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Sample records for azospirillum sp b510

  1. Azospirillum rugosum sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C C; Hupfer, H; Siering, C; Ho, M-J; Arun, A B; Lai, W-A; Rekha, P D; Shen, F-T; Hung, M-H; Chen, W-M; Yassin, A F

    2008-04-01

    The taxonomic status of a light-orange-coloured bacterial isolate from an oil-contaminated soil sample was characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the isolate belonged phylogenetically to the genus Azospirillum, with Azospirillum canadense, Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum doebereinerae as its closest phylogenetic relatives (97.3, 97.0 and 97.0 % similarity, respectively). DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that the unidentified organism displayed 25.0, 17.0 and 19.0 % relatedness to the type strains of A. brasilense, A. canadense and A. doebereinerae, respectively. The generic assignment was confirmed by chemotaxonomic data, which revealed a fatty acid profile that was characteristic of the genus Azospirillum, consisting of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with C18 : 1 omega 7c as the major fatty acid, and ubiquinone with ten isoprene units (Q-10) as the predominant respiratory quinone. On the basis of both the phenotypic and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown isolate be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Azospirillum, for which the name Azospirillum rugosum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IMMIB AFH-6T (=CCUG 53966T=DSM 19657T). PMID:18398202

  2. Network Analysis of Plasmidomes: The Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 Case

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio Orlandini; Giovanni Emiliani; Marco Fondi; Isabel Maida; Elena Perrin; Renato Fani

    2014-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium living in association with plant roots. The genome of the strain Sp245, isolated in Brazil from wheat roots, consists of one chromosome and six plasmids. In this work, the A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids were analyzed in order to shed some light on the evolutionary pathways they followed over time. To this purpose, a similarity network approach was applied in order to identify the evolutionary relationships among all the A. brasilense plasmi...

  3. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT-SIFAT BIOKIMIA EKSTRAK KASAR LIPASE EKSTRASELULER BAKTERI Azospirillum sp.PRD1

    OpenAIRE

    Santi Nur Handayani; Puji Lestari; Oedjijono; Tri Joko Raharjo; Sabirin Matsjeh

    2011-01-01

    Enzim lipase mempunyai peranan penting dalam katalis berbagai reaksi industri satu diantaranya pembuatan flavor melalui reaksi esterifikasi. Lipase adalah biokatalis yang berperan besar dalam aplikasi bioteknologi, seperti dalam sintesis biopolimer, biodiesel, produksi obat, dan produksi flavor. Peningkatan penggunaan lipase untuk industri mendorong dilakukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan sumber-sumber lipase baru. Sumber lipase yang potensial salah satunya adalah bakteri Azospirillum sp.PRD1 ...

  4. SIFAT-SIFAT BIOKIMIAWI EKSTRAK KASAR LIPASE EKSTRASELULER DARI BAKTERI Azospirillum sp. JG3

    OpenAIRE

    Puji Lestari; Santi Nur Handayani; Oedjijono

    2009-01-01

    Lipases are valuable biocatalysts because they act under extremely mild conditions, are stable in organic solvents, show broad substrate specificity and exhibit high stereoselectivity. Lipases play important role in various industries such as detergent, cosmetics, flavor, pharmacy and synthesis of organic compounds. The increasing of lipases requirements in industries is goading research to get new lipases resources commited. One of potential lipase resource is Azospirillum sp.JG3 bacteria fr...

  5. Azospirillum IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingmuller, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book's contents include: Advances in the genetics of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7: Use of Tn5 mutagenesis for gene mapping and identification; Characterization of DNA segments adjacent to the nifHDK genes of Azospirillum brasilense by Sp7 Tn5 site-directed mutagenesis; Selection at the chemostat of Azospirillum brasilense Cd N/sub 2/-fixing at high O/sub 2/ pressure. Root hair deformation induced on maize and medicago by an Azospirillum transconjugant containing a Rhizobium meliloti nodulation region. Azospirilla are bacteria that live in association with the roots of many grain crops. Since these bacteria bind molecular nitrogen from the air and excrete plant growth substances, interest has focussed on their potential to increase crop yields.

  6. Azospirillum IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book's contents include: Advances in the genetics of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7: Use of Tn5 mutagenesis for gene mapping and identification; Characterization of DNA segments adjacent to the nifHDK genes of Azospirillum brasilense by Sp7 Tn5 site-directed mutagenesis; Selection at the chemostat of Azospirillum brasilense Cd N2-fixing at high O2 pressure. Root hair deformation induced on maize and medicago by an Azospirillum transconjugant containing a Rhizobium meliloti nodulation region. Azospirilla are bacteria that live in association with the roots of many grain crops. Since these bacteria bind molecular nitrogen from the air and excrete plant growth substances, interest has focussed on their potential to increase crop yields

  7. Azospirillum agricola sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from cultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Liu, You-Cheng; Hameed, Asif; Hsu, Yi-Han; Huang, Hsin-I; Lai, Wei-An; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2016-03-01

    A polyphasic approach was used to characterize a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain, designated CC-HIH038T, isolated from cultivated soil in Taiwan. Cells of strain CC-HIH038T were Gram-stain-negative, facultatively aerobic and spiral-shaped, with motility provided by a single polar flagellum. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain CC-HIH038T showed highest sequence similarity to Azospirillum doebereinerae (98.0 %), Azospirillum thiophilum (97.5 %), Azospirillum rugosum (97.4 %) and Azospirillum zeae (97.2 %) and lower sequence similarity ( Azospirillum. According to DNA-DNA association, the relatedness values of strain CC-HIH038T with A. doebereinerae, A. thiophilum, A. rugosum and A. zeae were 51.8 %, 41.2 %, 56.5 % and 37.5 %, respectively. Strain CC-HIH038T was able to grow at 20-37 °C and pH 7.0-8.0. Strain CC-HIH038T gave positive amplification for dinitrogen reductase (nifH gene); the activity was recorded as 8.4 nmol ethylene h- 1. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 68.8 mol%. The major fatty acids found in strain CC-HIH038T were C16 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, C16 : 0 3-OH, C14 : 0 3-OH/iso-C16 : 1 and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c. Based on the distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic traits together with results of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-HIH038T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Azospirillum, for which the name Azospirillum agricola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-HIH038T ( = BCRC 80909T = JCM 30827T). PMID:26786719

  8. [Biofilm Formation by the Nonflagellated flhB1 Mutant of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelud'ko, A V; Filip'echeva, Yu A; Shumiliva, E M; Khlebtsov, B N; Burov, A M; Petrova, L P; Katsy, E I

    2015-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 with mixed flagellation are able to form biofilms on various surfaces. A nonflagellated mutant of this strain with inactivated chromosomal copy of the flhB gene (flhB1) was shown to exhibit specific traits at the later stages of biofilm formation on a hydrophilic (glass) surface. Mature biofilms of the flhB1::Omegon-Km mutant Sp245.1063 were considerably thinner than those of the parent strain Sp245. The biofilms of the mutant were more susceptible to the forces of hydrodynamic shear. A. brasilense Sp245 cells in biofilms were not found to possess lateral flagella. Cells with polar flagella were, however, revealed by atomic force microscopy of mature native biofilms of strain Sp245. Preservation of a polar flagellum (probably nonmotile) on the cells of A. brasilense Sp245 may enhance the biofilm stability. PMID:26263623

  9. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. PMID:25240180

  10. [A STUDY OF THE ISOLATED BACTERIOPHAGE ΦAB-SP7 ADSORPTION ON THE CELL SURFACE OF THE AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE SP7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliy, O I; Karavaeva, O A; Velikov, V A; Sokolov, O I; Pavily, S A; Larionova, O S; Burov, A M; Ignatov, O V

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 was isolated from the cells of the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. The morphology, size of the gram-negative colonies, and range of lytic activity against other strains and species of the genus Azospirillum was tested. The isolated phage DNA was examined using electrophoretic and restriction analysis, and the size of the genome were established. The electron microscopy. resuIts show that the phage (capsid) has a strand-like form. The electron microscopy study of the bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 adsorption on the A. brasilense Sp7 bacterial surface was performed. PMID:27145602

  11. [Isolation and purification of Mn-peroxidase from Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Selivanov, N Iu; Nikitina, V E

    2012-01-01

    Homogenous Mn-peroxidase of a 26-fold purity grade was isolated from a culture of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 cultivated on a medium containing 0.1 mM pyrocatechol. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 43 kD as revealed by electrophoresis in SDS-PAAG. It was shown that the use of pyrocatechol and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonate) at concentrations of 0.1 and I mM as inductors increased the Mn-peroxidase activity by a factor of 3. PMID:22567881

  12. Proline and Abscisic Acid Content in Droughted Corn Plant Inoculated with Azospirillum sp. and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVRI YOULA KANDOWANGKO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants that undergo drought stress perform a physiological response such as accumulation of proline in the leaves and increased content abscisic acid. A research was conducted to study proline and abscisic acid (ABA content on drought-stressed corn plant with Azospirillum sp. and arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF inoculated at inceptisol soil from Bogor, West Java. The experiments were carried out in a green house from June up to September 2003, using a factorial randomized block design. In pot experiments, two factors were assigned, i.e. inoculation with Azospirillum (0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 ml/pot and inoculation with AMF Glomus manihotis (0, 12.50, 25.00, 37.50 g/pot. The plants were observed during tasseling up to seed filling periods. Results of experiments showed that the interaction between Azospirillum sp. and AMF was synergistically increased proline, however it decreased ABA.

  13. [Effect of flavonoids on the composition of surface glycopolymers in Azospirillum lipoferum Sp59b].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of the type strain Azospirillum lipoferum Sp59b in the presence of the flavonoid quercetin induced modification of the structure of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Cultivation in the presence of the flavonoid was shown to result in altered serological characteristics of the bacteria, increased heterogeneity of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharide pool, as well as in modified composition and fatty acid ratio of lipid A. The flavonoid was shown to induce the synthesis of the O-specific polysaccharide with the repeating structure represented by a tetrasaccharide consisting of a linear trisaccharide fragment of α-L-Rhap residues in the main chain and the terminal β-D-Glcp residue. The structure of this O-specific polysaccharide was identical to the previously determined structure of the capsular polysaccharide of these bacteria grown without quercetin. Modifications in the structural composition of the capsular polysaccharide induced by cultivation in the presence of quercetin were revealed. PMID:25507441

  14. Plant root transcriptome profiling reveals a strain-dependent response during Azospirillum-rice cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît eDrogue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation involving Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria results in improvements of plant growth and health. While pathogenic and symbiotic interactions are known to induce transcriptional changes for genes related to plant defence and development, little is known about the impact of phytostimulating rhizobacteria on plant gene expression. This study aims at identifying genes significantly regulated in rice roots upon Azospirillum inoculation, considering possible favored interaction between a strain and its original host cultivar. Genome-wide analyses of Oryza sativa japonica cultivars Cigalon and Nipponbare were performed, by using microarrays, seven days post inoculation with A. lipoferum 4B (isolated from Cigalon or Azospirillum sp. B510 (isolated from Nipponbare and compared to the respective non-inoculated condition. A total of 7,384 genes were significantly regulated, which represent about 16 % of total rice genes. A set of 34 genes is regulated by both Azospirillum strains in both cultivars, including a gene orthologous to PR10 of Brachypodium, and these could represent plant markers of Azospirillum-rice interactions. The results highlight a strain-dependent response of rice, with 83 % of the differentially expressed genes being classified as combination-specific. Whatever the combination, most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in primary metabolism, transport, regulation of transcription and protein fate. When considering genes involved in response to stress and plant defence, it appears that strain B510, a strain displaying endophytic properties, leads to the repression of a wider set of genes than strain 4B. Individual genotypic variations could be the most important driving force of rice roots gene expression upon Azospirillum inoculation. Strain-dependent transcriptional changes observed for genes related to auxin and ethylene signalling highlight the complexity of hormone signalling networks in the Azospirillum

  15. Co{sup 2 + } interaction with Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 cells: a {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms (Russian Federation); Biro, Borbala [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (Hungary); Kovacs, Krisztina, E-mail: kkriszti@chem.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltan; Kuzmann, Erno; Vertes, Attila [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    Preliminary {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopic data were obtained for the soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (T = 80 K) in frozen {sup 57}Co{sup 2 + }-containing suspensions and in their dried residues. The Moessbauer parameters were compared with those for A. brasilense strain Sp245 differing from strain Sp7 by ecological behaviour. Live cells of both strains showed metabolic transformations of {sup 57}Co{sup 2 + } within an hour. Differences in the parameters observed for the two strains under similar conditions suggest dissimilarities in their metabolic response to Co{sup 2 + }.

  16. Co2 + interaction with Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 cells: a 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Biró, Borbála; Kovács, Krisztina; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő; Vértes, Attila

    2012-03-01

    Preliminary 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopic data were obtained for the soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 ( T = 80 K) in frozen 57Co2 + -containing suspensions and in their dried residues. The Mössbauer parameters were compared with those for A. brasilense strain Sp245 differing from strain Sp7 by ecological behaviour. Live cells of both strains showed metabolic transformations of 57Co2 + within an hour. Differences in the parameters observed for the two strains under similar conditions suggest dissimilarities in their metabolic response to Co2 + .

  17. Expression of the structural gene, laf1, encoding the flagellin of the lateral flagella in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    OpenAIRE

    Moens, S.; M. Schloter; Vanderleyden, J.

    1996-01-01

    The induction of the lateral flagella of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was studied by using a translational fusion between the laf1 promoter and gusA. The fusion was induced when cells were grown on solid media but not when they were grown in broth. The fusion was also induced by incubation of liquid-grown cells with an anti-polar flagellum polyclonal antiserum. Hindrance of polar-flagellum rotation is suggested to be the signal for this induction.

  18. PEMBUATAN DEKSTRIN DARI PATI UBI KAYU MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS AMILASE HASIL FRAKSINASI DARI Azospirillum sp. JG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zusfahair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amilase merupakan salah satu enzim potensial dalam proses industri. Amilase dapat diperoleh dari bakteri Azopsirillum sp. JG3. Amilase ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk hidrolisis pati ubi kayu pada pembuatan dekstrin. Dekstrin memiliki peran yang cukup penting dalam industri seperti pembuatan roti, makanan bayi dan bahan penyalut lapis tipis tablet. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakterisasi biokimiawi amilase hasil fraksinasi dari Azospirillum sp. JG3 serta potensinya dalam pembuatan dekstrin. Tahap penelitian ini dimulai dengan memproduksi enzim yang dilakukan dengan cara menumbuhkan inokulum ke dalam medium produksi selama 30 jam kemudian diekstraksi dengan sentrifugasi sehingga diperoleh ekstrak kasar. Ekstrak kasar amilase kemudian difraksinasi secara bertahap (15%, 30%, 45% dan 60% dengan menggunakan ammonium sulfat dan didialisis. Fraksi yang diperoleh diukur aktivitas, volume dan kadar proteinnya. Fraksi dengan aktivitas spesifik tertinggi dikarakterisasi dan digunakan untuk membuat dekstrin dari pati ubi kayu. Dekstrin pati ubi kayu yang diperoleh dikarakterisasi berupa rendemen, kadar air, kadar abu dan dextrose equivalen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fraksi hasil dialisis 45% (FHD 45% menghasilkan aktivitas dan aktivitas spesifik tertinggi berturut-turut sebesar 11,659 U/mL dan 7,319 U/mg. Aktivitas amilase optimum pada suhu 30°C, pH 7 dan konsentrasi substrat 4%. Dekstrin yang diperoleh memiliki rendemen 95,14, kadar air 3,411%, kadar abu 0,209% dan dextrose equivalen 13,4.

  19. AMPLIFICATION OF AZOSPIRILLUM SP. JG3 GLPD GENE FRAGMENT USING DEGENERATE PRIMERS GENERATED BY WEB-BASED TOOLS

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    Stalis Norma Ethica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Primaclade and In Silico web-based tools were used as a strategy to obtain the correct-size PCR amplicon targeting a fragment of gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD of Azospirillum sp. JG3. The bacterial strains are soil, Gram-negative PGPR (Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria isolated from an agricultural land in Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia, which have ability to produce several commercial enzymes. The aim is to obtain a pair of reliable degenerate primers from a limited number of glpD sequences from other Azospirilla retrieved in GenBank using bioinformatics approach. We demonstrated degenerate primer design that led to successful PCR amplification corresponding to the targeted DNA fragment. Homology analysis showed that the obtained DNA fragment is 61% and 99% similar to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes of Azospirillum brasilense and Stenotrophomonas maltophili respectively.

  20. Efecto de la inoculación en maíz con cepas nativas de Azospirillum sp

    OpenAIRE

    L. Villa-Castro; N Mayek-Pérez; J. G. García-Olivares; J. L. Hernández-Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    En condiciones de invernadero se evaluó el efecto de tres cepas de Azospirillum sp (Patrón 9, IPN-33, IPN-35) aisladas de suelos cultivados con sorgo, en el norte de Tamaulipas; en el crecimiento de híbridos de maíz (30P49® y 30F52®). Las cepas de Azospirillum mostraron efectos diferentes en la producción de biomasa, así como también el testigo. La cepa Patrón 9 incrementó significativamente el peso seco de la planta. Dicha cepa, Patrón 9, muestra potencial para utilizarse como inoculante en ...

  1. Genome Sequence of Azospirillum brasilense CBG497 and Comparative Analyses of Azospirillum Core and Accessory Genomes provide Insight into Niche Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum colonize roots of important cereals and grasses, and promote plant growth by several mechanisms, notably phytohormone synthesis. The genomes of several Azospirillum strains belonging to different species, isolated from various host plants and locations, were recently sequenced and published. In this study, an additional genome of an A. brasilense strain, isolated from maize grown on an alkaline soil in the northeast of Mexico, strain CBG497, was obtained. Comparative genomic analyses were performed on this new genome and three other genomes (A. brasilense Sp245, A. lipoferum 4B and Azospirillum sp. B510. The Azospirillum core genome was established and consists of 2,328 proteins, representing between 30% to 38% of the total encoded proteins within a genome. It is mainly chromosomally-encoded and contains 74% of genes of ancestral origin shared with some aquatic relatives. The non-ancestral part of the core genome is enriched in genes involved in signal transduction, in transport and in metabolism of carbohydrates and amino-acids, and in surface properties features linked to adaptation in fluctuating environments, such as soil and rhizosphere. Many genes involved in colonization of plant roots, plant-growth promotion (such as those involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, and properties involved in rhizosphere adaptation (such as catabolism of phenolic compounds, uptake of iron are restricted to a particular strain and/or species, strongly suggesting niche-specific adaptation.

  2. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 gene encoding ampicillin resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Verreth, C; Cammue, B; Swinnen, P; Crombez, D; Michielsen, A; Michiels, K.; Gool, A. van; Vanderleyden, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Azospirillum brasilense ATCC 29145 gene coding for beta-lactamase was cloned in Escherichia coli. The gene was expressed in E. coli from its own promoter as a 30-kilodalton protein, conferring resistance to high levels of beta-lactam antibiotics. The DNA sequence containing the beta-lactamase gene was found to be highly amplified in the Azospirillum genome, scattered in the chromosomal as well as in the plasmidic DNA.

  3. Kandungan Nitrogen dan Bobot Biji Kentang yang Diberi Pupuk Organik Difermentasi, Azospirillum sp., dan Pupuk Nitrogen di Cisarua, Lembang, Jawa Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmayulis; Maryati,

    2008-01-01

    A research was conducted to study response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant to the application of fermented organic matter (‘porasi’) (0, 7.5, 15.0, and 22.5 t ha-1), without or with inoculation of Azospirillum sp., and N fertilizer (0, 86, 172, and 258 kg ha-1 N) and also to determine optimal rate of application of ‘porasi’ and N fertilizer without or with inoculant Azospirillum sp. Field experiments were carried out in Cisarua, Lembang West Java, from June to November 2003. The...

  4. Convergent synthesis of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide from the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Pintu Kumar; Dhara, Debashis; Misra, Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A straightforward convergent synthesis has been carried out for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the strain Sp7 of Azospirillum brasilense. The target tetrasaccharide has been synthesized from suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates in 42% overall yield in seven steps by using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation approach.

  5. Convergent synthesis of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide from the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Kumar Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward convergent synthesis has been carried out for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the strain Sp7 of Azospirillum brasilense. The target tetrasaccharide has been synthesized from suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates in 42% overall yield in seven steps by using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation approach.

  6. Chemotaxis of Azospirillum Species to Aromatic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-de-Victoria, Geralyne; Lovell, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemotaxis of Azospirillum lipoferum Sp 59b and Azospirillum brasilense Sp 7 and Sp CD to malate and to the aromatic substrates benzoate, protocatechuate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and catechol was assayed by the capillary method and direct cell counts. A. lipoferum required induction by growth on 4-hydroxybenzoate for positive chemotaxis to this compound. Chemotaxis of Azospirillum spp. to all other substrates did not require induction. Maximum chemotactic responses for most aromatic compounds occu...

  7. Mössbauer spectroscopic study of 57Fe metabolic transformations in the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Kovács, Krisztina; Biró, Borbála; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő

    2014-04-01

    Preliminary 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopic data were obtained for the first time for live cells of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (wild-type strain Sp245) grown aerobically with 57FeIII-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) complex as a sole source of iron. The results obtained have shown that live cells actively reduce part of the assimilated iron(III) to iron(II), the latter amounting up to 33 % of total cellular iron after 18 h of growth, and 48 % after additional 3 days of storage of the dense wet cell suspension in nutrient-free saline solution in air at room temperature (measured at 80 K). The cellular iron(II) was found to be represented by two quadrupole doublets of different high-spin forms, while the parameters of the cellular iron(III) were close to those typical for bacterioferritins.

  8. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic characterisation of cells of the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Bespalova, L. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Colina, M.; Gardiner, P. H. E.; Ignatov, V. V.

    2001-05-01

    Structural and compositional features of bacterial cell samples and of lipopolysaccharide-protein complex isolated from the cell surface of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (wild-type strain Sp7) were characterised using Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy. The structural spectroscopic information obtained is analysed and considered together with analytical data on the content of metal cations (Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Zn 2+) in the bacterial cells grown in a standard medium as well as in the presence of each of the cations (0.2 mM). The latter, being taken up by bacterial cells from the culture medium in significant amounts, were shown to induce certain metabolic changes in the bacterium revealed in FT-Raman spectra, which is discussed from the viewpoint of bacterial response to environmental stresses.

  9. Co2 +  interaction with Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 cells: a 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopic data were obtained for the soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (T = 80 K) in frozen 57Co2 + -containing suspensions and in their dried residues. The Mössbauer parameters were compared with those for A. brasilense strain Sp245 differing from strain Sp7 by ecological behaviour. Live cells of both strains showed metabolic transformations of 57Co2 +  within an hour. Differences in the parameters observed for the two strains under similar conditions suggest dissimilarities in their metabolic response to Co2 + .

  10. Afinidad y efecto de Azospirillum sp. en maíz

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Rangel-Lucio; María de las Nieves Rodríguez-Mendoza; Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato; Javier Zaragoza Castellanos-Ramos; Rosa María Ramírez-Gama; Estéfana Alvarado-Bárcenas

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la afi nidad y efecto de cepas de Azospirillum en maíz. Este bioensayo se desarrolló en el estado de México, México, durante el ciclo primavera - verano del 2009. Para ello se colectó la raíz de maíz Palomero Toluqueño, Cacahuacintle, Cónico, Chalqueño y H-20, y de Teocintle, y después de aislar y purifi car las cepas sobresalientes por actividad nitrogenasa (N¿asa), se re-inocularon ascépticamente en las mismas variedades en estadío de plántula...

  11. CHANGES IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE ROOT SYSTEM OF WHEAT INOCULATED WITH Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 AND BACTERIOPHAGE FAb-Sp7

    OpenAIRE

    O.I. GULII; M.K. SOKOLOVA; O.I. SOKOLOV; O.V. IGNATOV

    2015-01-01

    The Azospirillum is one of the most common objects to study associative interactions between bacteria and plants. In the rhizosphere of cereals the Azospirillum cells form effective association and demonstrate a stimulating effect on plant growth and development, in particular in wheat. However, the details of these positive effects are still unknown. For example, there is no evidence of whether the Azospirillum cells are infected with bacteriophages, and little is known about the role that t...

  12. EFECTO PROMOTOR DEL CRECIMIENTO VEGETAL DE CEPAS DE Azospirillum sp. EN EL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Acebo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El arroz es fuente de alimento y empleo para una gran parte de la población mundial. Como parte de la estrategia de agricultura sostenible para aumentar el rendimiento y sustituir los fertilizantes químicos, son utilizados actualmente inoculantes microbianos elaborados a partir de rizobacterias. En particular, el género Azospirillum ha sido utilizado como agente promotor del crecimiento vegetal, debido a su capacidad para fijar nitrógeno atmosférico y producir auxinas del tipo ácido indolacético. Se emplearon cepas nativas aisladas y de referencia, a las que se les determinó su capacidad de producir compuestos indólicos mediante la técnica colorimétrica derivada de Salkowski y la capacidad de fijación de nitrógeno, mediante el ensayo de reducción de acetileno. Se obtuvieron resultados positivos para todas las cepas, que resultaron productoras de compuestos indólicos en un rango de 2,75-8.6 ¿g.mL-1 y con una capacidad de fijar nitrógeno de 164.17-384.9 nmol.h-1·5 mL-1. Se llevó a cabo además un bioensayo destinado a evaluar la aplicación de estas cepas, como agentes promotores del crecimiento vegetal en el cultivo del arroz (variedad J-104. Se obtuvo un incremento notable en los parámetros de crecimiento de la planta con respecto al control.

  13. [Genome Rearrangements in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 with the Involvement of the Plasmid pRhico and the Prophage phiAb-Cd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsy, E I; Petrova, L P

    2015-12-01

    Alphaproteobacteria of the species Azospirillum brasilense have a multicomponent genome that undergoes frequent spontaneous rearrangements, yielding changes in the plasmid profiles of strains. Specifically, variants (Cd, Sp7.K2, Sp7.1, Sp7.4, Sp7.8, etc.) of the type strainA. brasilense Sp7 that had lost a 115-MDa plasmid were previously selected. In many of them, the molecular weight of a 90-MDa plasmid (p90 or pRhico), which is a kind of "depot" for glycopolymer biosynthesis genes, increased. In this study, a collection of primers was designed to the plasmid pRhico and to the DNA of prophage phiAb-Cd integrated in it. The use ofthese primers in polymerase chain reactions allowed the detection of the probable excision of phiAb-Cd phage from the DNA of A. brasilense variants Sp7.4 and Sp7.8 and other alterations of the pRhico structure in A. brasilense strains Cd, Sp7.K2, and Sp7.8. The developed primers and PCR conditions may be recoin mended for primary analysis of spontaneous plasmid rearrangements in A. brasilense Sp7 and related strains. PMID:27055294

  14. Description of Niveispirillum fermenti gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a fermentor in Taiwan, transfer of Azospirillum irakense (1989) as Niveispirillum irakense comb. nov., and reclassification of Azospirillum amazonense (1983) as Nitrospirillum amazonense gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Shen, Fo-Ting; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Shahina, Mariyam; Lai, Wei-An; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-06-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel aerobic bacterial strain (designated CC-LY736(T)) isolated from a fermentor in Taiwan. Cells of strain CC-LY736(T) were Gram-stain negative, spiral-shaped and motile by means of a monopolar flagellum. Strain CC-LY736(T) shared the greatest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Azospirillum irakense DSM 11586(T) (97.2 %), Rhodocista centenaria JCM 21060(T) (96.3 %) and Rhodocista pekingensis JCM 11669(T) (96.1 %). The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1 ω5c, C19:0 cyclo ω8c, C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c, C16:0 3-OH and C18:1 2-OH. The predominant polar lipids included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine and two unidentified glycolipids. The common major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10 and predominant polyamines were sym-homospermidine and putrescine. The DNA G+C content of strain CC-LY736(T) was 67.6 ± 0.1 mol %. During phylogenetic analysis, strain CC-LY736(T) formed a unique phyletic lineage associated with Rhodocista species. However, the combination of genetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological data clearly indicated that strain CC-LY736(T) was a novel representative of the family Rhodospirillaceae. Based on the polyphasic comparison, the name Niveispirillum fermenti gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of the type species is CC-LY736(T) (= BCRC 80504(T) = LMG 27263(T)). In addition, the reclassifications of Azospirillum irakense as Niveispirillum irakense comb. nov. (type strain KBC1(T) = ATCC 51182(T) = BCRC 15764(T) = CIP 103311(T)), and Azospirillum amazonense as Nitrospirillum amazonense gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain Am14(T) = ATCC 35119(T) = BCRC 14279(T) = DSM 3787(T)) are proposed based on the polyphasic taxonomic data obtained in this study. PMID:24771126

  15. Promoter-trap identification of wheat seed extract-induced genes in the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Joël F; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2007-10-01

    Azospirillum strains have been used as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) of cereal crops, but their adaptation to the root remains poorly understood. Here, we used a global approach based on differential fluorescence induction (DFI) promoter trapping to identify genes of the wheat isolate Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 that are induced in the presence of spring wheat seed extracts. Fluorescence-based flow cytometry sorting of Sp245 cells was validated using PlacZ, PsbpA and PnifH promoters and egfp. A random promoter library was constructed by cloning 1-3 kb Sp245 fragments upstream of a promoterless version of egfp in the promoter-trap plasmid pOT1e (genome coverage estimated at threefold). Exposure to spring wheat seed extracts obtained using a methanol solution led to the detection of 300 induced DFI clones, and upregulation by seed extracts was confirmed in vitro for 46 clones. Sequencing of 21 clones enabled identification of seven promoter regions. Five of them displayed upregulation once inoculated onto spring wheat seedlings. Their downstream sequence was similar to (i) a predicted transcriptional regulator, (ii) a serine/threonine protein kinase, (iii) two conserved hypothetical proteins, or (iv) the copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase NirK. Two of them were also upregulated when inoculated on winter wheat and pea but not on maize, whereas the three others (including PnirK) were upregulated on the three hosts. The amounts of nitrate and/or nitrite present in spring wheat seed extracts were sufficient for PnirK upregulation. Overall, DFI promoter trapping was useful to reveal Azospirillum genes involved in the interaction with the plant. PMID:17906157

  16. Convergent synthesis of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide from the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7

    OpenAIRE

    Pintu Kumar Mandal; Debashis Dhara; Anup Kumar Misra

    2014-01-01

    A straightforward convergent synthesis has been carried out for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the strain Sp7 of Azospirillum brasilense. The target tetrasaccharide has been synthesized from suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates in 42% overall yield in seven steps by using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation approach.

  17. Study of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution: Implication for the analysis of ferritin-like iron cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenkina, I. V.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Tugarova, A. V.; Biró, B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Kamnev, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The results of a comparative study of two samples of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (strain Sp245) prepared in different conditions and of human liver ferritin using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution demonstrated the presence of ferritin-like iron (i.e. iron similar to that found in ferritin-like proteins) in the bacterium. Mössbauer spectra of these samples were fitted in two ways: as a rough approximation using a one quadrupole doublet fit (the homogeneous iron core model) and using a superposition of quadrupole doublets (the heterogeneous iron core model). Both results demonstrated differences in the Mössbauer parameters for mammalian ferritin and for bacterial ferritin-like iron. Moreover, some differences in the Mössbauer parameters were observed between the two samples of A. brasilense Sp245 related to the differences in their preparation conditions.

  18. Sequencing and promoter analysis of the nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ operon from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrich D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-kb DNA region containing the major cluster of nif genes has been isolated from the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 genome. In this region three nif operons have been identified: nifHDKorf1Y, nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ and orf2nifUSVorf4. The operons containing nifENX and nifUSV genes are separated from the structural nifHDKorf1Y operon by about 5 kb and 10 kb, respectively. The present study shows the sequence analysis of the 6045-bp DNA region containing the nifENX genes. The deduced amino acid sequences from the open reading frames were compared to the nif gene products of other diazotrophic bacteria and indicate the presence of seven ORFs, all reading in the same direction as that of the nifHDKorf1Y operon. Consensus sigma54 and NifA-binding sites are present only in the promoter region upstream of the nifE gene. This promoter is activated by NifA protein and is approximately two-times less active than the nifH promoter, as indicated by the ß-galactosidase assays. This result suggests the differential expression of the nif genes and their respective products in Azospirillum.

  19. Evidence for ferritin as dominant iron-bearing species in the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 provided by low-temperature/in-field Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Kamnev, Alexander A; Pechoušek, Jiří; Tugarova, Anna V; Kuzmann, Ernő; Machala, Libor; Zbořil, Radek; Homonnay, Zoltán; Lázár, Károly

    2016-02-01

    For the ubiquitous diazotrophic rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which has been attracting the attention of researchers worldwide for the last 35 years owing to its significant agrobiotechnological and phytostimulating potential, the data on iron acquisition and its chemical speciation in cells are scarce. In this work, for the first time for azospirilla, low-temperature (at 80 K, 5 K, as well as at 2 K without and with an external magnetic field of 5 T) transmission Mössbauer spectroscopic studies were performed for lyophilised biomass of A. brasilense (wild-type strain Sp7 grown with (57)Fe(III) nitrilotriacetate complex as the sole source of iron) to enable quantitative chemical speciation analysis of the intracellular iron. In the Mössbauer spectrum at 80 K, a broadened quadrupole doublet of high-spin iron(III) was observed with a few percent of a high-spin iron(II) contribution. In the spectrum measured at 5 K, a dominant magnetically split component appeared with the parameters typical of ferritin species from other bacteria, together with a quadrupole doublet of a superparamagnetic iron(III) component and a similarly small contribution from the high-spin iron(II) component. The Mössbauer spectra recorded at 2 K (with or without a 5 T external field) confirmed the assignment of ferritin species. About 20 % of total Fe in the dry cells of A. brasilense strain Sp7 were present in iron(III) forms superparamagnetic at both 5 and 2 K, i.e. either different from ferritin cores or as ferritin components with very small particle sizes. Graphical abstract Low-temperature Mössbauer spectroscopic data for lyophilised biomass of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 provide quantitative information on various cellular FeIII and FeII chemical species. PMID:26769130

  20. Synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-glycan from the polar flagellum flagellin of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kumar Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyay, Balaram

    2014-12-01

    Chemical synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-glycan from the polar flagellum flagellin of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 in the form of its p-methoxyphenyl glycoside is reported. The required glycosidic linkages have been accomplished by activation of thioglycosides with N-iodosuccinimide in the presence of H2SO4-silica. H2SO4-silica was found to be an effective alternative to the classical acid promoters like TfOH or TMSOTf and it can lead to the formation of both 1,2-cis and 1,2-trans glycosidic linkages depending on the protecting group manipulation and control of the reaction condition. PMID:25299938

  1. Assessing the efficacy of co-inoculation of wheat seedlings with the associative bacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa 1465 and Azospirillum brasilense Sp245.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorenkova, Irina V; Tregubova, Kristina V; Burygin, Gennady L; Matora, Larisa Y; Ignatov, Vladimir V

    2016-03-01

    Co-inoculation of associative bacteria, which have high nitrogen-fixing activity, tolerance for environmental conditions, and the ability to compete with the natural microflora, is used widely to enhance the growth and yields of agricultural plants. We evaluated the ability of 2 co-inoculated plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa 1465 and Azospirillum brasilense Sp245, to colonize roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Saratovskaya 29') seedlings, and we assessed the morphometric parameters of wheat early in its development. Analysis by ELISA with polyclonal antibodies raised against the exopolysaccharide of P. polymyxa 1465 and the lipopolysaccharide of A. brasilense Sp245 demonstrated that the root-colonizing activity of A. brasilense was higher when the bacterium was co-inoculated with P. polymyxa than when it was inoculated singly. Immunofluorescence microscopy with Alexa Fluor 532-labeled antibodies revealed sites of attachment of co-inoculated P. polymyxa and A. brasilense and showed that the 2 bacteria colonized similar regions of the roots. Co-inoculation exerted a negative effect on wheat seedling development, inhibiting root length by 17.6%, total root weight by 11%, and total shoot weight by 12%. Under certain conditions, dual inoculation of wheat may prove ineffective, apparently owing to the competition between the rhizobacteria for colonization sites on the plant roots. The findings from this study may aid in developing techniques for mixed bacterial inoculation of cultivated plants. PMID:26863134

  2. Growth of Quailbush in Acidic, Metalliferous Desert Mine Tailings: Effect of Azospirillum brasilense Sp6 on Biomass Production and Rhizosphere Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Nelson, Karis N.; Bashan, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    Mine tailing deposits in semiarid and arid environments frequently remain devoid of vegetation due to the toxicity of the substrate and the absence of a diverse soil microbial community capable of supporting seed germination and plant growth. The contribution of the plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) Azospirillum brasilense Sp6 to the growth of quailbush in compost-amended, moderately acidic, high-metal content mine tailings using an irrigation-based reclamation strategy was examined along with its influence on the rhizosphere bacterial community. Sp6 inoculation resulted in a significant (2.2-fold) increase in plant biomass production. The data suggest that the inoculum successfully colonized the root surface and persisted throughout the 60-day experiment in both the rhizosphere, as demonstrated by excision and sequencing of the appropriate denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band, and the rhizoplane, as indicated by fluorescent in situ hybridization of root surfaces. Changes in rhizosphere community structure in response to Sp6 inoculation were evaluated after 15, 30, and 60 days using DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction amplicons. A comparison of DGGE profiles using canonical correspondence analysis revealed a significant treatment effect (Sp6-inoculated vs. uninoculated plants vs. unplanted) on bacterial community structure at 15, 30, and 60 days (p<0.05). These data indicate that in an extremely stressed environment such as acid mine tailings, an inoculated plant growth promoting bacterium not only can persist and stimulate plant growth but also can directly or indirectly influence rhizobacterial community development. PMID:20632001

  3. Transposon Mutagenesis of Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum: Physical Analysis of Tn5 and Tn5-Mob Insertion Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Vanstockem, Mark; Michiels, Kris; Vanderleyden, Jos; Van Gool, August P.

    1987-01-01

    Tn5-induced insertion mutants were generated in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and A. lipoferum SpBr17 by mating with Escherichia coli strains carrying suicide plasmid vectors. The sources of Tn5 were the suicide plasmids pGS9 and pSUP2021. Kanamycin-resistant Azospirillum colonies appeared from crosses with E. coli at maximum frequencies of 10−7 per recipient cell. Transposon Tn5 also conferred streptomycin resistance on Azospirillum colonies as was observed earlier for Rhizobium sp. Eight Tn5-...

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterisation of heavy metal-induced metabolic changes in the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Tugarova, A. V.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Gardiner, P. H. E.

    2002-06-01

    Structural and compositional features of whole cells of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 under standard and heavy metal-stressed conditions are analysed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and compared with the FT-Raman spectroscopic data obtained previously [J. Mol. Struct. 563-564 (2001) 199]. The structural spectroscopic information is considered together with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) analytical data on the content of the heavy metal cations (Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Zn 2+) in the bacterial cells. As a bacterial response to heavy metal stress, all the three metals, being taken up by bacterial cells from the culture medium (0.2 mM) in significant amounts (ca. 0.12, 0.48 and 4.2 mg per gram of dry biomass for Co, Cu and Zn, respectively), are shown to induce essential metabolic changes in the bacterium revealed in the spectra, including the accumulation of polyester compounds in bacterial cells and their enhanced hydration affecting certain IR vibrational modes of functional groups involved.

  5. Physiological and molecular basis of Azospirillum-Arabidopsis Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at revealing the early signalling events during the interaction of the diazotrophic soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense with its host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, taking advantage of the micro array technique, a comprehensive overview of Arabidopsis genes has been undertaken which are affected upon association with A. brasilense The characterization of the early responses of Arabidopsis plants upon inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7 ...

  6. ESTUDIO DE LA INTERACCIÓN PLANTA-Azospirillum EN EL CULTIVO CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el aislamiento y la caracterización de cepas nativas de Azospirillum en la rizosfera de las variedades comerciales de caña de azúcar Ja60-5 y C266-70 en los suelos Ferralítico Rojo y Ferralítico Amarillento de las provincias de La Habana y Ciego de Avila. A los aislamientos se les evaluó la actividad nitrogenasa mediante la técnica de reducción del acetileno y la actividad estimuladora del crecimiento en vitroplantas de caña de azúcar. Las cepas fueron caracterizadas mediante pruebas morfológicas y bioquímicas. Se encontraron concentraciones de bacterias del orden de 104 cel. g -1 de raíces, correspondiendo los mayores valores a la variedad Ja60-5 en ambos suelos. Se aislaron cuatro cepas con características propias del género Azospirillum, seleccionándose la cepa 8 INICA de Azospirillum brasilense para estudios posteriores, por sus elevados valores de reducción de acetileno y su mayor efecto sobre el crecimiento de vitroplantas de caña de azúcar.

  7. Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Joëlle V. F. Coumans; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J.; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcAΔ) revealed a to...

  8. ESTUDIO DEL EFECTO QUIMIOTÁCTICO DE LOS EXUDADOS RADICALES DEL ARROZ SOBRE Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 Y A. brasilense R5(15. PRODUCCIÓN DE AUXINAS POR AMBAS CEPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Pazos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Azospirillum agrupa bacterias diazotróficas de vida libre, ampliamente encontradas en suelos tropicales y subtropicales, en asociación con raíces de cultivos de importancia económica como arroz, trigo y diversas especies vegetales. La gran mayoría de los estudios realizados con este género han demostrado su distribución prácticamente universal y sus numerosos efectos sobre el crecimiento de las plantas que coloniza. En este trabajo se demuestra el efecto quimiotáctico que ejercen los exudados radicales del arroz variedad J-104 sobre dos cepas de A. brasilense (R5(15 y Sp7, así como la capacidad de ambas de producir auxinas 16.60 mg.mL-1 y 11.82 mg.mL-1 respectivamente.

  9. [Insertional mutation in the AZOBR_p60120 gene is accompanied by defects in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and calcofluor-binding polysaccharides in the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsy, E I; Prilipov, A G

    2015-03-01

    In the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245, extracellular calcofluor-binding polysaccharides (Cal+ phenotype) and two types of lipopolysaccharides, LPSI and LPSII, were previously identified. These lipopolysaccharides share the same repeating O-polysaccharide unit but have different antigenic structures and different charges of their O-polysaccharides and/or core oligosaccharides. Several dozens of predicted genes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides have been localized in the AZOBR_p6 plasmid of strain Sp245 (GenBank accession no. HE577333). In the present work, it was demonstrated that an artificial transposon Omegon-Km had inserted into the central region of the AZOBR_p60120 gene in the A. brasilense Sp245 LPSI- Cal- KM252 mutant. In A. brasilense strain Sp245, this plasmid gene encodes a putative glycosyltransferase containing conserved domains characteristic of the enzymes participating in the synthesis of O-polysaccharides and capsular polysaccharides (accession no. YP004987664). In mutant KM252, a respective predicted protein is expected to be completely inactivated. As a result of the analysis of the EcoRI fragment of the AZOBR_p6 plasmid, encompassing the AZOBR_p60120 gene and a number of other loci, novel data on the structure of AZOBR_p6 were obtained: an approximately 5-kb gap (GenBank accession no. KM189439) was closed in the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid. PMID:26027369

  10. Results in the application of biofertilizers using Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza, in associations of horticultural crops under semi-greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dania Bárbara Núñez Sosa; Ramón Liriano González; Jorge Luis Álvarez; Yilian Walker Bauza; Yannerys Candelario Angulo

    2013-01-01

    The current research was carried out in the greenhouse “La Condesa”, which belongs to the Empresa de Cultivos Varios “Lenin”, in Jovellanos, Matanzas province. Its main objective was to evaluate the effect of the application of biofertilizer (Azospirillum sp and Micorrizas) in combinations of crops (lettuce and radish, or beet and radish). The research included four different treatments: witness, Micorrizas, Azospirillum, Azospirillum +Micorrizas. We used an at random block design. Data were ...

  11. [Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense were shown to reduce the gold of chloroauric acid to elemental gold, resulting in formation of gold nanoparicles. Extracellular phenoloxidizing enzymes (laccases and Mn peroxidases) were shown to participate in reduction of Au+3 (HAuCl4) to Au(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed accumulation of colloidal gold nanoparticles of diverse shape in the culture liquid of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7. The size of the electron-dense nanospheres was 5 to 50 nm, and the size of nanoprisms varied from 5 to 300 nm. The tentative mechanism responsible for formation of gold nanoparticles is discussed. PMID:25423733

  12. Plant Cell Wall Carbohydrates as Substrates for Azospirillum brasiliense†

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Mary L.; Hubbell, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Carbohydrate components (simple sugars and polysaccharides) of cell walls of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L., cv. Gahi) were studied as potential substrates for the root-associated diazotroph Azospirillum brasiliense Sp. 7. Simple sugars were utilized, but no evidence was obtained to support the suggestion that the polysaccharide components tested might serve as substrates for growth following hydrolysis by the associated azospirilla.

  13. A SAM-dependent methyltransferase cotranscribed with arsenate reductase alters resistance to peptidyl transferase center-binding antibiotics in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Singh, Chhaya; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The genome of Azospirillum brasilense harbors a gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, which is located downstream of an arsenate reductase gene. Both genes are cotranscribed and translationally coupled. When they were cloned and expressed individually in an arsenate-sensitive strain of Escherichia coli, arsenate reductase conferred tolerance to arsenate; however, methyltransferase failed to do so. Sequence analysis revealed that methyltransferase was more closely related to a PrmB-type N5-glutamine methyltransferase than to the arsenate detoxifying methyltransferase ArsM. Insertional inactivation of prmB gene in A. brasilense resulted in an increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol and resistance to tiamulin and clindamycin, which are known to bind at the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the ribosome. These observations suggested that the inability of prmB:km mutant to methylate L3 protein might alter hydrophobicity in the antibiotic-binding pocket of the PTC, which might affect the binding of chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and tiamulin differentially. This is the first report showing the role of PrmB-type N5-glutamine methyltransferases in conferring resistance to tiamulin and clindamycin in any bacterium. PMID:24573606

  14. Fructose catabolism in Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The pathways for catabolism of fructose were investigated in the type strains of Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense grown aerobically with (NH4)2SO4 as the nitrogen source. When grown on fructose, the former species possessed a complete Entner-Doudoroff pathway, whereas the latter species lacked activity for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Both species possessed a complete catabolic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. Neither species possessed the key enzyme of the hexose monop...

  15. Gene encoding γ-carbonic anhydrase is cotranscribed with argC and induced in response to stationary phase and high CO2 in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Mukti N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA is a ubiquitous enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate, a reaction underlying diverse biochemical and physiological processes. Gamma class carbonic anhydrases (γ-CAs are widespread in prokaryotes but their physiological roles remain elusive. At present, only γ-CA of Methanosarcina thermophila (Cam has been shown to have CA activity. Genome analysis of a rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, revealed occurrence of ORFs encoding one β-CA and two γ-CAs. Results One of the putative γ-CA encoding genes of A. brasilense was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. Electrometric assays for CA activity of the whole cell extracts overexpressing recombinant GCA1 did not show CO2 hydration activity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that gca1 in A. brasilense is co-transcribed with its upstream gene annotated as argC, which encodes a putative N-acetyl-γ-glutamate-phosphate reductase. 5'-RACE also demonstrated that there was no transcription start site between argC and gca1, and the transcription start site located upstream of argC transcribed both the genes (argC-gca1. Using transcriptional fusions of argC-gca1 upstream region with promoterless lacZ, we further demonstrated that gca1 upstream region did not have any promoter and its transcription occurred from a promoter located in the argC upstream region. The transcription of argC-gca1 operon was upregulated in stationary phase and at elevated CO2 atmosphere. Conclusions This study shows lack of CO2 hydration activity in a recombinant protein expressed from a gene predicted to encode a γ-carbonic anhydrase in A. brasilense although it cross reacts with anti-Cam antibody raised against a well characterized γ-CA. The organization and regulation of this gene along with the putative argC gene suggests its involvement in arginine biosynthetic pathway instead of the predicted CO2 hydration.

  16. Aerotactic response of Azospirillum brasilense.

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, R.; I. Nur; Okon, Y.; Henis, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Five strains of Azospirillum brasilense and two of Azospirillum spp., from Israel, responded to self-created and preformed oxygen gradients by forming aerotactic bands in capillary tubes and actively moving toward a specific zone with low dissolved oxygen. Increasing the oxygen concentration in capillaries containing phosphate buffer increased the number of attracted bacteria and decreased band velocity. High O2 concentrations and H2O2 temporarily repulsed the bacteria, causing the formation ...

  17. Applicability of the 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer for PCR detection of the phytostimulatory PGPR inoculant Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1 in field soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoin, Ezékiel; Couillerot, O.; Spaepen, S.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Nazaret, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess the applicability of the 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer regions (ISR) as targets for PCR detection of Azospirillum ssp. and the phytostimulatory plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria seed inoculant Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1 in soil. Methods and Results: Primer sets were designed after sequence analysis of the ISR of A. lipoferum CRT1 and Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. The primers fAZO/rAZO targeting the Azospirillum genus successfully yielded PCR amplicons (400-550 bp) from Azo...

  18. Metabolism of various carbon sources by Azospirillum brasilense.

    OpenAIRE

    Westby, C A; Cutshall, D S; Vigil, G V

    1983-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and two mutants were examined for 19 carbon metabolism enzymes. The results indicate that this nitrogen fixer uses the Entner-Doudoroff pathway for gluconate dissimilation, lacks a catabolic but has an anabolic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas hexosephosphate pathway, has amphibolic triosephosphate enzymes, lacks a hexose monophosphate shunt, and has lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and glycerokinase. The mutants are severely deficient in phosphoglycerate and pyr...

  19. Hydrogen oxidation in Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibelius, K.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was studied in N/sub 2/-fixing and NH/sub 4//sup +/-grown batch cultures. The K/sub m/ for H/sub 2/ of O/sub 2/-dependent H/sup 3/H oxidation in whole cells was 9 uM. The rates of H/sup 3/H and H/sub 2/ oxidation were very similar, indicating that the initial H/sub 2/ activation step in the overall H/sub 2/ oxidation reaction was not rate-limiting and that H/sup 3/H oxidation was a valid measure of H/sub 2/-oxidation activity. Hydrogen-oxidation activity was inhibited irreversibly by air. In N-free cultures the O/sub 2/ optima for O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ oxidation, ranging from 0.5-1.25% O/sub 2/ depending on the phase of growth, were significantly higher than those of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction, 0.15-0.35%, suggesting that the H/sub 2/-oxidation system may have a limited ability to aid in the protection of nitrogenase against inactivation by O/sub 2/. Oxygen-dependent H/sub 2/ oxidation was inhibited by NO/sub 2//sup +/, NO, CO, and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ with apparent K/sub 1/ values of 20, 0.4, 28, and 88 uM, respectively. Hydrogen-oxidation activity was 50 to 100 times higher in denitrifying cultures when the terminal electron acceptor for growth was N/sub 2/O rather than NO/sub 3//sup -/, possibly due to the irreversible inhibition of hydrogenase by NO/sub 2//sup -/ and NO in NO/sub 3//sup -/-grown cultures.

  20. Results in the application of biofertilizers using Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza, in associations of horticultural crops under semi-greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Bárbara Núñez Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research was carried out in the greenhouse “La Condesa”, which belongs to the Empresa de Cultivos Varios “Lenin”, in Jovellanos, Matanzas province. Its main objective was to evaluate the effect of the application of biofertilizer (Azospirillum sp and Micorrizas in combinations of crops (lettuce and radish, or beet and radish. The research included four different treatments: witness, Micorrizas, Azospirillum, Azospirillum +Micorrizas. We used an at random block design. Data were processed after evaluating yields components by using the statistical software called Statgraphics, version 5.0. The research showed a positive response to the application of biofertilizers, resulting in a considerable increase of profits.

  1. Genome-wide survey of two-component signal transduction systems in the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum

    OpenAIRE

    Borland, Stéphanie; Oudart, Anne; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Background Two-component systems (TCS) play critical roles in sensing and responding to environmental cues. Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium living in the rhizosphere of many important crops. Despite numerous studies about its plant beneficial properties, little is known about how the bacterium senses and responds to its rhizospheric environment. The availability of complete genome sequenced from four Azospirillum strains (A. brasilense Sp245 and CBG 497, A. lipoferum 4...

  2. [Determination of Azospirillum Brasilense Cells With Bacteriophages via Electrooptical Analysis of Microbial Suspensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulii, O I; Karavayeva, O A; Pavlii, S A; Sokolov, O I; Bunin, V D; Ignatov, O V

    2015-01-01

    The dependence-of changes in the electrooptical properties of Azospirillum brasilense cell suspension Sp7 during interaction with bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 on the number and time of interactions was studied. Incubation of cells with bacteriophage significantly changed the electrooptical signal within one minute. The selective effect of bacteriophage ΦAb on 18 strains of bacteria of the genus Azospirillum was studied: A. amazonense Ami4, A. brasilense Sp7, Cd, Sp107, Sp245, Jm6B2, Brl4, KR77, S17, S27, SR55, SR75, A. halopraeferans Au4, A. irakense KBC1, K A3, A. lipoferum Sp59b, SR65 and RG20a. We determined the limit of reliable determination of microbial cells infected with bacteriophage: - 10(4) cells/mL. The presence of foreign cell cultures of E. coli B-878 and E. coli XL-1 did not complicate the detection of A brasilense Sp7 cells with the use of bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7. The results demonstrated that bacteriophage (ΦAb-Sp7 can be used for the detection of Azospirillum microbial cells via t electrooptical analysis of cell suspensions. PMID:26204775

  3. Chemotaxis of Azospirillum species to aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-de-Victoria, G.; Lovell, C.R. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Azospirillum sspeciesare free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria commonly found in soils and in association with plant roots, including important agricultural crops. Rhizosphere colonization my Azospirillum species has been shown to stimulate growth of a variety of plant species. Chemotaxis is one of the properties which may contribute to survival, rhizosphere colonization and the initiation of mutualistic interactions by Azospirillum species. This study evaluates the chemotactic responses of three Azospirillum stains to a variety of aromatic compounds:benzoate, catechol, 4-HB, and PCA. Results indicate that the same aromatic substance can elicit different chemotactic responses from different Azospirillum species, and that Azospirillum can detect aromatic substrates at concentrations similar to those they encounter naturally. 36 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Carbohydrate Catabolism in Azospirillum amazonense

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Drets, G.; Fabiano, E.; Cardona, A

    1985-01-01

    The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum amazonense grew on the various disaccharides, hexoses, and pentoses tested in this study but not on polyols and on some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. An active transport system was detected for sucrose and glucose but not for mannitol and 2-ketoglutarate. Six A. amazonense strains were examined for 16 carbon-metabolizing enzymes, and the results indicate that these strains employ the Entner-Doudoroff pathway to catabolize sucrose, fructose, and glucos...

  5. ESTUDIO DEL EFECTO QUIMIOTÁCTICO DE LOS EXUDADOS RADICALES DEL ARROZ SOBRE Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 Y A. brasilense R5(15). PRODUCCIÓN DE AUXINAS POR AMBAS CEPAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Pazos; Digna Hernández; Annia Hernández

    2003-01-01

    El género Azospirillum agrupa bacterias diazotróficas de vida libre, ampliamente encontradas en suelos tropicales y subtropicales, en asociación con raíces de cultivos de importancia económica como arroz, trigo y diversas especies vegetales. La gran mayoría de los estudios realizados con este género han demostrado su distribución prácticamente universal y sus numerosos efectos sobre el crecimiento de las plantas que coloniza. En este trabajo se demuestra el efecto quimiotáctico que ejercen lo...

  6. Azospirillum brasilense ameliorates the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought mainly via enhancement of ABA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ana C; Bottini, Rubén; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico J; Moreno, Daniela; Boccanlandro, Hernán; Travaglia, Claudia N; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2015-01-01

    Production of phytohormones is one of the main mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azospirillum sp. The PGPRs induce plant growth and development, and reduce stress susceptibility. However, little is known regarding the stress-related phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by bacteria. We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245 strain on Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and aba2-1 mutant plants, evaluating the morphophysiological and biochemical responses when watered and in drought. We used an in vitro-grown system to study changes in the root volume and architecture after inoculation with Azospirillum in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and on the mutant aba2-1, during early growth. To examine Arabidopsis development and reproductive success as affected by the bacteria, ABA and drought, a pot experiment using Arabidopsis Col-0 plants was also carried out. Azospirillum brasilense augmented plant biomass, altered root architecture by increasing lateral roots number, stimulated photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments and retarded water loss in correlation with incremented ABA levels. As well, inoculation improved plants seed yield, plants survival, proline levels and relative leaf water content; it also decreased stomatal conductance, malondialdehyde and relative soil water content in plants submitted to drought. Arabidopsis inoculation with A. brasilense improved plants performance, especially in drought. PMID:24796562

  7. L-arabinose metabolism in Azospirillum brasiliense.

    OpenAIRE

    Novick, N J; Tyler, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    An oxidative pathway by which L-arabinose is converted to alpha-ketoglutarate in crude extracts of Azospirillum brasiliense is demonstrated. Specific activities of enzymes involved in the pathway were determined, and several pathway intermediates were identified.

  8. Genome Structure of the Genus Azospirillum

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Didonet, Claudia C. G.; Chubatsu, Leda S; Emanuel M. Souza; Kleina, Margareth; Rego, Fabiane G. M.; Liu U Rigo; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fabio O.

    2000-01-01

    Azospirillum species are plant-associated diazotrophs of the alpha subclass of Proteobacteria. The genomes of five of the six Azospirillum species were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains possessed several megareplicons, some probably linear, and 16S ribosomal DNA hybridization indicated multiple chromosomes in genomes ranging in size from 4.8 to 9.7 Mbp. The nifHDK operon was identified in the largest replicon.

  9. Cellular responses during morphological transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA knockout mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hou

    Full Text Available FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7 and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcAΔ revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (≥10% emPAI in each spot. The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase, nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase, stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein. The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome.

  10. STUDY OF AZOSPIRILLUM LECTINS INFLUENCE ON HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCTION IN WHEAT-ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen’kina S.A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found that two cell-surface lectins isolated from the nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and from its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3 can stimulate rapid formation of hydrogen peroxide, associated with an increase in the activities of oxalate oxidase and peroxidase in the roots of wheat seedlings. The most advantageous and most rapidly induced pathway of hydrogen peroxide formation was the oxidation of oxalic acid by oxalate oxidase because in this case, a 10-min treatment of the roots with the lectins at 10 µg ml-1 was sufficient. The data from this study attest that the Azospirillum lectins can act as inducers of adaptation processes in the roots of wheat seedlings.

  11. Mutants with Enhanced Nitrogenase Activity in Hydroponic Azospirillum brasilense-Wheat Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereg Gerk, Lily; Gilchrist, Kate; Kennedy, Ivan R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a mutation affecting flocculation, differentiation into cyst-like forms, and root colonization on nitrogenase expression by Azospirillum brasilense is described. The gene flcA of strain Sp7 restored these phenotypes in spontaneous mutants of both strains Sp7 and Sp245. Employing both constitutive pLA-lacZ and nifH-lacZ reporter fusions expressed in situ, the colony morphology, colonization pattern, and potential for nitrogenase activity of spontaneous mutants and flcA Tn5-induce...

  12. Comparison of two Cellulomonas strains and their interaction with Azospirillum brasilense in degradation of wheat straw and associated nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    A mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. CS1-17 was compared with Cellulomonas gelida 2480 as the cellulolytic component of a mixed culture which was responsible for the breakdown of wheat straw to support asymbiotic nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (ATCC 29145). Cellulomonas sp. strain CS1-17 was more efficient than was C. gelida in cellulose breakdown at lower oxygen concentrations and, in mixed culture with A. brasilense, it supported higher nitrogenase activity(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction) and nitrogen fixation with straw as the carbon source. Based on gravimetric determinations of straw breakdown and total N determinations, the efficiency of nitrogen fixation was 72 and 63 mg of N per g of straw utilized for the mixtures containing Cellulomonas sp. and C. gelida, respectively. Both Cellulomonas spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited a wide range of pH tolerance. When introduced into sterilized soil, the Cellulomonas sp.-Azospirillum brasilense association was more effective in nitrogen fixation at a pH of 7.0 than at the native soil pH (5.6). This was also true of the indigenous diazotrophic microflora of this soil. The potential implications of this work to the field situation are discussed. 16 references.

  13. Mutants with enhanced nitrogenase activity in hydroponic Azospirillum brasilense-wheat associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg Gerk, L; Gilchrist, K; Kennedy, I R

    2000-05-01

    The effect of a mutation affecting flocculation, differentiation into cyst-like forms, and root colonization on nitrogenase expression by Azospirillum brasilense is described. The gene flcA of strain Sp7 restored these phenotypes in spontaneous mutants of both strains Sp7 and Sp245. Employing both constitutive pLA-lacZ and nifH-lacZ reporter fusions expressed in situ, the colony morphology, colonization pattern, and potential for nitrogenase activity of spontaneous mutants and flcA Tn5-induced mutants were established. The results of this study show that the ability of Sp7 and Sp245 mutant strains to remain in a vegetative form improved their ability to express nitrogenase activity in association with wheat in a hydroponic system. Restoring the cyst formation and colonization pattern to the spontaneous mutant Sp7-S reduced nitrogenase activity rates in association with plants to that of the wild-type Sp7. Although Tn5-induced flcA mutants showed higher potentials for nitrogenase expression than Sp7, their potentials were lower than that of Sp7-S, indicating that other factors in this strain contribute to its exceptional nitrogenase activity rates on plants. The lack of lateral flagella is not one of these factors, as Sp7-PM23, a spontaneous mutant impaired in swarming and lateral-flagellum production but not in flocculation, showed wild-type nitrogenase activity and expression. The results also suggest factors of importance in evolving an effective symbiosis between Azospirillum and wheat, such as increasing the availability of microaerobic niches along the root, increased supply of carbon sources by the plant, and the retention of the bacterial cells in vegetative form for faster metabolism. PMID:10788397

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISATION OF ABIOTIC STRESS TOLERANT AZOSPIRILLUM

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Thomas* and Ramya Poshala

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the most important environmental constraints that limit survival and productivity of staple crops like wheat and maize particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Plant growth promoting bacteria (Azospirillum) are beneficial bacteria present in soil and forming associations with roots of plants. This investigation deals with the isolation and characterization of Azospirillum from maize roots.  Azospirillum strain was identified by physiological, morphological and bioc...

  15. Influence of oxide scales on the corrosion behaviors of B510L hot-rolled steel strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Cheng; Dong, Chao-fang; Xue, Hui-bin; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiao-gang; Qi, Hui-bin

    2016-07-01

    The influence of oxide scales on the corrosion behaviors of B510L hot-rolled steel strips was investigated in this study. Focused ion beams and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the morphologies of oxide scales on the surface and cross sections of the hot-rolled steel. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the phase analysis of the oxide scales and corrosion products. The corrosion potential and impedance were measured by anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. According to the results, oxide scales on the hot-rolled strips mainly comprise iron and iron oxides. The correlation between mass gain and test time follows a power exponential rule in the damp-heat test. The corrosion products are found to be mainly composed of γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4, α-FeOOH, and γ-Fe2O3. The contents of the corrosion products are different on the surfaces of the steels with and without oxide scales. The steel with oxide scales is found to show a higher corrosion resistance and lower corrosion rate.

  16. Vertical movement of Azospirillum brasilense in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria like Azospirillum brasilense have considerable potential in increasing crop productivity. The success of bacterial inoculation in fields however, depends on their root colonizing ability. These bacteria, applied either through seed pelleting or directly to the soil are distributed along roots through active or passive movements. 32P labelled A.brasilense has been used to study their movements in sandy loam soils. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. Characterization of native strains of Azospirillum spp. and its effect on growth of Oryza sativa L. “rice” in Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to characterize and determine the effect of native strains of Azospirillum spp. on growth of Oryza sativa L. "rice" as an alternative for the reduction of chemical fertilizers. The bacteria were isolated from roots of rice in Lambayeque. Fragments of previously disinfected roots were planted in Nfb semisolid medium, were nitrogen-fixing bacteria were recognized by a whitish film on the surface and turn from green to blue. The genus Azospirillum was identified in Congo red agar medium, obtained 96 isolates with production of 2.69 to 38.02 ppm indoleacetic acid and 7.95 to 29.09 ppm of fixed nitrogen. The four strains with the highest values were inoculated independently and in combination with 50 and 100 % urea in Tinajones INIA508 rice. It used a completely randomized design and including witnesses’ 50 and 100 % urea and absolute control. All native strains increased height and dry matter of shoot and roots, with effectiveness index of up to 21.77, 102.06 and 126.11 % compared to untreated control. Azospirillum sp. GM-86 selected by the highest value of indoleacetic acid, reached the highest level of effectiveness in height and root dry biomass. The application of 50 % úrea with Azospirillum spp. increased rates of effectiveness. It demonstrated the potential of native strains of Azospirillum spp. to increase the growth of rice as well as the possibility to use associate with low doses of urea.

  18. Enhanced Mineral Uptake by Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor Roots Inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense†

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Willy; Okon, Yaacov; Hardy, Ralph W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Inoculation of corn (Zea mays) seeds with Azospirillum brasilense strain Cd or Sp 7 significantly enhanced (30 to 50% over controls) the uptake of NO3−, K+, and H2PO4− into 3- to 4-day- and 2-week-old root segments. No gross changes in root morphology were observed; altered cell arrangement in the outer four or five layers of the cortex was seen in photomicrographs of cross sections of inoculated corn roots. The surface activity involved in ion uptake probably increased, as shown by the darke...

  19. Survival of Azospirillum brasilense in the Bulk Soil and Rhizosphere of 23 Soil Types

    OpenAIRE

    Bashan, Y.; Puente, M. E.; Rodriguez-Mendoza, M. N.; Toledo, G.; Holguin, G.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Pedrin, S.

    1995-01-01

    The survival of Azospirillum brasilense Cd and Sp-245 in the rhizosphere of wheat and tomato plants and in 23 types of plant-free sterilized soils obtained from a wide range of environments in Israel and Mexico was evaluated. Large numbers of A. brasilense cells were detected in all the rhizospheres tested, regardless of soil type, bacterial strain, the origin of the soil, or the amount of rainfall each soil type received prior to sampling. Survival of A. brasilense in soils without plants di...

  20. Development of sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers as a quality standard of inoculants based on Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Priya, Pasupuleti; Selastin Antony, Raju; Gopalaswamy, Ganesan; Balachandar, Dananjeyan

    2016-04-01

    An attempt was made in this work to develop a strain-level molecular marker for unambiguous authentication of two Azospirillum inoculants, viz. A. lipoferum (strain Az204) and A. brasilense (strain Sp7). The sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers obtained from DNA fingerprints were designed for discrete detection of the strains. The SCAR primers could successfully amplify the target strain without cross-reaction with other Azospirillum strains, native isolates and other inoculants. The detection limit of SCAR primer for Az204 was 8.00 pg of DNA (approximately 10(5) cells per mL), and for Sp7, it was 0.49 pg of DNA (equal to 10(4) cells per mL). A simplified Sephadex G100-based crude DNA extraction protocol developed in this study was found suitable for SCAR marker-based strain authentication. Further, SCAR primers were assessed for simultaneous authentication as well as quantification of commercially prepared Azospirillum inoculants by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and most-probable-number PCR (MPN-PCR). The RT-PCR assay can be able to quantify the commercial formulations as equal to culturable MPN method, while MPN-PCR failed for Az204. The SCAR marker-based strain authentication and presumptive quantification developed in the present work can contribute to improving the quality standard of commercial inoculants. PMID:26792777

  1. Reduction of selenite by Azospirillum brasilense with the formation of selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugarova, Anna V; Vetchinkina, Elena P; Loshchinina, Ekaterina A; Burov, Andrei M; Nikitina, Valentina E; Kamnev, Alexander A

    2014-10-01

    The ability to reduce selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) ions with the formation of selenium nanoparticles was demonstrated in Azospirillum brasilense for the first time. The influence of selenite ions on the growth of A. brasilense Sp7 and Sp245, two widely studied wild-type strains, was investigated. Growth of cultures on both liquid and solid (2 % agar) media in the presence of SeO(3)(2-) was found to be accompanied by the appearance of the typical red colouration. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA), intracellular accumulation of elementary selenium in the form of nanoparticles (50 to 400 nm in diameter) was demonstrated for both strains. The proposed mechanism of selenite-to-selenium (0) reduction could involve SeO(3)(2-) in the denitrification process, which has been well studied in azospirilla, rather than a selenite detoxification strategy. The results obtained point to the possibility of using Azospirillum strains as endophytic or rhizospheric bacteria to assist phytoremediation of, and cereal cultivation on, selenium-contaminated soils. The ability of A. brasilense to synthesise selenium nanoparticles may be of interest to nanobiotechnology for "green synthesis" of bioavailable amorphous red selenium nanostructures. PMID:24863127

  2. Analysis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Related Indoles in Culture Medium from Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, Alan; Arruda, Paulo; Janie M Jasmim; Monteiro, Ana Maria; Sandberg, Göran

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of neutral and acidic ethyl acetate extracts from culture medium of Azospirillum brasilense 703Ebc by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-ethanol, indole-3-methanol, and indole-3-lactic acid. IAA in media of 20 strains of A. brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum was analyzed quantitatively by both the colorimetric Salkowski assay and HPLC-based isotopic diluti...

  3. [Effect of Azospirillum lectins on the Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Their Inhibitors in Wheat Seedling Roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alen'kina, S A; Nikitina, V E

    2015-01-01

    The lectins of associative nitrogen-fixing strains Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Sp245 were shown to exerte a multidirectional effect on the activity of acidic (pH 3.5), neutral (6.8), and alkaline (pH 7.8) proteinases. The lectin of the epiphytic A. brasilense Sp7 decreased proteolytic activity at all pH values, whereas the lectin of the endophytic A. brasilense Sp245 activated neutral and alkaline proteinases, while not affecting the alkaline ones. Experiments with protease inhibitors made it possible to conclude that the lectins of the studied A. brasilense strains alter the ratio between the activities of different protease types in germinating seeds. The activity of trypsin inhibitors in wheat seedling roots was found to increase in the presence of the lectins. Our results indicate a broader spectrum of effects of azospirilla lectins on the host plant organism. PMID:27169244

  4. Influence of Azospirillum Strains on the Nodulation of Clovers by Rhizobium Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Plazinski, Jacek; Rolfe, Barry G.

    1985-01-01

    Mixed cultures of several Azospirillum and Rhizobium trifolii strains caused either an inhibition or stimulation of nodule formation on plant hosts as compared with nodulation of plants inoculated with R. trifolii alone. Azospirillum strains affected the nodulation process at a precise cell ratio (R. trifolii/Azospirillum cells) and time of inoculation. All Azospirillum strains used showed a variation in their ability to inhibit or enhance nodulation by R. trifolii strains. When nonviable cel...

  5. Aggregation of the rhizospheric bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in response to oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Azospirillum brasilense spp. have ecological, scientific and agricultural importance. As model plant growth promoting rhizobacteria they interact with a large variety of plants, including important food and cash crops. Azospirillum strains are known for their production of plant growth hormones that enhance root systems and for their ability to fix nitrogen. Azospirillum cells transform in response to environmental cues. The production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregation during cellular transformation are important steps in the attachment of Azospirillum to roots. We investigate signals that induce cellular transformation and aggregation in the Azospirillum and report on the importance of oxygen to the process of aggregation in this rhizospheric bacterium.

  6. Azospirillum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium closely associated with grasses: genetic, biochemical and ecological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhoudt, O; Vanderleyden, J

    2000-10-01

    Azospirillum represents the best characterized genus of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Other free-living diazotrophs repeatedly detected in association with plant roots, include Acetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Azoarcus spp. and Azotobacter. Four aspects of the Azospirillum-plant root interaction are highlighted: natural habitat, plant root interaction, nitrogen fixation and biosynthesis of plant growth hormones. Each of these aspects is dealt with in a comparative way. Azospirilla are predominantly surface-colonizing bacteria, whereas A. diazotrophicus, H. seropedicae and Azoarcus sp. are endophytic diazotrophs. The attachment of Azospirillum cells to plant roots occurs in two steps. The polar flagellum, of which the flagellin was shown to be a glycoprotein, mediates the adsorption step. An as yet unidentified surface polysaccharide is believed to be essential in the subsequent anchoring phase. In Azoarcus sp. the attachment process is mediated by type IV pili. Nitrogen fixation structural genes (nif) are highly conserved among all nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and in all diazotrophic species of the class of proteobacteria examined, the transcriptional activator NifA is required for expression of other nif genes in response to two major environmental signals (oxygen and fixed N). However, the mechanisms involved in this control can vary in different organisms. In Azospirillum brasilense and H. seropedicae (alpha- and beta-subgroup, respectively), NifA is inactive in conditions of excess nitrogen. Activation of NifA upon removal of fixed N seems to involve, either directly or indirectly, the signal transduction protein P(II). The presence of four conserved cysteine residues in the NifA protein might be an indication that NifA is directly sensitive to oxygen. In Azotobacter vinelandii (gamma-subgroup) nifA is cotranscribed with a second gene nifL. The nifL gene product inactivates NifA in response to high oxygen tension and cellular

  7. СРАВНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ЛИПОПОЛИСАХАРИДОВ БАКТЕРИЙ ШТАММА AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE SP7 И ЕГО СПОНТАННОГО МУТАНТА SP7.K2

    OpenAIRE

    Сигида, Елена; Федоненко, Юлия; Смолькина, Ольга; Коннова, Светлана; Игнатов, Владимир

    2012-01-01

    Проведены сравнительные исследования липополисахаридов (ЛПС) азотфиксирующих ризобактерий штамма Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 и его спонтанного мутанта Sp7.K2, у которого в результате изменений плазмидного состава наблюдалось преобладание R-форм ЛПС. Выявлены различия в химическом составе и электрофоретическом профиле исследуемых препаратов ЛПС. Показано, что для получения ЛПС A. brasilense Sp7.K2 с целью проведения его дальнейших структурных исследований предпочтительнее использовать метод во...

  8. [Ligninolytic Activity of Bacteria of the Genera Azospirillum and Niveispirillum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupryashina, M A; Petrov, S V; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2015-01-01

    Capacity of associative soil bacteria of the genera Azospirillum and Niveispirillum for degradation of lignin model compounds was demonstrated. Lignin and Mn-peroxidases were detected in the culture liquid of the type strains of these genera. The data on involvement of nonspecific bacterial peroxidases in lignin degradation were obtained. PMID:26964358

  9. Inoculación con Azospirillum spp y Enterobacter aglomerans en Pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en el Departamento de Cesar (Colombia / Inoculation with Azospirillum spp and Enterobacter aglomerans in Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in the Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Cárdenas Caro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el efecto de los aislados SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 de Azospirillum spp. en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania en la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, del municipio Agustín Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. Se realizó inoculación por imbibición de las semillas, y en el momento de la siembra, en las macetas en condiciones de casa malla. Se utilizó inoculación simple de los aislados de Azospirillum sp y co-inoculación con una cepa fosfato solubilizadora de Enterobacter aglomerans (UV1, aislada de suelos cultivados con algodón en el departamento de Cesar. Lasvariables estudiadas en las plantas fueron: germinación, peso foliar fresco y seco, peso radical fresco y seco, fósforo y proteína foliar. Los resultados mostraron que la inoculación simple y combinada promovió la germinación de semillas del pasto guinea (P≤0,05 con respecto al tratamiento sin inoculación (testigo absoluto; y aunque no se presentaron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las demásvariables estudiadas, se encontraron aumentos de hasta 26,80% en proteína cruda, y 45,67% en materia seca foliar comparada con las plantas tratadas con 100% de fertilización nitrogenada. Se observó que el aislado de Azospirillum SRGM2 co-inoculado con Enterobacter aglomerans UV1 registró los mayores valores en el crecimiento vegetal del pasto guinea, por lo que se consideró como una rizobacteria promisoria para la biofertilización de esta gramínea utilizada en la alimentación bovina en la costa caribe colombiana. / Abstract. The effect of the isolates SRGM2, SRGM3 and SRGM of Azospirillum spp. on the growth and development of Guinea grass plants (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania was evaluated in the Experimental Station Motilonia of Corpoica, municipality Agustin Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. The inoculation was performed by imbibition of seeds and at planting time in pots under

  10. [Localization of denitrification genes in plasmid DNA of bacteria Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, L P; Varshalomidze, O É; Shelud'ko, A V; Katsy, E I

    2010-07-01

    In 85-Mda plasmid (p85) of plant-associated bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 model strain, the genes encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase (nirK); heterodimeric NO-reductase (norCB); NorQ and NorD proteins affecting synthesis and (or) activation of NirK and (or) NO-reductase (norQD); catalytic subunit I ofcytochrom c oxidase (CccoN); presumable NO sensor carrying two hemeerythrine domains (orf181); and an enzyme required for synthesis of presumable NO antagonist, homocystein (metC) were identified. In the same region of p85, orf293 encoding transcriptional regulator of LysR type, orf208 whose protein product carries a formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit E domain, and an orf164-encoding conservative secretory protein with unknown function were also found. Localization of a set of denitrification genes in the plasmid DNA A. brasilense Sp245 adjacent to IS elements ISAzba1 and ISAzba2 indicates potential mobility of these genes and high probability of their horizontal transfer among populations of rhizospheric bacteria. A site homologous to p85 nirK-orf208-orf181 genes was detected in the 115 kb plasmid of A. brasilense Sp7 type strain. PMID:20795494

  11. [Comparative assessment of inductive effects of Azospirillum lectins with different antigenic properties on the signal systems of wheat seedling roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alen'kina, S A; Petrova, L P; Sokolova, M K; Chernyshova, M P; Trutneva, K A; Bogatyrev, V A; Nikitina, V E

    2014-01-01

    The lectins of associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and its mutant A. brasilense Sp7.2.3 were shown to have different effects on the components of the wheat seedling root signal system, namely to regulate the levels of cAMP, nitric oxide, diacylglycerol, and salicylic acid, as well as to induce the activities of superoxide dismutase and lipoxygenase. Our results make it possible to consider azospirilla lectins as inducers of the signal systems in wheat seedling roots, since they cause development of several flows of primary signals. These data are of general biological importance, since lectins are present in all living organisms and most ot the functions of lectins remain insufficiently understood. PMID:25844444

  12. Interaction of Azospirillum and Rhizobium Strains Leading to Inhibition of Nodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Plazinski, Jacek; Rolfe, Barry G.

    1985-01-01

    Rhizobium-Azospirillum interactions during establishment of Rhizobium-clover symbiosis were studied. When mixed cultures of Azospirillum and Rhizobium trifolii strains were simultaneously inoculated onto clover plants, no nodulation by R. trifolii was observed. R. trifolii ANU1030, which nodulated clover plants without attacking root hairs, i.e., does not cause root hair curling (Hac−), did not show inhibition of nodulation when inoculated together with Azospirillum strains. Isolation of bact...

  13. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼10(7) CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available. PMID:26187960

  14. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ≤ 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  15. [Characterization of the lipopolysaccharides of serogroup II Azospirillum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, E N; Fedonenko, Iu P; Zdorovenko, É L; Butygin, G L; Konnova, S A; Ignatov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides of six Azospirillum strains (A. brasilense SR50, SR80, SR88, SR109, SR111, SR115, and A. lipoferum SR 42) isolated from the rhizosphere of cereal plants of Saratov oblast, Russia and assigned to serogroup II by serological analysis were studied. In the lipid A fatty acid composition, the lipopolysaccharides under study were similar to those of other Azospirillum strains and were characterized by predominance of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, and octadecenoic acids. Monosaccharide analysis of the O-specific polysaccharides (including determination of the absolute configurations, methylation analysis, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy) revealed the presence of two types of repeating units in varying ratios. High degree of serological similarity between the strains under study was shown to result from the presence of repeating units with identical structure in their O antigens. PMID:25844452

  16. Electro-optical study of the exposure of Azospirillum brasilense carbohydrate epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliy, Olga I; Matora, Larisa Yu; Dykman, Lev A; Staroverov, Sergey A; Burygin, Gennady L; Bunin, Viktor D; Burov, Andrei M; Ignatov, Oleg V

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of Azospirillum brasilense carbohydrate epitopes was investigated by electro-optical analysis of bacterial cell suspensions. To study changes in the electro-optical (EO) properties of the suspensions, we used antibodies generated to the complete lipopolysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 and also antibodies to the smooth and rough O polysaccharides of Sp7. After 18 hr of culture growth, the EO signal of the suspension treated with antibodies to smooth O polysaccharide was approximately 20% lower than that of the suspension treated with antibodies to complete lipopolysaccharide (control). After 72 hr of culture growth, the strongest EO signal was observed for the cells treated with antibodies to rough O polysaccharide (approximately 46% greater than the control), whereas for the cells treated with antibodies to smooth O polysaccharide, it was much lower (approximately 23% of the control). These data were confirmed by electron microscopy. The results of the study may have importance for the rapid evaluation of changes in lipopolysaccharide form in microbial biotechnology, when the antigenic composition of the bacterial surface requires close control. PMID:25273383

  17. Biofilm formation by Azospirillum brasilense: microbial socialization in the rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Cerqueira, Francisco Diogo de Almeida, 1990-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Microbiologia Aplicada). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Azospirillum brasilense is a remarkable Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), with great potential as agricultural inoculant for several crops. Several isolates of this species have been produced as inoculant by some companies and applied in the agriculture as a biofertilizer. Therefore, there is a great interest in gathering more scientific knowledge that improves A. brasilense ...

  18. Temperature inhibition of siderophore production in Azospirillum brasilense.

    OpenAIRE

    Bachhawat, A K; Ghosh, S.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of growth at 42 degrees C on the different components of the siderophore-mediated iron transport that are induced by iron limitation in Azospirillum brasilense was examined. Biosynthesis of the siderophore spirilobactin was strongly inhibited (20-fold) by growth at 42 degrees C, whereas the transport of iron by the ferric-spirilobactin transport system and the induction of the iron-regulated outer membrane proteins were unaffected.

  19. Inoculation of maize with Azospirillum brasilense in the seed furrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tâmara Prado de Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies addressing the inoculation of cereals with diazotrophic microorganisms can be found in the literature. However, in many experiments, investigators have overlooked the feasibility of applying these microorganisms to the furrow together with the seed, and the effect of bacterial concentration on phytostimulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses of an inoculant based on Azospirillum brasilense, applied to the seed furrow when planting maize, combined with different doses of nitrogen fertiliser. The experiment was carried out in the field, in soil of the cerrado region of Brazil. An experimental design of randomised blocks in bands was adopted, comprising nitrogen (40, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 and doses of an A. brasilense-based liquid inoculant applied to the seed furrow (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mL ha-1. The dose of 200 mL ha-1Azospirillum was noteworthy for grain production. This is the first report of the effective application of Azospirillum in the seed furrow when planting maize in the cerrado region of Brazil.

  20. Plasmid visualization and nif gene location in nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Plazinski, J; Dart, P. J.; Rolfe, B G

    1983-01-01

    A modified gel electrophoresis technique provided a reproducible way of detecting and isolating plasmids with molecular weights ranging from 12 X 10(6) to 370 X 10(6) for Azospirillum species. Analysis with the nifHD region of Rhizobium trifolii showed that the Azospirillum nif genes were chromosomally located in all eight strains investigated and not on endogenous plasmids.

  1. Genome Sequence of Azospirillum brasilense CBG497 and Comparative Analyses of Azospirillum Core and Accessory Genomes provide Insight into Niche Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Victor González; Alberto Mendoza Herrera; Valérie Barbe; Zoé Rouy; Claire Prigent-Combaret; Benoît Drogue; Stéphanie Borland; Erika Acosta-Cruz; Luis Lozano; Florence Wisniewski-Dyé; Patrick Mavingui

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum colonize roots of important cereals and grasses, and promote plant growth by several mechanisms, notably phytohormone synthesis. The genomes of several Azospirillum strains belonging to different species, isolated from various host plants and locations, were recently sequenced and published. In this study, an additional genome of an A. brasilense strain, isolated from maize grown on an alkaline soil in the northeast of Mexico, strain CBG497, was obtained. Co...

  2. Gold(III) reduction by the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense with the formation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugarova, Anna V; Burov, Andrei M; Burashnikova, Marina M; Kamnev, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    For the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, the ability to reduce [AuCl4](-) and to form gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been demonstrated, with the appearance of a mauve tint of the culture. To validate the shapes and chemical nature of nanoparticles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis were used. For the widely studied agriculturally important wild-type strains A. brasilense Sp7 and Sp245, GNPs formed after 10 days of incubation of cell biomass with 0.25 mM [AuCl4](-) were shown (using TEM) to be mainly of spherical form (5 to 20 nm in diameter), with rare occasional triangles. In the course of cultivation with [AuCl4](-), after 5 days, a mauve tint was already visible for cells of strain Sp245.5, after 6 days for Sp245 and after 10 days for Sp7. Thus, for the mutant strain Sp245.5 (which has significant differences in the structure and composition of cell-surface polysaccharides as compared with Sp245), a more rapid formation of GNPs was observed. Moreover, their TEM images (also obtained after 10 days) showed different shapes: nano-sized spheres, triangles, hexagons and rods, as well as larger round-shaped flower-like nanoparticles about 100 nm in size. Since by the time of GNP formation in our experiments the cells were found to be already not viable, this confirms the dominating role of cell surface structure and chemical composition in shaping the GNPs formed in the course of [AuCl4](-) reduction to Au(0). This finding may be useful for understanding the natural biogeochemical mechanisms of gold reduction and formation of GNPs involving microorganisms. The data obtained may also help in developing protocols for environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles and possible use of bacterial cells with modified surface structure and composition for their fabrication. PMID:24276540

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of cell membranes and their constituents of the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Matora, L. Yu.; Serebrennikova, O. B.; Sumaroka, M. V.; Colina, M.; Renou-Gonnord, M.-F.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1999-05-01

    Structural and compositional features of bacterial membranes and some of their isolated constituents (cell surface lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids) of the plant-growth-promoting diazotrophic rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (wild-type strain Sp245) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and some other techniques. FTIR spectra of the cell membranes were shown to comprise the main vibration modes of the relevant lipopolysaccharide and protein components which are believed to be involved in associative plant-bacterium interactions, as well as of phospholipid constituents. The role and functions of metal cations in the structural organization and physicochemical properties of bacterial cell membranes are also discussed considering their accumulation in the membranes from the culture medium.

  4. Elimination of Pathogenic Bacterium (Micrococcus sp.) by the Use of Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    , Tejpal Dahiya; , S. K. Gahlawat; R.C. Sihag

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics 1 (Lactobacillus sporogenes), 2 (Saccharomyces boulardii) and 3 (Nitromonas, Rhodococcus, Bacilus megaterium, Lecheni formis, Desulphovibrio sulphuricum, Psuedomonas, Chromatium, Chlorobium, Thiobacillus, Thioxidants, Thiobacilus ferroxidant, Methylomonas methyanica, Glucon acetobactor, Azospirillum, Trichoderma, Shizophyllum commune and Sclertium gluconicum) were tested against the pathogenic Micrococcus sp. oxt in vitro as well a...

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of native Azospirillum strains from rice fields to improve crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Pradhan, Madhusmita; Dangar, Tushar K; Mohanty, Santanu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-07-01

    Beneficial microorganisms have been considered as an important tool for crop improvement. Native isolates of Azospirillum spp. were obtained from the rhizospheres of different rice fields. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characterizations of these isolates led to the identification of six efficient strain of Azospirillum. PCR amplification of the nif genes (nifH, nifD and nifK) and protein profile of Azospirillum strains revealed inter-generic and inter-specific diversity among the strains. In vitro nitrogen fixation performance and the plant growth promotion activities, viz. siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were found to vary among the Azospirillum strains. The effect of Azospirillum formulations on growth of rice var. Khandagiri under field condition was evaluated, which revealed that the native formulation of Azospirillum of CRRI field (As6) was most effective to elevate endogenous nutrient content, and improved growth and better yield are the result. The 16S rRNA sequence revealed novelty of native Azospirillum lipoferum (As6) (JQ796078) in the NCBI database. PMID:24414168

  6. Sequencing and complementation analysis of the nifUSV genes from Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzon, J; Schrank, I S

    1998-02-15

    The functionality of nitrogenase in diazotrophic bacteria is dependent upon nif genes other than the structural nifH, D, and K genes which encode the enzyme subunit proteins. Such genes are involved in the activation of nif gene expression, maturation of subunit proteins, cofactor biosynthesis, and electron transport. In this work, approximately 5500 base pairs located within the major nif gene cluster of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 have been sequenced. The deduced open reading frames were compared to the nif gene products of Azotobacter vinelandii and other diazotrophs. This analysis indicates the presence of five ORFs encoding ORF2, nifU, nifS, nifV, and ORF4 in the same sequential organization as found in other organisms. Consensus sigma 54 and NifA binding sites are present in the putative promoter region upstream of ORF2 in the A. brasilense sequence. The nifV gene of A. brasilense but not nifU or nifS complemented corresponding mutants strains of A. vinelandii. PMID:9503607

  7. Plant yield and nitrogen content of a digitgrass in response to azospirillum inoculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schank, S.C.; Weier, K.L.; MacRae, I.C.

    1981-02-01

    Two Australian soils, a vertisol (pH 6.8, 0.299% N) and a sandy yellow podzol (pH 6.2, 0.042% N), were used with digitgrass, Digitaria sp. X46-2 (PI 421785), in a growth room experiment. Comparisons were made between plants inoculated with live and autoclaved bacterial suspensions of Australian and Brazilian isolates of Azospirillum brasilense. Seedlings were inoculated on days 10 and 35. Acetylene-reducing activity was measured five times during the experiment. Dry matter yields of the digitgrass on the podzol (low N) inoculated with liver bacteria were 23% higher than those of the controls. On the vertisol (high N), yield increases from inoculation with live bacteria were 8.5%. The higher-yielding plants had significantly lower precent nitrogen, but when total nitrogen of the tops was calculated, the inoculated plants had a higher total N than did the controls (P = 0.04). Acetylene-reducing activity was variable in the experiment, ranging from 0.5 to 11.9 mu mol of C2H2 core -1 day -1. Live bacterial treatment induced a proliferation of roots, possible earlier maturity, higher percent dry matter, and a higher total N in the tops. (Refs. 21).

  8. Screening on Gibberellic Acid Producing Activity of Azospirillum Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six strains of Azopirillum spp were isolated from rice, sugarcane, corn, maize, sunflower and pepper roots and screened the gibberellic acid productivity. Only three strains of Azospirillum species showed the activity and were indentified by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity patterns. Among them,one strain isolated from rice root can produce microbial gibberellic acid. It showed greenish yellow colour in chromatogram under UV absorption. This screening method was studied from 1 to 14 days incubation. Qualitative measurement of GA productivity was determined by thin layer chromatography.

  9. Purification and properties of the nitrogenase of Azospirillum amazonense.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, S D; Hartmann, A; Burris, R H

    1985-01-01

    The nitrogenase of the free-living, microaerobic, N2-fixing bacterium Azospirillum amazonense (strain Y1) was purified by chromatography on DEAE-52 cellulose, by heat treatment, and by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The specific nitrogenase activities were 2,400 nmol of C2H4 formed per min per mg of protein for dinitrogenase (MoFe protein) and 1,800 nmol of C2H4 formed per min per mg of protein for dinitrogenase reductase (Fe protein). The MoFe protein was composed of a minim...

  10. 15N2 incorporation and acetylene reduction by azospirillum isolated from rice roots and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fixation by strains of Azospirillum isolated from several rice soils and rice cultivars was investigated by 15N2 incorporation and C2H2 reduction. C2H2 reducing ability markedly varied among the strains obtained from soils differing widely in their physico-chemical properties. Large variations in 15N2 incorporation by Azospirillum isolated from the roots of several rice cultivars were also noticed. The present study reveals that rice cultivars harbour Azospirillum with differential N2-fixing ability and that plant genotype is of importance for optimal associations. (orig.)

  11. The cyclic-di-GMP diguanylate cyclase CdgA has a role in biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Mata, Alberto; López-Lara, Lilia I; Xiqui-Vázquez, Ma Luisa; Jijón-Moreno, Saúl; Romero-Osorio, Angelica; Baca, Beatriz E

    2016-04-01

    In bacteria, proteins containing GGDEF domains are involved in production of the second messenger c-di-GMP. Here we report that the cdgA gene encoding diguanylate cyclase A (CdgA) is involved in biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. Biofilm quantification using crystal violet staining revealed that inactivation of cdgA decreased biofilm formation. In addition, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of green-fluorescent protein-labeled bacteria showed that, during static growth, the biofilms had differential levels of development: bacteria harboring a cdgA mutation exhibited biofilms with considerably reduced thickness compared with those of the wild-type Sp7 strain. Moreover, DNA-specific staining and treatment with DNase I, and epifluorescence studies demonstrated that extracellular DNA and EPS are components of the biofilm matrix in Azospirillum. After expression and purification of the CdgA protein, diguanylate cyclase activity was detected. The enzymatic activity of CdgA-producing cyclic c-di-GMP was determined using GTP as a substrate and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD(+)) and Mg(2)(+) as cofactors. Together, our results revealed that A. brasilense possesses a functional c-di-GMP biosynthesis pathway. PMID:26708984

  12. Azospirillum genomes reveal transition of bacteria from aquatic to terrestrial environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Wisniewski-Dyé

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil records indicate that life appeared in marine environments ∼3.5 billion years ago (Gyr and transitioned to terrestrial ecosystems nearly 2.5 Gyr. Sequence analysis suggests that "hydrobacteria" and "terrabacteria" might have diverged as early as 3 Gyr. Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum are associated with roots of terrestrial plants; however, virtually all their close relatives are aquatic. We obtained genome sequences of two Azospirillum species and analyzed their gene origins. While most Azospirillum house-keeping genes have orthologs in its close aquatic relatives, this lineage has obtained nearly half of its genome from terrestrial organisms. The majority of genes encoding functions critical for association with plants are among horizontally transferred genes. Our results show that transition of some aquatic bacteria to terrestrial habitats occurred much later than the suggested initial divergence of hydro- and terrabacterial clades. The birth of the genus Azospirillum approximately coincided with the emergence of vascular plants on land.

  13. Application of the Indirect Immunoperoxidase Stain Technique to the Flagella of Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Patrick G.; Krieg, Noel R.

    1984-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase stain was used to demonstrate by electron microscopy that an antigenic difference exists between the polar flagellum and the lateral flagella of Azospirillum brasilense ATCC 29145.

  14. Change in the Content of Salicylic Acid and in the Activities of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Catalase in Wheat Seedling Roots Under the Effect of Azospirillum Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen'kina S.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of changes in the endogenous content of salicylic acid, the ratio between the acid's free and bound forms, and changes in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the effect of the lectins of two strains of the associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum: A. brasilense Sp7 and its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3. Differences in plant response to the action of the lectins from these two strains were established. On the basis of the obtained data, a model was proposed for lectin-assisted induction of resistance, according to which the lectin effect on the roots of seedlings results in accumulation of free salicylic acid, which inhibits catalase activity, ultimately leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and to formation of induced resistance.

  15. Azospirillum genomes reveal transition of bacteria from aquatic to terrestrial environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Wisniewski-Dyé; Kirill Borziak; Gurusahai Khalsa-Moyers; Gladys Alexandre; Sukharnikov, Leonid O.; Kristin Wuichet; Gregory B Hurst; W Hayes McDonald; Robertson, Jon S.; Valérie Barbe; Alexandra Calteau; Zoé Rouy; Sophie Mangenot; Claire Prigent-Combaret; Philippe Normand

    2011-01-01

    International audience Fossil records indicate that life appeared in marine environments ∼3.5 billion years ago (Gyr) and transitioned to terrestrial ecosystems nearly 2.5 Gyr. Sequence analysis suggests that "hydrobacteria" and "terrabacteria" might have diverged as early as 3 Gyr. Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum are associated with roots of terrestrial plants; however, virtually all their close relatives are aquatic. We obtained genome sequences of two Azospirillum species and analyze...

  16. Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Bellone, Carlos H.; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar c...

  17. Azospirillum Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria from Aquatic to Terrestrial Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski-Dye, Florence; Borziak, Kirill; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai; Alexandre, Gladys; O.Sukharnikov, Leonid; Wuichet, Kristin; B. Hurst, Gregory; Hayes Mcdonald, W.; S. Robertson, Jon; Barbe, Valerie; Calteau, Alexandra; Rouy, Zoe; Mangenot, Sophie; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Normand, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that life appeared in marine environments ∼3.5 billion years ago (Gyr) and transitioned to terrestrial ecosystems nearly 2.5 Gyr. Sequence analysis suggests that "hydrobacteria" and "terrabacteria" might have diverged as early as 3 Gyr. Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum are associated with roots of terrestrial plants; however, virtually all their close relatives are aquatic. We obtained genome sequences of two Azospirillum species and analyzed their gene origins. Whil...

  18. The Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Azospirillum amazonense: Genomic Versatility and Phytohormone Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Cecagno; Tiago Ebert Fritsch; Irene Silveira Schrank

    2015-01-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum amazonense associates with plant roots to promote plant growth. Variation in replicon numbers and rearrangements is common among Azospirillum strains, and characterization of these naturally occurring differences can improve our understanding of genome evolution. We performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis to understand the genomic plasticity of A. amazonense. The number of A. amazonense-specific coding sequences was similar when compared with...

  19. Biology of Azospirillum-Sugarcane Association: Enhancement of Nitrogenase Activity †

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, R. Howard; Tyler, Max E.; Novick, Norman J.; Vasil, Vimla; Vasil, Indra K.

    1980-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense was reisolated from associations with callus tissue cultures of sugarcane and compared with stock cultures of the inoculated bacterium and related strains. Although the reisolate had a growth rate similar to stock cultures, it exhibited a severalfold increase in maximum specific activity of nitrogenase. The reisolate and the parent culture had similar ultrastructure. The general ultrastructure of Azospirillum is described. The bacterium was capsulated when grown on nit...

  20. Population dynamics and identification of efficient strains of Azospirillum in maize ecosystems of Bihar (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Rinkee; Chourasia, S. K.; Jha, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on inoculum load and diversity of native microbial community is an important prerequisite for crop management of microbial origin. Azospirillum has a proven role in benefiting the maize (Zea mays) crop in terms of nutrient (nitrogen) supply as well as plant growth enhancement. Bihar state has highest average national maize productivity although fertilizer consumption is minimum, indicating richness of Azospirillum both in terms of population and diversity in soils. An experiment w...

  1. Influence of soil saprophyte fungus Chaetomium cochliodes on associative system "Triticum aestivum – Azospirillum brasilense"

    OpenAIRE

    E. P. Kopylov; A. A. Zhidenko

    2009-01-01

    In laboratory and vegetative experiments the ability of soil ascomycete C. cochliodes 3250 to promote the penetration of Azospirillum nitrogen-fixing bacteria into roots’ inner tissues was shown. At the same time the endophytic association: spring wheat – Azospirillum nitrogen-fixing bacteria – soil saprophyte ascomycete C. cochliodes 3250 is forming. It allows activating the nitrogen fixation in the spring wheat roots zone and biosynthetic processes in plants, in particular: to raise glutami...

  2. Use of combined inoculum of Azospirillum and Rhizobium in winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) D.C

    OpenAIRE

    Iruthayathas, EE.; Vlassak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of using the free living N -fixing Azospirillum in increasing the nodulation and N2-fixation by Rhizobium in winged bean was analysed. Various strains of winged bean Rhizobium and several strains of Azospirillum were tested in combined inoculations. Substantial increases in nodulation, N2-fixation, shoot dry matter production and N gain due to the mixed inoculation were obtained in one Rhizobium strain namely KUL-BH and most of the Azospirillum strains used. The influence of Rhi...

  3. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Josiane; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Araujo, Ricardo Silva; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense were employed to perform inoculation in-furrow, via soil spray at sowing and via leaf spray after seedlings had emerged, in comparison to seed inoculation. Experiments were conducted first under greenhouse controlled conditions and then confirmed in the field at different locations in Brazil. In the greenhouse, most parameters measured responded positively to the largest inoculant dose used in foliar sprays, but benefits could also be observed from both in-furrow and soil spray inoculation. However, our results present evidence that field inoculation with plant-growth promoting bacteria must consider inoculant doses, and point to the need of fine adjustments to avoid crossing the threshold of growth stimulation and inhibition. All inoculation techniques increased the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria in plant tissues, and foliar spray improved colonization of leaves, while soil inoculations favored root and rhizosphere colonization. In field experiments, inoculation with A. brasilense allowed for a 25 % reduction in the need for N fertilizers. Our results have identified alternative methods of inoculation that were as effective as the standard seed inoculation that may represent an important strategy to avoid the incompatibility between inoculant bacteria and pesticides employed for seed treatment. PMID:26759120

  4. Inoculation with Azospirillum, associated with nitrogen fertilization in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Lana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen fixation is an alternative to supply the nitrogen needed for maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of maize in response to inoculation with Azospirillum associated with nitrogen fertilization. We conducted two field experiments in the summer harvest, the first in the 2000/2001 crop year in the region of Marechal Cândido Rondon, under conventional tillage, and second in the 2002/2003 agricultural year in the region of Cascavel, under no tillage. The experimental design in both experiments was a randomized complete block, with four replications, 2x2x2 factorial, with two levels of nitrogen at sowing (zero and 20 kg ha-1, two levels of inoculum (zero and 200 g ha-1 and two levels of nitrogen in topdressing (zero and 100 kg ha-1. There was evaluated the height of ear insertion, total plant height, leaf N content, shoot dry biomass and grain yield. The height of ear insertion and total plant height were not influenced by the factors under study. Nitrogen fertilization at sowing increased the leaf N content, causing the opposite effect when combined with inoculation. Inoculation with Azospirillum in the absence of nitrogen, provide productivity increases of 15.4% and 7.4% for 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 crops, respectively. The inoculation provided productivity similar to that obtained with 100 kg ha-1 in topdressing in crop 2000/2001, while in association with the topdressing, reduced productivity and shoot dry biomass in crop 2002/2003.

  5. Hydrogenase activity in Azospirillum brasilense is inhibited by nitrite, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibelius, K.H.; Knowles, R.

    1984-10-01

    Nitrite, NO, CO, and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibited O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake (H/sup 3/H oxidation) in denitrifying Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 grown anaerobically on N/sub 2/O or NO/sub 3//sup -/. The apparent K/sub i/ values for inhibition of O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake were 20 ..mu..M for NO/sub 2//sup -/, 0.4 ..mu..M for NO, 28 ..mu..M for CO, and 88 ..mu..M for C/sub 2/H/sub 2/. These inhibitors also affected methylene blue-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake, presumably by acting directly on the hydrogenase. Nitrite and NO inhibited H/sub 2/ uptake irreversibly, whereas inhibition due to CO was easily reversed by repeatedly evacuating and backfilling with N/sub 2/. The C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibition was not readily reversed, partly due to difficulty in removing the last traces of this gas from solution. The NO/sub 2//sup -/ inhibition of malate-dependent respiration was readily reversed by repeatedly washing the cells, in contrast to the effect of NO/sub 2//sup -/ on H/sub 2/-dependent respiration. These results suggest that the low hydrogenase activities observed in NO/sub 3//sup -/-grown cultures of A. brasilense may be due to the irreversible inhibition of hydrogenase by NO/sub 2//sup -/ and NO produced by NO/sub 3//sup -/ reduction.

  6. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicum annum)

    OpenAIRE

    MUJIYATI; SUPRIYADI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasibakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicumannum). Bioteknologi 6: 63-69. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peningkatan populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum akibat pemberian pupuk kandang. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan perlakuan: (i) tanpa pupuk sebagai kontrol, (ii) dengan pupuk kandang, (iii) dengan pupuk NPK. Data dikumpulkan se...

  7. Directed mutagenesis affects recombination in Azospirillum brasilense nif genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Nunes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the gene transfer/mutagenesis system for Azospirillum brasilense, gene-cartridge mutagenesis was used to replace the nifD gene with the Tn5 kanamycin resistance gene. The construct was transferred to A. brasilense by electrotransformation. Of the 12 colonies isolated using the suicide plasmid pSUP202 as vector, only four did not show vector integration into the chromosome. Nevertheless, all 12 colonies were deficient in acetylene reduction, indicating an Nif- phenotype. Four Nif- mutants were analyzed by Southern blot, using six different probes spanning the nif and Km r genes and the plasmid vector. Apparently, several recombination events occurred in the mutant genomes, probably caused mainly by gene disruption owing to the mutagenesis technique used: resistance gene-cartridge mutagenesis combined with electrotransformation.Com o objetivo de melhorar os sistemas de transferência gênica e mutagênese para Azospirillum brasilense, a técnica de mutagênese através do uso de um gene marcador ("gene-cartridge mutagenesis" foi utilizada para substituir a região genômica de A. brasilense correspondente ao gene nifD por um segmento de DNA do transposon Tn5 contendo o gene que confere resistência ao antibiótico canamicina. A construção foi transferida para a linhagem de A. brasilense por eletrotransformação. Doze colônias transformantes foram isoladas com o plasmídeo suicida pSUP202 servindo como vetor. Dessas, somente quatro não possuíam o vetor integrado no cromossomo da bactéria. Independentemente da integração ou não do vetor, as 12 colônias foram deficientes na redução do gás acetileno, evidenciando o fenótipo Nif -. Quatro mutantes Nif - foram analisados através da técnica de Southern blot, utilizando-se seis diferentes fragmentos contendo genes nif, de resistência à canamicina e do vetor como sondas. Os resultados sugerem a ocorrência de eventos recombinacionais variados no genoma dos mutantes. A

  8. POTENCIALIDADES DE Azospirillum COMO INOCULANTE PARA LA AGRICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Parra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de bacterias rizosféricas con la finalidad de aumentar el rendimiento de los cultivos, disminuir el uso desmedido de fertilizantes minerales y productos químicos y, por consiguiente, reducir la contaminación ambiental, es una práctica que ha tomado un gran auge en las últimas décadas. Dentro de las bacterias asociativas más estudiadas, se encuentran las pertenecientes al género Azospirillum, el cual se ha convertido en el grupo más promisorio de diazótrofos asociados con gramíneas y otras plantas no leguminosas. En el siguiente trabajo se resumen los resultados y consideraciones más actuales de diversos autores al respecto, demostrándose que esta bacteria es capaz de incrementar el rendimiento de cultivos agrícolas importantes en diferentes suelos y regiones climáticas, usando diferentes cepas y especies de plantas y que aunque complejo, este sistema tiene un potencial para la explotación agrícola.

  9. Azospirillum brasilense siderophores with antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, María L; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C; Pedraza, Raúl O

    2011-04-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum is one of the most important diseases in strawberry crop. Due to environmental pollution and resistance produced by chemical fungicides, nowadays biological control is considered a good alternative for crop protection. Among biocontrol agents, there are plant growth-promoting bacteria, such as members of the genus Azospirillum. In this work, we demonstrate that under iron limiting conditions different strains of A. brasilense produce siderophores, exhibiting different yields and rates of production according to their origin. Chemical assays revealed that strains REC2 and REC3 secrete catechol type siderophores, including salicylic acid, detected by thin layer chromatography coupled with fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Siderophores produced by them showed in vitro antifungal activity against C. acutatum M11. Furthermore, this latter coincided with results obtained from phytopathological tests performed in planta, where a reduction of anthracnose symptoms on strawberry plants previously inoculated with A. brasilense was observed. These outcomes suggest that some strains of A. brasilense could act as biocontrol agent preventing anthracnose disease in strawberry. PMID:21234749

  10. Partial characterization of nif genes from the bacterium Azospirillum amazonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Potrich

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum amazonense revealed genomic organization patterns of the nitrogen fixation genes similar to those of the distantly related species A. brasilense. Our work suggests that A. brasilense nifHDK, nifENX, fixABC operons and nifA and glnB genes may be structurally homologous to the counterpart genes of A. amazonense. This is the first analysis revealing homology between A. brasilense nif genes and the A. amazonense genome. Sequence analysis of PCR amplification products revealed similarities between the amino acid sequences of the highly conserved nifD and glnB genes of A. amazonense and related genes of A. brasilense and other bacteria. However, the A. amazonense non-coding regions (the upstream activator sequence region and the region between the nifH and nifD genes differed from related regions of A. brasilense even in nitrogenase structural genes which are highly conserved among diazotrophic bacteria. The feasibility of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based PCR system for specific detection of A. amazonense was shown. Our results indicate that the PCR primers for 16S rDNA defined in this article are highly specific to A. amazonense and can distinguish this species from A. brasilense.

  11. Isolation of behavioral mutants of Azospirillum brasilense by using Tn5 lacZ.

    OpenAIRE

    van Rhijn, P; Vanstockem, M; Vanderleyden, J.; De Mot, R

    1990-01-01

    Tn5 lacZ mutants were generated with Azospirillum brasilense 7030 by mating that strain with Escherichia coli strains carrying suicide plasmid pCIB100 or pCIB110. Kanamycin-resistant Azospirillum colonies were obtained with a maximum frequency of 10(-6) per recipient cell. The potential of Tn5 lacZ for random transposon mutagenesis coupled to transcription analysis in A. brasilense 7030 was demonstrated. Sixty percent of all Kmr A. brasilense 7030 mutants expressed beta-galactosidase activity...

  12. Vescicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza and Azospirillum brasilense rhizocoenosis in pearlmillet in a semi-arid soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted in an alluvial sandy loam soil using Pearlmillet as the test crop to study the effect of Vescicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and Azospirillum with phosphorus on yield and other parameters. Dual inoculation gave a significant increase in Azospirillum and VAM infection in root over the control plants, and resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Combined inoculation alongwith N and P application showed maximum P uptake. Nitrogen fixation increased with plant growth with dually inoculated N and P treatment, The effect was more pronounced in the presence of phosphrous indicating that P is required for nitrogen fixation. (author)

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE BACTERIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS ASIMBIÓTICAS ASOCIADAS AL EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus sp. EN CODAZZI, CESAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divan Baldani Vera Lúcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de las épocas climáticas (lluvia y sequía y del estrato de la muestra (Suelo rizosférico, raíces y hojas sobre la población de los géneros Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter y Burkholderia en el Eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.. Así mismo, se evalúo su capacidad en la producción de compuestos indólicos como promotores del crecimiento vegetal y su actividad de reducción de acetileno como indicador de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. Los resultados no registraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en el test de Tukey (P ≤ 0.05 en la población con respecto a la época climática. Con respecto al estrato de muestra, los aislamientos tentativos a Herbaspirillum sp. y Azospirillum sp. presentaron diferencias significativas en suelo rizosférico y raíces. Se obtuvieron 44 aislamientos de los cuales se agruparon por caracterización fenotípica como: 14 presuntivos del género Beijerinckia sp., 12 de Azotobacter sp., 8 de Derxia sp., 4 de Herbarpirillum sp., 5 de Azospirillum sp., 1 de Gluconacetobacter sp. y 1 de Burkholderia sp. Por su alto potencial fueron seleccionados y criopreservados los aislamientos C27, C26, C25 y C45, las cuales presentaron los mejores valores de eficiencia in vitro, superando valores de producción de las cepas de referencia utilizadas (A. chroococcum (AC-01 y A. brasilense (SP7.

  14. /sup 15/N/sub 2/ incorporation and acetylene reduction by azospirillum isolated from rice roots and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, D.N.; Charyulu, P.B.B.; Rajaramamohan Rao, V. (Central Rice Research Inst., Cuttack (India). Dept. of Soil Microbiology)

    1981-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation by strains of Azospirillum isolated from several rice soils and rice cultivars was investigated by /sup 15/N/sub 2/ incorporation and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction. C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reducing ability markedly varied among the strains obtained from soils differing widely in their physico-chemical properties. Large variations in /sup 15/N/sub 2/ incorporation by Azospirillum isolated from the roots of several rice cultivars were also noticed. The present study reveals that rice cultivars harbour Azospirillum with differential N/sub 2/-fixing ability and that plant genotype is of importance for optimal associations.

  15. Microorganismos rizosféricos, potenciales antagonistas de Fusarium sp. causante de la pudrición radicular de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis Sims)

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Fernanda Quiroga-Rojas; Nataly Ruiz-Quiñones; Guerly Muñoz-Motta; María Denis Lozano-Tovar

    2012-01-01

    El cultivo de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis), de gran importancia económica para Colombia, actualmente es afectado por la enfermedad del marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium sp. lo que hace necesario la búsqueda de alternativas que permitan un control eficiente de esta enfermedad. Aislados de las bacterias Azotobacter spp., Azospirillum spp. y el hongo Trichoderma spp., fueron evaluados como potenciales biocontroladores de Fusarium sp. en pruebas in vitro e in vivo. Las pruebas de “test...

  16. Comparative Study of Substrates and Inhibitors of Azospirillum lipoferum and Pyricularia oryzae Laccases

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, D.; Bouillant, M.; Bally, R

    1995-01-01

    Azospirillum lipoferum and Pyricularia oryzae laccases were compared, using several substrates and inhibitors. Sixteen phenolic or nonphenolic compounds were found to be substrates of both fungal and bacterial laccases. In the presence of different phenol oxidase inhibitors, P. oryzae and A. lipoferum laccase activities had similar properties.

  17. Repressor Mutant Forms of the Azospirillum brasilense NtrC Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Huergo, Luciano F.; Assumpção, Marcelo C.; Emanuel M. Souza; Steffens, M. Berenice R.; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O.

    2004-01-01

    The Azospirillum brasilense mutant strains FP8 and FP9, after treatment with nitrosoguanidine, showed a null Nif phenotype and were unable to use nitrate as their sole nitrogen source. Sequencing of the ntrC genes revealed single nucleotide mutations in the NtrC nucleotide-binding site. The phenotypes of these strains are discussed in relation to their genotypes.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Model Rhizosphere Strain Azospirillum brasilense Az39, Successfully Applied in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Revale, Santiago; Molina, Romina; Gualpa, José; Puente, Mariana; Maroniche, Guillermo; Paris, Gastón; Baker, David; Clavijo, Bernardo; McLay, Kirsten; Spaepen, Stijn; Perticari, Alejandro; Vazquez, Martín; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Watkins, Chris; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Vanderleyden, Jos; Cassán, Fabricio

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence of Azospirillum brasilense Az39, isolated from wheat roots in the central region of Argentina and used as inoculant in extensive and intensive agriculture during the last four decades. The genome consists of 7.39 Mb, distributed in six replicons: one chromosome, three chromids, and two plasmids. PMID:25059863

  19. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on urease activity in soil and gamma-sterilized soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azospirillum spp. is considered a PGPR (plant growth promoting rhyzobacteria) bacterium, besides this interest, there is little information about its effects on other functional microbial groups or on soil enzymes. In this paper, the impact that Azospirillum brasilense 7001 inoculation has on urease activity expression in a Typic Argiudoll was studied. Evolution of urease activity of soil and of gamma irradiation (25 KGy) sterilized soil, and the inoculated strain survival were tested. The relation between soil urease activity and soil NH4+-N was also determined. In γ-sterilized soil, urease activity of inoculated soil increased with time, showing significant differences with regard to the control soil without inoculum at day 15. In non-sterile soil, urease activity decreased during the studied period in all treatments; in inoculated soil, it showed higher or lower values than the control depending on sampling time. Azospirillum survival was important and different according to soil condition conditions. The negative relation between NH4+-N concentration and soil urease activity (r2 = 0.62) was observed in inoculated soil. The role of the addition of autoclaved inoculum in the urease activity expression is discussed. The research proves that in both studied situations Azospirillum modified soil urease activity, and that the competition with native microorganisms and soil NH4+-N may affect this bacterium capacity. (author)

  20. Control of Nitrogenase Reactivation by the GlnZ Protein in Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Giseli; Emanuel M. Souza; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Rigo, Liu Un; Inaba, Juliana; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    The glnZ mutant of Azospirillum brasilense (strain 7611) showed only partial recovery (20 to 40%) after 80 min of ammonia-induced nitrogenase switch-off, whereas the wild type recovered totally within 10 min. In contrast, the two strains showed identical anoxic-induced switch-on/switch-off, indicating no cross talk between the two reactivation mechanisms.

  1. Effect of Endosulfan on Azospirillum lipoferum Growth, Morphology, Nitrogenase Activity, and Protein Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Buff, Klaus; Mano, Denise M. S.; Langenbach, Tomaz

    1992-01-01

    The organochlorine Thiodan CE inhibited growth and nitrogenase activity of Azospirillum lipoferum. The active ingredient, Endosulfan, was nonspecifically bound to proteins and mainly adsorbed to the cell envelope with small amounts transported into cytosol. The involvement of the external membrane and cyst formation in protection against hazardous substances is discussed.

  2. First Azospirillum genome from aquatic environments: Whole-genome sequence of Azospirillum thiophilum BV-S(T), a novel diazotroph harboring a capacity of sulfur-chemolithotrophy from a sulfide spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Azospirillum thiophilum BV-S(T), isolated from a sulfide spring, is a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterium harboring sulfur-lithotrophy. In order to identify genetic characteristics with habitat- and metabolic features contrasting to those from terrestrial Azospirillum species, we present here the genome sequence of a novel species A. thiophilum BV-S(T), with a significance of first genome report in the aquatic Azospirillum species. The genome of strain BV-S(T) is comprised of 7.6Mb chromosome with a GC content of 68.2%. This information will contribute to expand understandings of sulfur-oxidizer microbes that preserve inherencies as a diazotroph, and further it will provide insights into genome plasticity of the genus Azospirillum for niche specific adaptations. PMID:26545806

  3. Optimization of biofloc production in Azospirillum brasilense (MTCC-125) and evaluation of its adherence with the roots of certain crops

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Melvin; Karthikeyan, M. B.; Sekar, C.; Deiveekasundaram, M.

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of flocculation in Azospirillum brasilense (MTCC-125) was studied under different combinations of carbon and nitrogen sources. Fructose and Potassium nitrate at a pH of 6.4 in the cultural medium favour a higher bio-floc production. The biofloc was studied for root adhesion and its survival efficiency in the rhizoplane and rhizosphere of certain crops such as sorghum and sunflower under dryland condition. It has been demonstrated that the flocculated cultures of Azospirillum we...

  4. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Specific Identification and Enumeration of Azospirillum brasilense Cd. in Cereal Roots †

    OpenAIRE

    Levanony, Hanna; Bashan, Yoav; Kahana, Zvi E.

    1987-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is suggested as a reliable, sensitive, and highly specific method for the identification and enumeration of Azospirillum brasilense Cd. As few as 105 CFU/ml can be practically identified by this method. At higher bacterial numbers, sensitivity increased linearly up to 5 × 108 CFU/ml, yielding useful standard curves. No cross-reaction was found either with different closely related Azospirillum strains or with other rhizosphere bacteria. The method allows ...

  5. INOKULASI Azospirillium sp DARI LAHAN KERING MADURA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ach. Khoirul Ikhwan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh isolat bakteri Azospirillium sp dari Madura, serta mengkaji kehandalannya dalam menggantikan pupuk N sintetik. Samel tanah diambil dari Kecamatan Galis, Geger dan Tanahmerah, isolasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan media semi solid Nfb, selanjutnya diuji kehandalannya berdasarkan pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman jagung. Diperoleh 1 isolat yang terbaik yaitu isolat yang diisolasi dari rhizosper tanaman Graminae di Kecamatan Galis, namun demikian berdasarkan pertumbuhan tanaman jagung belum bisa menggantikan pupun N sintetik.Kata kunci : Azospirillum sp, jagung, nitrogen, isolat madura

  6. Metabolic Adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to Oxygen Stress by Cell-to-Cell Clumping and Flocculation

    OpenAIRE

    Bible, Amber N.; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K.; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S.; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Gregory B Hurst; Alexandre, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clum...

  7. Identification of a phosphoenolpyruvate:fructose 1-phosphotransferase system in Azospirillum brasilense.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K. D.; S. Ghosh

    1984-01-01

    An inducible phosphoenolpyruvate:fructose phosphotransferase system has been detected in Azospirillum brasilense, which requires a minimum of two components of the crude extracts for activity: (i) a soluble fraction (enzyme I) and (ii) a membrane fraction (enzyme II). The uninduced cells neither show any uptake of fructose nor express activity of either of these two enzyme fractions. C-1 of fructose is the site of phosphorylation. This phosphotransferase system does not accept glucose as a su...

  8. Growth and yield of corn hybrids in response to association with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in optimizing the positive effects of the association between Azospirillum bacteria and corn crop in order to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation efficiency of an A. brasilense-based commercial product in association with different rates of nitrogen fertilization in two corn genotypes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two...

  9. Regulatory mutation that controls nif expression and histidine transport in Azospirillum brasilense.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, M.; Levy, E; Geller, T

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenesis of Azospirillum brasilense with nitrosoguanidine and selection on ethylenediamine yielded prototrophs which fixed nitrogen in the presence of ammonia. Nitrogenase activity in mutant strains exceeded that of the wild type three- to sixfold. The same mutants were also constitutive for histidine transport. Enzyme activities involved in ammonia assimilation were not affected by the mutation. The data suggest that the mutation occurred at a site which regulates nif and histidine transp...

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1997-06-01

    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  11. Plant root transcriptome profiling reveals a strain-dependent response during Azospirillum-rice cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Drogue, Benoît; Sanguin, Hervé; Chamam, Amel; Mozar, Michael; Llauro, Christel; Panaud, Olivier; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Picault, Nathalie; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation involving Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria results in improvements of plant growth and health. While pathogenic and symbiotic interactions are known to induce transcriptional changes for genes related to plant defense and development, little is known about the impact of phytostimulating rhizobacteria on plant gene expression. This study aims at identifying genes significantly regulated in rice roots upon Azospirillum inoculation, considering possible favored interaction betwee...

  12. Improving nutrient uptake in wheat through cultivar specific interaction with Azospirillum

    OpenAIRE

    Hoagland, Dr. Lori; Murphy, Dr. Kevin; Carpenter-Boggs, Dr. Lynne; Jones, Dr. Steve

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining sufficient plant available nitrogen in organic dryland wheat cropping systems is difficult. This study was conducted to determine whether inoculation with Azospirillum could improve nitrogen uptake and increase crop yield, and whether there are differences among wheat cultivars in the ability to benefit from inoculation of these diazotrophic bacteria. Seed from twenty historic and modern wheat cultivars were either left untreated, or treated with a commercial inoculant of Azospiri...

  13. Tripartite symbiosis of Lentil (Lense culinaris L.), Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum brasilense under Rainfed Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ardakani, M. Reza; Maleki, Sadegh; Aghayari, Fayaz; Rejali, Farhad; Faregh, Amir. H.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted aiming to determine the possibility of improving the lentil performance when co-inoculated with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi and Azospirillum under natural rain-fed conditions, in Iran. Results showed the substantial impact of VAM fungi on grain protein, root colonization and shoot dry weight. Highest value for shoot dry weight recorded in plants which inoculated with G. intraradices and highest values for root colonization and grain protein con...

  14. The plant growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum amazonense: genomic versatility and phytohormone pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecagno, Ricardo; Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-01-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum amazonense associates with plant roots to promote plant growth. Variation in replicon numbers and rearrangements is common among Azospirillum strains, and characterization of these naturally occurring differences can improve our understanding of genome evolution. We performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis to understand the genomic plasticity of A. amazonense. The number of A. amazonense-specific coding sequences was similar when compared with the six closely related bacteria regarding belonging or not to the Azospirillum genus. Our results suggest that the versatile gene repertoire found in A. amazonense genome could have been acquired from distantly related bacteria from horizontal transfer. Furthermore, the identification of coding sequence related to phytohormone production, such as flavin-monooxygenase and aldehyde oxidase, is likely to represent the tryptophan-dependent TAM pathway for auxin production in this bacterium. Moreover, the presence of the coding sequence for nitrilase indicates the presence of the alternative route that uses IAN as an intermediate for auxin synthesis, but it remains to be established whether the IAN pathway is the Trp-independent route. Future investigations are necessary to support the hypothesis that its genomic structure has evolved to meet the requirement for adaptation to the rhizosphere and interaction with host plants. PMID:25866821

  15. Genome wide profiling of Azospirillum lipoferum 4B gene expression during interaction with rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogue, Benoît; Sanguin, Hervé; Borland, Stéphanie; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2014-02-01

    Azospirillum-plant cooperation has been mainly studied from an agronomic point of view leading to a wide description of mechanisms implicated in plant growth-promoting effects. However, little is known about genetic determinants implicated in bacterial adaptation to the host plant during the transition from free-living to root-associated lifestyles. This study aims at characterizing global gene expression of Azospirillum lipoferum 4B following a 7-day-old interaction with two cultivars of Oryza sativa L. japonica (cv. Cigalon from which it was originally isolated, and cv. Nipponbare). The analysis was done on a whole genome expression array with RNA samples obtained from planktonic cells, sessile cells, and root-adhering cells. Root-associated Azospirillum cells grow in an active sessile-like state and gene expression is tightly adjusted to the host plant. Adaptation to rice seems to involve genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification and multidrug efflux, as well as complex regulatory networks. As revealed by the induction of genes encoding transposases, interaction with root may drive bacterial genome rearrangements. Several genes related to ABC transporters and ROS detoxification display cultivar-specific expression profiles, suggesting host specific adaptation and raising the question of A. lipoferum 4B/rice cv. Cigalon co-adaptation. PMID:24283406

  16. Relative efficiency of Azotobacter and Azospirillum on yield and P utilization by wheat (Triticum Aestivum) with various N levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficiency of 32P labelled single superphosphate along with N levels (0, 60, 80 and 120 kg/ha) and biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Azospirillum) was studied on wheat in Typic ustifluvent (saline phase) soil. Average grain and straw yield, total P uptake, per cent P derived by crop from applied phosphorus and its utilization in grain and straw increased either with Azospirillum or Azotobacter inoculation. However, the magnitude of increase in these attributes was of higher extent in presence of Azotobacter as compared to Azospirillum. The yield, uptake and utilization of P increased with increasing levels of N. Per cent Pdff was higher with all levels of N over control, whereas, it was at par with their successive levels. Interaction effect between levels of nitrogen and biofertilizers were also positive and significant at all levels of N with respect to yield and uptake of P, while per cent Pdff and its utilization by wheat was more pronounced at 60 and 80 kg N ha-1 in the presence of Azotobacter. Azospirillum was more effective at 60 kg of N than the other levels. Generally, Azotobacter performed better than the Azospirillum with respect to all parameters. (author)

  17. Cellulose decomposition and associated nitrogen fixation by mixed cultures of Cellulomonas gelida and Azospirillum species or Bacillus macerans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1985-10-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas gelida plus Azospirillum lipoferum or Azospirillum brasilense and C. gelida plus Bacillus macerans were shown to degrade cellulose and straw and to utilize the energy-yielding products to fix atmospheric nitrogen. This cooperative process was followed over 30 days in sand-based cultures in which the breakdown of 20% of the cellulose and 28 to 30% of the straw resulted in the fixation of 12 to 14.6 mg of N per g of cellulose and 17 to 19 mg of N per g of straw consumed. Cellulomonas species have certain advantages over aerobic cellulose-degrading fungi in being able to degrade cellulose at oxygen concentrations as low as 1% O/sub 2/ (vol/vol) which would allow a close association between cellulose-degrading and microaerobic diazotrophic microorganisms. Cultures inoculated with initially different proportions of A. brasilense and C. gelida all reached a stable ratio of approximately 1 Azospirillum/3 Cellulomonas cells.

  18. Inoculación del trigo var. Pavón con Azospirillum spp. y Azotobacter beijerinckii

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Garc\\u00EDa-Gonz\\u00E1lez; R. Far\\u00EDas-Rodr\\u00EDguez; J.J. Pe\\u00F1a-Cabriales; J.M. S\\u00E1nchez-Y\\u00E1\\u00F1ez

    2005-01-01

    La respuesta positiva del trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) a la inoculación con bacterias benéficas de raíz (BBR), como: Azospirillum y Azotobacter, se basa en que estas BBR transforman los exudados radicales (ER) del trigo en sustancias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (SPCV). Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: I) analizar la dinámica de colonización de Azospirillum spp. y Azotobacter beijerinckii en las raíces del trigo, y 2) determinar la respuesta del trigo a la inoculación con Azospiril...

  19. Improvement of endophytic Azospirillum colonization by co-inoculation with Cellulomonas Uda ATCC 491

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR such as Azopirillum if accompanied with strong cellulase producing bacteria such as Cellulomonas, their colonization may be increased and their host plants growth improved. Materials and methods: Six endophytic Azospirilla which isolated from three rice and three wheat cultivars and also one strain from commercial biofertilizer (Green Biotech Co., identified by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis and were studied on the basis of cellulase, pectinase and auxin production and also their chemotaxis toward rice and wheat cultivars exudates was investigated. Two cellulase positive (A5 and A6 and two negative (A2 and A3 strains were selected and their interaction with C. uda ATCC 491 on auxin production and colonization on roots were compared. Results: This study showed that none of the strains had pectinase activity, but the strain isolated from rice had more Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase activity. Selected isolates and C. uda ATCC 491 showed chemotaxis toward roots exudates. In most of the isolates, rate of auxin production increased by coculture with C. uda ATCC 491. Also, it was determined that C. uda ATCC 491 promoted the colonization of Azospirillum without or with cellulase activity on rice and wheat roots, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Co-inoculation Azospirillum with C. uda ATCC 491 improves plant root system due to stimulation or additive effect of auxin production and cellulase activity, followed by more uptakes of water and minerals by roots. Also, it raises the number of colonization niches for useful bacteria such as Azospirillum and finally quantitative and qualitative plant parameters.

  20. Regulation of fructose uptake and catabolism by succinate in Azospirillum brasilense.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, A; S. Ghosh

    1987-01-01

    Fructose uptake and catabolism in Azospirillum brasilense is dependent on three fructose-inducible enzymes (fru-enzymes): (i) enzyme I and (ii) enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate:fructose phosphotransferase system and (iii) 1-phosphofructokinase. In minimal medium containing 3.7 mM succinate and 22 mM fructose as sources of carbon, growth of A. brasilense was diauxic, succinate being utilized in the first phase of growth and fructose in the second phase with a lag period between the two gro...

  1. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  2. Structure of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense Jm125A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-10-30

    Two polysaccharides were obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Jm125A2 isolated from the rhizosphere of a pearl millet. The following structures of the polysaccharides were established by sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: [Formula: see text] Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide from A. brasilense S17 (Fedonenko YP, Konnova ON, Zdorovenko EL, Konnova SA, Zatonsky GV, Shaskov AS, Ignatov VV, Knirel YA. Carbohydr Res 2008;343:810-6), whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. PMID:26343325

  3. Azospirillum brasilense locus coding for phosphoenolpyruvate:fructose phosphotransferase system and global regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, S; Mukherjee, A.; Ghosh, S.

    1993-01-01

    Mutants of Azospirillum brasilense unable to grow on fructose include ones affected only on fructose (Fru-) and others impaired on many or all carbohydrates through interference with induction of their specific pathways (Car-). Both types of mutants could be complemented by a cosmid in broad-host-range vector pLAFR1 containing a 27.5-kb genomic insert, Car(-)-complementing activity depending on a 2.2-kb fragment, and Fru(-)-complementing activity depending on an overlapping 9.6-kb fragment.

  4. ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА СТРУКТУРНЫХ ОСОБЕННОСТЕЙ ЛИПОПОЛИСАХАРИД-БЕЛКОВЫХ КОМПЛЕКСОВ КАПСУЛЫ БАКТЕРИЙ AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE SR80 И SP245 ПРИ РОСТЕ НА АГАРИЗОВАННОЙ СРЕДЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Халэпа, Яна; Евстигнеева, Стелла; Сигида, Елена; Федоненко, Юлия; Коннова, Светлана; Игнатов, Владимир

    2014-01-01

    Проведено сравнительное исследование структурных особенностей липополисахарид-белковых комплексов (ЛПБК) из капсульного материала бактерий Azospirillum brasilense SR80 и Sp245, выращенных в жидкой и агаризованной питательных средах. Анализ данных ГЖХ и ЯМР-спектроскопии выявил отличия структуры липидной и полисахаридной составляющих ЛПБК исследуемых бактерий, в зависимости от условий их культивирования. Отличительной особенностью ЛПБК обоих штаммов, рост которых осуществлялся на плотной среде...

  5. Penggunaan Azospirillum pada Tanah Masam dengan Aluminium Tinggi Terhadap Produksi dan Serapan Nitrogen Rumput Setaria splendida dan Chloris gayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.M.H. Karti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available High content of Al on the soil maybe harmful (toxic for plant. Red and yellow podzolic soil was marginal land that characterized by high Al content. Azospirillum is free living N fixing bacteria that can be associated with grass. This research was conducted to find the best yield of grass planted on the soil inoculated with Azospirillum. The research consisted of some steps; 1 soil sampling 2 laboratory research: bacterial isolation, isolate selection, standardized of population, content of IAA 3 pod experiment. Pod experiment in the glass house was designed in completely randomized design, that consisted of six treatments. The variables observed were dry mass production of shoot and root, nitrogen content of shoot and root, and nitrogen absorption. Four best isolates chosen were; SM Setaria, OBIS/BD, PO2 and PM2. Azospirillum isolates enhanced shoot and root production, nitrogen content and N total absorption of tolerance one (S. splendida. The susceptible (C. gayana, Azospirillum significantly enhanced shoot and root nitrogen content, but did not affect the growth, production and N total absorption. Root growth that was inhibited by Al toxicity, decreased the symbiotic capability of nitrogen fixing bacteria. PM2 isolate showed the best effect on production and quality of S. splendida as well as on C. gayana. This isolate will be used for future research. PM2 produces 6.4 ppm Indole Acetic Acid that promoted root growth.

  6. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUJIYATI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasibakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicumannum. Bioteknologi 6: 63-69. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peningkatan populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum akibat pemberian pupuk kandang. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan perlakuan: (i tanpa pupuk sebagai kontrol, (ii dengan pupuk kandang, (iii dengan pupuk NPK. Data dikumpulkan secara eksperimen dengan menanam cabai pada beberapa petak percobaan dengan perlakuan penggunaan pupuk sebanyak tiga kali ulangan. Data yang dikumpulkan terdiri atas jumlah populasi Azotobacter dan Azospirillum, kandungan nitrogen dalam tanah dan hasil cabai. Percobaan lapangan dilakukan di Desa Gathak, Kecamatan Karangnongko, Kabupaten Klaten, Jawa Tengah. Data primer dari hasil penelitian di analisis dengan uji ANAVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa menggunakan pupuk kandang dapat meningkatkan populasi bakteri Azotobacter (0,02% dan Azospirillum (0,46% apabila dibandingkan kontrol, sehingga dapat meningkatkan kesuburan tanah dalam waktu yang cukup lama yaitu dengan meningkatkan ketersediaan hara dalam tanah. Kandungan nitrogen total tanah setelah diberi pupuk kandang juga meningkat dan sangat bermanfaat untuk bahan penyusun tubuh tumbuhan.

  7. Phenotypic Changes Resulting from Distinct Point Mutations in the Azospirillum brasilense glnA Gene, Encoding Glutamine Synthetase

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dommelen, Anne; Keijers, Veerle; Wollebrants, An; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    Sequencing the glnA genes of two chemically induced Azospirillum brasilense glutamine synthetase mutants revealed an Arg→Cys mutation, corresponding to the glutamate binding site, in one mutant and an Asp→Asn mutation, corresponding to the ammonium binding site, in the second mutant. The phenotypic changes in these mutants are discussed in relation to their genotypes.

  8. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in the wheat-Azospirillum brasilense interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Castro-Mercado, Elda; Alexandre, Gladys; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) able to enhance the growth of wheat. The aim of this study was to test the effect of Azospirillum brasilense cell wall components on superoxide (O2·(-)) production in wheat roots and the effect of oxidative stress on A. brasilense viability. We found that inoculation with A. brasilense reduced O2·(-) levels by approx. 30 % in wheat roots. Inoculation of wheat with papain-treated A. brasilense, a Cys protease, notably increased O2·(-) production in all root tissues, as was observed by the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. However, a 24-h treatment with rhizobacteria lipopolysaccharides (50 and 100 μg/mL) alone did not affect the pattern of O2·(-) production. Analysis of the effect of plant cell wall components on A. brasilense oxidative enzyme activity showed no changes in catalase activity but a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in response to polygalacturonic acid treatment. Furthermore, A. brasilense growth was only affected by high concentrations of H2O2 or paraquat, but not by sodium nitroprusside. Our results suggest that rhizobacterial cell wall components play an important role in controlling plant cell responses and developing tolerance of A. brasilense to oxidative stress produced by the plant. PMID:25952083

  9. The ipdC, hisC1 and hisC2 genes involved in indole-3-acetic production used as alternative phylogenetic markers in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijón-Moreno, Saúl; Marcos-Jiménez, Cynthia; Pedraza, Raúl O; Ramírez-Mata, Alberto; de Salamone, I García; Fernández-Scavino, Ana; Vásquez-Hernández, Claudia A; Soto-Urzúa, Lucia; Baca, Beatriz E

    2015-06-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria of the genus Azospirillum are present in the rhizosphere and as endophytes of many crops. In this research we studied 40 Azospirillum strains isolated from different plants and geographic regions. They were first characterized by 16S rDNA restriction analysis, and their phylogenetic position was established by sequencing the genes 16S rDNA, ipdC, hisC1, and hisC2. The latter three genes are involved in the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) biosynthesis pathway of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Furthermore, the suitability of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequence (IGS) for the differentiation of closely related Azospirillum taxa and development of PCR protocols allows for specific detection of strains. The IGS-RFLP analysis enabled intraspecies differentiation, particularly of Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum strains. Results demonstrated that the ipdC, hisC1, and hisC2 genes are highly conserved in all the assessed A. brasilense isolates, suggesting that these genes can be used as an alternative phylogenetic marker. In addition, IAA production determined by HPLC ranged from 0.17 to 98.2 μg mg(-1) protein. Southern hybridization with the A. brasilense ipdC gene probe did not show, a hybridization signal with A. lipoferum, Azospirillum amazonense, Azospirillum halopreferans and Azospirillum irakense genomic DNA. This suggests that these species produce IAA by other pathways. Because IAA is mainly synthesized via the IPyA pathway in A. brasilense strains, a species that is used worldwide in agriculture, the identification of ipdC, hisC1, and hisC2 genes by PCR may be suitable for selecting exploitable strains. PMID:25842039

  10. Characterization of native strains of Azospirillum spp. and its effect on growth of Oryza sativa L. “rice” in Lambayeque

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin García; Harold Muñoz; Carmen Carreño; Gilmar Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to characterize and determine the effect of native strains of Azospirillum spp. on growth of Oryza sativa L. "rice" as an alternative for the reduction of chemical fertilizers. The bacteria were isolated from roots of rice in Lambayeque. Fragments of previously disinfected roots were planted in Nfb semisolid medium, were nitrogen-fixing bacteria were recognized by a whitish film on the surface and turn from green to blue. The genus Azospirillum was identified in Co...

  11. Residual effect of nitrogen fertilization and Azospirillum brasilense inoculation in the maize culture
    Efeito residual da adubação nitrogenada e inoculação de Azospirillum brasilense na cultura do milho

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Huzar Novakowiski; Aníbal de Moraes; Margarete Kimie Falbo; Itacir Eloi Sandini; Jaqueline Huzar Novakowiski; Nicole Colombari Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The diazotrophic bacteria Azospirillum brasilense is an organism able to fix nitrogen of atmosphere and produce plant hormones. Nevertheless, there is lack of information with regard to use in field conditions, especially in production systems that have presence of animals in a determined year period. The objective of paper was to evaluate the association of the nitrogen residual effect of fertilization in pasture winter and the inoculation with A. brasilense in the maize culture. Were carrie...

  12. Toxicidade de herbicidas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar à bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum brasilense Toxicity of herbicides applied on sugarcane to the diazotrophic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. Procópio; M.F. Fernandes; D.A Teles; J.G Sena Filho; A. Cargnelutti Filho; L. Vargas; S.A.C Sant'Anna

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar herbicidas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar que não alteram o crescimento ou a capacidade de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) da bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum brasi lense. Dezoito herbicidas - paraquat, ametryn, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn], S-metolachlor, glyphosate, MSMA e 2...

  13. Response of Sunflower Yield and Phytohormonal Changes to Azotobacter,Azospirillum,Pseudomonas and Animal Manure in a Chemical Free Agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maziyar, Mehran; M. Reza, Ardakani; Hamid, Madani; Mohammad , Zahedi; Mohsen, Amirabadi; Saeed, Mafakheri

    2011-01-01

    There are new trends in agriculture to move toward the low input systems with the lower application of chemical fertilizers. To reach this goal, different methods, such as the application of biofertilizers, may be used. So this experiment was conducted in 2010 at a research farm in Arak, Iran, in factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and four factors: animal manure (M), Pseudomonas putida (P), Azotobacter chroococcum (A)and Azospirillum lipoferum ...

  14. Enhancement of Wheat Root Colonization and Plant Development by Azospirillum brasilense Cd. Following Temporary Depression of Rhizosphere Microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Bashan, Yoav

    1986-01-01

    Inoculation of wheat with Azospirillum brasilense, combined with the application of four fungal and bacterium-inhibiting substances to which A. brasilense is resistant in the soil, decreased the rhizosphere population, while it increased wheat root colonization by A. brasilense, even in cases of poor inoculation. The inoculation significantly increased the following wheat plant parameters as well: plant dry weight, number of tillers per plant, spikelet fertility, harvest index, and grain yiel...

  15. [INFLUENCE OF AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE 10/1 ON ASSOCIATIVE NITROGEN FIXATION AND INTRAVARIETAL POLYMORPHISM OF SPRING TRITICALE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patika, V P; Nadkernichna, O V; Shahovnina, O O

    2015-01-01

    It is shown, that the perspective Ukrainian sorts of spring triticale characterizes by considerable polymorphism by associative N2-fixing ability in root zone of plants. Application of active strain Azospirillum brasilense 10/1 promotes the decline of variability of this sign within the limits of sort, increase potential nitrogen activity is on the average in 3,2-4,7 times and also distributing normalizations in the selections of the inoculated plants. PMID:26638482

  16. Protein Quantity and Quality of Safflower Seed Improved by NP Fertilizer and Rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Yasmin, Humaira; Keyani, Rumana; Habib, Rabia; Shah, Syed T. A.; Naz, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Rhizobacteria (Azotobacter spp.) have improved the quality and quantity of safflower seed protein.Protein quality was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and new bands were found in response to different combinations of rhizobacteria and lower doses of fertilizers.The PGPR application has reduced the use of fertilizers upto 50%. Protein is an essential part of the human diet. The aim of this present study was to improve the protein quality of safflower seed by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in combination with conventional nitrogen and phosphate (NP) fertilizers. The seeds of two safflower cultivars Thori and Saif-32, were inoculated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter and grown under field conditions. Protein content and quality was assessed by crude protein, amino acid analysis, and SDS-PAGE. Seed crude protein and amino acids (methionine, phenylalanine, and glutamic acid) showed significant improvements (55–1250%) by Azotobacter supplemented with a quarter dose of fertilizers (BTQ) at P ≤ 0.05. Additional protein bands were induced in Thori and Saif-32 by BTQ and BTH (Azotobacter supplemented with a half dose of fertilizer) respectively. The Azospirillum in combination with half dose of fertilizer (SPH) and BTQ enhanced both indole acetic acid (IAA) (90%) and gibberellic acid (GA) (23–27%) content in safflower leaf. Taken together, these data suggest that Azospirillum and Azotobacter along with significantly reduced (up to 75%) use of NP fertilizers could improve the quality and quantity of safflower seed protein. PMID:26941744

  17. Protein quantity and quality of safflower seed improved by NP fertilizer and rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asia eNosheen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein is an essential part of human diet. The aim of present study was to improve the protein quality of safflower seed by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in combination with conventional nitrogen and phosphate (NP fertilizers. The seeds of two safflower cultivar Thori and Saif-32, were inoculated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter and grown under field conditions. Protein content and quality was assessed by crude protein, amino acid analysis and SDS-PAGE. Seed crude protein and amino acids (metheonine, phenylanine and glutamic acid showed significant improvement (55%–1250% by Azotobacter supplemented with quarter dose of fertilizers (BTQ at P≤0.05. Additional protein bands were induced in Thori and Saif-32 by BTQ and BTH (Azotobacter supplemented with half dose of fertilizers respectively. The Azospirillum in combination with half dose of fertilizers (SPH and BTQ enhanced the indole acetic acid (90% and gibberellic acid (23%–27% contents in safflower leaf. Taken together, these data suggest that Azospirillum and Azotobacter along with significantly reduced (up to 75% use of NP fertilizers improved the quality and quantity of safflower seed protein.

  18. Protein Quantity and Quality of Safflower Seed Improved by NP Fertilizer and Rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Yasmin, Humaira; Keyani, Rumana; Habib, Rabia; Shah, Syed T A; Naz, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Rhizobacteria (Azotobacter spp.) have improved the quality and quantity of safflower seed protein.Protein quality was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and new bands were found in response to different combinations of rhizobacteria and lower doses of fertilizers.The PGPR application has reduced the use of fertilizers upto 50%. Protein is an essential part of the human diet. The aim of this present study was to improve the protein quality of safflower seed by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in combination with conventional nitrogen and phosphate (NP) fertilizers. The seeds of two safflower cultivars Thori and Saif-32, were inoculated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter and grown under field conditions. Protein content and quality was assessed by crude protein, amino acid analysis, and SDS-PAGE. Seed crude protein and amino acids (methionine, phenylalanine, and glutamic acid) showed significant improvements (55-1250%) by Azotobacter supplemented with a quarter dose of fertilizers (BTQ) at P ≤ 0.05. Additional protein bands were induced in Thori and Saif-32 by BTQ and BTH (Azotobacter supplemented with a half dose of fertilizer) respectively. The Azospirillum in combination with half dose of fertilizer (SPH) and BTQ enhanced both indole acetic acid (IAA) (90%) and gibberellic acid (GA) (23-27%) content in safflower leaf. Taken together, these data suggest that Azospirillum and Azotobacter along with significantly reduced (up to 75%) use of NP fertilizers could improve the quality and quantity of safflower seed protein. PMID:26941744

  19. Improvement of Canola (Brassica napus L.) Inoculated with Rhizobium, Azospirillum and/or Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio fertilization technology was applied for improving canola plant growth and nutrient acquisition in sandy saline soil ,as a biological mean used to develop plant growth and nutrient uptake under salinity stress. Canola was cultivated in pots packed at rate of 7 kg saline sandy soil pot-1, and inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae, Azospirillum brasilense strain no. 40 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi either solely or in combinations of them. Nitrogen fertilizer was added in form (15NH4)2SO4 with 5%15N atom excess at rate of 0.99 g N pot-1. Maximum dry matter accumulation induced by composite inoculation (Rh + Azo + AM). Na concentrations were frequently affected by Rhizobium and /or mycorrhizae while K was affected by Azospirillum and /or mycorrhizae. Azospirillum enhanced Ca uptake whereas Mg content was responded well to composite inoculants of Rh + Azo + AM. Dual inoculation with Rh + Azo resulted in the highest values of N uptake by plant. Similar effect was noticed with P uptake when dual inoculums of Azo + AM were applied. Data of 15N isotope showed that the highest portion and value of N2-fixed was recorded with composite inoculums followed by dual inoculations. On the other hand, the infection with AM fungi gave the highest proportion of N derived from fertilizer as compared to other inoculants or uninoculated control. In the same trend, the fertilizer use efficiency (FUE%) was enhanced by AM infection. Dual inoculums of Rh + Azo induced highest content of proline in leaves. (Authors)

  20. Maize growth promotion by inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and metabolites of Rhizobium tropici enriched on lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Bettina Berquó; Megías, Manuel; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Araujo, Ricardo Silva; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in the development and use of inoculants carrying plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) in crops of agronomic interest. The great majority of the inoculants commercialized worldwide contain rhizobia for legume crops, but the use of PGPB as Azospirillum spp. for non-legume is expanding, as well as of inoculants combining microorganisms and microbial metabolites. In this study we evaluated the effects of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense with or without metabolites of Rhizobium tropici strain CIAT 899 highly enriched in lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) in six field experiments performed for three summer crop seasons in Brazil with maize (Zea mays L.). Inoculants and metabolites were applied either at sowing by seed inoculation, or by leaf spray at the V3 stage of plant growth. Improvement in shoot dry weight (SDW) and total N accumulated in shoots (TNS) by single, but especially by dual inoculation was observed in some of the experiments. Statistically significant increases in grain yield in relation to the non-inoculated control were observed in five out of six experiments when maize was inoculated with Azospirillum supplied with enriched metabolites of R. tropici applied by seed or leaf spray inoculation. The results give strength to the development of a new generation of inoculants carrying microorganisms and microbial molecules. PMID:26567001

  1. Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

  2. Metabolic Adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to Oxygen Stress by Cell-to-Cell Clumping and Flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N.; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K.; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S.; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists. PMID:26407887

  3. Crecimiento de Azospirillum brasilense en presencia de disacáridos: sacarosa y lactosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudyt Díaz-Saez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La obtención de biopolímeros a partir de fermentaciones bacterianas requiere de la selección adecuada de las condiciones del proceso. Se evaluó el crecimiento de la cepa Azospirillum brasilense 8-INICA en medio líquido suplementado con disacáridos. Las mediciones se realizaron a las 23 h de incubación con la determinación de la densidad óptica, la concentración de azúcares reductores y concentración de carbohidratos totales, así como la determinación del pH del sobrenadante. Se confirmó el máximo desarrollo de la biomasa para 33 oC y 7,2 g.L-1 de sal con sacarosa, y 40 oC y 3,5 g.L-1 de sal con lactosa. Se estableció que las condiciones más favorables para la producción de exopolisacáridos se encuentran a temperaturas y concentraciones elevadas de sal para un medio con lactosa; y bajas temperaturas a concentraciones elevadas de sal en presencia de sacarosa. Se constató la marcada influencia de la temperatura en el crecimiento, y la acción positiva de la concentración salina en los mecanismos de supervivencia del micro- organismo.

  4. Growth and yield of corn hybrids in response to association with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniele Marini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in optimizing the positive effects of the association between Azospirillum bacteria and corn crop in order to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation efficiency of an A. brasilense-based commercial product in association with different rates of nitrogen fertilization in two corn genotypes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two corn hybrids (30F53 and CD386; with and without inoculation with a commercial product based on A. brasilense and five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1. The variables plant height, basal stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry matter, leaf nitrogen content, length and diameter of the cob, weight of 100 grains and grain yield were evaluated. Inoculation with A. brasilense provided increases of 11 and 12% in leaf area and shoot dry matter, respectively. There were differences in the response of the corn hybrids for most variables and the increase in nitrogen supply provided increments in the growth and yield of corn.

  5. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum brasilense strains commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Luciana P; Silva, Esdras; Teixeira, Kátia R S; Cote, Rosalba Esquivel; Pereyra, M Alejandra; García de Salamone, Inés E

    2014-12-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) genus vastly studied and utilized as agriculture inoculants. Isolation of new strains under different environmental conditions allows the access to the genetic diversity and improves the success of inoculation procedures. Historically, the isolation of this genus has been performed by the use of some traditional culture media. In this work we characterized the physiology and biochemistry of five different A. brasilense strains, commonly used as cereal inoculants. The aim of this work is to contribute to pose into revision some concepts concerning the most used protocols to isolate and characterize this bacterium. We characterized their growth in different traditional and non-traditional culture media, evaluated some PGPR mechanisms and characterized their profiles of fatty acid methyl esters and carbon-source utilization. This work shows, for the first time, differences in both profiles, and ACC deaminase activity of A. brasilense strains. Also, we show unexpected results obtained in some of the evaluated culture media. Results obtained here and an exhaustive knowledge revision revealed that it is not appropriate to conclude about bacterial species without analyzing several strains. Also, it is necessary to continue developing studies and laboratory techniques to improve the isolation and characterization protocols. PMID:25138314

  6. Nitrogen translocation in wheat inoculated with Azospirillum and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES OSMAR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity and the translocation of assimilates and nitrogen (N were compared after inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. BR-23 seeds with two strains of Azospirillum brasilense (strains 245 and JA 04 under field conditions. The inoculation of wheat seeds was done with a peat inoculant at sowing time. Plant material for evaluations were collected at anthesis and maturity. No differences in grain yield and in the translocation of assimilates resulting from inoculation were detected. Differences were observed in relation to N rates (0, 15, and 60 kg ha-1. N content in the grain increased significantly in the bacteria-inoculated treatments in which N was not added. This increase in N content in the grain with inoculation was probably due to higher N uptake after anthesis without any significant contribution on the grain yield. Such increment was of 8.4 kg ha-1 of N representing 66% more N than in no inoculated treatment. Regardless of the inoculation and the rate of N applied, it was observed that about 70% of the N accumulated at anthesis was translocated from vegetative parts to the grain.

  7. Coexistence and survival of pathogenic leptospires by formation of biofilm with Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vinod; Lall, Chandan; Raj, R Vimal; Vedhagiri, K; Vijayachari, P

    2015-06-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. represent one cause of leptospirosis worldwide and have long been regarded as solitary organisms in soil and aquatic environments. However, in the present study, Leptospira interrogans was observed to be associated with environmental biofilms with 21 bacterial isolates belonging to 10 genera. All 21 isolates were examined for their coaggregation and biofilm-forming ability with leptospires in vitro. Among these, Azospirillum brasilense RMRCPB showed maximum interspecies coaggregation with leptospiral strains (>75%, visual score of +4). Other significant coaggregating isolates belonged to the genera Sphingomonas, Micrococcus, Brevundimonas, Acinetobacter and Paracoccus. Biofilms of leptospires in combination with A. brasilense RMRCPB showed high resistance to penicillin G, ampicillin and tetracycline (minimum bactericidal concentration ≥800 μg/mL) and tolerance to UV radiation and high temperature (up to 49°C). This study hypothesized that biofilm formation with A. brasilense protects the pathogenic Leptospira from adverse environmental conditions/stress. This coexistence of pathogenic Leptospira with other bacteria may be the key factor for its persistence and survival. However, the mechanism of biofilm formation by leptospires needs to be explored to help devise an appropriate control strategy and reduce transmission of leptospires. PMID:25962762

  8. Tools for genetic manipulation of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrank Irene S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azospirillum amazonense has potential to be used as agricultural inoculant since it promotes plant growth without causing pollution, unlike industrial fertilizers. Owing to this fact, the study of this species has gained interest. However, a detailed understanding of its genetics and physiology is limited by the absence of appropriate genetic tools for the study of this species. Results Conjugation and electrotransformation methods were established utilizing vectors with broad host-replication origins (pVS1 and pBBR1. Two genes of interest - glnK and glnB, encoding PII regulatory proteins - were isolated. Furthermore, glnK-specific A. amazonense mutants were generated utilizing the pK19MOBSACB vector system. Finally, a promoter analysis protocol based on fluorescent protein expression was optimized to aid genetic regulation studies on this bacterium. Conclusion In this work, genetic tools that can support the study of A. amazonense were described. These methods could provide a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of this species that underlie its plant growth promotion.

  9. Nitric oxide metabolism and indole acetic acid biosynthesis cross-talk in Azospirillum brasilense SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Vatsala; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-04-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) and the presence of NO metabolism genes, nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrous oxide reductase regulator (nosR) and nitric oxide reductase (norB) were identified in the plant-associated bacterium (PAB) Azospirillum brasilense SM. NO presence was confirmed in all overexpressing strains, while improvement in the plant growth response of these strains was mediated by increased NO and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the strains. Electron microscopy showed random distribution to biofilm, with surface colonization of pleiomorphic Azospirilla. Quantitative IAA estimation highlighted a crucial role of nosR and norBC in regulating IAA biosynthesis. The NO quencher and donor reduced/blocked IAA biosynthesis by all strains, indicating their common regulatory role in IAA biosynthesis. Tryptophan (Trp) and l-Arginine (Arg) showed higher expression of NO genes tested, while in the case of ipdC, only Trp and IAA increased expression, while Arg had no significant effect. The highest nosR expression in SMnosR in the presence of IAA and Trp, along with its 2-fold IAA level, confirmed the relationship of nosR overexpression with Trp in increasing IAA. These results indicate a strong correlation between IAA and NO in A. brasilense SM and suggest the existence of cross-talk or shared signaling mechanisms in these two growth regulators. PMID:25700632

  10. Metabolic adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to oxygen stress by cell-to-cell clumping and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B; Alexandre, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists. PMID:26407887

  11. Purification and binding analysis of the nitrogen fixation regulatory NifA protein from Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.P. Passaglia

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available NifA protein activates transcription of nitrogen fixation operons by the alternative sigma54 holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase. This protein binds to a well-defined upstream activator sequence (UAS located at the -200/-100 position of nif promoters with the consensus motif TGT-N10-ACA. NifA of Azospirillum brasilense was purified in the form of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST-NifA fusion protein and proteolytic release of GST yielded inactive and partially soluble NifA. However, the purified NifA was able to induce the production of specific anti-A. brasilense NifA-antiserum that recognized NifA from A. brasilense but not from K. pneumoniae. Both GST-NifA and NifA expressed from the E. coli tac promoter are able to activate transcription from the nifHDK promoter but only in an A. brasilense background. In order to investigate the mechanism that regulates NifA binding capacity we have used E. coli total protein extracts expressing A. brasilense nifA in mobility shift assays. DNA fragments carrying the two overlapping, wild-type or mutated UAS motifs present in the nifH promoter region revealed a retarded band of related size. These data show that the binding activity present in the C-terminal domain of A. brasilense NifA protein is still functional even in the presence of oxygen.

  12. Chemical synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide isolated from Azospirillum brasilense SR80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Vikramjit; Mukhopadhyay, Balaram

    2015-04-10

    A linear strategy has been developed for the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide from Azospirillum brasilense SR80. Stepwise glycosylation of the rationally protected thioglycoside donors activated by NIS in the presence of La(OTf)3 furnished the target tetrasaccharide. The glycosylation reactions resulted in the formation of the desired linkage with absolute stereoselectivity and afforded the required derivatives in good to excellent yields. The phthalimido group has been used as the precursor of the desired acetamido group to meet the requirement of 1,2-trans glycosidic linkage. PMID:25681691

  13. Characterization of two trpE genes encoding anthranilate synthase α-subunit in Azospirillum brasilense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous report from our laboratory has recently identified a new trpE gene (termed trpE 2) which exists independently in Azospirillum brasilense Yu62. In this study, amplification of trpE(G) (termed trpE 1(G) here) confirmed that there are two copies of trpE gene, one trpE being fused into trpG while the other trpE existed independently. This is First report to suggest that two copies of the trpE gene exist in this bacterium. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence demonstrated that putative leader peptide, terminator, and anti-terminator were found upstream of trpE 1(G) while these sequence features did not exist in front of trpE 2. The β-galactosidase activity of an A. brasilense strain carrying a trpE 2-lacZ fusion remained constant at different tryptophan concentrations, but the β-galactosidase activity of the same strain carrying a trpE 1(G)-lacZ fusion decreased as the tryptophan concentration increased. These data suggest that the expression of trpE 1(G) is regulated at the transcriptional level by attenuation while trpE 2 is constantly expressed. The anthranilate synthase assays with trpE 1(G)- and trpE 2- mutants demonstrated that TrpE1(G) fusion protein is feedback inhibited by tryptophan while TrpE2 protein is not. We also found that both trpE 1(G) and trpE 2 gene products were involved in IAA synthesis

  14. Mutational analysis of GlnB residues critical for NifA activation in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Juliana; Thornton, Jeremy; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; Monteiro, Rose Adele; Klassen, Giseli; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Merrick, Mike; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2015-02-01

    PII proteins are signal transduction that sense cellular nitrogen status and relay this signals to other targets. Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium, which associates with grasses and cereals promoting beneficial effects on plant growth and crop yields. A. brasilense contains two PII encoding genes, named glnB and glnZ. In this paper, glnB was mutagenised in order to identify amino acid residues involved in GlnB signaling. Two variants were obtained by random mutagenesis, GlnBL13P and GlnBV100A and a site directed mutant, GlnBY51F, was obtained. Their ability to complement nitrogenase activity of glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense were determined. The variant proteins were also overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized biochemically. None of the GlnB variant forms was able to restore nitrogenase activity in glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense LFH3 and 7628. The purified GlnBY51F and GlnBL13P proteins could not be uridylylated by GlnD, whereas GlnBV100A was uridylylated but at only 20% of the rate for wild type GlnB. Biochemical and computational analyses suggest that residue Leu13, located in the α helix 1 of GlnB, is important to maintain GlnB trimeric structure and function. The substitution V100A led to a lower affinity for ATP binding. Together the results suggest that NifA activation requires uridylylated GlnB bound to ATP. PMID:25644954

  15. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae Bacteria on Maize Photosynthetic Activity Evaluated Using the Photoacoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the photosynthetic process of maize plants ( Zea mays), which were grown using seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae, was monitored. Photothermal and photobaric signals obtained by a time-resolved photoacoustic measurement configuration were used for measuring the oxygen evolution rate in situ. A frequency-resolved configuration of the method was utilized to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of the maize leaves. The latter parameters, which can be used as indicators of the photosynthetic activity of maize, are found to vary according to the plant-microbe interaction. Treatment with plant growth promoting bacteria induced a decrease in the oxygen diffusion coefficient of about 20 %.

  16. Respuesta de tres cultivares de maíz a la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense bajo cuatro diferentes dosis de nitrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés González Huerta; Delfina de Jesús Pérez López; Omar Franco Mora; Artemio Balbuena Melgarejo; Francisco Gutiérrez Rodríguez; Heladio Romero Salas

    2011-01-01

    En el municipio de Huamuxtitlán, estado de Guerrero, México, se evaluó la respuesta de los materiales de maíz VS-535, H-507 y criollo veracruzano en las dosis de 0, 30, 60 y 90 kg de nitrógeno ha-1, con y sin Azospirillum brasilense. En el sintético VS- 535 se registró el mayor rendimiento de grano (5.23 t ha-1). En las dosis de 0, 30, 60 y 90 kg de N ha-1 se registraron 4.38, 4.36, 4.81 y 4.93 t ha-1, respectivamente. La diferencia entre aplicar o no Azospirillum brasilense (promedio sobre l...

  17. Nodulation of legumes, nitrogenase activity of roots and occurrence of nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. In representative soils of central Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester-Bradley, R.; De Oliverira, L.A.; De Podesta Filho, J.A.; St. John, T.V.

    1980-12-01

    Leguminosae do not predominate in the Brazilian Amazon rain forest, although they are among the five best represented families. Plant roots from various soils were examined for the presence of nodules, acetylene-reducing activity and N/sub 2/-fixing Azospirillum spp. Abundant nodulation was found in black earth (''terra preta dos indios'') and in one case on sandy soil under campinarana vegetation along a tributary of the upper Rio Negro. In sandy latosol some nodules occurred in secondary forest and fewer in primary forest. Legumes in disturbed clayey or sandy latosol showed more frequent nodulation. Primary forest on alluvial (''varzea'') soil, and in Bahia coastal rain forest on sandy latosol and Erythrina glauca used for shading cacao plantations were abundantly nodulated. Acetylene reduction assays showed no, or very little, nitrogenase activity of roots from primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol near Manaus. Nodulated roots from secondary forest on sandy latosol showed acetylene-reducing activity. High rates of acetylene reduction were observed in nodulated roots of primary forest on alluvial ''varzea'' soil. Root samples showed ethylene absorption in controls without acetylene which might interfere with the results of acetylene reduction tests. The incidence of Azospirillum was also higher in black earth than the other soils examined, and in soils with higher pH. The hypothesis that Azospirillum is associated with Trema micantha roots was refuted. Roots and soils collected under cultivated grasses showed a higher incidence of Azospirillum when fertilized with phosphorus and lime. Results indicate that nitrogen fixation did occur in association with roots in some soils, but not with roots of primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol in the vicinity of Manaus, which is the most common soil in Central Amazonia. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  18. Evaluación de la zeolita como soporte sólido para la formulación del biofertilizante Azospirillum

    OpenAIRE

    Dayamí Borges-Rodríguez; Ana Nelis San Juan-Rodríguez; Angela O. Díaz-LLanes; Eulalia Gómez-Santiesteban; Raúl Hernández-Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó una caracterización física de la zeolita proveniente de los yacimientos de San Juan de la Yeras, con el objetivo de evaluar sus posibilidades para ser usada como soporte sólido en la formulación del biofertilizante Azospirillum. Se evaluaron fracciones de tres tamaños de partícula, de las que la fracción Zoac (

  19. Uso del biofertilizante Azospirillum como fuente alternativa para la fertilización nitrogenada de la caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Becerra-De Armas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló sobre un suelo Pardo Sialítico Típico con el objetivo de validar la efectividad del biofertilizante Azospirillum, Cepa 8 INICA, con una concentración 109 UFC/mL en áreas cañeras de producción. Se utilizaron dos métodos de aplicación: asperjado con arrope y enterrado. Se empleó la variedad C86-12, cepa R1. Los parámetros altura, diámetro, conteo de tallos y hojas activas fueron evaluados a los 3 meses de edad. Los datos de rendimiento se obtuvieron a partir del pesaje real de la caña en el momento de la cosecha. En las evaluaciones realizadas se pudo observar que existe una mayor altura, diámetro y número de hojas activas en los tratamientos donde se utilizó el método asperjado. Para la variable conteo de tallos los mejores resultados se alcanzaron al enterrar el biofertilizante. En el caso del rendimiento agrícola, los valores siempre fueron mayores en los tratamientos donde se aplicó Azospirillum respecto al testigo (NPK SERFE, con resultados satisfactorios cuando se utilizó el método enterrado, y una dosis 75 l/ha de Azospirillum + el 40% de Nitrógeno, según dosis del SERFE.

  20. ВЛИЯНИЕ БАКТЕРИЙ AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE НА СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ПИГМЕНТОВ У ПШЕНИЦЫ ПРИ КАДМИЕВОМ СТРЕССЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Железкова, Мария; Плешакова, Екатерина; Любунь, Елена

    2014-01-01

    Важную роль при устранении токсического действия тяжелых металлов на растения играют почвенные микроорганизмы. Известно, что ризосферные ассоциативные микроорганизмы рода Azospirillum активно взаимодействуют с растениями и могут оказывать различные воздействия на их морфологические и биохимические параметры. Проведенными исследованиями установлено, что инокуляция растений пшеницы (Triticum aestivum L.) ассоциативными бактериями Azospirillum brasilense (штаммы Sp7, SpCd, Sp245, Sp245.5) нивели...

  1. Desempenho agronômico a campo de híbridos de milho inoculados com Azospirillum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dörr de Quadros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de inoculantes na cultura do milho tem sido cada vez mais valorizado, em vista dos benefícios que pode trazer à cultura, como a fixação biológica do nitrogênio e o aumento da quantidade de raízes. Isto pode melhorar a absorção de água e nutrientes pela planta, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento do milho, principalmente em períodos de seca. Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar, em condições de campo, as características agronômicas e o rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho, inoculados, ou não, com uma mistura de três espécies de Azospirillum (A. brasilense, A. lipoferum, A. oryzae. Foram avaliados o teor relativo de clorofila nas folhas, a altura de planta, a senescência foliar, os componentes de rendimento de grãos, o teor de N, a matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e o número mais provável de bactérias diazotróficas na rizosfera das plantas. A inoculação manteve o teor de clorofila significativamente maior até o estádio R3 das plantas, para os três híbridos testados, aumentou o rendimento da matéria seca da parte aérea, dos híbridos AS 1575 e SHS 5050, o peso de 1000 grãos, para o híbrido P32R48 e altura, para o AS 1575. Houve interação entre os genótipos de milho e as bactérias inoculadas, visto que, cada híbrido testado respondeu de forma diferente à inoculação. A inoculação de Azospirillum em milho demonstrou estimular o desenvolvimento das plantas no período vegetativo, aumentando a probabilidade de obter-se um estande de plantas uniforme, maior resistência ao estresse e maior concentração de clorofila nas folhas.

  2. Structure and thermodynamics of effector molecule binding to the nitrogen signal transduction PII protein GlnZ from Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truan, Daphné; Bjelić, Saša; Li, Xiao-Dan; Winkler, Fritz K

    2014-07-29

    The trimeric PII signal transduction proteins regulate the function of a variety of target proteins predominantly involved in nitrogen metabolism. ATP, ADP and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) are key effector molecules influencing PII binding to targets. Studies of PII proteins have established that the 20-residue T-loop plays a central role in effector sensing and target binding. However, the specific effects of effector binding on T-loop conformation have remained poorly documented. We present eight crystal structures of the Azospirillum brasilense PII protein GlnZ, six of which are cocrystallized and liganded with ADP or ATP. We find that interaction with the diphosphate moiety of bound ADP constrains the N-terminal part of the T-loop in a characteristic way that is maintained in ADP-promoted complexes with target proteins. In contrast, the interactions with the triphosphate moiety in ATP complexes are much more variable and no single predominant interaction mode is apparent except for the ternary MgATP/2-OG complex. These conclusions can be extended to most investigated PII proteins of the GlnB/GlnK subfamily. Unlike reported for other PII proteins, microcalorimetry reveals no cooperativity between the three binding sites of GlnZ trimers for any of the three effectors under carefully controlled experimental conditions. PMID:24846646

  3. Enhanced activity of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase and formation of starch induced by Azospirillum brasilense in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-05-10

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) regulates starch biosynthesis in higher plants and microalgae. This study measured the effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on AGPase activity in the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and formation of starch. This was done by immobilizing both microorganisms in alginate beads, either replete with or deprived of nitrogen or phosphorus and all under heterotrophic conditions, using d-glucose or Na-acetate as the carbon source. AGPase activity during the first 72h of incubation was higher in C. vulgaris when immobilized with A. brasilense. This happened simultaneously with higher starch accumulation and higher carbon uptake by the microalgae. Either carbon source had similar effects on enzyme activity and starch accumulation. Starvation either by N or P had the same pattern on AGPase activity and starch accumulation. Under replete conditions, the population of C. vulgaris immobilized alone was higher than when immobilized together, but under starvation conditions A. brasilense induced a larger population of C. vulgaris. In summary, adding A. brasilense enhanced AGPase activity, starch formation, and mitigation of stress in C. vulgaris. PMID:24576433

  4. Physiological, structural and molecular traits activated in strawberry plants after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2015-05-01

    The plant growth-promoting strain REC3 of Azospirillum brasilense, isolated from strawberry roots, prompts growth promotion and systemic protection against anthracnose disease in this crop. Hence, we hypothesised that A. brasilense REC3 can induce different physiological, structural and molecular responses in strawberry plants. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study these traits activated in Azospirillum-colonised strawberry plants, which have not been assessed until now. Healthy, in vitro micropropagated plants were root-inoculated with REC3 under hydroponic conditions; root and leaf tissues were sampled at different times, and oxidative burst, phenolic compound content, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, callose deposition, cell wall fortification and gene expression were evaluated. Azospirillum inoculation enhanced levels of soluble phenolic compounds after 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), while amounts of cell wall bound phenolics were similar in inoculated and control plants. Other early responses activated by REC3 (at 24 hpi) were a decline of lipid peroxidation and up-regulation of strawberry genes involved in defence (FaPR1), bacterial recognition (FaFLS2) and H₂O₂ depuration (FaCAT and FaAPXc). The last may explain the apparent absence of oxidative burst in leaves after bacterial inoculation. Also, REC3 inoculation induced delayed structural responses such as callose deposition and cell wall fortification (at 72 hpi). Results showed that A. brasilense REC3 is capable of exerting beneficial effects on strawberry plants, reinforcing their physiological and cellular characteristics, which in turns contribute to improve plant performance. PMID:25280241

  5. Desenvolvimento vegetativo do arroz irrigado afetado pela inoculação com Azospirillum e aplicação de nitrogênio mineral

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchet, Paula; Sangoi, Luis; Souza, Clovis Arruda de; Klauberg Filho, Osmar; Panison, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    O nitrogênio é o nutriente absorvido em maior quantidade pelo arroz. A associação com bactérias diazototróficas pode contribuir com o suprimento de N da cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inoculação de isolados de bactérias diazotróficas do gênero Azospirillum e da aplicação de doses crescentes de N mineral sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de arroz irrigado cultivadas no sistema pré-germinado. O experimento foi implantado em casa de vegetação, num delin...

  6. Actividad nitrogenasa, producción de fitohormonas, sideróforos y antibiosis en cepas de Azospirillum y Klebsiella aisladas de maíz y teocintle

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Graciano Carcaño-Montiel; Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato; Jesús Pérez-Moreno; José D. Molina-Galán; Yoav Bashan

    2006-01-01

    Las bacterias de los géneros Azospirillum y Klebsiella, conocidas como rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal, son fijadoras de nitrógeno y productoras de sustancias reguladoras del crecimiento, por lo que ejercen un efecto benéfico en las plantas con las cuales interaccionan. Esta asociación microorganismo-planta puede mejorar el crecimiento de los cultivos a través de la combinación de fijación biológica de nitrógeno, producción de sustancias hormonales, incremento de la disponi...

  7. Detecção de Azospirillum amazonense em raízes e rizosfera de orchidaceae e de outras famílias vegetais

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, A.; F. M. S. Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Azospirillum amazonense é uma bactéria fixadora de N2 atmosférico de ampla ocorrência, principalmente em associações radiculares com gramíneas e palmeiras. Para verificar sua presença em outras espécies vegetais, ainda não estudadas, e a eficiência de meios para sua detecção, foram testados os meios Fam e LGI para contagens em solo rizosférico ou em culturas de enriquecimento com solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera. A. amazonense foi detectada no solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera de...

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE CEPAS NATIVAS DEL GÉNERO Azospirillum Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON EL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Pazos; Annia Hernández

    2001-01-01

    Catorce cepas nativas pertenecientes a la especie Azospirillum brasilense se caracterizaron en cuanto a su ca- pacidad de fijar el nitrógeno atmosférico. Se estudió su efecto en el cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa), mediante el modelo Microcosmos, realizando determinaciones de la altura de las plantas inoculadas, masa fresca de la raíz y el contenido de fenoles libres y la cuantificación de proteínas en las hojas. Se observó en todos los casos un efecto positivo por la inocula- ción con e...

  9. Residual effect of nitrogen fertilization and Azospirillum brasilense inoculation in the maize cultureEfeito residual da adubação nitrogenada e inoculação de Azospirillum brasilense na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Huzar Novakowiski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diazotrophic bacteria Azospirillum brasilense is an organism able to fix nitrogen of atmosphere and produce plant hormones. Nevertheless, there is lack of information with regard to use in field conditions, especially in production systems that have presence of animals in a determined year period. The objective of paper was to evaluate the association of the nitrogen residual effect of fertilization in pasture winter and the inoculation with A. brasilense in the maize culture. Were carried two experiments in Guarapuava (PR in season 2008/09 with randomized block design with split plots in three replication. The main parcel consisted of application 5 levels of N (0, 75, 150, 225 e 300 kg ha-1 in pasture of black oat and ryegrass occupied by bovines and 4 treatments in the maize (T1 = control; T2 = inoculation of A. brasilense; T3 = 75 kg ha-1 of N; T4 = 150 kg ha-1 of N. Were evaluated: plants population, ears per plant, productivity, mass thousand grains, damage grains, row per ear and grains per row. There was residual effect of nitrogen applied in the pasture on maize culture. The mass thousand grains and the number of rows per ear of maize presented quadratic response for increase of nitrogen level in the pasture. The inoculation of A. brasilense provided higher productivity than control same with increase the nitrogen level applied in the pasture, with quadratic response in the experiment 1 and linear in the experiment 2.A bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum brasilense é um organismo capaz de fixar nitrogênio da atmosfera e produzir hormônios vegetais. No entanto, há carência de informações a respeito de seu uso em condições de campo, sobretudo em sistemas de produção que tem a presença de animais em um determinado período do ano. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a associação do efeito residual da adubação nitrogenada na pastagem de inverno e a inoculação de A. brasilense na cultura do milho. Foram conduzidos dois

  10. Toxicidade de herbicidas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar à bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum brasilense Toxicity of herbicides applied on sugarcane to the diazotrophic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O Procópio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar herbicidas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar que não alteram o crescimento ou a capacidade de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN da bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum brasi lense. Dezoito herbicidas - paraquat, ametryn, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn], S-metolachlor, glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D - foram testados em suas doses comerciais quanto ao impacto sobre o crescimento da bactéria em meio líquido DIGs. As variáveis capacidade de suporte de crescimento (carrying capacity do meio de cultura, duração da fase lag e tempo de geração de A. brasilense foram calculadas a partir de dados de densidade ótica obtidos, em intervalos regulares, durante a incubação de culturas por 55 h. O impacto dos herbicidas na atividade da nitrogenase de A. brasilense foi avaliado em meio semissólido NFb, sem N, pela técnica da atividade de redução do acetileno (ARA. Os efeitos dos herbicidas sobre as variáveis de crescimento e ARA foram comparados ao controle pelo teste de Dunnett. Paraquat, oxyfluorfen, [trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn] e glyphosate reduziram a capacidade do meio DIGs em suportar o crescimento de A. brasilense. Esse efeito foi associado ao aumento da duração da fase lag e do tempo de geração para [trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn] e ao aumento no tempo de geração para glyphosate. MSMA, paraquat e amicarbazone reduzem a FBN in vitro de A. brasilense, porém essa redução é mais severa na presença do paraquat. Os demais herbicidas não alteram o crescimento e a FBN de A. brasilense.The objective of this work was to identify the herbicides applied on sugarcane that do not affect the growth nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of the diazotrophic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Commercial doses of

  11. Produtividade do milho em resposta à aplicação de nitrogênio e inoculação das sementes com Azospirillum spp Corn produntivity in response to nitrogen application and seed inoculation with Azospirillum spp

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    Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, nas condições de plantio direto em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico de fertilidade média a alta, foram testados para o milho (Zea mays, cv. G-159 S da Ciba Sementes no período de outubro/1997 a março/1998, o aumento de produtividade de grãos, o comprimento de espiga, a altura de plantas e o número de linhas de grão por espiga, por conseqüência da inoculação das sementes com o produto biotecnológico comercial denominado "Graminante", à base de Azospirillum spp. Os tratamentos consistiram em ausência e presença de inoculação de "Graminante", com e sem aplicação de nitrogênio tanto, da semeadura (70 kg ha-1 como em cobertura (70 kg ha-1 consistindo, deste modo, numa distribuição fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, em quatro repetições. A inoculação do "Graminante" aumentou significativamente a produtividade média de grãos, de 5211 para 6067 kg ha-1, ou seja, aumento de 17%, e aumentou o comprimento médio das espigas, de 13,6 para 14,4 cm; a inoculação do "Graminante" não teve efeito sobre o número de linhas de grão por espiga e altura de plantas. A aplicação de nitrogênio na semeadura e/ou em cobertura, não causou efeito sobre a produtividade do milho.An evaluation of corn productivity, cob length, plant height and number of corn lines on the cob as a result of nitrogen application and seed inoculation with Azospirillum spp. ("Graminante" was conducted from October 1997 to March 1998. The experiment was carried out on a high fertility Oxisol using Zea mays L. cv. G-1595 (Ciba under no-tillage in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design representing application and non-application of nitrogen at planting (70 kg ha-1, application and non-application of broadcast nitrogen (70 kg ha-1 and presence or absence of seed inoculation with four replications. Results showed that with seed inoculation the corn productivity increased by 17% (from 5211 to 6067 kg ha-1 while corn cob length increased from 13.6 to 14.4 cm. On the

  12. INOCULAÇÃO DE Azospirillum brasilense NA QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE MILHO DOCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUZA, Epitácio José de

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this study was to survey the physiological quality of sweet corn seeds submitted to inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense in different periods and dilutions in water. The experiment was conducted on the entirely randomized design with four replications in a factorial (4 x 4 more a witness without inoculation of A. brasilense. Were evaluated four periods between the inoculation and installation of the tests (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours and four dilutions of the inoculant in water (1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Were utilized seeds of sweet corn evaluated Tropical Plus hybrids and commercial strains of A. brasilense Ab-Ab-V5 and V6, in the dose of the commercial product 4 mL kg-1 seed. The parameters evaluated were germination, first count of germination, percentage of abnormal seeds, emergency, emergency speed index, length of epicotyl and of root, mass of the dry matter of shoots and of root. The dilution of A. brasilense in water did not affect no one parameter evaluated on the seeds of sweet corn, and the increase in the time between inoculation and the installation of the tests provide reduction on the first count of germination, speed emergency index and mass of dry matter of roots. It is concluded that, under laboratory conditions, inoculation of A. brasilense not benefits to germination and seed vigor of sweet corn. Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milho doce submetidas à inoculação de Azospirillum brasilense em diferentes períodos e diluições em água. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em esquema fatorial (4 x 4, mais uma testemunha que não recebeu inoculação de A. brasilense. Foram avaliados quatro períodos entre a inoculação e a instalação dos testes (0, 24, 48 e 72 horas e quatro diluições do inoculante em água (1:0, 1:1, 1:2 e 1:3. Foram utilizadas sementes de milho doce híbrido comercial Tropical Plus e as estirpes de A

  13. Biofertilization with Azospirillum brasilense improves in vitro culture of Handroanthus ochraceus, a forestry, ornamental and medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Berta E; Alasia, María A; Larraburu, Ezequiel E

    2016-01-25

    Biofertilization with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is a potential alternative to plant productivity. Here, in vitro propagation of Handroanthus ochraceus (yellow lapacho), a forest crop with high economic and environmental value, was developed using the Azospirillum brasilense strains Cd and Az39 during rhizogenesis. Epicotiles of in vitro plantlets were multiplied in Woody Plant Medium (WPM). For rooting, elongated shoots were transferred to auxin-free Murashige-Skoog medium with Gamborg's vitamins and WPM, both at half salt concentration (½MSG and ½WPM), and inoculated with Cd or Az39 at the base of each shoot. Anatomical studies were performed using leaves cleared and stained with safranin for optical microscopy and leaves and roots metalized with gold-palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In ½WPM auxin-free medium, A. brasilense Cd inoculation produced 55% of rooting, increased root fresh and dry weight (45% and 77%, respectively), and led to lower stomata size and density with similar proportion of open and closed stomata. Both strains selectively increased the size or density of glandular trichomes in ½MSG. Moreover, bacteria were detected on the root surface by SEM. In conclusion, the difference in H. ochraceus response to A. brasilense inoculation depends on the strain and the plant culture media. Cd strain enhanced rooting in auxin-free ½WPM and produced plantlets with features similar to those expected in ex vitro plants. This work presents an innovative in vitro approach using beneficial plant-microorganism interaction as an ecologically compatible strategy in plant biotechnology. PMID:26255131

  14. Tryptophan, thiamine and indole-3-acetic acid exchange between Chlorella sorokiniana and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Oskar A; Gomez-Anduro, Gracia; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2016-06-01

    During synthetic mutualistic interactions between the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana and the plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Azospirillum brasilense, mutual exchange of resources involved in producing and releasing the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by the bacterium, using tryptophan and thiamine released by the microalga, were measured. Although increased activities of tryptophan synthase in C. sorokiniana and indole pyruvate decarboxylase (IPDC) in A. brasilense were observed, we could not detect tryptophan or IAA in the culture medium when both organisms were co-immobilized. This indicates that no extra tryptophan or IAA is produced, apart from the quantities required to sustain the interaction. Over-expression of the ipdC gene occurs at different incubation times: after 48 h, when A. brasilense was immobilized alone and grown in exudates of C. sorokiniana and at 96 h, when A. brasilense was co-immobilized with the microalga. When A. brasilense was cultured in exudates of C. sorokiniana, increased expression of the ipdC gene, corresponding increase in activity of IPDC encoded by the ipdC gene, and increase in IAA production were measured during the first 48 h of incubation. IAA production and release by A. brasilense was found only when tryptophan and thiamine were present in a synthetic growth medium (SGM). The absence of thiamine in SGM yielded no detectable IAA. In summary, this study demonstrates that C. sorokiniana can exude sufficient tryptophan and thiamine to allow IAA production by a PGPB during their interaction. Thiamine is essential for IAA production by A. brasilense and these three metabolites are part of a communication between the two microorganisms. PMID:27090758

  15. Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense in accumulating intracellular ammonium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular ammonium and activities of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were measured when the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild type strains of Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-attenuated mutants. After 48 h of immobilization, both wild types induced higher levels of intracellular ammonium in the microalgae than their respective mutants; the more IAA produced, the higher the intracellular ammonium accumulated. Accumulation of intracellular ammonium in the cells of C. vulgaris followed application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and its IAA-attenuated mutants, which had a similar pattern for the first 24 h. This effect was transient and disappeared after 48 h of incubation. Immobilization of C. vulgaris with any bacteria strain induced higher GS activity. The bacterial strains also had GS activity, comparable to the activity detected in C. vulgaris, but weaker than when immobilized with the bacteria. When net activity was calculated, the wild type always induced higher GS activity than IAA-attenuated mutants. GDH activity in most microalgae/bacteria interactions resembled GS activity. When complementing IAA-attenuated mutants with exogenous IAA, GS activity in co-immobilized cultures matched those of the wild type A. brasilense immobilized with the microalga. Similarity occurred when the net GS activity was measured, and was higher with greater quantities of exogenous IAA. It is proposed that IAA produced by A. brasilense is involved in ammonium uptake and later assimilation by C. vulgaris. PMID:25554489

  16. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Nishikawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ54 co-factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL. A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH4Cl but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  17. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, C.Y.; Araújo, L.M.; Kadowaki, M.A.S.; Monteiro, R.A.; Steffens, M.B.R.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-01-27

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ{sup 54} factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH{sub 4}Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  18. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ54 factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH4Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription

  19. Polyhydroxyalcanoates of strains of Azospirillum spp. isolated of roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomato” and Oryza sativa L. “rice” in Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katty Baca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work was determined the concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs of Azospirillum strains isolated from roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill "tomato" and Oryza sativa L. "rice" as an alternative to accumulation of petroleum-based plastics. Previously disinfected root were plated in Nfb semisolid medium where nitrogen-fixing bacteria were recognized by a whitish film on the surface and turn from green to blue. The genus Azospirillum was identified in Congo red agar medium, obtained 96 isolates of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense on tomato and rice. Batch fermentation was performed with broth Azotobacter modified feeding a saturated solution of malic acid every 12 hours and were stained with Sudan Black B. Strains were selected with the greatest number of PHAs granules (in tomato, 18 of A. lipoferum and 2 of A. brasilense; in rice, 10 of A. lipoferum and 10 of A. brasilense and quantified the biomass and PHAs. PHAs concentration reached 0.661 gL-1 in A. lipoferum KM(T-73 and 0.738 gL-1 in A. brasilense KM(T-19, both isolated from tomato. Strains of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense isolated from tomato reached a higher concentration of biomass and PHAs against the strains of rice.

  20. Realocação de nitrogênio e de biomassa para os grãos, em trigo submetido a inoculação de Azospirillum Reallocation of nitrogen and biomass to the seeds in wheat inoculated with Azospirillum bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOSTINHO DIRCEU DIDONET

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, em condições de campo, o efeito de inoculante turfoso em pó contendo bactérias do gênero Azospirillum no rendimento de grãos e na remobilização de N e de biomassa para os grãos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cultivar Embrapa 16. Usaram-se como inoculantes, a estirpe de Azospirillum brasilense 245 e o isolado 10 de Azospirillum lipoferum. Em cada tratamento de inoculação, e também sem inoculação, aplicaram-se diferentes doses de N em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento das plantas, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas. Na antese e na maturação fisiológica, avaliaram-se o acúmulo de massa seca e N total nas diferentes partes da planta. Na colheita, além do rendimento de grãos, avaliaram-se também o índice de colheita para biomassa e para N, os principais componentes do rendimento e o teor de N total de grãos. Os resultados ainda preliminares evidenciaram que, mesmo não havendo efeito da inoculação no rendimento de grãos, houve um melhor alocamento de N e de biomassa para os grãos, resultando em maior massa de mil grãos e em menor quantidade de N restante na palha das plantas na maturação fisiológica. Esses efeitos resultaram de um menor número de espigas m-2, provavelmente devido à morte de afilhos, fator que determinou maior disponibilidade de N e de biomassa às espigas e grãos restantes.The effect of inoculating wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seeds, cultivar Embrapa 16, with powder peat inoculant containing Azospirillum bacteria on yield and remobilization of nitrogen and biomass was studied under field conditions. The strain of Azospirillum brasilense 245 and the isolate 10 of Azospirillum lipoferum were used as inoculants. Different rates of nitrogen were applied at varying stages of plant growth for each inoculated and non-inoculated treatment, distributed in blocks at random with split plots. The accumulation of dry matter and total nitrogen in plant parts was evaluated

  1. Microorganismos rizosféricos, potenciales antagonistas de Fusarium sp. causante de la pudrición radicular de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis Sims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Quiroga-Rojas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis, de gran importancia económica para Colombia, actualmente es afectado por la enfermedad del marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium sp. lo que hace necesario la búsqueda de alternativas que permitan un control eficiente de esta enfermedad. Aislados de las bacterias Azotobacter spp., Azospirillum spp. y el hongo Trichoderma spp., fueron evaluados como potenciales biocontroladores de Fusarium sp. en pruebas in vitro e in vivo. Las pruebas de “test dual” evidenciaron que un aislado nativo de Trichoderma sp. y un producto comercial (Trichoderma lignorum, provocaron la inhibición del crecimiento micelial de Fusarium sp. entre 94.2% y 93.6%, respectivamente. La evaluación de aislados de Trichoderma sobre plántulas de maracuyá en tres momentos de aplicación indicó que la inoculación previa disminuyó el porcentaje de infección de las plantas entre un 75 y 50%, mientras que con aplicaciones después o simultáneamente con el patógeno, el porcentaje de infección disminuyó en 25%. Estos resultados indican que la aplicación de organismos de biocontrol en semillas pregerminadas mejora la protección de las plantas contra el fitopatógeno estudiado y son un recurso importante en el manejo preventivo de las enfermedades de maracuyá.

  2. Identificação de isolados de Azospirillum amazonense associados a Brachiaria spp., em diferentes épocas e condições de cultivo e produção de fitormônio pela bactéria Identification of Azospirillum amazonense isolates associated to Brachiaria spp. at different stages and growth conditions, and bacterial plant hormone production

    OpenAIRE

    F. B. Reis Junior; Silva, M.F.; K. R. S. Teixeira; Urquiaga, S; V. M. Reis

    2004-01-01

    Existem evidências de que pastagens formadas por algumas espécies do gênero Brachiaria poderiam beneficiar-se com o processo de fixação biológica do nitrogênio atmosférico (FBN), garantindo a estas pastagens maior longevidade. Dentre as bactérias diazotróficas encontradas em associação com estas gramíneas forrageiras, destaca-se a espécie Azospirillum amazonense. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar a influência da espécie de Brachiaria, manejo da pastagem e sazonalidade sobre as populações...

  3. Growth Promotion and Enhanced Nutrient Uptake of Maize (Zea maysL.) by Application of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Arid Region of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A. Biari; A. Gholami; H.A. Rahmani

    2008-01-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to the genera Azospirillum and Azotobacter on the growth and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays) was investigated in the field as factorial experiment. Azospirillum strains were: Z0 = no inoculation, Z1 = Azospirillum sp. Strain 21, Z2 = Azospirillum lipoferum DSM 1691, Z3 = Azospirillum brasilense DSM 1690 and Azotobacter strains were: A0 = no inoculation, A1 = Azotobacter sp. Strain 5, A2 = Azotobacter chroococcum ...

  4. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Méndez; Eduardo Uribe

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB), in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concen...

  5. TECNOLOGÍA DE PRODUCCIÓN DE INOCULANTES DE Azospirillum Y FACTIBILIDAD ECONÓMICA DE SU APLICACIÓN AGRÍCOLA EN CULTIVOS SELECCIONADOS

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    J. Villar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de inoculantes bacterianos de uso agrícola puede contribuir a la disminución del empleo de fertilizantes químicos y favorecer el medio ambiente. Sin embargo, su aplicación debe resultar económica para los productores, sin detrimento de los rendimientos agrícolas tradicionales. En el presente trabajo se estiman los indicadores económicos de una planta industrial, a partir de una nueva tecnología que emplea turba y cachaza como soporte, para la obtención de dos tipos de inoculantes sólidos de Azospirillum: polvo húmedo para impregnación de semillas y polvo humedecible para aspersión en campo, y se analiza la factibilidad económica de la aplicación de estos inoculantes en los cultivos de caña de azúcar y arroz.

  6. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  7. Assessment of N2 fixing efficiency of Beijerinckia indica and Azospirillum brasilense in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench) using 15N tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For studying the benefits of inoculation of N2 fixing diazotrophs in the root zone of sorghum crop, a pot culture was conducted on neutral red sandy loam soil with sorghum cv. CO26, using 15N tracer. At the end of 45 days duration after sowing, Beijerinckia indica inoculation contributed 56.9 per cent N derived from N2 fixation, out of total N concentration in whole drymatter of sorghum plant. It proved to be the efficient N2 fixer by contributing N from N2 fixation to the tune of 17.6 Kg-1. Accumulation of N derived from N2 fixation from B. indica was primarily in leaf blade (50.0%) followed by stem (31.8%), leaf sheath (14.0%) and root (4.2%). Inoculation of Azospirillum brasllense accelerated uptake of N from soil and fertilizer N sources compared to B. indica and hence registered low N fixation. (author)

  8. Uso del biofertilizante Azospirillum como fuente alternativa para la fertilización nitrogenada de la caña de azúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Everaldo Becerra-De Armas; Ilia Lugo-Ruiz; Rafael Más-Martínez; Emma Pineda-Ruiz; Yudith Viñas-Quintero

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló sobre un suelo Pardo Sialítico Típico con el objetivo de validar la efectividad del biofertilizante Azospirillum, Cepa 8 INICA, con una concentración 109 UFC/mL en áreas cañeras de producción. Se utilizaron dos métodos de aplicación: asperjado con arrope y enterrado. Se empleó la variedad C86-12, cepa R1. Los parámetros altura, diámetro, conteo de tallos y hojas activas fueron evaluados a los 3 meses de edad. Los datos de rendimiento se obtuvieron a partir de...

  9. Detecção de Azospirillum amazonense em raízes e rizosfera de orchidaceae e de outras famílias vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lange

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum amazonense é uma bactéria fixadora de N2 atmosférico de ampla ocorrência, principalmente em associações radiculares com gramíneas e palmeiras. Para verificar sua presença em outras espécies vegetais, ainda não estudadas, e a eficiência de meios para sua detecção, foram testados os meios Fam e LGI para contagens em solo rizosférico ou em culturas de enriquecimento com solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera. A. amazonense foi detectada no solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera de várias espécies de monocotiledôneas, incluindo Orchidaceae e dicotiledôneas, sendo o meio Fam mais eficiente para sua detecção

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE CEPAS NATIVAS DEL GÉNERO Azospirillum Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON EL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Pazos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce cepas nativas pertenecientes a la especie Azospirillum brasilense se caracterizaron en cuanto a su ca- pacidad de fijar el nitrógeno atmosférico. Se estudió su efecto en el cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa, mediante el modelo Microcosmos, realizando determinaciones de la altura de las plantas inoculadas, masa fresca de la raíz y el contenido de fenoles libres y la cuantificación de proteínas en las hojas. Se observó en todos los casos un efecto positivo por la inocula- ción con estas rizobacterias, donde se destaca la cepa R5(15 con los mayores incrementos en los indicadores estudiados.

  11. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae. PMID:25129521

  12. Rôle du quorum-sensing et prévalence des bactériophages chez la bactérie phytostimulatrice Azospirillum

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Mickaël

    2008-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était d'identifier les fonctions régulées par quorum-sensing (QS) chez la bactérie phytostimulatrice Azospirillum. Les effets phytobénéfiques in vitro des souches B518 et TVV3 (isolées du riz) ne sont pas altérées par l'inactivation des molécules signal impliquées dans le QS. La combinaison d'une approche ciblée et d'une approche globale par protéomique montre que le QS régule des fonctions liées à l'adaptation à la plante, notamment à la colonisation racinaire chez B518....

  13. Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic phototrophic Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine aquaculture biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foesel, Bärbel U; Gössner, Anita S; Drake, Harold L; Schramm, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, diplococcoid bacterium (strain D2-3(T)) was isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture system. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3(T) indicated that the new organism occupied a novel lineage within the alpha-1 subclass of Proteobacteria and was related to the genera Rhodothalassium, Azospirillum, Craurococcus, Acidiphilium, and Tistrella. The highest sequence similarity (90.8%) of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3(T) was to that of Candidatus "Alysiosphaera europaea". D2-3(T) was mesophilic, heterotrophic, required sea salt, and had a pH optimum of 8.0. Growth in the presence of light resulted in the formation of pink colonies, a 25% increased cell yield, and a slightly increased growth rate. D2-3(T) contained carotenoids and low amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Membranes of D2-3(T) contained b-type cytochromes. The G+C content of the DNA was 60.3+/-0.1mol%. Phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that D2-3(T) represented a new aerobic phototrophic genus, for which the name Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for the type species (D2-3(T)=DSM 18922(T)=ATCC BAA-1445(T)). PMID:17643894

  14. Elemental composition of strawberry plants inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, assessed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2014-07-01

    The elemental composition of strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa cv. Macarena) inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, and non-inoculated controls, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. This allowed simultaneous semi-quantification of different elements in a small, solid sample. Plants were inoculated and grown hydroponically in 50% or 100% Hoagland solution, corresponding to limited or optimum nutrient medium, respectively. Bacteria-inoculated plants increased the growth index 45% and 80% compared to controls when grown in 100% and 50% Hoagland solution, respectively. Thus, inoculation with A. brasilense REC3 in a nutrient-limited medium had the strongest effect in terms of increasing both shoot and root biomass and growth index, as already described for Azospirillum inoculated into nutrient-poor soils. SEM-EDS spectra and maps showed the elemental composition and relative distribution of nutrients in strawberry tissues. Leaves contained C, O, N, Na, P, K, Ca and Cu, while roots also had Si and Cl. The organic fraction (C, O and N) accounted for over 96.3% of the total chemical composition; of the mineral fraction, Na had higher accumulation in both leaves and roots. Azospirillum-inoculated and control plants had similar elemental quantities; however, in bacteria-inoculated roots, P was significantly increased (34.33%), which constitutes a major benefit for plant nutrition, while Cu content decreased (35.16%). PMID:24148195

  15. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabio Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

  16. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-09-01

    Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

  17. Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

  18. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  19. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotomaior, P.; Araújo, L.M.; Nishikawa, C.Y.; Huergo, L.F.; Monteiro, R.A.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Souza, E.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate.

  20. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate

  1. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer. PMID:25556026

  2. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris. PMID:25797155

  3. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  4. Isolation and identification by 16s rrna sequence analysis of achromobacter, azospirillum and rhodococcus strains from the rhizosphere of maize and screening for the beneficial effect on plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from the rhizosphere of field-grown maize. Among the five bacterial isolates obtained in the present study, the isolates M1, M7 and ZN1 showed typical Azospirillum-like cell morphology, motility and high sequence similarity of 16S rDNA to the genus Azospirillum. The isolates M25 and M28 were identified on the bases of 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Achromobacter and Rhodococcus, respectively. All the five isolates obtained in the present study produced phytohormone IAA in pure culture but phosphate-solubilization activity was detected only in pure cultures of Achromobacter strain M25 and Rhodococcus strain M28. The isolates were tested as inoculants for maize seedlings grown in sterilized sand from which cotyledons were removed at an early growth stage to deprive the seedlings of internal nutrient source and harvested after 5 weeks. For comparison, seedlings with intact cotyledons were used as control. In addition inoculated plants were grown in non-sterilized soil in earthen pots and harvested at maturity. In both the short-term inoculation experiments carried out in sterilized sand as well as in long-term inoculation experiment in earthen pots all the inoculated strains improved plant growth compared to respective non-inoculated controls. However, unlike the seedlings with intact cotyledons, the pattern regarding the efficiency of growth promotion by inoculated strains (Azospirillum strains ZN1>M7>M1>Achromobacter strain M25>Rhodococcus strain M28) was the same in plants with detached cotyledons and the plants grown to maturity in non-sterilized soil. It can be concluded from the short-term experiments under controlled conditions that removal of cotyledons helps effective screening of bacterial inocula compared to seedlings with intact cotyledons. (author)

  5. Características agronômicas do trigo em função de Azospirillum brasilense, ácidos húmicos e nitrogênio em casa de vegetação

    OpenAIRE

    Luan F. O. S. Rodrigues; Vandeir F. Guimarães; Mônica B. da Silva; Artur S. Pinto Junior; Jeferson Klein; Andreia C. P. R. da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se, neste estudo, verificar o efeito do uso combinado de Azospirillum brasilense, ácidos húmicos e diferentes doses de nitrogênio nas características agronômicas do trigo. Os experimentos foram instalados no dia 21 de maio de 2011 e a colheita foi procedida no dia 13 de setembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator se refere à combinação da estirpe Ab-V5 de A. brasilense com os ác...

  6. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  7. Inoculación con Azospirillum spp. en la Región Semiárida-Central de Argentina: factores que afectan la colonización rizosférica Inoculation with Azospirillum spp. in the semiarid-central region of Argentina: factors involved in rhizosphere colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Abril

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de la inoculación con Azospirillum spp. en condiciones de campo a menudo es poco consistente. La colonización de la rizosfera por las bacterias del inoculante es un prerrequisito para el éxito de la inoculación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el grado de colonización de raíces en 11 ensayos de campo con diferentes tratamientos (localidades, cepas, cultivos, cultivares, etc. en la Región semiárida central de la Argentina. Todos los ensayos se realizaron con similar diseño experimental y metodología de análisis para permitir su comparación. El grado de colonización mostró alta variabilidad entre los casos analizados (CV 173%, rango: -18 a >100%. Sólo 11 de los 32 casos analizados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el tratamiento inoculado y el control. No se detectó un patrón definido que permita explicar la alta heterogeneidad de los resultados, sin embargo, se podría especular, que los principales factores que pueden haber afectado el grado de colonización son: el estrés hídrico y el origen de las cepas del inoculante. Bajo condiciones de estrés puede existir una fuerte competencia entre las poblaciones rizosféricas, situación en la cual, las cepas nativas tienen ventaja por su mayor adaptación al medio.The effectivity of inoculation with Azospirillum spp. often lacks consistency under field conditions. Microbial colonization of the rhizosphere is considered a prerequisite for successful inoculation. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of rhizosphere colonization in 11 field inoculation assays under different treatments (sites, crops, strains, cultivars, etc. performed in the semiarid central region of Argentina in the last 15 years, conforming a total of 32 study cases. For comparative purposes, all the assays were performed following the same experimental design and inoculation and analytic methods. Variation results relative to control treatment were clustered

  8. Transformation of the water soluble fraction from "alpeorujo" by Coriolopsis rigida: the role of laccase in the process and its impact on Azospirillum brasiliense survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparrat, Mario C N; Jurado, Miguel; Díaz, Rosario; Romera, Inmaculada Garcia; Martínez, María Jesús

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of the white rot basidiomycete Coriolopsis rigida to detoxify the water soluble fraction from "alpeorujo" (WSFA), a solid by-product produced by the olive oil extraction industry and characterized by a high concentration of phenols which limits its use as fertilizer and/or amendment. C. rigida reduced the phenol content in the liquid media supplemented with WSFA at 10 and 20% (v/v) after 15d of incubation. The analysis of WSFA toxicity after fungal treatment showed that C. rigida was responsible for a significant increase in the survival rate of Azospirillum brasiliense, a N(2) fixing soil rhizobacterium which promotes plant growth. Supplementation of culture medium with CuSO(4) (300 microM) resulted in strong laccase induction thus facilitating higher phenol reduction and detoxification of WSFA. In vitro reactions using a crude extracellular preparation from laccase-active C. rigida showed phenol removal as well as detoxification of the WSFA at 20%. These results suggest that C. rigida reduces the phenol content of the WSFA through the effect of laccase on free phenolic compounds consequently decreasing the toxic effect on A. brasiliense, which suggests that the enzyme plays an important role in the process. These findings have implications in the management and revalorization of olive-mill residues treated with laccase-producing fungi and their potential impact on integrative agricultural systems including organic residues and the co-inoculation with microorganisms which can facilitate the growth of plants of agricultural interest. PMID:19875147

  9. PRODUTIVIDADE DO TRIGO IRRIGADO SUBMETIDO À APLICAÇÃO DE NITROGÊNIO E À INOCULAÇÃO COM AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Marques Paula Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inocular sementes de trigo com Azospirillum brasilense pode ser benéfico à cultura do trigo, bem como reduzir a necessidade de aplicação de N. No entanto, são escassos trabalhos que mensurem o benefício dessa prática no trigo irrigado com expectativa de alta produtividade e demanda de N. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e o conteúdo de N na planta do trigo irrigado, submetido a doses de N, com ou sem a inoculação com A. brasilense. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em 2011 e repetidos em 2012. Em cada ano de cultivo, instalou-se um experimento na área considerada de baixa disponibilidade de N no solo (cultivo em sucessão ao milho e outro na com alta disponibilidade (cultivo em sucessão à soja ou cenoura. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de N e da inoculação ou não com A. brasilense. As doses de N testadas foram 20, 60, 100, 140 e 180 kg ha-1 na área com baixa disponibilidade de N e 20, 50, 80, 110 e 140 kg ha-1 na com alta disponibilidade. O teor de N na folha índice foi aumentado pela inoculação com A. brasilense. Entretanto, o N absorvido não foi influenciado pela inoculação da bactéria. As doses de N aumentaram a produtividade do trigo e esse aumento foi mais evidente no cultivo na área com baixa disponibilidade de N no solo.

  10. Adubação nitrogenada associada à inoculação com Azospirillum brasilense e Herbaspirillum seropedicae na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Dartora

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias dos gêneros Azospirillum e Herbaspirillum são fixadoras de nitrogênio (N atmosférico e consideradas promotoras do crescimento vegetal. Desta forma, desenvolveu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade do milho em resposta à inoculação de A. brasilense e H. seropedicae associada à adubação nitrogenada. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da inoculação de sementes (testemunha, estirpe de A. brasilense - Ab-V5, estirpe de H. seropedicae - SmR1 e combinação Ab-V5 + SmR1 e doses de N (0, 40, 80, 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliados: diâmetro basal do colmo, altura de planta, matéria seca de parte aérea e área foliar, nas fases vegetativa e reprodutiva, e produtividade. A adubação nitrogenada favoreceu o desenvolvimento da cultura até a máxima dose estudada. A inoculação combinada das estirpes proporcionou incrementos de 12% na matéria seca de parte aérea e 7% na produtividade em relação à testemunha indicando benefícios da combinação de bactérias diazotróficas que interagem de forma diferenciada com a planta.

  11. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  12. SP-100 advanced technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project

  13. Organic Nutrition of Beggiatoa sp

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Culture OH-75-B of Beggiatoa sp. differed significantly from any described previously in its utilization of organic carbon and reduced sulfur compounds. It deposited internal sulfur granules characteristic of Beggiatoa sp. with either sulfide or thiosulfate in the medium. This strain (OH-75-B, clone 2a) could be grown in agitated liquid cultures on mineral medium with acetate as the only source of organic carbon. The resultant growth yields and rates were comparable to those for typical heter...

  14. Optimal spænding i kajakken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    Artiklens overordnede fokus er, hvilken betydning den enkelte kajakroers spændingsniveau har for præstationen. Artiklen svarer på, hvad et spændingsniveau er, hvilke kilder der er til spænding, og sidst hvad man kan gøre for at finde sit optimale spændingsniveau....

  15. En moderne spøgelseshistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af César Airas "Spøgelserne". Anmeldelsen indkredser bla. spøgelsernes karakter i denne moderne, interkulturelle historie......Anmeldelse af César Airas "Spøgelserne". Anmeldelsen indkredser bla. spøgelsernes karakter i denne moderne, interkulturelle historie...

  16. Fungi Association with Cedar’s Seeds and Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. Pathogenicities Levantamento de Fungos em Sementes de Cedro e Avaliação da Patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Cristina Benetti; Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos; Antonio Carlos de Souza Medeiros; David de Souza Jaccoud Filho

    2010-01-01

    This research had as main objectives the evaluation of cedar’s seeds seed-borne fungi and the Fusarium
    sp. and Pestalotia sp. pathogenicities. For the fungi detection Potato Dextrose and Agar medium and Blotter
    test methods were used. For the pathogenicity tests, isolates of Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. were used. The following fungi were observed: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. and Cladosporium sp. The fungi...

  17. Chemical composition and deoxynivalenol in wheat of Central- Southern Paraná: nitrogen fertilization in top dressing associated with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Montagner Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agricultural management practices on the quality of grain was evaluated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. BRS Tangará from the South Central region of Paraná State (Ponta Grossa in the crop years of 2010 and 2011. The field trial was carried out in succession with soybean (2010 and corn (2011. The treatments included inoculation of seeds with Azospirillum brasilense and increasing levels of nitrogen application in top dressing (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1. The experimental design was in randomized block, factorial 2 x 5 (inoculation x N levels, with four replications. The parameters evaluated were water activity, moisture, protein, and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparison of means by Tukey’s test (p<0.05 and regression for nitrogen levels. The inoculation of seeds with A. brasilense increased the protein content in grain in 2010 (+1.6%; 16.9 g 100g-1 and 2011 (+1.7%, 15.7 g 100g-1, independently of the nitrogen level (p<0.01. Levels of nitrogen in 2010 presented a positive linear response with protein content, increasing by 14.2% using non-inoculated seeds (p<0.01, R2=0.955 and 14.4% for those inoculated with A. brasilense (p<0.01, R2=0.906. However, in 2011 a quadratic response was observed between nitrogen levels and protein content (p<0.01, R2=0.99, with stabilization or reduction in protein content using high levels of nitrogen (?120 kg ha-1. The contamination by DON was greater using high levels of nitrogen (3574 ?g kg-1, 120 kg ha-1; non-inoculated seeds in 2011, with a quadratic response between nitrogen levels and contamination of grains (p<0.05, R2=0.772. Furthermore, 37.5% of the samples presented contamination by DON higher than the maximum tolerated limit established by Brazilian legislation (2000 ?g kg-1; whole-wheat grain. The data demonstrates that proper management of nitrogen enhances intrinsic effects arising from plant breeding.

  18. Coberturas vegetais, doses de nitrogênio e inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense em arroz de terras altas no sistema plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Castilho Gitti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O arroz é importante fonte de energia e proteínas para a população mundial, principalmente na Ásia e Oceania. No Brasil, juntamente com o feijão, constitui a base da alimentação. Tecnologias sustentáveis que reduzam custos da produção e aumentem a produtividade do arroz podem garantir seu suprimento em períodos de alta demanda. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes coberturas vegetais antecessoras (milheto [Pennisetum americanum], crotalária [Crotalaria juncea], guandu [Cajanus cajan], braquiária [Brachiaria ruziziensis], milheto + crotalária e milheto + guandu, doses de nitrogênio (N em cobertura (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense no arroz de terras altas em sistema plantio direto no desenvolvimento e na produtividade. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x4x2 com quatro repetições. O estudo foi desenvolvido em um Latossolo Vermelho, em Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, em 2011/2012. O cultivo do guandu antecedendo o arroz proporcionou maior produtividade do arroz somente em comparação a B. ruziziensi. A produtividade do arroz em função das doses de N em cobertura se ajustou a uma função quadrática. Não houve influência da inoculação de sementes com A. brasilense sobre a produtividade do arroz, porém houve interação entre a inoculação e as coberturas vegetais sobre o teor de N foliar, número de panículas por m², matéria seca de plantas de arroz e a massa de cem grãos.

  19. Uso tradicional y actual de spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Ramírez- Moreno; Roxana Olvera-Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.) es una cianobacteria filamentosa no diferenciada, habitante de lagos alcalinos, que se cultiva para consumo humano debido a su contenido nutricional. En México, el consumo de esta cianobacteria se remonta a tiempos prehispánicos, cuando era conocida como tecuitlatl, siendo conocida como dihé por las tribus nativas de la región del lago de Chad, en África. En los últimos años se le han atribuido diversos efectos positivos en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de al...

  20. Coberturas vegetais, doses de nitrogênio e inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense em arroz de terras altas no sistema plantio direto Cover crops, nitrogen rates and seeds inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in upland rice under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Castilho Gitti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O arroz é importante fonte de energia e proteínas para a população mundial, principalmente na Ásia e Oceania. No Brasil, juntamente com o feijão, constitui a base da alimentação. Tecnologias sustentáveis que reduzam custos da produção e aumentem a produtividade do arroz podem garantir seu suprimento em períodos de alta demanda. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes coberturas vegetais antecessoras (milheto [Pennisetum americanum], crotalária [Crotalaria juncea], guandu [Cajanus cajan], braquiária [Brachiaria ruziziensis], milheto + crotalária e milheto + guandu, doses de nitrogênio (N em cobertura (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense no arroz de terras altas em sistema plantio direto no desenvolvimento e na produtividade. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x4x2 com quatro repetições. O estudo foi desenvolvido em um Latossolo Vermelho, em Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, em 2011/2012. O cultivo do guandu antecedendo o arroz proporcionou maior produtividade do arroz somente em comparação a B. ruziziensi. A produtividade do arroz em função das doses de N em cobertura se ajustou a uma função quadrática. Não houve influência da inoculação de sementes com A. brasilense sobre a produtividade do arroz, porém houve interação entre a inoculação e as coberturas vegetais sobre o teor de N foliar, número de panículas por m², matéria seca de plantas de arroz e a massa de cem grãos.Rice is an important source of energy and protein for the world population, mainly in Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, together with common beans, it is the population's basic food. Sustainable technologies that reduce rice production costs and increase productivity can warrant its supply on period of high demand. The objective of this study was to evaluate different preceding cover crops (millet [Pennisetum americanum

  1. Coberturas vegetais, doses de nitrogênio e inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense em arroz de terras altas no sistema plantio direto Cover crops, nitrogen rates and seeds inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in upland rice under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Castilho Gitti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O arroz é importante fonte de energia e proteínas para a população mundial, principalmente na Ásia e Oceania. No Brasil, juntamente com o feijão, constitui a base da alimentação. Tecnologias sustentáveis que reduzam custos da produção e aumentem a produtividade do arroz podem garantir seu suprimento em períodos de alta demanda. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes coberturas vegetais antecessoras (milheto [Pennisetum americanum], crotalária [Crotalaria juncea], guandu [Cajanus cajan], braquiária [Brachiaria ruziziensis], milheto + crotalária e milheto + guandu, doses de nitrogênio (N em cobertura (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense no arroz de terras altas em sistema plantio direto no desenvolvimento e na produtividade. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x4x2 com quatro repetições. O estudo foi desenvolvido em um Latossolo Vermelho, em Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, em 2011/2012. O cultivo do guandu antecedendo o arroz proporcionou maior produtividade do arroz somente em comparação a B. ruziziensi. A produtividade do arroz em função das doses de N em cobertura se ajustou a uma função quadrática. Não houve influência da inoculação de sementes com A. brasilense sobre a produtividade do arroz, porém houve interação entre a inoculação e as coberturas vegetais sobre o teor de N foliar, número de panículas por m², matéria seca de plantas de arroz e a massa de cem grãos.Rice is an important source of energy and protein for the world population, mainly in Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, together with common beans, it is the population's basic food. Sustainable technologies that reduce rice production costs and increase productivity can warrant its supply on period of high demand. The objective of this study was to evaluate different preceding cover crops (millet [Pennisetum americanum

  2. Identificação de isolados de Azospirillum amazonense associados a Brachiaria spp., em diferentes épocas e condições de cultivo e produção de fitormônio pela bactéria Identification of Azospirillum amazonense isolates associated to Brachiaria spp. at different stages and growth conditions, and bacterial plant hormone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Reis Junior

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Existem evidências de que pastagens formadas por algumas espécies do gênero Brachiaria poderiam beneficiar-se com o processo de fixação biológica do nitrogênio atmosférico (FBN, garantindo a estas pastagens maior longevidade. Dentre as bactérias diazotróficas encontradas em associação com estas gramíneas forrageiras, destaca-se a espécie Azospirillum amazonense. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar a influência da espécie de Brachiaria, manejo da pastagem e sazonalidade sobre as populações de A. amazonense associadas às raízes destas plantas. Diferentes pastagens (B. humidicola, B. decumbens e B. brizantha foram introduzidas em regiões do ecossistema Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de manejo com diferentes taxas de lotação, e as coletas foram realizadas em diferentes épocas do ano. As populações de A. amazonense foram quantificadas e a identidade dos isolados confirmada, assim como sua capacidade de produção de fitormônios tipo AIA (ácido 3-indol acético em meio de cultivo. Isolados de A. amazonense foram obtidos a partir de amostras de raízes das três espécies de Brachiaria avaliadas. Estimativas das populações desta bactéria variaram de 10³-10(7 células g-1 de raízes. Em amostras do ecossistema Cerrado, a época de coleta apresentou efeito significativo sobre a população destas bactérias. Os dados da região de Mata Atlântica mostraram que plantas de Brachiaria de diferentes espécies e pastagens sob diferentes taxas de lotação podem apresentar números populacionais distintos associados às suas raízes. A técnica de análise de restrição do DNA ribossomal amplificado (ARDRA confirmou a identidade de todos os isolados avaliados. Estes isolados foram capazes de produzir fitormônios tipo AIA.There is evidence that pastures formed by some species of the genus Brachiaria could be benefited by the biological nitrogen fixation process (BNF, which would give these

  3. Caracterización de cepas del género Azospirillum aisladas de dos tipos de suelos de la localidad de San Nicolás de Bari

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Pazos; Annia Hernández; Paneque, M.; J. L. Santander

    2000-01-01

    Un total de 40 cepas bacterianas fueron aisladas empleando el modelo Microcosmos, a partir de dos tipos de suelos de la localidad de San Nicolás de Bari, La Habana, siendo doce de estas identificadas como pertenecientes al género Azospirillum, por combinación de métodos tradicionales y serológicos de aglutinación en portaobjetos e inmunodifusión doble. Se realizó la caracterización de las cepas en cuanto a capacidad de reducción del acetileno y producción de ácido indol acético (AIA). Las doc...

  4. Montagem e anotação parcial da sequência genômica da Bactéria Diazotrófica Azospirillum Brasilense FP2

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Leviston da

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio ou diazotróficas são organismos capazes de reduzir o dinitrogênio atmosférico em amônia, um processo chamado fixação biológica de nitrogênio que é catalisado pela enzima nitrogenase. Azospirillum brasilense é uma bactéria fixadora capaz de se associar a raízes de gramíneas como trigo e arroz, e promover o crescimento do vegetal e aumento de produtividade. Neste trabalho utilizamos 5.768.466 milhões de seqüência de nucleotídeos obtidas em seqüenciador ...

  5. Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-11-18

    Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

  6. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

  7. An Sp1/Sp3 binding polymorphism confers methylation protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanis A Boumber

    Full Text Available Hundreds of genes show aberrant DNA hypermethylation in cancer, yet little is known about the causes of this hypermethylation. We identified RIL as a frequent methylation target in cancer. In search for factors that influence RIL hypermethylation, we found a 12-bp polymorphic sequence around its transcription start site that creates a long allele. Pyrosequencing of homozygous tumors revealed a 2.1-fold higher methylation for the short alleles (P<0.001. Bisulfite sequencing of cancers heterozygous for RIL showed that the short alleles are 3.1-fold more methylated than the long (P<0.001. The comparison of expression levels between unmethylated long and short EBV-transformed cell lines showed no difference in expression in vivo. Electrophorectic mobility shift assay showed that the inserted region of the long allele binds Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, a binding that is absent in the short allele. Transient transfection of RIL allele-specific transgenes showed no effects of the additional Sp1 site on transcription early on. However, stable transfection of methylation-seeded constructs showed gradually decreasing transcription levels from the short allele with eventual spreading of de novo methylation. In contrast, the long allele showed stable levels of expression over time as measured by luciferase and approximately 2-3-fold lower levels of methylation by bisulfite sequencing (P<0.001, suggesting that the polymorphic Sp1 site protects against time-dependent silencing. Our finding demonstrates that, in some genes, hypermethylation in cancer is dictated by protein-DNA interactions at the promoters and provides a novel mechanism by which genetic polymorphisms can influence an epigenetic state.

  8. SP-100 Reactor Subsystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The SP-100 reactor subsystem consists of the pressure vessel, vessel internals, and fuel elements. Type A (standard) Nb-1Zr and rhenium materials development efforts related to fabrication of the vessel, vessel internals, and fuel cladding/liner have been completed. Type A and Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr loop fabrication has been successfully demonstrated by prototypic testing with flowing lithium at 1350 K for 1500 hr. Development of UN fuel has been completed, and the performance validated by irradiation testing to the full life (7 yr. full power) burnup of 6 atom %. Neutronic and hydraulic core performance have been validated by engineering mockup critical experiments in the Zero Power Physics Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and detailed core hydraulic flow testing with water. Essentially all feasibility issues have been settled for the full life SP-100 reactor subsystem. Remaining SP-100 reactor subsystem development efforts are focused on further reducing mass by the use of Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr rather than Type A, and demonstrating fuel life for beyond full life to perhaps 9 atom % burnup.

  9. ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА СОСТАВА ЖИРНЫХ КИСЛОТ ЛИПИДОВ А ЛИПОПОЛИСАХАРИДОВ БАКТЕРИЙ РОДА AZOSPIRILLUM

    OpenAIRE

    Игнатов, В.; Коннова, О.; Бойко, А.; Фомина, А.; Федоненко, Ю.; Коннова, С.

    2009-01-01

    На основании анализа липополисахаридов восьми штаммов бактерий рода Azospirillum показано, что доминирующими являются: 3-гидрокситетрадекановая, гексадекановая, 3-гидроксигексадекановая и октадеценовая жирные кислоты, что подтверждает отнесение этих микроорганизмов к α-субклассу Proteobacteria. Исключение составил профиль жирных кислот ЛПС типового штамма A. lipoferum Sp59b, в котором доминировали по содержанию дидекановая, 2-гидроксидидекановая, 3-гидроксидидекановая, 3-гидрокситетрадеканова...

  10. Potensi Tanaman Ornamental (Aglaonema sp., Dieffenbachia sp., dan Spathiphyllum sp.) dalam Menurunkan Jumlah Mikroba Udara dalam Ruangan Kelas Sekolah Dasar

    OpenAIRE

    Mangunsong, Sisca Nency Teresia

    2016-01-01

    Bioaerosol is dust particles consisting of bacteria and other fungi with spores that are in the room when the temperature and humidity level are adequate. Its presence in the room are generally harmless, but some time causes disease. This research was aims to determine the effect of ornamental plant Aglaonema sp., Dieffenbachia sp., and Spathiphyllum sp. on amount of bacteria and fungi in the class room. Bioaerosol isolation was performed according to the method of air sampling with three rep...

  11. Sebaran dan Kerapatan Populasi Pratylenchus sp dan Radopholus sp Pada Tanaman Kopi (Coffea sp.) Kabupaten Gayo Lues Provinsi Aceh

    OpenAIRE

    Bayhaqi

    2015-01-01

    Bayhaqi, 2014. Distribution and Population Density Of Pratylenchus sp and Radopholus sp on Coffee (Coffea sp.) in Gayo Lues Regency Aceh Province. Under supervising commission Darma Bakti and Hasanuddin. Gayo Coffee is one among the main export commodities of Indonesia has been known in the domestic and international markets, Gayo coffee production includes more than 90% of the total coffee production in the province. Coffee production in Gayo Lues district reached 540 kg / ha with a pla...

  12. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  13. Fungi Association with Cedar’s Seeds and Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. Pathogenicities Levantamento de Fungos em Sementes de Cedro e Avaliação da Patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Benetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This research had as main objectives the evaluation of cedar’s seeds seed-borne fungi and the Fusarium
    sp. and Pestalotia sp. pathogenicities. For the fungi detection Potato Dextrose and Agar medium and Blotter
    test methods were used. For the pathogenicity tests, isolates of Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. were used. The following fungi were observed: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. and Cladosporium sp. The fungi observed in the highest frequencies were: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. and Pestalotia sp. A reduction of the germination level was observed in seedlings from cedar’s seed inoculated with Fusarium sp.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

    Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar fungos em sementes de cedro e testar a patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp. Para detecção de fungos, foram utilizados batata-dextrose-ágar e papel filtro. Para o teste de patogenicidade, utilizaram-se isolados de Fusarium sp. e de Pestalotia sp. Foi constatada a presença dos seguintes fungos nas sementes: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. e Cladosporium sp. Os fungos de maior freqüência foram: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. e Pestalotia sp. Observou-se decréscimo nos valores de emergência das plântulas oriundas das sementes inoculadas com Fusarium sp.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

  14. Isolation and identification of an endophytic bacteria Azospirillum melinis against Rhizoctonia solani%水稻纹枯病生防内生菌糖蜜草固氮螺菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰英; 谢颖; 廖凤仙; 王琼; 骆焱平

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-seven endophytic bacterial strains isolated from Fructus amomi were tested for in vitro antagonistic activity, pot experiment and field trial against the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The results revealed that 4 of the 27 isolates showed good anti-fungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, of which SRJ2-4 exhibited the best effect with an inhibition zone up to 18 mm in diameter. The control efficacy of SRJ2-4 strain in pot experiment and field trial were 80. 7% and 79. 4% respectively, significantly higher than those of other isolates. The yield of the field treated with SRJ2-4 was also found to be the highest, up to 488.79 kg · 667 m-2. According to the morphological analysis, physiological and biochemical determination and 16S rDNA sequence comparison, the strain SRJ24 was identified as Azospirillum melinis.%本文首先对砂仁内生细菌进行分离,以水稻纹枯病菌(Rhizoctonia solani)为靶标菌对获得菌株进行离体拮抗活性、盆栽及田间试验测定.结果表明:获得的27株内生细菌中有4株具有较好的离体抑菌活性,其中SRJ2-4抑菌效果最好,抑菌带达到18 mm;SRJ2-4的盆栽防效及田间防效分别为80.7%与79.4%,与其它菌株相比达极显著水平.SRJ2-4处理的亩产量为488.79kg,高于其他药剂处理.对该菌株形态、生理生化及16S rDNA序列进行分析,将该内生菌鉴定为糖蜜草固氮螺菌(Azospirillum melinis.

  15. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  16. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that [3-14C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  17. Predictive value of Sp1/Sp3/FLIP signature for prostate cancer recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roble G Bedolla

    Full Text Available Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA has high sensitivity (90% at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the "biomarker signature" of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  18. Nitrospirillum irinus sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Iris and emended description of the genus Nitrospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Tae Soon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Hae-In; Chang, Woo-Suk; Aslam, Zubair; Chung, Young Ryun

    2015-09-01

    A polyphasic approach was used to characterize a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain, designated YC6995(T), isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Iris ensata var. spontanea (Makino) Nakai inhabiting a wetland located at an altitude of 960 m on Jiri Mountain, Korea. Strain YC6995(T) cells were Gram-negative, and rod-shaped, with motility provided by a single polar flagellum. Optimal growth conditions were 30 °C and pH 7.0. The major fatty acids of strain YC6995(T) were C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 2-OH and C16:0 3-OH. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 64.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed strain YC6995(T) to form a phyletic lineage with Nitrospirillum amazonense DSM 2787(T) with a high sequence similarity (97.2 %), but it displayed low sequence similarity with other remotely related genera, including Azospirillum (<93 %), Rhodocista (93.1-93.4 %), and Skermanella (91.2-93.3 %) in the family Alphaproteobacteria. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic evidences, strain YC6995(T) represents a novel species within the genus Nitrospirillum, for which the name Nitrospirillum irinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6995(T) (= KACC 13777(T) = DSM 22198(T)). An emended description of the genus Nitrospirillum is also proposed. PMID:26155773

  19. Estudio sobre la influencia de la inoculación de las rizobacterias Azospirillum brasilense y Pseudomonas fluorescens sobre el desarrollo morfológico y el contenido de aceites esenciales en las especies aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Trenado, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analiza la influencia de la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense, con Pseudomonas fluorescens y la inoculación conjunta con ambas rizobacterias en las especies de plantas aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis. Se evaluará su desarrollo morfológico, atendiendo a tres parámetros: la longitud del tallo, el peso fresco y la superficie foliar. Así como el posible incremento en el c...

  20. PENGARUH FILTRAT CENDAWAN Aspergillus sp. DAN Fusarium sp. TERHADAP VIABILITAS BENIH DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria)

    OpenAIRE

    Naning Yuniarti; Tati Suharti; Yulianti Bramasto

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are one of the main causes of damage to seeds. Fungi can be a pathogen or saprophyte such as Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of filtrate fungus Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp on seed viability and seedling growth performance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria). The experiment design used was the Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with treatment: control, filtrate of Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp filtrate. Each treatment was rep...

  1. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Akanksha Srivastava; Ratnakar Tiwari; Vikas Srivastava; Tej Bali Singh; Ravi Kumar Asthana

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

  2. Sp1 regulates human huntingtin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruitao; Luo, Yawen; Ly, Philip T T; Cai, Fang; Zhou, Weihui; Zou, Haiyan; Song, Weihong

    2012-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats results in neuronal loss in the striatum and cortex. Mutant huntingtin (HTT) may cause toxicity via a range of different mechanisms. Recent studies indicate that impairment of wild-type HTT function may also contribute to HD pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating HTT expression have not been well defined. In this study, we cloned 1,795 bp of the 5' flanking region of the human huntingtin gene (htt) and identified a 106-bp fragment containing the transcription start site as the minimal region necessary for promoter activity. Sequence analysis reveals several putative regulatory elements including Sp1, NF-κB, HIF, CREB, NRSF, P53, YY1, AP1, and STAT in the huntingtin promoter. We found functional Sp1 response elements in the huntingtin promoter region. The expression of Sp1 enhanced huntingtin gene transcription and the inhibition of Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation reduced huntingtin gene expression. These results suggest that Sp1 plays an important role in the regulation of the human huntingtin gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests that the dysregulation of Sp1-mediated huntingtin transcription, combining with mutant huntingtin's detrimental effect on other Sp1-mediated downstream gene function, may contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:22399227

  3. Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancıgil, Birdal; Tezeren, Deniz; Balaban, Neriman; Terzioğlu, Serdar; Öztürk, Süheyla

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1997 Haziran; 4(3) Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp. Birdal YORGANCIGİL Deniz TEZEREN Neriman BALABAN Serdar TERZlOĞLU Süheyla ÖZTÜRK Özet Campylobacter sp. 'in neden olduğu, gastrointestinal traktüs haricindeki lokal veya sistemik infeksiyon vakaları oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada safradan izole edilen bir Campylobacter sp. olgusu incelenmiştir. Ankara Numune Hastanesi Cerrahi Kliniğinde koles...

  4. Uji Efektifitas Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. Dan Gliocladium sp. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Rima Yunisa

    2015-01-01

    Rima Yunisa Nasution. 2014. Effectiveness test on antagonist fungi Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium Sp. to control fusarium disease (Fusarium oxysporum F.sp capsici) for chilli crop (Capsicum Annuum L.) at screen house. Supervised by Lahmuddin Lubis and Hassanuddin. The goal of the research is to examine antagonist fungi Trichoderma and Gliocladium virens towards F. Oxysporum that lead the fusarium disease for chilli crop at screen house. The research was conducted at Plant Dise...

  5. Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Maria M.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Arrambide, Kathryn; Bern, Caryn; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Pieniazek, Norman J.; Bandea, Rebecca D.; Deleon-Carnes, Marlene; Adem, Patricia; Choudhary, Moaz M.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Saeed, Musab U.

    2011-01-01

    The Phylum Microsporidia comprises >1,200 species, only 15 of which are known to infect humans, including the genera Trachipleistophora, Pleistophora, and Brachiola. We report an infection by Tubulinosema sp. in an immunosuppressed patient.

  6. SP-100 power system development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SP-100 ground engineering system development project objectives, approach and status are described. The SP-100 GES development project is phase II of a three-phase program funded and directed by three United States Federal Agencies (NASA, DOD and DOE) to develop space reactor power systems for space applications in the 10 to 1000 KWe power range. The first phase of the program lasted three years, and this was completed at the end of FY 1985. SP-100 Phase I analytically and experimentally reviewed all near-term space reactor power system candidates and selected one system that best met the project mission requirements for future civilian and military space applications. The SP-100 Phase II started in fiscal year 1986 to develop the Phase I selected space reactor power system to be technically ready for space applications in the mid-to late 1990s. (author)

  7. Modificacion del Valor Nutrimental de Acidos Grasos en Semilla de la Halofita Salicornia bigelovii Torr. con la Interaccion de Bacterias Promotoras del Crecimiento de Plantas (Azospirillum halopraeferens y Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Una especie vegetal a gran escala se presenta como una alternativa para la producción de ácidos grasos esenciales en nutrición humana por lo que su composición de ácidos grasos cobra especial importancia. Salicornia bigelovii una halófita que se desarrolla en ambientes áridos y costeros como las del estado de Sonora y de la península de Baja California Sur, México, presenta ser una especie alternativa en la producción de aceites comestibles. La fijación de N2 por bacterias asociadas con raíces de Salicornia bigelovii y halófitas similares son una fuente importante de nitrógeno disponible en ecosistemas costeros. La inoculación de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Azospirillum halopraeferens fue evaluada durante el desarrollo vegetativo de Salicornia bigelovii bajo condiciones de campo en dos genotipos (genotipo silvestre y cv. SOS-10, afectando positivamente variables como peso, longitud de plantas, rendimientos de producción y características bioquímicas como proteína total, ceniza, y contenido de lípidos totales en semilla producida. Nuestros resultados sugieren que ambos genotipos de S. bigelovii, bajo las condiciones de campo empleadas, pueden ser mejorados con la aplicación de K. pneumoniae y A. halopraeferens, mostrando una utilidad potencial para productores agrícolas de zonas semiáridas costeras.

  8. Características agronômicas do trigo em função de Azospirillum brasilense, ácidos húmicos e nitrogênio em casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan F. O. S. Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, verificar o efeito do uso combinado de Azospirillum brasilense, ácidos húmicos e diferentes doses de nitrogênio nas características agronômicas do trigo. Os experimentos foram instalados no dia 21 de maio de 2011 e a colheita foi procedida no dia 13 de setembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator se refere à combinação da estirpe Ab-V5 de A. brasilense com os ácidos húmicos, sendo utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: controle; Ab-V5; ácido húmico e Ab-V5+ácido húmico e o segundo fator se refere às doses de nitrogênio (0, 30, 60 e 90 kg ha-1 N. A maioria das variáveis em análise apresentou efeito linear positivo dos tratamentos em função da adubação nitrogenada sendo que apenas para a variável massa de cem grãos este efeito foi linear negativo. Não houve diferença significativa entre as variâncias, na produção de grãos. Pôde-se concluir que o uso combinado de Ab-V5 + ácido húmico promove principalmente a produção de matéria seca de folhas e não é responsivo à adubação nitrogenada para os demais componentes produtivos em estudo nem para a produtividade dos grãos.

  9. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  10. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

  11. Expression of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D in murine decidua and immunomodulatory effects on decidual macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Marri, Eswari Dodagatta-; Kouser, Lubna; Jamil, Kaiser; Alhamlan, Fatimah S; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules that belong to the C-type lectin family. In lungs, they play an important role in the clearance of pathogens and control of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D are also expressed in the female reproductive tract where they play an important role in pregnancy and parturition. However, the role of SP-A and SP-D expressed at the feto-maternal interface (decidua) remains unclear. Here, we have examined the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua at 17.5 (pre-parturition) and 19.5dpc (near parturition) and their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated decidual macrophages. SP-A and SP-D were localized to stromal cells in the murine decidua at 17.5 and 19.5dpc in addition to cells lining the maternal spiral artery. Purified pre-parturition decidual cells were challenged with LPS with and without SP-A or SP-D, and expression of F4/80 and TNF-α were measured by flow cytometry. On their own, SP-A or SP-D did not affect the percentage of F4/80 positive cells while they suppressed the percentage of TNF-α positive cells. However, simultaneous addition of SP-A or SP-D, together with LPS, reduced TNF-α secreting F4/80 positive cells. It is likely that exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D in decidua can potentially control infection and inflammation mediators during spontaneous term labor and infection-induced preterm labor. Thus, the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua is likely to play a protective role against intrauterine infection during pregnancy. PMID:26421960

  12. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  13. Evaluation of nutrient components of Bangia sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水军; 马家海; 纪焕红; 谢恩义

    2003-01-01

    General nutrient components including moisture, ash, crude protein, lipid and carbohy-drate, inorganic elements, photosynthetic pigments, amino acids and fatty acids of Bangia sp. Were an-alyzed and compared with Porphyra yezoensis. The results indicated that the content of protein, totalamino acids and free amino acids accounted for 47.2 %, 42.6 % and 3.3 % in dried Bangia sp. , respec-tively, all essential amino acids were present in relatively high levels and desirable composition. Lipidwas 1.8 %, in which the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reached 50.5 %. In per 100 g dried material, thecontent of chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin accounted for 766, 208, 4 600 and2 963 mg, respectively. Inorganic elements necessary for human body were found to be abundant inBangia sp. The results showed that the nutritive value of Bangia sp. Was the highest among algae re-ported so far, and the industry of Bangia sp. Was provided with significant economic importance and de-veloping potential.

  14. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  15. Bioaccumulation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Three Earthworm Species (Drawida sp., Allolobophora sp., and Limnodrilus sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhong Sheng; Zheng, Dong Mei; Wang, Qi Chao; Lv, Xian Guo

    2009-01-01

    We determined total and methyl mercury contents in soil, three earthworm species and their vomitus to study the species-specific differences of mercury bioconcentration in Huludao City, a heavily polluted region by chlor-alkali and nonferrous metal smelting industry in Liaoning Province, northeast China. Total and methyl mercury contents were 7.20 mg/kg and 6.94 ng/g in soil, 1.43 mg/kg and 43.03 ng/g in Drawida sp., 2.80 mg/kg and 336.52 ng/g in Alolobophora sp., respectively. Total mercury ...

  16. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Sotiriadis

    Full Text Available Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR and connexin 43 (CX43. In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one.

  17. Sp(3, R) coadjoint orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algebraic mean field method is applied to the symplectic Lie algebra sp(3, R) that describes geometrical collective states in atomic nuclei. The expectations of sp(3, R) generators define a symplectic density matrix. The mean field approximation restricts the densities to a manifold that is a coadjoint orbit of the transformation group Sp(3, R) and a level surface of the symplectic Casimir functions. Compared to representation theory, mean field theory is technically simpler, but yields similar predictions for physical properties of collective states. The critical points of the energy functional on a coadjoint orbit surface define rotational bands. The deformation, kinetic energy and Kelvin circulation of principal axis symplectic rotors are determined as a function of the angular momentum. Illustrative applications of coadjoint orbit theory are reported for the yrast rotational bands of a light 20Ne and a heavy 166Er deformed isotope. (author)

  18. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Michael; Lausen, Georg; Pinkel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the SPARQL query language for RDF has reached the W3C recommendation status. In response to this emerging standard, the database community is currently exploring efficient storage techniques for RDF data and evaluation strategies for SPARQL queries. A meaningful analysis and comparison of these approaches necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. To this end, we have developed SP$^2$Bench, a publicly available, language-specific SPARQL performance benchmark. SP$^2$Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises both a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. As a proof of concept, we apply SP$^2$Bench to existing engines and discuss ...

  19. BUSCANDO UM BIOHERBICIDA CONTRA Cyperus sp (tiririca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Benfatti Gonzalez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to conventional control of Cyperus sp (herbaceousnutsedge, with chemical products, it rises the biological control, making use of phytopathogenic microorganisms. As results of the whole production of Cercospora henningsii e Cercospora caricis by fermentation in potato-dextrose (PD liquid medium, it was observed that both species obtained the optimum growth at 36o C. C. henningsii attained the best value after a period of 72 h of fermentation and C. caricis attained it after 60 h. The field experiments, against Cyperus sp (nutsedge, with the obtained products by liquid fermentation of Cercospora sp (C. henningsii and/or C. caribaea, andwith the use of "wet chamber", proved the pathogenic potential bioherbicide of these microorganisms. = Como alternativa ao controle convencional do Cyperus sp (tiririca usando produtos químicos, surge o controle biológico, empregando-se microrganismos fitopatógenos. Como resultados da produção massal de Cercospora henningsii eCercospora caricis através de cultivo submerso em meio de cultura batata-dextrose (BD, observou-se que ambas espécies obtiveram um crescimento ótimo a 36o C, sendo que para C. henningsii se deu com 72 h de fermentação e para C. caricis com 60 h. Os experimentos de campo, bem como os de Câmara úmida, contra Cyperus sp (tiririca,com os produtos obtidos pelo cultivo submerso de Cercospora sp (C. henningsii e/ou C. caribaea, demonstraram a patogenicidade, ou seja, o potencial bioherbicida desses microrganismos.

  20. Analysis list: Sp1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sp1 Placenta,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Sp1.Placenta....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Sp1.Pluripotent_stem_cell

  1. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gaby S.; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

  2. The SP theory of intelligence: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    J. Gerard Wolff

    2013-01-01

    This article is an overview of the SP theory of intelligence, which aims to simplify and integrate concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It is conceived of as a brain-like system that receives "New" information and stores some or all of it in compressed form as "Old" information; and it is realised in the form of a computer model, a first version of the SP machine. The matching and un...

  3. SP-100 converter multicouple thermoelectric cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Electric Company is under contract to DOE to design, fabricate, and test an SP-100 Ground Engineering System. This paper provides a description of the SP-100 space reactor power system configuration, and a more detailed description of the power conversion subsystem (PCSS) and the key building block of the power converter, the thermoelectric cell. The functions of the various elements of the PCSS and the cells are also presented. These cells convert the thermal energy from the reactor into electrical power at the desired voltage while being conductively coupled to the hot and cold side heat exchangers to maximize the power output and system specific power

  4. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira; João Fábio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá) é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopar...

  5. Aspectos morfofisiológicos de plantas de milho e bioquímico do solo em resposta à adubação nitrogenada e à inoculação com Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tâmara Prado de Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O nitrogênio (N é um macronutriente que aumenta a produção de grãos na cultura do milho e o seu manejo adequado torna-se indispensável como proposta de uma agricultura sustentável, incluindo o uso de fontes alternativas como bactérias fixadoras de N2. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a resposta morfofisiológica de plantas de milho e a atividade de enzimas no solo (urease e fosfatase decorrente da adubação N mineral e da inoculação com Azospirillum brasilense. Dois ensaios foram realizados em condições de casa de vegetação com solo de cerrado. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator correspondente a doses de N (0; 100 e 200 kg ha-1 e o segundo, a doses de um inoculante líquido à base de A. brasilense aplicado via sementes (0; 100 e 200 mL ha-1. Ao final desse experimento, outro ensaio foi realizado para verificar o possível efeito residual da inoculação e da adubação nitrogenada. A adição de fertilizantes nitrogenados promoveu maior desenvolvimento das plantas de milho, elevou os teores de clorofila e de nutrientes. Houve aumento da atividade das enzimas relacionadas à disponibilização de amônio e fósforo inorgânico na rizosfera. Além disso, o nitrogênio apresentou efeito residual no desenvolvimento das plantas na semeadura subsequente. A dose de 200 mL ha-1 de A. brasilense associada à dose de 200 kg ha-1 de N aumentou a resposta fisiológica da cultura.

  6. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Prieto; Litia De la Cruz; Mario Morales

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo. Realizar un cultivo experimental de cladócero Moina sp alimentado con Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepa de cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (22oC), pH (7.6), intensidad lumínica (2000 lux) y aireación. Se emplearon dos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyce...

  7. Assessment of Surfactant Protein A (SP-A dependent agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomers of the collectin surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A are arranged in trimers and higher oligomers. The state of oligomerization differs between individuals and likely affects SP-A's functional properties. SP-A can form aggregates together with other SP-A molecules. Here we report and assess a test system for the aggregate forming properties of SP-A in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples. Methods Anti-SP-A antibodies fixed to latex beads bound SP-A at its N-terminal end and allowed the interaction with other SP-A molecules in a given sample by their C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD to agglutinate the beads to aggregates, which were quantified by light microscopy. Results SP-A aggregation was dependent on its concentration, the presence of calcium, and was dose-dependently inhibited by mannose. Unaffected by the presence of SP-D no aggregation was observed in absence of SP-A. The more complex the oligomeric structure of SP-A present in a particular sample, the better was its capability to induce aggregation at a given total concentration of SP-A. SP-A in serum agglutinated independently of the pulmonary disease; in contrast SP-A in lung lavage fluid was clearly inferior in patients with chronic bronchitis and particularly with cystic fibrosis compared to controls. Conclusions The functional status of SP-A with respect to its aggregating properties in serum and lavage samples can be easily assessed. SP-A in lung lavage fluid in patients with severe neutrophilic bronchitis was inferior.

  8. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  9. Framework, The Physics of sp(2,R)

    CERN Document Server

    Hawthorn, Ian; Ussher, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical framework for relativistic quantum field theory is constructed with natural symmetry $\\mathsf{so}(2,3)= \\mathsf{sp}(2,\\mathbb{ R})$. In this framework gravity and electromagnetism unify as aspects of the geometry. The source equation for gravity differs from Einstein's equation and permits behaviour that could explain dark matter.

  10. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  11. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

  12. A new virginae butanolide from Streptomyces sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang LI; Yi Nan ZHENG; Wen Han LIN; Isabel SATTLER

    2006-01-01

    A novel butanolide, named virginaebutanolide F (1), was isolated from the lyophilized culture broth of Streptomyces sp., along with a known compound virginaebutanolide C (2). Their structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HRESI-MS and CD spectroscopic analysis.

  13. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  14. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni;

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We...

  15. Ragweed (Ambrosia sp. seeds in bird feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frick, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Swiss official feed inspection of Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station (ALP was mandated to check bird feed and raw materials for the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds. Indeed, such seeds were found in varying amounts when analyzed in the feed microscopy laboratory. The producers were informed, and a limit of intervention (50 mg.kg-1 ≈ 9 to 10 seeds.kg-1 was finally set for this undesirable component. The results of five years of controls show, at first, around 50% of contaminated samples. With appropriate measures, the level of contamination could be lowered in the following years. In parallel, the size of Ambrosia sp. seeds and the sieves to be used for routine analyses were checked. Ambrosia sp. seeds found in feed checked in Switzerland were seldom larger ("wider" than 3.5 mm and never smaller than 1.5 mm. Several EU Member States started their own control and monitoring programs. The results of studies from Germany, Slovenia and Denmark, presented by their feed microscopists at the IAG meetings, indicate the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds in 21 to 75% of the products put on the market.

  16. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

  17. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. as a Potentional Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. dr. Violeta Makareviciene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two robust algae strains Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. growing in Lithuanian lakes was investigated with the aim to obtain optimum conditions for biomass cultivation for biofuel production in the Lithuanian environment. Samples were taken from different nitrogen sources and of different concentrations, with addition of various concentrations of CO2 and in the presence of salt. The best biomass productivity was achieved using urea as a nitrogen source or modified growing medium BG11 with decreased concentration of NaNO3. The positive impact on the growth of biomass was achieved by aeration with CO2 (especially with concentration of 24%. Additional research into the removal of pollutants, such inorganic salts of nitrogen and phosphorus and organic materials from wastewater using microalgae has revealed good possibilities of using both algae strains in wastewater treatment plants. A content of oil in Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. has suggested their potential use as biodiesel feedstock.

  18. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  19. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol;

    2014-01-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid...... of astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, a putative corresponding gene in the carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster, and high amino acid sequence homology to the existing glycosyltransferases. Therefore, we propose that astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside can be synthesized in Sphingomonas sp. PB304...

  20. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time....

  1. Coronamycins, peptide antibiotics produced by a verticillate Streptomyces sp. (MSU-2110) endophytic on Monstera sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra, D; Castillo, UF; Strobel, GA; Hess, WM; Porter, H; Jensen, JB; Condron, MAM; Teplow, DB; J. Sears; Maranta, M; Hunter, M; Weber, B.; Yaver, D

    2004-01-01

    Coronamycin is a complex of novel peptide antibiotics with activity against pythiaceous fungi and the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. It is also active against the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 of 9.0 ng ml-1. Coronamycin is produced by a verticillate Streptomyces sp. isolated as an endophyte from an epiphytic vine, Monstera sp., found in the Manu region of the upper Amazon of Peru. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fermentation broths of this endoph...

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra, E-mail: esungur@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Unsal-Istek, Tuba [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cansever, Nurhan [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel.

  3. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel

  4. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between...

  5. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed

  6. Fitoremediasi limbah budidaya sidat menggunakan filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Apriadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. sebagai agen bioremediasi dalam mereduksi kandungan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan dosis limbah (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100%. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium resirkulasi menggunakan sistem carrousel. Dilakukan pengukuran secara rutin terhadap beberapa parameter kualitas air serta perubahan bobot Spirogyra sp. selama dua minggu retensi. Diperoleh hasil bahwa penurunan konsentrasi bahan organik menggunakan Spirogyra sp. berlangsung efektif hingga hari keenam. Spirogyra sp. mampu mentolelir limbah budidaya sidat pada dosis limbah 25% dan 50%. Spirogyra sp. pada perlakuan dosis limbah 50% memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dalam menurunkan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat.

  7. Substitusi Dedak Padi Dengan Pod Kakao(Theobroma cacao L) Dipermentasi Dengan Rhizopus SP, Saccharomyces SP, Lactobacilus SP Terhadap Performans Ternak Babi Perternakan Larance Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Bornok Venantius P.

    2013-01-01

    BORNOK VENANTIUS P: Substitution of rice bran with cacao pods fermented by Rhizopus sp, Saccharomyces sp and Lactobacillus sp to performance of male croosbred Landrace swine. Under the supervision by NURZAINNAH GINTING and ISKANDAR SEMBIRING. Cacao pods fermented can be used as an alternative feed a substitution of rice bran for its capacity to improve performance during growth. The objective of this research was to prove potention of cacao pods fermented, which can be seen from consumptio...

  8. A pumilio homolog in Polycelis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwen, Yanqing; Dong, Zimei; Si, Xiaohui; Chen, Guangwen

    2014-02-01

    Pumilio proteins (PUMs), members of the pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) family, are eukaryote-specific RNA-binding proteins. We isolated a 2,048-basepair cDNA fragment of a pumilio homolog from the planarian flatworm Polycelis sp. This pumilio protein (PyPUM) contains a conserved pumilio homology domain (PUM-HD) consisting of eight repeats and two flanking half repeats. PyPUM shows high similarity to Dugesia japonica pumilio (DjPUM) from another planarian D. japonica, and their PUM-HD also shows high similarity to each other. Furthermore, our data showed that there is a flatworm-specific spacer between repeats 7 and 8. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PyPUM has a closer relationship to other PUM homologs from flatworms. These results provide a foundation for future functional studies of pumilio gene in Polycelis sp. PMID:24292205

  9. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endika Haro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6-/-;Sp8+/- exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis...+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=69 ...

  11. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.B...lood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

  12. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  14. Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 μM, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 μM. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppressed...

  15. Spøgelsets egne ord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Anker

    2012-01-01

    refleksioner over den gengangerscene, der åbner Shakespeares Hamlet. Ifølge Derridas ’hantologie’ opererer spøgelser i en eksistentiel tidslighed, der har at gøre med sorg, sprog og forvandling. Genremæssigt, tilføjer Gemzøe, har gengangeren det med at husere i tragedien. Med Derridas ’hantologie’ som en af de...

  16. Blastocystis sp. from food animals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreekumar, C.; Selvaraj, J.; Gomathinayagam, S.; Thangapandiyan, M.; Ravikumar, G.; Roy, Parimal; C Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis, a zoonotic protozoan found in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, has not been reported from non-human hosts from India so far. Organisms indistinguishable from Blastocystis sp. were identified in the Giemsa stained intestinal scrapings collected from carcasses of piglet and poultry that were brought for necropsy to the Central University Laboratory, Chennai. The ‘central vacuole forms’ of the parasite, with number of nuclei ranging from 1 to 12 were identified. Th...

  17. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Ralph A.

    1984-06-01

    A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

  18. Celtis sp MICROPROPAGATION: CONTAMINATION AND OXIDATION CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Yoshiko Sato; Herly Carlos Teixeira Dias; Leonaldo Alves de Andrade; Vênia Camello de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Tissue culture presents great potential for the establishment of native species in vitro, which have economic-ecological importance. The Celtis sp or "juazeiro-de-bode" is a semi-arid plant from Northeastern Brazil used as forage during the long dry season. Not much is known about its reproduction, and the micropropagation may represent one alternative for its propagation. The oxidation and contamination are the main problems in establishment, in vitro, of any part of plants. For studying the...

  19. Oxidation of acyclic terpenoids by Corynebacterium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Y; Seo, C W; Okada, H.

    1985-01-01

    Squalene analogs such as lycopersene, geranylfarnesyl, digeranyl, and 2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene and terpene alcohol derivatives such as farnesyl benzyl ether, farnesyl pivalate, geranylgeranyl pivalate, geranyl pivalate, and geranyl benzyl ether were oxidized by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY-79, which was isolated from soil by using squalene as a carbon source. Lycopersene and geranylfarnesyl gave no major product. Digeranyl, geranyl benzyl ether, and geranyl pivalate gave terminal oxidat...

  20. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au3+ or Ag+, even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C0), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C0) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  1. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Kashman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays.

  2. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  3. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromate using permeabilized Brevibacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shimei; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao

    2015-07-01

    Bioremediation has been found to be a useful method for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is very toxic, from wastewater. Two strains of bacteria that were able to reduce Cr(VI) effectively were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil samples and identified as Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 could grow in Luria-Broth medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 1000 and 1600 mg/L, respectively, and they completely reduced the Cr(VI) in LB medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 200 mg/L within 72 h. Further analyses revealed that permeabilized K1 and D6 cells reduced Cr(VI) more effectively than did the resting cells. Triton X-100 was the best permeabilizing agent that was tested. The permeabilized cells of both strains could completely reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewater twice before needing to be replenished. The results suggested that these chromate-reducing bacteria are potential candidates for practical use biotreating industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) with Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 being the more effective bacterium. PMID:25881152

  4. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  5. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

  6. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Freshwater Microalga Scenedesmus sp. on Foodborne Pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Gogoba Ishaq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae possess promising bioactive compounds with a wide range of activities. In this study, crude pigment extract of Scenedesmus sp. a freshwater microalga was screened against two known foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028 to evaluate its antimicrobial properties. The crude pigment of the microalga was extracted with 90 % acetone whereas antibacterial screening was done by agar well diffusion method. In addition, the MIC of crude pigment was determined following the macrobroth dilution method. Concentrations ranging from 0.35mg/ml – 3.48 mg/ml demonstrated highest inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923.  The MIC was achieved at 0.08 mg/ ml. On the other hand, there was no inhibitory activity at any concentration of crude extract against Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028.  Results of this study suggest that the inhibitory activity may be limited to gram positive foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. PMID:22225994

  9. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Kunle Okaiyeto; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The ...

  10. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Ueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

  11. Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biofungisida Patogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyd. et Hans. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    NURI MANDAN SARI; RETNO KAWURI; KHAMDAN KHALIMI

    2014-01-01

    A research was conducted to isolate Streptomyces sp. of soil Udayana University campus in theBukit-Jimbaran, to obtain the most effective Streptomyces sp. which is effective in inhibit the growth ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and to test response of tomato plants with Streptomyces sp.culture against Fusarium wilt desease. Implementation phases of the research consisted of isolation andidentification of Streptomyces sp, test the inhibition against F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and ...

  12. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  13. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  14. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.M Moura; KUBITZA F.; CYRINO J. E. P.

    2000-01-01

    The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m³ hapas and fed ground fish fl...

  15. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution increased up to 55 mg uranium/g cell dry weight. Electron microscopy indicated that uranium accumulated intracellularly as needle-like fibrils. Uranium could be removed chemically from the cells, which could then be reused a a biosorbent. (orig.)

  16. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  17. Equity valuation : Pirelli & C. SpA

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino, André Rolhas

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has the purpose to value Pirelli & C. SpA at 31st of December of 2014. Pirelli is publicly traded in the Milan Stock Exchange, Borsa Italiana, and it is known as the fifth largest tyre manufacturer in the world with a great focus on high-end premium tyres. To valuate Pirelli’s equity a discounted cash flow methodology is used with an outcome of a 14,39 Euros price per share. To complete the valuation it is put in place a relative valuation, which supports the author’s recommendati...

  18. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Gama NMSQ; Berchieri Jr A; SA Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M) and one negative (I) flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmo...

  19. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  20. The SP theory of intelligence: benefits and applications

    OpenAIRE

    J. Gerard Wolff

    2013-01-01

    This article describes existing and expected benefits of the "SP theory of intelligence", and some potential applications. The theory aims to simplify and integrate ideas across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It combines conceptual simplicity with descriptive and explanatory power across several areas of computing and cognition. In the "SP machine" -- an expression of the SP theory which is c...

  1. Uji Pengaruh Beberapa Herbisida Terhadap Trichoderma sp Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Muhammad Majid: In Vitro Test on the Effect of Trichoderma sp Through Application of some Herbicides. Under Supervision ofHasanuddin and Mukhtar Iskandar Pinem. Herbicide is most commonly used pesticide, yet contained multiple negative effect on environment, especially towards soil microorganisms. This research’s objective is to study effect of herbicide with different concentration towards Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma sp has been inoculated in PDA which have been induced with six different...

  2. Smart machines and the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2014-01-01

    These notes describe how the "SP theory of intelligence", and its embodiment in the "SP machine", may help to realise cognitive computing, as described in the book "Smart Machines". In the SP system, information compression and a concept of "multiple alignment" are centre stage. The system is designed to integrate such things as unsupervised learning, pattern recognition, probabilistic reasoning, and more. It may help to overcome the problem of variety in big data, it may serve in pattern rec...

  3. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Herlina

    2013-01-01

    AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman) 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tan...

  4. Viability And Conidial Production Of Entomopathogenic Fungi Penicillium SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Nurariaty Agus; Annie P. Saranga; Ade Rosmana; Ade Sugiarti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Penicillium sp. order Eurotiales class Eurotiomycetes family Trichocomaceae is one of the entomopathogenic fungi that have the potential to be developed as biological control agent of pests.The study aims to determine the viability and spora production of Entomopathogenic fungi Penicillium sp. Experiments was conducted in Pests Identification and Biological Control laboratory Department of Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Hasanuddin University. The fungus Penicillium sp....

  5. The effects of acupressure points in SP6 and SP8 on primary dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Akbarzade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common disorders of women in reproductive age. In addition to physical and psychological disturbances, it may cause socioeconomic problems. The acupressure is a suggested treatments for dysmenorrhea. This study was conducted to identify and compare the effects of acupressure in Saninjo and DiJi points on pain severity of primary dysmenorrhea and systematic symptoms associated with it. Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial. 50 girls aged between 18 and 30 years old referred to an urban health center in Sar-e-Pol-e-Zahab city were selected. Subjects randomly allocated into two equal groups (A and B and were assessed over three consecutive menstrual cycles. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Validity and reliability determined by content validity and test retest methods respectively. Pain severity was assessed using McGill pain ruler. At the end, data from 42 women were used for analysis with SPSS package.Results: The severity of primary dysmenorrhea was 6.65±1.05 in SP6 and 6.84 ±1.9 in SP8 before acupressure and significantly decreased to 2.89±1.36 and 2.03±0.94 respectively after acupressure (P<0.001. Conclusion: We can conclude that dysmenorrhea pain decreased after acupressure and SP6 and SP8 points can be used as an urgent remedy to alleviate primary dysmenorrhea.

  6. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids.

  7. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  8. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  9. SP-100 fuel pin performance results from the SP-3RR irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the SP-100 Program is to verify and validate the design of a compact, fast-spectrum nuclear reactor capable of producing tens to hundreds of kilowatts of electrical power in support of a broad range of space applications. The heat source for thermoelectric power generation in the SP-100 reactor design is fuel pins using high-density uranium nitride (UN) fuel, a refractory alloy liner, and niobium-1 % zirconium (Nb-1Zr) alloy cladding. A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the SP-3RR fuel pin test and presents the first irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium liner material and UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 at.%

  10. Maize responds to Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp inoculation at reduced dose of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sánchez-Yáñez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The positive maize response to inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB as Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp an endophytic type, are an alternative to reduced and optimize nitrogen fertilizer (NF dose, recommended for this plant, without adversely affect its growth. The aim of this study was to analyze maize respond to inoculation with Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp at the dose 50% of FN. Used an experimental design of randomized blocks. By response variables: percent germination (%, the shoot and root phenology: plant height (PH, root length (RL and biomass: shoot fresh weight (SFW and root fresh weight (RFW, the shoot dry weight (SDW and root dry weight (RDW. The results indicated a positive maize respond to PGPB inoculation at germination, seedling and flowering level, reached a RDW of 7.03 g, statistically significant value compared with 2.60 g of RDW non inoculated maize feed with NF dose recommended regard as relative control (RC. This suggests a synergistic interaction among these PGPB in synthesis of plant growth promoting substances (PGPS on maize, to optimize the reduced NF dose.

  11. Auxiliary tensor fields for Sp(2,R) self-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Evgeny A; Zupnik, Boris M

    2014-01-01

    The coset Sp(2,R)/U(1) is parametrized by two real scalar fields. We generalize the formalism of auxiliary tensor (bispinor) fields in U(1) self-dual nonlinear models of abelian gauge fields to the case of Sp(2,R) self-duality. In this new formulation, Sp(2,R) duality of the nonlinear scalar-gauge equations of motion is equivalent to an Sp(2,R) invariance of the auxiliary interaction. We derive this result in two different ways, aiming at its further application to supersymmetric theories. We also consider an extension to interactions with higher derivatives.

  12. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

  13. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  14. Highly Prevalent Coxiella sp. Bacterium in the Tick Vector Amblyomma americanum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskas, Algimantas; Zhong, Jianmin; Barbour, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory-reared and field-collected Amblyomma americanum ticks were hosts of a Coxiella sp. and a Rickettsia sp. While the Coxiella sp. was detected in 50 of 50 field-collected ticks, the Rickettsia sp. was absent from 32% of ticks. The Coxiella sp. showed evidence of a reduced genome and may be an obligate endosymbiont.

  15. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  16. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  17. Potential topical natural repellent against Ae. aegypti, Culex sp. and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Hodijah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Minyak atsiri daun sirih diketahui mempunyai daya proteksi. Dibuatkan losion berdasarkan pengantar sediaan farmasi yang ditambahkan minyak atsiri daun nilam. Sediaan losion dipilih agar dapat menempel lebih lama di permukaan kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan daya proteksi antara losion dengan penambahan minyak nilam dan losion tanpa penambahan minyak nilam dibandingkan daya proteksi dengan DEET. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium. Semua nyamuk uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Konsentrasi minyak atsiri daun sirih dalam losion adalah 4%; konsentrasi minyak nilam sebagai zat pengikat adalah 0,4%. Formula yang digunakan yaitu formula dasar yang ada pada pengantar sediaan farmasi. Uji repelensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda yang direkomendasikan oleh Komisi pestisida.Hasil: Dihasilkan formulasi losion yang stabil dan masih memenuhi standar formulasi sediaan. Berdasarkan hasil, diperoleh data bahwa DEET dan losion hasil modifikasi memiliki rata-rata daya proteksi di atas 90% selama 6 jam terhadap nyamuk Ae.aegypti dan Culex sp. Kesimpulan: Penambahan minyak nilam pada losion sirih dapat meningkatkan daya proteksi terhadap hinggapan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Culex sp. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:44-8Kata kunci:repelen alamiah, minyak atsiri, daun sirih, daun nilam, Ae. aegypti, Culex sp.AbstractBackground: Betel leaf essential oil lotion has been known to have insect repellent properties. A lotion was made based on a pharmaceutical formula from a monograph where patchouli leaf essential oil was added. A lotion preparation was intended to enhance adherence of the formula on the surface of the skin. The purpose of this study was to compare protection percentage of lotion with patchouli oil and without patchouli oil lotion compared to DEET.Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory-based research. All mosquitoes

  18. Pneumonitis and emphysema in sp-C gene targeted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Stephan W; Detmer, Emily A; Ikegami, Machiko; Na, Cheng-Lun; Stahlman, Mildred T; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2003-04-18

    SP-C-deficient (SP-C -/-) mice developed a severe pulmonary disorder associated with emphysema, monocytic infiltrates, epithelial cell dysplasia, and atypical accumulations of intracellular lipids in type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Whereas alveolar and tissue surfactant phospholipid pools were increased, levels of other surfactant proteins were not altered (SP-B) or were modestly increased (SP-A and SP-D). Analysis of pressure-volume curves and forced oscillatory dynamics demonstrated abnormal respiratory mechanics typical of emphysema. Lung disease was progressive, causing weight loss and cardiomegaly. Extensive alveolar remodeling was accompanied by type II cell hyperplasia, obliteration of pulmonary capillaries, and widespread expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating myofibroblast transformation in the lung parenchyma. Dysplastic epithelial cells lining conducting airways stained intensely for the mucin, MUC5A/C. Tissue concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were not substantially altered in the SP-C (-/-) mice. Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was increased in alveolar macrophages from SP-C (-/-) mice. Absence of SP-C caused a severe progressive pulmonary disorder with histologic features consistent with interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:12519727

  19. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna;

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition of...

  20. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. from the southwestern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Nel, Jacques; Fournier, François;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. is described from the southwestern Alps (France, Italy). It is closely related to M. nomadella (Zeller, 1868), with which it was hitherto confused. Literature records of M. nomadella from France and northwestern Italy refer to M. bronzella sp. n. The two speci...

  1. SP Monitoring of Intermittent Flow Through Covered-Karst Sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    A year of continuous SP (self-potential) monitoring was combined with high-resolution 3-D GPR surveys and intermittent water table monitoring over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. SP readings were logged over ~30 electrodes at 2-minute intervals. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Three distinct SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: fast flow through the conduit to the underlying aquifer, slow flow to the confining layer through the collapse conduit walls, and a conduit plugged high enough to behave like the rest of the confining layer. SP responses after rain events appear to measure the effects of two wetting front curves, one striking the monitoring electrode, one the reference. By comparing curve shapes for all possible pairs of electrodes, it may be possible to establish surficial infiltration and flow patterns. SP is also strongly affected by soil conductivity, rainfall history, and cultural noise. Further concurrent study of moisture content and SP with a suite of reference electrodes placed in various topographic, vegetative, geologic, and climatic settings will help distinguish groundwater flow from other sources affecting SP measurements.

  2. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  3. Thermoelectric electromagnetic pump design for SP-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of the Thermoelectric Electromagnetic (TEM) pump used in the SP-100 space power system. The TEM pump is designed to pump liquid (molten) lithium (Li) coolant in the Primary Heat Transport Subsystem (PHTS) and Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRSS). The pump utilizes advanced Thermoelectric (TE) cells to generate electric current that induces magnetic flux in a Z-shaped magnetic structure. The electric current and magnetic flux pass through the liquid Li perpendicular to each other to create the pumping force. The TE cells are semiconductors located between rectangular ducts connected to the reactor hot PHTS piping and the cooler HRSS piping. The temperature difference (ΔT) across the TE cells generates the voltage to power the pump. The design provides a minimum mass, self-regulated pump, with no moving parts and self-powered by an internal temperature gradient

  4. Meroterpenoids from a Tropical Dysidea sp. Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kwon; Woo, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Cho, Eunji; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-11-25

    Six new meroterpenoids (1-6), along with arenarol (7), a known rearranged drimane sesquiterpene hydroquinone, were isolated from a Dysidea sp. sponge collected from the Federated States of Micronesia. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analysis, compound 1 was determined to be the cyclic ether derivative of 7, whereas 2 and 3 were assigned as the corresponding sesquiterpene quinones containing taurine-derived substituents. Compounds 4-6 possess a novel tetracyclic skeleton formed by a direct linkage between the quinone and sesquiterpene moieties. The configurations of these new compounds were assigned on the basis of combined NOESY and ECD analysis. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26551342

  5. Digitization of Sp\\"orer's sunspot drawings

    CERN Document Server

    Diercke, Andrea; Denker, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Much of our knowledge about the solar dynamo is based on sunspot observations. It is thus desirable to extend the set of positional and morphological data of sunspots into the past. Gustav Sp\\"orer observed in Germany from Anklam (1861-1873) and Potsdam (1874-1894). He left detailed prints of sunspot groups, which we digitized and processed to mitigate artifacts left in the print by the passage of time. After careful geometrical correction, the sunspot data are now available as synoptic charts for almost 450 solar rotation periods. Individual sunspot positions can thus be precisely determined and spot areas can be accurately measured using morphological image processing techniques. These methods also allow us to determine tilt angles of active regions (Joy's law) and to assess the complexity of an active region.

  6. SP-100 Control Drive Assembly Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The Control Drive Assemblies are the only active components in the entire SP-100 system. Consequently, the design challenges dealing with self-welding, wear, and misalignment in the high temperature and high radiation environment are significant. Because of the harsh environment, it has been necessary to test a variety of materials for such components as bearings, electromagnetic coils, clutches, brakes, and gears. The current Control Drive Assembly technology status is adequate for the 20-KWe design with a five-year life, but has not yet been completely demonstrated for the 100-KWe design with a full ten-year life. The difference in technology status for the 20-KWe and 100-KWe designs is due to the shorter lifetime requirement of the 20-KWe system.

  7. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrezza B.S. Silva; Thais M.V. Santos; Maria Acelina M. Carvalho; Paulo S.L. Guerra; Marcia S. Rizzo; Waldilleny R. Araújo; Cristiane B.B. Torres; Airton M. Conde Junior

    2014-01-01

    A cutia (Dasyprocta sp.) é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglu...

  8. Post-neonatal drop in alveolar SP-A expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Vege, Ashild; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is synthesized in the lung and is a part of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SP-A in lung tissue from fetuses, infants, children and adults with special regard to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A...... infants aged between 1 week and 5 months. Infants aged >5 months had abundant SP-A expression corresponding to older children and adults. There was no difference in the age distribution between cases of SIDS and explained deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent drop in SP-A expression takes place in the first...... total of 160 cases were studied; 19 fetuses and neonates, 59 SIDS and 49 explained infant deaths below 1 year of age, 19 toddlers and 14 adults. Immunohistochemical detection of SP-A using monoclonal antibodies was performed by microscopy of lung tissue specimens collected at autopsy. A scoring system...

  9. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães; Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves; Glycia Ferreira de Rezende; Marcelo Costa Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de ...

  10. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T). PMID:26552374

  11. Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules and Bioemulsifiers from Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia sp. Isolates Growing on Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Laís Postai; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-03-01

    A Burkholderia and Pseudomonas species designated as AB4 and AS1, respectively, were isolated from soil containing decomposing straw or sugar cane bagasse collected from Brazil. This study sought to evaluate the capacities of culture media, cell-free medium, and crude lysate preparations (containing PHB inclusion bodies) from bacterial cell cultures to stabilize emulsions with several hydrophobic compounds. Four conditions showed good production of bioemulsifiers (E24 ≥ 50 %), headed by substantially cell-free media from bacterial cell cultures in which bacterial isolates from Burkholderia sp. strain AB4 and Pseudomonas sp. strain AS1 were grown. Our results revealed that the both isolates (AB4 and AS1 strains) exhibited high emulsification indices (indicating usefulness in bioremediation) and good stabilities. PMID:26578147

  12. Murine fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells lacking SP phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; YiXin; HE; ZhiYing; ZHU; HaiYing; CHEN; XueSong; LI; JianXiu; ZHANG; HongXia; PAN; XingHua

    2007-01-01

    In the field of stem cell research, SP (side population) phenotype is used to define the property that cells maintain a high efflux capability for some fluorescent dye, such as Hoechst 33342. Recently, many researches proposed that SP phenotype is a phenotype shared by some stem cells and some progenitor cells, and that SP phenotype is regarded as a candidate purification marker for stem cells. In this research, murine fertilized ova (including conjugate and single nucleus fertilized ova), 2-cell stage and 8-cell stage blastomeres, morulas and blastocysts were isolated and directly stained by Hoechst 33342 dye. The results show that fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells do not demonstrate any ability to efflux the dye. However, the inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst exhibit SP phenotype, which is consistent with the result of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. These results indicate that the SP phenotype of ICM-derived ESCs is an intrinsic property and independent of the culture condition in vitro, and that SP phenotype is one of the characteristics of at least some pluripotent stem cells, but is not shared by totipotent stem cells. In addition, the result that the SP phenotype of ICM cells disappeared when the inhibitor verapamil was added into medium implies that the SP phenotype is directly associated with ABCG2. These results suggest that not all the stem cells demonstrate SP phenotype, and that SP phenotype might act as a purification marker for partial stem cells such as some pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent adult stem cells, but not for all stem cells exampled by the totipotent stem cells in the very early stage of mouse embryos.

  13. Carotenoid Contents in Anoxygenic Phototrophic Purple Bacteria, Marichromatium Sp. and Rhodopseudomonas Sp. of Tropical Environment, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaima Azira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids have shown extensive applications in pharmaceutical, aquaculture and animal feed industries. Recently, researchers have been studied on their potentiality for the health benefits in reducing the risk of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on above perspectives a study was conducted in tropical environment to evaluate the total carotenoid content, dry cell weight and bacteriochlorophyll type of phototrophic purple bacteria;Marichromatium sp. and Rhodopseudomonas sp. The bacteria Marichromatium sp. was isolated from the mangrove sediments, Kuantan Pahang. While, Rhodopseudomonas sp. was collected from fish rearing tanks INOCEM, IIUM. The bacteria were cultivated and monitored by using 112 media under anaerobic light conditions at 2500-lux light intensity of continuous illumination of 60-watt tungsten bulb at 30±2°C. Total carotenoid contents and dry cell weight of the bacterial cells were compared from day 0 to day 5 using UV-VIS spectrometer. Bacteriochlorophyll type was also determined using UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that isolate IIUM-JHR2 produced the highest total carotenoid content (4.08±2.21mg/g at day 3 while IIUM-JHM1produced the highest dry cell weight (3.83±1.57 g/L at day 2. Statistical analysis showed significance differences (p0.05 detected for total carotenoid contents among the species. However, live cell cultures exhibited absorption maxima at 382, 495.5, 524, 591, 806 and 864 nm in all isolates indicating the presence of bacteriochlorophylla and carotenoids belonging to the spirilloxanthin series. The finding reveals that these bacteria could be utilized in aquaculture as fish feed supplement to enhance growth, survival and coloration of cultured fishes. Furthermore, they can play significant role as potential elements towards food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Plant growth promoting potential of pseudomonas sp. SP0113 isolated from potable water from a closed water well

    OpenAIRE

    Przemieniecki Wojciech Sebastian; Kurowski Paweł Tomasz; Karwowska Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. SP0113 strain from a partially closed aquatic environment was identified as a plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB). Laboratory tests revealed that PS0113 has multiple plant growth promoting traits, including mineral phosphate solubilizing ability, ammonifying ability that increases nitrogen availability for plants via the root system, and phosphatase activity that plays an important role in organic phosphorus mineralization. Tricalciu...

  15. Life cycle and secondary production of two mayflies Leptophlebia sp. And Ephemera sp. In Heizhuchong stream, Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoyu; YAN Yunjun

    2008-01-01

    From June 2003 to June 2004,an investigation on the life cycle,production and trophic basis of dominant species of macrozoobenthos community in a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin,Hubei,China was carried out.The results showed that the dominant species Leptophlebia sp.and Ephemera sp.appeared to develop two generations per year,and there was a small overlap in the two generations of both species.The pupation of Leptophlebia sp.mainly occurred in autumn and winter,while pupation of Ephemera sp.mainly took place in summer and winter.The standing stocks of the Leptophlebia sp.population and Ephemera sp.population had two peaks in a year.The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Leptophlebia sp.population estimated by size frequency method were 19.018 1 g/m2.a and 5.7 respectively,while its annual production and P/B ratio were 38.036 2 g/m2.a and 11.4.The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Ephemera sp.population were 38.015 9 g/m2.a and 5.9,while its annual production and P/B ratio were 76.0318 g/m2.a and 11.8.

  16. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  17. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  18. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  19. Efecto de la coinmovilización de la microalga Chlorella sorokiniana con la bacteria promotora de crecimiento vegetal Azospirillum brasilense, en el crecimiento poblacional microalgal y capacidad de remoción de amonio como uso potencial en el tratamiento..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillot Monroy Gabriel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrollaron dos experimentos de coinmovilización de la microalga Chlorella sorokiniana con la bacteria promotora
    de crecimiento vegetal (PGPB Azospirillum brasilense en esferas de alginato, para evaluar la influencia de la bacteria en el crecimiento poblacional y en la capacidad de remoción de amonio de la microalga; con el fin de establecer el potencial que pueda tener la coinmovilización de estos microorganismos en el tratamiento terciario de aguas residuales. Los resultados revelan un significativo incremento de la población cuando C.
    sorokiniana es coinmovilizada con A. brasilense, aunque no se observó un efecto significativo en la remoción de amonio. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente trabajo, reflejan la importancia de avanzar en el estudio de un sistema coinmovilizado altamente eficiente para ser utilizado en tratamiento de aguas residuales. La coinmovilización
    de C. sorokiniana con A. brasilense, muestra la habilidad de esta bacteria para influir de manera positiva en el crecimiento y fisiología de la microalga y por lo tanto la remoción de amonio puede ser incrementada.

  20. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOURA M. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp. is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m³ hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF. One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.. Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%ª compared to 11.6%ª (p < 0.05 for diets without krill meal. A second experiment was set up with 969, 1.5 g fish, trained with GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00 using three diet sequences: 1 dry pellets; 2 moist pellets; and 3 dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%ª, 23.6%ª, and 24.7%ª (p < 0.05 fish feeding on GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success.

  1. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira; Cláudia Helena Cysneiros Matos; Eduardo Hatano

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control o...

  2. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Aditama

    2015-05-01

    places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

  3. Aspectos reproductivos del cladocero Moinodaphnia sp. en condiciones de laboratorio.

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto G., Martha

    2001-01-01

    Realizar un cultivo experimental de cladócero Moina sp alimentado con Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepa de cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (22°C), pH (7.6), intensidad lumínica (2000 lux) y aireación. Se emplearon dos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseae) en concentrac...

  4. Microfibril-associated Protein 4 Binds to Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) and Colocalizes with SP-A in the Extracellular Matrix of the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlosser, Anders; Thomsen, Theresa H.; Shipley, J. Michael;

    2006-01-01

    seen to recombinant SP-A composed of the neck region and carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A indicating that the interaction between MFAP4 and SP-A is mediated via the collagen domain of SP-A. Monoclonal antibodies directed against MFAP4 and SP-A were used for immunohistochemical analysis, which......Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an oligomeric collectin that recognizes lipid and carbohydrate moieties present on broad range of micro-organisms, and mediates microbial lysis and clearance. SP-A also modulates multiple immune-related functions including cytokine production and chemotaxis...... recombinant MFAP4 with a molecular mass of 36 and 66 kDa in the reduced and unreduced states respectively. Gel filtration chromatography and chemical crosslinking showed that MFAP4 forms oligomers of four dimers. We demonstrated calcium-dependent binding between MFAP4 and human SP-A1 and SP-A2. No binding was...

  5. Description of Pristina armata n. sp. (Clitellata: Naididae: Pristininae) from a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes sp.) in Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenková, Jana; Čermák, Václav

    2013-01-01

    A new clitellate species of Pristininae (Naididae), Pristina armata n. sp., found in the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes sp., is reported from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. P. armata n. sp. is a very small clitellate, less than 1 mm long in fixed state, and without proboscis on the prostomium. Signs of reproduction by paratomy were observed, but the generic placement remains preliminary because sexually mature individuals were not found. P. armata n. sp. is characterized by giant hook-like dorsal chaetae at IV. The description of P. armata n. sp. was based on six fixed specimens of different size and stage of development. Noteworthy is the habitat of P. armata n. sp. in Nepenthes pitchers, this being the first clitellate species described from such a habitat. P. armata n. sp. may be a member of the nepenthebionts' community, realizing its life cycle inside the digestive fluid of the Nepenthes pitcher, or it belongs to nepenthephiles, species that commonly occur in this habitat but do not specialize on it. PMID:26473244

  6. Application of SP2 and the spatially continuous SP2-P1 equations to the PBMR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is nearing realisation and interest in improvements to modeling methods of HTR reactor designs are growing in momentum. Recent efforts in formulating PBMR-type benchmark problems yielded some standard for evaluating different approaches to such core problems. The Simplified P2 approximation has been shown to improve upon diffusion results in core problems where diffusion is of reasonable accuracy. It can thus be expected that a scattering dominated core such as the PBMR could benefit from such an approach. SP2 does however exhibit unpleasing discontinuous fluxes at material interfaces, and Brantley has proposed to remedy this situation with a SP2-P1 hybrid calculation, using the improved SP2 solution away from material interfaces, and regular P1 near and on material boundaries. In this paper, we develop a 3-dimensional cylindrical multigroup implementation of SP2 and SP2-P1. We apply these methods to the PBMR benchmark, using as reference a S8 transport calculation. Results indicate that the PBMR is highly diffusive in nature, and that diffusion is (for a fixed cross section problem) within 1000 pcm of transport. SP2 and SP2-P1 marginally improve upon this result, but may be applicable for flux solutions near non-diffusive boundaries. (authors)

  7. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils. PMID:23775888

  8. Cultivo experimental de Tigriopus sp. (Copepoda: Harpacticoidea Experimental culture of Tigriopus sp. (Copepoda: Harpacticoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Tigriopus sp. es un copépodo de pozas intennareales de la IV Región (Chile, de hábitos bento-pelágicos y muy resistente a cambios de temperatura, salinidad y contenido de oxígeno disuelto. Entre otras, estas características han despertado el interés por estudiar la factibilidad biológica del cultivo de esta especie, a fin de alimentar larvas de peces y crustáceos de interés comercial, con un alimento vivo que se encuentre en su dieta natural. En el presente estudio se entregan los resultados obtenidos en el cultivo experimental de esta especie, referidos a crecimiento poblacional, fecundidad, estado de desarrollo, alimentación, temperatura y salinidad. El mayor crecimiento se logró con la combinación de 21ºC de temperatura, 26%o de salinidad y un alimento de mezcla en iguales proporciones de Nannochloris sp. (microalga y Saccharomyces sp. (levadura. Se determinó que las hembras portan un promedio de 24 huevos, independiente de la talla y la camada. No hay mortalidad en la etapa de eclosión, por lo que se generaron tantos nauplios como huevos producidos. El tiempo de aparición de huevos desde el momento de la cópula fue dependiente de la temperatura, así como también la velocidad de desarrollo de las diferentes fases, apareciendo los copepoditos I a los 6-7 días después de la eclosión y los adultos aproximadamente a los 17 díasTigriopus sp. is a copepod inhabiting intertidal pools in the IV Region (Chile, with bentho-pelagic behaviour and very resistant to changes in temperature, salinity and oxygen contents. These characteristics lead to the interest in studying the biological feasability of cultivation of this species to use it as nonnal food for larval fish and crustacean of commercial interest. This study gives information about the biology of this species, mainly related with growth, development, feeding, fecundity and some limiting enviromental factors (temperature and salinity. According to this, the best population

  9. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (Ocotea sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (>Ocotea sp.). In order to do this, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments in a factorial array of 3 x 2 and five repetitions. The treatments involved a combination of three Phosphorus (P) levels in soil solution (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg L-1) and two levels of mycorrhizal inoculation, either inoculated or non-inoculated with Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith. The leaf P content as a function of time was used as an output variable. Shoot dry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, and mycorrhizal dependence were measured at harvest. The results indicated that the leaf P content increased significantly when using the mycorrhizal inoculation in laurel at P level 0.2 mg L -1, but not in the other P levels, on some of the sampling days. Shoot dry weight and total plant P content did not increase at all levels of soil available P. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel reached 28%, which allows this species to be classified as moderately dependent on mycorrhiza.

  10. SP-100 thermoelectric cell testing at JPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three prototypic SP-100 thermoelectric cells, fabricated by Martin Marietta Astro Space in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, were tested in vacuum at prototypic temperatures at JPL. Their thermal and electrical performance were characterized with 200 C, 300 C, 400 C, and 500 C temperature gradients across the cell. The latter was representative of prototypic operating conditions with a 1,050 C hot side temperature and a 550 C cold side temperature. The initial thermal and electrical performance of all three cells closely matched predictions. Following the characterization testing, the cells were put on an extended life test at the prototypic temperatures, in order to determine any significant degradation modes of the cell. Throughout this test, the thermal performance of the cells were nearly identical to predictions. This test, also, confirmed earlier suspicions that the hot side silicon-germanium to electrode interface would degrade without some significant protective coating at the bond line. Because of resource limitations and early development problems with this coating, the necessary protective layers had not yet been fully developed at the time this generation of cells was manufactured. Subsequent to these tests, accelerated experiments with coupons, having a protective coating applied, have demonstrated the equivalent of 11 to 13 years of operation without any apparent degradation. Four new cells are being fabricated with this technology, two of which will be tested at JPL

  11. Accomplishments and plans of SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SP-100 program is proceeding toward concept definitions for a space nuclear reactor which is safe and suitable for civilian and military applications. The selection of a specific design and demonstration of the base technologies was scheduled for the end of 1985, to be followed by engineering development and ground testing in 1986. The main current uses/users thus far anticipated are communications satellites, both military and civilian, radar (and possibly laser) surveillance and remote sensing systems, and manufacturing and other extensions of a space station growth scenario. The reactor will weigh no more than 3000 kg and must fit into the Orbiter bay with a payload and OTV. Three concepts are still under evaluation: a lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics; an in-core thermionic system with pumped sodium-potassium coolant; and a configuration with a Stirling engine to convert reactor heat into electricity. If the engineering analyses and base tests are successful, it is expected that the flight application phase can be reached by 1991 at the latest

  12. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI. These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using the squash method and Giemsa staining. The chromosome number 2n=2x=24 was verified for each of the four species. Chromosomal polymorphisms were observed for the C. frutencens accession BGC 37, which presented 12 pairs of metacentric chromosomes instead of 11 pairs of metacentric chromosomes and 1 submetacentric chromosome pair present in other accessions. In the accessions BGC 01 and BGC 37, secondary constrictions were observed in the 1 and 12 as well as in the 6 and 11 homologs, respectively. The karyotypes of the studied species were asymmetrical among themselves. The results obtained in this study confirm the high genetic diversity previously described in the literature for this genus.

  13. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)). PMID:25726422

  14. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T). PMID:25969476

  15. Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zenghu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain SW230(T), was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from the South Pacific Gyre. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SW230(T) shared highest similarity with members of the genus Dokdonia (95.0-94.5%), exhibiting 95.0% sequence similarity to Dokdonia genika NBRC 100811(T). Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 8.0 and at 28 °C. The DNA G+C content of strain SW230(T) was 36 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, strain SW230(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW230(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12184(T) = JCM 18216(T)). PMID:25862384

  16. Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov., from chicken intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takao; Arihara, Keizo; Ikeda, Ami; Nomura, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Ohori, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    Four strains isolated from chicken small intestine and strains JCM 1038 and JCM 1039 (designated as Lactobacillus acidophilus) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. These strains had similar phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intergroup DNA relatedness values of >77 %, indicating that they comprised a single species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain, JCM 1039(T) (designated as type strain in this study), was determined and aligned with those of other Lactobacillus species. JCM 1039(T) was placed in the Lactobacillus delbrueckii cluster of the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and formed an independent cluster that was distinct from its closest neighbours, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and whole-cell protein profiles clearly indicated that these strains represent a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of this species is JCM 1039(T). PMID:14657145

  17. Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Faria, Cátia; Lopes, Ana R; Svensson, Liselott; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Ferreira, António C Silva; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2009-12-01

    Strain VC-230(T) was isolated from homemade vermicompost produced from kitchen waste. The isolate was a Gram-negative-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod-shaped bacterium able to grow at 15-37 degrees C and pH 6-8. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain VC-230(T) was determined to belong to the family Sphingomonadaceae by its clustering with type strains of the genus Sphingobium, with Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 33790(T) (97.7 %) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans DSM 11019(T) (97.4 %) as its closest neighbours. The polar lipid pattern, the presence of spermidine and ubiquinone 10, the predominance of the cellular fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c/9t/12t, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Sphingobium. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses verify that strain VC-230(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VC-230(T) (=CCUG 55809(T) =DSM 21299(T)). PMID:19643879

  18. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

  19. LEGACY - EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  20. Volvatellin, caulerpenyne-related product fromt he sacoglossan Volvatella sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A.; Ciavatta, M.L.; Mollo, E.; Naik, C.G.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Cimino, G.

    Volvatellin (4) is a highly unstable terpene isolated from the extracts of the Indian opisthobranch mollusk Volvatella sp. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of 4 were determined by NMR methods. The paper also describes a hypothetical...

  1. Medical management of suspected Paecilomyces sp. deep keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Lee; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman developed a deep keratitis presenting with an endothelial plaque without overlying stromal involvement. Owing to the characteristic clinical appearance, she was provisionally diagnosed with a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Corneal scrapings and aqueous humour samples were culture negative. The difficulties in diagnosing Paecilomyces sp. keratitis are discussed. The patient's keratitis was managed with a combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole. This medical management strategy was successful in achieving good infection control and visual outcome. We report a rarely encountered presentation of keratitis in which the clinical appearance and response to voriconazole are highly suggestive evidence of a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. We believe the combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole represents a novel treatment approach for Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Our case supports the potential for a medical approach as initial treatment in this otherwise devastating form of oculomycosis. PMID:26135494

  2. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  3. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

  4. Massarina armatispora sp. nov., a new intertidal ascomycete from mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hyde, K.D.; Vrijmoed, L.L.P.; Chinnaraj, S.; Jones, E.B.G.

    Massarina armatispora sp. nov. is described from dead intertidal mangrove wood collected in India and Hong Kong. The new taxon is compared with other M. species, and its placement in the genus Massarina is discussed...

  5. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  6. SP-100 multimegawatt scaleup to meet electric propulsion mission requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SP-100 space power nuclear reactor nuclear heat source technology, utilizing uranium nitride fuel clad in PWC-11 in a fast reactor with lithium coolant circulated by an electromagnetic pump, is shown in this paper to be directly extrapolatable to thermal power levels that meet NASA nuclear electric propulsion requirements using different power conversion techniques. The SP-100 nuclear technology can be applied for missions with NEP requirements as low as 10's of kWe to 10's of MWe

  7. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Gray, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410). This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926) collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000. PMID:26697332

  8. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, G S; Garbow, J.R.; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bact...

  9. Sp1 and p73 activate PUMA following serum starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Lihua; Sakaida, Tsukasa; Yue, Wen; Jha, Anupma; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2008-01-01

    p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) plays an essential role in p53-dependent apoptosis following DNA damage. PUMA also mediates apoptosis independent of p53. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of PUMA induction in response to serum starvation in p53-deficient cancer cells. Following serum starvation, the binding of Sp1 to the PUMA promoter significantly increased, whereas inhibition of Sp1 completely abrogated PUMA induction. p73 was found to be upregulated by ser...

  10. Sarcocystis sp. in the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, M; Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1982-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100 of 185 (54.1%) Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) examined in Pennsylvania over a three year period. Gross and histologic examination commonly revealed cysts in skeletal muscle of the fore and hind legs, flanks and loins. Two rabbits had cysts in esophageal skeletal muscle. Host response to Sarcocystis sp. is described. Adult rabbits had a significantly greater rate of infection (69.3%) than juveniles (20.7%) (P less than 0.01). PMID:6808158

  11. KARAKTERISTIK HISTOPATOLOGI HEPAR TIKUS GOT Rattus norvegicus INFEKTIF Leptospira sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Mulyono; Ristiyanto -; Noor Soesanti H

    2011-01-01

    ENGLISHThe research on the histological structure of Rattus tanezumi hepar infected by Leptospira sp. was conducted. The purpose of this research was to determine the change of hepar tissue structure of R. tanezumi due to the patogenicity of Leptospira sp. bacteria. The research was done in Miroto, Central Semarang District, Semarang Municipality. R. tanezumi were caught and their hepar were taken, then histological preparat were made using paraffin and HE coloring method. The data was collec...

  12. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  13. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    OpenAIRE

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative age...

  14. The physical content of the Sp(1,R) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse the properties of the Sp(1,R) model states using a basis obtained from the deformed harmonic oscillator wave functions. We make an Sp(1,R) calculation for 12C and consider bases obtained from oblate, triaxial and prolate intrinsic states. The deformed basis is obtained by angular momentum projection of vibration phonons, which are associated with giant monopole and quadrupole resonances. (author)

  15. Pengaruh Periode Subkultur Terhadap Mikropropagasi Puar Tenangau (Elettariopsis sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jumroh, Putri Hasanah

    2014-01-01

    Putri Hasanah Jumroh : The Influence of Sub Culture Period on Micropropagation of Puar Tenangau (Elettariopsis sp.), supervised by Luthfi A. M. Siregar and Syafruddin Ilyas. The research aimed to determine the appropriate sub culture period to obtain the micropropagation of Puar Tenangau (Elettariopsis sp.) the best as plantlets. The research was carried out in Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumat...

  16. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified

  17. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera. PMID:26732137

  18. Three new Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides): Culicoides boyi sp. nov., Culicoides selandicus sp. nov. and Culicoides kalix sp. nov. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Michael; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background In the context of a major monitoring program of Culicoides in Denmark and Sweden due to the appearance of bluetongue disease in 2007–2008, a large number of specimens were collected by light traps and sorted morphologically, with COI barcodes generated for selected specimens. New information Three species are described as new to science based on both morphological and molecular data: Culicoides (Culicoides) boyi sp. nov. (Denmark: Jutland), C. (C.) selandicus sp. nov. (Denmark: Zealand) and C. (C.) kalix sp. nov. (Sweden: Norrbotten). All are diagnosed morphologically as well as by molecular barcoding. A key to slide-mounted females of all Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides) is presented. PMID:26696760

  19. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  20. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Timlin, John D; Richards, Gordon T; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L; Stone, Robert B; Bauer, Franz E; Brandt, W N; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D; Schneider, Donald P; Urry, C Megan; Wollack, Edward J; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of 115 deg^2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its 'warm' mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5{\\sigma} depths of 6.13 {\\mu}Jy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 {\\mu}Jy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively - depths significantly fainter than WISE. We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically-confirmed quasars (98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > 3.5), where SpIES reco...

  1. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2014-12-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid libraries using degenerate probes that harbor highly conserved sequences from the Sphigomonas elodea-derived crtI and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120-dervied crtW genes. Selected positive gene clusters were fully sequenced and annotated, revealing genes encoding six putative carotenogenic enzymes: phytoene synthase (CrtB), phytoene desaturase (CrtI), lycopene cyclase (CrtY), carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ), carotene ketolase (CrtW), and glycosyltransferase (CrtX). All of the carotenogenic enzymes, except for CrtX, were functional in the recombinant host Escherichia coli expressing synthetic carotenogenic modules from Pantoea agglomerans. CrtX did not take up UDP-glucose or GDP-fucose as sugar substrates during the in vitro reaction. Although no direct experimental evidence was obtained for the function of Sphingomonas sp. PB304 CrtX, it can be categorized as a putative deoxyglycosyltransferase based on the presence of astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, a putative corresponding gene in the carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster, and high amino acid sequence homology to the existing glycosyltransferases. Therefore, we propose that astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside can be synthesized in Sphingomonas sp. PB304 via sequential reactions of six pathway enzymes, including CrtX on the phytoene intermediate. PMID:25193422

  2. GLUT1 glucose transporter gene transcription is repressed by Sp3. Evidence for a regulatory role of Sp3 during myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandos, C; Sánchez-Feutrie, M; Santalucía, T; Viñals, F; Cadefau, J; Gumà, A; Cussó, R; Kaliman, P; Canicio, J; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1999-11-19

    GLUT1 glucose transporters are highly expressed in proliferating and transformed cells as well as in tissues during fetal life. However, the mechanisms that regulate GLUT1 gene expression remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Sp3 proteins bind to the GLUT1 proximal promoter gene and inhibit transcriptional activity in muscle and non-muscle cells. Two different Sp3 translational products (110 and 74 kDa) derived from differential translational initiation were detected in nuclear extracts from myoblast cells, and both Sp3 protein species inhibited GLUT1 gene transcriptional activity. The inhibitory effect of Sp3 was dominant over the stimulatory effect of Sp1 on transcriptional activity of GLUT1 gene. Furthermore, abolition of Sp3 binding to the proximal promoter of GLUT1 gene completely blocked the response to Sp3. We provide evidence that the expression of Sp3 protein is subject to regulation in muscle cells and that this is likely to control GLUT1. Thus, Sp3 protein was up-regulated in the absence of changes in Sp1 early after the induction of IGF-II-dependent myogenesis. Furthermore, forced over-expression of MyoD caused an enhancement in the cellular Sp3/Sp1 ratio which was concomitant to a reduced GLUT1 expression. Later during myogenesis, Sp3 expression was substantial whereas Sp1 was markedly down-regulated. In summary, we provide direct evidence that the transcription factor Sp3 represses gene expression in non-muscle and muscle cells and this is likely to operate in fetal heart by binding to the GLUT1 gene promoter. This is the first description of a repressor of GLUT1 gene transcription. Furthermore, we propose that variations in the ratio of Sp3 versus Sp1 regulate GLUT1 promoter activity and this is crucial in the down-regulation of GLUT1 associated to myogenesis. PMID:10556032

  3. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis. PMID:25398907

  4. [Purification and physico-chemical properties of Streptomyces sp. 1349 collagenase and Streptomyces sp. 1382 keratinase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanko, O V; Varbanets', L D

    2004-01-01

    The schemes of isolation and purification of collagenolytic enzymes of Streptomyces sp. 1349 and keratinolyte enzymes of Streptomyces sp. 1382, which include fractionation by ammonium sulphate separation on TSK-gels: ion-exchange chromatography on Toyopearl DEAE-650(M) and gel-filtration on Toyopearl HW-50, as well as highly efficient liquid chromatography. The purified enzyme preparations proved to be proteases of serine type (collagenase 2 and keratinases) as well as metalloproteases (collagenases 1 and 3). It has seen established that collagenases are enzymes of broad specificity, which are active in respect of proteins of both globular and fibrillar nature. And vice versa, keratinases are proteolytic enzymes of narrow specificity which hydrolyze native keratin. Molecular masses of purified enzyme preparations, from the data of SDS-PAAG are approximately 30-40 kDa (collagenases 1-3) and about 15-20 kDa (keratinases 1 and 2). It is shown that the charged aminoacid residues (about 85%) prevail in enzyme molecules. The enzymes are distinguished by pH- and thermooptima. PMID:15208850

  5. Geobacter bremensis sp. nov. and Geobacter pelophilus sp. nov., two dissimilatory ferric-iron-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K L; Buchholz-Cleven, B E

    2001-09-01

    Two strictly anaerobic, dissimilatory ferric-iron-reducing bacteria, strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T, were isolated from freshwater mud samples with ferrihydrite as electron acceptor. Both strains also grew by reducing Mn(IV), S0 and fumarate. Electron donors used by strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T for growth with ferric iron as electron acceptor included hydrogen, formate, acetate, pyruvate, succinate, fumarate and ethanol. An affiliation with the family Geobacteraceae was revealed by comparative analysis of 165 rRNA gene sequences. Strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T shared 92.5% sequence identity and their closest known relative was Geobacter sulfurreducens, with approximately 93% sequence identity. Cultures and colonies of strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T were intensely red in colour, due to the presence of c-type cytochromes. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic data, strain Dfr1T (= DSM 12179T = OCM 796T) is described as Geobacter bremensis sp. nov. and strain Dfr2T (= DSM 12255T = OCM 797T) as Geobacter pelophilus sp. nov. PMID:11594612

  6. Novel application of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Anshu

    2012-10-01

    The present study explored the utilization of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, a major non-timber forest product (NTFP) of India, as a low-cost, natural substrate for protease production under submerged fermentation. Bacterial strain Aeromonas sp. Si1, previously reported by us, was used as the protease producer. Using Mahua flower extract (MFE) as the medium additive, the protease production could successfully be enhanced by 5.6-fold (564.5 UmL-1) after 24 h of fermentation under optimized conditions compared with initial production of 99.9 UmL' in the absence of MFE. The cultural parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be: incubation time-24 h; pH-7.0; MFE concentration-5% (v/v); inoculum size-0.3% (v/v) and agitation rate-200 rpm. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of cheaper and abundantly available Mahua flowers for induction of proteases, and thus offer a new approach for value addition to this biomass through industrial enzyme production. PMID:23157010

  7. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

  8. Treponema berlinense sp. nov. and Treponema porcinum sp. nov., novel spirochaetes isolated from porcine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Marcel; Taras, David; Macha, Moritz; Tedin, Karsten; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Wieler, Lothar H

    2005-07-01

    Limit-dilution procedures were used to isolate seven, helically coiled bacterial strains from faeces of swine that constituted two unidentified taxa. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed highest similarity values with species of the genus Treponema indicating that the isolates are members of this genus. Strain 7CPL208(T), as well as five further isolates, and 14V28(T) displayed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Treponema pectinovorum ATCC 33768(T) (92.3%) and Treponema parvum OMZ 833(T) (89.9%), respectively. Polar lipid profiles distinguished 7CPL208(T) and 14V28(T) from each other as well as from related species. Based on their phenotypic and genotypic distinctiveness, strains 7CPL208(T) and 14V28(T) are suggested to represent two novel species of the genus Treponema, for which the names Treponema berlinense sp. nov. and Treponema porcinum sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain for Treponema berlinense is 7CPL208(T) (=ATCC BAA-909(T)=CIP 108244(T)=JCM 12341(T)) and for Treponema porcinum 14V28(T) (=ATCC BAA-908(T)=CIP 108245(T)=JCM 12342(T)). PMID:16014500

  9. Potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o isolados de Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anthony Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – O uso discriminado de agrotóxicos acarreta em uma grande prejuízo a saúdes das pessoas e do meio ambiente. O uso de novos métodos de combate a pragas se faz necessário para o equilíbrio da cadeia produtiva. A utilização de microrganismos no combate a pragas se faz como uma boa alternativa. O trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o patógeno Fusarium sp. in vitro. Para isso foi utilizado os métodos de confronto direto, pareamento de culturas e de metabólitos voláteis. Os experimentos foram realizados na incubadora de empresas da Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT Campus de Gurupi, seguiram com três repetições. Foram testados 15 isolados do antagonista em confronto direto com o patógeno e os mesmos isolados e patógeno foram testados em metabólitos voláteis ambos utilizando o meio de cultura BDA. Todos os isolados apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra o patógeno.

  10. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

  11. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472). PMID:27188884

  12. Sur la présence d’Echinogammarus du groupe pungens au Liban: E. berytensis n. sp., E. tripoliensis n. sp. et E. rashiini n. sp. (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alouf, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Description of three fresh-water species of Echinogammarus: E. berytensis n. sp. from the center of Lebanon near Beirut, E. tripoliensis n. sp. and E. rashiini n. sp. from the North of the country near Tripoli. The first two species are related; the second one has some features of the E. simoni-grou

  13. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T). PMID:26921147

  14. Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. and Australomysis reubeni sp. nov. (Crustacea-Mysidacea) from south-west Australian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Two new species of mysids are described, Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. is in having a well-produced triangular rostral plate, pleural plates on the anterior five abdominal somites and prominent constriction at the distal end of the telson...

  15. Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Shibata, Chiyo; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain KC-112T, was isolated from soil collected from Similan Islands, Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. The strain exhibited morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The formation of smooth spiral spore chains was observed on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in whole-cell hydrolysates, but no diagnostic sugars were detected and the strain lacked mycolic acids. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KC-112T was closely related to Streptomyces fumanus NBRC 13042T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces anandii NBRC 13438T (98.8 %) and Streptomyces capillispiralis NBRC 14222T (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain KC-112T and type strains of closely related species were lower than 70 %. On the basis of evidence from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain KC-112T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov. The type strain is KC-112T ( = KCTC 29502T = NBRC 110085T = PCU 347T = TISTR 2401T). PMID:26908169

  16. Tenacibaculum geojense sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    A Gram-negative, non-flagellated, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated YCS-6(T), that was motile by gliding, was isolated from seawater on the southern coast of Korea. Strain YCS-6(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and with 2% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YCS-6(T) fell within the genus Tenacibaculum and was most closely associated with Tenacibaculum litopenaei B-I(T), with which the isolate exhibited 95.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Sequence similarity between strain YCS-6(T) and other members of the genus Tenacibaculum was 93.8-95.7%. Strain YCS-6(T) contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the predominant respiratory quinone and iso-C(15:0), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH and iso-C(15:1) G as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 32.7 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness distinguished strain YCS-6(T) from all other members of the genus Tenacibaculum. On the basis of our phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YCS-6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum geojense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YCS-6(T) (=KCTC 23423(T) =CCUG 60527(T)). PMID:21257684

  17. Massilia flava sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiewei; Zhang, Jianli; Pang, Huancheng; Zhang, Yabo; Li, Yuyi; Fan, Jinping

    2012-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Y9(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Ningxia Province in China and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Strain Y9(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone. Major fatty acid components were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH) and C(16:0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Y9(T) was 68.7 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Massilia. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Y9(T) and the type strains of recognized Massilia species ranged from 95.2 to 98.2%, the highest values being with Massilia albidiflava 45(T) (98.2%) and Massilia lutea 101(T) (98.0%). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain Y9(T) and M. albidiflava KCTC 12343(T) and M. lutea KCTC 12345(T) were 37 and 26%, respectively. Strain Y9(T) was clearly differentiated from its nearest phylogenetic relatives in the genus Massilia based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties. Therefore, strain Y9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y9(T) (=CGMCC 1.10685(T) =KCTC 23585(T)). PMID:21515701

  18. Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Geol; Im, Dong-Moon; Kang, HeeCheol; Yun, Pyeong; Park, Sun-Ki; Hyun, Seung-Su; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2013-01-01

    A novel strain, yH16, was isolated on nutrient agar from soil samples collected at KyungHee University, Suwon City, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain yH16(T) were short rods, Gram-negative-staining, motile and non-spore-forming, with a polar flagellum. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed that this strain was most similar to Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T). Further 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies revealed that the new strain clustered with Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T) (95.9 % similarity), Paludibacterium yongneupense 5YN8-15(T) (95.2 % similarity), Gulbenkiania mobilis E4FC31-5(T) (94.6 % similarity) and Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SE-YA-1(T) (93.9 % similarity). The isolate was able to grow at 25-40 °C, 0.3-2 % NaCl and pH 5.5-7. The DNA G+C content was 65.9 ± 1.0 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) and C(16:0). Ubiquinone 8 was the major respiratory quinone. It was evident from the data obtained that the strain should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudogulbenkiania. The name proposed for this taxon is Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., and the type strain is yH16(T) (=KCCM 90100(T) = JCM 17850(T)). PMID:22389280

  19. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)). PMID:25351880

  20. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza B.S. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cutia (Dasyprocta sp. é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglutição e fonação. O presente estudo propôs realizar uma descrição morfológica macroscópica e microscópica da laringe da cutia. Para tanto, foram utilizadas quinze cutias pertencentes ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí e provenientes do Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres com licença do IBAMA (Nº 02/08-618, CTF Nº 474064. Todos os animais foram identificados, promovida a sexagem e, posteriormente, a laringe acessada e dissecada sendo os fragmentos cartilagíneos encaminhados para rotina histológica e corados pelo método de hematoxilina-eosina. As lâminas obtidas foram visualizadas em microscopia óptica de luz e foto documentadas. A laringe da cutia apresenta cinco cartilagens, com ausência da cartilagem cuneiforme e presença da incisura caudal na cartilagem tireoide. O tecido epitelial da laringe varia de epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado à não queratinizado e ciliado com células caliciformes.

  1. Effectiveness of measurements of serum KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Koichi; Nishiwaki, Yutaka [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). East Hospital; Yokoyama, Akira [Niigata Cancer Center (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Tochigi Cancer Center (Japan); Watanabe, Koshiro [Yokohama City Hospital (Japan); Saijo, Osahiro [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

    2002-02-01

    The authors prospectively assessed the effectiveness of measuring serum concentrations of 3 markers, KL-6, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), and surfactant protein-D (SP-D), in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. The subjects were 127 patients (102 men, 25 women; mean age; 67 years; 123 with lung cancer and 4 with mediastinal tumors). The patients were irradiated with 10-80 Gy (mean dose, 55.3 Gy), and combination chemotherapy was administered to 96 patients. Blood samples were collected weekly during radiotherapy, and every 2 weeks for 4 months after radiotherapy. KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D were measured in the serum samples obtained. None of the markers tended to increase in any of the 35 patients not diagnosed with radiation pneumonitis. Limited radiation pneumonitis occurred in 84 patients, and severe pneumonitis beyond the radiation field developed in 8 patients. In the severe pneumonitis patients, all of the markers clearly tended to increase before and after the crisis of the pneumonitis. In the severe pneumonitis patients, the maximum serum marker values increased to {>=}3 fold the level of KL-6, {>=}4 fold the level of SP-D, and {>=}2 fold the level of SP-A, more than in the limited pneumonitis patients. Until now radiation pneumonitis has been mainly diagnosed by imaging, however, measuring the serum concentrations of the markers KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D, in addition to diagnostic imaging, will enable more accurate and rapid diagnosis of severe pneumonitis than before. These markers also seem to be useful indicators for determining the effectiveness of steroid therapy for pneumonitis and diagnosing the recurrence of pneumonitis during tapering of the steroid dose. (K.H.)

  2. Effectiveness of measurements of serum KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors prospectively assessed the effectiveness of measuring serum concentrations of 3 markers, KL-6, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), and surfactant protein-D (SP-D), in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. The subjects were 127 patients (102 men, 25 women; mean age; 67 years; 123 with lung cancer and 4 with mediastinal tumors). The patients were irradiated with 10-80 Gy (mean dose, 55.3 Gy), and combination chemotherapy was administered to 96 patients. Blood samples were collected weekly during radiotherapy, and every 2 weeks for 4 months after radiotherapy. KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D were measured in the serum samples obtained. None of the markers tended to increase in any of the 35 patients not diagnosed with radiation pneumonitis. Limited radiation pneumonitis occurred in 84 patients, and severe pneumonitis beyond the radiation field developed in 8 patients. In the severe pneumonitis patients, all of the markers clearly tended to increase before and after the crisis of the pneumonitis. In the severe pneumonitis patients, the maximum serum marker values increased to ≥3 fold the level of KL-6, ≥4 fold the level of SP-D, and ≥2 fold the level of SP-A, more than in the limited pneumonitis patients. Until now radiation pneumonitis has been mainly diagnosed by imaging, however, measuring the serum concentrations of the markers KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D, in addition to diagnostic imaging, will enable more accurate and rapid diagnosis of severe pneumonitis than before. These markers also seem to be useful indicators for determining the effectiveness of steroid therapy for pneumonitis and diagnosing the recurrence of pneumonitis during tapering of the steroid dose. (K.H.)

  3. Enhanced lipid production of three microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp and Scenedesmus sp by manipulating of cultivation condition

    OpenAIRE

    Rukminasari, Nita

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae is one of potential source for biodiesel due to high efficiency of solar energy conversion to chemical energy. Several microalgae also have high lipid content per dry weight biomass. The aims of the present work to study the effects of temperature and nutrient depletion on the growth and lipid content of three selected microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp and Scenedesmus sp) in view of their possible utilization as raw materials for biodiesel production. In ad...

  4. Modular Stereoselective Synthesis of (1 -> 2)-C-Glycosides based on the sp(2)-sp(3) Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oroszová, B.; Choutka, J.; Pohl, Radek; Parkan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 19 (2015), s. 7043-7047. ISSN 0947-6539 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GPP207/12/P713; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17572S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-disaccharides * C-glycosides * diastereoselectivity * Mitsunobu reaction * sp(2)-sp(3) coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.731, year: 2014

  5. Towards a risk assessment for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Portuguese fluvial beaches: a seasonal sampling over two years

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio, C; Ferreira, I.; Martins, S.; Sá, C.; Ângelo, H.; Guerreiro, J.; Tenreiro, R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract background: Waterborne outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness reported worldwide are mostly associated with Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Lake and river waters contaminated with (oo)cysts are major routes of human exposure making essential the development of preventive strategies for water safety. Since monitoring of water contamination with (oo)cysts is not routinely performed in Portugal, this study aims to unveil the possible associations between Portuguese fluvial beach characteri...

  6. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Herlina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat. Parameter pertumbuhan yang diukur adalah  tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan b. Parameter hasil tanaman yang diukur adalah berat buah setelah panen. Hasil uji Anava satu jalan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Gliocladium sp perpengaruh terhadap tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan klorofil b, berat tomat  . Hasil uji lanjut Duncan menunjukkan bahwa dosis 100, g 150 g dan 200 g tidak berbeda signifikan terhadap tinggi tanaman, dosis 150g dan 200 g tidak berbedan nyata dalam pembentukan klorofil a dan klorofil b. Pemberian Gliocladium dosis 150g paling tinggi terhadap berat buah. Simpulan dalam penelitian ini bahwa pemberian Gliokompos sp berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. AbstractSoil microorganisms such as Gliocladium sp. can play role in the decomposition and can also become the biological control of pathogenic plants. The animal is potentially reduce the use of fertilizers and synthetic fungidid. The aim of the study was to test the potential effect of biofertililzer Gliocladium sp. on the growth and production of tomatoes. The independent variables was biofertilizer Gliocladium sp. at various dosages (g/plant of 0, 50, 100, 150, dan 200. The dependent variables were the growth and the production of tomatoes. The growth parameter measured were plant height, as well as a and b chlorophyl contents.  The crop parameter was the fruit weight post-harvest.  A one-way anova showed that Gliocladium sp. affected the

  7. PERBAIKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL STEVIA (Stevia rebaudiana BERTONI M) MELALUI APLIKASI Trichoderma sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Haryuni -

    2013-01-01

    AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji perbaikan pertumbuhan dan hasil stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M) melalui penggunaan  Trichoderma sp.  Perbanyakan  Trichoderma sp. dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Proteksi Perkebunan di Salatiga Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan factorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah inokulasi Trichoderma sp (To = tanpa  Trichoderma sp. & T1 = menggunakan Trichoderma sp. 100 g.  Faktor kedua adalah variasi aplikasi perlakuan...

  8. Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Pathi, Satya; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Basha, Riyaz; Abdelrahim, Maen; Samudio, Ismael; Safe, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Treatment of Panc1, L3.6pL and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells with metformin downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes including bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, and fatty acid synthase. Metformin induced proteasome-dependent degradation of Sps in L3.6pL and Panc28 cells, whereas in Panc1 cells metformin decreased microRNA-27a and induced the Sp repressor, ZBTB10, and disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 by metformin was phosphatase dependent. Metformin also inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in tumors in an orthotopic model where L3.6pL cells were injected directly into the pancreas. The results demonstrate for the first time that the anticancer activities of metformin are also due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes. PMID:23803693

  9. Identification of microorganisms of Phytophthora genre associated to Quercus sp. and Pinus sp. species in the provinces of Guatemala and Sacatepéquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Calderón Díaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean purpose of this research was to identify microorganism belonging to Phytophthora genera which are affecting mixed natural forests and nurseries of Pinus sp. and Quercus sp. These species have economic and social impact in provinces such as Guatemala and Sacatepéquez. Soil and vegetal tissue were used to isolate Phytophthora from natural forest of Guatemala, 45 Pinus sp. and 10 Quercus sp. were sampled and from nurseries 88 Pinus sp. and 11 Quercus sp. From Sacatepéquez province, from natural forest system were sampled 48 Pinus sp. and 15 Quercus sp. From nurseries were sampled 58 Pinus sp. and 25 Quercus sp. After processing the samples from soil and roots 13 were found positive to Phytophthora sp. in Pinus maximinoi, 10 from Guatemala and three from Sacatepéquez provinces. The culture of Phytophthora sp. on PDA produced two colonies without define form and five stoloniferous, five semipetaloid, one stelade type colonies. VP16 isolate was inoculated in five species of pine for pathogenicity test, causing high percentages of incidence and severity on Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa, P. pseudostrobus and P. maximinoi and low rates of incidence and severity on Pinus tecunumanii.

  10. Enantiospecific sp2-sp3 coupling of secondary and tertiary boronic esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amadeu; Odachowski, Marcin; Leonori, Daniele; Essafi, Stephanie; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-07-01

    The cross-coupling of boronic acids and related derivatives with sp2 electrophiles (the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is one of the most powerful C-C bond formation reactions in synthesis, with applications that span pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and high-tech materials. Despite the breadth of its utility, the scope of this Nobel prize-winning reaction is rather limited when applied to aliphatic boronic esters. Primary organoboron reagents work well, but secondary and tertiary boronic esters do not (apart from a few specific and isolated examples). Through an alternative strategy, which does not involve using transition metals, we have discovered that enantioenriched secondary and tertiary boronic esters can be coupled to electron-rich aromatics with essentially complete enantiospecificity. As the enantioenriched boronic esters are easily accessible, this reaction should find considerable application, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry where there is growing awareness of the importance of, and greater clinical success in, creating biomolecules with three-dimensional architectures.

  11. Kroppenstedtia pulmonis sp. nov. and Kroppenstedtia sanguinis sp. nov., isolated from human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Melissa E; Lasker, Brent A; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hoyles, Lesley; Spröer, Catherine; Schumann, Peter; Brown, June M

    2016-05-01

    Three human clinical strains (W9323(T), X0209(T) and X0394) isolated from a lung biopsy, blood and cerebral spinal fluid, respectively, were characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the three strains belong to two novel branches within the genus Kroppenstedtia: 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of W9323(T) showed close sequence similarity to Kroppenstedtia eburnea JFMB-ATE(T) (95.3 %), Kroppenstedtia guangzhouensis GD02(T) (94.7 %) and strain X0209(T) (94.6 %); sequence analysis of strain X0209(T) showed close sequence similarity to K. eburnea JFMB-ATE(T) (96.4 %) and K. guangzhouensis GD02(T) (96.0 %). Strains X0209(T) and X0394 were 99.9 % similar to each other by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The DNA-DNA relatedness was 94.6 %, confirming that X0209(T) and X0394 belong to the same species. Chemotaxonomic data for strains W9323(T) and X0209(T) were consistent with those described for the members of the genus Kroppenstedtia: the peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid; the major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 and anteiso-C15; and the major menaquinone was identified as MK-7. Differences in endospore morphology, carbon source utilisation profiles, and cell wall sugar patterns of strains W9323(T) and X0209(T), supported by phylogenetic analysis, enabled us to conclude that the strains each represent a new species within the genus Kroppenstedtia, for which the names Kroppenstedtia pulmonis sp. nov. (type strain W9323(T) = DSM 45752(T) = CCUG 68107(T)) and Kroppenstedtia sanguinis sp. nov. (type strain X0209(T) = DSM 45749(T) = CCUG 38657(T)) are proposed. PMID:26910402

  12. Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. and Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Neubeck, M; Huptas, C; Glück, C; Krewinkel, M; Stoeckel, M; Stressler, T; Fischer, L; Hinrichs, J; Scherer, S; Wenning, M

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of the microbiota of raw cow's milk and semi-finished milk products yielded seven isolates assigned to the genus Pseudomonas that formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis based on partial rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The two groups could be differentiated from each other and also from their closest relatives as well as from the type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values within the groups were higher than 97.3 %, whereas similarity values to the closest relatives were 85 % or less. The major cellular lipids of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q-9 in both strains, with small amounts of Q-8 in strain WS4917T. The DNA G+C contents of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were 58.08 and 57.30 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, strains WS4917T, WS4995 ( = DSM 29141 = LMG 28434), WS4999, WS5001 and WS5002 should be considered as representatives of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas helleri is strain WS4917T ( = DSM 29165T = LMG 28433T). Strains WS4993T and WS4994 ( = DSM 29140 = LMG 28438) should be recognized as representing a second novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis is strain WS4993T ( = DSM 29166T = LMG 28437T). PMID:26675012

  13. Description of Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Kishore, K Hara; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S

    2009-06-01

    Strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) are yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated from a soil sample near the Kafni glacier in the Himalayan mountain ranges in India, and from a spade core sediment sample from the Antarctic Ocean at Larsemann Hill, respectively. In both cases, the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diamino acid, anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0) were the predominant fatty acids and MK-11 was the major isoprenoid quinone in the cell membrane. On the basis of the above-mentioned characteristics, both strains can be assigned to the genus Leifsonia. The strains share 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.7 % and DNA relatedness of only 10 %, indicating that they represent different species. A blast analysis indicated that Leifsonia pindariensis PON10(T) was the closest phylogenetic neighbour of strains SPC-20(T) and KFC-22(T), showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.3 and 97.7 %, respectively. However, at the whole-genome level, strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) shared 42 and 11 % DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, with L. pindariensis PON10(T). In addition, both strains exhibited several phenotypic differences with respect to L. pindariensis PON10(T). Thus, on the basis of the differences that the two strains exhibited with respect to L. pindariensis, both were identified as representing novel species of the genus Leifsonia, for which the names Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. (type strain KFC-22(T) =NCCB 100216(T) =LMG 24362(T)) and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain SPC-20(T) =NCCB 100227(T) =LMG 24541(T)) are proposed. PMID:19502314

  14. Paenibacillus wulumuqiensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus dauci sp. nov., two novel species of the genus Paenibacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Li, Shan-Hui; Song, Su-Qin; Xie, Yu-Qing; Tang, Qi-Yong; Osman, Ghenijan; Shi, Yu-Hu; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains Y24(T) and H9(T) were isolated from cold spring and carrot (Daucus L.) samples, respectively, in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, north-western China. The taxonomic positions of the two new isolates were determined by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridizations showed that strains Y24(T) and H9(T) were two different novel species belonging to the genus Paenibacillus, with Paenibacillus hunanensis FeL05(T) as their closest relative. The genomic DNA G + C contents of the two isolates Y24(T) and H9(T) were 48.1 and 46.6 mol %, respectively. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was both as MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0. The polar lipid profiles consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two glycolipids as the major components. On the basis of their phenotypic characteristics, the two isolates represent two different novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the names Paenibacillus wulumuqiensis sp. nov. (type strain Y24(T) = CPCC 100602(T) = JCM 30284(T)) and Paenibacillus dauci sp. nov. (type strain H9(T) = CPCC 100608(T) = JCM 30283(T)) are proposed. PMID:25596844

  15. Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. from coolant lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gräber, Marco; Rabenstein, Andreas; Kuever, Jan; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria, isolated from metal working fluids were investigated to determine their taxonomic positions. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, both strains (MPA 1113(T) and MPA 1105(T)) formed a distinct cluster with 97.7 % sequence similarity between them, which was in the vicinity of members of the genera Methylobacterium, Camelimonas, Chelatococcus, Bosea, Salinarimonas and Microvirga to which they showed low sequence similarities (below 94 %). The predominant compounds in the polyamine pattern and in the quinone system of the two strains were spermidine and ubiquinone Q-10, respectively. The polar lipid profiles were composed of the major compounds: phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, major or moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified glycolipids and three unidentified aminolipids. Several minor lipids were also detected. The major fatty acids were either C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c or C18 : 1ω7c. The results of fatty acid analysis and physiological and biochemical tests allowed both, the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from each other, while the chemotaxonomic traits allowed them to be differentiated from the most closely related genera. In summary, low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and marked differences in polar lipid profiles, as well as in polyamine patterns, is suggestive of a novel genus for which the name Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov. is proposed. MPA 1113(T) ( = CCM 8528(T) = LMG 28286(T) = CIP 110802(T)) and MPA 1105(T) ( = CCM 8527(T) = LMG 28285(T)) are proposed to be the type strains representing two novel species within the novel genus, Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov., for which the names Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. are suggested, respectively. PMID:25301542

  16. Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from the oleaginous microalga Picochlorum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Wang, Guanghua; Chen, Yao; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Liao, Pingping; Zhu, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, orange-pigmented, non-motile, aerobic bacterial strain, designated GYP20T, was isolated from a culture of the alga Picochlorum sp., a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, which was isolated from the India Ocean. Growth was observed at temperatures from 20 to 37 °C, salinities from 0 to 3% and pH from 5 to 9.Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions were required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Phaeodactylibacter, which belongs to the family Saprospiraceae. Strain GYP20T was most closely related to Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis KD52T (95.5% sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The polar lipids of strain GYP20T were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Phaeodactylibacter, but can readily be distinguished from Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis GYP20T. The name Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain GYP20T ( = MCCC 1F01222T = KCTC 42180T). PMID:25964516

  17. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Prieto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepade cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condicionescontroladas de temperatura (22oC, pH (7.6, intensidad lumínica (2000 lux y aireación. Se emplearondos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseaeen concentración de 40 x 105 cel.ml-1 cada uno, para determinar su efecto sobre el desempeño de lapoblación. Diariamente se registró la densidad poblacional y celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferenciassignificativas para el efecto de las dietas sobre el crecimiento poblacional de los cladóceros, los individuosalimentados con Ankistrodesmus sp + Saccharomyces cereviseae alcanzaron una densidad de 12.3a±0.30 org/ml-1 presentando mayor tasa instantánea de crecimiento (K 0.36 ± 0.002, el menor tiempode duplicación (td 1.94 ± 0.012 y el mayor rendimiento (r 1,1 ± 0.07 clad.ml-1.día-1. Conclusión. Loscladóceros por sus características de crecimiento en cultivo, presentan adaptación favorable a lascondiciones de manejo para la producción de biomasas potencialmente útiles como partícula nutritivacon fines acuícolas.

  18. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control of T. absoluta. However, this possibility must be better understood before it could be recommended, because Pyemotes sp. could also cause dermatitis in the humans.O ácaro Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae é um parasita de várias espécies de insetos e exibe o processo de fisogastria na reprodução. É registrada a ocorrência de Pyemotes sp. sobre a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, que sofreu redução considerável de suas populações em condições de laboratório. Este ácaro foi observado parasitando larvas, pupas e adultos de T. absoluta e suas fêmeas fisogástricas apresentaram coloração esverdeada. As larvas e adultos de T. absoluta atacados por Pyemotes sp. exibiram paralisia em poucos minutos, devido à injeção de toxinas por parte do ácaro. Observou-se que um único indivíduo de T. absoluta pode suportar muitas fêmeas fisogástricas de Pyemotes sp., permitindo que outra geração do ácaro continuasse a se reproduzir. O ácaro Pyemotes sp. surge como uma possibilidade para o controle biológico de T. absoluta, mas sua utilização deve ser melhor avaliada já que é uma espécie causadora de dermatites em humanos.

  19. Production of *sp67*Ga at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for production of *sp67*Ga at the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The method is based on the nuclear reaction *sp68*Zn (p,2n)*sp67*Ga. The target is natural zinc metal of thickness 1.3 mm fixed by a thin alloy layer to a copper disc for efficient cooling during irradiation. By applying a beam of 29 MeV protons, a maximum production yield of approx. 1.8 mCi/*my*Ah was obtained. By demanding a contamination level of *sp66*Ga <=1%, the ''useful'' yield after a decaytime of 88 h is approx. 0.8 mCi/*my*Ah. Gallium has been separated carrierfree from the zinc matrix by cation exchange from 7.5M hydrocloric acid solutions and prepared as citrate complex at pH 5.5. After sterile filtering, autoclavation, pyrogene testing and analysis for iron and zinc, the *sp67*Ga-radiopharmaceutical has been applied in human investigations at the Ullevaal hospital in Oslo. (Auth.)

  20. Conversion and degradation of crude oil by Bacillus SP3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the basic characteristics of Bacillus SP3 and evaluate its effect on different crude oils. Strain SP3 is a motile, gram-positive, spore-producing rod that was isolated from a reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. The cells of strain SP3 grew at high temperatures up to 58℃ at the pH range of 5.5-8.5. Strain SP3 grew facultatively and could use different organic substrates, and produce some metabolites such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl-2-nitrogen benzene and 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis ester. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the strain converted and degraded different components and changed the physical and chemical properties of crude oils. Strain SP3 degraded crude oil and the growth of bacteria on crude oil resulted in loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes. The bioconversion of crude oils would lead to an enrichment in lighter hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of saturate hydrocarbons. The interactions of microorganisms with crude oils are variable, depending on the microbial species and the chemical compositions of crude oils.

  1. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phoma sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat; Hussain; Ines; Kock; Ahmed; Al-Harrasi; Ahmed; Al-Rawahi; Ghulam; Abbas; Ivan; R.Green; Afzal; Shah; Amin; Badshah; Muhammad; Saleem; Siegfried; Draeger; Barbara; Schulz; Karsten; Krohn

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiniicrobial polenlial of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phoma sp.and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the Agar Well Diffusion Method.Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and tlieir structures were assigned using~1H and~(13)C NMR spectra,DEPT,2D COSY,HMQC and HMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction of Phoma sp.showed good antifungal,antibacterial,and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative,named phomafuranol(1),together with tliree known compounds,phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3)and emodin(4)were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phoma sp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2)displayed strong antibacterial,good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3)and emodin(4)showed good antifungal,antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungus Phoma sp.and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that Phoma sp.and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food,cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. MANFAAT Indigofera Sp. DALAM BIDANG PERTANIAN DAN INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Suharlina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera    sp. is a leguminous plant which has varoius species, wide spread in tropical regions and adapted to a wide range of environmental condition. Indigofera sp. has many benefits in agricultural and industrial sector. It is widely used in agriculture as forage because its  high protein content, easily cultivated, high adaptability, and high biomass production (I. zollingeriana, I. hirsuta, I. pilosa, I. schimperi Syn,    I.    oblongifolia,    I.    spicata,    I. subulata Syn, and I. trita. Over the last 5 years Indigofera sp has been explored as forage feed for the goats. As cover crops, Indigofera is used to prevent erosion and nutrient leaching in the soil surface (I. hirsuta and I. Trita and it is also used as green manure, mulch, erosion control and ornamental plants (I. australis. In industrial sector, Indigofera sp. widely used as dyes and traditional medicine. Indigofera is used as a natural dye (I. tinctoria because it contains an excellent pigment called ‘indigo’ to dye silk material. Indigofera sp is also used as traditional medicine because it contains phytochemical substance which roles as antipyretic, laxative, diuretic, and useful against snakes attack, bees and insect bites. Using Indigofera    spp. as traditional medicine should be considered to avoid causing poisoning.

  3. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Tobias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  4. Application of “SP-3” and “SP-2” in the whole wheat beer brewing%“SP-3”与“SP-2”在全小麦啤酒酿造中应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 杨继远

    2011-01-01

    " SP-3 " was a new beer yeast strain, while " SP-02 " was the normal strain used in the production of malt beer. Comparison experiments of the application of" SP-3 " and " SP-2 " in production of wheat beer were conducted. The results showed that strains " SP-3 " is more adaptable in the whole wheat beer brewing than that of strain " SP-2 ". The parameters of beer by strain "SP-3 " were superior to that of" SP-2 ", which has pure taste, clean and soft, could meet for the current consumer's requirements.%“SP-3”是新选育的啤酒酵母菌株,而“SP-2”为通常生产大麦芽啤酒使用的啤酒酵母菌株,“SP-3”与“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦啤酒生产中应用对比试验结果表明,“SP-3”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,各项指标均优于“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、清爽、柔和,能够较好地适应当前消费者的口感需求.

  5. [Characterization of manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na-Na; Bai, Yao-Hui; Liang, Jin-Song; Luo, Jin-Ming; Liu, Rui-Ping; Hu, Cheng-Zhi; Yuan, Lin-Jiang

    2014-02-01

    A manganese-oxidizing bacteria (QJX-1) was isolated from the soil of a manganese mine. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 by 16S rDNA sequencing. Experimental results showed that the Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 has a multi-copper oxidase gene CumA, which is an essential component for manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas sp. Under the condition of low initial inoculum level (D600, 0.020), 5.05 mg x L(-1 Mn2+ could be oxidized by QJX-1 within 48 h with a conversion rate of as high as 99.4%. In comparison with the eutrophic conditions, the oligotrophic condition dramatically increased the biological manganese oxidation rate. Biofilm formation by employing the quartz sand could further improve the oxidation rate of Mn2+. Based on these results, it is speculated that biological manganese oxidation in underground water treatment is comparatively high. PMID:24812972

  6. The Role of S P2, SP3 AND SP4 in The Transcriptional Regulation of The Promoter of Nuclear Encoded Mitochondrial Genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GC-box is an important transcriptional regulatory element present in the promoters of many mammalian genes, and is found in most, if not all, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) promoters. In the present study we examine the effects of three Spl family members (Sp2, Sp3, and Sp4) on the adenine nucleotide translocase 2, cytochrome cl, Fl-ATPase β-subunit, and the mitochondria transcription factor (mtTFA) promoters in Drosophila SL2 cell line. Sp3, like Spl, strongly activates transcription all four promoters. SP4 stimulates, moderately, but Sp2 had no effect. In addition, Sp3 can, like Spl, inhibit transcription from the proximal promoter of the ANT2 gene through binding to the Cbox GC element. By contrast, Sp4 and Sp2 do not repress promoter activity. Furthermore, since Sp4 and Sp2 bind to the Cbox repression element on the ANT2 promoter, but do not repress transcription, inhibition of transcription cannot be explained by steric hindrance of pre-initiation complex assembly. These data suggest that different Spl family members differentially affect transcription from the OXPHOS promoters.

  7. Interrelationships between Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 in the induced systemic resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii and symbiosis on peanut plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marí­a Soledad Figueredo; María Laura Tonellie; Tania Taurian; Jorge Angelini; Fernando Ibañez; Lucio Valetti; Vanina Muñoz; Marí­a Soledad Anzuay; Liliana Ludueña; Adriana Fabra

    2014-12-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria are often used to enhance crop yield and for biological control of phytopathogens. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 is a biocontrol agent that induces systemic resistance (ISR) in Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of root and stem wilt. In this work, the effect of the co-inoculation of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and the peanut nodulating strain Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 was studied on induction of both systemic resistance and nodulation processes. Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 did not affect the ability of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to protect peanut plants from S. rolfsii by ISR and the priming in challenged-plants, as evidenced by an increment in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity. Additionally, the capacity of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 to induce nodule formation in pathogen-challenged plants was improved by the presence of Bacillus sp. CHEP5.

  8. Altered surfactant function and structure in SP-A gene targeted mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Korfhagen, T R; Bruno, M D; Ross, G F; Huelsman, K. M.; Ikegami, M; Jobe, A H; Wert, S E; Stripp, B R; Morris, R E; Glasser, S W; Bachurski, C J; Iwamoto, H S; Whitsett, J A

    1996-01-01

    The surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene was disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells that were used to generate homozygous SP-A-deficient mice. SP-A mRNA and protein were not detectable in the lungs of SP-A(-/-) mice, and perinatal survival of SP-A(-/-) mice was not altered compared with wild-type mice. Lung morphology, surfactant proteins B-D, lung tissue, alveolar phospholipid pool sizes and composition, and lung compliance in SP-A(-/-) mice were unaltered. At the highest ...

  9. Lipid Polymorphism Induced by Surfactant Peptide SP-B1-25

    OpenAIRE

    Farver, R. Suzanne; Mills, Frank D.; Antharam, Vijay C.; Chebukati, Janetricks N.; Fanucci, Gail E.; Long, Joanna R.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein for lowering surface tension in the alveoli. SP-B1-25, a peptide comprised of the N-terminal 25 amino-acid residues of SP-B, is known to retain much of the biological activity of SP-B. Circular dichroism has shown that when SP-B1-25 interacts with negatively charged lipid vesicles, it contains significant helical structure for the lipid compositions and peptide/lipid ratios studied here. The effect of SP-B1-25 on lipid organization...

  10. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  11. The noncompact portion of Sp(4, R) via quaternions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work provides a quaternionic representation for real symplectic matrices in dimension four, analogous to that for the orthogonal group. This is achieved by characterizing positive definite symplectic matrices via quaternions. It also provides a technique to compute the polar decomposition for Sp(4, R) which requires no diagonalization, but relies only on the solution of a 2 x 2 linear system. This constructive technique to compute the 'non-compact portion' of Sp(4, R) is then used to compute the smallest eigenvalue of the noise (covariance) matrix of the so-called Gaussian two-mode systems. Other applications where this non-compact portion is relevant are also discussed

  12. Autonomous robots and the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J. Gerard

    2014-01-01

    This article is about how the "SP theory of intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP machine" (both outlined in the article) may help to solve computer-related problems in the design of autonomous robots, meaning robots that do not depend on external intelligence or power supplies, are mobile, and are designed to exhibit as much human-like intelligence as possible. The article is about: how to increase the computational and energy efficiency of computers and reduce their bulk; how to achi...

  13. Bioreduction of chromate by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp

    OpenAIRE

    S. Murugavelh, Kaustubha Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the bioreduction of Cr(VI) by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp was reported. Ca alginate, acryl amide and agar were tested as the matrices for immobilization. Ca alginate was found to be the suitable matrix among the different matrices studied. Of the various dosages of inoculum studied 2 g/L was found to be the optimum. Glucose at 1 g/L was completely utilized by the immobilized Halomonas sp even in the presence of Cr(VI) at 40 mg/L. The optimum pH for the bioreduction of Cr(V...

  14. MANFAAT Indigofera Sp. DALAM BIDANG PERTANIAN DAN INDUSTRI

    OpenAIRE

    - Suharlina

    2014-01-01

    Indigofera    sp. is a leguminous plant which has varoius species, wide spread in tropical regions and adapted to a wide range of environmental condition. Indigofera sp. has many benefits in agricultural and industrial sector. It is widely used in agriculture as forage because its  high protein content, easily cultivated, high adaptability, and high biomass production (I. zollingeriana, I. hirsuta, I. pilosa, I. schimperi Syn,    I.    oblongifolia,    I.    spicata,    I. subulata Syn, and I...

  15. Description of Rotylenchus graecus n. sp. from Greece (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vovlas, N.; Troccoli, A.

    1996-01-01

    Rotylenchus graecus n. sp. is described and illustrated from a bisexual population found in Filippias, Epirus, northwestern Greece, in the rhizosphere of ivy (Hedera helix L.) and giant reed (Arundo donax L.) grown on the edge of irrigation canals. Rotylenchus graecus n. sp. is characterized by a lip region with five annules, stylet length of 29-32 μm, vulva position at 53-65%, female tail pointed-conoid with 15-23 annules, and bursa with regularly annulated margins enveloping tail. The new s...

  16. Fuels irradiation testing for the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program is well on the way to providing data for performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the fule system of the compact lithium-cooled reactor. Key SP-100 fuel performance issues addressed are the need for low fuel swelling and low fission gas release to minimize cladding strain, and the need for barrier integrity to prevent fuel/cladding chemical interaction. This paper provides a description of the irradiation test program that addresses these key issues and summarizes recent results of post-test examinations including data obtained at 6 atom percent goal burnup

  17. Langzeitentwicklung des späten Frühgeborenen

    OpenAIRE

    Natalucci, G

    2010-01-01

    Späte Frühgeborene haben ein höheres Risiko für Entwicklungsstörungen. Kinderärztinnen und -ärzten kommt eine Schlüsselrolle zu, da sie diese Probleme frühzeitig erfassen und unterstützende Massnahmen einleiten können. Dieser Artikel fasst zusammen, inwiefern die Entwicklung später Frühgeborener von Termingeborenen abweicht und welche Gründe dafür verantwortlich sind.

  18. Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov., and Microvirga arabica sp. nov., isolated from sandy arid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Tuncer, Munir; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic positions of two Gram-negative strains, SV1470(T) and SV2184P(T), isolated from arid soil samples, were determined using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the concatenated sequences of three housekeeping gene loci (dnaK, rpoB and gyrB) confirmed that the strains belong to the genus Microvirga. Strain SV1470(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga vignae BR3299(T) (98.8 %), Microvirga flocculans TFB(T) (98.3 %) and Microvirga lupini Lut6(T) (98.2 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.8 to 96.3 %; strain SV2184P(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga aerilata 5420S-16(T) (98.0 %), Microvirga zambiensis WSM3693(T) (97.8 %) and M. flocculans ATCC BAA-817(T) (97.4 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.2 to 95.9 %. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 61.5 mol % for strain SV1470(T) and 62.1 mol % for strain SV2184P(T). Both strains were found to have the same quinone system, with Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The polar lipid profile of strain SV1470(T) was found to consist of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid, while that of strain SV2184P(T) consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified phospholipids. DNA-DNA relatedness studies showed that the two strains belong to different genomic species. The strains were also distinguished using a combination of phenotypic properties. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, the novel species Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov. (type strain SV1470(T) = DSM 25394(T) = KCTC 23863(T) = NRRL-B 24875(T)) and Microvirga arabica sp. nov. (type strain SV2184P(T) = DSM 25393(T) = KCTC 23864(T) = NRRL-B 24874(T)) are proposed. PMID:26671415

  19. Marmoricola ginsengisoli sp. nov. and Marmoricola pocheonensis sp. nov. isolated from a ginseng-cultivating field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Yeon; Liu, Qingmei; Kang, Myung-Suk; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Soon-Youl; Im, Wan-Taek

    2016-05-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains Gsoil 097T and Gsoil 818T, isolated from soil of a ginseng field, South Korea, were characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic positions. They were Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both isolates belong to the genus Marmoricola and were related most closely to Marmicola solisilvae KIS18-7T (99.1 and 98.3 % similarity, respectively), Marmicola terrae JOS5-1T (97.9 and 97.9 %), Marmicola scoriae Sco-D01T (97.8 and 97.1 %) and Marmicola aequoreus SST-45T (97.5 and 97.0 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.8 and 70.0 mol%, respectively. Both strains were characterized chemotaxonomically as having ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone and C17 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω9c, C18 : 0 10-methyl and iso-C16 : 0 as major fatty acids. These chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of both strains to the genus Marmoricola. However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains and closely related type strains of Marmoricola species were less than 30 %. Moreover, the results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strains Gsoil 097T and Gsoil 818T from other Marmoricola species with validly published names. Therefore, the two isolates represent two novel species, for which the names Marmoricola ginsengisoli sp. nov. (type strain Gsoil 097T = KACC 14267T = DSM 22772T) and Marmoricola pocheonensis sp. nov. (type strain Gsoil 818T = KACC 14275T = DSM 22773T) are proposed. PMID:26883120

  20. Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov., isolated from air and soil, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-03-01

    Two strains, designated 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T), were isolated from the air and forest soil, respectively, in South Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, polar-flagellated and rod-shaped. According to the phylogenetic tree, strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) fell into the cluster of Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Strain 5413J-26(T) showed the highest sequence similarities with Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas molluscorum KMM 3882(T) (96.5%), Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T) (96.3 %) and Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.1 %), while strain KIS18-15(T) had the highest sequence similarity with Sphingomonas soli T5-04(T) (96.8%), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas leidyi ATCC 15260(T) (96.6 %), Sphingomonas asaccharolytica NBRC 15499(T) (96.6 %) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26(T) (96.6 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) was 95.4 %. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant respiratory quinone and homospermidine was the major polyamine. The major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and several unidentified phospholipids and lipids. The main cellular fatty acids (>10% of the total fatty acids) of strain 5413J-26(T) were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C14 : 0 2-OH, and those of strain KIS18-15(T) were summed feature 8 and C16 : 0. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and physiological and biochemical characterization, two novel species with the suggested names Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. (type strain 5413J-26(T) = KACC 16533(T) = NBRC 108942(T)) and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov. (type strain KIS18-15(T) = KACC 16534(T) = NBRC 108943(T)) are proposed. PMID:24425812