las visitas domiciliares a cuatro mujeres que experimentaron el puerperio inmediato y tardío. Durante las visitas domiciliarias, las manifestaciones de las variables que interfieren en el Poder Vital del ser humano fueron diversas, con oscilaciones entre la neutralidad, la negatividad y la positividad frente los cuidados realizados, orientados y discutidos. Con la identificación de estas manifestaciones, se acepta que la enfermera pueda planificar, actuar y evaluar el cuidado, influyendo positivamente en el poder vital de la puérpera.

  6. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  7. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals.'. Data...

  8. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  9. Comparación de cianuro y tiourea como agentes lixiviantes de un mineral aurífero colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Isaí Santamaría Roncancio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudio preliminar de la lixiviación del oro a partir de un mineral aurífero procedente de Marmato (Caldas; como agentes lixiviantes se emplearon tiourea y cianuro sódico. El estudio se desarrolló en tres etapas: 1 caracterización del mineral mediante Difracción de Rayos X (DRX, Ensayo al Fuego y cuantificación de oro por Absorción Atómica (AA; 2 realización de lixiviaciones con los agentes a muestras minerales de 100 g, durante 8 horas, con una agitación de 800 rpm y temperatura ambiente, tomando muestras de solución a intervalos controlados de tiempo, y 3 análisis de rendimientos de extracción de oro. Las lixiviaciones con tiourea arrojaron mayor rendimiento que las de cianuro.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook—Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-01-01

    This edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries during 2012 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:• Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.• Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.• Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  11. European mineral statistics 2009-13 : a product of the World Mineral Statistics database

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, T. J.; Hobbs, S.F.; Mills, A. J.; Idoine, N.E.; Wrighton, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This volume is the latest edition of a series that began in 2002 following the replacement of ‘World Mineral Statistics’ with ‘World Mineral Production’. It contains mineral production, import and export data for more than 70 mineral commodities, for 36 European countries including all EU Member States and EU Candidate Countries, plus Norway and Switzerland. These data are presented in two sections: by individual country and by commodity; the latter is illustrated by graphics. It remains the ...

  12. European Mineral Statistics 2010-14: a product of the World Mineral statistics database

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, T. J.; Hobbs, S.F.; Idoine, N.E.; Mills, A. J.; Wrighton, C.E.; Raycraft, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    European Mineral Statistics provides statistical information about minerals and metals in Europe. It provides the essential background intelligence for any European minerals-related activities. Production, export and import tables are presented for all EU members and EU candidate countries, plus Norway and Switzerland, in two sections: •by individual country •by commodity, with bullets on salient features and graphics More than 70 different mineral commodities are included from ...

  13. Different supplementation of minerals in bats and the consequences on bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mineral supplementation of mealworms at a facility where mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii rubiginosus) from Trinidad were kept for experimental purposes. For 11 months after capture from the wild, the animals were constantly housed indoors and fed a diet of mealworms without mineral supplementation. After several animals died with skulls soft at palpation, this diet was suspected to be mineral deficient. From then on, mealworms were placed on a mineral ...

  14. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo Central. III. Evaluación de las condiciones en profundidad y evolución de las soluciones hidrotermales durante su ascenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimeno, M. J.

    1998-04-01

    03-/C03=, H4Si04°/H3Si04-, etc. in the solution.Se han determinado los caracteres fisicoquímicos y temperatura de las aguas en los reservorios de los sistemas geotermales de Caldas de Bohí, Arties, Luchon, Cauterets, Panticosa y Benasque (Pirineos Centrales mediante la utilización de técnicas de modelización geotermométrica, simulando el calentamiento de las soluciones termales. Los cálculos han sido realizados en condiciones de sistema abierto respecto a la caolinita, mineral con el que se produce un proceso de reequilibrio durante el ascenso de estas soluciones termales. Las simulaciones realizadas indican que las aguas de los sistemas de Caldas, Arties, Luchon y Cauterets se encuentran en equilibrio respecto a una asociación mineral común constituida por albita, microclina, cuarzo, caolinita, algún aluminosilicato cálcico y calcita, a temperaturas comprendidas entre 90 y 125° C, y con valores de pH más bajos que los determinados en surgencia. En el caso del sistema de Panticosa, la asociación mineral en equilibrio es similar pero con calcedonia en vez de cuarzo, a temperaturas en tomo a los 80° C. Y, por último, en el sistema de Benasque las soluciones se encuentran en desequilibrio respecto a cualquiera de estas asociaciones minerales (con cuarzo o calcedonia, a temperaturas inferiores a los 85° C. Estos resultados refinan y mejoran los obtenidos mediante la aplicación de técnicas geotermométricas clásicas (geotermómetro Si02-cuarzo y Na-K, especialmente en el caso de los sistemas de Panticosa y Benasque en los que, a pesar de sus más bajas concentraciones de Na y K, se obtenían condiciones erróneamente similares a las de los otros sistemas. El proceso de precipitación de caolinita (entre 1,5 . 10-5 y 5 . 10-5 moles/litro de este mineral, según el sistema considerado que se produce durante el ascenso de las soluciones termales tiene importantes efectos sobre la evolución de los índices de saturación de las fases

  15. PERFIL E INTERRELACIÓN MINERAL EN AGUA, FORRAJE Y SUERO SANGUÍNEO DE BOVINOS DURANTE DOS ÉPOCAS EN LA HUASTECA POTOSINA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Vieyra-Alberto; Ignacio A. Domínguez-Vara; Genaro Olmos-Oropeza; Juan F. Martínez-Montoya; José L. Borquez-Gastelum; Jorge Palacio-Nuñez; Jorge A. Lugo de la Fuente; Ernesto Morales-Almaráz

    2013-01-01

    En la Huasteca Potosina no se han realizado diagnósticos integrales sobre los minerales en los bovinos de doble pro - pósito en pastoreo a través del año, por lo cual el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la concentración e in - terrelación de minerales en agua, forraje y suero de bovinos de doble propósito. Para ello, se recolectaron 84 muestras de agua, 99 muestras de forraje y suero de 463 bovinos en 17 unidades de producción de la Huasteca Potosina, en la época húmeda (agosto y ...

  16. Análisis de las Fuerzas Absolutas y las Circunferencias de Volumen Durante el Período Preparatorio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Freyre Vázquez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la relación de dependencia entre los resultados de las fuerzas absolutas de los planos musculares brazo, tronco y pierna, en correspondencia con las circunferencias máximas de volumen de los miembros superiores e inferiores durante la preparación de fuerza a que fueron sometidos los atletas de baloncesto de la categoría juvenil durante el periodo preparatorio. De esta forma estaríamos hablando de la estrecha relación que existe en cuanto a esta variable, repercutiendo en los resultados a alcanzar por el equipo durante el proceso de entrenamiento.

  17. EXTRATERRESTRIAL MINERALS AND FUTURE FRONTIERS IN MINERAL EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILMER GIRALDO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a las altas tasas de consumo de minerales y el alto crecimiento de la población humana, los recursos minerales en el planeta Tierra se encuentran en proceso de agotamiento, esta escasez crea la necesidad de encontrar nuevas alternativas para suplir las crecientes necesidades. Una alternativa adicional a la tradicional búsqueda de nuevos yacimientos en la tierra, es la búsqueda de yacimientos más allá de nuestro planeta, estos nuevos recursos se pueden buscar en la vecindad de nuestro planeta. La extracción en cuerpos de nuestro sistema solar como la Luna, Marte y el cinturón de asteroides puede proporcionar abundantes recursos energéticos como el helio 3 y minerales como el potasio, elementos de tierras raras, hierro y minerales del grupo del platino. Ahora, algunas compañías están planeando esta exploración y para los geólogos y profesionales de la minería en general, esto abre grandes posibilidades para la investigación científica, innovación tecnológica y desarrollo profesional en nuevos campos.

  18. Mineral Resource Team 2010 Activities Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-29

    of the Himalayas where the Indian subcontinent collided with Eurasia, the country’s unique geological foundation created thousands of mineral...on or below the paleo -ocean floor. Some VMS deposits are distinctive in that Cu ores formed by hydrothermal circulation and exhalation of minerals

  19. Minerals in fish: does the source matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P. (2015). Minerals in fish: does the source matter? PhD thesis. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Minerals are a group of micro-nutrients essential to fish. Meta-analysis of literature data was performed to identify the appropriate response criterion to de

  20. Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas

  1. Technology sandwich panels with mineral wool insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tyulenev M.; Burtzeva M.; Mednikova E.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panel — self–supporting structure consisting of metal cladding and thermal insulation core. As a heat–insulating core used mineral wool, foamed plastics. Production of sandwich panels with insulation mineral wool performed on modular lines for the production of aggregate or conveyer scheme. Sandwich panels are used as load–bearing elements of the facades, as well as a roof covering.

  2. CAS researchers find a new mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mineralogists from the CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry (GIG) recently discovered Xieite, a chromium-iron oxide in its natural state. It has been authorized as a new mineral by Commission on New Minerals Nomenclature and Classification under the International Mineralogical Association (CNMNC-IMA).

  3. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  4. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  5. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  6. Acidosis inhibits mineralization in human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shoko; Hirukawa, Koji; Togari, Akifumi

    2013-09-01

    Osteoblasts and osteoclasts maintain bone volume. Acidosis affects the function of these cells including mineral metabolism. We examined the effect of acidosis on the expression of transcription factors and mineralization in human osteoblasts in vitro. Human osteoblasts (SaM-1 cells) derived from the ulnar periosteum were cultured with α-MEM containing 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid and 5 mM β-glycerophosphate (calcifying medium). Acidosis was induced by incubating the SaM-1 cells in 10 % CO₂ (pH approximately 7.0). Mineralization, which was augmented by the calcifying medium, was completely inhibited by acidosis. Acidosis depressed c-Jun mRNA and increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in a time-dependent manner. Depressing c-Jun mRNA expression using siRNA increased OPG production and inhibited mineralization. In addition, depressing OPG mRNA expression with siRNA enhanced mineralization in a dose-dependent manner. Acidosis or the OPG protein strongly inhibited mineralization in osteoblasts from neonatal mice. The present study was the first to demonstrate that acidosis inhibited mineralization, depressed c-Jun mRNA expression, and induced OPG production in human osteoblasts. These results suggest that OPG is involved in mineralization via c-Jun in human osteoblasts.

  7. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  8. Mineral resources and geo-engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Habashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metals used in everyday life are produced from ores occurring in the Earth’s crust. Geological processes are known to concentrate minerals to form ores of economic value. Mineral processing engineers concentrate these ores by mechanical and physico-chemical methods while the extractive metallurgist extracts the metals by chemical means.

  9. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  10. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free

  11. Biohydrometallurgy for nonsulfidic minerals - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, N.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology of Delhi, New Delhi (India). Center for Energy Studies

    2004-05-01

    Bioleaching is a technology applicable to metal extraction from low-grade ores, ore beneficiation, coal beneficiation, metal detoxification, and recovery of metals from waste materials. The technology is environmentally sound and it may lower operational cost and energy requirement. Whereas leaching of sulfidic minerals using chemolithoautotrophic bacteria is the most studied and commercially exploitable aspect of mineral biotechnology today, there is a dearth of literature on the dissolution of nonsulfidic minerals. Biohydrometallurgy of nonsulfidic minerals involves the action of heterotrophic microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi have the potential for producing acidic metabolites that are able to solubilize oxide, silicate, carbonate and hydroxide minerals by reduction, acidolysis and complexation mechanisms. It is an important aspect of biohydrometallugy that requires development to meet future needs.

  12. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Upadhyay; Hem Chandra; Meenakashi Joshi; Deepika P Joshi

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended the Kumar’s formulation by taking into the account the concept of anharmonicity in minerals above the Debye temperature (D). In our present study, we have investigated the thermophysical properties of two minerals (pyrope-rich garnet and MgAl2O4) under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant () and bulk modulus (T) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (T) as temperature-independent and then by treating T as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when T is temperature-dependent are in close agreement with experimental data.

  13. Raising environmental awareness among miners in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Mozaffari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways forraising environmental awareness among miners. Miners’ attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers’ point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management in Iran. Their opinions on methods used for minerals extraction and waste productionare sought in order to investigate possible educational schemes for waste reduction and mine waste disposal. The type and quantity of waste produced by respondents have been identified to prioritise the wastes produced in minesites. Environmental legislations and policies for good practice minerals extraction are surveyed anddemonstrated. These are regarded as our clients’ preferences on managing mining waste. When combined with other existing policies and methods, they could become part of a learning program to boost awareness among miners.

  14. An overview of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow is an integral part of hydrothermal mineralization, and its analysis and characterization constitute an important part of a mineralization model. The hydrodynamic study of mineralization deals with analyzing the driving forces, fluid pressure regimes, fluid flow rate and direction, and their relationships with localization of mineralization. This paper reviews the principles and methods of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization, and discusses their significance and limitations for ore deposit studies and mineral exploration. The driving forces of fluid flow may be related to fluid overpressure, topographic relief, tectonic deformation, and fluid density change due to heating or salinity variation, depending on specific geologic environments and mineralization processes. The study methods may be classified into three types, megascopic (field observations, microscopic analyses, and numerical modeling. Megascopic features indicative of significantly overpressured (especially lithostatic or supralithostatic fluid systems include horizontal veins, sand injection dikes, and hydraulic breccias. Microscopic studies, especially microthermometry of fluid inclusions and combined stress analysis and microthermometry of fluid inclusion planes (FIPs can provide important information about fluid temperature, pressure, and fluid-structural relationships, thus constraining fluid flow models. Numerical modeling can be carried out to solve partial differential equations governing fluid flow, heat transfer, rock deformation and chemical reactions, in order to simulate the distribution of fluid pressure, temperature, fluid flow rate and direction, and mineral precipitation or dissolution in 2D or 3D space and through time. The results of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization can enhance our understanding of the formation processes of hydrothermal deposits, and can be used directly or indirectly in mineral exploration.

  15. Feldspar minerals as efficient deposition ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Yakobi-Hancock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dusts are well known to be efficient ice nuclei, where the source of this efficiency has typically been attributed to the presence of clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite. However, the ice nucleating abilities of the more minor mineralogical components have not been as extensively examined. As a result, the deposition ice nucleation abilities of 24 atmospherically-relevant mineral samples have been studied, using a continuous flow diffusion chamber at −40.0 ± 0.3 °C. The same particle size (200 nm and particle preparation procedure were used throughout. The ice nucleation behaviour of the pure minerals is compared to that of complex mixtures, such as Arizona Test Dust (ATD and Mojave Desert Dust (MDD, and to lead iodide, which has been previously proposed for cloud seeding. Lead iodide was the most efficient ice nucleus (IN, requiring a critical relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi of 122.0 ± 2.0% to activate 0.1% of the particles. MDD (RHi 126.3 ± 3.4% and ATD (RHi 129.5 ± 5.1% have lower but comparable activity. From a set of clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, non-clay minerals (e.g. hematite, magnetite, calcite, cerussite, quartz, and feldspar minerals (orthoclase, plagioclase present in the atmospheric dusts it was found that the feldspar minerals (particularly orthoclase, and not the clays, were the most efficient ice nuclei. Orthoclase and plagioclase were found to have critical RHi values of 127.1 ± 6.3% and 136.2 ± 1.3%, respectively. The presence of feldspars (specifically orthoclase may play a significant role in the IN behaviour of mineral dusts despite their lower percentage in composition relative to clay minerals.

  16. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102326 Cai Shuwei(Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanjing 210016,China);Zhang Fei Determination of Trace Tin in Geochemical Materials by Platform GFAAS(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,30(4),2009,p.297-300,3 tables,6 refs.)Key words:atomic absorption spectra,tinA platform graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry(GFAAS)method was established for the determination of trace tin in geochemical samples.By using of magnesium nitrate,palladium nitrate and ammonium nitrate selected as the matrix modifier,the optimum conditions of analysis were studied.The analysis results of the national geochemical standard samples determined by the method are coincided well with the standard values of the samples.20102327 Chen Sulan(Jiangsu Environmental Monitoring Center,Nanjing 210036,China)Progress on Determination Method of Molybdenum in Environmental Samples(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,33(4),2009,p.411-416,38 refs.)Key words:chemical analysis,molybdenumAccording to a long research on determination method of molybdenum in China,the author summarized the main determination methods of molybdenum for environmental samples.The methods in common use included photometry,catalytic polarography,flame atomic absorption spectrometry,graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry,inductively coupled

  18. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  19. «Con casa; familia y domicilio». Mercaderes extranjeros en Guipúzcoa durante la Edad Moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón Ruano, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la presencia de mercaderes extranjeros en Guipúzcoa durante los siglos XVI al XVIII. Comerciantes, procedentes de países como Portugal, Francia, Inglaterra, Flandes, Alemania, etc., que durante la Edad Moderna recalaron y se establecieron en los puertos guipuzcoanos, con la mirada puesta en el acceso a los mercados españoles y coloniales. Trata, por tanto, de analizar el método utilizado para asentarse y establecerse en los principales puertos guipuzcoanos, sobre ...

  20. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  1. Fluxo coronário desregulado durante reperfusão pós cardioplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICENTE Walter V. A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a demanda metabólica e a distribuição do fluxo coronariano na presença de fibrilação ventricular (FV, durante a reperfusão pós-cardioplegia. Foram colocados 15 suínos em circulação extracorpórea e submetidos a parada cardíaca cardioplégica sangüínea anterógrada hipotérmica intermitente, durante uma hora, seguida por reperfusão miocárdica controlada. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos (n=5, conforme estivessem em assistolia (Grupo 1 ou em FV de curta (Grupo 2 ou longa duração (Grupo 3, durante os dez primeiros minutos de reperfusão. Os valores do consumo miocárdico de oxigênio (MVO2, em ml O2/min/g (média ± erro padrão durante a reperfusão foram de 1,325 ± 0,144 (Grupo 1; 2,472 ± 0,208 (Grupo 2 e 2,469 ± 0,228 (Grupo 3. A diferença entre o MVO2 dos corações em assistolia e o dos corações em FV, quer de curta ou longa duração, foi significante (p<0,001. A relação entre os fluxos sangüíneos endo e epicárdico, bem como o fluxo sangüíneo coronário global (ml/mim/100g foram semelhentes nos 3 grupos. Os valores dessa última variável, em ml/mim/100g, corresponderam a, respectivamente, 169,3 ± 11,7; 185,0 ± 15,7 e 179,9 ± 13,2. Os resultados demonstram que a auto-regulação coronária está alterada durante a fase inicial de reperfusão pós criocardioplegia, pois a perfusão miocárdica não aumentou em resposta à elevação do consumo de oxigênio imposta pela FV. Essa constatação, de grande interesse clínico, sugere que a ocorrência de FV durante a fase inicial da reperfusão possa contribuir para o desenvolvimento de lesões teciduais em corações cujo fluxo coronário já esteja previamente comprometido, por obstrução coronária, distensão ou hipertrofia ventricular.

  2. Authigenic minerals: Biologically influenced and induced organomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupraz, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Organominerals are minerals precipitated by interactions with organic matter without enzymatic control. Organomineralization of authigenic carbonate minerals depends on two key components: (1) the "carbonate alkalinity engine" impacting the calcium carbonate saturation index and (2) the organic matrix comprised of extracellular organic matter (EOM), which provides a template for carbonate nucleation. The alkalinity engine can be "intrinsic" when microbial metabolisms increase supersaturation or lower the kinetic barrier of precipitation, or "extrinsic" when the physicochemical environment creates the conditions for mineral formation. The organic matrix produced by various communities within the microbial mats is known to influence nucleation, morphology and mineralogy of minerals through binding of cations. By playing with these two key components, three types of authigenic minerals can be formed: (1) a purely physicochemical precipitation on an abiotic substrate, (2) a precipitation "influenced" by the presence of an organic matrix but resulting from a physicochemical forcing (environmentally driven), or (3) a "microbially-induced" precipitation, in which both supersaturation and organic matrix are resulting from microbial activity. In this keynote, we will review important processes involved in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals in modern microbial mats and open the discussion on the potential use of authigenic carbonate minerals as biosignatures in the fossil record.

  3. Mechanism of mineral formation in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H C

    1989-03-01

    The mechanism of mineral formation in bone is seen best where active new bone formation is occurring, e.g., in newly forming subperiosteal bone of the embryo, in the growing bone of young animals, and in healing rickets where the calcification process in osteoid is reactivated. A large body of ultrastructural evidence, using conventional and anhydrous methods for tissue preparation, has shown convincingly that extracellular matrix vesicles are present at or near the mineralization front in all of the above, and that these vesicles are the initial site of apatite mineral deposition. Thus bone resembles growth plate cartilage, predentin, and turkey tendon in having calcification initiated by matrix vesicles. Once the calcification cascade is begun, matrix vesicles are no longer needed to support mineralization and are consumed by the advancing mineralization front in which performed crystals serve as nuclei for the formation of new crystals. The rate of crystal proliferation is promoted by the availability of Ca2+, PO4(3-), and the presence of collagen, and retarded by naturally occurring inhibitors of mineralization such as proteoglycans and several noncollagenous calcium-binding proteins of bone including bone-Gla protein (osteocalcin), phosphoproteins, osteonectin, and alpha-2HS-glycoproteins. New electron microscopic immunocytochemical findings in our laboratory suggest that the origin of alkaline phosphatase-positive bone matrix vesicles is polarized to the mineral-facing side of osteoblasts and may be concentrated near the intercellular junctions of human embryonic osteoblasts.

  4. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  5. La diplomacia del balón: deporte y Relaciones Internacionales durante el Franquismo * A diplomacia da bola: esporte e Relações Internacionais durante o Franquismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN ANTONIO SIMÓN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es el analizar el papel que representó el deporte en la política exterior del franquismo. Este trabajo realiza un recorrido por las principales etapas de la dictadura de Franco, analizando cómo los cambios en la estrategia diplomática del dictador influyeron directamente en las relaciones deportivas durante esos años. Al mismo tiempo, también se demuestra cómo el deporte será utilizado por el propio ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores de España para favorecer la imagen internacional del país y mejorar las relaciones diplomáticas. Junto con las fuentes bibliográficas y hemerográficas, cabe destacar la importancia que ha tenido en esta investigación la consulta de los fondos del ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores.Palabras-clave: Deporte; Franquismo; Política exterior. Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o papel que o desporto representou na política externa de Franco. Este trabalho percorre as principais etapas da ditadura de Franco, analisando como as mudanças na estratégia diplomática do ditador influíram diretamente nas relações desportivas durante esses anos. Ao mesmo tempo, ele também mostra como o esporte será usado pelo Ministério das Relações Exteriores da Espanha para promover a imagem internacional do próprio país e melhorar suas relações diplomáticas. Além das fontes encontradas na literatura e em jornais, destaca-se a contribuição do acervo de documentos de pesquisa do próprio Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros.Palavras-chave: Esporte; Franquismo; Política Externa.

  6. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  7. La infracción del debido proceso en procesos por terrorismo durante 1992 a 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Felices Mendoza, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    La presente investigación doctoral fue elaborada en el año 2006 y reformulada en diciembre de 2010, elegí el tema “LA INFRACCION DEL DEBIDO PROCESO EN PROCESOS POR TERRORISMO” porque durante siete años [1998 a 2004] trabajé en la Sala Penal Nacional para casos de Terrorismo donde tuve la oportunidad de presenciar el juzgamiento de procesados por este delito, como el caso Lori Berenson Mejía en el nuevo juzgamiento llevado a cabo por los Jueces del Poder Judicial, así como viajar a diversos Es...

  8. PATOLOGIA ENDOMETRIAL EN MUJERES CON SANGRADO ANORMAL DURANTE TERAPIA DE REEMPLAZO HORMONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi P,Marcelo; Berrios C.,Cecilia; Villaseca D.,Paulina; Arteaga U,Eugenio

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio para analizar la incidencia de patología endometrial en mujeres sanas posmenopáusicas que reciben terapia de reemplazo hormonal (TRH) y que presentan sangrado uterino anormal. Se estudiaron 188 mujeres posmenopáusicas que presentaron flujo rojo uterino anormal (irregular o excesivo) durante TRH con estrógenos y progesterona en diferentes esquemas (49% secuencial continuo; 39% combinado continuo; 12% secuencial discontinuo. Al 100% de las pacientes se les realizó en form...

  9. Sexismo y violencia corporal en el INEF R. Brest durante la dictadura

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo forma parte de un capítulo de la tesis doctoral: la cultura del Inef de Buenos Aires, durante la dictadura. En el instituto las alumnas se encontraban dominadas por una dinámica discriminatoria, basada en el arraigo de los estereotipos de género, profundamente implantados en el I.N.E.F, donde encontramos la preponderancia de un pensamiento hegemónico, de carácter androcéntrico, que presidía y hegemonizaba parte de la cotidianeidad del profesorado. En no pocas entrevistas realizad...

  10. La Educación de la Mujer Mexicana en la prensa femenina durante el Porfiriato

    OpenAIRE

    Morelos Torres Aguilar; Ruth Yolanda Atilano Villegas

    2015-01-01

    El artículo es producto de una investigación sobre las publicaciones mexicanas dirigidas al público femenino durante el porfiriato, las cuales desempeñaron una importante función educativa. El principal objetivo de la investigación es analizar, comprender, comparar e interpretar las principales propuestas que aparecían en estas respecto a la educación de la mujer, a partir de los artículos editoriales o de las columnas destacadas en cada uno de los medios. La investigación ofrece un panorama ...

  11. Comportamiento Sexual de Varones Durante el Embarazo: Casos en la Ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    José S. Sapién; Diana I. Córdoba

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo fue reportar el comportamiento sexual de varones en el embarazo, sus experiencias y significaciones. Participaron 6 hombres de la Ciudad de México, de 23 a 35 años de edad, casados, con escolaridad y ocupación distintas. Fueron entrevistados sobre sus experiencias sexuales durante la gestación de su hijo. Cada varón constituyó un caso: suspensión del sexo preservando un embarazo difícil de obtener; interrupción del sexo para cuidar a la pareja embarazada y no lastimar al bebé; dis...

  12. Efecto de la probabilidad de errores durante la acción de ataque de esgrima

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Cruz, C.; Giles, F.J.; Zingsem, C.; Rojas, F.J.; M. Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio ha sido comprobar el efecto que tiene la probabilidad de que surja el error durante la realización de una acción de ataque en esgrima, sobre los parámetros temporales de las respuestas de reacción (TRR) y la velocidad de desplazamiento del centro de masas (CM). Han participado 17 esgrimistas (14 hombres y 3 mujeres), con una experiencia en competición regional de más de cinco años. Para el registro de los datos, se han utilizado dos plataformas de fuerza, operando...

  13. CALIDAD DE VIDA EN PAREJAS DURANTE LAS ETAPAS DE CLIMATERIO FEMENINO Y MASCULINO

    OpenAIRE

    SALAZAR MOLINA, ALIDE A.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar factores que inciden en la calidad de vida relacionada con salud de las parejas durante las etapas de climaterio femenino y masculino. Metodología: Diseño descriptivo, comparativo y correlacional. La muestra estuvo integrada por 142 parejas formadas por mujeres entre 40-60 años, beneficiaria del sistema público de salud y sus parejas hombres entre 40-65 años. Instrumentos recolectores de datos: Cuestionario específico de Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia, Escal...

  14. OBTENCIÓN DE FRACCIONES ENRIQUECIDAS DURANTE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ACEITES ESENCIALES CRUDOS

    OpenAIRE

    María S Guala; Gustavo A. Pérez; Lorena P. Barducco; Alejandro R. Marsó; Heriberto V Elder

    2012-01-01

    La destilación por arrastre con vapor es uno de los métodos más utilizados para la obtención de aceite esencial crudo (AEC). Muchas aplicaciones requieren fracciones de AEC, enriquecidas en un componente o grupo de ellos, para lo cual se utiliza destilación al vacío. En este trabajo se propone realizar un fraccionamiento del aceite esencial crudo (AEC) durante el proceso de extracción por destilación con arrastre de vapor, para lo cual se colectaron distintos cortes, en lugar de una única mez...

  15. Consideraciones anatómicas durante la cirugía periodontal

    OpenAIRE

    P. Solano Mendoza; A. Bascones Martínez

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo hemos realizado una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura con el objetivo de esclarecer las consideraciones anatómicas que deben tenerse en cuenta a la hora de realizar cirugía periodontal, que posibles estructuras anatómicas podemos encontrarnos al elevar un colgajo y cómo podemos evitar la lesión de las mismas. También aportamos un breve repaso sobre conceptos y referencias anatómicas que los especialistas debemos tener presentes durante el manejo de los tejidos bla...

  16. Las bibliotecas públicas durante el primer franquismo: entre la continuidad y la ruptura

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Echalecu, Ana María

    2009-01-01

    En esta Memoria se analiza el concepto de biblioteca pública durante el primer franquismo, así como la organización bibliotecaria, los Centros Coordinadores de Bibliotecas, los diferentes tipos de bibliotecas públicas, así como el personal que las gestionó y sus instalaciones. Especial atención han recibido las bibliotecas municipales al estudiar el marco jurídico y su localización a través de una cartografía inédita.

  17. Bacterias en superficies contactadas durante las tomas radiográficas intraorales

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Guihan; Calderón-Ubaquí, Victor; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de bacterias mediante el análisis microbiológico en las superficies contactadas por el operador durante la toma y procesado de radiografías intraorales en diferentes momentos del día en el Servicio de Radiología Oral de la UPCH. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un muestreo en nueve superficies del servicio de radiología oral. Las muestras se tomaron en dos momentos por el mismo investigador; al inicio y al finalizar las actividades en el servicio, se realizó ...

  18. Las tesis doctorales de Farmacia defendidas en España durante el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Alonso, Aurora; Alcón Espín, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    El presente catálogo es el inicio de un proyecto destinado a crear el listado de los doctores graduados en la Universidad Central (ahora Universidad Complutense de Madrid) durante el siglo XIX, en las Facultades de Filosofía y Letras, Ciencias, Derecho, Medicina, Teología y Farmacia, y el catálogo de sus tesis doctorales. Este primer trabajo recoge los doctores y tesis presentadas en la Facultad de Farmacia, entre los años 1852 y 1900. El listado se organiza por fecha de lectura, apellidos y ...

  19. El cambio en el razonamiento bayesiano de estudiantes universitarios durante un semestre académico

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Cindy; Yáñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan los avances de una investigación que estudia el cambio en el razonamiento bayesiano en estudiantes universitarios que toman un primer curso de estadística. Se desarrolla un estudio longitudinal con 102 estudiantes. Se diseñan tres pruebas para evaluar el razonamiento, las cuales se aplican en momentos diferentes durante el semestre. Un análisis descriptivo de los resultados obtenidos muestra que la enseñanza de los conceptos de probabilidad condicional y teorema d...

  20. Factores asociados a la anemia durante el embarazo en un grupo de gestantes mexicanas

    OpenAIRE

    F Barba-Oropeza; JC. Cabanillas-Gurrola

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la anemia durante el embarazo en mujeres gestantes. Material y Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles; se revisaron expedientes clínicos y se realizó entrevista directa a embarazadas con parto ocurrido en febrero y marzo de 2005. Por cada paciente con anemia se seleccionaron dos controles de la misma base institucional. La muestra se determinó con la fórmula de comparación de proporciones modificada. Se buscaron asociaciones por medio de la razón ...

  1. Derecho y pasado reciente: juicios de lesa humanidad por delitos cometidos durante la última dictadura militar

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Laura Julieta; Espíndola, Alfredo Martín

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo proponemos una aproximación a la contribución que brinda el derecho en relación a la reconstrucción de los sucesos acaecidos en el marco de la última dictadura militar (años 1976-1983). Al respecto, resulta necesario precisar que en las últimas décadas en Argentina se constata una gran proliferación de estudios desde distintos campos de las ciencias humanas que intentan aportar herramientas de análisis de las masivas violaciones a los derechos humanos ocurridas durante el últi...

  2. Dose de Fenobarbital Durante a Hipotermia Induzida - Deveremos Mudar a Nossa Prática?

    OpenAIRE

    André M. Graça; Fernandes, Sónia; Sampaio,Isabel; Moniz, Carlos; Machado, Maria do Céu

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: O fenobarbital é um fármaco anticonvulsivante de primeira linha nas convulsões neonatais. No entanto, durante o tratamento com hipotermia induzida, têm vindo a ser levantadas preocupações com os níveis séricos obtidos devido a alterações na farmacocinética. O objetivo do presente estudo foi a avaliação dos níveis de fenobarbital em recém-nascidos tratados com hipotermia após terem sido tratados com doses diferentes de fenobarbital na sequência das necessidades individuais e de pro...

  3. durante la década de 1850: su impacto sobre el desarrollo del territorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Douglas Taylor Hansen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La serie de descubrimientos de oro en el Partido Norte de Baja California durante la década de 1850 repercutió en el crecimiento de la entidad.Aunque las fiebres de oro de este periodo no produjeron una gran bonanza, constituyeron antecedentes importantes para los hallazgos de las décadas posteriores. El flujo de gambusinos de Estados Unidos a la región se vinculó con problemas de seguridad y de orden interno, que constituyeron el desafío más grande para mantener la autoridad gubernamental en este partido fonterizo.

  4. Estrategias no farmacológicas para aliviar el dolor durante el proceso del parto

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori, A.L.; Vieira, F.; Almeida, N.A.M.; Bezerra, A.L.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Esta revisión de la literatura tiene como objetivo evidenciar la eficacia de las estrategias no farmacológicas para aliviar el dolor durante el proceso del parto, por medio de una investigación descriptiva exploratoria de naturaleza bibliográfica. Fueron rastreadas las producciones científicas con nivel de evidencia II, indexadas entre 1997 a febrero de 2009, en las bases de datos LILACS y Medline por medio de los descriptores “Dolor de parto”, “Dolor del parto” y “Proceso del parto” asociado...

  5. Monitoraggio del benessere animale e della tracciabilità del bestiame durante il trasporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Bonavitacola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Il documento presenta un progetto sperimentale il cui scopo è quello di realizzare un sistema di navigazione sul benessere animale durante il trasporto in armonia con il regolamento europeo (EC 1/2005. Il prototipo realizzato è costituito da componenti hardware e software. Una unità a bordo installata sui camion raccoglie e trasmette informazioni sul trasporto animale in tempo reale ad un database ricevente remoto. Per mezzo di una applicazione Web-Gis è possibile analizzare e monitorare le informazioni ricevute. Le architetture hardware e software sono illustrate sottolineando le caratteristiche dell'applicazione WEB-GIS.

  6. O livro Programa de saúde : um caso de censura durante a ditadura militar brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Reimao,Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Estão liberados para consulta alguns documentos produzidos por órgãos do governo durante a ditadura militar brasileira, entre eles, pareceres de censura sobre televisão, rádio, teatro, filmes, músicas, publicidades e impressos. Entre os cerca de quinhentos pareceres relativos a livros está o indicativo de veto a Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde , obra didática que propunha ações para que os alunos buscassem conh...

  7. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, N. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Fachgebiet Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    This first systematic survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, is currently being extended to neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals, like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we examine if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally to support the interpretation of pertinent experiments. A further facet of these studies is to account also for the dynamic nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamic simulations.

  8. Normal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, D.; R. Arumugam; Seilheimer, D.; Leblanc, A.; Ellis, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoporosis has been reported as a complication of cystic fibrosis (CF).
AIMS—To measure bone mineral density (BMD) in non-acutely ill adults and bone mineral content (BMC) in children with CF.
METHODS—We analysed data from 28 adults and 13 children with CF. Corticosteroid use was minimal for the year prior to study in both groups. Dual x ray absorptiometry was used to measure total body and regional bone mineral density in adults. In children, whole body BMC was...

  9. Applications of electrochemical techniques in mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yusheng; Sun, Fengyue; Xu, Yuanhong; Cong, Zhichao; Wang, Erkang

    2014-09-01

    This review, covering reports published in recent decade from 2004 to 2013, shows how electrochemical (EC) techniques such as voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiometry, coulometry, etc., have made significant contributions in the analysis of minerals such as clay, sulfide, oxide, and oxysalt. It was discussed based on the classifications of both the types of the used EC techniques and kinds of the analyzed minerals. Furthermore, minerals as electrode modification materials for EC analysis have also been summarized. Accordingly, research vacancies and future development trends in these areas are discussed.

  10. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  11. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  12. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  13. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  14. Characterisation of Kapiri Mposhi Aluminosilicate Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA G. XAVIER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites have become recognized as the most important authigenic silicates in sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin. Along with smectites and other clay minerals, they are sensitive indicators of geochemical reactions on rocks. However, there have been few investigations on the chemistry, origin, and applications of zeolites. This study aims to characterize the zeolite group of minerals with respect to composition, crystal structure and physical properties. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and wet chemical analysis have been used to characterize the Kapiri Mposhi aluminosilicate minerals. The characterization indicates that the major component in the mineral is calcium aluminium oxide. Loss on ignition was found to be 0.22%. Thermal analysis revealed the existence of an endothermic peak at 100-300oC due to dehydroxylation and this was accompanied by 30% mass loss.

  15. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  16. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  17. Predictions of mineral assemblages in planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, E.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that mineral compatibilities in the model system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 can be applied to deduce the mineral assemblages expected in planetary interiors and their variation with depth. In general, the available estimates of bulk composition of the terrestrial planets suggest that the terrestrial planets can be divided into two groups based on their predicted mineral assemblages. The terrestrial, Venusian, and lunar bulk compositions are expected to display the following sequence of mineral assemblages with increasing pressure: plagioclase lherzolite, spinel lherzolite, and garnet lherzolite. The sequences expected in Martian and Mercurian are different: spinel-plagioclase wehrlite, spinel lherzolite, and spinel-garnet wehrlite. These assemblages have a major influence on the compositions of liquids produced by melting of these planetary interiors, on the solidus temperatures, and thus on the nature of planetary differentiation and the types of magmas extruded at planetary surfaces.

  18. El comercio exterior durante la década revolucionaria: un acercamiento preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kuntz Ficker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es realizar un primer acercamiento sistemático al análisis del comercio exterior de México durante la década de 1910. Tal objetivo se ha visto obstaculizado en el pasado por la escasez de fuentes cuantitativas de procedencia mexicana para los años de la revolución. Para suplir esta carencia, este artículo recurre a las estadísticas comerciales publicadas por los principales socios de México durante estos años (Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Francia. A partir de esta información, y con base en una amplia bibliografía secundaria acerca del periodo, se analiza la evolución general del comercio, así como el comportamiento y la composición de las importaciones y las exportaciones a lo largo del periodo.

  19. MAESTROS Y ESCUELAS NORMALES EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO DURANTE EL RÉGIMEN FEDERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alarcón Meneses

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo da cuenta de uno de los principales actores del escenario escolar en Caribe colombiano: el maestro, quien ocupo un lugar central en el proyecto educativo propuesto por los liberales radicales durante el régimen federal. En efecto, para los liberales radicales la mejor forma de avanzar en la consolidación del régimen republicano pasaba necesariamente por el fortalecimiento de la instrucción pública, para lo cual era indispensable formar maestros en escuelas especializadas como las normales, las cuales también fueron establecidas en Cartagena, Santa Marta y Barranquilla durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. En efecto, las escuelas normales se constituyeron en el principal escenario educativo para la profesionalización del maestro, por lo cual historiarlas resulta clave para conocer las dinámicas de cómo se dio en la región el proceso educativo impulsado por los radicales, al mismo tiempo que ello nos transporta al interior del espacio escolar; es decir, más allá del discurso pedagógico y de la retórica de administradores y supervisores que muchas veces observaban las instituciones escolares desde afuera sin entrar en detalles sobre las prácticas educativas que allí tenían lugar.

  20. Estabilidade da polpa do Cereus jamacaru em pó durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arali da S. Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se avaliou a estabilidade do fruto do mandacaru em pó formulado com 10% de maltodextrina nas dextroses equivalentes (DE de 10 e 14, acondicionado em embalagens laminadas durante 50 dias de armazenamento em condições controladas (25 ºC e umidade relativa de 57,7%. Durante o armazenamento foram realizadas, a cada 10 dias, as análises do teor de água, atividade de água, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, cor e molhabilidade. Verificou-se que as embalagens laminadas não conseguiram impedir a absorção de água com escurecimento do produto. A atividade de água das amostras é considerada microbiologicamente segura em razão de ter atingido o valor máximo de 0,351. A molhabilidade do fruto em pó foi maior utilizando-se a maltodextrina com DE 14 com redução do teor de ácido ascórbico. Dentro de suas especificidades as dextroses apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes nas amostras em pó.

  1. Taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel K. Saad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el embarazo aumentan el metabolismo basal, el consumo de O2, la frecuencia cardíaca, el volumen sistólico, el volumen minuto y la volemia y disminuyen la tensión arterial y la resistencia periférica. Diferentes estudios han demostrado que durante este período la posibilidad de que ocurra una arritmia cardíaca o se produzca la exacerbación de una arritmia preexistente es mayor. No obstante, en su enorme mayoría carecen de importancia pronóstica tanto para la madre como para el feto. La taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho es una arritmia poco frecuente y su aparición se ha correlacionado con el aumento del tono adrenérgico. Se presentan los casos de dos pacientes que mostraron en el curso de la gestación reiterados episodios de taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho. Se analiza la asociación del embarazo con la ocurrencia de trastornos del ritmo cardíaco.

  2. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  3. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

  4. Wood-mineral wool hybrid particleboards

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiński, M. Ł.; Król, M. E.; Jaskółowski, W.; Borysiuk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to compound mineral wool with wood particles in the production of particleboards of reduced flammability. Three series of boards with various contents of mineral wool (10, 20, 30 wt%) were successfully manufactured using urea-formaldehyde resin as binder. Thickness swelling, mechanical and thermal properties as well as ignitability of the boards were assessed. It occurred that reduced ignitability is accompanied by a decrease in mechanical pe...

  5. Industrial mineral powder production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent annual output of major industrial mineral powders in the mainland of China has been more than 100 million t, accompanied by active development of such supporting technology as comminution, classification, separation/purification, and surface modification. In particular, the present paper reviews technologies for preparing ultra-fine particles involving dry and wet processing, modification and composition, calcination of kaolin clay, and processing of spherical/acerous industrial minerals.

  6. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  7. The Global Flows of Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogich, Donald G.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary review of the trends in worldwide metals and industrial minerals production and consumption based on newly developed global metals and minerals Material Flow Accounts (MFA). The MFA developed encompass data on extraction and consumption for 25 metal and mineral commodities, on a country-by-country and year-by-year basis, for the period 1970 to 2004. The data-base, jointly developed by the authors, resides with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as individual commodity Excel workbooks and within a Filemaker data management system for use in analysis. Numerous national MFA have been developed to provide information on the industrial metabolism of individual countries. These MFA include material flows associated with the four commodity categories of goods that are inputs to a country's economy, agriculture, forestry, metals and minerals, and nonrenewable organic material. In some cases, the material flows associated with the creation and maintenance of the built infrastructure (such as houses, buildings, roads, airports, dams, and so forth) were also examined. The creation of global metals and industrial minerals flows is viewed as a first step in the creation of comprehensive global MFA documenting the historical and current flows of all of the four categories of physical goods that support world economies. Metals and minerals represent a major category of nonrenewable resources that humans extract from and return to the natural ecosystem. As human populations and economies have increased, metals and industrial minerals use has increased concomitantly. This dramatic growth in metals and minerals use has serious implications for both the availability of future resources and the health of the environment, which is affected by the outputs associated with their use. This paper provides an overview of a number of the trends observed by examining the database and suggests areas for future study.

  8. Tax competition for mineral oils in EU

    OpenAIRE

    Lichterová, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis compares the tax competition in excise duty of mineral oil between the groups of the old and new member states of the Europian union. Is based on the result of the analysis for the mineral oils (unleaded petrol,gas oil, havy fuel oil and LPG). Based on this analysis assess whether there is the tax competition. The results of analysis shows that there is the tax competition for the mobile tax bases.

  9. Water-Signature Mineral Found by Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer, shows the presence of an iron-bearing mineral called goethite in a rock called 'Clovis' in the 'Columbia Hills' of Mars. Goethite contains water in the form of hydroxyl as a part of its structure. By identifying this mineral, the examination of Clovis produced strong evidence for past water activity in the area that Spirit is exploring.

  10. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood.

  11. Effects of Chinese mineral strategies on the U.S. minerals industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Menzie, W.D.; Morse, D.E.; Papp, J.F.; Plunkert, P.A.; Tse, P.-K.

    2006-01-01

    For more than two decades now, China has been undergoing rapid economic growth and industrialization. The industrialization and urbanization of the once rural, farming nation is leading to increased consumption of mineral commodities to build infrastructure and to make into consumer goods. This increased consumption has led to higher mineral prices, lower stocks and, in some cases, temporary shortages of minerals. Chinese mineral producers and manufacturers are responding by building capacity, restructuring and modernizing industrial sectors and establishing international network that compete with those of the United States and other nations.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  13. Effects of Replacing of Inorganic Trace Minerals by Organically Bound Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Status, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Commercial Grower-Finisher Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Xiong, Pingwen; Chen, Nana; He, Junna; Lin, Gang; Xue, Yan; Li, Weifen; Yu, Dongyou

    2016-10-01

    A total of 180 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; BW = 47.1 ± 4.8 kg) were used to investigate the effects of totally replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) by organically bound trace minerals (OTMs) on growth performance, tissue mineral status, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replicates (n = 10 pigs per pen) was used in this 69-day, 2-phase feeding trial. Experimental treatments were as follows: (1) a basal diet without trace mineral supplementation, (2) basal + ITMs (Fe, Mn, and Zn from sulfates, Cu oxychloride, and sodium selenite providing commercially recommended levels in China at 125, 22.5, 117.5, 30, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and 3) basal + OTMs (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from Bioplex and Se as Sel-Plex (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) providing levels identical to ITMs). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the treatments during the entire grower-finisher period. Supplementation with minerals, regardless of source, increased (P supplemented. Pigs supplemented with OTMs displayed greater activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px in the liver compared to pigs supplemented with ITMs. Dietary mineral supplementation to pig diets greatly increased (P mineral (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se) excretion in both grower and finisher phases. Fecal concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se excretion were lower (P supplementation than that in pigs fed diets containing ITMs. These results indicate that use of organic trace minerals, as well as no trace mineral supplementation, did not influence pig growth performance. Totally replacing ITMs by equivalent levels of OTMs could improve hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px activities and reduce fecal Mn, Cu, and Se excretion for grower-finisher pigs when supplemented at commercially recommended levels.

  14. Control of vertebrate skeletal mineralization by polyphosphates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Omelon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO(3(-(n are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/METHODOLOGY: The enzymatic formation (condensation and destruction (hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO(4(3- concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO(4(3- concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO

  15. [Occurrence relationship between iron minerals and clay minerals in net-like red soils: evidence from X-ray diffraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-Lie; Han, Weni; Ma, Yu-Bo; Li, Rong-Biao

    2013-04-01

    The high purity of clay minerals is a key factor to reconstruct the palaeoclimate in clay mineralogy, however, the existence of iron minerals (such as goethite and hematite) and organics lead to the intergrowth of clay minerals and other minerals, producing other mineral impurities in enriched clay minerals. Although the removal of organics in soil sediments has been fully investigated, the occurrence state of iron minerals remains controversial, hindering the preparation of high-purity clay minerals. Therefore, the occurrence relationship of iron minerals and clay minerals in Jiujiang net-like red soils of the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River was investigated using the sequential separation method, which provided some implications for the removal of iron minerals in soil sediments. The results indicated that goethite and hematite were mostly absorbed on the surface of hydroxy-interlayered smectite and illite in the form of films, and the rest were absorbed by kaolinite.

  16. Implementation plan for Bolivian Mineral Exploration Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkemo, Harold

    1978-01-01

    Bolivia ranks second among world producers of tin and antimony, and first in bismuth production. Mineral exports in 1975 were valued at $314.2 million, nearly 60 percent of the value of all exports, and petroleum product exports totalled nearly $157 million, or 30 percent of the total. Tin accounted for 58 percent of the total value of metallic mineral exports. The central government derived about 19 percent of its total tax revenues in 1975 from the mining sector. The mining sector consists of the large, medium, and small mining subsectors, a classification established by the government. Individual operations are referred to as large, medium, or small depending upon the subsector into which they are classified. All large mining enterprises are owned and operated by a government corporation, COMIBOL; the medium and small operations are privately owned. COMIBOL's exports in 1975 were valued at $171.8 million or 70 percent of the total mineral exports; the medium mines accounted for $55.5 million or 23 percent, and the small mines for $17.5 million or 7 percent of the total. The combination of high operating costs, low productivity, inadequate ore reserves, and insufficient risk capital for exploration and development has led to the realization that there is an urgent need to improve the situation for mining in Bolivia. Proposals are being studied to revise the tax code, a program is underway to evaluate selected mineral deposits for possible exploration and development, and programs are under consideration to encourage minerals exploration. A minerals exploration plan is proposed which would offer technical and financial aid to various segments in the minerals field. A program, estimated to cost between $2 million and $2.5 million annually, and to be operated by a new agency in the Ministry of Mining and Metallurgy, is outlined.

  17. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone: Column Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Dever, S.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.; Michael, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    While it is well known that organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from degradation, its impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Strong evidence has shown that the adsorption of OM to mineral surface accelerates the dissolution of some minerals, but these observations are limited to bench-scale experiments that focus on specific OM and minerals. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing OM sorption on minerals. Soil samples from two depths, 0-6cm and 84-100cm, were chosen to represent different soil OM content and soil mineralogy. Soil OM was removed stepwise by heating samples to 350℃ for different durations (0-6cm: 100% removed, ~50% removed, and no removal; 84-100cm: 100% removed and no removal). Pretreated soil samples were subjected to flow-through, saturated column experiments using 0.01M LiCl and 5%CO2/95%air gas saturated (pH = 4.5) influent solution. Each column treatment was run in duplicate under a constant flow rate (Darcy velocity ≈ 8cm/hr). All columns reached a steady state after 600~700 pore volumes at which effluent pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and element concentrations were constant. At the 95% significance level, the DOC from OM-present columns was significantly higher, as expected. Correspondingly, effluent pH was lower in higher OM content columns. The chemical denudation rates were calculated from the effluent concentrations of the elements of interest. For the soil columns from both depths, silicon (Si) leaching rate showed that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-3 times higher in OM-removed columns, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes suppress mineral dissolution. The N2-BET specific surface area (SSA) measurement also showed that the removal of OM increased SSA, which supported the idea that OM adsorption had decreased mineral exposure and thus decreased mineral dissolution. The leaching rates of some

  18. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  19. Biomimetic Mineralization of Recombinamer-Based Hydrogels toward Controlled Morphologies and High Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Chen, Xi; Fok, Alex; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Aparicio, Conrado

    2015-11-25

    The use of insoluble organic matrices as a structural template for the bottom-up fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites is a powerful way to build a variety of advanced materials with defined and controlled morphologies and superior mechanical properties. Calcium phosphate mineralization in polymeric hydrogels is receiving significant attention in terms of obtaining biomimetic hierarchical structures with unique mechanical properties and understanding the mechanisms of the biomineralization process. However, integration of organic matrices with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, different in morphology and composition, has not been well-achieved yet at nanoscale. In this study, we synthesized thermoresponsive hydrogels, composed of elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), to template mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals using a biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. Different from conventional mineralization where minerals were deposited on the surface of organic matrices, they were infiltrated into the frameworks of ELR matrices, preserving their microporous structure. After 14 days of mineralization, an average of 78 μm mineralization depth was achieved. Mineral density up to 1.9 g/cm(3) was found after 28 days of mineralization, which is comparable to natural bone and dentin. In the dry state, the elastic modulus and hardness of the mineralized hydrogels were 20.3 ± 1.7 and 0.93 ± 0.07 GPa, respectively. After hydration, they were reduced to 4.50 ± 0.55 and 0.10 ± 0.03 GPa, respectively. These values were lower but still on the same order of magnitude as those of natural hard tissues. The results indicated that inorganic-organic hybrid biomaterials with controlled morphologies can be achieved using organic templates of ELRs. Notably, the chemical and physical properties of ELRs can be tuned, which might help elucidate the mechanisms by which living organisms regulate the mineralization process.

  20. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  1. Fútbol y conflictividad sociopolítica durante la dictadura de Franco. Un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor García Lázaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación es ahondar la relación existente entre el fútbol y la conflictividadsociopolítica durante los períodos de dictadura. Para ello nos centramos en estudiar los desórdenespúblicos que tienen lugar durante y después del encuentro que enfrenta a la Unión Deportiva LasPalmas contra el Córdoba en el Estadio Insular el 4 de marzo de 1962. Nos basamos principalmenteen la documentación generada por las autoridades franquistas, como es el caso del Servicio de Informaciónde la Guardia Civil, la Dirección General de Seguridad y el Gobernador Civil de Las Palmas;la prensa oficial de la época y la de las organizaciones antifranquistas. Explicamos este conflicto comofruto de las condiciones económicas, sociales y políticas que se viven durante los años anteriores enla ciudad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, que generan un gran descontento entre todas las clases socialescon la dictadura imperante. De esta investigación se desprende el cariz nacionalista del conflictoy la importancia que el mismo tuvo para las autoridades franquistas, que emprendieron una serie deacciones para mejorar la situación de las islas.The aim of this research is to deepen the relationship between football and socio-political conflictduring periods of dictatorship. For this study we focus on public disorder occurring during and afterthe match pitting the Union Deportiva Las Palmas against Córdoba at Estadio Insular March 4, 1962.To do this we rely primarily on the documentation generated by the Francoist authorities, such as theInformation Service of the Civil Guard, the Dirección General de Seguridad and the Civil Governorof Las Palmas; the official press of the time and the propaganda of the anti-Franco organizations. Weexplain this conflict as a result of the economic, social and political conditions that is lived in the yearsbefore on the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, that generate a lot of discontent among all

  2. Ruralia, tradicionalismo y población en la puna de Jujuy durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bolsi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the population puneña during century XX is from the evolution of three central circumstances. First, it consists of which the society puneña, specially the rural one, has been, and largely it is it, ";a traditional"; society, that is to say, nonmodern, preindustrial, with social structure little differentiated, cultural guidelines differentials. The other is related to the process of joint between that traditional society and modern, the capitalist one, extra-puneña. The conjecture is that the consolidation of Capitalism in the Argentine Northwest from the last third of century XIX did not move nor replaced the traditional society: it coexisted with her during decades generating substantial changes in numerous aspects. Third it has to do with the action of the State: during the first decades of the XX it operated at least in the context of the positivismo, associated with the concept of development - nondistant to the one of progress. Through the progress, the traditional society transforms itself into a rational, secular society, with differentiated social structures.El crecimiento de la población puneña durante el siglo XX resulta de la evolución de tres circunstancias centrales. La primera consiste en que la sociedad puneña, especialmente la rural, ha sido, y en buena medida lo es, una sociedad "tradicional", es decir, no moderna, preindustrial, con estructura social poco diferenciada, con pautas culturales diferenciales. La otra se relaciona con el proceso de articulación entre esa sociedad tradicional y la moderna, capitalista, extra-puneña. La conjetura es que la consolidación del capitalismo en el Noroeste argentino a partir del último tercio del siglo XIX no desplazó ni reemplazó a la sociedad tradicional: convivió con ella durante décadas generando cambios sustanciales en numerosos aspectos. La tercera tiene que ver con la acción del Estado: al menos durante las primeras décadas del XX operó en el

  3. Inequidad salarial en Cuba durante el Período Especial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MUNEVAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la inequidad salarial en Cuba desde principios de la década de 1990 hasta 2004, durante y luego de lo que fue conocido como el «Período Especial». Específicamente, medimos la inequidad salarial a nivel sectorial y regional usando el componente intergrupal del estadístico de Theil y rastreamos los componentes cambiantes de este estadístico con el fin de proveer un resumen compacto de los cambios de carácter estructural acaecidos en la economía cubana durante este período. A nivel sectorial, los asalariados empleados en ramas económicas asociadas a la producción de bienes transables y programas estratégicos de la Revolución percibieron consistentemente salarios por encima del promedio nacional durante el período de estudio. Regionalmente, observamos que la principal línea de división entre sectores con salarios por encima del promedio y aquellos por debajo se explica por la presencia de atracciones turísticas: el incremento reciente de la desigualdad a nivel regional está asociado primordialmente a los cambios salariales en la ciudad de La Habana y la provincia de Matanzas.ABSTRACT: This essay analyzes the evolution of wage inequality in Cuba since the beginning of the 1990s to 2004, during and after the «Special Period». Specifically, we measure the wage inequality at sector and regional levels using the intergroup component of Theil statistics and we track the changing components of this statistics with the goal of providing a compact summary about the structural changes in the Cuban economy during this period. At a sector level, the wage employees of economic branches associated to the production of interchangeable goods and strategic programs of Revolution, gain consistently wages over the national average during the study period. Regionally, the main division between sectors with wages above the average and those below them is explained by the presence of touristic

  4. Reposição de nutrientes durante três cultivos de alface em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backes Fernanda Alice A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em estufa plástica na UFSM, de agosto a novembro/99. Avaliou-se cinco formas de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva com base na condutividade elétrica (CE, no sistema 'NFT' (Nutrient Film Technique e duas cultivares de alface: Regina e Deisy, cultivadas em bancadas de sustentação formadas por telhas de fibro-cimento revestidas com tinta betuminosa Neutrolâ. Foram dispostas 14 plantas por canal para cada repetição e uma cultivar em cada três canais, totalizando 84 plantas por bancada de produção. Comparou-se a eficiência de métodos de reposição de nutrientes na produção de alface, assim como a utilização da mesma solução, com reposição de nutrientes, durante três cultivos consecutivos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 5x2. Os resultados demonstraram que o desempenho das cultivares avaliadas não foi influenciado pelos métodos de reposição de nutrientes. A ausência de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva, durante um cultivo, permitiu maior produtividade da cultura, não se recomendando a reposição quando o objetivo for renovar a solução ao final do cultivo. As formas de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva, durante o primeiro e segundo cultivos, não alteraram a produtividade da cultura em relação à renovação completa da solução nutritiva ao final do cultivo hidropônico. Para a reutilização de solução nutritiva, recomenda-se a reposição de nutrientes sempre que a CE diminuir 50% da inicial, possibilitando a produção por pelo menos três cultivos.

  5. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTERCELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tovar-Franco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el período perinatal el cerebro utiliza sustratos alternativos a la glucosa para mantener su desarrollo, pues en este momento sus niveles están disminuidos. El acetato es metabolizado por las neuronas y los astrocitos durante la prelactancia. La utilización del acetato por estas células puede verse mejorada por lasreacciones fijadoras de CO2, algunas de las cuales participan en el mantenimiento de los intermediarios del TCA, que son reducidos por la producción y liberación de aminoácidos, suministrando los recursos para la producción de energía y sustratos que son compartimentados intercelularmente.Se estudió el efecto de la fijación de CO2 en procesos metabólicos intercelulares donde está involucrado el acetato. En incubaciones con neuronas y astrocitos de 7 y 14 días de cultivo, utilizando acetato (5 mM y [14C]-bicarbonato de sodio (10 µ Ci (500-1000 dpm/nmol, se determinó la incorporación en metabolitos marcados en células y en sustratos estables liberados al medio. Adicionalmente, se realizaron experimentos similares utilizando inhibidores como el aminooxiacetato (AOA, dicloroacetato (DCA, α-ciano-4-hidroxicinnamato (α-CN, butilmalonato (BM y bencenotricarboxílato (BT, cuantificando porcromatografía de capa delgada la concentración en el medio de incubación de alanina, aspartato, glutamato y glutamina.Los resultados indican que las neuronas tienen una menor capacidad para fijar carbonos en estructuras celulares, durante la prelactancia, pero utilizan mejor el acetato vía acetil-CoA mitocondrial (AceCS2 para la producción de energía y aminoácidos. En los astrocitos, estas reacciones favorecen la utilización del acetato vía citrato liasa y Acetil-CoA citosólica (AceCS1 para la producción de estructuras y sustratos utilizados por las neuronas, que para la producción de aminoácidos.

  6. [Assessment of lipid profiles and bone mineral density in renal transplant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth; Peña Amaro, María Pilar; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael José

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: las alteraciones del metabolismo lipídico y del metabolismo mineral óseo son trastornos frecuentes entre los pacientes trasplantados renales, lo que contribuye a la aparación de enfermedades matabólicas y cardiovasculares que ponen en peligro la integridad del injerto. Objetivo: describir y observar la evolución de las alteraciones de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) y las alteraciones lipídicas en una población de pacientes trasplantados renales. Material y método: en este trabajo se ha seguido a 119 pacientes de ambos sexos trasplantados renales, a los cuales se les realizaron mediciones pretrasplante y postrasplante durante cinco años de parámetros bioquímicos, mediciones antropométricas y de la densidad mineral ósea en columna lumbar, fémur y radio-cubital. Resultados: durante los cinco años tras el trasplante se produce un importante aumento de parámetros bioquímicos, IMC, dislipemia, diabetes e hipertensión arterial. A los seis meses existe un alto porcentaje de pacientes con DMO patológica, aumentando un 4,1% al año del trasplante. Conclusiones: tras el trasplante se produce un gran incremento de la hiperlipidemia que se asocia con un patrón característico de alteración de lípidos con elevación del colesterol total, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, lipoproteínas de alta densidad, así como el consiguiente aumento de los triglicéridos, a pesar del tratamiento con estatinas, lo que conlleva un aumento en los factores de riego de padecer diabetes, hipertension arterial y enfermedades cardiovasculares; además se produce una pérdida de masa ósea, lo que conlleva un alto riesgo de sufrir fracturas graves, poniendo en peligro el injerto renal y la calidad de vida del paciente.

  7. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  8. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Xianbiao Lin; Lijun Hou; Min Liu; Xiaofei Li; Guoyu Yin; Yanling Zheng; Fengyu Deng

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization i...

  9. 21 CFR 172.878 - White mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true White mineral oil. 172.878 Section 172.878 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.878 White mineral oil. White mineral oil may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) White mineral oil is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons,...

  10. Acumulación originaria: explotación laboral y generación de ganancia en la minería de México

    OpenAIRE

    Azamar Alonso, Aleida

    2016-01-01

    La tesis de investigación titulada: “Acumulación originaria: Explotación laboral y generación de ganancia en la minería en México” tiene como objetivo demostrar la existencia de la acumulación originaria como forma iterativa y necesaria para la generación del plusvalor en el sistema productivo capitalista, para ello se analizó el sector minero mexicano durante el periodo de 1980 a 2013. El concepto de acumulación originaria es de origen marxista y ha sido ampliamente debatido desde su present...

  11. Fractionation of mineral species by electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, J. D.; Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The fractionation of fine-grained aggregates into their major components is a problem in many scientific areas including earth and planetary science. Electrophoresis, the transport of electrically charged particles, immersed in a suspension medium, by a direct current field (Bier, 1959), was employed in this study as a means of separating simulated lunar soil into its constituent minerals. In these tests, conducted in a static analytical cylindrical microelectrophoresis apparatus, samples of simulated lunar soil and samples of pure mineral constituents were placed in the chamber; the electrophoretic mobilities of the lunar soil and the individual mineral constituents were measured. In most of the suspension buffers employed separability was indicated, on the basis of differences in mobility, for all the constituent mineral species except ilmenite and pyroxene, which were not efficiently separable in any of the buffers. Although only a few suspension media were employed, the success of this initial study suggests that electrophoresis may be an important mineral fractionation option in fine-grained aggregate processing.

  12. Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Subsurface Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2016-08-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has become a widely used technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater. Although peroxymonosulfate is not a common oxidant source for ISCO, its chemical structure is similar to the ISCO reagents hydrogen peroxide and persulfate, suggesting that peroxymonosulfate may have the beneficial properties of each of these oxidants. Peroxymonosulfate activation in the presence of subsurface minerals was examined as a basis for ISCO, and possible reactive species (hydroxyl radical, sulfate radical, and reductants + nucleophiles) generated in the mineral-activated peroxymonosulfate systems were investigated. Rates of peroxymonosulfate decomposition and generation rates of reactive species were studied in the presence of three iron oxides, one manganese oxide, and three soil fractions. The iron oxide hematite-activated peroxymonosulfate system most effectively degraded the hydroxyl radical probe nitrobenzene. Reductants + nucleophiles were not generated in mineral-activated peroxymonosulfate systems. Use of the probe compound anisole in conjunction with scavengers demonstrated that both sulfate radical and hydroxyl radical are generated in mineral-activated peroxymonosulfate systems. In order to confirm the activation of peroxymonosulfate by subsurface minerals, one natural soil and associated two soil fractions were evaluated as peroxymonosulfate catalysts. The natural soil did not effectively promote the generation of oxidants; however, the soil organic matter was found to promote the generation of reductants + nucleophiles. The results of this research show that peroxymonosulfate has potential as an oxidant source for ISCO applications, and would be most effective in treating halogenated contaminants when soil organic matter is present in the subsurface.

  13. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Jansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  14. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  15. European mineral statistics 2002-06 : a product of the World Mineral Statistics database

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, Linda; Brown, Teresa; Idoine, Naomi; Hannis, Sarah; Bide, Tom; Hobbs, Susan; Naden, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    European Mineral Statistics has over 300 pages of tables on minerals production and trade. Thirty two countries are covered including all the EU members, EU applicants, Norway and Switzerland. In the first section there are tables by country, followed by commodity tables with selected graphics and bullet points with information on use and prices.

  16. El programa integracionista durante el cardenismo. La diversidad cultural según Gamio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO CASTILLO RAMÍREZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan las propuestas integracionistas respecto a política indigenista y diver- sidad étnico-cultural trazadas por Gamio en Hacia un México Nuevo (1935 durante el cardenismo . En primer lugar, se estudia la relación de esta obra con el gobierno cardenista y el proyecto de nación; además, se describe el lugar de México respecto a los demás países de Amé- rica. Después, se indagan las valoraciones acerca de la heterogeneidad étnica y los modos de vida indígenas en el contexto de la modernización estimulada por el Estado. Finalmente, se muestran las relaciones de mu- tua dependencia y determinación entre nacionalismo, política y antropología.

  17. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  18. Formas de militancia en el Partido Comunista argentino durante la última dictadura miliar (1976-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Casola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza cómo la línea definida por el Partido Comunista durante la última dictadura militar en Argentina, el llamado a construir la “convergencia cívico militar”, se materializaba en los diferentes frentes de militancia y en las llamadas organizaciones de masas. En relación con éstas últimas el artículo se concentra en la actividad desenvuelta por la Unión de Mujeres Argentinas (UMA y la Liga Argentina por los Derechos del Hombre (LADH, dos organizaciones orientadas por el comunismo y que, sin embargo, se adaptaron de modo diferente al contexto dictatorial. De esta manera, este trabajo busca mostrar y comprender los alcances, límites y contradicciones de la línea partidaria. Palabras clave: Partido Comunista – militancia – dictadura militar – organizaciones de masas- legalidad

  19. Algunas consideraciones sobre el mercado laboral en España durante la crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Bernal, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar algunos aspectos de un hecho que hoy en día está en la cabeza de todos y es un gran problema para muchas personas, la situación del mercado laboral durante la reciente crisis económica. Atendiendo a la noticia aparecida el pasado día 5 de diciembre de 2014 en El País [1] y siguiendo a OIT (2015) [2], “La concentración del aumento del desempleo en las rentas más bajas ha convertido a España en el país entre las economías desarrolladas donde más ha aume...

  20. Hipertermia durante el fenómeno de El Niño, 1997-98

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M., Jaime; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia Lima, Perú.; Cabezas S, César; Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú; Maguiña V., Ciro; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Alexander von Humboldt”, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Valdivia M., Juan; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2003-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir el cuadro clínico y la evolución de los casos de síndrome febril presentados durante el fenómeno de “El Niño” de 1997-98, y presentar una revisión de la fisiopatología del cuadro de hipertermia. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en la ciudad de Chimbote, Ancash. Se definió como caso de síndrome febril: niños menores de 5 años con fiebre refractaria al uso de antipiréticos sin foco aparente de infección. En el análisis posterior se considera...

  1. Hipertemia durante el fenómeno de el niño, 1997-98

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Miranda M; César Cabezas S; Ciro Maguiña V; Juan Valdivia M

    2003-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir el cuadro clínico y la evolución de los casos de síndrome febril presentados durante el fenómeno de "El Niño" de 1997-98, y presentar una revisión de la fisiopatología del cuadro de hipertermia. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en la ciudad de Chimbote, Ancash. Se definió como caso de síndrome febril: niños menores de 5 años con fiebre refractaria al uso de antipiréticos sin foco aparente de infección. En el análisis posterior se considera...

  2. Deshidratación de banano y cambio químicos ocurridos durante el proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reyes de

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Como el banano es una fruta muy alterable, es necesario transformarlaa estados más estables para prolongar su conservación.Uno de los procesos más sencillos y fáciles de realizar es la deshidratación; en nuestro país ya se efectúa pero necesita una tecnificación y un estudio químico a fondo sobre los cambios ocurridosa los diferentes constituyentes de la pulpa de banano.En este trabajo se buscaron las condiciones óptimas en lascuales podría realizarse la deshidratación del banano, para que lapérdida de nutrientes fuera mínima, y se evaluaron los cambiosquímicos ocurridos durante dicho proceso.

  3. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcelén Reluz Carlos Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de ‘el niño’ (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  4. ORDEN, PODER Y CONTRABANDO EN EL CARIBE DURANTE EL MEDIO SIGLO ANTES DE LA INDEPENDENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Gutiérrez Meza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El Caribe se ha caracterizado históricamente por su diversidad, heterogeneidad e importancia geográfica para el comercio. Durante el medio siglo que precedió a la independencia este territorio adquirió una significativa y estratégica importancia a nivel mercantil que le permitió figurar como el centro de disputas entre las metrópolis europeas. Las poblaciones del Caribe por su parte desarrollaron prácticas sociales y estrategias económicas como el contrabando que en su vida diaria les permitieron beneficiarse del contexto político y económico que les rodeaba.

  5. El sinfonismo en Valencia durante la restauración (1878-1916)

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho García, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente trabajo aborda el fenómeno del sinfonismo en Valencia, desde el ámbito de la interpretación orquestal, durante el período comprendido entre 1878 y 1916. Los límites cronológicos vienen marcados, de una parte, por la fundación, en 1878, de la Sociedad de Conciertos de José Valls, primera agrupación orquestal valenciana que, históricamente, efectuó una significativa labor de difusión del género sinfónico en la ciudad del Turia; y, de otra, por la constitución, en 1916, de...

  6. La sexualidad en el cine español durante el primer franquismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Amador

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideramos que la imagen cinematográfica tiene un papel privilegiado para representar y crear (recrear la realidad y, en este sentido, es uno de los medios a través del que se cristalizan las representaciones intersubjetivas (miedos, ansiedades, deseos, obsesiones, etc. y se perpetúan los estereotipos que definen la vida cotidiana de la sociedad que produce esa imagen. De acuerdo con estos planteamientos, en este trabajo se ha interpretado el Cine como manifestación, y al mismo tiempo como configurador de la sexualidad de los español@s durante los años de postguerra, época en que el régimen de Franco intenta establecer un modelo de sociedad, política e ideológicamente unánime sobre la base de valores nacionalcatólicos.

  7. O desenvolvimento das mecanicas não-euclidianas durante o seculo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar como a mecânica foi influenciada pelo desenvolvimento da geometria não-euclidiana durante o século XIX. Este estudo parte das primeiras teorias das geometrias não-euclidianas, até o formalismo desenvolvido com a introdução da geometria diferencial não-euclidiana, e a geometrização da mecânica. Nesse contexto, estudamos como princípio de mínima ação, na mecânica, e o estudo das geodésicas, na geometria diferencial não- euclidiana, se mostraram relaci...

  8. Los destinos de las exportaciones y la neutralidad argentina durante la Primera Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Rayes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo fundamenta que la distribución geográfica prebélica de las exportaciones fue uno de los principales motivos que explican la neutralidad de la Argentina durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Para sostener nuestra hipótesis presentamos nueva evidencia empírica basada tanto en la corrección de precios de los artículos como en la distribución de los embarques “a órdenes”. Adicionalmente, caracterizamos las exportaciones argentinas a lo largo de la contienda considerando la composición de la canasta, los valores y el volumen de los productos y su distribución geográfica, para mostrar la dificultad de mantener la neutralidad en las relaciones comerciales argentinas de la época.

  9. El movimiento obrero cubano durante la Guerra de los Diez Años (1868-1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanovas Codina, Joan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El presente ensayo analiza un tema poco estudiado: las luchas de los trabajadores urbanos en Cuba durante la Guerra de los Diez Años (1868-1878. Varios autores —Aguirre, Hidalgo, Plasencia— dan a entender que no existió un vínculo entre los orígenes del movimiento obrero cubano en la década de 1860 y las importantes movilizaciones obreras de la década de 1880. Sin embargo, un estudio detallado del período de la guerra muestra que el artesanado de la isla consiguió seguir luchando colectivamente en defensa de sus intereses, lo cual es fundamental para comprender el espectacular crecimiento del movimiento obrero al finalizar la Guerra de los Diez Años en 1878.

  10. La CELAC durante el período 2012-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Durante los años 2012 y 2013, la Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC, ha desarrollado una labor tendiente a unir en una sola voz a los países de la región, a través de cumbres presidenciales y planes de acción en diversas áreas. El intercambio de opiniones y la formación de políticas para buscar soluciones a los grandes problemas que aquejan a la región, como el desempleo, la pobreza, la desigualdad social, las asimetrías regionales, la defensa de la democracia, la lucha ...

  11. DESHIDRATACION Y SOBREHIDRATACION VOLUNTARIAS DURANTE EL EJERCICIO EN EL CALOR: POSIBLES FACTORES RELACIONADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Solera Herrera

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos negativos de la deshidratación sobre la salud y el rendimiento han sido bien documentados. Recientemente, también se han documentado problemas por sobrehidratación. La presente investigación se hizo para estudiar los posibles factores que influyen sobre la ingesta voluntaria de líquido durante el ejercicio y determinar si existe relación entre el grado de deshidratación voluntaria y la creencia de que la ingesta de líquido provoca cólico. Para ello, se contó con 94 estudiantes universitarios jóvenes, varones, quienes se ejercitaron a un 60% de su FCmáx durante una hora, alternando cada 10 min. entre bicicleta estacionaria, subir y bajar un escalón, y una máquina simuladora de esquí. Esto se realizó en un laboratorio de ambiente controlado a 30úC, 70% humedad relativa. Durante el ejercicio se midió la ingesta voluntaria de una bebida deportiva, así como también las percepciones de calor ambiental, llenura estomacal, malestar gastrointestinal y palatabilidad de la bebida. Los sujetos fueron pesados desnudos y secos antes y después del ejercicio. Al final se les aplicó un cuestionario sobre la importancia de la hidratación, y sus creencias sobre el cólico. El equilibrio hídrico promedio fue de 0.14 ± 0.98% del peso corporal, con un rango entre -2.38% y 2.84%. La tasa de sudoración promedio fue de 1208.3 ± 381.7ml·h-1; y la ingesta de 1132 ± 610ml·h-1. Dos análisis de regresión múltiple determinaron que: (a los predictores más fuertes de la ingesta voluntaria de líquido fueron la importancia asignada a la hidratación durante el ejercicio (R2 = 0.13; p < 0.0005 y la percepción de llenura estomacal al minuto 25 (R2 = 0.08; p = 0.005; (b los predictores más fuertes del equilibrio hídrico fueron la ingesta voluntaria por kg de peso (R2 = 0.73; p < 0.0005, y la tasa de sudoración (R2 = 0.08; p = 0.006. No obstante, el equilibrio hídrico no estuvo asociado con ninguna de las percepciones, ni con las

  12. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guillermo Carcelén Reluz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de 'el niño' (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  13. Teores de nutrientes de dois cultivares de oliveira durante o crescimento vegetativo e o florescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoni Pereira de Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Para o planejamento de adubações, visando a manter os níveis de nutrientes adequados para as plantas, é importante monitorar seu estado nutricional durante as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, sendo a análise foliar o melhor método para avaliar os níveis de nutrientes na planta. Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar os teores de nutrientes em dois cultivares de oliveira, nas fases de crescimento vegetativo e na floração. Foram avaliados espécimes dos cultivares 'Grappolo' e 'Barnea', com dois anos de idade, obtidos a partir do enraizamento de estacas, plantadas no espaçamento de 5 m entre linhas e 3 m entre plantas. Utilizou-se o esquema de parcela sub-dividida, tendo na parcela o fatorial 2 x 2, sendo duas cultivares e duas fases de emissão fenológicas: plantas com brotações vegetativa e reprodutivas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e sete plantas por parcela. As amostras de folhas foram retiradas em quatro épocas: junho (na ocasião do plantio e repetidas em agosto, setembro e outubro, quando as plantas iniciaram a emissão de brotações vegetativas e de flores. Na fase de florescimento, a oliveira apresentou menores teores de nutrientes que as plantas em fase vegetativa. O cultivar 'Barnea', por seu hábito de crescimento rápido, apresentou menores teores de nutrientes, durante as fases vegetativa e reprodutiva.

  14. Nuevos datos y observaciones sobre la hacienda del concejo de Salamanca durante el tardofeudalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier INFANTE MIGUEL-MOTTA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vuelvo de nuevo sobre el fisco del concejo de Salamanca en los siglos de la Modernidad transcurridos algunos años desde la elaboración de mis tesis doctoral y de la aparición, no mucho tiempo después, del correspondiente libro. En aquella ocasión dediqué bastantes páginas a esta cuestión tal y como se planteó durante el siglo XVIII. Quizá convenga en el arranque de este trabajo recordar, siquiera sea de forma muy breve y sintética, lo más sustantivo de mi aportación de entonces. Comenzaba ocupándome con carácter general de las tres grandes líneas de acción de la monarquía borbónica sobre estos asuntos: primeramente, la reforma de la administración de los Propios y Arbitrios, llevada a cabo en el transcurso del siglo y no sólo en el reinado de Carlos III, que se saldó con una acentuada centralización de su gestión en el Consejo y en otras instancias de él dependientes así como con las consiguientes pérdidas de atribuciones al respecto por parte de los municipios; en segundo lugar, la presión fiscal sobre las rentas —y también en ocasiones sobre los mismos bienes— de los patrimonios concejiles, fundamentalmente bajo Carlos IV, motivada por la angustiosa situación de las finanzas regias durante esos años; por último, la política de repartos de tierras de los municipios en el reinado de Carlos III, sobre cuyas consecuencias aún nos queda mucho por conocer.

  15. La Educación de la Mujer Mexicana en la prensa femenina durante el Porfiriato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelos Torres Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es producto de una investigación sobre las publicaciones mexicanas dirigidas al público femenino durante el porfiriato, las cuales desempeñaron una importante función educativa. El principal objetivo de la investigación es analizar, comprender, comparar e interpretar las principales propuestas que aparecían en estas respecto a la educación de la mujer, a partir de los artículos editoriales o de las columnas destacadas en cada uno de los medios. La investigación ofrece un panorama que permite conocer las posturas más relevantes en el debate planteado en las revistas sobre la educación femenina. El método utilizado consistió en la revisión y análisis de la hemerografía de época, para lo cual fueron estudiadas diversas publicaciones, de las cuales se seleccionaron diez como las más representativas. Posteriormente se utilizó un marco teórico hermenéutico, el cual permitió analizar, comprender y posteriormente interpretar el proceso histórico, el discurso educativo y el contenido ideológico de los medios referidos. La investigación concluye que los contenidos educativos de las publicaciones corresponden al concepto de "educación informal"; asimismo, que existieron principalmente dos posturas antagónicas en torno a la educación de las mujeres: una conservadora, que recomendaba educarlas, y otra liberal o modernizadora, que proponía instruirlas. En este sentido, la principal hipótesis de la que se parte propone que ambas posturas trataban de determinar, por medio de la educación, el perfil que debía tener la mujer mexicana durante esa época.

  16. CASTIGO FEMENINO EN CHILE DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Neira Navarro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo permitió generar una serie de categorías de castigos femeninos, considerando que durante buena parte del siglo XIX la policía pudo aplicar "justicia correccional", es decir, sancionar delitos menores. De un universo de más de 32.000 arrestos efectuados en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile entre los años 1830 a 1840 y utilizando el criterio "femenino", el levantamiento logró una muestra que alcanzó al 12% del total. Los datos sistematizados permiten señalar que durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX el delito femenino fue parte importante de la actividad represiva en Chile y dio origen a un castigo relacionado a la Cárcel Correccional. Aunque también se observan otras penas como trabajo de casa formal o encierro en monasterios, forman parte de un circuito restrictivo en función del encierro de mujeres.The present article allowed to generate a series of categories of female punishments, considering that during a great part of the XIX century the police could apply "correctional justice", in other words, punish minor offences. In a universe of more than 32,000 arrest in the city of Santiago, Chile between the years 1830 and 1840 and using a "female" criteria, the uprising achieved a sample that reached 12% of the total. The systematized information shows that during the firt half of the xix century the female offence was an important part of the repressive activity in Chile and it gave origin to a punishment related to a correctional. Even though some other punishments were observed such a work in a formal house or monastery confinemet, they formed part of a restricting circuit functioning with the confinement of women.

  17. Estudio antropológico de redes sociales de madres adolescentes durante el embarazo

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    Lorena Pasarin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La atención de la salud incluye a diversos actores sociales, por ello en su estudio debe contemplarse el papel que adquieren los contextos socioculturales. El estudio de las redes sociales resulta conveniente para abordarlos. Este trabajo presenta una aplicación del análisis de redes sociales como complemento de abordaje metodológico al estudio de las prácticas y comportamientos relacionados con la salud de madres adolescentes durante el período prenatal. Utilizando la herramienta EgoNet, se analiza la estructura de las redes personales identificando redes integradas principalmente por familiares que brindan consejos y prestan ayuda instrumental, actuando como facilitadoras respecto a la realización de los controles de salud. La perspectiva de análisis de redes sociales permitió destacar el papel decisivo que cobran ciertas relaciones personales, funcionando como lazos eficaces que afectan significativamente el accionar de las adolescentes respecto a su salud durante el embarazo.The health care includes several social actors, this implies that its study should consider the role of the sociocultural contexts. The study of social networks is appropriate to address them. This paper presents an application of social network analysis as a complement of the methodological approach for the study of practices and health-related behaviors in adolescents mothers. This structure of personal networks is analyzed by EgoNet sofware. That structure is disscussed by identifying family networks that offer advices and provide instrumental assistance, acting as facilitators for the prenatal health controls. The social networks analysis perspective allows to emphasize the critical role acquired by certain personal relationships, which operate affecting significantly the health actions of the teenagers mothers during pregnancy.

  18. Crecimiento económico de China durante la crisis financiera mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Villezca Becerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito global, China se sigue haciendo cada vez más fuerte. La evidencia más contundente proviene de su sobresaliente desempeño económico durante los años 2008 y 2009 en el entorno de la crisis financiera mundial más grave desde la Gran Depresión de los años treinta. Aun cuando algunos de sus principales indicadores económicos muestran un crecimiento más lento durante estos años, la economía china experimentó una rápida recuperación, revirtiendo los efectos negativos de la crisis. En este contexto, el presente trabajo revisa los logros económicos y el manejo de su política económica para enfrentar la crisis e intenta explicar las razones de su éxito. El gobierno central implementó políticas fiscales y monetarias expansivas y aplicó un conjunto de incentivos económicos, a fin de impulsar la demanda interna y sostener el crecimiento económico frente a la reducción de la demanda externa. Como resultado, los aspectos fundamentales de la economía: el crecimiento económico, la producción industrial, el comercio internacional y la inversión extranjera directa, estuvieron mucho mejor que los del resto de las economías del mundo. La evidencia indica que las diferencias se deben a las características distintivas de su modelo de desarrollo, entre las que resalta el papel que juega la intervención del gobierno para implementar una economía dirigida, o guiada de mercado, en contraste con el libre mercado occidental.

  19. CINE, PROPAGANDA Y EL MUNDO DE DISNEY EN CHILE DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Purcell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia el fenómeno e impacto de la propaganda cinematográfica de Estados Unidos en Chile durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Se argumenta que la serie de proyectos fílmicos planeados y realizados por Estados Unidos durante el conflicto fueron parte de una diplomacia cultural que no estuvo escindida de los principales lineamientos diplomáticos trazados desde Washington. Por el contrario, queda de manifiesto la estrecha vinculación de la industria hollywoodense con el Departamento de Estado. El cine y otras formas de propaganda tuvieron una amplia difusión en el país, y contribuyeron a consolidar el mensaje de Estados Unidos entre la población chilena, independiente de reacciones negativas puntuales, asociadas a representaciones cinematográficas de Chile que hirieron sensibilidades identitarias de parte de la ciudadanía.This article studies the phenomena and the impact of propaganda film from the United States in Chile during the World War II. I argue that the series of film projects planned and created by the United States during the conflict were part of a cultural diplomacy that was not separated from Washington's main diplomatic guidelines. On the contrary the close connection between the Hollywood film industry and the Department of State is evident. Independent of specific negative reactions associated with representations that hurt Chilean identity, film and other forms of propaganda were largely circulated throughout the country and contributed to the consolidation of the United State's message within the Chilean population.

  20. Significados durante el puerperio: a partir de prácticas y creencias culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M. Prieto B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir el significado que le asigna la madre al cuidado cultural de ella misma y su recién nacido durante el puerperio, a partir de sus prácticas y creencias. Método: estudio con abordaje cualitativo de tipo etnográfico, realizado en Tunja, Colombia, en el que participaron ocho puérperas con parto normal y cuatro informantes generales, entre profesionales de enfermería y familiares de las puérperas. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando la guía de cuatro pasos de etnoenfermería de Leininger, y por medio de esta se identificaron códigos, patrones recurrentes, y temas principales. Resultados y discusión: el significado que le asigna la madre al cuidado cultural en el puerperio a partir de sus prácticas es diverso y está representado en cada uno de los cinco temas que emergieron del estudio: el poder secreto de las plantas, el peligro de la recaída, descubriendo el mundo de su hijo, el cuidado de sí misma, y alimentos protectores. En contraste con el modelo del sol naciente, los factores de la estructura social que tuvieron mayor influencia corresponden a las creencias, valores culturales y estilos de vida; así como el factor social de parentesco. Se identifica entonces el predominio del componente emic en el cuidado cultural durante el puerperio con relación al componente etic.

  1. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue

    2000-01-01

    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  2. Algunas propuestas metodológicas para el estudio de la Baja California durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX

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    Aidé Grijalva Larrañaga

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente constituye una interpretación en términos socioeconómicos de los acontecimientos bajacalifornianos durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, vinculando estos sucesos locales a las políticas centrales así como a los intereses extranjeros. Existen dos grandes vertientes de análisis en el estudio de este periodo de la historia bajacaliforniana. La primera vertiente está estrechamente vinculada con el estudio de la historia del sur de California y de los Estados Unidos. La otra vertiente habla de las especificidades que presentaba la península durante el periodo de estudio.

  3. Muerte celular y migraci??n de precursores microgliales durante el desarrollo de la retina de codorniz

    OpenAIRE

    Mar??n-Teva, Jos?? Luis

    1998-01-01

    Los objetivos de este trabajo han sido el estudio de los mecanismos de migraci??n y comportamiento migratorio de los precursores microgliales durante la migraci??n tangencial, la proliferaci??n celular durante el proceso de dispersi??n de los precursores microgliales, la entrada desde el cuerpo ciliar y el patr??n de migraci??n de los precursores microgliales en la periferia retiniana y finalmente un an??lisis de la relaci??n entre la muerte celular y la migraci??n de los precursores microgli...

  4. Modernización y cambio social en Bizkaia durante el siglo industrial, 1877-1975. Claves de un proceso

    OpenAIRE

    Zarraga Sangroniz, Miren Karmele

    2016-01-01

    375 p. El siglo industrial en Bizkaia desde 1877 a 1975 sirve como marco de análisis de los procesos de modernización social que experimentó la provincia, durante la Primera y la Segunda Industrialización. Los procesos de cambio de estructuras sociodemográficas con objeto de análisis en esta tesis. En concreto, a través de cuatro publicaciones que analizan la Transición de la Alfabetización y la configuración de las distintas ciudades de la Ría durante la Primera Industrialización. En un s...

  5. ¿Cognición semántica de alto nivel durante el sueño?

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    Agustín Ibáñez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudios neurocientíficos recientes que sugieren una mente activa durante el sueño contradicen la idea platónica del sueño como muerte parcial. Dichos estudios muestran que el cerebro discrimina estímulos complejos durante el sueño, sugiriendo que permanecen activos procesos de alto nivel. Ello genera interrogantes sobre los mecanismos del sueño, replanteando la relación entre cognición y consciencia.

  6. Superhydrophobic lignocellulosic wood fiber/mineral networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2013-09-25

    Lignocellulosic wood fibers and mineral fillers (calcium carbonate, talc, or clay) were used to prepare paper samples (handsheets), which were then subjected to a fluorocarbon plasma treatment. The plasma treatment was performed in two steps: first using oxygen plasma to create nanoscale roughness on the surface of the handsheet, and second fluorocarbon deposition plasma to add a layer of low surface energy material. The wetting behavior of the resulting fiber/mineral network (handsheet) was determined. It was found the samples that were subjected to oxygen plasma etching prior to fluorocarbon deposition exhibit superhydrophobicity with low contact angle hysteresis. On the other hand, those that were only treated by fluorocarbon plasma resulted in "sticky" hydrophobicity behavior. Moreover, as the mineral content in the handsheet increases, the hydrophobicity after plasma treatment decreases. Finally, it was found that although the plasma-treated handsheets show excellent water repellency they are not good water vapor barriers.

  7. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  8. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  9. Ectopic mineral formation in the prostate gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Moskalenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the data of cont emporary scientific literature regarding the ectopic mineralization in the prostate gland, its pathogenetic features are considered. The scientific literature of recent decades gives grounds to assert that the processes of concrement formation in the prostate gland are influenced by many factors, pathological mineralization can be realized by different mechanisms. They include chronic inflammation, stagnation fract ions in gland, reflux of urine from the urethra at intravesicle obstruction, malformation of prostate and seminal vesicles, specific inflammation, polymorphism of gene protein inhibitors of calcification. These mechanisms are interconnected, each of them may participate in the overall development of concrement fo rmation in the prostate. In recent years, due to improved instrumental diagnosis we observe a significant increase of the number of patients, who were found with pathogenic prostate gland biol iths, which requires more detailed and in-depth study of the mechanisms of mineral formation in the prostate.

  10. Biogeochemical interactions during the biobeneficiation of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, J.; Mudliar, P. S.; Mudliar, S. N.; Pandey, R. A.

    2009-04-01

    Mineral biotechnology is one of the wings of biotechnology involving integrated application of the knowledge and techniques of biochemistry, microbiology, genetics and chemical engineering to draw benefit at the technological level from the properties and capacities of microorganisms. It offers the possibility of recovering, refining and concentrating wide varieties of minerals for services essential to life and well being of mankind. It also helps in minimising the environmental damages with recourse to conserving the natural resources for future generation. The paper outlines possible microorganism-microorganism interaction, microorganism-mineral interactions and microorganism interactions with produced products of biobeneficiation especially with respect to copper waste tailings and coal containing pyretic sulphur. Keywords: Copper; Tailings; Coal; Pyrite; Thiobascillus ferrooxidans; Thiobascillus thiooxidans

  11. Volcán Poás: vulnerabilidad económica durante su cierre y espacio de preparación durante la calma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte González, Eliécer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se resumen algunas ideas para aportar a la discusión sobre vulnerabilidad y riesgo volcánico. Por razones actuales se abordará en mayor profundidad la vulnerabilidad económica de comunidades y grupos comerciales que dependen del normal funcionamiento del Parque Nacional volcán Poás. Se pretende, generar la inquietud acerca de la delicada dependencia que puede dar entre algunos comerciantes y la visitación turística al cráter activo. Si bien el interés por parte de nacionales y extranjeros, por visitar la cima es primarlo; otras alternativas turísticas en su entorno pueden reducir esa dependencia económica durante la reactivación y el cierre del volcán. Repentinamente las amenazas de un volcán, pasan a un segundo piano con respecto a las decisiones que se toman y a su impacto económico; provocando efectos en un segmento de la población comercial de la región. Se alcanzan algunas conclusiones que desnudan la necesidad de un compromiso colectivo entre organizaciones e instituciones en la región con aquellos actores que se declaran afectados con el cierre del volcá This essay summarizes some of the ideas to contribute to the discussion about volcanic vulnerability and risk. Due to current reasons, the area that will be more profoundly analyzed will be the one of economic vulnerability of the community and commercial groups that depend on the normal operation of the Poas Volcano National Park. The objective is to question the subtle dependence that could be among some merchants and the touristic visits to the active crater. The main interest from national and foreign visitors is to visit the top, other touristic options in the area could reduce that economic dependence during the volcano reactivation and closure. Suddenly, the volcano threats become less important in relation to the decisions that have to be made and their economic impact; causing effects into a sector of the commercial population of the region

  12. Mineral composition of basidiomes of Amanita species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, János

    2005-06-01

    Basidiomes of 43 samples of eight Amanita species were gathered from different habitats of Hungary. The mineral composition (22 elements) was analysed by the ICP method in three independent replications, and mineral compositions found as discussed and compared. The Amanita species analysed were very different in As-, Cd-, Cr-, Mo-, Mn-, Se- and mainly in V-content. Other elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, Sr, Ti, Zn) occur in the basidiomes in balanced concentrations. The K and P contents have the lowest differences. Summarizing all the data (n = 43), the average mineral status of species of Amanita can be deduced. The lowest variability measured was for K and P, and the highest for chromium, nickel and vanadium. Specific, significant accumulation was found only for vanadium, due to the previously demonstrated occurrence of a binding molecule 'amavadine' in the basidiomes of A. muscaria. Remarkable Cd-levels were estimated in A. pantherina and A. muscaria (11.4 and 12.3 mg kg(-1) D.M., respectively). The higher contents of other elements (e.g. K, practically in all species; Se in A. strobiliformis) are analytical facts but, not accumulations. The mineral compositions of the ectomycorrhizal genus Amanita, of litter decomposing Agaricus and of wood decaying Trametes were compared. Some significant differences were found (AsAmanita KTrametes; PAmanita > PTrametes) but it seems that the mineral composition of the basidiomes is practically independent of the ectomycorrhizal habit. The specificities of the fungi-tree symbiotic interactions are known, and well documented (higher uptake and transport of certain elements first of all of P), however, the differences found in the mineral components are due to other factors (e.g. substrates, accumulating ability) and not to the mycorrhizal status.

  13. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  14. Estimation of palaeohydrochemical conditions using carbonate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamiya, H.; Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Yuguchi, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito-Kokubu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term evolution of geochemical environment in deep underground is indispensable research subject for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because the evolution of geochemical environment would impact migration behavior of radionuclides in deep underground. Many researchers have made efforts previously to elucidate the geochemical environment within the groundwater residence time based on the analysis of the actual groundwater. However, it is impossible to estimate the geochemical environment for the longer time scale than the groundwater residence time in this method. In this case, analysis of the chemical properties of secondary minerals are one of useful method to estimate the paleohydrochemical conditions (temperature, salinity, pH and redox potential). In particular, carbonate minerals would be available to infer the long-term evolution of hydrochemical for the following reasons; -it easily reaches chemical equilibrium with groundwater and precipitates in open space of water flowing path -it reflects the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater at the time of crystallization We reviewed the previous studies on carbonate minerals and geochemical conditions in deep underground and estimated the hydrochemical characteristics of past groundwater by using carbonate minerals. As a result, it was found that temperature and salinity of the groundwater during crystallization of carbonate minerals were evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, pH and redox potential can only be understood qualitatively. However, it is suggested that the content of heavy metal elements such as manganese, iron and uranium, and rare earth elements in the carbonate minerals are useful indicators for estimating redox potential. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  15. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  16. Geoelectrical Signatures Of Microbial Stimulated Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personna, Y. R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; O Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.

    2007-05-01

    Bioremediation techniques are commonly utilized to address soil and groundwater contamination due to acid- mine drainage, industrial sources, and government nuclear weapon programs. One critical component of these efforts is the real time, spatially accurate monitoring of the remediation processes. For this reason non-invasive high resolution geophysical methods have been employed in the recent years to elucidate system transformations occurring during bioremediation. In our study, we performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of microbe-mediated iron sulfide (FeS) precipitation accompanying stimulated sulfate-reduction; a bioremediation technique currently utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. In order to monitor the biomineralization process, we used two geoelectrical methods - induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) - in conjunction with conventional geochemical measurements. The IP data showed significant anomalies associated with ongoing FeS mineralization accompanying microbial activity. The magnitude of the IP response can be considered a proxy for the mass of minerals accumulating in the pore space and may provide insight into the aggregation state of the mineralization. Additionally, strong SP anomalies developed during the mineralization as a result of the continuous redox state changes following the microbial induced mineral formation. Visibly black precipitates accumulated with the column indicating FeS precipitation, and high H2S content confirmed the observed geochemical and geophysical data. Overall, the results suggest that the IP and SP methods can be used to monitor the progress of the microbial induced mineralization process associated with the precipitation of insoluble metal sulfides, and indirectly monitor the microbial activity within the subsurface. These methods can be valuable tools to increase the efficiency of bioremediation techniques.

  17. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  18. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  19. Repercussões do exercício físico durante a gestação e da desnutrição proteica durante a gestação e lactação sobre o desenvolvimento e crescimento do fêmur da prole Effects of physical exercise during pregnancy and protein malnutrition during pregnancy and lactation on the development and growth of the offspring's femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra C. T. Monteiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treino físico imposto às ratas mães durante a gestação associado a uma dieta hipoproteica imposta durante os períodos gestacional e de lactação sobre o desenvolvimento e crescimento do fêmur da prole. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos machos Wistar, 90 dias de vida, foram divididos em quatro grupos: filhotes de mãe sedentária nutrida, filhotes de mãe sedentária desnutrida, filhotes de mãe treinada nutrida e filhotes de mãe treinada desnutrida, todos com n = 10. Treinamento físico em esteira durante 8 semanas, 5 semanas antes da concepção e 3 no período gestacional para as ratas mães dos grupos filhotes de mães treinada nutrida e treinada desnutrida. Indução da dieta hipoproteica às ratas mães durante a gestação e lactação para os grupos filhotes de mães sedentária desnutrida e treinada desnutrida. Após sacrifício, no 90º dia de vida, analisou-se peso, comprimento e conteúdo mineral ósseo do fêmur dos filhotes. RESULTADOS: Peso corporal, peso femoral e comprimento femoral diminuídos (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of physical training of mother rats during pregnancy associated with a low-protein diet offered during pregnancy and lactation on the development and growth of the femur of their offspring. METHODS: Forty 90-day old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: pups of sedentary nourished mothers, pups of sedentary malnourished mothers, pups of trained nourished mothers, and pups of trained malnourished mothers; all groups included 10 rats. Physical training on a treadmill for 8 weeks, 5 weeks before conception and 3 weeks in the gestational period for mother rats of pups of trained nourished mothers and pups of trained malnourished mothers. Induction of low-protein diet to the mother rats during pregnancy and lactation for the groups of pups of sedentary malnourished mothers and trained malnourished mothers. After the pups were sacrificed, on the 90th day of life, we

  20. The solubility of a metallic mineral with other coexisting minerals and the ore-forming processes of metallic sulfides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑况; 於崇文

    2001-01-01

    Most metallic minerals in ore deposits are sulfides. When a sulfide mineral coexists with rock-forming minerals, its solubility is distinctly different from itself alone. The change in dissolution character of a mineral with coexisting rock-forming minerals leads to particular geochemical be-havior. The concept of solubility of a metallic mineral with coexisting rock-forming minerals and its theory and model of calculation are put forward. Taking Tianmashan Cu-Au ore deposit of sulfide minerals in Tongling district as an example, solubilities of some metallic minerals with other coex-isting minerals, such as pyrite or chalcopyrite with quartz (representing sandstone) or calcite (rep-resenting limestone), are calculated. The results show the mechanism of ore-forming processes. As the ore-forming fluid flows through sandstone, it dissolves pyrite in the sandstone at first, then transports the iron and sulfur to the interface between sandstone and limestone and eventually precipitates them on the interface.

  1. Mineral exploitation and development in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    using immigrant and migrant labourers that work intensively while living in temporary quarters. The historic experiences of Greenland tell that a different, slower exploitation of mineral resources may contribute to social improvements and competence building thereby providing long-term improvements...... for the Greenlandic society. This point to a need for plans and the organisation of mineral exploitations that operate based on coupling local settlements and resources with mining and other forms of activities. This demands new perspectives on the content of social impact assessments as well as new criteria...

  2. Mineral replacement reactions and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Christine V.; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; King, Helen E.; Hövelmann, Jörn; Renard, François

    2016-04-01

    When a mineral is out of equilibrium with an aqueous fluid, reactions will take place in an attempt to reach a new equilibrium. Commonly in the Earth dissolution at a mineral-fluid interface initiates a coupled reaction involving dissolution and precipitation (Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014). This is a ubiquitous reaction during such processes as metamorphism, metasomatism and weathering. When rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes are in contact with aqueous fluids (typically NaCl-rich) resultant new phases are formed and elements present in the parent mineral are released to the fluid and therefore mobilized for transport elsewhere. This has been shown in a number of systems such as the albitisation of feldspars (Hövelmann et al., 2010) when a Ca-bearing plagioclase is replaced by albite (NaAlSi3O8). However during this reaction not only is Ca released to the fluid but most other minor elements, such as Mg, Pb, rare earth elements amongst others, are almost totally mobilized and removed in solution. This interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction has many implications for the redistributon of elements in the crust of the Earth. It is also of note that albitisation occurs often in areas of high mineralization, such as in the Curnamona Province in S. Australia (Au-Cu and Ag-Pb-Zn deposits) and the Bamble District of S. Norway. Secondly atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image these reactions at a nanoscale, especially at the calcite-fluid interface, such as the formation of apatite from phosphate-bearing solutions, and the sequestration of toxic elements, eg., Se and As. References Ruiz-Agudo E., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. (2014) Coupled dissolution and precipitation at mineral-fluid interfaces. Chemical Geology, 383, 132-146. Putnis C.V. and Ruiz-Agudo E. (2013) The mineral-water interface: where minerals react with the environment. Elements, 9, 177-182. Hövelmann J., Putnis A., Geisler T., Schmidt B.C., Golla-Schindler U. (2009

  3. Phase equilibria study of pseudobrookite type minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Pseudobrookite, is found in volcanic rocks, and the mineral armalcolite ((Fe,Mg)Ti2O5) found in the Apollo 11 and subsequent lunar samples seems to be unique to the moon. In plutonic rocks on the earth, ilmenite and rutile were found with what appears to be an equilibrium liquidus texture, while on the moon armalcolite often appears to be the primary liquidus phase among Ti-oxides. This suggests that total pressure may be a factor in the formation of these minerals, and a knowledge of the phase relations in this system yields information about the pressure under which a given magma crystallized.

  4. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  5. An Overview of Mineral Processing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲恒磊; 周廉; 魏海荣; 赵永庆

    2001-01-01

    The latest progress in mineral processing in China is described. It is also pointed out that the existing techno logy can not meet the needs of economic development. The combined challenges of poor resources, economical benefits and environmental pollution issues require further research to upgrade the separation efficiency economically. The me thods of mineral processing should play a more important part in waste treatment such as wastewater treatment, the re mediation of contaminated soil and the recycling of wastes. Biomineral technology will be utilised in the near future.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  7. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  8. Radioactive minerals - Multimedias strategies for their divulgation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Aldano, Ana; Fonseca, Pedro; Cabral, Tiago; Nobre, José

    2014-05-01

    The region corresponding to Sortelha-Penalobo - Bendada, located deep in the transition zone between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira in the central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, county Sabugal. This region is characterized by great mineral wealth combined with geomorphology of recognized landscape value. Under the scientific point of view, this region is the origin of the mineral sabugalite (HAl(UO2)4(PO4)4.16H2O) that was described by the famous American mineralogist Clifford Frondel (1907-2002) in the fifties of the 20th century. Uranium minerals of Sabugal region were also associated with the radioactivity studies made by the well-known French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934). In 2007, U. Kolitsch et al described the Bendadaite (Fe (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2 • 4H2O), which corresponds to a new mineral from the group arthurite. The mineral wealth of this region is responsible for a rich history of mining and to highlight the importance until the 1990s the extraction of uranium minerals. The main uranium minerals extracted were the tobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 12 H2O), the metatobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 8 H 2 O), the autonite (Ca (UO2) 2 (PO4 ) 2 • 12H2O-10) and sabugalite (HAL (UO2) 4 (PO4) 4 16H2O). Due to the high radioactivity of these minerals, their handling becomes infeasible for disclosure purposes. An integrated and multidisciplinary museological strategy aims to access 3D images by QR codes, using multitouch as the primary means of interaction with the user, and can handle even the virtual samples, access various magnifications and enjoy explanations supplied by a mascot, in a fun way. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and

  9. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization are decoupled in organo-mineral fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimüller, Carolin; Mueller, Carsten W.; von Lützow, Margit; Kreyling, Olivia; Kölbl, Angelika; Haug, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    To improve our comprehension how carbon and nitrogen mineralization are linked in soils, we used a controlled laboratory mineralization approach and compared carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the bulk soil and in soil fractions. Topsoil of a Rendzic Leptosol from a beech forest site near Tuttlingen, Germany, was fractionated into three particle size classes: sand (2000 to 20 µm), silt (20 to 2 µm), and clay (nitrogen mineralization dynamics, and assessed carbon respiration as well as nitrogen mineralization and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents. Soil organic matter in the incubated fractions was considered by a subsequent density fractionation. The chemical composition of selected samples was qualitatively evaluated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. When summing up the mineralization rates of the single fractions, the values for respired carbon equaled the bulk soil, whereas the mathematical recombination of mineral nitrogen in all fractions was significantly less than in bulk soil. Hence, carbon mineralization was not affected by the damage of the aggregated soil structure via fractionation, whereas nitrogen mineralization was reduced. Fractionation increased the surface area providing accessory mineral surfaces, which allowed new binding of especially nitrogen-rich compounds, besides ammonium fixation via cation exchange. Density fractionation revealed that organic matter in the sand fraction contained mainly particulate organic matter present as light material comprising partly decomposed plant remnants. The organic matter in the clay fraction was mostly adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Organic matter in the sand and in the clay fraction was dominated by O/N-alkyl C indicating low recalcitrance, but the C/N ratio of organic matter narrowed with decreasing particle size. These results also imply that the C/N ratio as well as the alkyl C to O/N-alkyl C ratio are not suitable to draw conclusions regarding biological decomposability of plant residues when

  10. Desempenho de vacas jovens nelore em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha suplementadas ou não com fósforo/cálcio e ração durante a seca Performance of young nellore cows in Brachiaria brizantha pastures supplemented or not with dicalcium phosphate and concentrate during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Franceschi Nicodemo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte dos problemas do rebanho de cria, incluindo baixa taxa de prenhez e baixos pesos à desmama, está diretamente relacionada ao consumo inadequado de energia e/ou proteína, ou a deficiências de minerais e vitaminas. Procurou-se estudar o efeito da suplementação de cálcio e fósforo, com ou sem proteína e energia, sobre o desempenho produtivo de vacas de cria em pastagem de B. brizantha cv. Marandu, durante a seca. Todas as fêmeas receberam mistura mineral completa nas águas; na seca, os tratamentos foram: mistura mineral completa, mistura mineral sem fosfato bicálcico com ou sem concentrado protéico-energético. Nas condições deste trabalho, a suplementação protéico-energética não teve efeitos significativos sobre o ganho de peso e a condição corporal das vacas, bem como sobre o peso dos bezerros ao parto e à desmama. O intervalo entre partos não diferiu entre os tratamentos, mas as vacas primíparas que receberam ração apresentaram menor número de dias vazios. A ausência de suplementação de P durante o período seco não acarretou prejuízos significativos nas taxas reprodutivas dos animais. Os efeitos de tratamento foram minimizados pelas boas condições das pastagens.Many problems of the beef herd, including low pregnancy rates and low weaning weights, are related to inadequate intakes of energy and /or protein, as well as to minerals and vitamins deficiencies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of beef cows supplemented with phosphorus/calcium with or without energy/protein during the dry season. All cows received complete mineral mixtures during the wet season; during the dry season, the imposed treatments were: complete mineral mixtures or mineral mixtures lacking dicalcium phosphate, supplemented or not with concentrate. In the present conditions, protein/energy supplement showed no significant effects on weight gains and body condition of cows, as well as on calf

  11. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Perez, C.; Miller, R. L.; Rodriguez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Models of the soil (''mineral'') dust aerosol cycle, embedded in climate and Earth system models, are essential tools for understanding the causal relationships and feedbacks between dust and climate. Many soil dust schemes in Earth system models use a simplified representation of soil dust aerosols, where the soil dust is distinguished by size bins or size distribution modes, with a globally uniform representation of the mineralogical composition of the particles. Although models with such a simplified assumption about the properties of soil dust particles have already significantly contributed to the understanding of the role of soil dust aerosols in climate, this is a limitation for a number of reasons: 1. The response of clouds and the large-scale circulation depends on the radiative properties like the single scattering albedo, which should vary with the mineral composition of the source region; 2. Chemical processes at the surface of the soil dust particles that form sulfate and nitrate coatings depend on the dust mineral composition; 3. The availability of soil dust minerals as cloud condensation nuclei depends on their hygroscopicity, which in turn depends on the mineral composition; 4. Fertilization of phytoplankton with soluble iron, a process that influences ocean carbon uptake, depends upon mineral types. We present a new version of the soil dust scheme in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE, which takes into account the mineral composition of the soil dust particles. Soil dust aerosols are represented as a mixture of externally and internally mixed minerals, such as Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Iron(hydr)oxide, Quartz, Feldspar, and Gypsum, as well as aggregates between Iron(hydr)oxide and each of the minerals. We test two approaches to constrain the mineral composition of the soil dust particles against data from measurements published in literature as well as measurements from Izaña (Tenerife). The comparison between modeled and measured data

  12. Boundaries of intergrowths between mineral individuals: A zone of secondary mineral formation in aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodskaya, R. L.; Bil'Skaya, I. V.; Lyakhnitskaya, V. D.; Markovsky, B. A.; Sidorov, E. G.

    2007-12-01

    Intergrowth boundaries between mineral individuals in dunite of the Gal’moenan massif in Koryakia was studied in terms of crystal morphology, crystal optics, and ontogenesis. The results obtained allowed us to trace the staged formation of olivine and chromite and four generations of these minerals. Micro-and nanotopography of boundary surfaces between intergrown mineral individuals of different generations was examined with optic, electron, and atomic force microscopes. The boundaries between mineral individuals of different generations are distinguished by their microsculpture for both olivine and chromite grains. Both minerals demonstrate a compositional trend toward refinement from older to younger generations. The decrease in the iron mole fraction in olivine and chromite is accompanied by the crystallization of magnetite along weakened zones in olivine of the first generation and as outer rims around the chromite grains of the second generation observable under optic and electronic microscopes. The subsequent refinement of chromite results in the release of PGE from its lattice, as established by atomic power microscopy. The newly formed PGM are localized at the boundaries between mineral individuals and, thus, mark a special stage in the ontogenetic evolution of mineral aggregates. Further recrystallization is expressed in the spatial redistribution of grain boundaries and the formation of monomineralic intergrowth boundaries, i.e., the glomerogranular structure of rock and substructures of PGM, chromite, and olivine grains as intermediate types of organization of the granular assemblies in the form of reticulate, chain, and cellular structures and substructures of aggregates.

  13. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Buchet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM, or

  14. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  15. Efeito de inoculante bacteriano sobre a qualidade da silagem e perda de matéria seca durante a ensilagem de sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso André de Faria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de um inoculante bacteriano comercial, contendo Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus faecium e Pediococcus acidactili, sobre a qualidade da silagem e perda de matéria seca (MS durante a ensilagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por dois tipos de silagem de sorgo duplo-propósito colhido no estádio farináceo: sem (controle e com inoculante; três posições dentro de cada silo (região do terço inicial, região central e do terço final, correspondendo a três períodos de coleta (52, 65 e 71 dias de fermentação e três repetições em cada posição. Cada repetição foi constituída por um saco de tela plástica de malha fina, contendo aproximadamente 4 kg de forragem, sendo a parcela representada por uma amostra de aproximadamente 1 kg de forragem. A silagem com inoculante apresentou menor teor de cinza (matéria mineral, nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido láctico e níveis mais elevados de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido. A silagem com inoculante não diferiu do controle em relação ao pH, à proteína bruta, energia bruta e porcentagem de perda da MS.

  16. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  17. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  18. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Maria C; Watanabe, Pedro H; Pascoal, Leonardo A F; Assis, Murilo M; Ruiz, Urbano S; Amorim, Alessandro B; Silva, Susana Z; Almeida, Vivian V; Melo, Gabriel M P; Robles-Huaynate, Rizal A

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix); 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements); 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements); 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements); and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements). Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  19. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  20. Organo-mineral interactions in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages: Impact on mineral reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanova, Anna; Kroll, Alexandra; Pena, Jasquelin

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microorganisms to precipitate biogenic birnessite nanoparticles is widely spread in the bacterial and fungal trees of life, with this process accounting largely for the formation of birnessite in nature. Birnessite minerals occur typically as nanoparticles that exhibit significant chemical and structural disorder. Furthermore, the mineral is embedded within a biomass matrix composed of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, where the biomass not only provides reactive surfaces but can mediate electron transfer reactions. The overarching question guiding our research is: How do nanoscale properties and admixing with microbial biomass modify the reactivity of Mn oxide minerals? In this study, we investigate the biomass-birnessite composites of Pseudomonas putida GB-1 biomass and δ-MnO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the structure and composition of the mineral fraction using X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical methods. To characterize the biomass fraction, we employed FTIR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances. Finally, we measured Ni(II) sorption isotherms at pH 6 and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra to determine the extent and mechanism of Ni sorption in the biomass-mineral composites and in biomass-only and mineral-only systems. This approach provided direct and indirect evidence for the extent of organo-mineral interactions in the composites, as well as a direct measure of sorption reactivity in the composites relative to biomass-only and mineral-only systems. We found that admixing of mineral nanoparticles with biomass reduced the reactivity of the edge sites of birnessite particles towards Ni(II) through the attachment of organic moieties to the mineral particles and/or modification of the assemblage surface charge properties. In addition, the interaction of biomass components with MnO2 particles leads to partial Mn(IV) reduction and

  1. Organic matter mineralization in marine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Vlug, T.; Van der Nat, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the reactions and biogeochemical processes that occur in the marine environment are related directly or indirectly to the mineralization of organic matter. Decomposition of organic matter is responsible for the recycling of essential nutrients, for the oxygen balance of the ocean and its sed

  2. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Rutledge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a specific type. Quebracho is most commonly used in industry as a method to separate fluorite from calcite, which is traditionally quite challenging as both minerals share a common ion—calcium. Other applications for quebracho in flotation with calcite minerals as the main gangue source include barite and scheelite. In sulfide systems, quebracho is a key reagent in differential flotation of copper, lead, zinc circuits. The use of quebracho in the precipitation of germanium from zinc ores and for the recovery of ultrafine gold is also detailed in this work. This analysis explores the wide range of uses and methodology of quebracho in the extractive metallurgy field and expands on previous research by Iskra and Kitchener at Imperial College entitled, “Quebracho in Mineral Processing”.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  4. Mineral resource of the month: thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on thorium. Thorium is a natural radioactive element that can be found with other minerals. It can be used to generate power, produce light and transmit energy. Thorium has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. This element was discovered by Swedish chemist and mineralogist Jóns Jakob Berzelius in 1828.

  5. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, RJ

    1998-01-01

    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state phy

  6. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  7. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based mi

  8. Oxydesulphurization of coal using trona mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the desulphurization of coal by oxydesulphunzation method using raw trona mineral was investigated. The experiments were carried out on a Turkish lignite sample which has both high pyritic and high organic sulphur contents. Some experimental parameters such as temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, concentration and time were investigated.

  9. Predicting complex mineral structures using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Chris E; Kob, Walter

    2015-10-28

    We show that symmetry-adapted genetic algorithms are capable of finding the ground state of a range of complex crystalline phases including layered- and incommensurate super-structures. This opens the way for the atomistic prediction of complex crystal structures of functional materials and mineral phases.

  10. LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this project is to test the leaching of Mineral Processing Waste (MPW) contaminated with heavy metals using scientifically defendable leaching tests other than TCLP. Past experience and literature have shown that TCLP underestimates the levels of metals such as oxo...

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  12. ROCKS&MINERALS; DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151619 Bao Xue(Gem and Jewelry Institute of Beijing,Ministry of Land and Resources,Beijing100013,China);Lu Taijin Application of Surface Contact Angle and Surface Tension Measurements in the Identification of Gem Materials(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254

  13. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  14. New Mexico Minerals Industry Locator System (MILS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This contains all Mineral Industry Systems in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the state of New...

  15. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  16. Lidar Methods for Observing Mineral Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuo SUGIMOTO; HUANG Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    Lidar methods for observing mineral dust aerosols are reviewed. These methods include Mie scattering lidars, polarization lidars, Raman scattering lidars, high-spectral-resolution lidars, and fluorescence lidars. Some of the lidar systems developed by the authors and the results of the observations and applications are introduced. The largest advantage of the lidar methods is that they can observe vertical distribution of aerosols continuously with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Networks of ground-based lidars provide useful data for understanding the distribution and movement of mineral dust and other aerosols. The lidar network data are actually used for validation and assimilation of dust transport models, which can evaluate emission, transport, and deposition of mineral dust. The lidar methods are also useful for measuring the optical characteristics of aerosols that are essential to assess the radiative effects of aerosols. Evolution of the lidar data analysis methods for aerosol characterization is also reviewed. Observations from space and ground-based networks are two important approaches with the lidar methods in the studies of the effects of mineral dust and other aerosols on climate and the environment. Directions of the researches with lidar methods in the near future are discussed.

  17. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  18. Rare earth elements and strategic mineral policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooroshy, J.; Korteweg, R.; Ridder, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Newspapers report almost daily on international tensions around ‘strategic’ or ‘critical’ minerals such as rare earth elements. The temporary freeze of rare earth exports from China to Japan in late 2010 in retaliation of the capture of a Chinese captain is but one example of the strategic use of no

  19. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila P

  20. Modeling optimal mineral nutrition for hazelnut micropropagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micropropagation of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is typically difficult due to the wide variation in response among cultivars. This study was designed to overcome that difficulty by modeling the optimal mineral nutrients for micropropagation of C. avellana selections using a response surface desig...

  1. Raman spectra of human dentin mineral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuda, H; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    1996-01-01

    Human dentin mineral has been investigated by using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Fluorescence and thermal problems were largely avoided by preparing dentin samples by grinding and ultrasonic agitation in acetone. The Raman spectral features were consistent with those of impure hydroxyapatite containing

  2. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  3. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass;

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  4. Yarlongite:A New Metallic Carbide Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Nicheng; BAI Wenji; LI Guowu; XIONG Ming; FANG Qingsong; YANG Jingsui; MA Zhesheng; RONG He

    2009-01-01

    Yarlongite occurs in ophiolitic chromitite at the Luobusha mine(29°5'N 92°,5'E,about 200 km ESE of Lhasa),Qusum County,Shannan Prefecture,Tibet Autonomous Region,People'S Republic of China.Associated minerals are:diamond,moissanite,wiistite,iridium("osmiridium"), osmium("iridosmine"),periclase,chromite,native irun,native nickel,native chromium,forsterite. Cr-rich diopside,intermetallic compounds Ni-Fe-Cr,Ni-Cr,Cr-C,etc.Yariongite and its associated minerals were handpicked from a large heavy mineral sample of chromitite.The metallic carbides associated with yarlongite are cohenite,tongbaite,khamrabaevite and qusongite(IMA2007.034). Yarlongite occurs as irregular grains,with a size between 0.02 and 0.06 mm,steel-grey colour,H Mohs:5 1/2-6.Tenacity:brittle.Cleavage:{0 0 1}perfect.Fracture:conchoidal.Chemical formula: (Cr4Fe4Ni)∑9C4,or(Cr,Fe,Ni)∑9C4,Crystal system:Hexagonal,Space Group:P63/mc,a=18.839(2)A,C =4.4960(9)A,V=745.7(2)A3,Z=6,Density(calc.)=7.19 g/cm3(with simplified formula).Yarlongite has been approved as a new mineral by the CNMNC(IMA2007-035).Holotype material is deposited at the Geological Museum of China(No.M11650).

  5. Explosion of Ultrahigh Pressure Minerals in Mantle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Wenji; YANG Jingsui; FANG Qingsong; YAN Binggang; ZHANG Zhongming

    2001-01-01

    @@ The microexplosion stucture of ultrahigh pressure minerals was found for the first time in podform chromitites within the mantle peridotite facies of Luobusa ophiolite along the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone.The explosion stuctures of high-energy silicate inclusions are commonly seen in thin sections (see figure).

  6. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set...

  7. Actividad ovárica durante el postparto temprano de vacas cebú en amamantamiento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henao Guillermo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la actividad ovárica durante el postparto temprano de vacas Cebú en amamantamiento, se determinaron las características del desarrollo folicular y lúteo durante los primeros dos meses postparto en cinco vacas de 5,3 ±1,6 años de edad y 383 ± 29,6 kg de peso vivo, que tuvieron el último parto normal. La investigación se realizó en el Centro "Cotové" de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede de Medellín, ubicado en el municipio de Santa Fe de Antioquia, correspondiente a una zona ecológica de bosque seco tropical (bs-T. A cada vaca se le practicó examen ultrasonográfico ovárico y determinación de la concentración sérica de progesterona por radioinmunoanálisis tres veces por semana y se le realizó detección de estros a partir del día del parto. La dinámica folicular durante el postparto temprano se caracterizó por un desarrollo precoz (desde el día seis postparto de ondas foliculares conformadas por cohortes de 6,0 ± 0,4 folículos antrales de los cuales se formó un folículo dominante (FD que alcanzó un diámetro de 10,4 ± 0,5 mm al día 12,8 ± 2,0. La duración promedio de las ondas foliculares fue 9,6 ± 2,7 días. Las características de los folículos dominantes y subordinados no presentaron diferencias (p>0,05 entre vacas. De las cinco vacas analizadas, tres presentaron su primera ovulación postparto al día 34,4 ± 12,3 sin signos de estro y dos de ellas presentaron una segunda ovulación con signos de estro antes de los 60 días postparto, para un intervalo interovulatorio de 19 ±5 días y un intervalo parto primer estro de 49 ± 8 días. El primer folículo ovulatorio midió 12,0 ± 0,8 mm de diámetro y fue semejante (p>0,05 al promedio de los diámetros de los demás Fds. Después de la primera ovulación se formó un cuerpo lúteo (CL de 16,7 ± 1,3 mm de diámetro, con una vida media de 11,3 ± 3,8 días y un máximo de 1,0 ± 0,3 ng/ml de progesterona. El CL formado después de la

  8. Respuesta de una cuenca de cabecera durante eventos de crecida (Aixola, País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigüedad, I.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity (T, FNU, discharge (Q, l/s and precipitation (P, mm are being continuously monitored in the gauging station located at the outlet of Aixola catchment (Gipuzkoa, 5 km2 since October 2003. Several data sets recorded during flood events occurred between 2003 and 2005 were used to estimate continuous suspended sediment concentration (SSC. Electrical conductivity was also measured in samples taken during runoff events. Several event (discharge, precipitation and suspended sediment concentration and pre-event (discharge and precipitation factors are calculated for all the events registered. With them a correlation matrix was developed. Good correlation between precipitation (P, discharge (Q and suspended sediment (SS variables is found in general but pre-event conditions don’t show correlation with event parameters. Analysis of SSC-discharge evolutions through the events showed that four different kinds of hysteretic loops can be observed in Aixola. Hysteretic loops have also been related to event and pre-event factors. Evolution of electrical conductivity of waters during events shows that the catchment has a considerable regulation capacity.

    La turbidez (T, FNU, el caudal (Q, l/s y la precipitación (P, mm se están midiendo en continuo en la estación de aforo situada en la salida de la cuenca de Aixola (Gipuzkoa, 5 km2 desde octubre 2003. Se han utilizado los datos recogidos en los eventos ocurridos entre octubre 2003 y octubre 2005 para establecer la relación turbidez-concentración de sedimentos en suspensión (CSS, y así, estimar las series continuas de CSS. Además, también se ha medido la conductividad eléctrica en muestras tomadas durante las crecidas. Por otro lado, se cuantificaron varios parámetros del evento (P, Q y CSS y anteriores al mismo (Q y P para todos los eventos registrados. Se observa un nivel significativo de correlación entre las variables de precipitación, caudal y sedimentos

  9. Desconforto e dor durante realização da mamografia Discomfort and pain during mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo Freitas Júnior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A mamografia é o método mais importante na detecção precoce do câncer de mama. Não obstante, o desconforto e a dor são queixas freqüentes durante o exame. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de desconforto e de dor durante a mamografia e identificar fatores relacionados com essas queixas. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo incluindo 2.164 pacientes, sendo que 996 previdenciárias e 1.168 da rede privada. Após o exame, a paciente quantificava a dor sentida, de acordo com uma escala linear analógica. O desconforto foi avaliado qualitativamente por análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: O desconforto foi a queixa de 90% das pacientes; dessas 12% referiram desconforto intenso ou intolerável. Apenas 2% do grupo estudado não apresentaram dor durante o exame. Os fatores associados à dor foram: idade da paciente, o uso de anticoncepcional (ACO, mastalgia prévia e pacientes privadas. O desconforto esteve independentemente associado ao centro de realização do exame (OR = 2,50; IC 1,64-5,17 e à mastalgia prévia (OR = 3,15; IC 1,96-7,12. A aceitabilidade de uma futura mamografia foi de 98%. CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres jovens (INTRODUCTION: Mammography is the most important method for early detection of breast cancer, however, patients frequently complain of discomfort and pain. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate how often discomfort and pain are felt during mammography and identify factors that may be associated to these complaints. METHODS: A prospective study including 2,164 patients recruited from public (996 and private (1,168 health services was carried out. After the imaging procedure, patients quantified pain using a linear analogical scale. Discomfort was qualitatively evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Discomfort was reported by 90% of the patients, and of these 12% rated the sensation as intense or intolerable. Only 2% of the women in the study group did not feel any pain during the procedure. Factors associated to pain were: age, use of birth control

  10. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  11. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  12. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

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    Mitrović Branislava M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable and fallow land in the area of suburban municipalities of Belgrade. The obtained results have shown that in the tested mineral fertilizers the measured activity of 40K ranged from 70 to 4590 Bq/kg, 238U from 18 to 1400 Bq/kg and 226Ra from 15 to 999Bq/kg. Average activities of natural radionuclides in arable land are: 626 Bq/kg for 40K, 54 Bq/kg for 238U, 55 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 55Bq/kg for 232Th, and in fallow land 596 Bq/kg for 40K, 54 Bq/kg for 238U, 54 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 53 Bq/kg for 232Th. Average values of radium radioactivity equivalent (175 Bq/kg and index of radiation risk (0,48, point out that in the tested areas there is no significant radiation risk for inhabitants due to terrestrial exposure. This investigation has also shown that current use of mineral fertilizers has not caused the increase of natural radioactivity in the tested arable land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003

  13. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Raudsepp, M.; Anderson, R. G.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon sequestration or disposal has been recognized as a necessary first step toward the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Of the proposed methodologies for carbon disposal, binding CO2 in carbonate minerals represents the most environmentally benign and geologically stable means of reducing atmospheric carbon levels. By some estimates, as much as 87% of the Earth's carbon is bound in carbonate minerals. Carbon sequestration seeks to accelerate the natural weathering processes responsible for carbon fixation in minerals. Atmospheric CO2 is being fixed in carbonate efflorescences forming in tailings from both inactive and active chrysotile mines. Our data suggest that microbial activity in tailings may mediate the precipitation of more thermodynamically stable hydrated magnesium carbonate phases. Carbonation of kaolinite-serpentine group minerals in ultramafic mine tailings represents a potential implementation of the carbon sequestration process. We have developed a protocol for verifying and quantifying carbon sequestration in mine tailings. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method and X-ray powder-diffraction data is used to determine the modal abundance of hydrated magnesium carbonates in mine tailings. Stable and radiogenic isotopes are used to fingerprint an atmospheric source for CO2 and to detect contamination by bedrock carbonate. Global implementation of carbon sequestration in ultramafic mine tailings has the potential to draw CO2 directly from the atmosphere at a rate of 10(8) tonnes of carbon per year. In situ sequestration in mine tailings bypasses the need to transport large quantities of tailings to industrial point sources and can be accomplished without high-pressure, high-temperature reactors. Mine tailings may, therefore, represent the optimal environment in which to pursue carbon sequestration in minerals.

  14. Biomarkers: how detect life on mineral matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Teresa; Brucato, John Robert; Pucci, Amaranta; Baratta, Giuseppe; Branciamore, Sergio

    2012-07-01

    Life Marker Chip (LMC) is a bioanalytical instrument on board of the ESA Exomars mission to detect specific organic molecules that may be associated with life on Mars. Observation of possible biomarkers is critical for the understanding of prebiotic evolution and to detect signature of past and/or present life on other extraterrestrial body. Biomarkers usually are associated with mineral matrix, so it is necessary to investigate the nature of the interaction of organic molecules with minerals. Our approach is to combine physical-chemical analisys (adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, surface area measurement, etc.) with FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in order to clarify the kind of interaction at molecular level between biomarkers and minerals. In particular we focus our attention on nucleobases that are the precursor of genetic material (DNA, RNA) with several minerals (MgO, forsterite, TiO2, hydroxylapatite, olivine) that mimic extraterrestrial materials. A second objective was to investigate the desorption processes in order to optimize the experimental procedure for the detection of biomarkers in the contest of LMC. In this study we have evaluated the effect of several parameters such as sonication and temperature on the extraction efficiency. Moreover because the desorption process strongly depends on the chemical nature of organics and minerals and on their own interaction, we have also evaluated the capability of different solvent mixtures (water, methanol, etc.) with different polarity and the use of surfactant (Tween 80) to extract previously adsorbed biomolecules. The results obtained could contribute to improve the biomarker extraction procedure in the LMC experiment.

  15. THE HISTORY OF BORSEC MINERAL WATER BOTTLING

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    G. B. TOFAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The History of Borsec Mineral Water Bottling. The mineral water springs of Borsec have been known to exist since ancient times. It started as a legend, presented by Orbán Balász, who mentions an author named Salzer. In his „Voyage Diaries in Transylvania”, Salzer recounts the discovery of healing springs in the area, and attributes it, like many other authors, to a Romanian shepherd called Gheorghe, who, suffering from ulcer, returning home one day, drank from one of the Borsec springs. Drinking the sour water, he felt better. Consequently, he remained there for a couple of days, drinking water from the same spot and curing his ailment. Written documents date back from the 16th century, when Bethlen Farkas, in the historical novel „Historia”, recounts that, in 1594, Sigismund Bathory, who resided in Alba Iulia, suffered from nervous exhaustion. His Italian doctor, Bucello, who knew about the curing effects of the Borsec mineral waters, prescribed a treatment using the water from the „Lobogó” spring. The water, transported to the princely estate in large covered barrels, eventually healed Sigismund Bathory. It is easy to see why, at the end of the 16th century, the mineral water of Borsec, with its miracle properties, was well known in Transylvania and at the imperial court of Vienna. The above mentioned spring, used from the 19th century onwards, for spas and for bottling, earned great renown, especially due to the high concentration of CO2 (over 2.5 g/l. The bottled sparkling water, due to its pleasant taste and its chemical stability, is the most sought after table water. This explains why, in most cases, the notion of mineral water is associated with „Borsec”.

  16. Traitement de la neuromyélite optique de Devic durant de la grossesse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouda, Moussa Toudou; Obenda, Norlin Samuel; Assadeck, Hamid; Camara, Diankanagbe; Djibo, Fatimata Hassane

    2016-01-01

    La neuromyélite optique de Devic est une pathologie inflammatoire démyélinisante du système nerveux central qui affecte électivement la moelle spinale, le nerf optique et les régions cérébrales à haute expression d’antigènes aquaporine 4. Il s’agit d’une pathologie auto-immune sévère due à des auto-anticorps dirigés contre l’aquaporine 4, à taux de morbidité et de mortalité élevé. Contrairement à d’autres pathologies inflammatoires notamment la sclérose en plaques ou polyarthrite rhumatoïde, la grossesse n’exerce aucune influence sur l’activité de la neuromyélite optique d’où la nécessité d’instaurer un traitement de fond durant toute la grossesse. La corticothérapie représente le traitement de premier choix de la neuromyélite optique durant la grossesse. D’autres traitements peuvent également être utilisés notamment le rituximab, certains immunosuppresseurs, les immunoglobulines. Le traitement par immunosuppresseurs ou rituximab est proposé lorsque la corticothérapie au long cours est contre-indiquée ou en cas d’inefficacité à celle-ci ou encore lorsque les effets secondaires sont intolérables. Les immunoglobulines sont administrées en cas de poussées sévères de la neuromyélite optique qui ne répondent pas aux bolus de methylprednisolone. Les immunoglobulines peuvent également être poursuivies seules à la dose 0,4g/kg/j toutes les 6 à 8 semaines jusqu’à l’accouchement. La plasmaphérèse est également une bonne alternative aux bolus de methylprednisolone lorsque les poussées sont très sévères. PMID:27800085

  17. Naos, clima y glaciares en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI

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    Prieto, María del Rosario

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es lograr una aproximación al clima y a los fenómenos de glaciación ocurridos en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI y parte del XVII a través de registros históricos. Se complementan los resultados obtenidos por investigadores de otras disciplinas paleoclimáticas en el área, verificándose si las fuentes históricas corroboran las conclusiones de esos autores, quienes postulan un intervalo muy frío entre 1520 y 1670. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los “diarios o relaciones de navegación” de los primeros marinos españoles que pasaron por el Estrecho, recopilados en su mayor parte en Archivos históricos españoles. A través de la técnica del análisis de contenido se verificó la estabilidad en el vocabulario referido al clima y los glaciares a lo largo de esas centurias y se calificó los eventos de acuerdo a su magnitud. Se determinaron diversas categorías de las cuales se han seleccionado precipitaciones sólidas y líquidas, temperatura, dirección del viento y ocurrencia de tormentas para analizar en este trabajo. Se estudió especialmente la presencia de témpanos en el Estrecho y las descripciones de los glaciares fueguinos y del sur de la Patagonia chilena como indicadores de bajas temperaturas. Se concluye que existen referencias directas a la presencia de témpanos proveniente de glaciares en el Estrecho, sólo en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI. El avance de los hielos supondría una acentuación de las condiciones de frío durante esa centuria, lo que puede ser corroborado por los datos de los navíos que consignan temperaturas estivales frías y muy frías en la vertiente pacífica. Estos datos coincidirían con los resultados de R. Villalba en cuanto a que el intervalo 1520 a 1670 fue uno de los más fríos de la Pequeña Edad Glaciar.

  18. O envolvimento paterno durante a gestação Father's involvement during the gestation

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    Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O período de gestação da companheira exige uma série de adaptações por parte do pai, que precisa se preparar para os novos papéis que deverá assumir frente ao bebê e à sua nova família. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar como se dá o envolvimento paterno durante o 3º trimestre de gestação. Participaram deste estudo 35 pais que esperavam seu primeiro filho, com idades entre 21 e 40 anos. Os pais foram entrevistados individualmente e as suas respostas foram examinadas através de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados indicaram que muitos pais estiveram envolvidos de diversas maneiras durante a gestação de suas companheiras, mostrando-se emocionalmente conectados à gestante e ao bebê. No entanto, alguns pais ainda encontravam dificuldades quanto ao envolvimento com seu filho, parecendo não percebê-lo como real e apresentando uma baixa ligação emocional com a gestação. Estes dados apontam para indícios de uma modificação quanto à paternidade já no período da gestação, a qual se encontra cada vez menos restrita ao universo feminino.The gestational period requires a series of adaptations from the father's side, who needs to prepare himself for the new role he will assume vis-à-vis the baby and his/her new family. The present study aimed at investigating father's involvement during the third trimester of gestation. Thirty-five fathers, aged 21 to 40, who were expecting their first child, took part in the study. The fathers were interviewed individually and their answers were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that many fathers were involved in different ways during their partner's pregnancy, being emotionally connected with the baby and their partner. However, some fathers still found difficulties concerning involvement with their child, seeming not to perceive him/her as real and showing low emotional connection with pregnancy. These data point to signs of change

  19. Cambios reológicos del queso Colonia durante el proceso de maduración

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    María José Crosa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El queso Colonia es un queso típico uruguayo, elaborado según los criterios de calidad y tradición quesera de los inmigrantes suizos radicados en la cuenca lechera del departamento de Colonia. En la actualidad no se reporta información publicada acerca de los cambios reológicos que ocurren en el queso durante su maduración. Su investigación y publicación aportan conocimiento para la difusión de un proceso que aún no presenta denominación de origen protegida. En el presente trabajo se midieron los cambios reológicos mediante el ensayo de relajación-compresión, durante el proceso de maduración realizado a 8 ºC y 85 % de humedad relativa hasta el día 13. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan la existencia de un cambio importante del comportamiento a partir del día 11 de maduración, momento en que ocurre un notorio ablandamiento del queso. Esto concuerda con la práctica industrial que tradicionalmente realiza el cambio de los quesos para continuar su maduración en cámara caliente a partir del onceavo día. Este estudio demuestra la importancia de esperar hasta el onceavo día para asegurar la elasticidad necesaria en el queso para una adecuada formación de ojos en la cámara caliente.Abstract“Colonia” cheese is a typical Uruguayan cheese, elaborated following the quality standards and cheese making tradition of the swiss inmigrants established at the uruguayan department of Colonia and sourrondings. Actually there is no available information about the reological changes that happen in this kind of cheese during its ripeness. The study and publication of this process (which does not present a protected designation of origin (DOP yet gives knowledge for its spread.Rheological changes were analyzed with the stress relaxation test along the ripeness process made at 8 ºC and a humidity of 85 % until the 13th day. The results indicate that an important performance change exists after the 11th ripeness day, where a remarkable

  20. Catalans i genovesos durant el segle XIII: El declivi d'una amistat

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    Ferrer i Mallol, Maria Teresa

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Catalano-Genoese friendship was forged as a result of their joint struggle against Islam in the Xllth century and was maintained during the Xlllth century, in spite of the Catalan maritime expansion that might have become a rivalry for Genoa. The friendship and cooperation was made evident in the granting of commercial franchises to the Genoese who were trading in Catalonia and in the lands they subsequently conquered. Catalans, for their part, had the same commercial franchises in Genoa and in the districts under their control. The war of Genoa against Pisa led as a consequence to an increase of maritime conflict between Catalan and Genoese, especially during the two last decades of Xlllth century, due to the major presence of Catalans in the Pisan ports and the transport of goods for Pisa, at that moment when Genoa was trying to block Pisa. All during the reign of James II, the alienation of the two competitors grew until it led to war. All these points are analyzed in the article in the light of unpublished records.[fr] L'amitié catalano-génoise s'est forgée dans la lutte conjointe contre l'Islam au XIIᵉ siècle et s'est maintenue durant le XIIIᵉ siècle, malgré l'expansion maritime catalane, qui pouvait représenter une concurrence pour Gênes. L'amitié et la collaboration se sont traduites par l'octroi de franchises commerciales pour les Génois en Catalogne, étendues aux territoires conquis postérieurement, et qu'eurent leur pendant à Gênes et dans sa zone d'influence, pour les Catalans. La guerre de Gênes contre Pise entraîna une recrudescence des incidents maritimes entre Catalans et Génois, à partir des années 1280, en raison de la fréquentation dels ports sous juridiction pisane et du transport de marchandises pour Pise, par les Catalans, au moment où Gênes tentait de neutraliser cette ville. Durant le règne de Jacques II, commença une distance politique qui dégénéra en guerre. Ces éléments sont analys

  1. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTRACELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

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    B. Barrios-Socha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En la transición a la vida extrauterina, el recién nacido sufre un período de ayuno (prelactancia que transcurre entre el cese de la nutrición placentaria y la instauración de la lactancia. El gasto de energía por las neuronas es tan alto en estas circunstancias, que la glucogenólisis es incapaz de restablecer los niveles de glucosa en la sangre. En consecuencia, durante la prelactancia debe haber otros sustratos energéticos y lipogénicos, que adicionalmente ayuden a mantener la síntesis de neurotransmisores.Este trabajo establece la importancia de acetato en el metabolismo oxidativo y del lipogénico en neuronas durante la prelactancia. Se determinaron las velocidades de oxidación y lipogénesis en cultivos quiescentes de neuronas fetales de rata incubadas con acetato (5 mM, [1- 14C]-acetato, [2- 14C]-acetato y [U- 14C]-acetato(200-300dpm/nmol Adicionalmente, se utilizaron inhibidores enzimáticos como el dicloroacetato(1 mM y el aminooxiacetato (5 mM, e inhibidores del transporte como el α-ciano-4-hidroxicinnamato(2 mM, butilmalonato (5 mM y 1,2,3-bencenotricarboxilato (5 mM.Los resultados en su conjunto indican que las neuronas pueden metabolizar acetato más como sustrato energético que lipogénico, lo que nos permite pensar que este sustrato puede llegar a ser más importante para ayudar a mantener el metabolismo oxidativo, favoreciendo el reciclaje de carbonos en la prelactancia.Adicionalmente, se evidenció con el uso de [1-14C]-acetato una alta actividad anaplerótica sobre todo cuando las neuronas requieren mantener los reservorios de oxalacetato y acetil-CoA para mantener la respiración. Estos resultados señalan a la acetil-CoA sintetasa (AceCS2 y la enzima málica (mME mitocondriales, como enzimas claves para mantener el funcionamiento de las neuronas en la prelactancia.Con el uso de [2-14C]-acetato, los resultados sugieren que las neuronas tienen un alto requerimiento de carbonos, principalmente para la síntesis de

  2. La itinerancia de la corte de Castilla durante la primera mitad del siglo XV

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    Francisco de Paula CAÑAS GÁLVEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo intentará explicar las diferentes causas que hicieron del centro de la meseta el núcleo político y burocrático de la Corona de Castilla y León a finales de la Edad Media. Aquel espacio geográfico, comprendido en sus líneas generales entre Burgos y Toledo, concentró, efectivamente, una parte muy significativa de la actividad política e institucional de la Monarquía en un periodo de especial relevancia en la formación del Estado Moderno en tierras castellanas. Este largo proceso, si bien pergeñado durante los siglos XIII y primera mitad del XIV, únicamente se consolidaría tras la llegada al trono castellano de la nueva dinastía Trastámara, en especial durante los reinados de Enrique III y Juan II, alcanzando su madurez plena en tiempos de los Habsburgo con el asentamiento de la hasta entonces corte itinerante, y de buena parte de su aparato burocrático, en Madrid.Ce travail vise à expliquer les différentes causes qui ont fait du centre de la Meseta le noyau politique et administratif de la couronne de Castille et León. Cet espace géographique, compris grosso modo entre Burgos et Tolède a  effectivement concentré une part importante de la vie politique et institutionnelle de la monarchie à une période cruciale pour la formation de l’État moderne en terre castillane. Ce vaste processus, esquissé au cours du XIIIe siècle et de la première moitié du XIVe siècle, ne s’est consolidé qu’avec l’avènement de la nouvelle dynastie Trastamare, en particulier pendant les règnes d’Henri III et de Jean II, pour atteindre sa pleine maturité au temps des Habsbourg, avec la sédentarisation à Madrid de la cour jusque-là itinérante et d’une  bonne partie de l’appareil bureaucratique.

  3. Experiencias de las mujeres durante el trabajo de parto y parto

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    Dora Isabel Giraldo Montoya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Develar las experiencias de las mujeres durante el trabajo de parto y parto en una Unidad Materno Infantil de Medellín, durante el año 2013. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo, de tipo fenomenológico. Muestreo representado en la saturación teórica, con la participación de 13 mujeres a quienes se les aplicó la entrevista a profundidad. Se construyeron las categorías descriptivas, posteriormente se agruparon en categorías de orden axial y finalmente se obtuvieron las de orden selectivo para determinar las categorías núcleo. Se desarrolló la triangulación a través de grupos focales y la observación. El estudio obtuvo la aprobación del Comité de Ética y se utilizó el consentimiento informado por escrito. Resultados: Surgieron tres categorías principales: Los síntomas desagradables, La soledad y Yo quiero ver a Camila. Desde la teoría de rango medio de los síntomas desagradables, se encontró que el dolor, la fatiga y la sed son experiencias altamente significativas que comprometen el bienestar y la satisfacción materna. La soledad estuvo presente en todo el proceso, sin embargo el apoyo espiritual y la presencia del personal de salud fueron una fuente de acompañamiento. A pesar del sufrimiento y el dolor del trabajo de parto, el nacimiento las hizo olvidar estos acontecimientos y consideraron que el proceso del parto las reafirmaba frente a la adopción de su rol materno. Conclusiones: Se deben cambiar los métodos tradicionales de cuidado y propiciar otras formas de atención más humanizadas para que las mujeres asuman su rol de madres con seguridad y decisión.

  4. Effect of Active Mineral on Load-Bearing Autoclaved Aerocrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭苏萍; 王立刚

    2001-01-01

    Influence of ultrafine active mineral (DK mineral) on mechanical property of fly ash based load-bearing aerocrete was analyzed. The result shows that the addition of DK mineral in a suitable amount can enhance obviously the compressive strength of aerocrete. According to the SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses, the crystal shapes of hydration products are well developed and interlocked for samples containing DK mineral. Its microstructure is denser than that of the samples without DK mineral. Having a good activation, the DK mineral makes both the type and the quantity of hydrated products be obviously superior to that of the contrast sample.

  5. Espresso beverages of pure origin coffee: mineral characterization, contribution for mineral intake and geographical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2015-06-15

    Espresso coffee beverages prepared from pure origin roasted ground coffees from the major world growing regions (Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Cuba, Timor, Mussulo and China) were characterized and compared in terms of their mineral content. Regular consumption of one cup of espresso contributes to a daily mineral intake varying from 0.002% (sodium; Central America) to 8.73% (potassium; Asia). The mineral profiles of the espresso beverages revealed significant inter- and intra-continental differences. South American pure origin coffees are on average richer in the analyzed elements except for calcium, while samples from Central America have generally lower mineral amounts (except for manganese). Manganese displayed significant differences (pcountries of each characterized continent. Intercontinental and inter-country discrimination between the major world coffee producers were achieved by applying canonical discriminant analysis. Manganese and calcium were found to be the best chemical descriptors for origin.

  6. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

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    Khalil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  7. Abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez y revictimización de las mujeres mexicanas durante la edad adulta Physical and sexual abuse during childhood and revictimization during adulthood in Mexican women

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    Leonor Rivera-Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la asociación que existe entre el abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez y la violencia durante la edad adulta en una muestra representativa de usuarias de los servicios de salud en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos provenientes de una encuesta nacional, con una muestra de 26 042 mujeres mayores de 14 años, quienes acudieron a consulta a los servicios públicos de salud entre octubre de 2002 y marzo de 2003, en los 32 estados de la República. Se utilizaron dos modelos: a Modelo de regresión logística politómica múltiple para explorar las asociaciones entre violencia física y sexual por parte de la pareja y violencia durante la niñez. b Modelo de regresión logística múltiple para evaluar la asociación entre violación durante la edad adulta y violencia durante la niñez. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una asociación entre experimentar violencia física durante la niñez, y padecer violencia física y sexual por parte de la pareja o sufrir violación durante la edad adulta. Cuando la mujer informó que había recibido golpes "casi siempre" durante la niñez, era más probable que experimentara violencia física y sexual (RM=3.1; IC95% 2.6-3.7 y violación (RM=2.9; IC95% 2.4-3.6 durante la edad adulta. Además, mientras más frecuente había sido la violencia durante la niñez, era mayor la posibilidad de que la mujer sufriera violencia posteriormente. Asimismo, se encontró una asociación positiva entre violencia física y sexual por parte de la pareja y abuso sexual antes de los 15 años de edad. (RM=2.8; IC95% 2.2-3.5. La violación sufrida en la edad adulta también estuvo asociada al abuso sexual antes de los 15 años de edad (RM=11.8; IC95% 10.2-13.7. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia sufrida durante la niñez crea un cuadro de resultados negativos, tanto psicológicos como físicos, y uno de ellos es la revictimización. Es decir, las mujeres que son víctimas de violencia durante la niñez tienen

  8. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography

  9. Asupan vitamin, mineral, rasio asupan kalsium dan fosfor dan hubungannya dengan kepadatan mineral tulang kalkaneus wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Ramayulis, Rita; Pramantara, I Dewa; Pangastuti, Retno

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of osteoporosis as defined by bone mineral density (BMD) > - 2.5 below the average of young women in Indonesia is not yet known; however the risk for the prevalence of osteoporosis is relatively high. Nutrients especially micronutrients have an important role in maintaining bone status. Yet, until today millions of people have micronutrient deficiency in vitamin and mineral such as calcium, zinc and beta-carotene.Objective: To identify the relationship between intak...

  10. NRE58/2: Programaci??n del Plan de Control Interno, auditorias y otras actividades a desarrollar por la Oficina de Control Interno durante el 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2012-01-01

    Programaci??n del Plan de Control Interno, auditorias y otras actividades a desarrollar por la Oficina de Control Interno durante el 2012. Resoluci??n del Rectorado de la Universidad de Granada por la que se aprueba la programaci??n del Plan de Control Interno, auditorias y otras actividades a desarrollar por la Oficina de Control Interno durante el 2012

  11. Altered matrix mineralization in a case of a sclerosing osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Roschger, Andreas; Puchner, Stephan E; Dominkus, Martin; Sulzbacher, Irene; Windhager, Reinhard; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the tumor matrix mineralization of highly sclerotic osteosarcoma. We used quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) of a highly sclerosing osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia as well as adjacent normal bone of a 10-year-old girl following chemotherapy according to the EURAMOS-1 protocol. Data were compared to recently published normative reference data for young individuals. Backscattered electron imaging of the tumor region revealed a dense accumulation of mineralized tumor bone matrix (up to 90% of the medullar space). The BMDD was shifted tremendously towards higher matrix mineralization (CaMean +18.5%, CaPeak +22.5%, CaHigh +100 fold) compared to normal bone. Additionally the BMDD became much wider, indicating a higher heterogeneity in mineralization (CaWidth +40%). In contrast to lamellar bone, which mineralizes via a mineralization front, the mineralization of the tumor matrix starts by randomly distributed spots of mineral clusters fusing together to a highly mineralized non-lamellar bone matrix. We also found an altered BMDD of the patient's normal bone when compared with the reference BMDD of young individuals. In conclusion this high radiodensity region of the sclerosing sarcoma is not only due to the high amount of tumor matrix but also to its high mineralization density. Chemotherapy may lead to altered matrix mineralization of normal bone due to suppression of bone turnover. The mechanism of matrix mineralization in a sclerosing osteosarcoma warrants further studies.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  13. La influencia del manual en el pensamiento económico colombiano durante el siglo xx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mayor Mora

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso de los manuales en economía ha sido masivo en su profesionalización y ha repercutido en las ideas económicas colombianas. Durante el siglo XX se presentaron cuatro etapas; la primera de ellas se dio a inicios del siglo, cuando predominó el autodidactismo en los manuales franceses, entre profesores, políticos y hombres de empresa de Bogotá y Medellín. La segunda etapa se caracterizó por el contacto de algunos protoeconomistas con el pensamiento económico original en el exterior, lo que ocasionó el inicio de la crítica a la utilización de manuales. La tercera surgió con las primeras facultades de Economía, en los años 40, época en que se reemplazó el manual francés por el anglosajón neoclásico; y la última etapa se inicia desde 1980, cuando se hace una crítica coherente al manual y comienza la producción de textos “criollos”, que ofrecen facilidades pedagógicas con pensamiento teórico de vanguardia.

  14. LA EDUCACIÓN FEMENINA EN LA INDIA DURANTE LA ÉPOCA COLONIAL

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    Alejandra Val Cubero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de educación femenina en la India es un legado del colonialismo británico puesto en funcionamiento por las misioneras y por los grupos de reformistas indios a mediados del siglo XIX. Las misioneras trataron de propagar la religión cristiana a través de la educación y los reformistas abogaron por una educación siguiendo las tradiciones indias de respeto y sumisión, donde la espiritualidad y la sensibilidad no sólo diferenciaba las mujeres indias de las que no lo eran, también a las mujeres de las castas superiores de otras castas que no podían acceder a la enseñanza formal. Este artículo surgió durante mi estancia en la universidad de Jawahalhal Nehru en Delhi donde pude visitar instituciones educativas como el Victorian Institution. El método de investigación es el genealógico: retraernos al pasado para ver los cambios y transformaciones en los procesos sociales y educativos con el fin de comprender el presente. En la actualidad realizo un estudio sobre la educación femenina en la India en el siglo XXI.

  15. O SUPORTE SOCIAL DURANTE A TRANSIÇÃO FAMILIAR NO PÓS-DESASTRE NATURAL

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    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación cualitativa de base analítica-interpretativa que tuvo como objetivo presentar las percepciones de las familias sobre el soporte social en la transición del postdesastre natural. Fueron entrevistados seis núcleos familiares residentes en una localidad rural del Sur del Brasil, y que fue afectada por un desastre natural en el año 2008. Los datos fueron obtenidos en el 2010, a partir de la observación participativa, entrevista narrativa, genograma y ecomapa. Las narraciones obtenidas fueron analizadas siguiendo las etapas del método de Fritz Schütze. Los resultados revelan la ayuda recibida durante la fase de transición, la falta de ayuda esperada, el soporte emocional de familiares y amigos y los recursos recordados por las familias en sus ecomapas, los cuales tuvieron una importancia fundamental para la fase inicial de recuperación postdesastre. El estudio contribuye para la comprensión del contexto de recuperación de las familias y destaca la pertinencia del soporte social como un medio de enfrentar los cambios.

  16. Durante la administración de rojas pinilla 1953 a 1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Pacheco Vargas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, se basa en el proyecto de investigación sobre la evolución de las finanzas de la Universidad Pedagógica de Colombia en Tunja, durante los años de gobierno del tunjano, Teniente General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla. Se analiza así mismo, los antecedentes y disposiciones presupuestales, el origen de los ingresos recaudados y el destino de los mismos y el impacto en el desarrollo institucional especialmente en las nuevas dependencias y en las ya existentes, incorporadas con motivo de su creación; medible a través de la participación en el gasto ejecutado.Lo que finalmente, permite establecer el balance financiero de la institución. A manera de conclusión, se determina el costo real promedio por estudiante para cada año en la Sección Universitaria. En los años de 1955 y 1957, se comparan las dependencias, la proporción de estudiantes, el presupuesto ejecutado, el costo por alumno, el número de docentes y empleados, y los correspondientes índices de crecimiento. De esta manera, se calcula el costo por escolar para toda la institución, sin importar el nivel de enseñanza de la misma; confrontando los datos con los cálculos hechos por ASCUN-FUN.

  17. Salud publica impulsada por el Cabildo de Lima durante la Colonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ermila Rivasplata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante la Colonia, Lima era una ciudad con un hacinamiento que generaba todo tipo de basura y tenía problemas de disposición final de residuos sólidos, líquidos y gaseosos. El objetivo de este artículo es conocer desde una perspectiva cultural, a partir de las actas capitulares y fuentes secundarias, la activa participación del cabildo en la salud pública de la ciudad. El estudio permite descubrir un cabildo dedicado a la prevención de enfermedades, el control sanitario, el abastecimiento de la ciudad e incluso a la conservación de sus recursos. Así, los regidores supervisaban a través de comisiones los mercados, carnicerías, mataderos, molinos, panaderías, tenerías, pulperías y boticas. Sin embargo, estos y otros esfuerzos nunca fueron suficientes para mantener la ciudad limpia y libre de epidemias. 

  18. Analgesia e sedacao durante a instalacao do cateter central de insercao periferica em neonatos

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    Priscila Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar as estratégias de analgesia e sedação em neonatos submetidos à instalação do cateter central de inserção periférica (CCIP e relacioná-las ao número de punções venosas, duração do procedimento e posicionamento da ponta do cateter. Estudo transversal com coleta prospectiva de dados, realizado em uma unidade de cuidados intensivos neonatais de um hospital privado na cidade de São Paulo, no período de 31 de agosto de 2010 a 01 de julho de 2011, em que foram avaliadas 254 inserções do CCIP. A adoção de estratégias analgésicas ou sedativas ocorreu em 88 (34,6% instalações do cateter e não esteve relacionada ao número de punções venosas, duração do procedimento ou posicionamento da ponta do cateter. As estratégias mais frequentes foram a administração endovenosa de midazolam em 47 (18,5% e fentanil em 19 (7,3% inserções do cateter. Recomenda-se maior adoção de estratégias analgésicas antes, durante e após o procedimento.

  19. Clima y sociedad en Argentina y Chile durante el periodo colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARITA GASCÓN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las principales fluctuaciones climáticas globales en algunos territorios, que actualmente pertenecen a las repúblicas de Argentina y de Chile, durante el periodo colonial. Las colonias involucradas son Santiago, en Chile; y Mendoza, Córdoba y Buenos Aires, en Argentina. El periodo colonial inicia con la Pequeña Edad Glacial y sus condiciones de mayor frío y humedad; a mediados del siglo XVII fue notorio el Mínimo de Maunder; y, finalmente, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, se registró el Remonte Termal, caracterizado por el calor y la sequía. Prestamos atención a El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS en sus diferentes efectos locales. El objetivo principal es enriquecer las interpretaciones del pasado desde finales del siglo XVI hasta principios del siglo XIX, al aportar elementos referidos a la historia del clima. El eje del análisis es que el clima afecta los ambientes y los recursos naturales disponibles, la vida urbana y las rutas, de modo que no puede estar ausente de las diversas explicaciones del pasado colonial.

  20. Clima y sociedad en Argentina y Chile durante el periodo colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gascón

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las principales fluctuaciones climáticas globales en algunos territorios, que actualmente pertenecen a las repúblicas de Argentina y de Chile, durante el periodo colonial. Las colonias involucradas son Santiago, en Chile; y Mendoza, Córdoba y Buenos Aires, en Argentina. El periodo colonial inicia con la Pequeña Edad Glacial y sus condiciones de mayor frío y humedad; a mediados del siglo XVII fue notorio el Mínimo de Maunder; y, finalmente, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, se registró el Remonte Termal, caracterizado por el calor y la sequía. Prestamos atención a El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS en sus diferentes efectos locales. El objetivo principal es enriquecer las interpretaciones del pasado desde finales del siglo XVI hasta principios del siglo XIX, al aportar elementos referidos a la historia del clima. El eje del análisis es que el clima afecta los ambientes y los recursos naturales disponibles, la vida urbana y las rutas, de modo que no puede estar ausente de las diversas explicaciones del pasado colonial.

  1. El proceso de reforma administrativa de la renta del Tabaco en Navarra durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Solbes Ferri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está centrado en la evolución de la gestión administrativa del monopolio fiscal del tabaco en Navarra durante la centuria dieciochesca. Su inicio se sitúa en el arrendamiento del estanco en 1717 por el Gobierno central a la Hacienda foral de Navarra -propietaria del mismo desde su creación en 1642- y analiza las sucesivas fases a través de las cuáles dicha administración central fue progresivamente adquiriendo el control absoluto de la renta en este territorio.The present paper is specially based in the evolution of the administration of the tobacco state monopoly in the Kingdom of Navarre during the eighteen century. We start in the lease of the income in 1717 to his old owner (the Foral Administration since 1642 and analyse the following phases through the Central Government was getting the control of the monopoly in this territory.

  2. La producción de armas blancas en Bilbao durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas Beraiz, Germán

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available They are few notices published about swords manufacture in Spain during the 16th century. One of the most unknown productions centers is the city of Bilbao, wich developed an important production of arms in part destined to its export to the British Islands. This article studies some documents, it is specialy interesting an unpublished document about the litigation hold up in 1569 between Bilbao swordsmiths and the «Corregidor» from Bilbao. Thanks of them it has been posible to compile names, marks and information about the activity of this craftsmen.

    Son escasas las noticias que poseemos sobre las zonas donde se fabricaban espadas en España. Uno de los centros más desconocidos es el de la ciudad de Bilbao, que desarrolló durante todo el siglo XVI, una importante producción de armas en parte destinadas a su exportación a las Islas Británicas. Gracias a una serie de documentos, entre los que figura uno inédito que recoge el pleito que los espaderos de Bilbao mantuvieron en 1569 con el Corregidor de Vizcaya, se han podido recoger algunos nombres y datos que permiten conocer más sobre la actividad de estos artesanos.

  3. El cine durante la primera competencia televisiva española (1990-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mateos-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la programación cinematográfica emitida durante el inicio y primer desarrollo de la competencia televisiva (1990-1994 de ámbito nacional. Para ello, se toma en consideración la progra - mación de las televisiones públicas, en las cadenas privadas y en los operadores de pago. Se tienen en cuenta los largometrajes emitidos en términos de su género, nacionalidad, inserción dentro de la rejilla; los ciclos programados y los programas cinematográficos más representativos, con el fin de observar su evolución, contenidos, características y su relación con la competencia. Para abordar estas coordenadas, se ha elabo - rado una base de datos que recoge 7990 registros, con la que se clasifica y valora la oferta programativa. Los resultados permiten observar que el cine fue la piedra angular de la programación en los inicios de la competencia televisiva. Se evidencia que su programación buscó acaparar los índices de audiencia sin acercar al público a una emisión de calidad.

  4. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. alatae DURANTE SU CULTIVO EN MEDIOS LÍQUIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA E. CERÓN RINCÓN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunas características descritas como factores de virulencia para el género Colletotrichum sp. tales como la masa del micelio producido, la esporulación, la actividad poligalac- turonasa y el pH del medio, fueron evaluadas durante el cultivo de C. gloeosporioides f. alatae en tres medios líquidos (Czapeck, caldo Martin y caldo papa, utilizados común- mente para el desarrollo de hongos y en el medio de cultivo Czapeck adicionado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame como única fuente de carbono. Al cabo de 17 días de crecimiento, se obtuvieron los niveles máximos de los parámetros mencionados, al utili- zar este último medio, respecto a los otros medios de cultivo evaluados. El medio de cultivo implementado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame, suministró los requerimien- tos nutricionales del hongo para el desarrollo de factores relacionados con los meca- nismos de infección que pueden participar en su patogenicidad.

  5. Acumulación y hegemonía en Argentina durante el kirchnerismo

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    Gastón Ángel Varesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analiza el modelo de acumulación y las disputas hegemónicas durante el primer gobierno de Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. Primero, se abordan algunos núcleos estructurales que marcan transformaciones y tensiones a nivel del modelo: desempeño industrial, crisis energética, cambios en el mundo de las finanzas y la situación de las clases subalternas. Posteriormente, se analizan tres momentos destacados de la dinámica política de la política económica: las retenciones y el conflicto agrario, la conformación del plan nacional para confrontar la crisis mundial y la radicalización progresista de la política pública. Las preguntas que guían el presente trabajo son: ¿qué características cobra el modelo de acumulación? ¿Cómo se enlazan las disputas hegemónicas con el desempeño del modelo en Argentina entre 2008 y 2011?

  6. Declínio da capacidade cognitiva durante o envelhecimento Decline of cognitive capacity during aging

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    Helenice Charchat-Fichman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O declínio da capacidade cognitiva (DCC decorre dos processos fisiológicos do envelhecimento normal ou de um estágio de transição para as demências. Estudos epidemiológicos mostram que idosos com declínio da capacidade cognitiva apresentam maior risco de desenvolver Doença de Alzheimer (DA, em particular aqueles com déficit de memória episódica. A presente atualização mostra os principais critérios diagnósticos, achados neuropatológicos e neuropsicológicos do declínio da capacidade cognitiva durante o envelhecimento.Decline of cognitive capacity (DCC is due to normal physiological aging processes or to pre-dementia stage. Epidemiological studies show that elderly with decline of cognitive capacity have higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD, especially those with episodic memory deficits. This review presents the most important diagnosis criteria, neuropathological and neuropsychological findings of decline of cognitive capacity during aging.

  7. Las sequías en México durante el siglo XIX

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    Carlos Contreras Servín

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de la historia, la sequía ha sido vista como un fenómeno errático e imprevisible que constituye una desviación respecto a los valores medios de precipitación a largo plazo y que se dan de un año a otro. Por consiguiente, una de las grandes preocupaciones de los climatólogos ha sido conocer las causas que determinan su frecuencia. Por tal motivo, esta investigación tiene como objetivo central relacionar los principales trabajos que se han realizado sobre las sequías en el siglo XIX. Posteriormente, se confrontan las conclusiones de estos autores con los registros meteorológicos y documentación sobre sequías localizados en el Archivo General de la Nación (AGN, lo cual permite establecer un marco de referencia sobre las grandes sequías regionales que se observaron en México durante esa época. El propósito final de este trabajo es sentar las bases que permitan conocer las grandes sequías en dicho siglo y su periodicidad.

  8. OBTENCIÓN DE FRACCIONES ENRIQUECIDAS DURANTE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ACEITES ESENCIALES CRUDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Guala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La destilación por arrastre con vapor es uno de los métodos más utilizados para la obtención de aceite esencial crudo (AEC. Muchas aplicaciones requieren fracciones de AEC, enriquecidas en un componente o grupo de ellos, para lo cual se utiliza destilación al vacío. En este trabajo se propone realizar un fraccionamiento del aceite esencial crudo (AEC durante el proceso de extracción por destilación con arrastre de vapor, para lo cual se colectaron distintos cortes, en lugar de una única mezcla final que es la metodología tradicionalmente utilizada. Las experiencias se llevaron a cabo utilizando frutos, hojas y tallos de aguaribay (Schinus molle L.. La composición de las distintas muestras obtenidas se determinó por cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a espectroscopía de masas. Los resultados muestran diferentes componentes (y concentraciones para los diferentes cortes, lo que indica que se puede lograr una apreciable separación utilizando esta metodología.

  9. Actividad sísmica en Costa Rica durante el 2012

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    Lepolt Linkimer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el 2012 la Red Sismológica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE registró 3455 sismos locales de los cuales 260 sismos fueron sentidos por la población. Esta alta sismicidad se relaciona con la ocurrencia del terremoto de Sámara del 5 de setiembre (Mw 7,6, sus réplicas y la sismicidad inducida en otras fuentes sísmicas. Se percibieron en total 12 sismos con magnitudes ≥ 5,0. La mayoría (90% de los sismos percibidos fueron superficiales (< 30 km y el 56% tuvo una magnitud baja (Mw 3,0-3,9. El proceso de subducción de la placa del Coco bajo la placa Caribe y la microplaca de Panamá originó el 53% de los sismos sentidos. Un 45% fueron originados por fallas locales principalmente en el Valle Central, Isla Calero y Coto Brus. La intensidad máxima observada en el 2012 fue de VII (Mercalli Modificada, MM para la zona de la península de Nicoya y Zarcero-Naranjo debido al terremoto de Sámara. Además, ocurrieron ocho sismos que ocasionaron intensidades de hasta V (MM.

  10. El trabajo artesanal en Augusta Emerita durante los ss. I-IV d. C

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    Macarena BUSTAMANTE ÁLVAREZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en la antigua capital lusitana es posible examinar, además de los restos arquitectónicos de sus edificios públicos y de una espléndida musivaria en ámbito doméstico, los indicios de otras producciones locales a las que hasta ahora no se les había concedido más que un interés de tipo secundario. En el presente trabajo damos a conocer una síntesis de las evidencias arqueológicas existentes del artesanado emeritense durante los ss. I-IV d. C. Este tema había sido revisado de manera aislada y esporádica en este solar. Aquí se valoran las estructuras, modos productivos y posibles evidencias de la mano de obra usada. Las constantes excavaciones que se han desarrollado en las últimas décadas han sacado a la luz 33 hornos cerámicos, 2 molinos alimentarios, 7 fullonicae, 1 officina infectae, 4 talleres de vidrio, 1 lanifricaria, 2 talleres de hueso, 2 pistrinae, 2 hornos metalúrgicos y 3 caleras que permiten el desarrollo de estudios de cierta envergadura. La industrial textil, la alfarera, alimentaria o metalúrgica, entre otras, son analizadas arqueológicamente. A partir de ello ha sido posible establecer un mapa de distribución de las distintas áreas manufactureras y de sus posibles zonas de influencia.

  11. en el noroeste de Sonora durante los siglos XVIII y XIX

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    Lawrence Douglas Taylor Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La explotación de yacimientos de oro y plata en el noroeste de Sonora, que inició con una serie de descubrimientos importantes durante el siglo XVIII, siguió desempeñando un papel significativo en la economía regional también en el siglo XIX. Esta continuidad se debió, en parte, a nuevos hallazgos de minerales, particularmente en la zona de la Papaguería (1834-1844, así como al resurgimiento de algunos de los sitios más antiguos, como La Cieneguilla y San Francisco de Asís. Al tomar en cuenta todo el periodo, la cantidad de metales preciosos producidos -en especia l de oro- fue considerable. Las actividades mineras ayudaron a estimular el comercio e i ncrementar la población de Altar, Caborca y Sonoita, que se convirtieron en centros importantes de la región.

  12. Las visitas de inspección a la ciudad de Valencia durante el siglo XVI

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    Amparo FELIPO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las visitas, como procedimiento de control de la gestión de gobierno y administración municipal, constituyeron una constante en la ciudad de Valencia bajo los dos Austrias mayores. Iniciadas por orden de Carlos V inmediatamente después de las Germanías, tuvieron continuidad durante todo su reinado en las encomendadas sucesivamente a Pedro de La Gasea, al racional Granulles, al obispo de Elna, a Hernán Pérez y a Diego de Cardona. Y fueron reanudadas bajo Felipe II con la encargada a Pedro Clavero y Juan Antonio de Ancora, proseguida por Agustín Gallart y Jerónimo Arrufat, en el contexto de la crisis financiera de la década de los sesenta.ABSTRACT: The visits, as procedure of control of government's measures and municipal administration, constituted a constant in the city of Valencia under the two bigger Austrias. Begun immediately by order of Carlos V after the Germanías, they had continuity during all their reigned in those commended Pedro de La Gasea successively, to the rational Granulles, to the bishop of Elna, to Hernán Pérez and to Diego de Cardona. And they were renewed under Felipe II with the one in charge to Pedro Clavero and Juan Antonio de Ancora, continued by Agustín Gallart and Jerónimo Arrufat, in the context of the financial crisis of the sixty decade.

  13. Las relaciones comerciales entre Gran Canaria y Holanda durante el seiscientos

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    Alexis D. Brito González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El articulo es un estudio del comercio entre Holanda y la isla de Gran Canaria en el siglo diecisiete. Durante este período, Holanda va a convertirse en la primera potencia comercial del mundo y pretendemos conocer si existía un interés por parte de los holandeses por introducirse en el comercio exterior de Canarias. En él, analizamos las relaciones comerciales, principalmente en dos momentos: la Tregua de los Doce Años (1609-1612 y la segunda mitad del siglo. Para ello investigamos la evolución temporal, el importe de ese comercio, los productos que se importan desde Holanda, etc.The article is an study about the commerce between Holland and the Gran Canary island in the seventeenth century. In this period, Holland converts in the first mercantile authority of the world and we want to know if dutchs have an interest to introduce their products in the Canary Islands' foreign commerce. In this way, we analize the mercantile relations, mainly in two ages: the Twelve Years Truce (1609-1621 and the second half of the century. In this purpose, we investigate the temporary evolution, the value of this commerce, the products what the merchants import from Holland, etc.

  14. Patrimonio familiar e infortunios financieros del linaje de los Castellví durante el siglo XVII

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    Amparo FELIPO ORTS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La rama del linaje valenciano de los Castellví iniciada a principios del quinientos por el señor de Puchol protagonizó durante el siglo XVII un significativo proceso de acumulación patrimonial. En el origen del mismo se sitúan las adquisiciones realizadas por los sucesivos miembros que lo encabezaron, pero tan importante como ello resultó la estrategia matrimonial de los titulares del linaje, el reducido número de hijos y la reversión a la línea principal de legados de los miembros de la familia que no contrajeron matrimonio o fallecieron sin descendencia. En contrapartida, diversos factores se conjugaron para provocar un endeudamiento progresivo, especialmente acusado desde la década de 1670 en que herencia y deudas se anudaron en permanente complicidad. Analizar los pormenores de este doble proceso y su repercusión para la Casa constituye el objetivo de este trabajo.

  15. Papel da gastroplastia no tratamento da apnéia obstrutiva durante o sono

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    Rubens Reimão

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastroplastia foi realizada como forma terapêutica auxiliar para redução de peso em 4 pacientes com obesidade severa e apnéia obstrutiva durante o sono (ASO. As idades variavam de 31 a 54 anos e todos eram do sexo masculino. Em três casos a gastroplastia acompanhou-se de traqueostomia. Após a gastroplastia todos tiveram melhora da sonolência diurna e redução de peso em 16,7% a 40,9%. Avaliações polissonográficas de noite inteira realizadas no pré e pós-operatório (3-4 meses. Os registros pós-operatórios foram feitos com traqueostomia fechada e revelaram redução da freqüência das apnéias e aumento dos estágios 3, 4 e REM. Normalização dos índices de saturação arterial de oxigênio (Sa0(2 foi constatada em três dos 4 casos. Esses dados sugerem que a gastroplastia pode ser utilizada como forma alternativa para redução de peso em casos selecionados de ASO complementando outros procedimentos cirúrgicos como a traqueostomia.

  16. Respuestas de elección durante el contraste negativo sucesivo consumatorio en ratas

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    Florencia López Seal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En ratas, el cambio de una solución preferida (aguaazucarada al 32% por otra menos preferida (aguaazucarada al 4% produce una caída del consumopor debajo de un grupo control no devaluado, elcual siempre recibe acceso a la solución de valorbajo. Este fenómeno denominado contraste negativosucesivo consumatorio ocurre incluso cuandola devaluación coincide con cambios en las clavesambientales o gustativas y cuando hay múltiplesopciones de respuesta (con el reforzador de valorbajo disponible en varios lugares. En este artículose presenta un experimento donde un grupo de ratasse entrenó en la fase pre-cambio con una soluciónpreferida con sabor a almendra (32%A y otro conuna menos preferida (4%A. La fase post-cambio serealizó en un contexto distinto y novedoso, dondetodos los animales pudieron elegir entre consumir4% o 4%A. Se observó un efecto de contrastenegativo en los animales que experimentaron ladevaluación y una preferencia por la solución conel sabor a almendra utilizado durante la fase precambioen los sujetos de ambos grupos.

  17. Escultura en Hispanoamérica durante el siglo XIX: el caso chileno

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    Zamorano Pérez, Pedro Emilio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of sculpture in Chile during the 19th and early 20th centuries, providing data on those models, art works and sculptors of greatest significance. Emphasis is placed on the iconographic repertory of these works in which symbolic representations related to the culture, history and the identity of the country can be found. The relationship between sculptural works and the city and the presence in it of public monuments is also discussed.

    Este artículo ilustra acerca del desarrollo de la escultura en Chile durante el siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, aportando antecedentes sobre aquellos modelos, obras y autores de mayor significación y trascendencia. Ilustra sobre el repertorio iconográfico de obras y cómo en ello se traducen representaciones simbólicas vinculadas con la cultura, la historia y la identidad del país. Se entrega información sobre la escultura y su relación con la ciudad y la presencia en ella del monumento público.

  18. PALEOCLIMAS Y PALEOESCENARIOS EN LA PATAGONIA AUSTRAL Y EN TIERRA DEL FUEGO DURANTE EL CUATERNARIO

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    Andrea Coronato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan evidencias geomorfológicas y palinológicas indicadoras de paleoescenarios existentes en los últimos dos millones de años en el extremo sur de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego. Estos procesos indican la ocurrencia de cambios climáticos no forzados por intervención humana en la atmósfera. Los períodos fríos habrían sido progresivamente menos intensos desde la Gran Glaciación Patagónica, ocurrida hace 1 millón de años. Durante el Holoceno y los tiempos históricos, las glaciaciones se restringieron a las zonas superiores a los 900 m s.n.m. y el deterioro climático no habría afectado significativamente al ecosistema bosque ubicado a menos de 400 m s.n.m. Un importante período cálido ocurrido en tiempos históricos fue registrado en las zonas de altura en Patagonia Norte y en las cercanías al nivel del mar en Tierra del Fuego

  19. Alianzas y traiciones en la pampa rioplatense durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Taruselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como escenario la región pampeana del Río de la Plata durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. En 1770 fue arrestado allí un indio llamado Flamenco. Remitido a la cárcel de Buenos Aires, el gobernador Vértiz dispuso inmediatamente una serie de diligencias para saber qué hacer con él. El expediente que entonces se formó contiene la opinión de los principales personajes de la campaña bonaerense y la declaración del propio Flamenco. Su análisis nos permite describir el mundo rural colonial rioplatense y las estrategias desplegadas por los españoles para controlar un territorio donde grupos indígenas mantuvieron su autonomía hasta mediados del siglo XIX. Para ampliar la información se relevaron fuentes documentales éditas e inéditas, conservadas en el Archivo General de la Nación, Argentina.

  20. Estabilidade locomotora durante a condução de um cão

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    Bruna Carla Périco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da percepção háptica na estabilidade locomotora do ser humano durante a condução de um cão com uma guia. Adultos (n=14, com e sem restrição da visão, andaram sobre uma trave de equilíbrio sozinhos, ou, com uma guia, andaram conduzindo um cão sobre um banco estreito ao lado. Quando os participantes caminharam conduzindo o cão, privados da visão, o desempenho locomotor-avaliado através da duração do deslocamento total, da duração das passadas, das fases de duplo suporte e balanço, do comprimento e velocidade das passadas, assim como da variabilidade da fase relativa-melhorou significativamente (p < 0,05 em relação ao desempenho locomotor na condição sem o cão. Nas condições com visão, conduzir o cão não resultou em mudanças nestas variáveis. Concluímos que estes indivíduos foram capazes de utilizar a guia do cão para detectar propriedades hápticas com propósito de melhorar a estabilidade na locomoção.

  1. Las Mujeres Mexicanas durante el gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas, 1934-1940

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    Elvia Montes de Oca Navas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento aborda el tema de las mujeres en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, especialmente durante el gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-1940. La hipótesis central del trabajo es que si bien en las políticas gubernamentales y en algunos medios impresos, como lo fueron los periódicos y los libros escolares de la época del gobierno cardenista, se propusieron cambios en las condiciones sociales en las que vivían las mujeres y en sus relaciones con los varones, estas condiciones no cambiaron de manera estructural, y se reforzaron en el imaginario social. Demostrar esto fue el objetivo central del documento y para ello, como metodología, se hizo el análisis de algunas fuentes primarias de información, como son los periódicos y los libros escolares, y en la conclusión se refuerza la hipótesis planeada.

  2. COMOVIMIENTO REGIONAL DEL EMPLEO DURANTE EL CICLO ECONÓMICOEN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Delajara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinamos el grado de comovimiento del empleo durante el ciclo económico entre las regiones de México mediante un análisis de la covarianza de las perturbaciones en los ciclos del empleo regional entre julio de 1997 y octubre de 2009. El empleo se mide por el número de trabajadores permanentes asegurados en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. La descomposición en tendencia y ciclo y la matriz de varianza-covarianza de las perturbaciones en los ciclos del empleo regional se obtienen de la estimación —por el método de espacio de estados— de un modelo estructural multivariado de las series de empleo. Encontramos que, exceptuando a unas pocas regiones, el comovimiento del empleo es alto y que la varianza de las perturbaciones en los ciclos regionales está asociada mayormente con las fluctuaciones del empleo nacional. Sin embargo, no encontramos pruebas de un ciclo común subyacente, por lo que el comovimiento del empleo tendría su origen en la propagación interregional de choques específicos.

  3. Determinantes de la presión fiscal en las empresas mexicanas durante 1992 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fernández-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los factores determinantes del Tipo Impositivo Efectivo (TIE soportado por las compañías cotizadas mexicanas por razón del impuesto sobre bene¿cios. Para ello, se utiliza un panel de datos extraídos de la base de datos Compustat correspondiente a 79 empresas durante el período 1992- 2009 y se aplica el estimador del método generalizado de los momentos en primeras diferencias (GMM diseñado por Arellano y Bond (1991. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que el TIE soportado por estas compañías es mani¿estamente inferior al tipo estatutario y que la presión ¿scal de un ejercicio está condicionada por la soportada previamente. Además se constata una relación no lineal entre tamaño y TIE, soportando menor presión ¿scal las empresas más grandes. Asimismo, presentan menores TIEs cuando el coste de la deuda y las amortizaciones son más elevados.

  4. LA COLECTIVIDAD BRITÁNICA EN VALPARAÍSO DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XX

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    BALDOMERO ESTRADA TURRA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos la importancia de la colectividad británica en el desarrollo económico de Valparaíso (Chile, pese a su limitada presencia, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Se hace notar el predominio de la colectividad el comercio internacional como también en la actividad industrial especialmente en aquellas que poseían un mayor desarrollo tecnológico. La disminución de la importancia económica y también demográfica de la colectividad británica en Valparaíso, a partir de la década de 1920, se relaciona directamente con la perdida de influencia británica, en nuestro Continente, luego de la Primera Guerra MundialIn this work we analyze the importance of the british immigrants in the economic development of Valparaiso during the first half of twenty century. We highlight their predominance in the international trade and in the industrial activity especially those that reveal a high technological development. The economic and demographic decline of the british immigrants from 1920 is in close relation with the lost of the british influence in Latin America after the First World War

  5. Los hogares latinoamericanos durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX: una perspectiva sociodemográfica

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    Brígida García

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los cambios sociodemográficos más significativos ocurridos en los hogares latinoamericanos durante la segunda mitad del siglo xx. Para ello se tienen en cuenta dos aspectos fundamentales: la posible convergencia hacia las familias pequeñas y nucleares; y la naturaleza e incremento de los hogares con jefatura femenina. Se intenta no sólo sintetizar el conocimiento existente sobre dichos temas, sino también dar cuenta de las conexiones entre los cambios sociodemográficos de los hogares y la desigualdad social y de género persistente en América Latina. Algunas de las principales conclusiones son: a A pesar de la existencia de un claro proceso de nuclearización en los hogares latinoamericanos, la importancia de los arreglos familiares de tipo extendido continúa siendo distintiva del sistema familiar en la región, especialmente entre la población de escasos recursos; y b los hogares encabezados por mujeres muestran un claro incremento, y posiblemente éste se aprecie en diversos sectores de nuestras sociedades.

  6. Breve historia de los refugiados en Argentina durante el siglo XX

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    María Paula Cicogna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Argentina ha sostenido, desde la letra escrita de la Constitución Nacional, ser un país receptor de inmigración, aunque en los hechos ha demostrado lo contrario. A pesar de ello, durante el siglo XX se instalaron grupos de exiliados, solicitantes de refugio y refugiados de las más diversas nacionalidades. Este artículo mostrará los contingentes que conformaron el mapa multicultural de la Argentina a partir del desarrollo de una cronología creada a en base a los trabajos de investigación que analizaron el establecimiento de las diversas comunidades._________________ABSTRACT:According to National Constitution Argentina has been an open doors country to immigration, although it has demonstrated the opposite. In spite of it, during XX century groups of exiles, asylum seekers and refugees of different nationalities settled in the country. Based in a chronology created from varied researches which analyzed the establishment of the diverse communities this article will show the groups that shape the multicultural map of Argentina.

  7. EFFECTS OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC-MINERAL PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS ON SOIL FERTILITY PARAMETERS

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    Diego Henriques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic sources can replace all or part of the mineral phosphorus used in fertilizer, providing significant changes in soil chemical properties. This research evaluated the effects of mineral and organic-mineral phosphorus on the soil fertility in maize tillage. The experiment was installed in a seedling nursery at Universidade do Oeste Paulista in Presidente Prudente-SP, in a complete randomized blocks design, with 9 treatments (different Biofós doses associated with different superphosphate doses and 4 replicates. As phosphorus fertilizer source was used the organic-mineral Biofós (3.8% P2O5 and simple superphosphate (18% P2O5. At 50 days after emergence of corn plants it was held soil sampling vessels for evaluation of phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, magnesium, base saturation and soil pH. The fertilizer organic-mineral showed the same efficiency of simple superphosphate in soil fertility. The organo-mineral fertilizer showed the same efficiency of superphosphate on soil fertility, both of which promoted the same changes in pH. Higher Biofós doses should have high levels of soil organic matter, which was not observed. Phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and base saturation level did not differ in all fertilizer sources and levels used.

  8. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  9. Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-09-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.

  10. Native Language Processing using Exegy Text Miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, J

    2007-10-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Architectures Testbed recently evaluated Exegy's Text Miner appliance to assess its applicability to high-performance, automated native language analysis. The evaluation was performed with support from the Computing Applications and Research Department in close collaboration with Global Security programs, and institutional activities in native language analysis. The Exegy Text Miner is a special-purpose device for detecting and flagging user-supplied patterns of characters, whether in streaming text or in collections of documents at very high rates. Patterns may consist of simple lists of words or complex expressions with sub-patterns linked by logical operators. These searches are accomplished through a combination of specialized hardware (i.e., one or more field-programmable gates arrays in addition to general-purpose processors) and proprietary software that exploits these individual components in an optimal manner (through parallelism and pipelining). For this application the Text Miner has performed accurately and reproducibly at high speeds approaching those documented by Exegy in its technical specifications. The Exegy Text Miner is primarily intended for the single-byte ASCII characters used in English, but at a technical level its capabilities are language-neutral and can be applied to multi-byte character sets such as those found in Arabic and Chinese. The system is used for searching databases or tracking streaming text with respect to one or more lexicons. In a real operational environment it is likely that data would need to be processed separately for each lexicon or search technique. However, the searches would be so fast that multiple passes should not be considered as a limitation a priori. Indeed, it is conceivable that large databases could be searched as often as necessary if new queries were deemed worthwhile. This project is concerned with evaluating the Exegy Text Miner installed in the

  11. Characterization and modelling of the mechanical properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    the comparison of individual characteristics of different mineral wool materials and provide simple descriptors of the 3D structure. All the methods described here are applied to glass wool and stone wool. By developing a FEM model including the real characteristic of the mineral wool fibre structure, the effect......Mineral wool designates a highly porous network of fibres drawn by spinning molten minerals. Traditionally, mineral wool products have found application as thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings. Recent concepts where mineral wool products are subjected to higher structural loads have emerged...... properties of mineral wool relate closely to the arrangement and characteristics of the fibres inside the material. Because of the complex architecture of mineral wool, the characterization and the understanding of the mechanism of deformations require a new methodology. In this PhD thesis, a methodology...

  12. Refractory, Abrasive, and Other Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  13. A world of minerals in your mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jane E.; Ober, Joyce A.; Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2016-09-15

    Mobile phones and other high-technology communications devices could not exist without mineral commodities. More than one-half of all components in a mobile device—including its electronics, display, battery, speakers, and more—are made from mined and semiprocessed materials (mineral commodities). Some mineral commodities can be recovered as byproducts during the production and processing of other commodities. As an example, bauxite is mined for its aluminum content, but gallium is recovered during the aluminum production process. The images show the ore minerals (sources) of some mineral commodities that are used to make components of a mobile device. On the reverse side, the map and table depict the major source countries producing these mineral commodities along with how these commodities are used in mobile devices. For more information on minerals, visit http://minerals.usgs.gov.

  14. Influence of mineral water consumption and renal stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRSAY Laszlo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intake of minerals are very important in maintaining health, but in returning to health either. Mineral waters represents a source of minerals with high bioavailability. There are evidence based studies for the efficency of mineral waters in a series of disorders for both internal and external cures. The advantage of mineral waters in renal lithiasis are significant and the risks of stone formation are neglectable if medical advise is respected. Amongst the patients- but unfortunately also the medical staff- there is the incorrect oppinion that mineral water is a factor that causes renal stones in all consumers. The purpose of the present paper is to present the factors that favour the renal stones, but also scientific arguments that support the value of mineral water, that has a part not only in ensuring the right mineral balance but also, in certain situations, even in preventing renal stones.

  15. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  16. The Surface Groups and Active Site of Fibrous Mineral Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Fa-qin; WAN Pu; FENG Qi-ming; SONG Gong-bao; PENG Tong-jiang; LI Ping; LI Guo-wu

    2004-01-01

    The exposed and transformed groups of fibrous brucite,wollastonite,chrysotile asbestos,sepiolite,palygorskite,clinoptilolite,crocidolite and diatomaceous earth mineral materials are analyzed by IR spectra after acid and alikali etching,strong mechanical and polarity molecular interaction.The results show the active sites concentrate on the ends in stick mineral materials and on the defect or hole edge in pipe mineral materials.The inside active site of mineral materials plays a main role in small molecular substance.The shape of minerals influence their distribution and density of active site.The strong mechanical impulsion and weak chemical force change the active site feature of minerals,the powder process enables minerals exposed more surface group and more combined types.The surface processing with the small polarity molecular or the brand of middle molecular may produce ionation and new coordinate bond,and change the active properties and level of original mineral materials.

  17. Preliminary results on mineral content of some beef muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cignetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the growing interest of consumers for nutritional aspect of food, little data are available on meat mineral content. Among the factors influencing minerals, muscle appears interesting: Doornenbal and Murray (1981 found that the concentrations of several minerals were influenced by muscle and sometimes by age, whereas sex and breed differences were less important. This research aimed to evaluate the mineral content in beef muscles.

  18. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Ashit Rao; José L Arias; Helmut Cölfen

    2017-01-01

    Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethyle...

  19. Análisis de la influencia del régimen de temperatura en el secado del mineral laterítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Efraín-Guzmán

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available En las empresas cubanas del níquel con tecnología carbonato amoniacal (CAROM, el proceso de secado no logra los valores óptimos de humedad que garantizan la molienda. En este trabajo se determina la influencia de la humedad de equilibrio, la constante de secado y el coeficiente de transferencia de masa, durante el secado del mineral laterítico a escala de laboratorio. Se obtiene la correlación y regresión de las variables antes mencionadas en función de la temperatura y el contenido de humedad del mineral. Se confirmó experimentalmente que para un rango de temperatura entre 80 y 120 ºC, la de humedad de equilibrio del mineral laterítico se encuentra entre 0,0217 y 0,039 g /g, la constante de secado entre 0,0198 y 0,0077 1/min., y el coeficiente de transferencia de masa entre 0,0044 y 0,0116 g / m2 .min. Se concluye que el exceso de humedad en el mineral que sale de los secadores no está relacionado con el régimen de temperatura usado en el proceso

  20. Measurement and Modelling of Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila Garcia, Ada

    2005-01-01

    of scale formation found in many industrial processes, and especially in oilfield and geothermal operations. We want to contribute to the study of this problem by releasing a simple and accurate thermodynamic model capable of calculating the behaviour of scaling minerals, covering a wide range......-liquid equilibrium of sulphate scaling minerals (SrSO4, BaSO4, CaSO4 and CaSO4•2H2O) at temperatures up to 300ºC and pressures up to 1000 bar is described in chapter 4. Results for the binary systems (M2+, )-H2O; the ternary systems (Na+, M2+, )-H2O, and (Na+, M2+, Cl-)-H2O; and the quaternary systems (Na+, M2+)(Cl...