WorldWideScience

Sample records for azores islands predominance

  1. Biogeochemical dynamics of Flores Island aquatic systems, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, P.; Antunes, P.; Raposeiro, P.; Mestre, R.; Costa, A.; Cruz, V.

    2009-04-01

    The present work was developed during the 2009 Flores and Corvo expedition organized by the Department of Biology, University of the Azores. The main goal was to conduct a robust ecosystem analysis in which the microbial community composition assessment of the lakes water column and of the adjacent bottom sediments was integrated with the environmental characterization of specific Flores Island freshwater habitats. For this, three lake systems and three mineral springs were studied. Water and sediment samples were collected at each site. Additionally, microbial biofilm samples were also collected where detected and the community was studied using a culture independent integrated approach. The Azores archipelago is located within the North Atlantic, between the boundary of three tectonic plates (American, Eurasia, and African plates), and it is composed of nine volcanic islands spread along a general WNW-ESSE direction, between 37° to 40° N and 25° to 31° W. The islands correspond to the emerged portions of the Azores plateau defined by the 2000 m bathimetry line Flores and Corvo form the western islands group, with Flores being the western most island of the archipelago. These islands genesis would have started during the Miocenico Flores island subaereal phase is dated of 0.7 M BP and the island volcanic actividade is thought to stop around 3000 years A.C. All lakes included in the study are of volcanic origins and are subject to vulcanic contamination. Hydrogeochemical studies can be used as an insight to the volcanic systems since vulcanic gases condensation and/or thermal fluids mixing can occur at these sites. Most microbial community studies within azorean freshwater systems were restricted to phytoplanktonic community studies or were conducted at hydrothermal sites solely. This is the first work that integrates microbial community composition studies of the lakes water column (phytoplankton as well as bacterioplankton) and of the adjacent bottom

  2. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment Form. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative variables and multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with elder mistreatment. Results: abuse suspicion was identified in 24.5% of elderly participants. Psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse and sons were the main abusers. Conclusion: being a woman and belonging to a dysfunctional family is associated with an increased risk of becoming a victim of abuse; the high level of domestic violence against the elderly in the Azores Islands is in line with the rest of Portugal.

  3. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches

  4. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  5. Geochemical study of the magmatic rocks from the FAMOUS area and the islands of Azores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joron, J.L.; Treuil, Michel; Allegre, C.J.; Bougault, Henri.

    1976-01-01

    Trace elements have been determined in samples of the mid-atlantic ridge which were taken during FAMOUS and MIDLANTE missions of the CNEXO and in samples of the volcanic islands of Azores taken for the INAG programme studies. A quantitative interpretation of the results is made, using hydromagmatophile elements properties (Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, rare earths). The following points are discussed: different differentiated volcanic rock series are distinguable in Azores and on the mid-atlantic ridge, showing important fractional crystallization process with different proportions of olivines, plagioclases, pyroxenes, magnetites phases; the different series correspond to different primary magmas which are generated by a partial melting process of the mantle; the partial melting curve drawn for the mid-atlantic ridge samples allow us to calculate the mantle composition wich is characterized by a flat chondritic rare earths distribution curve in Masuda-Coryell-Winchester plot [fr

  6. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva, E-mail: dlinhares@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Garcia, Patrícia Ventura, E-mail: patriciag@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CE3C, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Almada, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra_almada@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Ferreira, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.jl.ferreira@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Queiroz, Gabriela, E-mail: maria.gp.queiroz@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Cruz, José Virgílio, E-mail: jvc@uac.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos, E-mail: rodrigues@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  7. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  8. A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Melo, Carlos; Silva, Luís; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Rebelo, Ana Cristina; Madeira, Patrícia; Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul J.; Henriques, Diamantino; Silva, Carlos Marques da; Martins, António M. de Frias; Zazo, Caridad

    2015-04-01

    group of 21 thermophilic species was directly affected by the lower sea surface temperature, whereas a group of four sand-associated species was indirectly but similarly affected by the lowering of the sea level. Both groups have locally disappeared from the Azores. However, none of the extant endemic species found on the studied MIS 5e outcrops was apparently affected by the lowering SST. In contrast to the biogeographical relationships of the recent Azorean shallow marine molluscs, which are predominantly with the Mediterranean Region, Portugal and with the Madeira and Canary Islands archipelagos, the palaeobiogeographical relationships of the MIS 5e Azorean marine molluscs are mainly with Canaries and West Africa. Despite the general low similarity of the biogeographical relationships between the Azores and Cape Verde Archipelago, on both the recent and the MIS 5e analysis, this similarity is nevertheless higher for the MIS 5e mollusc assemblages, emphasizing the role of Cape Verde as an important source of warm-water species during the Last Interglacial.

  9. Functional biogeography of oceanic islands and the scaling of functional diversity in the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robert J; Rigal, François; Borges, Paulo A V; Cardoso, Pedro; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Casanoves, Fernando; Pla, Laura; Guilhaumon, François; Ladle, Richard J; Triantis, Kostas A

    2014-09-23

    Analyses of species-diversity patterns of remote islands have been crucial to the development of biogeographic theory, yet little is known about corresponding patterns in functional traits on islands and how, for example, they may be affected by the introduction of exotic species. We collated trait data for spiders and beetles and used a functional diversity index (FRic) to test for nonrandomness in the contribution of endemic, other native (also combined as indigenous), and exotic species to functional-trait space across the nine islands of the Azores. In general, for both taxa and for each distributional category, functional diversity increases with species richness, which, in turn scales with island area. Null simulations support the hypothesis that each distributional group contributes to functional diversity in proportion to their species richness. Exotic spiders have added novel trait space to a greater degree than have exotic beetles, likely indicating greater impact of the reduction of immigration filters and/or differential historical losses of indigenous species. Analyses of species occurring in native-forest remnants provide limited indications of the operation of habitat filtering of exotics for three islands, but only for beetles. Although the general linear (not saturating) pattern of trait-space increase with richness of exotics suggests an ongoing process of functional enrichment and accommodation, further work is urgently needed to determine how estimates of extinction debt of indigenous species should be adjusted in the light of these findings.

  10. Inferences from gravity data interpretation of the volcanic complexes of the Terceira Island (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Nunes, Joao Carlos; Arnoso, José; Luque, Teresa; Medeiros, Sara; Benavent, Maite; Vieira, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Terceira Island, together with Graciosa, São Jorge, Pico and Faial islands form the Central Group of the Azores Archipelago. Located in the Terceira Rift, this island shows an active volcanism (with a wide variety of rocks compositions and structures) and an important seismic activity. From east to west, Terceira Island includes four central polygenetic volcanoes with caldera (Serra do Cume, Guilherme Moniz, Pico Alto and Santa Bárbara) and a Basaltic Fissural Zone, mainly in the central and SE parts of the island. The volcanic activity from these central volcanoes took place mostly in Quaternary times. After the settlement of the island (in the fifteenth century) three basaltic volcanic eruptions took place: in 1761 (on-land) and in 1867 and 1998-2000, the latter two off-shore the NW coast of the island. Regarding seismicity, Terceira Island has been affected by several damaging earthquakes, like the Praia da Vitória earthquakes in 1614 and in 1841, and the January 1st, 1980 earthquake, the strongest in Azores in the last century, with M=7.2. For most of these earthquakes and others (like the 1997 and 1998 seismic crisis) there was an anomalous Mercalli Modified Intensity distribution throughout the island, with higher intensity at the eastern zone. We present a study of the structural setting of the volcanic island of Terceira by the analysis and interpretation of high-resolution gravity, geological and volcanological data recently acquired over the island (the last gravity survey on July 2008). We have carried out a structural study of the subsurface by means of gravity inverse problem, looking for information about lateral changes in mass distribution for crustal-upper mantle models and their correlation with the geologic, tectonic and volcanic edifices of the island and also with local seismic amplification phenomena registered in the island. We employ an inverse methodology based in a genetic algorithm, which has been applied with success on other volcanic

  11. The colonization history of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae in the Azores Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rumeu

    Full Text Available A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago.The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid diversity suggest that: (1 a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2 genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma; (3 the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4 the high number of haplotypes observed (16, and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization.Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones, together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present.

  12. Near-surface wave velocity structure of Faial (Azores - Portugal) Island for site effect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, José; Neves, Samuel; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Carvalho, João; Carvalho, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Throughout history, the life of the Azorean people has been marked by earthquakes that have had different effects depending on their proximity and magnitude. This seismic activity, which may have volcanic or tectonic origins, has affected the population of these islands by destroying infrastructure and claiming lives. The social and economic impacts of these phenomena are enormous. The last significant event affecting the Azores (Portugal) was the July 1998 Mw=6.2 earthquake causing major destruction affecting more than 5000 people, causing 8 deaths, 150 persons injured and 1500 homeless. Ground motion simulations are mainly based on source characteristics and are heavily dependent on the medium, which is still poorly understood. Subsurface soil condition can amplify the seismic waves, so, for seismic response analysis, it is necessary to know the shallow soil properties and its spatial variability. For this purpose, we applied P and S-wave refraction, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to characterize shear wave velocity at different sites in the Faial Island, in particular, in sites where already occurred amplification. Ambient vibrations can also be used to estimate physical properties of the shallower geological formations. With this goal, the obtained velocity models were confirmed by comparison between real H/V curves with synthetic ones. We concluded that the anomalous intensities observed in some sites are strongly related to thick layers of soft sediments of pyroclastic deposits produced by old volcanic eruptions occurred in the Faial Island.

  13. Engineering IT-enabled sustainable electricity services the tale of two low-cost green Azores Islands

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Le; Liu, Qixing

    2013-01-01

    Engineering IT-Enabled Electricity Services: The Tale of Two Low-Cost Green Azores Islands covers sustainable energy services to customers - a balanced choice and coordination of energy generated by traditional and alternative sources. The “Green Islands” project represents a decade of work by over a dozen researchers who have developed a model designed to utilize the potential of distributed clean resources. The key is the proper use of Information Technology (IT).  Sited on two islands in the Azores, the project developed the model of careful forecasting of demand and supply, down to the minute, coordinating the output of conventional power plants, wind energy, fly wheels, hydroelectricity, demand reduction, and even plug-in electric vehicles to take full advantage of the clean resources available. This contributed volume presents methods for predicting variable resources, such as wind power generation, and analyzes the achievable accuracy of these predictions. Throughout this book, contributors sho...

  14. Evaluation of landslide susceptibility of Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gomes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete Cidades is an active central volcano with a summit caldera located in the westernmost part of S. Miguel Island (Azores. Since the settlement of the Island, in the 15th century, many landslide events occurred in this volcano, causing extensive damages in buildings and infrastructures. The study of historical records and the observation of new occurrences showed that landslides in the region have been triggered by heavy rainfall periods, earthquakes and erosion. In order to assess landslide susceptibility at Sete Cidades Volcano, landslide scars and associated deposits were mapped through aerial photographs and field surveys. The obtained data were inserted in a GIS to produce a landslide distribution map. It was concluded that the high density landslide areas are related with (1 major scarp faults, (2 the margin of fluvial channels, (3 the sea cliffs and (4 volcanic landforms, namely the caldera wall. About 73% of the mapped events took place in areas where pyroclastic deposits are the dominant lithology and more than 77% occurred where slopes are equal or higher than 20°. These two parameters were integrated and used to generate a preliminary susceptibility map. The incorporation of vulnerability data into the GIS allowed concluding that 30% of dwellings and most of the roads on Sete Cidades Volcano are located in areas where landslide susceptibility is high to very high. Such conclusion should be taken into account for emergency and land use planning.

  15. Construction of teacher autonomy a case study in Azores Islands (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Francisco GONZÁLEZ ROA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Building up a professional identity assuming a main role to teachers autonomy as well as assuming cooperation as a fundamental issue in teacher training methodology, are commonly being considered main goals for teachers professional learning, along with the new demands in the contemporaneous society and the answers to new challenges as well as the conviction of students «educability». In this paper we describe how these goals have been systematically and almost obsessively undertaken by a group of teachers in Terceira Island, Azores archipelago, Portugal, during the last ten years. A collaborative pedagogy, i.e. changing practices for student achievement as well as making their practice open to peer critique, the student-centered teachers instruction along with a democratic practice within the classroom, which they always try to improve, are the main issues which characterize the work of these professionals. The strategies adopted by this group include the formation of organized working groups where there is a truly cooperation, reflection and sharing of their practices. The learning groups are in the core of the methodology where teachers assist each other in a day-by-day routine and use an open dialogue to express their feelings, expectations and distresses about their own practices.

  16. GPS application to the study of ground deformation in the volcano tectonic systems of the Terceira Island (Azores) - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rita; Ferreira, Teresa; Okada, Jun; Trota, António; Gaspar, João.

    2010-05-01

    The Azores Archipelago comprises nine volcanic islands, located where the Eurasian, American and African plates meet. Due to this complex tectonic setting seismic and volcanic activities are frequent in the archipelago. Since its settlement, in the 15th century, several volcanic eruptions and destructive earthquakes have been reported causing thousands of deaths and severe damages. Last eruption in the Azores occurred at sea, from 1998 until 2001, almost 10 km W of Serreta (Terceira Island). Ground deformation due to volcanic magma intrusion is recognised as an important precursor of eruptive activity at a volcano. The GPS is ideally suited for this application by being able to measure three-dimensional coordinate changes of the monitoring points over time. A comprehensive volcano-monitoring program should include techniques to measure surface deformations in order to contribute to a complete characterization of volcanic behaviour. Conventional modern geodetic techniques provide useful tools for the acquisition of discrete or continuous ground-deformation data. In the scope of the Azores seismovolcanic monitoring programme a geodetic network was implemented in Terceira Island. Forty geodetic benchmarks which include two permanent stations distributed according to the main volcanic and tectonic structures in the island. In the last six years five survey-mode campaigns have been performed, and the absolute velocities and internal deformations of the island have been evaluated from 2003 to 2009. Bernese 5.0 Software was used for GPS data processing and estimation of station coordinates and velocities for the periods. Obtained velocity fields considering S. Miguel Island fixed shows subsidence over all of the island and oblique displacement along Terceira Rift. This supports the existence of the shear zone between S. Miguel and Terceira Islands. Regarding internal deformations in the island, the lower magnitude of horizontal velocities indicate apparently stable regime

  17. Structural Geology of Graciosa Island - a contribution for the geodynamics of the Azores triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito, Ana; Madeira, José; Gaspar, João.; Carmo, Rita

    2010-05-01

    The Azores geodynamic setting, its geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics, and the frequent seismic and volcanic activity, motivated the development of multidisciplinary studies aiming at the creation of a coherent model explaining the geodynamic and kinematic particularities that characterize the Azores triple junction - the contact between the North American, Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. The tectonic regime determination at any given region, through the identification and characterisation of active faults, is a major contribution to the development of geodynamic models. In this domain the geometric and kinematic characterisation of Graciosa Island active faults was performed and a structural map was produced. The stress fields responsible for the development of the identified tectonic structures were also deduced. Two main fault systems were identified at Graciosa. One system (A) is composed of two sets of conjugated faults, one trending NW-SE and dipping to SW, presenting normal-dextral or dextral-normal oblique slip, and another striking NNE-SSW and dipping to ESE, with oblique normal-left lateral or left lateral-normal slip. The second fault system (B) includes NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending faults, dipping to WNW or NW, presenting normal-dextral or dextral-normal oblique slip. A family of conjugated faults with these structures was not found. The structural data indicate two distinct stress fields acting in Graciosa region that could be separated in time and/or in space. A stress field I, responsible for the occurrence of fault system A, with σ1 (maximum horizontal compressive stress axis) NNW-SSE to N-S, σ3 (maximum horizontal tensile stress axis) trending ENE-WSW to E-W, and an intermediate vertical compressive stress axis (σ2); permutations between σ1 and σ2 may occur according to the alternation between transtensile and tensile tectonic regimes. A second stress field, II, is characterised by horizontal σ1, trending E-W to WSW

  18. Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

  19. Fluoride content in drinking water supply in São Miguel volcanic island (Azores, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, S; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

    2012-08-15

    High fluoride contents in the water supply of the city of Ponta Delgada, located in the volcanic island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal) have been reported. Dental fluorosis in São Miguel has been identified and described in several medical surveys. The water supply in Ponta Delgada consists entirely of groundwater. A study was carried out in order to characterize the natural F-pollution of a group of springs (30) and wells (3), that are associated to active central volcanoes of a trachytic nature. Two springs known for their high content in fluoride were sampled, both located in the central volcano of Furnas. The sampled waters are cold, ranging from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (pH range 6.53-7.60), exhibiting a low electrical conductivity (springs range 87-502 μS/cm; wells range 237-1761 μS/cm), and are mainly from the Na-HCO(3), Na-HCO(3)-Cl and Na-Cl-HCO(3) water types. Results suggest two main trends of geochemical evolution: silicate weathering, enhanced by CO(2) dilution, and seawater spraying. Fluoride contents range between 0.17 mg/L and 2 mg/L, and no seasonal variations were detected. Results in the sources of the water supply system are lower than those of the Furnas volcano, which reach 5.09 mgF/L, demonstrating the effect of F-rich gaseous emanations in this area. Instead, the higher fluoride contents in the water supply are mainly due to silicate weathering in aquifers made of more evolved volcanic rocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  1. Civil participation between private and public spheres: the island sphere and fishing communities in the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Laurie Neilson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses civic participation with reference to fishing communities in the Azores archipelago, Portugal. We explore how concepts and political processes actively exclude people, and how researchers could dig deeper to find opportunities to build from diverse cultural practices of participation. Specifically, we describe examples of efforts towards participatory sustainable development as well as introduce a centuries-old highly participatory practice of sharing food. The rituals of the Cult of the Holy Spirit, based on sharing and justice, are an example of strong civic engagement rich with possibility from which to build alternatives to current forms of participation for fisheries governance. We suggest that islands offer understandings of human social interactions in ways that larger landmasses might not. This is a call for reflection on images underlying our understandings of participation and governing the sea commons, and looking more closely at islanders and their long held practices.

  2. Neotectonics of Graciosa island (Azores: a contribution to seismic hazard assessment of a volcanic area in a complex geodynamic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hipólito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Graciosa is a mid-Pleistocene to Holocene volcanic island that lies in a complex plate boundary between the North American, Eurasian, and Nubian plates. Large fault scarps displace the oldest (Middle Pleistocene volcanic units, but in the younger areas recent volcanism (Holocene to Upper Pleistocene conceals the surface expression of faulting, limiting neotectonic observations. The large displacement accumulated by the older volcanic units when compared with the younger formations suggests a variability of deformation rates and the possibility of alternating periods of higher and lower tectonic deformation rates; this would increase the recurrence interval of surface rupturing earthquakes. Nevertheless, in historical times a few destructive earthquakes affected the island attesting for its seismic hazard. Regarding the structural data, two main fault systems, incompatible with a single stress field, were identified at Graciosa Island. Thus, it is proposed that the region is affected by two alternating stress fields. The stress field #1 corresponds to the regional stress regime proposed by several authors for the interplate shear zone that constitutes the Azorean segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. It is suggested that the stress field #2 will act when the area under the influence of the regional stress field #1 narrows as a result of variations in the differential spreading rates north and south of Azores. The islands closer to the edge of the sheared region will temporarily come under the influence of a different (external stress field (stress field #2. Such data support the concept that, in the Azores, the Eurasia-Nubia boundary corresponds to a complex and wide deformation zone, variable in time.

  3. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  4. High resolution bathymetric and sonar images of a ridge southeast of Terceira Island (Azores plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, N.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J.; Silva, I.; Goslin, J.; Ligi, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Terceira rift is a oblique ultra-slow spreading system where a transtensive regime results from differential movement between Eurasian and African plates. So far no classical ridge segmentation pattern has here been observed. The predominant morphological features are fault controlled rhombic shaped basins and volcanism related morphologies like circular seamounts and volcanic ridges. We present SIMRAD EM300 (bathymetry + backscatter) images acquired over one of these ridges located SE of Terceira Island, during the SIRENA cruise (PI J. Goslin), which complements previous TOBI mosaics performed over the same area during the AZZORRE99 cruise (PI M. Ligi). The ridge presents a NW-SE orientation, it is seismically active (a seismic crisis was documented in 1997) and corresponds to the southern branch of a V shape bathymetric feature enclosing the Terceira Island and which tip is located west of the Island near the 1998 Serreta ridge eruption site. NE of the ridge, the core of the V, corresponds to the North Hirondelle basin. All this area corresponds mainly to Brunhes magnetic epoch. The new bathymetry maps reveal a partition between tectonic processes, centred in the ridge, and volcanism present at the bottom of the North Hirondelle basin. The ridge high backscatter surface is cut by a set of sub-parallel anastomosed normal faults striking between N130º and N150º. Some faults present horse-tail terminations. Fault splays sometimes link to neighbour faults defining extensional duplexes and fault wedge basins and highs of rhombic shape. The faulting geometry suggests that a left-lateral strike slip component should be present. The top of the ridge consists on an arched demi-.horst, and it is probably a volcanic structure remnant (caldera system?), existing prior to onset of the tectonic stage in the ridge. Both ridge flanks display gullies and mass wasting fans at the base of the slope. The ridge vicinities are almost exclusively composed of a grayish homogeneous

  5. Marine conservation in the Azores: evaluating marine protected area development in a remote island context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eCosta Abecasis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Archipelago of the Azores, over 110,000 km2 of marine areas presently benefit from some form of protection, including a suite of coastal habitats, offshore areas, seamounts, hydrothermal vents and large parcels of mid-ocean ridge. These areas are integrated in the recently established network of marine protected areas (MPAs, which stands as the cornerstone of Azorean marine conservation policies. This article describes and analyses the process of MPA establishment in the Azores and the current network of protected areas. Three phases of MPA development are identified, progressing from individual MPA establishment with little scientific support in the 1980s, the increasing scope of scientific research during the 1990s under European Union initiatives and the gradual implementation of an MPA network in the 2000s. Expert critical evaluation of the contemporary situation demonstrates that this network must be integrated within a wider regional marine management strategy, with MPA success being contingent upon the implementation of management plans, appropriate enforcement and monitoring, and bridging gaps in scientific knowledge.

  6. Pollination services mapping and economic valuation from insect communities: a case study in the Azores (Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Picanço

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinators provide vital ecosystem services through its maintenance of plant biological diversity and its role in food production. Indeed, adequate pollination services can increase the production and quality of fruit and vegetable crops. This service is currently challenged by land use intensification and expanding human population growth. Hence, this study aims: (1 to assess the pollination services in different land uses with different levels of disturbance through GIS mapping technique using insect pollinators abundance and richness as indicators, and (2 estimate the economic value of pollination by insects in agricultural crops. Our study takes place in a small oceanic island, Terceira (Azores, Portugal. Our results showed, remarkably, that not only the pristine vegetation areas, but also the orchards and agricultural areas have relatively high values of pollination services, even though both land uses have opposite disturbance levels. For the economic valuation, we analyzed 24 crops in the island and found that 18 depend on pollinators with one-third of these crops having 65% or 95% dependence on pollinators. The economic contribution of pollinators totals 36.2% of the total mean annual agricultural income of the dependent crops, highlighting the importance of insect pollinators in agricultural production and consequent economic gain productions.

  7. 3-D interpretation of short-period magnetotelluric data at Furnas Volcano, Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, C.; Kiyan, D.; Rath, V.; Byrdina, S.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Revil, A.; Viveiros, F.; Carmo, R.; Silva, C.; Ferreira, T.

    2018-04-01

    Accurate geophysical imaging of shallow subsurface features provides crucial constraints on understanding the dynamics of volcanic systems. At Furnas Volcano (Azores), intense circulation of volcanic fluids at depth leading to high CO2 outgassing and flank destabilization poses considerable threat to the local population. Presented is a novel 3-D electrical resistivity model developed from 39 magnetotelluric soundings that images the hydrothermal system of the Furnas Volcano to a depth of 1 km. The resistivity model images two conductive zones, one at 100 m and another at 500 m depth, separated by a resistive layer. The shallow conductor has conductivity less than 1 S m-1, which can be explained by clay mineral surface conduction with a mass fraction of at least 20 per cent smectite. The deeper conductor extends across the majority of the survey area. This deeper conductor is located at depths where smectite is generally replaced by chlorite and we interpret it as aqueous fluids near the boiling point and infer temperatures of at least 240 °C. The less conductive layer found between these conductors is probably steam-dominated, and coincides within the mixed-clay zone found in many volcanic hydrothermal systems.

  8. Groundwater salinization in Graciosa and Pico islands (Azores archipelago, Portugal: processes and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Cruz

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The overall groundwater chemistry is mainly controlled by Cl and Na, which account respectively for 10.4%–46.9% and 16%–39.7% of the relative major-ion content. Mean electrical conductivity (EC in Graciosa is in the range 308 − 3462 μS/cm, while hand-dug wells in Pico are highly mineralized (1758–9732 μS/cm. Drilled wells in Pico are in the range of 186 μS/cm to 5625 μS/cm. Besides mixture with seawater, groundwater chemistry is also influenced by dissolution of silicate minerals which also contributes to water composition. Moreover, 18O and 2H stable isotope data show that a few samples depict an evaporative effect, resulting in heavier isotopic compositions besides mixing with a marine source. About 70% of the wells in Graciosa and Pico exceed the 200 mg Cl/L and the EC Portuguese reference values, severely constraining water supply. The impact on water quality is also shown by exceedances of the groundwater threshold values derived for the Azores River Basin District (89%.

  9. The fan mussel Pinna rudis – occurrence and association with Pontonia pinnophylax in Terceira Island (Azores, NE Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Barreiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinna rudis is known as one of the biggest fan mussels in the Azores, reaching a length of up to 80cm. The specimens are generally found attached by numerous byssus threads, with their pointed anterior ends buried vertically in the substratum (mud, sandy mud or gravel. However, currently there is a notorious lack of basic knowledge about this species, with no specific studies available in the literature. The objective of the present work was to study the occurrence of Pinna rudis in the coast of Terceira Island, by analysing the spatial distribution of the individuals, and investigate the symbiotic association with the shrimp Pontonia pinnophylax. Along the south coast of Terceira Island, 23 dives in 13 sites were performed using 30 meters transects. The dives were made from August to October 2004, limited by meteorological conditions. The length of each pinnid was measured in situ, and above the sediment, to avoid unnecessary removal. During the study period, 28 P. rudis were observed with a length range from 10 to 30cm. The majority measured about 10 to 15cm. The occurrence of P. rudis was not the same at the different sites selected, occurring mainly in small patches of sand in rocky bottoms. Only solitary individuals were observed. No correlation between the length of the animals and the depth of their occurrence was detected. The shrimp Pontonia pinnophylax was found living within the largest bivalves and at deeper depths. The occupancy rate of Pinna rudis by Pontonia pinnophylax was 57% (containing one or two shrimps. It is believed that the life cycles of these two species may be linked. The exact relationship between these two species remains unclear and needs to be studied experimentally; however it is believed that this is a mutualistic association.

  10. Human leptospirosis: seroreactivity and genetic susceptibility in the population of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Esteves

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and recognized neglected infectious disease. It has been observed that only a proportion of individuals exposed to pathogenic species of Leptospira become infected and develop clinically evident disease. Moreover, little information is available in subsequent reinfections. In the present study, we determine if a first infection with leptospirosis protects against subsequent reinfection, and investigate which of the host genetic factors are involved in the susceptibility and resistance to leptospirosis.We conducted, in 2011, a retrospective hospital-based case-control study in the São Miguel Island population (Azores archipelago. In order to determine the seropositivity against pathogenic Leptospira after the first episode of leptospirosis, we performed a serological evaluation in 97 unrelated participants diagnosed with leptospirosis between 1992 and 2011. The results revealed that 46.4% of the 97 participants have circulating anti-Leptospira antibodies, and from these participants 35.6% maintained the seroprevalence for the same serogroup. Moreover, three of them were reinfected with unrelated Leptospira serovars. The genetic study was carried out by adding a control group composed of 470 unrelated healthy blood donors, also from São Miguel Island. Twenty five SNPs among twelve innate immune genes - IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL10, IL12RB1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, CD14, CISH, LTA and TNF - were genotyped, as well as HLA class I (-A and -B genes. Association analysis indicates that genotypes -511GG (OR=1.6, 95%CI 1.01-2.56, p=0.04 in IL1β, +1196CG (OR=2.0, 95%CI 1.26-3.27, p=0.003 in IL12RB1, -292TA (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.06-2.1, p=0.03 and +3415CG (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.08-3.08, p=0.02, both in CISH confer susceptibility to pathogenic Leptospira.The present study suggests some degree of long-term protection against leptospires with an attenuation of symptoms in case of reinfection. Moreover, our data supports the genetic

  11. Developing Atmospheric Science Tools for Teachers Based on Research at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Pico Island, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, L.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric science and climate change are becoming increasingly important, especially in education, as the Next Generation Science Standards now include climate change. A collaborating team of research scientists and students are studying the free troposphere, specifically the aerosol composition and properties, on the island of Pico in the Azores Archipelago. The research station sits in the caldera of Mount Pico, 2225 meters above sea level. At this elevation, the station is above the marine boundary layer, thus placing it in the free troposphere. In this work, collaboration between a high school Earth Science teacher and university researchers was formed with the goal of developing classroom and outreach materials regarding atmospheric science. Among the materials, a video was created containing: site and project background, explanation of some of the instruments used and candid conversations regarding science and research. The video serves several purposes, such as informing students and the general public about what is happening in the atmosphere and informing students about the importance of science and research. The video could also be used to educate the local island community and tourists. Other materials designed include data directly obtained from the project, such as measurements of aerosol particles in electron microscopy photos (which were imaged for particle morphology and size), and composition of the aerosol particles. Students can use this evidence, as well as other data, to gain a better understanding of aerosols and the overall effect they have on the climate. Students will discover this evidence as they work through a series of experiments and activities. Using the strategy of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a way to answer scientific questions, students will use the evidence they gathered to explain their ideas. One such question could be, 'How do aerosols affect the climate?' and the student's 'claim' is their answer to that question. In the

  12. E-Learning as an Educational Strategy on Islands with Low Population Density: Case Study in the Autonomous Region of Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio André Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the school year of 2003/ 2004, the Regional Department of Education and Culture of the Autonomous Region of the Azores, implemented an innovative project for adult learning. The school EB 3/S Vitorino Nemésio, on Terceira Island, became the first Portuguese school with adult education mediated through the Internet, from elementary level (5th grade up to the secondary level (12th grade. In this research, we strived to understand up to what extend did media-based adult education supply an effective answer to geographic and demographic issues in the Azores. The results tell us this system appears as an affirmative answer to the geographical and demographic limitations of the Azorean Islands. Nevertheless, there are still unsolved problems, mostly the teachers’ limitations as far as pedagogic and technical skills on the fields of Information and Communication Technologies and e–learning are concerned. Adult e-learning also offers other possibilities, on the domain of teachers’ and other staff’s continuous training as well as its wider and more effective implementation outside the Region.

  13. Soil CO2 Degassing Path along Volcano-Tectonic Structures in the Pico-Faial-São Jorge Islands (Azores Archipelago, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Viveiros

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago is composed of nine volcanic islands located at the triple junction between the North American, Eurasian, and Nubian plates. Nowadays the volcanic activity in the archipelago is characterized by the presence of secondary manifestations of volcanism, such as hydrothermal fumaroles, thermal and cold CO2-rich springs as well as soil diffuse degassing areas, and low magnitude seismicity. Soil CO2 degassing (concentration and flux surveys have been performed at Pico, Faial, and São Jorge islands to identify possible diffuse degassing structures. Since the settlement of the Azores in the fifteenth Century these three islands were affected by seven onshore volcanic eruptions and at least six destructive earthquakes. These islands are crossed by numerous active tectonic structures with dominant WNW-ESE direction, and less abundant conjugate NNW-SSE trending faults. A total of 2,855 soil CO2 concentration measurements have been carried out with values varying from 0 to 20.7 vol.%. Soil CO2 flux measurements, using the accumulation chamber method, have also been performed at Pico and Faial islands in the summer of 2011 and values varied from absence of CO2 to 339 g m−2 d−1. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded at Faial Island and were associated with the Pedro Miguel graben faults, which seem to control the CO2 diffuse degassing and were interpreted as the pathways for the CO2 ascending from deep reservoirs to the surface. At São Jorge Island, four main degassing zones have been identified at the intersection of faults or associated to WNW-ESE tectonic structures. Four diffuse degassing structures were identified at Pico Island essentially where different faults intersect. Pico geomorphology is dominated by a 2,351 m high central volcano that presents several steam emissions at its summit. These emissions are located along a NW-SE fault and the highest measured soil CO2 concentration reached 7.6 vol.% with a maximum

  14. Chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution and DNA damage in Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal) inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Diana; Garcia, Patricia; Silva, Catarina; Ferreira, Teresa; Barroso, Joana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2015-04-01

    Many studies in volcanic air pollution only have in consideration the acute toxic effects of gas or ash releases however the impact of chronic exposure to ground gas emissions in human health is yet poorly known. In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), São Miguel island has one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes: Furnas Volcano. Highly active fumarolic fields, hot springs and soil diffuse degassing phenomena are the main secondary volcanic phenomena that can be seen at the volcano surroundings. One of the main gases released in these diffuse degassing areas is radon (222Rn), which decay results in solid particles that readily settle within the airways. These decay particles emit alpha radiation that is capable of causing severe DNA damage that cumulatively can eventually cause cancer. Previous studies have established that chronic exposure to chromosome-damaging agents can lead to the formation of nuclear anomalies, such as micronuclei that is used for monitoring DNA damage in human populations. The present study was designed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution, associated to 222Rn, might result in DNA damage in human oral epithelial cells. A cross sectional study was performed in a study group of 142 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area), and a reference group of 368 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (non-hydrothermal area). For each individual, 1000 buccal epithelial cells were analyzed for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNc) and the frequency of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis), by using the micronucleus assay. Information on lifestyle factors and an informed consent were obtained from each participant. Assessment of indoor radon was performed with the use of radon detectors. Data were analyzed with logistic regression models, adjusted

  15. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, -E, -F and -G genotyping of 130 individuals from Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe; Santos, Margarida Rodrigues; Pereira, Joaquim; Amaro, Bruna; Fialho, Raquel; Meneses, Raquel; Couto, Ana Rita; Bruges Armas, Jácome

    2016-06-01

    One hundred and thirty unrelated Azorean individuals were randomly selected to study the frequencies of high-resolution HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Azorean (Terceira) population. HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 high-resolution genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using commercial kits. HLA-E, -F and -G alleles, were genotyped by sequence-based typing. All loci were in HWE, showing no locus-level deviations. The genotype data is available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under the population name "Azores Terceira Island" and the identifier (AFND112579). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Príncipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tamira; Brehm, António; Fernandes, Ana Teresa

    2006-12-01

    There is evidence that the CCR5-delta32 mutation confers protection against HIV-1 infection to homozygous individuals. It is believed that this mutation spread through Europe with the Vikings and that it has been subjected to positive selection, leading to a high frequency in Europe (approximately 10%). We carried out the present study to determine the 32-bp deletion allele and genotype frequencies of the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Principe. These Atlantic archipelagos were all colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries, but the latter two received most of their settlers from the West African coast. The frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation varies between 0% in São Tomé e Príncipe and 16.5% in the Azores. The Azores Islands have one of the highest frequencies of homozygotes found in Europe (4.8%). There are significant differences (P < 0.05) between some of these populations, for example, between São Tomé e Príncipe and Cabo Verde, and even within populations (e.g., Portugal, Madeira, and the Azores).

  17. Dynamic structure and data sets of a GIS database for geological riskanalysis in the Azores volcanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, J. L.; Goulart, C.; Queiroz, G.; Silveira, D.; Gomes, A.

    2004-04-01

    Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, degassing phenomena and landslides, being the cause of thousands of deaths and severe damage and loss. To reduce the impact of future events it is necessary to improve the emergency response and reinforce land-use planning, and this has given rise to the development of AZORIS, a GIS database for risk analysis in the Azores. At present this computer-based system comprises nine main dynamic data sets where elemental, monitoring and historical data are grouped in layers of first and second order. The logical structure of the database was conceived in order to facilitate interactivity between data sets and to guarantee the evolution of the system, as determined by the input and the generation of new and more detailed information. Archive organization was designed taking into account regional and local aspects of geological hazard. In order to ensure consistency of the database and the quality of the data within it, an internal process of validation was included.

  18. Infecção viral da vinha nos Biscoitos (ilha Terceira - Açores Grapevine virus infection at Biscoitos (Terceira island - Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arícia Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A região dos Biscoitos na ilha Terceira, nos Açores, é mundialmente conhecida pela vinha em curraletas destinada à produção de Vinhos Licorosos de Qualidade Produzidos em Região Demarcada (VLQPRD. As castas predominantes são Verdelho branco e Verdelho roxo mas também estão presentes Terrantez, Arinto e Boal branco. Um dos objectivos do projecto Interfruta-II é avaliar o actual estado sanitário destas videiras em relação aos principais vírus. Assim, em Fevereiro de 2006, foi realizada uma prospecção em sete vinhas tendo sido analisados por ELISA os vírus GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-7, GFLV, ArMV, GVA, GVB e GFkV. Os resultados são analisados por casta e vinha. No global mostram que a infecção por GLRaV-3 atinge os 100% e que a infecção por um ou dois Nepovirus é superior a 50%. Os restantes vírus foram detectados em menor percentagem. Existe elevada percentagem de infecções mistas. Atendendo ao prejudicial efeito qualitativo e/ou quantitativo das infecções detectadas, é apresentada uma estratégia de intervenção fitossanitária pretendendo contribuir para a recuperação da vinha nos Biscoitos.At Terceira island in Azores, the region Biscoitos is well known by its vineyards in typical “curraletas”. The grapevines are for the production of VLQPRD (i.e. Quality Liquorus Wines Produced in Demarcated Region. The predominant varieties are Verdelho branco and Verdelho roxo but also Terrantez, Arinto and Boal branco are present. One of the objectives of the project Interfruta-II is the evaluation of the actual sanitary status of those grapevines in relation to the main viruses. Therefore, in February 2006, a survey was done in seven vineyards evaluating by ELISA the virus GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-7, GFLV, ArMV, GVA, GVB and GFkV. The results are analyzed by vineyard and by variety. In general they show that infection by GLRaV-3 is 100% and that infection by one or two Nepovirus is above 50%. The other

  19. A new approach for assessing integrated potential conditions of soil and climate for the cultivation of vines in the Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Sampaio, João; Pinheiro, Jorge; Madeira, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Being fairly common belief that the particular soil conditions are of great importance in defining the characteristics and qualities of the wine as the final product, it is also recognized the difficulty of establishing and interpreting this relationship clearly. The geological diversity seems to correlate with the characteristics defined in accordance with the classification system employed in France Appellation d' Origine Contrôlée (AOC), suggesting that, in addition to the variety and climate, geology and soil play an important role the properties and characteristics of the grapes produced in a given geographical location. Moreover, although it is known that the vine is tailored to a wide diversity of soil types, it appears also that many of the world's most famous vineyards are installed in poor and rocky terrain where no other crop would be grown in favorable conditions. Such is the case almost extreme implanted in the land of "cracker " and " Lagido " which are the traditional names in the archipelago of the Azores to the cracked surfaces of basaltic lava fields of heterogeneous size ranging from gravel to blocks of Azorean vineyards, whose vines manage to substrate cracks survival and production, albeit in modest yields. Apart from this traditional model of Azorean "terroir" of recognized cultural and landscape value where some interesting wines have been produced and quality recognized, there are significant areas in the islands whose soil and climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of careful assessment, with a view to a possible study of integrated experimental basis. We refer specifically to landscape units of the lower area of some islands, in many cases presently devoted to pasture during the summer where productivity tends to be marginal, because strongly affected by water stress. Such areas preferably South exposed and of gentle slopes providing moderate exposure to the

  20. Phytogeography of seaweeds of the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frud'Homme van Reine, W. F.

    1988-06-01

    189 species of seaweeds have been recorded for the Atlantic archipelago of the Azores (114 Rhodophyceae, 41 Phaeophyceae and 34 Chlorophyceae). Ten of these have been described as endemic algae. The taxonomic status of these “endemics” is far from clear, however. Studies on the relatedness of this seaweed flora to seaweed floras of surrounding areas using clustering methods indicate its intermediary position between the seaweed floras of the subtropical Macaronesian Islands (Canaries Madeira and Salvages) on the one side and those of the warm temperate Eurafrican coasts on the other side. The geographic position of the Azores is NW of the other Macaronesian Archipelagos and thus nearer to the American coast. The Gulf stream may easily transport seaweeds from the Carribean to the Azores. Nevertheless, the number of species of these islands in common with the American Atlantic coast is much lower than with, for example, the W. Mediterranean. Of one group of seaweeds, viz. algae with a strictly warm temperature distribution, not a single species occurs likewise on American coasts. This absence is probably explicable because of the narrow temperature range for survival of these seaweeds. Temperatures of surface waters around the Azores during pleistocene glaciations were not much lower than they are at present. Nevertheless, it can be supposed that a number of seaweeds now occurring in the Azores have become extinct during the last glaciation.

  1. Cruise report for FS METEOR Cruise 60 Leg 3 from Las Palmas, Canary Islands to Ponta Delgada, Azores, during February 28 - March 14, 1982 (NODC Accession 0078562)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of this cruise leg was physical oceanography of the area between the Canaries and the Azores within the program of the SFB 133 'Warm water sphere of the...

  2. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  3. Bees of the Azores: an annotated checklist (Apidae, Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Julie A; Picanço, Ana; Borges, Paulo A V; Schaefer, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    We report 18 species of wild bees plus the domesticated honeybee from the Azores, which adds nine species to earlier lists. One species, Hylaeus azorae , seems to be a single island endemic, and three species are possibly native ( Colletes eous , Halictus villosulus , and Hylaeus pictipes ). All the remaining bee species are most likely accidental introductions that arrived after human colonization of the archipelago in the 15 th century. Bee diversity in the Azores is similar to bee diversity of Madeira and Cape Verde but nearly ten times lower than it is in the Canary Islands.

  4. New records of brown algae (Phaeophyta) from the Azores.

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Manuela I.; Fletcher, Robert L.; Neto, Ana I.

    2000-01-01

    Copyright © 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. The following five species of microscopic tuft-forming/encrusting brown algae (Phaeophyta) are newly recorded for the Island of São Miguel (Azores): Nemoderma tingitana Schousboe ex Bornet. Pseudolithoderma roscoffense Loiseaux (Lithodermataceae), Hecatonema terminalis (Kutzing) Kylin (Punctariaceae), Compsonema saxicolum (Kuckuck) Kuckuck, and Microspongium gelatinosum Reinke (Scytosiphonaceae). The species are descr...

  5. Book Review Field Guide to the Birds of Macaronesia: Azores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Field Guide to the Birds of Macaronesia: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde By Eduardo Garcia-del-Rey (2011). Ricardo Jorge Lopes. Abstract. Lynx Edicions, Montseny, 8, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain 342 pages, including 150 colour plates and >230 detailed distribution maps, hardcover

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the

  7. Insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins: the Atlantis Basin of southern Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T.; Bouriak, S.; Volkonskaya, A.; Monteiro, J.; Ivanov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Single-channel seismic reflection and sidescan (OKEAN) data acquired in an unstudied region of the North Atlantic give important insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins. Located on the eastern flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, south of the Azores Islands, the study area contains more than 1,000 ms two-way travel-time of sediments with a similar seismic stratigraphy to that of ODP sites 950-952 in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. Processed thickness values correspond to a maximum thickness of about 1450 m and an average thickness of more than 500 m based on velocity data from ODP sites 950-952. The structure of the surveyed area and its location in relation to the Madeira Abyssal Plain and Mid-Atlantic Ridge indicate the existence, south of Azores, of two distinct sedimentary basins separated by major structural lineaments (Azores-Gibraltar and Atlantis Fracture Zones) and by seamount chains (Cruiser-Great Meteor Chain, Plato-Atlantis Chain). The basement of the sedimentary basins is irregular, showing multiple dome-shaped volcanic structures identical to those in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and Madeira Abyssal Plain. However, half-graben/graben basement blocks predominate east of 30ºW underneath a moderately deformed overburden. The complex structure observed most likely reflects changes in the direction and velocity of ocean spreading plus variations in the regional thermal gradients induced by local hot spots. In parallel, some of the sub-surface structures identified next to basin-bounding Fracture Zones may have resulted from transtensional and transpressional tectonism.

  8. Conservation and restoration of the panel "Saint Sebastian calling on the faith of the Christian captive brothers Marcus and Marcellianus" from the Museum of Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira Island, Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gregório

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology followed in the conservation and restoration of the panel "Saint Sebastian calling on the faith of the Christian captive brothers Marcus and Marcellianus", datable to the late sixteenth century, belonging to the ancient altarpiece in the presbytery of the Church São Sebastião (Saint Sebastian, Terceira Island, Azores, and currently at the Museum of Angra do Heroísmo. It begins by presenting an historical overview and an iconographic and artistic study of the panel, which proved crucial to the understanding of the subject and its setting at the time, the church and the whole altarpiece. The double meaning as a testimony of faith and a symbol of national identity in times close to or already in the process of loss of independence from Portugal, is achieved through the hagiographic representation of the patron saint of the church on a base of cedar wood (Juniperus brevifolia, which enables to infer an author or local production. In the late nineties of the twentieth century, this support showed an intense deterioration resulting from colonization by fungi (brown rot and previous interventions. The work done back than was held by various thinning of the wood and partial filling that allowed the restoration of the physical balance of each one of five boards and the panel as a whole. After this phase, the intervention was stopped, coming to resume in 2007, with the further stabilization of wood, reassembly, repainting survey and treatment of pictorial layer. The methodology was adapted to the most current criteria, keeping only what had once been widely followed in the areas affected by fungal action, with a clear structural instability and inability to recover only by consolidating.

  9. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  10. Genealogical and molecular analysis of a family-based cohort of congenital heart disease patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Rita; Pires, Renato; Anjos, Rui; Branco, Claudia C; Maciel, Paula; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2016-11-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one common birth malformation, accounting for ∼30% of total congenital abnormalities. Considering the unknown role of consanguinity in causing CHD, this study hypothesised that consanguineous unions and/or familial aggregation may be frequent in the Azorean Island of São Miguel (Portugal). To that end, a retrospective observational study was performed based on genealogical and molecular analyses. The study enrolled 112 CHD patients from São Miguel Island, which allowed the assessment of type of family (simplex or multiplex), parental consanguinity and grandparental endogamy. Based on 15 STR markers, inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) in the CHD cohort and healthy control group (n = 114) were estimated. Multiplex families were 37.6% (n = 41/109), a rate considerably higher than previously described in the literature (genealogical and genetic features related with CHD, revealing the presence of parental consanguinity and extensive familial aggregation in the CHD patients from São Miguel Island.

  11. Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

    2009-04-01

    The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands of volcanic origin located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with an area of 2333 km2 and approximately 237500 inhabitants, which are 98% dependant from groundwater sources for their water consumption. Therefore, groundwater is a resource that plays a vital role as drinking water source and as ecosystem support matrix. Nevertheless, besides the environmental, social and economical value of groundwater, this resource is subject to an increase pressure and in several islands water quality deterioration is shown by monitoring data. This pressure is also shown by the 42.7% increase expected for domestic use until the year 2020 at the Azores, with higher groundwater abstraction. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, which is reflected by the low thermal amplitude and high precipitation. A well-established difference between a dry season and a colder and wet season occurs, as from October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered. The average annual precipitation at the Azores is 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration, which is 581 mm. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, and the highest values are observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is sparse. Groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Values above the recharge median, equal to 101.3x106 m3/yr. were estimated for the São Miguel, São Jorge, Terceira and Flores islands. Despite differences in the islands growth, as a result of successive volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be described in function of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in

  12. Coccolithophore paleoproductivity and ecology response to deglacial and Holocene changes in the Azores Current System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, C.; Kinkel, Hanno; Weinelt, M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the sensitivity of marine primary productivity in the midlatitude open ocean North Atlantic to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), we investigated two spliced sediment cores from a site south of the Azores Islands at the northern rim of the North At...

  13. Risso's dolphins alter daily resting pattern in response to whale watching at the Azores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Fleur; Hartman, Karin L.; Rood, Ente J. J.; Hendriks, Arthur J. E.; Zult, Daan B.; Wolff, Wim J.; Huisman, Jef; Pierce, Graham J.

    P>Behavioral responses of Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) to whale watching vessels were studied off Pico Island, Azores. Dolphin behavior was studied from a land-based lookout, enabling observations of groups in the absence and presence of vessels. The number of whale watching vessels showed a

  14. Risso’s dolphins alter daily resting pattern in response to whale watching at the Azores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Rood, E.J.J.; Hendriks, A.J.E.; Zult, D.B.; Wolff, W.J.; Huisman, J.; Pierce, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) to whale watching vessels were studied off Pico Island, Azores. Dolphin behavior was studied from a land-based lookout, enabling observations of groups in the absence and presence of vessels. The number of whale watching vessels showed a

  15. Characterisation of Sanguinhal Mire, Terceira Island (Azores: a protected quaking bog habitat Caracterização da Turfeira do Sanguinhal, ilha Terceira (Açores um habitat protegido de turfeira ondulante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. Sanguinhal mire was originally a lake that evolved through paludification into a peat habitat. It is located inside Nature 2000 (European Union for Protection of Nature and Biodiversity, Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, Habitat Directive Annex I(b habitat 7140 area of Santa Bárbara and Pico Alto Mountains on the island of Terceira, and it is a good example of a basin peatland type that was first discovered in 1998. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetation communities, structure, surface hydrology and chemistry. Forty-one plant species including six Sphagnum species and ten endemic vascular plants have been recorded, and eight plant communities are distinguished. The maximum peat depth is 2.5 m. The mire receives flowing water from its margins, in addition to intercepted precipitation and fog. After precipitation, water drains through several placic rupture points. Both pH and water conductivity were measured, with some ecological tendencies observed. The conservation status of the mire is good, but it is subject to increasing pressure from cattle pasture and a walking trail that constrains natural surface water movement.O Arquipélago dos Açores no Atlântico Norte é uma área importante em biodiversidade, rica em espécies e habitats raros em estado selvagem. A turfeira do Sanguinhal foi originalmente uma lagoa que evoluiu por paludificação para um habitat de turfa. Esta localiza-se na Rede Natura 2000 (União Europeia para a Proteção da Natureza e Biodiversidade, Directive do Conselho 92/43/EEC de 21 de Maio 1992 sobre a concervação de habitats naturais e da fauna e flora, Diretiva de Habitat Anexo I(b habitat 7140 da Serra de Santa Bárbara e Pico Alto e é um bom exemplo de um

  16. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved. Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate (Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression), were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit. The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors (altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use). It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area. The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores), a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits (ash and pumice lapilli) produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano. This materials associated to the steepness of the slopes (38,9% of the area has slope angles higher than 35°, reaching a maximum of 87,5°), make the area very prone to landslide activity. A total of 1.495 shallow landslides were mapped (at 1:5.000 scale) and included in a GIS database. The total affected area is 401.744 m2 (4,5% of the study area). Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than 700 m3. For modelling

  17. The Azores - G3 cruise: Multidisciplinary studies from the Azores rift zone to the Great Meteor seamount

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Nuno; Pinto de Abreu, Manuel; Madureira, Pedro; Pinto Ribeiro, Luísa

    2008-01-01

    During May/June 2007, the Cruise EMEPC/Açores/G3/2007 was sailed aboard the SV Kommandor Jack in the scope of Portuguese Program for the Extension of the Continental Shelf. The Cruise, mainly focused on geological sampling, comprised a 1st leg lasting five days, at the Terceira rift zone and S. Jorge Island flank and a 2nd leg which lasted twenty-four days at the Atlantis, Plato, Hyeres and Great Meteor Seamounts located south of the Azores region, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge off...

  18. Magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Torta

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A local ground magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (S. Miguel Island, Azores has provided new insight into the magnetic structure of this volcano. Analysis of the data comprised removal of the IGRF, reduction to the pole, pseudogravity integration and upward continuation. Also, a spectral method was applied to estimate the depth to the magnetic sources, as well as a 2.5D forward modelling technique. Magnetic properties obtained at the laboratory for some representative sample rocks were considered in the modelling process. The most relevant features are the existence of an important negative anomaly inside the caldera and of an intense positive anomaly to the south of the coast. The former points out a decrease in the magnetization of the caldera filling materials with respect to the surrounding rocks, which could be explained as the result of post-eruption processes such as hydrothermal alteration. This is expected as Furnas has an active hydrothermal system probably related with a magmatic reservoir at high temperature. The positive anomaly suggests the existence of a strongly-magnetized body beneath the south coast.

  19. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Eastern and Central groups of the Azores - Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontiela, João; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Borges, José; Rodrigues, Francisco; Caldeira, Bento

    2017-04-01

    Azores islands of the Eastern and Central groups are located at the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and Nubian plates inducing a large number of low magnitude earthquakes. Since its settlement in the 15th century, 33 earthquakes with intensity ≥ VII have caused severe damage and high death toll. The most severe ones occurred in 1522 at São Miguel Island with a maximum MM intensity of X; in 1614 at Terceira Island (X) in 1757 at São Jorge Island (XI); 1852 at São Miguel Island (VIII); 1926 at Faial Island (Mb 5.3-5.9); in 1980 at Terceira Island (Mw7.1) and in 1998 at Faial Island (Mw6.2). The analysis of the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were carried out using the classical Cornell-McGuire approach using seismogenic zones recently defined by Fontiela et al. (2014). We create a new earthquake catalogue merging local and global datasets with a large time span (1522 - 2016) to calculate recurrence times and maximum magnitudes. In order to reduce the epistemic uncertainties, we test several ground motion prediction equations in agreement with the geological heterogeneities typical of young volcanic islands. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps are proposed for 475 and 975 years returns periods as well as hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra for the main cities. REFERENCES: Fontiela, J. et al., 2014. Azores seismogenic zones. Comunicações Geológicas, 101(1), pp.351-354. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 of Regional Science Fund of the Regional Government Azores and this study is co-funded by the European Union through the European fund of Regional Development, framed in COMPETE 2020 (Operational Competitiveness Programme and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID/GEO/04683/2013) with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690.

  20. In the Azores, looking for the regions of knowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Laurie Neilson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This multi-voice script highlights the process of five years of research with coastal fishing communities in the Azores islands of Portugal. Initially, we used photo elicitation and focus groups to invite people to speak about the sea and all the deep, complex and sometimes contradictory meanings that it may have. In later years, the researchers sought environmental justice within everyday processes, using deep ethnographic and autobiographic-narrative inquiry which led to participation in learning about – as well as supporting – collaborations between fishers, scientists and policy makers. The text is constructed via arts-informed research methodology and consists of two parallel, creative narratives, intermittently interrupted by a visual narrative. This work calls for looking at the sea through new eyes, hearing with new ears, feeling differently and awakening to the possibility of knowing the sea in unfamiliar ways.

  1. The 2007 Azores earthquakes: A case of trigering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, E.; Borges, J.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Caldeira, B.

    2009-04-01

    THE 2007 AZORES EARTHQUAKES: A CASE OF TRIGERING? E. Buforn1 F. Borges2, M. Bezzeghoud2 1. Departamento de Geofísica y Meteorología, Fac. CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain), ebufornp@fis.ucm.es 2.Departamento de Física e Centro de Geofísica de Évora, University of Évora, Colégio Luis Verney, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59, 7002-554 Évora, jborges@uevora.pt On 5 April (Mw=6.3) and 7 April 2007 (Mw=6.1 ) two earthquakes occur at the Formigas Islets (Azores Islands), both with same epicenter and felt (I=V/VI MSK) in S. Miguel Island. The rupture process of these earthquakes has been studied from body wave inversion of broad band data at telesesimic distances. Results obtained shown normal faulting for both shocks, with planes oriented in NW-SE direction, with focus at shallow depth (10 km and 6 km respectively). The slip distribution over the fault plane (152/44/-88) shows for the 05-04-07 event, the rupture propagating downward and a duration of 12s for the source time function. For the 07-04-07 event, the slip distribution over the fault plane (125/52/-81) shows de rupture propagating downward and duration of 10s for the STF. From these results we have estimated the static Coulomb stress change. We find that the static stress change caused by the 5 April event is higher, about 2 bar at epicenter the location of the second event (April 7), triggering the second rupture. Locations of aftershocks do not agree well with areas of increased Coulomb failure stress, which can be explained by the complexities of the rupture process oy by uncertainties at the hypocerter location

  2. Genetic diversity and structure of Megabalanus azoricus in the Azores: Implications for aquaculture management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, Mirko; Torboli, Valentina; Pallavicini, Alberto; Isidro, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Megabalanus azoricus giant barnacles are the most traditional seafood of the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). This valuable commercial species has been highly exploited in the past and it is considered one of the key species for the development of aquaculture in the region. Despite the importance for conservation and aquaculture there is still a lack of basic information about M. azoricus genetic diversity and population structure. Here we used seven microsatellites markers to analyse 300 samples collected at six out of nine islands of the Azores archipelago, including also different locations from a single island, to provide information on the scale of genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Parameters like heterozygosity, allelic richness and effective number of alleles indicated a high genetic diversity and variability among islands. Pairwise comparisons and PCoA analysis on FST and Jost's DEST showed significant and evident differentiation among sampling locations. Additionally, AMOVA allocates a small (6.02%) but statistically significant portion of the variance to the among Island level revealing also a weak resolution (1.87%) at finer scale. Additionally Monte Carlo resampling methods indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Genetic risks associated with the giant barnacle potential production scheme should be taken into account in a future management plan delimiting, as precautionary measure, this culture at a single island or at groups of islands here identified. Moreover a monitoring strategy should be implemented with the aim to evaluate possible changes in genetic parameters of native populations.

  3. Azores 2017 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, Birgit [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Chevallier, Karine [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Weinhold, Kay [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany)

    2018-03-20

    Aerosol particles play an important role for the regional and global climate. Therefore, a network of measurement sites has been established worldwide, but only a small fraction of them is capturing the marine boundary layer (MBL) while approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. The main focus of this project is to improve the knowledge of sources and exchange processes of aerosol particles in general (German Research Foundation [DFG] project WE 2757/2-1) and of cloud condensation nuclei in particular (DFG project HE 6770/2-1) in the MBL in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean where the influence of local anthropogenic sources is negligible. The main hypothesis of the project is that long-range transport of aerosols from North America as well as new particle formation in the free troposphere (FT) and at cloud edges followed by vertical transport contribute significantly to the aerosol budget in the MBL. The knowledge of sources and sinks of aerosol particles in combination with vertical exchange between FT and MBL is a prerequisite to predict aerosol particle number concentrations in the lowest regions of the MBL and its influence on the formation of clouds. These processes are not sufficiently quantified over the ocean up to now. To verify the hypothesis stated above, vertical exchange processes and particle sources over the Azores will be quantified using data of 17 measurement flights with high spatial resolution using a helicopter-borne platform developed at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS). Here, aerosol particle number concentration and vertical wind speed have been measured with a temporal resolution allowing the direct estimate of the vertical turbulent flux of aerosol particles in different heights for the first time. In addition, aerosol particle number size distributions, number concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and particle absorption at three different

  4. Review of the Diversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Elasmobranchs in the Azores Region, Mid-North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Diya Das; Diya Das; Pedro Afonso; Pedro Afonso

    2017-01-01

    A vulnerable species group, such as, the elasmobranchs, in a data-deficient context presents a complicated management problem. Evidence suggests that the Azores islands, a remote archipelago on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, serve essential functions in the life-history of species across taxa. The diversity of marine resources within its EEZ are exploited by local to international fleets, and the full extent of fishing pressure can often be underestimated. Although sharks and rays appear to be of mi...

  5. Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago: Volcanic terrain instability and human vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, A.

    2006-08-01

    The islands of the Azores archipelago are geologically young and located in a tectonically and volcanically active region. Not surprisingly, the islands are subject to many geological hazards, including earthquakes, landslides, and coastal erosion; some selected examples are discussed in this paper. As demonstrated by two recent earthquakes (1980, Terceira; 1998, Faial), the principal damage was related to one or more of these factors: (1) unsafe location of structures near faults; (2) unstable foundation soils; (3) poor quality of building materials and construction methods; (4) disregard of building codes; and (5) lack of building maintenance. Major landsliding events in the Azores (e.g., Ponta da Fajã, Ribeira Quente, and Fajã dos Cubres) typically are triggered by intense, long-duration precipitation and (or) earthquake-induced ground shaking. The loose, unconsolidated nature of the rocks and soils of these volcanic islands is another significant contributing factor, sometimes aggravated by ground instability caused by human activity. Coastal erosion is prevalent on the north coast of São Miguel and the south coast of Faial, mostly resulting from natural circumstances (e.g., steepness of cliffs, differential erosion, intense wave action during storms) and also from human activity (e.g., poorly engineered drainage works on cliff faces). Where severe, coastal erosion can pose a risk to populations and societal infrastructures situated near the tops of the seacliffs. To mitigate the risk of these and other geological hazards in the Azores, it is necessary to (1) prepare hazards and risks maps of the affected areas; (2) adopt prudent land-use planning that considers the hazards; (3) upgrade the building codes in the hazardous areas; (4) initiate slope-stabilization programs; (5) preserve the natural environmental integrity of the regions; and (6) educate the affected populace and governmental officials about the possibilities and consequences of hazardous

  6. Magma genesis by rifting of oceanic lithosphere above anomalous mantle: Terceira Rift, Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Beier, C.; Haase, K. M.; Abouchami, W.; Krienitz, M-S.; Hauff, Folkmar

    2008-01-01

    [1] The Terceira Rift formed relatively recently (∼1 Ma ago) by rifting of the old oceanic lithosphere of the Azores Plateau and is currently spreading at a rate of 2–4mm/a. Together with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Terceira Rift forms a triple junction that separates the Eurasian, African, and American Plates. Four volcanic systems (São Miguel, João de Castro, Terceira, Graciosa), three of which are islands, are distinguished along the axis and are separated by deep avolcanic basins similar ...

  7. Characterisation of a basin mire in the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an extremely important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. The Lagoa do Madruga is a small basin mire located at 956 m a.s.l. on Santa Bárbara Mountain, Terceira Island. It is an extremely good example of a peatland type that was first discovered in 1998, and has not previously been described in the international literature. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetation communities, structure and hydrology. Thirty-one plant species including eight Sphagnum species and nine endemic vascular plants have been recorded, and four plant communities are distinguished. The maximum peat depth is three metres. The mire receives flowing water from its margins and from a small stream entering at its eastern end, in addition to intercepted precipitation and fog. The accumulated water forms pools and soakways which feed other wetlands downstream. The conservation status of the mire is good, but it is subject to increasing pressure from garbage generated during maintenance operations at a nearby antenna array.

  8. Structural evolution of deep-water submarine intraplate volcanoes / Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakemann, Josefine; Huebscher, Christian; Beier, Christoph; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Terrinha, Pedro; Weiß, Benedikt

    2017-04-01

    We present multibeam and high-resolution reflection seismic data which elucidate the architecture of three submarine intraplate volcanoes located in the southern Azores Archipelago. Data have been collected during RV Meteor cruise M113 in 2015. Four GI-Guns served as the seismic source. The digital streamer comprised 144 channels distributed over a length of 600 m. The three cones are situated in a depth down to 2300 m with heights varying between 200 m and 243 m, an average diameter of 1360 m and an average slope angle of ca. 22°. All three circular cones are surrounded by a circular channel. These features, previously named "fried eggs" were previously interpreted as impact crater (Dias et al., 2009). A comparison with nearby submarine volcanoes close to São Miguel island (Weiß et al., 2015), however, strongly suggests a volcanic origin. The seismic data indicate that the volcanic cones formed on top of a ca. 100 m thick pelagic succession covering the igneous basement. Magma ascent deformed the volcanic basement, displaced the pelagic sediments and a first eruption phase formed a small, seismically transparent volcanic cone. Further eruptions created a volcanic cone with rather transparent reflections within the inferior region changing to strong reflection amplitudes with a chaotic pattern in the superior area. Compared to the igneous basement internal reflection amplitudes are mainly weak. The seismic transparency and slope angle exclude the presence of effusive rocks, since lavas usually create strong impedance contrasts. A comparison of the seismic characteristics with those from submarine Kolumbo volcano (Hübscher et al., 2015) suggests volcaniclastic lithologies from explosive eruptions. The circular channel around the volcanic cone shows the characteristics of a moat channel created by bottom currents. References: Dias, F.C., Lourenco, N., Lobo, A., Santos de Campos, A., Pinto de Abreu, M., 2009. "Fried Egg": An Oceanic Impact Crater in the Mid

  9. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores...... patterns (five questions in total); island ontogeny and past climate change (4); island rules and syndromes (3); island biogeography theory (4); immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics (5); speciation and diversification (4); dispersal and colonization (3); community assembly (6); biotic interactions (2...

  10. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 9. The amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea) in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoniphargus was known from inland stygohabitats in the Iberian peninsula, the Azores, Madeira, N.W. Africa, and Bermuda, but not from the Canary Islands. Systematic sampling in six of the seven larger islands of the latter archipelago has revealed the presence of the genus in Tenerife (4

  11. Modeling directional spatio-temporal processes in island biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, José C; Cardoso, Pedro; Rigal, François; Triantis, Kostas A; Borges, Paulo A V

    2015-10-01

    A key challenge in island biogeography is to quantity the role of dispersal in shaping biodiversity patterns among the islands of a given archipelago. Here, we propose such a framework. Dispersal within oceanic archipelagos may be conceptualized as a spatio-temporal process dependent on: (1) the spatial distribution of islands, because the probability of successful dispersal is inversely related to the spatial distance between islands and (2) the chronological sequence of island formation that determines the directional asymmetry of dispersal (hypothesized to be predominantly from older to younger islands). From these premises, directional network models may be constructed, representing putative connections among islands. These models may be translated to eigenfunctions in order to be incorporated into statistical analysis. The framework was tested with 12 datasets from the Hawaii, Azores, and Canaries. The explanatory power of directional network models for explaining species composition patterns, assessed by the Jaccard dissimilarity index, was compared with simpler time-isolation models. The amount of variation explained by the network models ranged from 5.5% (for Coleoptera in Hawaii) to 60.2% (for Pteridophytes in Canary Islands). In relation to the four studied taxa, the variation explained by network models was higher for Pteridophytes in the three archipelagos. By the contrary, small fractions of explained variation were observed for Coleoptera (5.5%) and Araneae (8.6%) in Hawaii. Time-isolation models were, in general, not statistical significant and explained less variation than the equivalent directional network models for all the datasets. Directional network models provide a way for evaluating the spatio-temporal signature of species dispersal. The method allows building scenarios against which hypotheses about dispersal within archipelagos may be tested. The new framework may help to uncover the pathways via which species have colonized the islands of

  12. Tracking macroalgae introductions in North Atlantic oceanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micael, Joana; Parente, Manuela I.; Costa, Ana C.

    2014-06-01

    The Azores archipelago was selected as a case study since there are few studies on macroalgae introduction in oceanic islands. While at a global scale, around 3 % of macroalgae are considered non-indigenous; in the remote oceanic islands of the Azores, over 6 % of the marine algal flora is non-indigenous. The taxa distribution pattern of non-indigenous species in the Azores is significantly different from the distribution pattern in the globe. The most representative group was Rhodophyta species, being 84 % of the total non-indigenous macroalgae, mainly introduced via maritime traffic. This study highlights the vulnerability of remote islands to the introduction of macroalgae and the need to develop further studies on other archipelagos to understand whether the observed vulnerability is generally characteristic of oceanic islands. The development of local monitoring and mitigation programs and the necessity of regulatory and preventive measures for the maritime traffic vector are strongly suggested.

  13. Element concentrations in cold-water gorgonians and black coral from Azores region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Anes, Bárbara; Carreiro-Silva, Marina; Martins, Inês; Matos, Valentina de; Porteiro, Filipe M.

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities, including corals. Corals incorporate minor and trace elements and have been suggested as possible bioindicators of their availability in the environment. Forty specimens of five gorgonian species (Alcyonacea) and a black coral (Antipatharia) were collected in 12 sites in the Azores region. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in skeleton and attached tissue of each individual from each species. Leiopathes sp. had higher Cr, Ni, Se and Pb concentrations than the gorgonians. Enhanced Cu and Cd values were registered in Leiopathes and Acanthogorgia hirsuta. Specimens of A. hirsuta also presented elevated concentrations of Zn and Co. Linear relationships between Cd and Cu, Zn and Se point to response mechanisms in corals, possibly related to the induction of proteins enlarging the capacity to incorporate further quantities of essential elements. Results obtained in this study suggest the existence of an additional source of Cd in waters off Azores Islands associated with natural hydrothermal activities.

  14. The genetic link between the Azores Archipelago and the Southern Azores Seamount Chain (SASC): The elemental, isotopic and chronological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa Pinto; Martins, Sofia; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Madureira, Pedro; Mata, João

    2017-12-01

    New geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb) and K-Ar data, are presented here on samples from the Southern Azores Seamount Chain (SASC) located south of the Azores Plateau. The SASC also includes the Great Meteor, Small Meteor and Closs seamounts, morphologically connected by a saddle at - 4100 m deep. We conclude that the SASC are characterized by a narrow isotopic variability that falls within the Azores isotopic field. Although each seamount has its own isotopic signature, their mantle source must comprise four local mantle end-members, three of which are common to the Azores, e.g. Plato isotopic signature results from the mixing between HIMU and N-MORB while Great Meteor signature results from this mix with the Azores Common Component (AzCC). A fourth end-member with high 208Pb/204Pb and decoupled Th/U ratios (Δ8/4 up to 59.2) is identified on Great Meteor northern flank. New K-Ar ages on Plato (33.4 ± 0.5 Ma) and Small Hyeres (31.6 ± 0.4 Ma) show nearly coeval volcanism, which is contemporaneous with the E-MORBs erupted at the MAR, drilled on oceanic crust with 30-34 Ma (DSDP82). This study endorses the genetic link between the Azores Archipelago and the SASC to the long-term activity of the Azores plume and the large-scale ridge-hotspot interaction, contributing to better constrain the temporal-spatial evolution of this region of the North Atlantic.

  15. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  16. Nitrates in Groundwater Discharges from the Azores Archipelago: Occurrence and Fluxes to Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Virgílio Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater discharge is an important vector of chemical fluxes to the ocean environment, and as the concentration of nutrients is often higher in discharging groundwater, the deterioration of water quality in the receiving environment can be the result. The main objective of the present paper is to estimate the total NO3 flux to coastal water bodies due to groundwater discharge in the volcanic Azores archipelago (Portugal. Therefore, 78 springs discharging from perched-water bodies have been monitored since 2003, corresponding to cold (mean = 14.9 °C and low mineralized (47.2–583 µS/cm groundwater from the sodium-bicarbonate to sodium-chloride water types. A set of 36 wells was also monitored, presenting groundwater with a higher mineralization. The nitrate content in springs range between 0.02 and 37.4 mg/L, and the most enriched samples are associated to the impact of agricultural activities. The total groundwater NO3 flux to the ocean is estimated in the range of 5.23 × 103 to 190.6 × 103 mol/km2/a (∑ = ~523 × 103 mol/km2/a, exceeding the total flux associated to surface runoff (∑ = ~281 × 103 mol/km2/a. In the majority of the islands, the estimated fluxes are higher than runoff fluxes, with the exception of Pico (47.2%, Corvo (46% and Faial (7.2%. The total N-NO3 flux estimated in the Azores (~118.9 × 103 mol/km2/a is in the lower range of estimates made in other volcanic islands.

  17. Volcano-tectonic evolution of a linear volcanic ridge (Pico-Faial Ridge, Azores Triple Junction) assessed by paleomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro F.; Henry, Bernard; Marques, Fernando O.; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Lopes, Ana; Madureira, Pedro; Madeira, José; Nunes, João C.; Roxerová, Zuzana

    2018-02-01

    The morphology of volcanic oceanic islands results from the interplay between constructive and destructive processes, and tectonics. In this study, the analysis of the paleomagnetic directions obtained on well-dated volcanic rocks is used as a tool to assess tilting related to tectonics and large-scale volcano instability along the Pico-Faial linear volcanic ridge (Azores Triple Junction, Central-North Atlantic). For this purpose, 530 specimens from 46 lava flows and one dyke from Pico and Faial islands were submitted to thermal and alternating magnetic fields demagnetizations. Detailed rock magnetic analyses, including thermomagnetic analyses and classical high magnetic field experiments revealed titanomagnetites with different Ti-content as the primary magnetic carrier, capable of recording stable remanent magnetizations. In both islands, the paleomagnetic analysis yields a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization, which presents island mean direction with normal and reversed polarities in agreement with the islands location and the age of the studied lava flows, indicating a primary thermo-remanent magnetization. Field observations and paleomagnetic data show that lava flows were emplaced on pre-existing slopes and were later affected by significant tilting. In Faial Island, magmatic inflation and normal faults making up an island-scale graben, can be responsible for the tilting. In Pico Island, inflation related to magma intrusion during flow emplacement can be at the origin of the inferred tilting, whereas gradual downward movement of the SE flank by slumping processes appears mostly translational.

  18. Review of the Diversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Elasmobranchs in the Azores Region, Mid-North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diya Das

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A vulnerable species group, such as, the elasmobranchs, in a data-deficient context presents a complicated management problem. Evidence suggests that the Azores islands, a remote archipelago on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, serve essential functions in the life-history of species across taxa. The diversity of marine resources within its EEZ are exploited by local to international fleets, and the full extent of fishing pressure can often be underestimated. Although sharks and rays appear to be of minor importance in the fishery, the possibilities of illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing raises concerns about these threatened species. However, this group has failed to attract management attention, visible in the lack of regional studies focused on biodiversity, ecology, or threats of elasmobranchs. Our work attempts to review and update the information on elasmobranchs of the Azores and identify potential threats, mainly by the local fisheries. We aim to highlight knowledge gaps that require further research and conservation actions. We (1 update the annotated checklist of elasmobranch species, (2 compare species distribution across a biogeographically similar section of the North Atlantic, and (3 analyze the interaction of elasmobranch species with local fisheries. We confirm 61 chondrichthyan species for the Azores (39 sharks, 17 rays, and 5 chimaeras, adding 19 species to the previous annotated checklist of 1997. The Azores elasmobranch species assemblage most resembles Madeira, the neighboring Macaronesian archipelago. Biogeographic affinities between the chosen regions of the North Atlantic are reflected in the taxonomic structure of families. Although underestimated in the local fisheries, elasmobranchs constitute a regular but highly variable portion of total landings. Misreporting and misidentification is perhaps the greatest concern in the local fisheries records, further aggravated by few existing catch regulations for elasmobranchs

  19. Oceanic island biogeography: Nomothetic science of the anecdotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Meiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islands get more than their fair share of attention from biogeographers, macroecologists and evolutionary biologists. Adding to this existing bias, I claim that oceanic islands, especially oceanic island archipelagos (and among them, especially the Hawaii, the Canaries, Azores and, of course, the Galapagos attract much more scientific attention than the insights they offer or warrant. This focus on oceanic islands ignores other island types that may be better heuristic tools for studies of general ecological, biogeographic and evolutionary dynamics. The evolutionary and ecological dynamics of landbridge and continental islands are often as fast, dramatic, interesting and insightful, and merit more attention from island biogeographers. 

  20. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from two contrasting sites in the Azores (Portugal) - Horta Bay and D. João de Castro Seamount

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Amorim, Ana

    This work resulted from an expedition to the Azores on board of "NTM Creoula" in summer 2005, organized by the Portuguese Navy, the Portuguese Federation for Underwater Activities (FPAS) and National Geographic Portugal. Surface sediment samples were collected from two contrasting sites: Horta Bay...... in Horta Harbour was 36%, against 67% for D. João de Castro Bank. These differences reflect the contrasting nature of the two sites. Horta Harbour lies inside a natural sedimentary basin where cyst production, transport and sedimentation are integrated in space and time. By contrast, due to erosion and re......-suspension, the cyst community in D. João de Castro Bank reflects mainly recent cyst production. Wall et al. (1977) studied a sample from a harbour in the Azores (Ponta Delgada, São Miguel Island) and reported calcareous cysts (Scrippsiella trochoidea) as dominant. These authors observed ) as dominant. These authors...

  1. Short-term variability of gamma radiation at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radionuclides, and radon and its progeny in particular, can be used as a sensitive atmospheric tracer and an indicator of dynamic processes in the lower troposphere. Radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides (including Rn-222 progeny) is being continuously monitored since May 2015 in the framework of an ARM campaign at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the Government of the Autonomous Region of the Azores and University of the Azores. The resulting time series of 15-minute gamma ray counts radiation is characterized by occasional anomalies over a slowly-varying signal. Sharp peaks lasting typically 2-4 hours are coincident with heavy precipitation (> 10 mm/hour) and result from the scavenging effect of precipitation bringing radon progeny from the upper levels to the ground surface. However, the connection between gamma variability and precipitation is not straightforward as a result of the complex interplay of factors such as the precipitation intensity, the boundary layer height, the cloud's base height and thickness, or the air mass origin and atmospheric concentration of sub-micron aerosols, which influence the scavenging processes and therefore the concentration of radon progeny. Convective precipitation associated with cumuliform clouds forming under conditions of warming of the ground relative to the air does not produce enhancements in gamma radiation, likely as a result of the drop growing process being dominated by the fast accretion of liquid water, resulting in the reduction of the concentration of radionuclides by dilution. Events of convective precipitation further contribute to a reduction in gamma counts by inhibiting radon release from the soil surface and by attenuating gamma rays

  2. Tectonic pattern of the Azores spreading centre and triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Roger

    1980-12-01

    The major tectonic elements of the Azores triple junction have been mapped using long-range side-scan sonar. The data enable the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis to be located with a precision of a few kilometres. Major faults and other tectonic and volcanic elements of the ridge maintain their regional trend of 010° to 020° past the triple junction area. There is no oblique spreading, and only minor transform offsets of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge occur here. The main effect of the triple junction or Azores hot spot is to diminish the amplitude of the median valley to 200 m or less. There is no axial high: a topographic high seen on several profiles is located to the east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreading axis and does not appear to have any fundamental significance. The third arm of the triple junction includes the Azores srreading centre which appears to have developed as a series of en echelon rifted basins (the Terceira Rift) extending from Formigas Trough at 36.8°N, 24.5°W to a point near 39.3°N, 28.8°W. There are indications that recent activity in the spreading centre may be concentrated in a series of ridges which flank the older rifted basins. Until recently the northwest end of the Terceira Rift was connected to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis either directly at an RRR junction, or via a transform fault. The triple junction has probably moved south during the last 6 Ma to a positin on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 38.7°N. Initiation of the Azores spreading centre may have occurred during the 36 Ma B.P. rearrangement of poles, with an RFF triple junction north from the East Azores fracture zone to the North Azores fracture zone and transferring a wedge of European plate to the African plate. The tectonic elements revealed by this study are in good agreement with inferred earthquake mechanisms and with the RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan, but east-west motion between North America and Africa does not seem to be compatible with the other motions at the

  3. Looking for North Atlantic Baleen Whales: When are they coming to the Azores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The archipelago of the Azores is like an oasis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Surrounded by deep waters, those islands are a “must stop” place for every traveler, including, of course, cetaceans. Around the archipelago more than 24 different species of whales and dolphins can be seen. Some of them are resident such as the common dolphin or the emblematic sperm whale. But others are seasonal or sporadic, such as the spotted dolphin or the big baleen whales. The aim of this study is to assess the temporal distribution of the baleen whales sighted off Azores. We analyzed data gathered off the south coast of São Miguel (Azores from 2006 to 2013 from whale watching vessels. The whale watching company is located in Ponta Delgada and it works all throughout the year, always when the weather, the sea state and the number of tourists allow doing it. In Azores, whale watching companies use to locate cetaceans from land, with specialized lookouts spotting the animals from strategic points on the shore (as whalers did. These lookouts use powerful binoculars to locate the animals, and then give instructions to the boats to get to them. Once there, the boat registers date, hour, sea state, visibility, position (GPS, species, number of individuals, number of adults, juveniles and calves, behavior, association with other species and if there are other boats in the area. Photos are taken whenever it is possible and they are analyzed when the quality is good enough to distinguish natural marks and shapes. Most of the photos used in this study were taken in the last 5 years. Photo-Id catalogues were created for blue whales, fin whales and humpback whales. Data collected are more complete and frequent since 2009. In this case we have analyzed a total of 7691 sightings, belonging to 20 different species of cetaceans, 14 Odontoceti and 6 Mysticeti. In the latter group we recorded 491 sightings. The three most sighted Mysticeti species were the three great

  4. IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Nuno; Monteiro, Mário

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences entitled "Asteroseismology and Exoplanets: Listening to the Stars and Searching for New Worlds". The school addressed the topics at the forefront of scientific research being conducted in the fields of asteroseismology and exoplanetary science, two fields of modern astrophysics that share many synergies and resources. These proceedings comprise the contributions from 18 invited lecturers, including both monographic presentations and a number of hands-on tutorials.

  5. Seismic zones for Azores based on statistical criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. M. Rodrigues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define seismic zones in the Azores based on statistical criteria. These seismic zones will likely be used in seismic simulations of occurrences in the Azores Archipelago. The data used in this work cover the time period from 1915 to 2011. The Azores region was divided into 1° × 1° area units, for which the seismicity and the maximum magnitudes of events were calculated. The seismicity, the largest earthquakes recorded and the geological characteristics of the region were used to group these area units because similar seismic zones must delineate areas with homogeneous seismic characteristics. We have identified seven seismic zones. To verify that the defined areas differ statistically, we considered the following dissimilarity measures (variables: time, size and seismic conditions – the number of seismic events with specific characteristics. Statistical tests, particularly goodness-of-fit tests, allowed us to conclude that, considering these three variables, the seven earthquake zones defined here are statistically distinct.

  6. Diagenetic history of lower Pliocene rhodoliths of the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic): Application of cathodoluminescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, A C; Meireles, R P; Barbin, V; Neto, A I; Melo, C; Ávila, S P

    2016-01-01

    The diagenetic history of calcareous fossils is required for their application as palaeoenvironmental indicators. In this study, cathodoluminescence-microscopy (CL microscopy) and back scatter electron image-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (BSE-EDS microscopy) were applied to Pliocene rhodoliths from the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic) in order to gain additional insight regarding the trace element content distribution throughout the algae thalli, and to ascertain palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Two types of luminescence were obtained: (1) high and (2) low luminescence. Rhodoliths with high luminescence are related with high concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater and low luminescence rhodoliths are related with low concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater. When the rhodoliths were deposited at about 4.0-4.5 Ma, the shoreline configuration of Santa Maria Island was much different than today. The influence of volcanic activity due to the extrusion of lavas and associated products and/or the presence of active shallow-water hydrothermal vents, was reflected in the sea water chemistry, with penecontemporaneous palaeoshores of the island featuring a high sea water concentration of Mn(2+), which mirrored on the rhodolith Mn(2+) high concentration. By contrast, rhodoliths located about 2.8 and 2.9 km from the shore, in areas with low seawater Mn(2+) concentration, had low luminescence, reflecting the low Mn(2+) concentration in seawater. Rhodoliths chemical data and the geological history of the island proved to be congruent with the palaeogeographical reconstruction of Santa Maria Island at the time of the formation of the rhodoliths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thrombotic genetic risk factors and warfarin pharmacogenetic variants in São Miguel's healthy population (Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Paula R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background The Azorean population presents the highest standardized mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases (CVD when compared to mainland Portugal and other populations. Since thrombosis is a common cause of CVD, we assessed four polymorphisms in three thrombotic risk genes – F5 (G1691A, F2 (G20210A and MTHFR (C677T, A1298C, in 469 healthy blood donors from São Miguel Island (Azores. We also analysed the CYP2C9 (C430T, A1075C and VKORC1 (G1639A variants in fifty-eight individuals with predisposition to thrombosis (possessing at least one variation in F5 or F2 genes and one in MTHFR to evaluate their warfarin drug response genetic profiles. Results Among the 469 individuals, the data showed that thrombotic risk allele frequencies – 1691A (4.9%, 20210A (1.8%, 677T (41.7% and 1298C (24.8% – were similar to other Caucasians, but significantly different from mainland Portuguese (χ2, p F5, F2, MTHFR C677T and A1298C. Complete homozygosity for all wild-type alleles (GG GG CC AA was present in 11.7%, being GG GG CT AA (22.4% the most frequent profile. The results also demonstrated that 12.4% (58 out of 469 of São Miguel islanders have increased genetic predisposition to thrombosis. Subsequently, we evaluated these individuals for their warfarin response genetic profiles. The data showed that seven out of fifty-eight individuals are poor metabolizers (two with CYP2C9*2/*2 and five with CYP2C9*2/*3 genotypes. VKORC1 polymorphism analysis identified twelve individuals (20.7% with AA genotype, who probably will require lower doses of warfarin. The joint analysis of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 revealed that 79.3% (46 out of 58 of the individuals carry at least one polymorphism in these genes. Within these, twenty-five individuals (43.1% need intermediate and/or low doses of warfarin, if treatment is started. Conclusion The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that São Miguel, and possibly the Azores population, shows significant

  8. Magma genesis by rifting of oceanic lithosphere above anomalous mantle: Terceira Rift, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Christoph; Haase, Karsten M.; Abouchami, Wafa; Krienitz, Marc-S.; Hauff, Folkmar

    2008-12-01

    The Terceira Rift formed relatively recently (˜1 Ma ago) by rifting of the old oceanic lithosphere of the Azores Plateau and is currently spreading at a rate of 2-4mm/a. Together with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Terceira Rift forms a triple junction that separates the Eurasian, African, and American Plates. Four volcanic systems (São Miguel, João de Castro, Terceira, Graciosa), three of which are islands, are distinguished along the axis and are separated by deep avolcanic basins similar to other ultraslow spreading centers. The major element, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of submarine and subaerial lavas display large along-axis variations. Major and trace element modeling suggests melting in the garnet stability field at smaller degrees of partial melting at the easternmost volcanic system (São Miguel) compared to the central and western volcanoes, which appear to be characterized by slightly higher melting degrees in the spinel/garnet transition zone. The degrees of partial melting at the Terceira Rift are slightly lower than at other ultraslow mid-ocean ridge spreading axes (Southwest Indian Ridge, Gakkel Ridge) and occur at greater depths as a result of the melting anomaly beneath the Azores. The combined interaction of a high obliquity, very slow spreading rates, and a thick preexisting lithosphere along the axis probably prevents the formation and eruption of larger amounts of melt along the Terceira Rift. However, the presence of ocean islands requires a relatively stable melting anomaly over relatively long periods of time. The trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes display individual binary mixing arrays for each volcanic system and thus provide additional evidence for focused magmatism with no (or very limited) melt or source interaction between the volcanic systems. The westernmost mantle sources beneath Graciosa and the most radiogenic lavas from the neighboring Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggest a mantle flow from Graciosa toward the Mid

  9. Pollination, biogeography and phylogeny of oceanic island bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Alarcón, M.; Ehlers, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    relatives C. eminii and C. abyssinica. We asked to what extent related species converge in their floral biology and pollination in related habitats, i.e. oceanic islands. Study islands were the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Réunion. Information about phylogenetic relationships....... These examples of vertebrate pollination evolved independently on each island or archipelago. We discuss if these pollination systems have an island or mainland origin and when they may have evolved, and finally, we attempt to reconstruct the pollinator-interaction history of each species....

  10. A study of stomach contents of Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) (Aves: Procellariidae), from the Macaronesian Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Clarke, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Data are presented on the diet of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) resulting from stomach investigations based on 18 birds from Hierro (Canary Islands), 5 from Selvagem Grande (Selvagens or Salvage Islands), 2 from São Miguel and 1 from São Jorge (Azores), collected

  11. Natural trace element enrichment in fishes from a volcanic and tectonically active region (Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Giacomello, Eva; Anes, Bárbara; Menezes, Gui M.

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts, in general, are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities. They have been targeted by commercial fishing for demersal and pelagic fish species due to the occurrence of large aggregations in mid- and deep-water. Specimens of Phycis phycis, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pontinus kuhlii, Beryx splendens, Beryx decadactylus, Etmopterus pusillus, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Deania profundorum, Scomber colias and Trachurus picturatus were collected at the Condor seamount and on the slopes of Faial and Pico islands of Azores archipelago. Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in muscle and liver of each individual. Values of the 11 trace elements in the two tissues of the benthopelagic and benthic specimens, from the two surveyed areas, presented a significant inter-specific variation. In general, levels were lower in muscle than in liver, and negative relations between weight and Co, Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle and liver of three species were found. Pagellus bogaraveo, S. colias and T. picturatus presented enhanced elemental concentrations in liver, particularly of Cd. The extremely high storage of this potentially toxic element suggests a response to high uptake of Cd and the existence of an additional natural source of Cd to the environment.

  12. Predictive modeling of deep-sea fish distribution in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Hugo E.; Pham, Christopher K.; Menezes, Gui M.; Rosa, Alexandra; Tempera, Fernando; Morato, Telmo

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the link between fish and their habitat is essential for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. However, determining such relationship is challenging, especially for deep-sea species. In this study, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate presence-absence and relative abundance data of eight economically-important fish species to environmental variables (depth, slope, aspect, substrate type, bottom temperature, salinity and oxygen saturation). We combined 13 years of catch data collected from systematic longline surveys performed across the region. Overall, presence-absence GAMs performed better than abundance models and predictions made for the observed data successfully predicted the occurrence of the eight deep-sea fish species. Depth was the most influential predictor of all fish species occurrence and abundance distributions, whereas other factors were found to be significant for some species but did not show such a clear influence. Our results predicted that despite the extensive Azores EEZ, the habitats available for the studied deep-sea fish species are highly limited and patchy, restricted to seamounts slopes and summits, offshore banks and island slopes. Despite some identified limitations, our GAMs provide an improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of these commercially important fish species in the region.

  13. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  14. Seismo-volcanic monitoring at Furnas Volcano (Azores): radon (222Rn) concentration in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Virgílio Cruz, José; Ferreira, Teresa; Viveiros, Fátima; Freire, Pedro; Allard, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Azores archipelago, located in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, is composed of nine volcanic islands that formed at the triple junction of the North American, Eurasian and African (Nubian) tectonic plates. These volcanic islands were the sites of several eruptions and destructive earthquakes since human settlement in the 15th century. S. Miguel Island, the largest and most densely populated island of the Azores, hosts three active strato-volcanoes with calderas. Furnas Volcano is one of these. Its eruptive activity has been essentially explosive, involving magmas with trachytic (s.l.) composition. In the last 5000 years at least 10 explosive eruptions occurred inside the caldera of Furnas. The last one occurred in 1630 and was subplinian in character. Since then an intense hydrothermal activity has persisted, involving four main fumarolic fields, thermal springs, CO2-rich springs, several soil diffuse degassing areas (CO2 and 222Rn), as well as occasional hydrothermal explosions. In the past decade we have developed a radon survey of Furnas hydrothermal manifestations. Here we report on the radon survey of twelve water springs, located inside the caldera, and representative of the different water types encountered at the volcano (orthothermal, thermal and CO2-rich springs). Bimonthly sampling and determination of radon activity and water temperature was performed in the selected springs between years 2007 and 2011. At each sampling point two water samples were collected for radon dosing in laboratory with the RAD7 equipment. A decay correction was applied to each sample. The average radon activities were found to vary between 1.15 Bq/L and 29.77 Bq/L, while water temperatures ranged between 16.5 °C and 76.2 °C. As a whole radon activities inversely correlate with water temperature, with orthothermal springs showing higher radon activity than thermal springs. Temporal variations in both parameters appear to be mainly determined by seasonal variations of

  15. The role of Malcolm Clarke (1930–2013) in the Azores as a scientist and educationist

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes-Pereira, J.N.; Prieto, R.; Neves, V.; Xavier, J.; Pham, C.; Gonçalves, J.; Porteiro, F.; Santos, R.; Martins, H.

    2017-01-01

    Malcolm Roy Clarke (1930–2013) was a British teuthologist who made an important contribution to marine science in the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Malcolm started doing research in the Azores from 1980s onward, settling for residency in 2000 after retirement (in 1987). He kept publishing on Azorean cephalopods collaborating in 20% of the peer reviewed works focus- ing on two main areas: dietary studies; and the ecology of cephalopods on seamounts. Since his first visit in 1981, he ...

  16. Characterization of the decolorizing activity of azo dyes by Bacillus subtilis azoreductase AzoR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The product of the Bacillus subtilis gene azoR1 is annotated as a putative azoreductase, production of which isinduced in response to thiol-reactive compounds. Here we report on the decolorization of four azo dyes by azoreductaseactivity. The ability of overexpressed AzoR1 strain ORB7106 to catalyze decolorization of azo dyes was investigated on agarplates and in liquid cultures. The decolorization efficacy of a mutant, ORB7106, which has lost negative control of azoR1expression, was significantly better than the parental strain (JH642, providing evidence that the azoR1 gene product isan azoreductase with the ability to decolorize azo dyes. ORB7106 showed 40-98% azo dye decolorization within 48 h. Thebacterium exhibited a remarkable color removal capability over a wide range of Methyl Red concentrations (10-200 mg l-1, pH(5-9 and temperatures (25-45°C. A significant increase in the decolorization activity was observed after induction of AzoR1production. The results suggested that AzoR1 production could be induced by Methyl Red. The decolorizing activity isprimarily associated with the cytosolic fraction and requires NADH as a cofactor.

  17. Eradication of bovine brucellosis in the Azores, Portugal-Outcome of a 5-year programme (2002-2007) based on test-and-slaughter and RB51 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H; Garin-Bastuji, B; Lima, F; Flor, L; Pina Fonseca, A; Boinas, F

    2009-07-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an important contagious disease that can cause abortions and infertility in cattle, and can be transmitted to humans. Despite having an eradication programme in place since 1994, in 2000 the situation of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus was not significantly improving in 3 of the 9 islands (Terceira, S. Miguel and S. Jorge) of the archipelago of Azores, an autonomous region of Portugal. Farming on these islands, particularly dairy, is extensive. Therefore, the use of RB51 vaccine, which does not induce antibodies detectable with routine brucellosis diagnostic tests, was implemented. This article reports the results of an eradication programme based on RB51 mass vaccination combined with test-and-slaughter, which was implemented in the Azores during the 2002-2007 period. During the first round of vaccination, both adult cows and heifers were vaccinated. Subsequently, only replacement stock aged 4-12 months, were immunized with RB51.The test-and-slaughter policy based on bulk milk ring test (MRT) and serological surveillance was maintained. During this period, the average brucellosis herd incidence, herd prevalence and individual prevalence decreased 69.26%, 39.26% and 75.41% respectively for the three above-mentioned islands. However, disease reduction approaching eradication was obtained only on the island of Terceira, where a high level of vaccine coverage was rapidly reached and regularly maintained together with strict application of a test-and-slaughter programme. This work shows that the RB51 vaccine could be a useful tool for eradicating bovine brucellosis in well-controlled epidemiological units provided that there is mass vaccine coverage for a sufficiently long period of time and it is combined with an appropriate test-and-slaughter programme.

  18. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The

  19. HLA genes in Madeira Island (Portugal) inferred from sequence-based typing: footprints from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Mora, Marian Gantes; Middleton, Derek; Brehm, António

    2006-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms were examined in Madeira Island populations. The data was obtained at high-resolution level, using sequence-based typing (SBT). The most frequent alleles at each loci were: A*020101 (24.6%), B*5101 (9.7%), B*440201 (9.2%), and DRB1*070101 (15.7%). The predominant three-loci haplotypes in Madeira were A*020101-B*510101-DRB1*130101 (2.7%) and A*010101-B*0801-DRB1*030101 (2.4%), previously found in north and central Portugal. The present study corroborates historical sources and other genetic studies that say Madeira were populated not only by Europeans, mostly Portuguese, but also sub-Saharan Africans due to slave trade. Comparison with other populations shows that Madeira experienced a stronger African influence due to slave trade than Portugal mainland and even the Azores archipelago. Despite this African genetic input, haplotype and allele frequencies were predominantly from European origin, mostly common to mainland Portugal.

  20. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) outbreak in Azores: Disclosure of common genetic markers and phylogenetic segregation within the European strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida; Carvalho, Carina; Bernardo, Susana; Barros, Sílvia Vanessa; Benevides, Sandra; Flor, Lídia; Monteiro, Madalena; Marques, Isabel; Henriques, Margarida; Barros, Sílvia C; Fagulha, Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is widespread in several countries of Western Europe, but it has not been introduced to other continents. However, between late 2014 and early 2015, the presence of RHDV2 was confirmed outside of the European continent, in the Azores, initially in the islands of Graciosa, Flores, S. Jorge and Terceira. In this study we report the subsequent detection of RHDV2 in wild rabbits from the islands of Faial, St. Maria and S. Miguel, and display the necropsy and microscopic examination data obtained, which showed lesions similar to those induced by classical strains of RHDV, with severe affection of lungs and liver. We also disclose the result of a genetic investigation carried out with RHDV2 positive samples from wild rabbits found dead in the seven islands. Partial vp60 sequences were amplified from 27 tissue samples. Nucleotide analysis showed that the Azorean strains are closely related to each other, sharing a high genetic identity (>99.15%). None of the obtained sequences were identical to any RHDV2 sequence publically known, hampering a clue for the source of the outbreaks. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses disclosed that Azorean strains are more closely related to a few strains from Southern Portugal than with any others presently known. In the analysed region comprising the terminal 942 nucleotides of the vp60 gene, four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified. Based on the present data, these four SNPs, which are unique in the strains from Azores, may constitute putative molecular geographic markers for Azorean RHDV2 strains, if they persist in the future. One of these variations is a non-synonymous substitution that involves the replacement of one amino acid in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility of Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanic Islands to Landsliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N. C.

    2001-12-01

    Major landslides in volcanic islands on old oceanic lithosphere, such as in the Canaries, are revealed by deep embayments in their subaerial slopes, and below sea level by chutes and broad debris lobes at the base of their edifices. With a view to addressing whether volcanic islands growing on young oceanic lithosphere show a different character or incidence of landsliding to those on old lithosphere, a database was created from hydrographic soundings, radar images and multibeam and sidescan sonar data from Ascension, Bouvet, Guadalupe, Jasper Seamount and several of the Galapagos and Azores islands. The data suggest the following: 1) Major landslides on these islands are less common and are not obviously associated with multiple cycles of island growth and collapse as they are in the Canaries. 2) Landslides appear different from analogous Canary Island landslides, for example they do not clearly exhibit extensive chutes. 3) Landslides range in size from minor submarine slope failures (e.g., Ascension), to failures involving lower subaerial slopes (e.g., Tristan da Cunha), and only rarely to extensive events affecting the volcano summit or caldera (e.g. Guadalupe). 4) The Azores islands of Terceira, Flores, Corvo and Sao Jorge reach no more than 2500 m above the surrounding seafloor and show no landslides of significant size. This presentation will review the data and discuss possible origins of the contrasting incidence and character of landsliding between islands on young and old lithosphere.

  2. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  3. Responses to, and the short and long-term impacts of, the 1957/1958 Capelinhos volcanic eruption and associated earthquake activity on Faial, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Rui; Chester, David K.; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Duncan, Angus M.

    2010-10-01

    The 1957/58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial Island in the Azores is well known for being an excellent example of Surtseyan hydromagmatic volcanic activity. Less well known are the responses of the Portuguese authorities to the eruption and subsequent earthquake in May 1958, and the ways in which well-thought-out and generally effective recovery programmes were put in place. At the time Portugal was ruled by a dictatorship, the Estado Novo (New State). Only superficially similar to other fascist governments in Southern Europe, the Estado Novo collected huge amounts of data on the responses of the authorities to the disaster and their programmes of recovery, but never encouraged academic evaluation of policy, although it ensured that the scientific aspects of the eruption and earthquake were meticulously recorded and published. In this paper we remedy this situation by discussing the details of the immediate response to the emergency and the ways in which the island recovered in its aftermath. The study is based not only on archival sources and demographic and economic data, but also on detailed interviews with survivors some of whom were also decision makers. We argue that response, recovery and rehabilitation were generally highly successful and assess the lessons of the 1957/58 emergency which are relevant to future geophysical disasters in Faial and the wider Azores. Since the 1974 revolution Portugal has been a democratic state. We conclude that both the legislation and the civil defence infrastructure, necessary to achieve a similarly strong and successful response, are in place today.

  4. Urban modelling for seismic prone areas: the case study of Vila Franca do Campo (Azores Archipelago, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, V. N.; Cabral, P.; Silva, D. Sousa e.

    2012-09-01

    Seismic risk mitigation comprises of land-use planning policies that enable risk reduction in areas exposed to earthquakes. Thus, the assessment of land-use plans regarding urban growth in seismic prone areas is very important. This article analyses the urban expansion of Vila Franca do Campo (island of S. Miguel, Azores, Portugal) from 1994 to 2005 based on ortophotomaps interpretations and simulates a scenario of urban growth for the year 2016 with a Land-use and Cover-Change (LUCC) model (Geomod). The goal is to evaluate the potential impact of land-use plans in managing urban growth and promoting seismic risk mitigation. Results indicate that the urban expansion, between 1994 and 2005, was done according to the Municipal Master Plan (MMP) restrictions. The scenario modelled for the year 2016 is potentially stricter for urban growth because it adds to the previous plan the constraints defined by the South Coast Management Plan (SCMP) that entered into force in 2007. In both time periods, a continuing urban growth towards seismic areas was identified. The absence of seismic risk mitigation policies and measures on both plans may contribute to increase the seismic hazard exposure and vulnerability. The results of this study strongly suggest the reformulation of future land-use plans to include seismic risk mitigation goals and policies.

  5. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  6. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-08

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues.

  7. Collaborative Research: Cloudiness transitions within shallow marine clouds near the Azores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechem, David B. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Atmospheric Science Program. Dept. of Geography and Atmospheric Science; de Szoeke, Simon P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; Yuter, Sandra E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences

    2017-01-15

    Marine stratocumulus clouds are low, persistent, liquid phase clouds that cover large areas and play a significant role in moderating the climate by reflecting large quantities of incoming solar radiation. The deficiencies in simulating these clouds in global climate models are widely recognized. Much of the uncertainty arises from sub-grid scale variability in the cloud albedo that is not accurately parameterized in climate models. The Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP–MBL) observational campaign and the ongoing ARM site measurements on Graciosa Island in the Azores aim to sample the Northeast Atlantic low cloud regime. These data represent, the longest continuous research quality cloud radar/lidar/radiometer/aerosol data set of open-ocean shallow marine clouds in existence. Data coverage from CAP–MBL and the series of cruises to the southeast Pacific culminating in VOCALS will both be of sufficient length to contrast the two low cloud regimes and explore the joint variability of clouds in response to several environmental factors implicated in cloudiness transitions. Our research seeks to better understand cloud system processes in an underexplored but climatologically important maritime region. Our primary goal is an improved physical understanding of low marine clouds on temporal scales of hours to days. It is well understood that aerosols, synoptic-scale forcing, surface fluxes, mesoscale dynamics, and cloud microphysics all play a role in cloudiness transitions. However, the relative importance of each mechanism as a function of different environmental conditions is unknown. To better understand cloud forcing and response, we are documenting the joint variability of observed environmental factors and associated cloud characteristics. In order to narrow the realm of likely parameter ranges, we assess the relative importance of parameter conditions based primarily on two criteria: how often the condition occurs (frequency

  8. El diario íntimo, Azorín y la nueva novela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relationship between the diary, as a literary genre, and the beginning of the new roman in José Martínez Ruiz, «Azorín», in a similar way than other Spanish writers of the '98 generation, as Baroja or Unamuno. Some characteristics of his style (the intimacy, the use of the first persone, the present tense, the simplificity, the fragmentary sintax, etc. comes from this genre. This article also studies Azorín's works between 1897 to 1904 in order to show the presence of the autobiographic subject in all of his youthful production.Este artículo contempla la relación entre el diario, como género literario, y el comienzo de la nueva novela en José Martínez Ruiz, «Azorín» de una manera semejante al de otros escritores españoles de la generación del '98, como Baroja o Unamuno. Algunas características de su estilo (la intimidad, el uso de la primera persona, el presente perfecto, la sencillez, la sintaxis fragmentaria, etc. proceden de este estilo. Este artículo, por tanto, estudia las obras de Azorín entre 1897 y 1904, con la intención de ver la presencia del tema autobiográfico en toda su producción de juventud.

  9. Vitellibacter nionensis sp. nov., isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C.; Yoon, J.-H.; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C.K.; Li, W.-J.; Colaco, A.

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped yellow pigmented bacterium, designated VBW088T was isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain VBW088...

  10. Full genome sequences are key to disclose RHDV2 emergence in the Macaronesian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana M; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Leitão, Manuel; Foronda, Pilar; Mendes, Marco; Gonçalves, David; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J

    2018-02-01

    A recent publication by Carvalho et al. in "Virus Genes" (June 2017) reported the presence of the new variant of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) in the two larger islands of the archipelago of Madeira. Based on the capsid protein sequence, the authors suggested that the high sequence identity, along with the short time spanning between outbreaks, points to dissemination from Porto Santo to Madeira. By including information of the full RHDV2 genome of strains from Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, we confirm the results obtained by Carvalho et al., but further show that several subtypes of RHDV2 circulate in these islands: non-recombinant RHDV2 in the Canary Islands, G1/RHDV2 in Azores, Porto Santo and Madeira, and NP/RHDV2 also in Madeira. Here we conclude that RHDV2 has been independently introduced in these archipelagos, and that in Madeira at least two independent introductions must have occurred. We provide additional information on the dynamics of RHDV2 in the Macaronesian archipelagos of Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands and highlight the importance of analyzing RHDV2 complete genome.

  11. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  12. New insight into the epidemiology of rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in Portugal: retrospective study reveals the circulation of genogroup 5 (G5) in Azores and discloses the circulation of G1 and G6 strains in mainland until 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida Dias; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia; Luís, Tiago; Fagulha, Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The genetic relationships between 10 rabbit hemorrhagic disease strains collected in Portugal between 2006 and 2013, originated in the mainland and Azorean islands, were investigated based on the vp60 gene variability. A genetic diversity ranging from 2% to 13% was determined among the 10-vp60 complete sequences revealing a significant level of genetic heterogeneity between same strains. Phylogenetic Bayesian analysis showed that the Portuguese RHDV strains fell within different genogroups, namely G1, G5 and G6. Interestingly, all strains obtained from Azores, where RHDV was first detected in 1988, belong to G5 genogroup. G5 strains, that were not identified in the continent so far, seem to be the dominant group in these Atlantic islands. G1-related strains belonging to the Iberian group 3 (n=3) and G6 (RHDVa) strains (n=2) were identified among the samples originated in mainland which were collected between 2006 and 2008. Although the presence of G1 and G6 in Portugal had been shown before, our data refines the time of circulation of these strains until at least 2008. In summary, this study revises the epidemiological information of RHDV in Portugal since it reports for the first time the presence of G5 strains in Azores and demonstrates the circulation of G1 and G6 strains in mainland Portugal until the late 2000s. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  14. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  15. Mantle Dynamics and Melting at the Ultraslow Spreading Terceira Axis, Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, C.; Haase, K.; Abouchami, W.; Hauff, F.

    2005-12-01

    The ultraslow spreading Terceira axis (full-spreading rate of 2-4mm/year) in the Azores exhibits an along-axis pattern of deep amagmatic basins and large volcanic centres comparable to the ultraslow Arctic Gakkel Ridge and Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). From west to east the volcanic centres of the Terceira axis include the islands of Graciosa and Terceira, the seamount João de Castro, and the island of São Miguel. In contrast to the Arctic Gakkel Ridge and the SWIR, the Terceira axis is situated within a large oceanic plateau that formed from a melting anomaly possibly associated with a hot- or wetspot. Lavas from the eastern volcanoes João de Castro and on São Miguel are more enriched in several incompatible elements (e.g. K2O) and have higher Th/U and Nd/Sm compared to Graciosa and Terceira. This trace element enrichment is correlated to an enrichment of the 208Pb/204Pb and 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios suggesting a time-integrated enrichment of Nd and Th relative to Sm and U, respectively. Consequently, two different mantle domains underlie the Terceira axis and only limited mixing occurs between material beneath the eastern and western volcanic systems. The Terceira-Graciosa mantle material flows towards the Mid-Atlantic Ridge causing a geochemical anomaly at the spreading axis. The fractionation-corrected Terceira axis lavas define a negative trend in Na2O versus TiO2 contents, with low Na2O-high TiO2 at São Miguel and high Na2O-low TiO2 at Graciosa/Terceira. Modelling suggests that similar degrees of partial melting (2-3 %) of variably re-enriched depleted mantle sources can reproduce this negative trend. The FeOT and heavy rare earth elements ratios (e.g. Dy/Yb) are lower in the western lavas from Graciosa and Terceira than beneath the eastern volcanoes. On the other hand, Al2O3 contents are higher in the lavas from Graciosa and Terceira than in the eastern part of the Terceira axis. Thus, from west to east the depth of partial melting increases. Trace

  16. Seismic and volcanic risk in the Azores: reasons to stay in endangered places

    OpenAIRE

    Arroz, Ana Margarida Moura; Palos, Ana Cristina Pires; Rego, Isabel Estrela

    2008-01-01

    SRA 2008 Annual Meeting "Risk Analysis: The Science and the Art", Boston, Massachusetts, Sunday, 7 December 2008 to Wednesday, 10 December 2008. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been regular phenomena throughout the Azores' six centuries of history. In spite of the knowledge already gathered by local historians and Earth sciences researchers, there are no scientific data on the socio-cultural dimensions of volcanic and seismic risks. A study – TOPOI METUS. Social cosmographies of d...

  17. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-04-10

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AzoR (azoreductase) from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kosuke [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Nakanishi, Masayuki [Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Lee, Woo-Cheol; Sasaki, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Zenno, Shuhei; Saigo, Kaoru [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kitade, Yukio [Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AzoR (azoreductase) have been performed. AzoR (azoreductase), an FMN-dependent NADH-azo compound oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli, has been crystallized in the presence of FMN by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using 2-propanol as a precipitant. AzoR catalyzes the reductive cleavage of azo groups. The crystals were found to diffract X-rays to beyond 1.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.2, c = 51.9 Å. The crystals are expected to contain one subunit of the homodimer in the asymmetric unit (V{sub M} = 2.6 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}) and to have a solvent content of 51.6%. Data sets were also collected from heavy-atom derivatives for use in phasing. As a result, crystals soaked in a solution containing K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} for 23 d were found to be reasonably isomorphous to the native crystals and the presence of Pt atoms could be confirmed. The data sets from the native crystals and the K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4}-derivatized crystals are being evaluated for use in structure determination by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering.

  19. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  20. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  1. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Diab, Abdulrahman I.

    2005-01-01

    To describe the clinicopathological features, treatment, treatment outcome and sequelae of patients with nodular lymphocyte, predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL) in Saudi population. This is a retrospective review of 29 patients with lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma treated at two major hospitals (King Khalid University Hospital and Security Forces Hospital) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1985 to 2000. Histological subtypes were confirmed by review of hematoxylin and eosin paraffin sections and immunochemistry. Details of clinical presentation, stage, treatment and results of treatment were analyzed. On pathological reappraisal of the 29 cases, 3 patients had nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma and 4 patients were reclassified as lymphocyte rich classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twenty-two patients were identified to have nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL). These patients comprised of 18 mails and 4 female patients with a median age at presentation of 25 years. Nineteen (86%) patients had an early stage (Ann Arbor stage I and II) disease, 2 had stage III and one patient had stage IV. The majority of patients presented with peripheral lymphadenopathy and long duration of symptoms. For 16 patients, details of treatment and follow-up were available. All of these achieved a complete response to initial treatment. Four patients relapsed following the primary therapy. Our results are consistent with the previous series reported from Western countries and confirmed that the patients with NLPHL have characteristic clinical and pathological profile that distinguish it from other types of Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease tends to run an unusual course and although most patients achieve an excellent response to therapy there is a tendency to replace. treatment remains controversial; however, recent understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of NLPHL could lead to modification of current therapeutic approach to this disease. (author)

  2. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  3. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidation (amoA) and Nitrogen Fixation (nifH) Genes in Lava Caves of Terceira, Azores, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Jennifer J Marshall; Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Dapkevicius, Maria De Lurdes N E; Northup, Diana E

    Lava caves are an understudied ecosystem in the subterranean world, particularly in regard to nitrogen cycling. The diversity of ammonia oxidation ( amoA ) and nitrogen fixation ( nifH ) genes in bacterial mats collected from lava cave walls on the island of Terceira (Azores, Portugal) was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 55 samples were collected from 11 lava caves that were selected with regard to surface land use. Land use types above the lava caves were categorized into pasture, forested, and sea/urban, and used to determine if land use influenced the ammonia oxidizing and nitrogen fixing bacterial communities within the lava caves. The soil and water samples from each lava cave were analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate, to determine if land use influences either the nutrient content entering the lava cave or the nitrogen cycling bacteria present within the cave. Nitrosospira -like sequences dominated the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community, and the majority of the diversity was found in lava caves under forested land. The nitrogen fixation community was dominated by Klebsiella pneumoniae -like sequences, and diversity was evenly distributed between pasture and forested land, but very little overlap in diversity was observed. The results suggest that land use is impacting both the AOB and the nitrogen fixing bacterial communities.

  4. MODELLING THE POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION AND RICHNESS OF CETACEANS IN THE AZORES FROM FISHERIES OBSERVER PROGRAM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tobeña

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine spatial planning and ecological research call for high-resolution species distribution data. However, those data are still not available for most marine large vertebrates. The dynamic nature of oceanographic processes and the wide-ranging behavior of many marine vertebrates create further difficulties, as distribution data must incorporate both the spatial and temporal dimensions. Cetaceans play an essential role in structuring and maintaining marine ecosystems and face increasing threats from human activities. The Azores holds a high diversity of cetaceans but the information about spatial and temporal patterns of distribution for this marine megafauna group in the region is still very limited. To tackle this issue, we created monthly predictive cetacean distribution maps for spring and summer months, using data collected by the Azores Fisheries Observer Programme between 2004 and 2009. We then combined the individual predictive maps to obtain species richness maps for the same period. Our results reflect a great heterogeneity in distribution among species and within species among different months. This heterogeneity reflects a contrasting influence of oceanographic processes on the distribution of cetacean species. However, some persistent areas of increased species richness could also be identified from our results. We argue that policies aimed at effectively protecting cetaceans and their habitats must include the principle of dynamic ocean management coupled with other area-based management such as marine spatial planning.

  5. Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure.

  6. The electric vehicles as a mean to reduce CO2 emissions and energy costs in isolated regions. The São Miguel (Azores) case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, Cristina; Farias, Tiago

    2012-01-01

    Most of small islands around the world today, are dependent on imported fossil fuels for the majority of their energy needs especially for transport activities and electricity production. The use of locally renewable energy resources and the implementation of energy efficiency measures could make a significant contribution to their economic development by reducing fossil fuel imports. An electrification of vehicles has been suggested as a way to both reduce pollutant emissions and increase security of supply of the transportation sector by reducing the dependence on oil products imports and facilitate the accommodation of renewable electricity generation, such as wind and, in the case of volcanic islands like São Miguel (Azores) of the geothermal energy whose penetration has been limited by the valley electricity consumption level. In this research, three scenarios of EV penetration were studied and it was verified that, for a 15% LD fleet replacement by EVs with 90% of all energy needs occurring during the night, the accommodation of 10 MW of new geothermal capacity becomes viable. Under this scenario, reductions of 8% in electricity costs, 14% in energy, 23% in fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions for the transportation and electricity production sectors could be expected. - Highlights: ► EVs impacts on the electric system in energy and power profiles, costs and emissions. ► At least an EV penetration of 15% is needed to allow new geothermal power production. ► Reductions in energy, fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions of 9%, 16% and 17% respectively. ► Electricity production with more % of renewable technologies reduces unit costs.

  7. Volcanic Aggregates from Azores and Madeira Archipelagos (Portugal): An Overview Regarding the Alkali Silica Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Sara; Ramos, Violeta; Fernandes, Isabel; Nunes, João Carlos; Fournier, Benoit; Santos Silva, António; Soares, Dora

    2017-12-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a type of deterioration that has been causing serious expansion, cracking and durability/operational issues in concrete structures worldwide. The presence of sufficient moisture, high alkali content in the cement paste and reactive forms of silica in the aggregates are the required conditions for this reaction to occur. Reactive aggregates of volcanic nature have been reported in different countries such as Japan, Iceland and Turkey, among others. The presence of silica minerals and SiO2-rich volcanic glass is regarded as the main cause for the reactivity of volcanic rocks. In Portugal, volcanic aggregates are mainly present in Azores and Madeira Archipelagos and, for several years, there was no information regarding the potential alkali-reactivity of these rocks. Since the beginning of this decade some data was obtained by the work of Medeiros (2011) and Ramos (2013) and by the national research projects ReAVA, (Characterization of potential reactivity of the volcanic aggregates from the Azores Archipelago: implications on the durability of concrete structures) and IMPROVE (Improvement of performance of aggregates in the inhibition of alkali-aggregate reactions in concrete), respectively. In order to investigate the potential alkali-reactivity of aggregates from both archipelagos, a total of sixteen aggregates were examined under the optical microscope and, some of them, also under the Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. A set of geochemical analyses and laboratory expansion tests were also performed on those volcanic aggregates. The main results showed that the presence of volcanic glass is rare in both archipelagos and that the samples of Madeira Archipelago contain clay minerals (mainly from scoria/tuff formations inter-layered with the lava flows), which can play a role in concrete expansion. The results of the laboratory tests showed that one of the samples performed as potentially reactive

  8. The diet of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus 1758) off the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M R; Martins, H R; Pascoe, P

    1993-01-29

    Stomach contents from 17 sperm whales, 15 males and two females, caught during commercial activities in 1981-1984 in the Azores region were identified and measured. A total of 28,738 cephalopods and 16 fish were represented in the collections. In addition, there were tunicates in two whales and man-made products in three whales. None of the stomachs were empty. Flesh was present in 94.1% and indigestible fragments alone, including mandibles (beaks) of cephalopods, were present in 5.9% of the stomachs. Twelve species of cephalopod were represented by flesh and 40 species were represented by lower beaks. The cephalopod families contributing food to the whales in this region are, in order of their contribution by estimated mass, the Octopoteuthidae (39.8%), the Histioteuthidae (32.7%), the Architeuthidae (12.1%), the Lepidoteuthidae (4.5%), the Ommastrephidae (3.4%), the Pholidoteuthidae (2.1%), the Cycloteuthidae (1.9%), the Cranchiidae (1.7%) and eight other families each contributing less than 1% by mass. Presence of Gonatus beaks in the stomachs show which whales have migrated southwards to the Azores just prior to capture and the presence of a large Megalocranchia species possibly shows which whales have migrated from higher latitudes off Iceland. However, the presence of Teuthowenia maculata shows which whales came north from the West coast of Africa, just prior to capture. The modal mass of cephalopods consumed is 400-450 g which represents 0.00001 of the whales' body mass. 77.5% of the species eaten have luminous organs and 82% of the species are neutrally buoyant. It seems likely that the sperm whale is obtaining 77% of its food by swimming through luminous shoals of slow-swimming, neutrally bouyant squids and only about 23% by chasing faster swimming, larger cephalopods. Cephalopods not previously recorded from the North Atlantic are Onychoteuthis boreali-japonicus, and Histioteuthis bonnellii corpuscula. Histioteuthis ?miranda may have been collected by the

  9. Molecular survey of parasites in introduced Pelophylax perezi (Ranidae) water frogs in the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Harris, D; Spigonardi, Maria Pia; Maia, João P M C; Cunha, Regina T

    2013-12-01

    Water frogs, Pelophylax perezi, that are introduced in the Azores, were screened for parasites using PCR primers known to amplify Apicomplexa parasites, and using nematode-specific primers. With the former, three different organisms were detected: Hepatozoon, a trichodinid protozoan ciliate and a possible Stramenopile. Using the latter set of primers, a single unknown spirurid nematode was also detected. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Hepatozoon detected within amphibian hosts appear to form a clade, although relationships of these parasites do not match the vertebrate intermediate host phylogeny. Regarding the possible Stramenopile, it is unclear whether this organism was actually present on the amphibian or in the water on the surface of the tissue sample. Our findings highlight that many different organisms can be detected with these primers and that they can be used to screen introduced host populations to detect parasites that have been brought with them.

  10. Azorín y la política: testigo y parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Selva Roca de Togores

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pocas veces un seudónimo ha suplantado tan definitiva y rotundamente el nombre verdadero de un escritor como en el caso de Azorín. La elección del seudónimo fue, no cabe duda, un ingrediente esencial en la máscara que se diseñó José Martínez Ruiz cuando –superados sus radicalismos anarquizantes juveniles– decidió comparecer en la vida pública con un perfil bien definido. No deja de ser curioso que el seudónimo lo estrenase en la primera crónica parlamentaria publicada en el diario España, rec...

  11. Tourist destination image and consumer behaviour: The case of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria Pascoal Melo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Destinations are currently seeking to become more distinctive in an increasingly competitive market in which image is a decisive element in tourists’ destination selection. This study sought to understand the Azores’ overall image as a tourist destination in major source markets and to ascertain these markets’ level of satisfaction and behavioural intentions concerning the archipelago. The literature review in this paper addresses the definition of tourist destination image and the issue of satisfaction, since these influence intention to return and/or intention to recommend tourist destinations. The results indicate that (1 overall image influences satisfaction and intention to recommend and/or return to tourist destinations and (2 satisfaction influences intention to recommend and/or return to tourist destinations. This study also verified that most tourists are very satisfied with the Azores, as well as having a quite positive overall image of this destination.

  12. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro,Ricardo; Ávila,Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  13. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  14. Underwater Ambient Noise in a Baleen Whale Migratory Habitat Off the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Romagosa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of underwater noise is of particular interest given the increase in noise-generating human activities and the potential negative effects on marine mammals which depend on sound for many vital processes. The Azores archipelago is an important migratory and feeding habitat for blue (Balaenoptera musculus, fin (Balaenoptera physalus and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis en route to summering grounds in northern Atlantic waters. High levels of low frequency noise in this area could displace whales or interfere with foraging behavior, impacting energy intake during a critical stage of their annual cycle. In this study, bottom-mounted Ecological Acoustic Recorders were deployed at three Azorean seamounts (Condor, Açores, and Gigante to measure temporal variations in background noise levels and ship noise in the 18–1,000 Hz frequency band, used by baleen whales to emit and receive sounds. Monthly average noise levels ranged from 90.3 dB re 1 μPa (Açores seamount to 103.1 dB re 1 μPa (Condor seamount and local ship noise was present up to 13% of the recording time in Condor. At this location, average contribution of local boat noise to background noise levels is almost 10 dB higher than wind contribution, which might temporally affect detection ranges for baleen whale calls and difficult communication at long ranges. Given the low time percentatge with noise levels above 120 dB re 1 μPa found here (3.3% at Condor, we woud expect limited behavioral responses to ships from baleen whales. Sound pressure levels measured in the Azores are lower than those reported for the Mediterranean basin and the Strait of Gibraltar. However, the currently unknown effects of baleen whale vocalization masking and the increasing presence of boats at the monitored sites underline the need for continuous monitoring to understand any long-term impacts on whales.

  15. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998-2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures.

  16. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Cruz

    Full Text Available Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998-2012 collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures.

  17. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A.

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998–2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures. PMID:27851763

  18. Discovering the Azores front/current system with SeaWiFS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana M.; Bashmachnikov, Igor L.; Lafon, Virginie M.; Mendonca, Ana H.; Jose, Felix; Figueiredo, Miguel P.; Macedo, Luis M.

    2004-11-01

    Ocean Colour (OC) sensors have been primarily used in biological studies. More recently, OC information has been attracting the attention of oceanographers, as a potential method for revealing physical structures in the ocean. In this study, OC data obtained from SeaWiFS imagery is used, for the first time, to detect the weak Azores Current (AzC) and the associated Azores Front (AzF). Previous studies show that the frontal interface is well seen on SST imagery only during the cold season, while it is disguised during the warm season through the formation of a strong seasonal thermocline. With SeaWiFS imagery, the frontal interface is well identified around 34° N as an asymmetric zonally stretched band of higher near-surface chlorophyll a (CHL a) values north of the AzF, accompanied by a sharp decrease to the south. Quasi-stationary meanders, previously derived from SST fields for the same region, are also well observed in OC imagery. Monthly-averaged Chl a along a meridional cross-section shows that, from spring to autumn, the front is clearly visible. In winter, differences across the front are less pronounced, and the front is more easily identified on SST fields. OC gradients weaken to the east, corresponding to the general weakening of the AzC. In situ CTD data reveal a sharp and meandering thermohaline and dissolved oxygen front ocated at 33-34.5° N and 31° W. This study suggests that OC imagery, combined with other sensors, provide an important tool to investigate ocean dynamic variability, by helping to detect frontal zones with great precision.

  19. Susceptibility of mid-ocean ridge volcanic islands and seamounts to large-scale landsliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Neil C.

    2003-08-01

    With a view to assessing the incidence of large-scale landsliding, a morphologic database was created for volcanic islands and seamounts on young oceanic lithosphere. The database included 44 mid-ocean ridge seamounts, Jasper seamount and the islands of Ascension, Bouvet, Guadalupe, and several of the Galapagos and Azores Islands, supplemented with published reports from a further five volcanic edifices. The data reveal that major landslides are common on edifices taller than 2500 m but are rare in shorter edifices, implying a threshold of instability at around 2500 m. A number of causes of this threshold are discussed. For example, many structures taller than 2500 m are, or were originally, volcanic islands, and therefore their flanks probably include extensive weak hyaloclastite built up from lava-sea interactions around coasts. Compaction of hyaloclastites in larger edifices lead to regions of low permeability, which may help to explain the more deeply seated slope failures. It is intriguing that the threshold also coincides with the edifice height at which volcanic ridges become observable, a stage at which dike intrusion is probably common because slope oversteepening or excess pore pressure associated with dike intrusions have been proposed elsewhere as landslide triggers. The current indications of landsliding reveal no observable relation to rainfall, as landslides occur equally in wet and dry climates, and no relation to tectonic setting, as there are relatively few major landslides in the seismically active Azores group.

  20. Susceptibility of mid-ocean ridge volcanic islands and seamounts to large scale landsliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N. C.

    2003-04-01

    With a view to assessing the incidence of large-scale landsliding, a morphologic database was created for volcanic islands and seamounts on young oceanic lithosphere. The database included 44 mid-ocean ridge seamounts, Jasper Seamount and the islands of Ascension, Bouvet, Guadalupe, and several of the Galapagos and Azores islands, supplemented with published reports from a further five volcanic edifices. The data reveal that major landslides are common on edifices taller than 2500 m, but are rare in shorter edifices, implying a threshold of instability at around 2500 m. A number of causes of this threshold are discussed. For example, many structures taller than 2500 m are, or were originally, volcanic islands and therefore their flanks probably include extensive weak hyaloclastite built up from lava-sea interactions around coasts. Compaction of hyaloclastites in larger edifices lead to regions of low permeability, a factor which may help explain the more deeply seated slope failures. It is intriguing that the threshold also coincides with the edifice height at which volcanic ridges become observable, a stage at which dike intrusion is probably common, because slope oversteepening or excess pore pressure associated with dyke intrusions have been proposed elsewhere as landslide triggers. The current indications of landsliding reveal no observable relation to rainfall, as landslides occur equally in wet and dry climates, and no relation to tectonic setting, as there are relatively few major landslides in the seismically active Azores group.

  1. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-06-05

    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Major and minor element geochemistry of deep-sea sediments in the Azores Platform and southern seamount region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Carla; Oliveira, Anabela; Valença, Manuela; Cascalho, João; Pereira, Eduarda; Lillebø, Ana I; Duarte, Armando C; Pinto de Abreu, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The Azores Platform and the Irving and Great Meteor seamounts south of the archipelago (38°N-29°N) have rarely been studied geochemically, a fact which is surprising given that they represent the south-eastern limit of region V outlined in the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention). The main aim of the present work was therefore to characterise the spatial variability of major and minor elements in deep-sea sediment cores from these two regions. XRD and geochemical analyses revealed that whereas the Azores Platform sediments are composed of a mixture of biogenic and detrital volcanic material, those at the seamounts are characterised by carbonated biogenic remains. The latter sediments were found to contain very low amounts of volcanic or hydrothermal detrital material, being almost entirely comprised of CaCO3 (more than 80%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two new species of Aporhynchus (Trypanorhyncha: Aporhynchidae) from deep water lanternsharks (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae) in the Azores, Portugal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noever, C.; Caira, J. N.; Kuchta, Roman; Desjardins, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2010), s. 1176-1184 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960902; GA ČR GAP506/10/1994; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : lanternshark * Azores * Aporhynchus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  4. Observations of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus L., 1758) around the central north Atlantic islands of the Azores and Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Jonathan; Steiner, Lisa; Martins, Helen R.

    1995-01-01

    Referem-se os avistamentos de rorquais comuns a partir de um navio de investigação e vigias em terra ao largo das ilhas dos Açores e Madeira. Apesar de raros, os rorquais comuns estão presentes nas águas dos Açores entre Abril e Junho, e ausentes de Julho a Outubro. Não existe informação disponível acerca da sua ocorrência entre Outubro e Abril. Para a Madeira a informação sobre a abundância desta espécie é ainda mais escassa. Contudo apresentam-se algumas observações interessantes sobre uma ...

  5. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, P. A. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study how endemic, native and introduced arthropod species richness, abundance, diversity and community composition vary between four different habitat types (native forest, exotic forest of Cryptomeria japonica, semi-natural pasture and intensive pasture) and how arthropod richness and abunda......We study how endemic, native and introduced arthropod species richness, abundance, diversity and community composition vary between four different habitat types (native forest, exotic forest of Cryptomeria japonica, semi-natural pasture and intensive pasture) and how arthropod richness......), native, or introduced. The native forest had the highest values for species richness of Azorean endemics, SIEs and natives; and also had highest values of Azorean endemic diversity (Fisher’s alpha). In contrast, the intensive pasture had the lowest values for endemic and native species richness...... and diversity, but the highest values of total arthropod abundance and introduced species richness and diversity. Arthropod community composition was significantly different between the four habitat types. In the semi-natural pasture, the number of SIE species decreased with increasing distance from the native...

  6. Radiocarbon evidence for the presence of mice on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Pieper, Harald; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-04-07

    Owing to the catastrophic extinction events that occurred following the Holocene arrival of alien species, extant oceanic island biotas are a mixture of recently incorporated alien fauna and remnants of the original fauna. Knowledge of the Late Quaternary pristine island faunas and a reliable chronology of the earliest presence of alien species on each archipelago are critical in understanding the magnitude and tempo of Quaternary island extinctions. Until now, two successive waves of human arrivals have been identified in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands): 'aboriginal', which is limited to the Canary Islands around two millennia ago, and 'colonial', from the fourteenth century onwards. New surveys in Ponta de São Lourenço (Madeira Island) have allowed us to obtain and date ancient bones of mice. The date obtained (1033 ± 28 BP) documents the earliest evidence for the presence of mice on the island. This date extends the time frame in which the most significant ecological changes occurred on the island. It also suggests that humans could have reached Madeira before 1036 cal AD, around four centuries before Portugal officially took possession of the island.

  7. Long-distance dispersal to oceanic islands: success of plants with multiple diaspore specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Pablo; Arjona, Yurena; Nogales, Manuel; Heleno, Ruben H

    2015-07-14

    A great number of scientific papers claim that angiosperm diversification is manifested by an ample differentiation of diaspore traits favouring long-distance seed dispersal. Oceanic islands offer an ideal framework to test whether the acquisition of multiple sets of diaspore traits (syndromes) by a single species results in a wider geographic distribution. To this end, we performed floristic and syndrome analyses and found that diplochorous species (two syndromes) are overrepresented in the recipient flora of the Azores in contrast to that of mainland Europe, but not to mainland Portugal. An additional analysis of inter-island colonization showed a general trend of a higher number of islands colonized by species with a single syndrome (monochorous) and two syndromes than species with no syndrome (unspecialized). Nevertheless, statistical significance for differences in colonization is meagre in some cases, partially due to the low proportion of diplochorous species in Europe (244 of ∼10 000 species), mainland Portugal (89 of 2294 species), and the Azores (9 of 148 species), Canaries (17 of 387 lowland species) and Galápagos (18 of 313 lowland species). Contrary to expectations, this first study shows only a very marginal advantage for long-distance dispersal of species bearing multiple syndromes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  8. Speciation through temporal segregation of Madeiran storm petrel (Oceanodroma castro) populations in the Azores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    Madeiran storm petrels Oceanodroma castro breed on three small islets in the Azores: Vila, off Santa Maria, and Praia and Baixo, off Graciosa. Analysis of data on brood patch, incubation periods, chick body size and recaptures of adults provides evidence of the existence of two distinct populations (hot- and cool-season) breeding annually on Baixo and Praia, out of phase by four to five months and overlapping in colony attendance during August and early September; on Vila only the cool-season population is present. Analyses of adult morphology indicate highly significant phenotypic differentiation between the sympatric hot- and cool-season breeders, whereas an almost complete phenotypic uniformity characterizes allopatric breeders within the same season. The hot-season birds are 10% smaller in egg and body mass but have longer wings and tails than cool-season birds. The two groups were readily separated by discriminant analysis. The preference to breed in the cooler season is interpreted as a consequence of greater food availability in that period. Morphological differentiation between seasonal populations is interpreted as an adaptative response to different environmental conditions in the two seasons. The hypothesis is given that the hot-season population has evolved from the cool-season population owing to density-dependent constraints on crowded colonies, forcing birds to time-share nest sites. These populations may represent a case of sympatric speciation through temporal partitioning of reproduction and may be better treated as sibling species.

  9. Water column characterisation on the Azores platform and at the sea mounts south of the archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Carla; Lillebø, Ana I.; Borges, Carlos; Souto, Miguel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Abreu, Manuel Pinto de

    2012-01-01

    This study provides data concerning the hydrography and water chemistry of the Atlantic region between 29–38° N and 27–31° W, and establishes background values for dissolved Cu, Cd, Pb and As. Three water masses were identified: the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW), the Mediterranean Water (MW) and the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The ENACW exhibits a clear meridional gradient of temperature and salinity, with comparatively high values at the southern sites and lower values on the Azores platform. The ENACW, which includes the euphotic zone, also had comparatively high concentrations of oxygen and lower concentrations of nutrients and metals. The Cu, Cd and Pb results suggest that new background concentrations for OSPAR Region V (the Wider Atlantic) should be established as follows: 0.15–13 nM for Cu, 0.05–1.4 nM for Cd and 0.03–5 nM for Pb. The background concentrations of As for OSPAR Region V should be 7–28 nM.

  10. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Islands Climatology at Local Scale. Downscaling with CIELO model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Tomé, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Conceição

    2016-04-01

    Islands with horizontal scales of the order of tens of km, as is the case of the Atlantic Islands of Macaronesia, are subscale orographic features for Global Climate Models (GCMs) since the horizontal scales of these models are too coarse to give a detailed representation of the islands' topography. Even the Regional Climate Models (RCMs) reveals limitations when they are forced to reproduce the climate of small islands mainly by the way they flat and lowers the elevation of the islands, reducing the capacity of the model to reproduce important local mechanisms that lead to a very deep local climate differentiation. Important local thermodynamics mechanisms like Foehn effect, or the influence of topography on radiation balance, have a prominent role in the climatic spatial differentiation. Advective transport of air - and the consequent induced adiabatic cooling due to orography - lead to transformations of the state parameters of the air that leads to the spatial configuration of the fields of pressure, temperature and humidity. The same mechanism is in the origin of the orographic clouds cover that, besides the direct role as water source by the reinforcement of precipitation, act like a filter to direct solar radiation and as a source of long-wave radiation that affect the local balance of energy. Also, the saturation (or near saturation) conditions that they provide constitute a barrier to water vapour diffusion in the mechanisms of evapotranspiration. Topographic factors like slope, aspect and orographic mask have also significant importance in the local energy balance. Therefore, the simulation of the local scale climate (past, present and future) in these archipelagos requires the use of downscaling techniques to adjust locally outputs obtained at upper scales. This presentation will discuss and analyse the evolution of the CIELO model (acronym for Clima Insular à Escala LOcal) a statistical/dynamical technique developed at the University of the Azores

  12. The Azores plume influence on the SASC-Great Meteor and MAR: the importance for the Portuguese Extension of the Continental Shelf Project (PECSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa P.; Madureira, Pedro; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Martins, Sofia; Mata, João

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Azores Seamount Chain (SASC) is a group of large seamounts located south of the Azores Plateau and east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and part of the natural prolongation of the Azores land mass. The SASC, including the Great Meteor Seamount (aprox. 1000km south of São Miguel), is rooted on a flat, gently SE dipping Terrace, surrounded by steep scarps with almost 2000 m high. Only a few studies from the 70-80's discuss the geologic and/or geodynamic evolution of this region based on scarce bathymetry and geophysical data. Wendt et al. (1976) presented geochemical data and K-Ar ages on three basalt from the Great Meteor Seamount (<16Ma old), later analyzed for Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes by Geldmacher et al. (2006). Given the rarity of geochemical data, the origin of the seamounts and the regional evolution of this large area of the Atlantic, remains largely unknown. During the preparatory work of the PECSP, the EMEPC promoted three oceanographic campaigns to the SASC (2007, 2008 and 2009) with multidisciplinary teams. Within these cruises, more than 120 samples were dredged or collected with the Luso ROV (rated to 6000m depth) although less than 50 were suitable for major and trace elements analysis, for Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes and for K-Ar radiometric dating. Early studies relating the SASC with the New England Seamounts can be refuted by geophysical data and kinematic models presented by Gente et al. (2003) and, also by our new isotopic data, which shows that isotope ratios are clearly distinct from New England (Ribeiro et al., in prep). However, the analyzed SASC basalts display isotope ratios that overlap the Azores isotopic signature. Two new K-Ar ages (unspiked Cassignol-Gillot technique on fresh separated groundmass and/or plagioclase microlites) on the seamounts show coeval volcanism at Plato Seamount SE flank (33.4±0.5 Ma) an at Small Hyeres Seamount (31.7±0.5Ma). The SASC basalts erupted on the Terrace through an oceanic crust with 26Ma and 43Ma

  13. Organic matter composition and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Ravara, Ascensão; Parretti, Paola; Santos, Ricardo S.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Amaro, Teresa; Cunha, Marina R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years increasing knowledge has been accumulated on seamounts ecology; however their sedimentary environments and associated biological communities remain largely understudied. In this study we investigated quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores). In order to test the effect of the seamount on organic matter distribution, sediment samples were collected in 6 areas: the summit, the northern and southern flanks and bases, and in an external far field site. Macrofauna abundance and diversity were investigated on the summit, the southern flank and in the far field site. The organic matter distribution reflected the complex hydrodynamic conditions occurring on the Condor. Concentrations of organic matter compounds were generally lower on the whole seamount than in the far field site and on the seamount summit compared to flanks and bases. A clear difference was also evident between the northern and southern slopes of the Condor, suggesting a role of the seamount in conditioning sedimentation processes and distribution of food resources for benthic consumers. Macrofauna assemblages changed significantly among the three sampling sites. High abundance and dominance, accompanied by low biodiversity, characterized the macrofauna community on the Condor summit, while low dominance and high biodiversity were observed at the flank. Our results, although limited to five samples on the seamount and two off the seamount, do not necessarily support the paradigm that seamounts are more biodiverse than the surrounding seafloor. However, the abundance (and biomass), functional diversity and taxonomical distinctiveness of the macrofaunal assemblages from the Condor Seamount suggest that seamounts habitats may play a relevant role in adding to the regional biodiversity.

  14. Propagation of uncertainties for an evaluation of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone tsunamigenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Imbert, David; Richet, Yann; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess evaluation the tsunamigenic potential of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ). This work is part of the French project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling; www-tandem.cea.fr), special attention is paid to French Atlantic coasts. Structurally, the AGFZ region is complex and not well understood. However, a lot of its faults produce earthquakes with significant vertical slip, of a type that can result in tsunami. We use the major tsunami event of the AGFZ on purpose to have a regional estimation of the tsunamigenic potential of this zone. The major reported event for this zone is the 1755 Lisbon event. There are large uncertainties concerning source location and focal mechanism of this earthquake. Hence, simple deterministic approach is not sufficient to cover on the one side the whole AGFZ with its geological complexity and on the other side the lack of information concerning the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. A parametric modeling environment Promethée (promethee.irsn.org/doku.php) was coupled to tsunami simulation software based on shallow water equations with the aim of propagation of uncertainties. Such a statistic point of view allows us to work with multiple hypotheses simultaneously. In our work we introduce the seismic source parameters in a form of distributions, thus giving a data base of thousands of tsunami scenarios and tsunami wave height distributions. Exploring our tsunami scenarios data base we present preliminary results for France. Tsunami wave heights (within one standard deviation of the mean) can be about 0.5 m - 1 m for the Atlantic coast and approaching 0.3 m for the English Channel.

  15. Chiroptera (Mammalia del yacimiento del Mioceno medio de Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chiroptera from Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, Spain, an Upper Aragonian karstic site, are described in this report. The faunal list of Chiroptera is as follows: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis and one chiropter, indeterminate family, different to the mentioned species. This fauna is typical of karstic sites and allows to compare it with those of other sites of the Miocene and Pliocene of west Europe and north Africa.

    Se describen en este trabajo los quirópteros del yacimiento kárstico del Aragoniense superior de Escobosa de Calatañazor (prov. de Soria, España. La fauna de quirópteros es la siguiente: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis y un quiróptero, familia indeterminada, distinto de las especies mencionadas. Esta fauna, característica de yacimiento kárstico, permite su comparación con las de otros yacimientos del Mioceno y Plioceno de Europa occidental y norte de Africa.

  16. Food-web complexity across hydrothermal vents on the Azores triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Marie; Brandily, Christophe; Cathalot, Cécile; Colaço, Ana; Gélinas, Yves; Husson, Bérengère; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2018-01-01

    The assessment and comparison of food webs across various hydrothermal vent sites can enhance our understanding of ecological processes involved in the structure and function of biodiversity. The Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow vent fields are located on the Azores triple junction of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These fields have distinct depths (from 850 to 2320 m) and geological contexts (basaltic and ultramafic), but share similar faunal assemblages defined by the presence of foundation species that include Bathymodiolus azoricus, alvinocarid shrimp and gastropods. We compared the food webs of 13 faunal assemblages at these three sites using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (SIA). Results showed that photosynthesis-derived organic matter is a negligible basal source for vent food webs, at all depths. The contribution of methanotrophy versus autotrophy based on Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) or reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles varied between and within vent fields according to the concentrations of reduced compounds (e.g. CH4, H2S). Species that were common to vent fields showed high trophic flexibility, suggesting weak trophic links to the metabolism of chemosynthetic primary producers. At the community level, a comparison of SIA-derived metrics between mussel assemblages from two vent fields (Menez Gwen & Lucky Strike) showed that the functional structure of food webs was highly similar in terms of basal niche diversification, functional specialization and redundancy. Coupling SIA to functional trait approaches included more variability within the analyses, but the functional structures were still highly comparable. These results suggest that despite variable environmental conditions (physico-chemical factors and basal sources) and faunal community structure, functional complexity remained relatively constant among mussel assemblages. This functional similarity may be favoured by the propensity of species to adapt to fluid variations and

  17. Assessment of the ocean circulation in the Azores region as predicted by a numerical model assimilating altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mailly

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Two years of altimetric data from Topex/Poseidon (October 1992–September 1994 and ERS-1 (October 1992–December 1993 were assimilated into a numerical model of the North Atlantic. The results of these simulations are analysed in the Azores region to assess the performance of our model in this particular region. Maps of instantaneous dynamic topography and transports show that the model performs well in reproducing the velocities and transports of the Azores Front. Drifter data from the Semaphore experiment are also used to study the correlation between the drifter velocities and the corresponding model velocities. Some interesting oceanographic results are also obtained by examining the seasonal and interannual variability of the circulation and the influence of bathymetry on the variability of the Azores Front. Thus, on the basis of our two year experiment, it is possible to confirm the circulation patterns proposed by previous studies regarding the seasonal variations in the origin of the Azores Current. Moreover, it is shown that the Azores Current is quite narrow in the first year of assimilation (1992–1993, but becomes much wider in the second year (1993–1994. The role of the bathymetry appears important in this area since the mesoscale activity is shown to be strongly related to the presence of topographic slopes. Finally, spectral analyses of sea-level changes over time and space are used to identify two types of wave already noticed in other studies: a wave with (300 km–1 wave number and (120 days–1 frequency, which is characteristic of mesoscale undulation, and a wave with (600 km–1 wave number and (250 days–1 frequency which probably corresponds to a Rossby wave generated in the east of the basin.

  18. Porphyromonas gingivalis: predominant pathogen in chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Perfecto, Donald; Dpto. de CC. Básicas. Laboratorio de Microbiología Facultad de Odontología Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Dpto. de CC. Básicas. Laboratorio de Microbiología Facultad de Odontología Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Martínez Cadillo, Elba; Dpto. de CC. Básicas. Laboratorio de Microbiología Facultad de Odontología Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram negative bacillus predominant in chronic periodontitis, multiple virulence factors make it extremely aggressive. In the gingival sulcus find the conditions for growth,interacting with the host produces a slow but steady destruction of periodontal tissue. Its dominance has been considered a risk factor for systemic inflammatory diseases such as myocardial infarction. Although its susceptibility to a variety of drugs makes possible its handling with antimicrob...

  19. Investigation of marine stratocumulus under coupled and decoupled conditions over the arm Azores site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Adam Christopher

    Stratocumuli are a type of low clouds composed of individual convective elements that together form a continuous layer of clouds. Stratocumuli cover large regions of the Earth's surface, which make them important components in the Earth's radiation budget. Stratocumuli strongly reflect solar shortwave radiation, while weakly affecting outgoing longwave radiation. This leads to a strong radiative cooling effect that affects the Earth's radiation budget. Therefore it is important to investigate the mechanisms that affect the longevity of stratocumuli, so that their impact on the Earth's radiation budget can be fully understood. One mechanism that is currently being studied as influencing the lifetime of such cloud layers is boundary layer/surface coupling. It has been shown than in some regions (i.e. the west coast of South America) stratocumuli tend to break up when the boundary layer is decoupled with the surface, because they are cut off from their moisture source. This study will investigate the macro- and micro-physical properties of stratocumuli when boundary layers are either coupled to or decoupled from the surface. This will help advance understanding of the effects these macro- and micro-physical properties have on the lifetime of stratocumuli under different boundary layer conditions. This study used the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM) mobile measurements facility (AMF) at the Azores site from June 2009 to December 2010. The measurements that were used include temperature profiles from radiosondes, cloud liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the Microwave radiometer, and cloud base and top heights derived from W-band ARM Cloud Radar and lidar. Satellite images provided by the NASA Langley Research Center were also used to visually decipher cloud types over the region so that only single-layered stratocumuli cases are used in the study. To differentiate between coupled and decoupled cloud layers, two methods are used. The

  20. Nelson Mandela and the politics of representation in Robben Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the post apartheid South Africa, Nelson Mandela emerges as the chief icon of political imprisonment in the narration of Robben Island Museum. The predominating conception of Mandela as the former prisoner emeritus of Robben Island continues to attract public discourse and as a matter of fact has become the narrative ...

  1. Vertigo as a Predominant Manifestation of Neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim F. Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects multiple organ systems. Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are less common and can include cranial neuropathies and intracranial lesions. We report the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with vertigo and uveitis. Extensive workup including brain imaging revealed enhancing focal lesions. A lacrimal gland biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient was initially treated with prednisone, which did not adequately control his symptoms, and then was switched to methotrexate with moderate symptomatic improvement. Our patient had an atypical presentation with vertigo as the predominant manifestation of sarcoidosis. Patients with neurosarcoidosis typically present with systemic involvement of sarcoidosis followed by neurologic involvement. Vertigo is rarely reported as an initial manifestation. This case highlights the importance of consideration of neurosarcoidosis as an entity even in patients that may not have a typical presentation or systemic involvement of disease.

  2. Large-eddy simulations of mechanical and thermal processes within boundary layer of the Graciosa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, G.; Collis, S. M.; Ghate, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional numerical experiments are performed to explore the mechanical and thermal impacts of Graciosa Island on the sampling of oceanic airflow and cloud evolution. Ideal and real configurations of flow and terrain are planned using high-resolution, large-eddy resolving (e.g., Δ cold-pool formation upstream of an ideal two-kilometer island, with von Kármán like vortices propagation downstream. Although the peak height of Graciosa is less than half kilometer, the Azores island chain has a mountain over 2 km, which may be leading to more complex flow patterns when simulations are extended to a larger domain. Preliminary idealized low-resolution moist simulations indicate that the cloud field is impacted due to the presence of the island. Longer simulations that are performed to capture diurnal evolution of island boundary layer show distinct land/sea breeze formations under quiescent flow conditions. Further numerical experiments are planned to extend moist simulations to include realistic atmospheric profiles and observations of surface fluxes coupled with radiative effects. This work is intended to produce a useful simulation framework coupled with instruments to guide airborne and ground sampling strategies during the ACE-ENA field campaign which is aimed to better characterize marine boundary layer clouds.

  3. Thermal state and implications for eruptive styles of the intra-Plinian and climactic ignimbrites of the 4.6 ka Fogo A eruption sequence, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensa, A.; Giordano, G.; Cas, R. A. F.; Porreca, M.

    2015-11-01

    The 4.6 ka Fogo A Plinian eruption was a caldera-forming volcanic event on São Miguel Island, Azores. The deposit succession is very complex, composed of a thick trachytic Plinian fallout deposit interstratified with two intra-Plinian ignimbrites (named "pink ignimbrite" and "black ignimbrite" sequentially). The succession ends with a main ignimbrite (named "dark brown ignimbrite"), which represents the deposit of complete collapse of the eruption column and the end of the eruption. In this work, emplacement temperatures of the three ignimbrites are estimated by study of partial thermal remanent magnetization (pTRM) of lithic clasts. A total of 140 oriented lithic clasts were collected from 15 localities distributed along the northern and southern flanks of Fogo volcano. The paleomagnetic data reveal different emplacement temperatures and thermal histories that were experienced by each ignimbrite. The results indicate the presence of five different paleomagnetic behaviours that suggest emplacement temperatures of 350-400 °C for the first (pink) intra-Plinian ignimbrite, temperatures higher than 580-600 °C for the second (black) intra-Plinian ignimbrite and 250-370 °C for the last (dark brown) climactic ignimbrite. The thermal history experienced by each pyroclastic flow and its ignimbrite deposit was also assessed by the use of the magnetite-ilmenite geothermometer to determine the pre-eruptive magma temperature (estimated to be around 900 °C). We interpret the different emplacement temperatures of the Fogo A ignimbrites as being due to a combination of factors. These include (i) collapse from different heights of the eruption column and the resultant different amounts of air entrainment into the gas-particle mixture, (ii) variable content of lithic clasts and (iii) different types of juvenile clasts in the ignimbrites.

  4. Conservation status of the forest beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) from Azores, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira; Lamelas-López, Lucas; Amorim, Isabel R; Danielczak, Anja; Nunes, Rui; Serrano, Artur R M; Boieiro, Mário; Rego, Carla; Hochkirch, Axel; Vieira, Virgílio

    2017-01-01

    Island biodiversity is under considerable pressure due to the ongoing threats of invasive alien species, land use change or climate change. The few remnants of Azorean native forests harbour a unique set of endemic beetles, some of them possibly already extinct or under severe long term threat due to the small areas of the remaining habitats or climatic changes. In this contribution we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 54 forest adapted beetle species endemic to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to four speciose families: Zopheridae (12 species), Carabidae (11 species), Curculionidae (11 species) and Staphylinidae (10 species). Most species have a restricted distribution (i.e. 66% occur in only one island) and a very small extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO). Also common to most of the species is the severe fragmentation of their populations, and a continuing decline in EOO, AOO, habitat quality, number of locations and subpopulations caused by the ongoing threat from pasture intensification, forestry, invasive species and future climatic changes. Therefore, we suggest as future measures of conservation: (1) a long-term monitoring plan for the species; (2) control of invasive species; (3) species-specific conservation action for the most highly threatened species.

  5. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population.

  6. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  7. Zoantharians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia Associated with Cold-Water Corals in the Azores Region: New Species and Associations in the Deep Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carreiro-Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoantharians are a group of cnidarians that are often found in association with marine invertebrates, including corals, in shallow and deep-sea environments. However, little is known about deep-sea zoantharian taxonomy, specificity and nature of their associations with their coral hosts. In this study, analyses of molecular data (mtDNA COI, 16S, and 12S rDNA coupled with ecological and morphological characteristics were used to examine zoantharian specimens associated with cold-water corals (CWC at depths between 110 and 800 m from seamounts and island slopes in the Azores region. The zoantharians examined were found living in association with stylasterids, antipatharians and octocorals. From the collected specimens, four new species were identified: (1 Epizoanthus martinsae sp. n. associated with the antipatharian Leiopathes sp.; (2 Parazoanthus aliceae sp. n. associated with the stylasterid Errina dabneyi (Pourtalès, 1871; (3 Zibrowius alberti sp. n. associated with octocorals of the family Primnoidae [Paracalyptrophora josephinae (Lindström, 1877] and the family Plexauridae (Dentomuricea aff. meteor Grasshoff, 1977; (4 Hurlizoanthus hirondelleae sp. n. associated with the primnoid octocoral Candidella imbricata (Johnson, 1862. In addition, based on newly collected material, morphological and molecular data and phylogenic reconstruction, the zoantharian Isozoanthus primnoidus Carreiro-Silva, Braga-Henriques, Sampaio, de Matos, Porteiro & Ocaña, 2011, associated with the primnoid octocoral Callogorgia verticillata (Pallas, 1766, was reclassified as Zibrowius primnoidus comb. nov. The zoantharians, Z. primnoidus comb. nov., Z. alberti sp. n., and H. hirondelleae sp. n. associated with octocorals showed evidence of a parasitic relationship, where the zoantharian progressively eliminates gorgonian tissue and uses the gorgonian axis for structure and support, and coral sclerites for protection. In contrast, the zoantharian P. aliceae sp. n

  8. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  9. Organization of the Azores naval campaign of 1582: court and territories in the reign of Philip II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fernández Conti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at dealing with the exercise of royal power, its intermediation through the court and its projection on territories through an analysis of the organization of a specific military campaign, namely the Azores campaign of 1582, in greater depth. The common thread which helps us better understand this event is a closer examination of the leading figure and officer who took part: the field master Francisco de Bobadilla, future count of Puñonrostro. This analysis will allow us to establish the characteristics of two different types of relationship between the instruments of the sovereign’s power, taken to be either receivers and distributors of his grace or as negotiators of his delegated jurisdiction. The key to achieving this objective is to perform a vertical study, following a line starting from the monarch himself and terminating at the final recipients of his orders, passing through the intermediate ministers and secretaries, as well as a horizontal cross-section of the court, which will allow us to comprehend the different connections between the different servants and institutions of the monarch, either at court or further afield in the king’s territories.

  10. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancort, J.F.; Lomoschitz, A.; Meco, J.

    2016-07-01

    Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  11. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancort, J.F.; Lomoschitz, A.; Meco, J.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  12. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Betancort

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain. These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Three-dimensional resistivity structure of Furnas volcano (Azores archipelago, Portugal) revealed by magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyan, Duygu; Hogg, Colin; Rath, Volker; Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Revil, Andre; Silva, Catarina; Viveiros, Fatima; Ferreira, Teresa; Carmo, Rita

    2017-04-01

    The Furnas volcano is the eastern-most of the three active central volcanoes of Sao Miguel Island. The main caldera formed about 30 ka BP, followed by a younger eruption at 10-12 ka BP, which is responsible for the steep topography of more than 200 m in the target area. It contains several very young eruptive centers, and a shallow caldera lake. Tectonic features of varying directions have been identified in the caldera and its vicinity (Carmo et al., 2015). In the northern part of the caldera, containing the fumarole field of Caldeiras das Furnas, a detailed map of surface CO2 emissions was recently made available (Viveiros et al., 2010). Following a pilot survey of 13 AudioMagnetoTelluric soundings (AMT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data collected along two profiles in the eastern part of Furnas caldera in 2015, a second campaign was completed in June 2016, yielding a total of 39 separate soundings including 15 broad-band magnetotelluric (MT) soundings to image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The data quality achieved by both techniques is very good, and initial results indicate a general correlation between regions of elevated conductivity at depth and the mapped surface CO2 emissions, suggesting that they may both be caused by the presence hydrothermal fluids. Dimensionality and directionality analysis using the WALDIM (Marti et al., 2009) approach in conjunction with Phase Tensor (Caldwell et al., 2004) indicate that the geo-electrical structure needs to be inverted in 3-D. Indicators of directionality derived from the analysis follow the general geological, fault dominated structural trend of NE-SW of Sao Miguel Island. A quantitative analysis of the potential influence of the Atlantic Ocean indicates that MT data up to 1 second period can be used in inversions with confidence without including the ocean. The 3-D inversions thus have been performed including only high-resolution topography and the Furnas lake bathymetry data

  14. Radon progeny monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility and a potential earthquake precursory signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgilio B.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.

    2016-04-01

    Radon has been considered a promising earthquake precursor, the main rationale being an expected increase in radon exhalation in soil and rocks due to stress associated with the preparatory stages of an earthquake. However, the precursory nature of radon is far from being convincingly demonstrated so far. A major hindrance is the many meteorological and geophysical factors diving radon temporal variability, including the geophysical parameters influencing its emanation (grain size, moisture content, temperature), as well as the meteorological factors (atmospheric pressure, moisture, temperature, winds) influencing its mobility. Despite the challenges, radon remains one of the strongest candidates as a potential earthquake precursor, and it is of crucial importance to investigate the many factors driving its variability and its potential association with seismic events. Continuous monitoring of radon progeny is performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The Azores archipelago is associated with a complex geodynamic setting on the Azores triple junction where the American, Eurasian and African litospheric plates meet, resulting in significant seismic and volcanic activity. A considerable advantage of the monitoring site is the availability of a comprehensive dataset of concurrent meteorological observations performed at the ENA facility and freely available from the ARM data archive, enabling a detailed analysis of the environmental factors influencing the temporal variability of radon's progeny. Gamma radiation is being measured continuously every 15 minutes since May 2015. The time series of gamma radiation counts is dominated by sharp peaks lasting a few hours and

  15. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n. from the island of Rhodes (Greece, revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Davolos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new Cryptorchestia species, Cryptorchestia ruffoi Latella & Vonk, sp. n. from the island of Rhodes in south-eastern Greece, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes indicated that this species is related to C. cavimana (Cyprus and C. garbinii (Mediterranean regions, with a recent northward expansion. Results supported a genetic separation between the Cryptorchestia species of the east Mediterranean regions and those of the northeast Atlantic volcanic islands examined in this study (C. canariensis, C. gomeri, C. guancha, and C. stocki from the Canary islands, C. monticola from Madeira, and C. chevreuxi from the Azores. The Mediterranean and Atlantic Cryptorchestia species appear to be also morphologically distinct. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n., C. cavimana, C. garbinii, and C. kosswigi (Turkish coast clearly have a small lobe on the male gnathopod 1 merus. This character was the main diagnostic difference between Cryptorchestia (sensu Lowry, 2013 and Orchestia. However, among the six northeast Atlantic island Cryptorchestia species only C. stocki has a small lobe on the merus of gnathopod 1. Reduction or loss of the lobe in the Atlantic Island species cannot be ruled out; however, molecular phylogenetic analysis leads us to presume that this lobe independently evolved between the east Mediterranean Cryptorchestia species and C. stocki from Gran Canaria.

  16. Imaging hydrothermal systems at Furnas caldera (Azores, Portugal): Insights from Audio-Magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Rath, Volker; Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Silva, Catarina; Viveiros, Maria FB; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The Furnas volcano is the eastern-most of the three active central volcanoes of Sao Miguel Island. The main caldera formed about 30 ka BP, followed by a younger eruption at 10-12 ka BP, which forms the steep topography of more than 200 m in the measuring area. It contains several very young eruptive centers, and a shallow caldera lake. Tectonic features of varying directions have been identified in the Caldera and its vicinity. In the northern part of the caldera, containing the fumarole field of Caldeiras das Furnas, a detailed map of surface CO2 emissions was recently made available. In 2015, a pilot survey of 13 AudioMagnetoTelluric soundings (AMT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data were collected along two profiles in the eastern part of Furnas caldera in order to image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The data quality achieved by both techniques is extraordinary and first results indicate a general correlation between regions of elevated conductivity and the mapped surface CO2 emissions, suggesting that they may both be caused by the presence hydrothermal fluids. Tensor decomposition analysis using the Groom-Bailey approach produce a generalised geo-electric strike direction, 72deg East of North, for the AMT data compared to the surface geological strike derived from the major mapped fault crossing the profiles of 105deg. An analysis of the real induction arrows at certain frequencies (at depths greater than 350 m) infer that an extended conductor at depth does not exactly correspond to the degassing structures at the surface and extends outside the area of investigation. The geometry of the most conductive regions with electrical conductivities less then1 Ώm found at various depths differ from what was expected from earlier geologic and tectonic studies and possibly may not be directly related to the mapped fault systems at the surface. On the eastern profile, which seemed to be more appropriate for 2-D modelling with 72deg strike

  17. Resistivity structure of the Furnas hydrothermal system (Azores archipelago, Portugal) from AMT and ERT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rath, Volker; Silva, Catarina; Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Viveiros, Fatima; Eleuterio, Joana; Gresse, Marceau

    2016-04-01

    The Furnas volcanic complex is located in the eastern part of the São Miguel Island and comprises a 5 km × 8 km summit depression filled by two nested calderas with several craters and a lake. Present-day volcanic activity of Furnas volcano is mostly located in the northern part of the caldera, within the Furnas village and north to Furnas Lake, where hydrothermal manifestations are mainly fumarolic fields, steam vents, thermal springs, and intense soil diffuse degassing. Considering the Furnas volcano as a whole, the total integrated CO2 efflux is extremely high, with a total amount of CO2 close to 1000 ton per day (Viveiros et al., 2009). We present the first results of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), combined with audio-magneto-telluric (AMT) measurements aligned along two profiles inside the caldera. The purpose of this survey is to delimit the extent, the geometry, and the depth of the hydrothermal system and to correlate the deep resistivity structure with high resolution cartography of diffuse CO2 flux (Viveiros et al, 2015). The ERT and AMT methods are complementary in terms of resolution and penetration depth: ERT can image the structural details of shallow hydrothermal system (down to 100 m in our study) while AMT can image at lower resolution deeper structures at the roots of a volcano (down to 4 km in our study). Our first independent 2D inversions of the ERT-AMT data show a good agreement between the surficial and deeper features. Below the main fumarole area we observe a low resistivity body (less than 1 Ohmm) which corresponds well to the high CO2 flux at the surface and is associated with an extended conductive body at larger depth. These results strongly suggest the presence of hydrothermal waters at depth or/and the presence of altered clay-rich material. On a larger scale however, the geometry of the conducting zones differs slightly from what was expected from earlier surface studies, and may not be directly related to fault zones

  18. Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Laisel; Underhill, Peter A; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Gayden, Tenzin; Moschonas, Nicholas K; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Conti, Simon; Mamolini, Elisabetta; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Herrera, Rene J

    2007-04-01

    The island of Crete, credited by some historical scholars as a central crucible of western civilization, has been under continuous archeological investigation since the second half of the nineteenth century. In the present work, the geographic stratification of the contemporary Cretan Y-chromosome gene pool was assessed by high-resolution haplotyping to investigate the potential imprints of past colonization episodes and the population substructure. In addition to analyzing the possible geographic origins of Y-chromosome lineages in relatively accessible areas of the island, this study includes samples from the isolated interior of the Lasithi Plateau--a mountain plain located in eastern Crete. The potential significance of the results from the latter region is underscored by the possibility that this region was used as a Minoan refugium. Comparisons of Y-haplogroup frequencies among three Cretan populations as well as with published data from additional Mediterranean locations revealed significant differences in the frequency distributions of Y-chromosome haplogroups within the island. The most outstanding differences were observed in haplogroups J2 and R1, with the predominance of haplogroup R lineages in the Lasithi Plateau and of haplogroup J lineages in the more accessible regions of the island. Y-STR-based analyses demonstrated the close affinity that R1a1 chromosomes from the Lasithi Plateau shared with those from the Balkans, but not with those from lowland eastern Crete. In contrast, Cretan R1b microsatellite-defined haplotypes displayed more resemblance to those from Northeast Italy than to those from Turkey and the Balkans.

  19. Evidence for intense hydrothermal alteration associated with flood basalt volcanism during the birth of the Azores Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, W.; Busch, A.; Genske, F. S.; Beier, C.; Krumm, S.

    2017-12-01

    A stratigraphic section comprising >1000 m of upper crust in the Princess Alice Bank (PAB) of the western Azores Plateau was sampled during RV Meteor cruise M128 in July of 2016, using the ROV MARUM Quest 4000m. Twenty-two samples were recovered between 2484 and 1439 m water depth from the southfacing footwall of the Master fault bounding a prominent NW-SE striking rift zone within the PAB. Our geochemical and petrographic results show that virtually all samples are pervasively altered. The deeper part of the section (up to 1750 m water depth) was altered under greenschist-facies conditions to assemblages that include epidote, chlorite, albite, titanite, and actinolite. These rocks show 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7036 and 0.7050. The topmost section was altered under lower metamorphic grades to chlorite/smectite-quartz-anatase. These rocks show severe losses of Ca and Sr, and gains in Mg, Li, and B, with 87Sr/86Sr ratios as high as 0.708. These geochemical signatures indicate an intensity of hydrothermal exchange between seawater and crust that is unmatched by any in situ section of upper ocean crust sampled by ocean drilling to date. Oxygen isotope data for epidote-calcite veins indicate temperatures of 250-300°C. Later quartz gives about 200°C. The implications of the intense hydrothermal alteration for crust-seawater exchange budgets can be evaluated in the light of the geological evolution of the PAB. Based on immobile element ratios of whole rocks and REE characteristics of relict clinopyroxene in the only incompletely altered sample, an E-type MORB primary composition of the basalts can be reconstructed. Our data suggest that the degrees of mantle melting were much higher than during extrusion of the <4 Ma old alkali-basalts recovered from the top of PAB (Beier et al., 2015, doi:10.1130/2015.2511(02)), and even higher than modern MORB at the adjacent mid-Atlantic Ridge. These results lead us to suggest that the deeper sections of the PAB formed during the

  20. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  1. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  3. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0840] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION... Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH. (a) Location. The...

  4. The distribution and biochemical composition of biogenic particles across the subtropical Front in June 1993 (Azores-Madeira region, Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vezzulli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected in the north-east Atlantic Ocean between the Azores and Madeira (33°N-36°N and 24°W-26°W during the Oceanographic Cruise SEMAPHORE in June 1993. Temperature, salinity, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and particulate organic matter (organic carbon, organic nitrogen, carbohydrates, proteins and phytopigment were investigated in the water column to a depth of 2000 m. The presence of the subtropical front (STF separating warmer more saline Western Atlantic Water (WAW from colder and fresher Eastern Atlantic Water (EAW in the upper 100 m, and a tongue of salt water arising from the influence of Mediterranean Water (MW at a depth of 1000 m, were well identified by the physical and chemical parameters. POC and PON concentrations, in the surface layer (0-100 m, ranged between 23.3-64.5 and 2.9-9.1 µg l-1 respectively, while concentration between 12.4-30.5 and 1.1-4.0 µg l-1 prevailed below the thermocline (100-2000 m. The very low POC and PON concentrations together with the low nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations confirmed the oligotrophic nature of the Azores-Madeira region. Statistical analysis was carried out to investigate the difference in the quantity and quality of POM between water masses. Regression analysis showed a high correlation between POC and PON but the slopes and intercepts of the regression lines did not differ significantly between WAW and EAW. In contrast, an examination of vertical profiles as well as mean integrated values of biochemical variables in the upper 100 m suggest a difference in the quantity and quality of biogenic particles between the water masses. WAW showed the lowest integrated concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate protein and particulate carbohydrate. In contrast, frontal stations showed the highest values while EAW stations showed intermediate values. All these results, coupled with the occurrence of the highest POC

  5. WORK EXPERIENCE: A CASE OF SARCOIDOSIS WITH PREDOMINANT CNS LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Oleinichenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case in a female patient with the atypical onset and course of sarcoidosis with predominant central nervous system lesion who has achieved pronounced positive changes due to individualized combination therapy.

  6. [Occurrence of islands in genomes of Sinorhizobium meliloti native isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntyan, V S; Cherkasova, M E; Andronov, E E; Simarov, B V; Roumiantseva, M L

    2016-10-01

    Genomes of 184 Sinorhizobium meliloti native isolates were studied to test the occurence of islands Sme21T, Sme19T, and Sme80S previously described in the model strain Rm1021. This analysis was conducted using PCR methodology involving specific primers. It was demonstrated that, in the examined geographically distinct populations of S. meliloti from the Northern Caucasus (NCG) and the Aral Sea region (PAG), the strains containing genomic islands were observed with similar frequency (0.55 and 0.57, respectively). Island Sme80S, denoted as an island of “environmental adaptivity,” was identified predominantly (frequency of 0.38) in genomes of strains which exhibited a lower level of salt tolerance and was isolated in PAG, a modern center of introgressive hybridization of alfalfa subjected to salinity. Island Sme21T designated as “ancestral” was observed in genomes of strains isolated in NCG, the primary center of host-plant biodiversity, 10-fold more often than in strains from PAG. An island Sme19T, which predominantly carries genes encoding transposases, was observed in genomes of strains in both populations with average frequency of 0.10. The analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on the assessment of probability for detection of different islands combinations in genomes revealed an independent inheritance of islands in salt-sensitive strains of various geographic origin. In contrast, the absence of this trend was noted in the majority of the examined combinations of salt-tolerant strains. It was concluded that the structure of chromosome in PAG strains which predominantly possessed a salt-sensitive phenotype was subjected to active recombinant processes, which could predetermine the intensity of microevolutionary processes in bacterial populations and facilitate an adaptation of bacteria in adverse environmental effect.

  7. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  8. Una escritura de la desaparición y aparición siempre futuras: Superrealismo / El libro de Levante, prenovela (1929 de Azorín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aranjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1929, peu après la naissance du surréalisme français (1924, le francophile, nationaliste et membre de la Génération espagnole du 98, Azorín, résidant dans la ville frontalière de San Sébastian (Guipúzcoa, fait appel à une certaine écriture semi-automatique, fulgurant et recherchée, afin de provoquer l’émergence du personnage, divers et virtuel, du roman, toujours futur, dont le projet final converge à la fin vers son village natal de Monóvar (Levant, au bout d’un éblouissant voyage à travers la Péninsule et la Manche de Don Quichotte, un autre grand surréaliste.En 1929, poco después del nacimiento del Surrealismo francés (1924, el francófilo, nacionalista y noventayochista Azorín, desde la casi fronteriza San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa, usa cierta forma de escritura semi-automática, fulgurante y señoreada, para provocar la emergencia del personaje, diverso y virtual, de la novela, siempre futura, cuyo proyecto final acabará coincidiendo con el centro natal (siempre ausente y por venir de Monóvar (Levante al cabo de un deslumbrante viaje imaginario en tren a través de la Península y de la Mancha de Don Quijote, este gran Surrealista.

  9. Fronts at the Surface Ocean Can Shape Distinct Regions of Microbial Activity and Community Assemblages Down to the Bathypelagic Zone: The Azores Front as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Baltar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic fronts are widespread features which separate distinct water masses. They are well known to control the distribution of microbial communities in surface waters, although there is scarce information on their role in delimiting critical functions that microbes perform, and on whether their effects can be translated down into the dark ocean. Here we carried out the first study on the variability of hydrolysis of organic matter (extracellular enzymatic activity; EEA across a permanent front (the Azores Front, coupled with changes in microbial assemblage composition, from the surface down to the bathypelagic zone. The front separated the study area (enclosed into the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyral Province into two distinct latitudinal sub-regions with sharp differences in the abundance of autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial assemblages, as well as in the extracellular enzymes activities of glucosidases, alkaline phosphatase, and leucine aminopeptidase. South of the front there was an abrupt decline in the abundance of picophytoplankton as well as in heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic-acid content, but an increase in the abundance of prokaryotes with high side-scatter, an indication that cells were growing attached to particles. Concomitantly, there was also an increase in the aminopeptidase to glucosidase ratio, a proxy of higher degradation of proteinaceous material relative to carbohydrates. Interestingly, these sharp changes in microbial assemblages and enzymatic activities north and south of the front were translated down to the deep ocean. Our results suggest that permanent fronts, like the Azores Front, can act as ecological boundaries in the ocean (even within a biogeographical province, in terms of microbial community structure and biogeochemical cycling. Oriented studies on oceanic fronts down to the deep ocean will help to understand how the variability of these widely-extended hydrographic futures will impact

  10. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  11. Predominant melliferous plants of the western Sudano Guinean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Key words: Apis mellifera adansonii, melliferous plant, predominant, harvested. INTRODUCTION. One of the goals of melissopalynology is to determine the floral sources utilized by honeybees in the production of honey (Barth, 2004; Von Der Ohe et al., 2004). Depending on the relative importance of the pollen of a.

  12. Unpacking the predominance of case study methodology in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unpacking the predominance of case study methodology in South African postgraduate educational research, 1995–2004. P Rule, B Davey, RJ Balfour. Abstract. The Project Postgraduate Educational Research (PPER) data indicate that case study is the most popular methodology among South African education masters ...

  13. Predominance of N-Docosane/Docane as molecular indicators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predominance of N-Docosane/Docane as molecular indicators of microbial and recent biogenic matter incorporation into surface sediments of cross river Estuary S.E Niger Delta of Nigeria. EO Oyo-Ita, BO Ekpo, US Umana, BRT Simoneit. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 43- ...

  14. Predominant melliferous plants of the western Sudano Guinean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    honey (Barth, 2004; Von Der Ohe et al., 2004). Depending on the relative importance of the pollen of a specific melliferous plant (MP) represented in a honey sample (intensity of exploitation), MP are regrouped into predominant, accessory, secondary and rare pollen. Pollen composition of honey can be used as an indicator.

  15. From the Halls of Hough and Halstead: A Comparison of Black Students on Predominantly White and Predominantly Black Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmons, Willa Mae

    1982-01-01

    Compared attitudes and perspectives of Black college students attending a predominatly White college with those of students attending a predominantly Black college. Found that both groups expected to achieve higher economic and occupational status, though the White college was not seen as responding adequately to the needs of Black students. (GC)

  16. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands: disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Northup, Diana E; Spilde, Michael N; Borges, Paulo A V; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N E

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the importance of the lowest hierarchical level (α diversity, colored mat), suggesting a dominance of cosmopolitan OTUs (>1%) in most samples. Cosmopolitan OTUs included members involved in nitrogen cycling, supporting the importance of this process in Azorean caves. Environmental and chemical conditions in caves did not show any significant relationship to OTU diversity and composition. The absence of clear differences between mat colors and across scales may be explained by (1) the geological youth of the cave system (cave communities have not had enough time to diverge) or/and (2) community convergence, as the result of selection pressure in extreme environments. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prolactin Upregulates Female-Predominant P450 Gene Expressions and Downregulates Male-Predominant Gene Expressions in Mouse Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuya; Kaneko, Yoshikatsu; Cho, Takamasa; Goto, Kei; Otsuka, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Suguru; Goto, Shin; Maruyama, Hiroki; Narita, Ichiei

    2017-06-01

    Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone with over 300 separate biologic activities. Its serum level is increased during pregnancy and lactation, and it has been reported that pregnancy and lactation affect drug and steroid metabolism in mice and humans. Several studies reported that pregnancy or lactation influences liver cytochrome P450 (P450) expression and its activity, affecting the biosynthesis of steroids and xenobiotics through growth hormone or sex hormones; however, the role of prolactin as the regulator of liver P450 expression has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, we focused on prolactin as the regulator of expression of liver sex-predominant genes, including P450s. To investigate the role of prolactin in the hepatic gene expressions, pCAGGS expression vector containing mouse prolactin cDNA was transfected by hydrodynamic injection into both male and female mice. Hyperprolactinemia phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in the liver and augmented female mouse liver mRNA expression of Cyp3a16 , Cyp3a41 , Cyp3a44 , Cyp2b9 , and prolactin receptor genes, whose expressions were female-predominant in hepatocytes. Moreover, liver expression of male-predominant genes such as Cyp2d9 , Cyp7b1 , Mup1 , and Alas2 were reduced in male mice with hyperprolactinemia. The serum levels of conventional regulators of hepatic gene expressions, growth hormone, and testosterone were not affected by hyperprolactinemia. We demonstrated that prolactin upregulated female-predominant genes in female mice and downregulated male-predominant genes in male mice. We conjecture that higher concentration of prolactin would alter steroid and xenobiotic metabolisms by modulating hepatic P450 gene expressions during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Minimising Unnecessary Mastectomies in a Predominantly Chinese Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data shows that the use of breast conservation treatment (BCT for breast cancer may result in superior outcomes when compared with mastectomy. However, reported rates of BCT in predominantly Chinese populations are significantly lower than those reported in Western countries. Low BCT rates may now be a concern as they may translate into suboptimal outcomes. A study was undertaken to evaluate BCT rates in a cohort of predominantly Chinese women. Methods. All patients who underwent surgery on the breast at the authors’ healthcare facility between October 2008 and December 2011 were included in the study and outcomes of treatment were evaluated. Results. A total of 171 patients were analysed. Two-thirds of the patients were of Chinese ethnicity. One hundred and fifty-six (85.9% underwent BCT. Ninety-eight of 114 Chinese women (86% underwent BCT. There was no difference in the proportion of women undergoing BCT based on ethnicity. After a median of 49 months of follow-up, three patients (1.8% had local recurrence and 5 patients (2.9% suffered distant metastasis. Four patients (2.3% have died from their disease. Conclusion. BCT rates exceeding 80% in a predominantly Chinese population are possible with acceptable local and distant control rates, thereby minimising unnecessary mastectomies.

  19. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  20. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  1. Macroscopic coherent magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcelli, F.; Airoldi, A.; Angioni, C.

    2001-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical investigations on the dynamics of coherent magnetic islands in high temperature, magnetically confined plasmas of thermonuclear interest, and of their effects on plasma transport. (author)

  2. Depression During Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegda, Kathleen; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Pekow, Penelope; Powers, Sally; Markenson, Glenn; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To examine associations between depression and preterm birth and small-for gestational age (SGA) among women of predominantly Puerto Rican descent, a population who experiences disparities in adverse birth outcomes and one of the highest infant mortality rates in the United States. Methods Proyecto Buena Salud (PBS) was a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011 at a large tertiary care center in Western Massachusetts. Caribbean Islander (i.e., Puerto Rican and Dominican Republic) women were interviewed in early, mid and late pregnancy. Among 1262 participants, associations between depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational age (SGA) were evaluated. Results Women with at least probable minor depression [odds ratio (OR) = 1.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 3.07)] or probable major depression [OR = 1.82 (95% CI = 1.01, 3.25)] in mid-pregnancy had an increased risk of SGA compared to non-depressed women in adjusted analyses. Borderline significant associations were observed between increasing levels of depressive symptom scores in early and mid-pregnancy [OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.11) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.09), respectively] and each additional trimester of exposure to probable major depression across mid- to late pregnancy [OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.00, 2.74)] and SGA. Late pregnancy depression was not associated with SGA; depression during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth. Conclusions for Practice In this population of predominantly Puerto Rican women, mid-pregnancy depression increased risk for SGA. Findings can inform culturally appropriate, targeted interventions to identify and treat pregnant women with depression.

  3. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  4. CIELO-A GIS integrated model for climatic and water balance simulation in islands environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, E. B.; Pereira, L. S.

    2003-04-01

    The model CIELO (acronym for "Clima Insular à Escala Local") is a physically based model that simulates the climatic variables in an island using data from a single synoptic reference meteorological station. The reference station "knows" its position in the orographic and dynamic regime context. The domain of computation is a GIS raster grid parameterised with a digital elevation model (DEM). The grid is oriented following the direction of the air masses circulation through a specific algorithm named rotational terrain model (RTM). The model consists of two main sub-models. One, relative to the advective component simulation, assumes the Foehn effect to reproduce the dynamic and thermodynamic processes occurring when an air mass moves through the island orographic obstacle. This makes possible to simulate the air temperature, air humidity, cloudiness and precipitation as influenced by the orography along the air displacement. The second concerns the radiative component as affected by the clouds of orographic origin and by the shadow produced by the relief. The initial state parameters are computed starting from the reference meteorological station across the DEM transept until the sea level at the windward side. Then, starting from the sea level, the model computes the local scale meteorological parameters according to the direction of the air displacement, which is adjusted with the RTM. The air pressure, temperature and humidity are directly calculated for each cell in the computational grid, while several algorithms are used to compute the cloudiness, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation. The model presented in this paper has been calibrated and validated using data from some meteorological stations and a larger number of rainfall stations located at various elevations in the Azores Islands.

  5. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden KW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized

  6. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282

  7. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit; Ganesan, Chitra; Pant, Manish; Lai, Catherine; Tabbara, Imad A

    2013-02-01

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that is recognized as a separate histopathological entity. This disease tends to have multiple relapses, but has an overall good prognosis. Owing to its rarity, and the prolonged time period between recurrence and transformation events, there is no consensus regarding optimal management. However, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that for early stages, appropriate treatment is radiotherapy. Several management options have been reported including observation, radiation, chemotherapy, combined chemoradiotherapy, and anti-CD20 antibody therapy. Salvage therapy remains effective in inducing prolonged remission in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.

  8. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo predominantly affects the right labyrinth

    OpenAIRE

    von Brevern, M; Seelig, T; Neuhauser, H; Lempert, T

    2004-01-01

    Eighteen studies with a total of 3426 patients were identified. In our own series the right side was affected in 54 of 80 patients (right/left ratio 2.08). Altogether, in 3506 patients the right labyrinth was involved 1.41 times more often than the left (95% CI 1.37 to 1.45). We think that the reason for the predominant involvement of the right ear in BPPV is the habit—of most patients—of sleeping on the right side.

  9. Predominant enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere packaged meat and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Murros, Anna; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-06-01

    Enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere (MA) packaged meat (n = 54) and poultry (n = 32) products were enumerated, and 899 isolates were picked and ribotyped. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of representative strains were sequenced and analyzed. Altogether 54 (60%) of the samples contained enterobacteria >10(4) CFU/g. In 34% of the poultry samples, enterobacteria counts were >10(6) CFU/g suggesting that enterobacteria may contribute to spoilage of MA packaged poultry. The enterobacteria identified were predominantly Hafnia spp. (40%) and Serratia spp. (42%) with Hafnia alvei, Hafnia paralvei, Serratia fonticola, Serratia grimesii, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia proteamaculans, and Serratia quinivorans being the species identified. In addition, 6% of the isolates were identified as Rahnella spp., 3% as Yersinia spp., and 1% as Buttiauxella spp. Percentage distributions of the predominant genera in different products showed that 89% of the Serratia spp. were from products packaged under a high-O2 MA containing CO2 (25-35%), whereas most (76%) isolates of Hafnia originated from anaerobically packaged red meat and poultry. These findings suggest that the gas mixture used for MA packaging influence the selection of enterobacteria growing on meat and poultry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Late Palaeogene emplacement and late Neogene–Quaternary exhumation of the Kuril island-arc root (Kunashir island constrained by multi-method thermochronometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Grave

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kuril islands constitute a volcanic island arc-trench system, stretching from eastern Hokkaido (Japan to Kamchatka (Russia along the northwestern Pacific subduction system. The current arc consists of several volcanic islands mainly with Neogene basement and capped by several, predominantly andesitic, active subduction stratovolcanoes. Kunashir Island is the southwestern-most island of the arc, just off the Hokkaido coast and represents the study area in this paper. The island is composed of a Lower Complex of mainly late Miocene to Pliocene volcanic rocks, covered by an Upper Complex of younger (basaltic andesitic lava flows and tuffs on which currently four active volcanic edifices are built. In the Lower Complex sub-volcanic and deeper-seated intrusives of the so-called Prasolov and Dokuchaev magmatic complexes are found. More differentiated, tonalitic–granodioritic rocks were collected from these small intrusive bodies. An early Oligocene zircon LA-ICP-MS U/Pb age of 31 Ma for the Prasolov Complex was obtained, showing that the basement of Kunashir Island is older than previously thought. Thermochronometry (apatite fission-track and U-Th-Sm/He and zircon U-Th/He analyses further shows that the magmatic basement of the island was rapidly exhumed in the Pleistocene to present levels in a differential pattern, with He-ages ranging from 1.9 to 0.8 Ma. It is shown that the northern section of the island was hereby exhumed more intensely.

  11. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  12. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  13. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  14. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  15. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  16. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  17. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids discharged from volcanoes in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitischek, J.; Dietzel, M.; Cruz, J. V.; Inguaggiato, S.; Boettcher, M. E.; Leis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrochemical and isotopic composition of hydrothermal fluids discharged from 3 different volcanic areas of São Miguel has been analysed to create a conceptual model for the evolution of a geothermal system in a basaltic ocean island with still pronounced volcanic activities. Besides the fluids, associated solid-phase precipitates and local volcanic rocks were collected for geochemical investigations. Thermal discharges were divided into springs (up to 75 °C) and boiling pools. Major classification based on dominant dissolved ions divided fluids in Na-SO4, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl types. Temperatures estimated from water hydrochemistry (e.g. Na-K, Na-K-Ca cationic geothermometers) let us assume that the in-situ solutions with discharging temperatures exceeding 32°C were close to thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to local rocks. The aqueous solutions have their origin in meteoric water with a δ18O(H2O) value of -3 ±1 ‰ (V-SMOW) and a δD(H2O) value of -13 ±7 ‰ (V-SMOW). Only the δ18O and δD values of Ferraria reveal mixing of meteoric with sea water. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is chemically evolved by the uptake of volcanic carbon with δ13C(DIC) = -5 ±3 ‰ (V-PDB). The isotopic composition of sulphate with δ34S(SO4) = 0.4 ± 0.3‰ (V-CDT) is close to typical igneous rock values. The extent of basaltic rock leaching depends on the availability of volcanic CO2 and on temperature. The molar Mg/Ca ratio (0.8) of all thermal discharges reflects leaching of the local basalt. In Furnas, at higher temperatures, the concentrations of dissolved Si(OH)4, K+ and Sr2+ increased due to intensive leaching of basaltic rocks, whereas in contrast Al3+ and ΣFe decreased due to the precipitation of e.g. alunite. Annual supply of dissolved CO2 in Furnas springs was calculated to be about 61 t. In Fogo the Na-SO4 type dominated and at higher altitude in particular CO2 rich (up to 23 mmol L-1) water at T ≈ 20 °C occurs. It is further suggested that the isotope

  18. On the character of host-island grain interfaces in Fe-1%Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, T.A.; Kalu, P.N.; Rollett, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The character of the boundaries surrounding island grains embedded in abnormally growing grains in a Fe-1%Si alloy was investigated using electron backscatter diffraction and orientation imaging microscopy techniques. The grain boundary misorientation is the primary method used for this characterization. It was found that the island grains were most frequently misoriented by 55-60 o about directions from their respective host abnormally large grains. Host-island grain interfaces were predominantly of Σ3 character and low-angle grain boundaries, which have typically been associated with low mobility. It is reasonable to conclude that these boundaries were 'left behind' by the faster growing abnormally large grains

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy BE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brian E Lacy Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. Keywords: abdominal pain, antibiotic, bloating, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome

  20. Identification of the predominant volatile compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, E; Libbey, L M; Stawicki, S; Wasowicz, E

    1972-11-01

    A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH(2)Cl(2), and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth.

  1. Oncogenic activation of ERG: A predominant mechanism in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taduru L Sreenath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalent gene fusions involving regulatory sequences of the androgen receptor (AR regulated genes (primarily TMPRSS2 and protein coding sequences of nuclear transcription factors of the ETS gene family (predominantly ERG result in unscheduled androgen dependent ERG expression in prostate cancer (CaP.Cumulative data from a large number of studies in the past six years accentuate ERG alterations in more than half of all CaP patients in Western countries. Studies underscore that ERG functions are involved in the biology of CaP. ERG expression in normal context is selective to endothelial cells, specific hematopoetic cells and pre-cartilage cells. Normal functions of ERG are highlighted in hematopoetic stem cells. Emerging data continues to unravel molecular and cellular mechanisms by which ERG may contribute to CaP. Herein, we focus on biological and clinical aspects of ERG oncogenic alterations, potential of ERG-based stratification of CaP and the possibilities of targeting the ERG network in developing new therapeutic strategies for the disease.

  2. Cycloid psychoses predominate in severe postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhlmann, B; Stöber, G; Franzek, E; Beckmann, H

    1998-09-01

    The nosological status of postpartum psychoses has remained controversial because of their often 'atypical' symptomatology. A polydiagnostic approach may further clarify this issue. In a retrospective study, we applied the ICD-10 and Leonhard's classification to 39 patients with severe postpartum psychiatric disorders. The patients were personally reexamined on average 12.5 years (6-26 years) after the onset of the illness. An acute onset and a polymorphous psychotic symptomatology with rapid changes characterized the majority of our cases. Unipolar depressive disorders (28%) and acute polymorphous psychotic disorders (21%) represented the largest proportions within the ICD-10-classification. Applying Leonhard's classification, over half the patients (54%) suffered from a cycloid psychosis. Among cycloid psychoses, motility psychoses clearly predominated. Schizophrenias occurred rarely (10%) according to both classifications. Due to the unknown prevalence of the various diagnoses among women of child-bearing age, it is impossible to statistically infer a specific association between childbirth and a distinct diagnosis from our data. Our findings suggest that cycloid psychoses, in particular motility psychoses, account for the majority of postpartum psychoses, and do not support the hypothesis of a nosological independence of postpartum psychoses.

  3. Cooking Up Energy with Predominately Latino Children during Afterschool Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoldi, Kathy K; Dolar, Veronika

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the impact on body weight status and food-related behaviors following participation in the Cooking Up Energy® (CUE) Program. Children 7-11 years old attended 10 cooking/nutrition education sessions. Baseline and post-program weight, height and waist circumference measurements, frequency of participation in meal preparation and food frequency questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed for the entire group as well as a subgroup of overweight and obese participants. Participants (N = 51) were predominately Latino (76%) and overweight (52%). Significant reduction in mean body mass index (BMI) percentile was found in the subgroup of overweight and obese participants (N = 27; p < .05). However, reduction in mean BMI z-score was non-significant. Reports of program enjoyment (98%) and an increased desire to cook more frequently at home (83%) were found; however, no significant increase in participation in meal preparation at home was found following program completion. The CUE program was well received by most participants, and there is indication that program participation has the potential to have a positive influence on body weight. However, more research is needed to explore ways to promote an increase in participation in food preparation at home by children.

  4. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    bird populations of the island group have led to it being declared an Important Bird Area by BirdLife .... 2000) and South African (Barnes 2000) classifications of conservation status are indicated, as well as the trend over the most recent decade ..... Congruity with a number of Southern Ocean is- land nature reserves of other ...

  5. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  6. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  7. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  8. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...

  9. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  10. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni sequence types persist in Finnish chicken production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Katrin Llarena

    Full Text Available Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%], and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST, but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3% delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks.

  11. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  12. Distribution of polymorphisms IL4-590 C/T and IL4 RP2 in the human populations of Madeira, Azores, Portugal, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Anabela G; Câmara, Rita A; Brehm, António D; Oliveira, Susana; Fernandes, Ana T

    2012-01-01

    The IL4 gene is located on chromosome 5q23.3-31.2. Polymorphisms within this cytokine gene, like the derivative allele T of IL4-590, have been reported as being associated to elevated IgE serum levels and asthma. In the present work, the allelic and genotypic frequency of the IL4-590 and IL4 RP2 polymorphisms was carried out in 599 individuals from Madeira, Azores, Portugal mainland, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau and in a sample of 101 asthmatics from Madeira population. In all populations the polymorphisms were in LD and presented a significant dissimilar allelic and genotypic distribution (pMadeira when compared to Azores. Significant differences regarding both loci were found between Madeira population and the group of asthmatics. Genotype 183183TT frequency is higher for African populations while 253253CC prevails in Caucasian populations. The existence of a Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium in Guinea-Bissau population not observed in neutral markers leads to the hypothesis of natural selection occurring in these loci probably associated to a rapid population growth an hypothesis strengthened by neutral STRs D5S818 and CSF1PO gene diversity.

  13. La estética del reposo en la representación de las pequeñas ciudades provincianas de la prosa de Azorín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorde Cuvardic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la estética del reposo y la pequeña filosofía en la obra de Azorín, asociada a la representación de los pueblos y las ciudades abúlicas. El Eterno retorno de las cosas, desde una variante pesimista de la propuesta de Nietzsche, domina la temporalidad de las pequeñas ciudades provincianas representadas en sus novelas y ensayos: la noción de Progreso ha desaparecido. Domina en este espacio la repetición monótona de los mismos ritos y prácticas. Para Azorín, ante este panorama nihilista, el sujeto de inquietudes intelectuales debe encontrar su lugar en el mundo mediante el disfrute modesto de los pequeños placeres, aquellos proporcionados por los objetos y las experiencias cotidianas, símbolos del ‘alma nacional’. Este es el programa de acción de la pequeña filosofía. Su formulación literaria se canaliza a través de la estética del reposo, que describe el silencio, la quietud, el ritmo pausado de las actividades y los acompasados sonidos de las campanas de estos espacios sociales.

  14. Diffuse soil CO_2 degassing from Linosa island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cellura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Herein, we present and discuss the result of 148 measurements of soil CO2 flux performed for the first time in Linosa island (Sicily Channel, Italy, a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex no longer active but still of interest owing to its location within a seismically active portion of the Sicily Channel rift system. The main purpose of this survey was to assess the occurrence of CO2 soil degassing, and compare flux estimations from this island with data of soil degassing from worldwide active volcanic as well as non-volcanic areas. To this aim soil CO2 fluxes were measured over a surface of about 4.2 km2 covering ~80% of the island. The soil CO2 degassing was observed to be mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the island likely due to volcano-tectonic lineaments, the presence of which is in good agreement with the known predominant regional faults system. Then, the collected data were interpreted using sequential Gaussian simulation that allowed estimating the total CO2 emissions of the island. Results show low levels of CO2 emissions from the soil of the island (~55 ton d-1 compared with CO2 emissions of currently active volcanic areas, such as Miyakejima (Japan and Vulcano (Italy. Results from this study suggest that soil degassing in Linosa is mainly fed by superficial organic activity with a moderate contribution of a deep CO2 likely driven by NW-SE trending active tectonic structures in the eastern part of the island.

  15. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  16. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  17. New Cheilostomata (Bryozoa from NE Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope: evidence for deep-sea endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Berning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species belonging to three new genera (Atlantisina gen. nov., Bathycyclopora gen. nov., Calvetopora gen. nov. of umbonulomorph bryozoans from northeastern Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope are introduced. We furthermore erect the new family Atlantisinidae fam. nov. for these genera. Eight new species belong to the new genus Atlantisina: Atlantisina atlantis gen. et sp. nov. (type species, A. acantha gen. et sp. nov., A. gorringensis gen. et sp. nov., A. inarmata gen. et sp. nov., A. lionensis gen. et sp. nov., A. meteor gen. et sp. nov., A. seinensis gen. et sp. nov., and A. tricornis gen. et sp. nov. The genus Bathycyclopora gen. nov. is introduced for ?Phylactella vibraculata Calvet from the Azores, and also includes Bathycyclopora suroiti gen. et sp. nov. The type species of Calvetopora gen. nov. is Lepralia inflata Calvet from the Gulf of Cadiz; this genus also includes Calvetopora otapostasis gen. et sp. nov. and another species left in open nomenclature. Of the 13 species described herein, 11 occur on seamounts and islands, and nine species are endemic to a single seamount, island or station. The present results show that bryozoans provide striking examples of the function of seamounts as areas of endemism, most likely intrinsically linked to the low dispersal abilities of bryozoan larvae.

  18. The evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation for the last 700 years inferred from D/H isotopes in the sedimentary record of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio de Ingles, Maria Jesus; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Sáez, Alberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Gonçalves, Vitor M.; Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo; Sánchez López, Guiomar; Francus, Pierre; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    The δD plant leaf wax variations provide insights on precipitation and evaporation evolution through time. This proxy has been used to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climate mode since this mode rules most of the climate variability in the central North Atlantic area. A total lipid extraction preparation and the correspondent analyses in the IRMS have been done for 100 samples from the uppermost 1.5 m of the sedimentary infill of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal). According to the chronological model, established by 210Pb profile and 4 AMS 14C dates, this record contains the environmental history of the last 730 years. The reconstructed precipitation variations obtained from D/H isotope values, suggest that this area has suffered significant changes in its distribution and intensity rainfall patterns through time. The end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 1100- 1300 AD) is characterized by a progressive enrichmentof D/H isotope values which meant decreasing arid conditions. These rainfalls' increase might be interpreted by a shift from positive to negative dominance of the NAO. The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300 - 1850 AD) was characterized by two humid periods (1300- 1550 AD and 1650 - 1850 AD) separated by a relatively dry period. These precipitation oscillations are clearly visible by marked changes in the D/H isotope values. The LIA was followed by the persistence of the positive NAO mode, exhibited by the depletion of the D/H isotope signal, which indicated an overall decrease of the precipitation in the central North Atlantic area. Surprisingly, the D/H of the last 100 years, characterized by the present global warming and a persistent positive NAO mode, display large fluctuations most possibly linked to an enhancement of the storminess which is in concordance with the data fluctuations observed in the instrumental record for the last 80 years in the archipelago. This climatic evolution is in accordance with

  19. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  20. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P < 0·05). The mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P < 0·05). The results suggest that the individuals with missing unilateral posterior teeth exhibited greater mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  2. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  3. Sediment Composition and Facies of Coral Reef Islands in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Janßen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and geomorphological characteristics of coral reef islands are strongly related to past and recent boundary conditions such as the hydrodynamic regime, wind directions, sea-level fluctuations, and the ecological footprint of the surrounding reef complexes. Alterations in the physical, chemical, and biological boundary controls may affect the stability of reef islands. Additionally, these factors are of importance in the context of future climate change. Such alterations through time may well be documented within the sedimentary record of reef islands and a better knowledge on its effects could help to improve our understanding of island responses to future changes of the status quo. However, detailed studies on the sedimentology and geomorphology of reef islands from southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, are still rare. Here we report on the sedimentary composition and related facies zonation of four uninhabited coral reef islands in the Spermonde Archipelago. Sediment samples from onshore- and reef-flat environments were analyzed in regard to their grain size, component assemblages and facies distribution. Our results show that the analyzed island sediments are characterized by medium- to coarse-grained sand fractions and are well to poorly sorted. Across all islands examined, the surface sediment is predominately composed of materials identified as scleractinian coral and coralline red algae fragments, with minor additions from bivalves, gastropods and foraminifers. Importantly, statistical analyses of the variations in the percentage of these components allow for a clear sedimentary distinction of the four study sites into three outer shelf islands, situated closer to the open marine Makassar Strait, and one inner shelf island. On the inner shelf island, additional subsurface sedimentological analyses indicate a potential shift in major sediment contributors through time, preserved as coral-dominated accumulations within the

  4. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands... geographic coordinates for Bucholz AAF in the Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, Class D airspace legal...

  5. 76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... part 71 by amending Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993... Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the Federal ] Register on October 7, 2010, FR Doc...

  6. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  7. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  8. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  9. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  10. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available expeditions to Marion Island from 1948 to 1985 and research visits to Prince Edward Island from 1965 to 1985. A third appendix is a bibliography relevant to the study of historical sites at the Prince Edward islands...

  11. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  12. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  14. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  15. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  16. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  17. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  18. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  19. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over...... the last 130 years and through reconstruction of the vegetation from the end of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (5528 ± 75 cal year BP) using meta-barcoding of plant DNA recovered from the nunatak sediments (sedaDNA). Our results show that several of the plant species detected with sedaDNA are described from...

  20. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  1. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  2. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  3. Prodigious submarine landslides during the inception and early growth of volcanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James E; Jarvis, Ian

    2017-12-12

    Volcanic island inception applies large stresses as the ocean crust domes in response to magma ascension and is loaded by eruption of lavas. There is currently limited information on when volcanic islands are initiated on the seafloor, and no information regarding the seafloor instabilities island inception may cause. The deep sea Madeira Abyssal Plain contains a 43 million year history of turbidites among which many originate from mass movements in the Canary Islands. Here, we investigate the composition and timing of a distinctive group of turbidites that we suggest represent a new unique record of large-volume submarine landslides triggered during the inception, submarine shield growth, and final subaerial emergence of the Canary Islands. These slides are predominantly multi-stage and yet represent among the largest mass movements on the Earth's surface up to three or more-times larger than subaerial Canary Islands flank collapses. Thus whilst these deposits provide invaluable information on ocean island geodynamics they also represent a significant, and as yet unaccounted, marine geohazard.

  4. Palaeomagnetic study of a subaerial volcanic ridge (Sao Jorge Island, Azores) for the past 1.3 Myr: evidence for the CobbMountain Subchron, volcano flank instability and tectonomagmatic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; Madureira, P.; Mériaux, C. A.; Kratinová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 3 (2012), s. 959-978 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : palaeomagnetic secular variation * magnetostratigraphy * rock and mineral magnetism * Atlantic Ocean Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.853, year: 2012

  5. Energy reduction potential from the shift to electric vehicles: The Flores island case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, André; Baptista, Patrícia; Silva, Carlos; Ferrão, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The increase of fossil fuel demand raises concerns on availability of resources for future energy demand and on potential environmental impacts. Electric vehicles (EVs) appear as one alternative to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources. This research work analyzes the benefits of the introduction of EVs in a small energy system, the Flores island, Azores, in terms of primary energy and CO 2 emissions. Four scenarios were designed considering different penetration rates of EVs (Low and High) and different time of recharging strategies (Fixed and Flexible). The high shares of RES in the electricity production system (60–62%) did not guarantee a significant use of RES for the recharging of EVs (10–40%), as the additional electricity required had to be produced mainly from the diesel generators. The flexible recharging strategies allowed doubling the share of RES in the recharging of the EVs when compared to fixed recharging, and consequently double the impact on the reduction of primary energy consumption and fossil fuels imports. While the reduction of primary energy ranged between 0.2% and 1.1%, for CO 2 emissions there was a decrease between 0.3 and 1.7%, proving that EVs can help improve the sustainability of energy systems. - highlights: • High shares of RES in electricity do not guarantee a low energy use by EVs. • The introduction of EVs can help reduce CO 2 emissions by 11% in 2030. • Flexible time of recharging strategies allows a 2.5 times higher share of RES

  6. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  7. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  8. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  9. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    OpenAIRE

    KARSONO; ELIZABETH A. WIDJAJA

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001) Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species whi...

  10. The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami reached large magnitude on the coasts of the Caribbean Islands. A maximum tsunami height of 10 m was reported for two coastal locations (Deshaies and Sainte-Rose in Guadeloupe. Modelling of the 1867 tsunami is performed in the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory. The directivity of the tsunami wave source in the Caribbean Sea according to the assumed initial waveform is investigated. The tsunami records at the several coastal regions in the Lesser Antilles, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and South America are simulated. The comparison between the computed and observed data is in reasonable agreement.

  11. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule..., Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This... feet or more above the surface of the earth at Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI...

  12. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of

  13. A Control Approach and Supplementary Controllers for a Stand-Alone System with Predominance of Wind Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lukasievicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control approach and supplementary controllers for the operation of a hybrid stand-alone system composed of a wind generation unit and a conventional generation unit based on synchronous generator (CGU. The proposed controllers allow the islanded or isolated operation of small power systems with predominance of wind generation. As an advantage and a paradigm shift, the DC-link voltage of the wind unit is controlled by means of a conventional synchronous generator connected to the AC grid of the system. Two supplementary controllers, added to a diesel generator (DIG and to a DC dump load (DL, are proposed to control the DC-link voltage. The wind generation unit operates in V-f control mode and the DIG operates in PQ control mode, which allows the stand-alone system to operate either in wind-diesel (WD mode or in wind-only (WO mode. The strong influence of the wind turbine speed variations in the DC-link voltage is mitigated by a low-pass filter added to the speed control loop of the wind turbine. The proposed control approach does not require the use battery bank and ultra-capacitor to control the DC-link voltage in wind generation units based on fully rated converter.

  14. My Rock: Black Women Attending Graduate School at a Southern Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Participants in this phenomenological study were 11 Black women who received an undergraduate degree from a historically Black college or university and were currently attending graduate school at a southern predominantly White university. This study investigated the adjustment experiences of these women to life on a southern predominantly White…

  15. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  16. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  17. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works.......The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  18. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island

  19. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  20. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  1. 77 FR 63927 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Island, with its greater mass and higher elevations, has more distinctive climatic zones and ecosystems... arid conditions predominate (USFWS 1996, p. 6; Mitchell et al. 2005a, pp. 6-71). A rain shadow effect... grasslands, from sea level to 1,000 ft (300 m) in elevation, generally within a narrow zone above the...

  2. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our draft comprehensive conservation plan (CCP), draft wilderness stewardship plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our alternatives, including our preferred alternative, for managing the Refuges for the 15 years following approval of the final CCP/WSP.

  3. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  4. Treatment implications of predominant polarity and the polarity index: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Andre F; Quevedo, João; McIntyre, Roger S; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Berk, Michael; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-10-31

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious and recurring condition that affects approximately 2.4% of the global population. About half of BD sufferers have an illness course characterized by either a manic or a depressive predominance. This predominant polarity in BD may be differentially associated with several clinical correlates. The concept of a polarity index (PI) has been recently proposed as an index of the antimanic versus antidepressive efficacy of various maintenance treatments for BD. Notwithstanding its potential clinical utility, predominant polarity was not included in the DSM-5 as a BD course specifier. Here we searched computerized databases for original clinical studies on the role of predominant polarity for selection of and response to pharmacological treatments for BD. Furthermore, we systematically searched the Pubmed database for maintenance randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for BD to determine the PI of the various pharmacological agents for BD. We found support from naturalistic studies that bipolar patients with a predominantly depressive polarity are more likely to be treated with an antidepressive stabilization package, while BD patients with a manic-predominant polarity are more frequently treated with an antimanic stabilization package. Furthermore, predominantly manic BD patients received therapeutic regimens with a higher mean PI. The calculated PI varied from 0.4 (for lamotrigine) to 12.1 (for aripiprazole). This review supports the clinical relevance of predominant polarity as a course specifier for BD. Future studies should investigate the role of baseline, predominant polarity as an outcome predictor of BD maintenance RCTs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Plastic pollution in islands of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Raqueline C P; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F

    2018-03-15

    Marine plastic pollution is present in all oceans, including remote oceanic islands. Despite the increasing number of articles on plastic pollution in the last years, there is still a lack of studies in islands, that are biodiversity hotspots when compared to the surrounding ocean, and even other recognized highly biodiverse marine environments. Articles published in the peer reviewed literature (N = 20) were analysed according to the presence of macro (>5 mm) and microplastics (plastics associated with variables such as position of the beach in relation to wind and currents. Very few studies have analysed plastics colonization by organisms or the identification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Islands of the North/South Atlantic and Caribbean Sea were influenced by different sources of macroplastics, being marine-based sources (i.e., fishing activities) predominant in the Atlantic Ocean basin. On the other hand, in the Caribbean Sea, land-based sources were more common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  7. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  8. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  9. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island....... Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present...

  10. Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin with predominance of stromal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Jayalakshmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare variant of cutaneous chondroid syringoma, with epithelial differentiation composed of apocrine, follicular, and sebaceous components and showing the presence of predominantly lipomatous stroma, is being reported in a 54-year-old female.

  11. Incidence of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) in Greenland and the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, M; Helleberg, M; Obel, N

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the incidence of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's; GPA) increases along a south-north gradient in the Northern Hemisphere with an incidence of 8.0/million/year reported for the population of Northern Norway. In the present study, we assessed the incidence...... of GPA in the predominantly Inuit population of Greenland and in the Caucasian population of the Faroe Islands....

  12. Geomorphologic regionalization of the central and southern parts of Pag Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lončar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis of geological, climatic, geomorphologic and morphometric characteristics of the central and southern parts of Pag Island. It identifies 21 categories of relief thoroughly studied and explained by using the methods of remote sensing. The predominant geomorphological processes and forms are indicated within the chosen 243 spatial units. An acquired dataset has been used to implement a generalization which provided the land use evaluation criteria for determining the favourability of certain areas for construction.

  13. Dive Tourism and the Entrepreneurial Process in the Perhentian Islands, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyacheya, Julia; Hampton, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Dive tourism is a high growth, niche sector for island and coastal developing nations and is propelled predominantly by local tourism entrepreneurs and small businesses. This chapter examines dive tourism in peninsula Malaysia and particularly the factors influencing the entrepreneurial process. Much research on tourism entrepreneurs is derived from analysing business in the developed world, and has focused on the individual, not the process. Significantly less research exists for middle inco...

  14. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  15. Open questions in the management of nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyran, Marguerite; Gonzague, Laurence; Bouabdallah, Reda; Resbeut, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Localized Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis but frequent late relapses. Due to it's rarity there is no standard therapeutic approach and pathological diagnosis may be hard. In this paper we discuss the technical aspects of the radiation therapy and histological issues. The new fields reductions proposed for classical Hodgkin lymphoma cannot be applied to early stages Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin lymphomas which are usually treated with radiation therapy without systemic chemotherapy.

  16. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; Moura, Luciana Monteiro de; Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Souza, Altay Alves Lino de; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  17. Meteorological Patterns and Fog Water in the Canary Islands and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzol, M. V.; Sanchez Megía, J. L.; Yanes, A.; Bargach, J.; Derhem, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Stratocumulus cloud formation is very common in the Canary Islands (Spain) and on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. This cloud formation behaves as if it was fog when it comes into contact with the relief and its liquid content can be captured by artificial systems. The origin of this cloud formation is connected with the Azores anti-cyclone and with the anomalous structure of the low layers of the atmosphere caused by a subsidence thermal inversion. The aim of this article is to define a pattern of the most favourable meteorological and atmospheric conditions for this cloud formation to appear. In order to do this, a database has been compiled with the information about the days on which water has been collected in Morocco since June, 2006. This was when the collaboration with the Si Hmad Derhem Foundation (Casablanca) began. As well as meteorological data and data on water quantities, weather maps, thermodynamic soundings and satellite images are also analysed. The following two sites were studied: Anaga, on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, 864 m a.s.l. and 4 km from the coast, and Boutmezguida, Morocco, 1,225 m a.s.l. and 30 km from the coast. The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of looking for the most appropriate sites to obtain the greatest efficiency in fog water collection; the Standard Fog Collector (SFC, Schemenauer and Cereceda, 1994) was used for this purpose. The second stage consisted of studying the most favourable meteorological conditions for water collection where the Quarter Fog Collector (QFC, Marzol, 2002) connected to an automatic weather station providing information on temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction and the amount of water collected on the netting every ten minutes was used to do this. The aim of the third stage, which was by nature an applied stage, was to construct large-sized fog collectors (Large Fog Collector, LFC) so that the water collected could be put to

  18. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  19. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  20. Slope protection for artificial island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, M.T.; Collins, J.I.; Shak, A.T.

    1981-08-01

    The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of reliability, construction-cost, and maintenance-cost factors, choosing 8 candidates for wave and ice model testing. The cases of interest involve exploration and production islands in shallow and deeper water applications.

  1. Small Island Systems: A Case Study of the Comoro Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Abdourahim Said

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the sociocultural context of education in the Comoro Islands, where effects of French colonization combine with Islamic influences. Examines education and cultural changes under French colonialism prior to independence in 1975. Since then, political changes resulted in establishment of French and South African hegemony. One table, 5…

  2. Rock glaciers, Disko Island, Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Disko Island (8600 km2) is situated west of central mainland Greenland. The island is part of the Tertiary volcanic province of West Greenland and is mainly made up...

  3. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  4. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  5. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  6. March 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  7. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  8. Geothermal surveys in the oceanic volcanic island of Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Pasqua, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic island chains are generally characterised by young volcanic systems that are predominately composed of basaltic lavas and related magmatic products. Although hot springs are occasionally present, the pervasive, massive, recent outpourings of basaltic lavas are the primary manifestation of the existence of geothermal resources. These islands may have, in principle, significant potential for the exploitation of geothermal energy. In this paper, we present results of recent investigations aimed at the evaluation of geothermal resources of the island of Mauritius, that is the emerging portion of a huge submarine, aseismic, volcanic plateau extending in the SW part of the Indian Ocean. The plateau is related to a long-lived hotspot track, whose present-day expression is the active volcano of La Réunion Island, located about 200 km SW of Mauritius. The island does not show at present any volcanic activity, but magmatism is quite recent as it dates from 7.8 to 0.03 Myr. Geochemical data from water samples collected from boreholes do not indicate the presence of mature water, i.e. circulating in high-temperature geothermal reservoirs, and argue for short-term water-rock interaction in shallow hydrogeological circuits. However, this cannot rule out that a deep magmatic heat source, hydraulically insulated from shallow aquifers, may occur. To evaluate the geothermal gradient, a 270-m-deep hole was thus drilled in the island central portion, in which the most recent volcanic activity (0.03 Myr) took place. Temperature-depth profiles, recorded after complete thermal equilibration, revealed a thermal gradient of 40 mK/m. Attempts of extracting additional thermal information were also made by measuring the temperature in a 170-m-deep deep water hole, no longer used. The results were consistent with the gradient hole, i.e. pointing to a weak or null deep-seated thermal anomaly beneath Mauritius and low geothermal potential. The deep thermal process (mantle plume) invoked

  9. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species. Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies.

  10. Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    An historical analysis of images and documents shows that the Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are undergoing rapid land loss and translocation. The barrier island chain formed and grew at a time when there was a surplus of sand in the alongshore sediment transport system, a condition that no longer prevails. The islands, except Cat, display alternating wide and marrow segments. Wide segments generally were products of low rates of inlet migration and spit elongation that resulted in well-defined ridges and swales formed by wave refraction along the inlet margins. In contrast, rapid rates of inlet migration and spit elongation under conditions of surplus sand produced low, narrow, straight barrier segments. Since the mid 1800s, average rates of land loss for all the MS islands accelerated systematically while maintaining consistency from island to island. In contrast, Dauphin Island, off the Alabama coast, gained land during the early 20th century and then began to lose land at rates comparable to those of the MS barriers. There is an inverse relationship between island size and percentage of land reduction for each barrier such that Horn Island lost 24% and Ship Island lost 64% of its area since the mid 1800s. Ship Island is particularly vulnerable to storm-driven land losses because topographic and bathymetric boundary conditions focus wave energy onto the island. The three predominant morphodynamic processes associated with land loss are: (1) unequal lateral transfer of sand related to greater updrift erosion compared to downdrift deposition, (2) barrier narrowing resulting from simultaneous erosion of the Gulf and Soundside shores, and (3) barrier segmentation related to storm breaching. The western three fourths of Dauphin Island are migrating landward as a result of storms that erode the Gulf shore, overwash the island, and deposit sand in Mississippi Sound. Petit Bois, Horn, and Ship Islands have migrated westward as a result of predominant

  11. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  12. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  14. Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    DJAMALI, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The “Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation” is an excellent textbook for the island biology. After a brief chapter “The natural laboratory paradigm”, in which the structure of the book is described, the second chapter gives a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of the islands; their origin, formation, geological evolution, and natural physical disturbances. In chapter 3, the status of the global biodiversity distribution on the Earth’s islands is shor...

  15. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  16. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  17. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  18. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  19. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  20. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  1. Relationship between soft stratum thickness and predominant frequency of ground based on microtremor observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kenny; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-07-01

    Despite categorized as low seismicity group, until being affected by distant earthquake ground motion from Sumatra and the recent 2015 Sabah Earthquake, Malaysia has come to realize that seismic hazard in the country is real and has the potential to threaten the public safety and welfare. The major concern in this paper is to study the effect of local site condition, where it could amplify the magnitude of ground vibration at sites. The aim for this study is to correlate the thickness of soft stratum with the predominant frequency of soil. Single point microtremor measurements were carried out at 24 selected points where the site investigation reports are available. Predominant period and frequency at each site are determined by Nakamura's method. The predominant period varies from 0.22 s to 0.98 s. Generally, the predominant period increases when getting closer to the shoreline which has thicker sediments. As far as the thickness of the soft stratum could influence the amplification of seismic wave, the advancement of micotremor observation to predict the thickness of soft stratum (h) from predominant frequency (fr) is of the concern. Thus an empirical relationship h =54.917 fr-1.314 is developed based on the microtremor observation data. The empirical relationship will be benefited in the prediction of thickness of soft stratum based on microtremor observation for seismic design with minimal cost compared to conventional boring method.

  2. Identification of anther-specific/predominant genes regulated by gibberellin during development of lily anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Tzeng, Jhih-Deng; Liu, Ming-Che; Yei, Fung-Ling; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Co-Shine

    2008-01-01

    We successfully identify anther-specific/predominant genes induced by gibberellin (GA) at the microspore stage of lily (Lilium longiflorum) anthers. We used a suppression-subtractive hybridization strategy to identify 22 individual cDNAs followed by a reverse RNA dot plot to determine their specificities at the microspore stage. Of the 22 genes, 12 are clearly anther-specific and three are anther-predominant. Sequence analysis revealed that five anther-specific/predominant genes are novel. The transcripts of anther-specific/predominant genes were differentially detected at the microspore development phase; some began accumulating in level as early as the occurrence of meiosis. When uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis was applied in young lily plants we found that all of the anther-specific/predominant genes, with the exception of LLA-139, were up-regulated by GAs in the anther while only some were responsive to the exogenous addition of 100 microM GA3. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes of selected genes in the anther showed a strong signal localized to the tapetal layer. The different actions of GA on gene expression in anthers are discussed.

  3. Excess density compensation of island herpetofaunal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.; Dean-Bradley, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim Some species reach extraordinary densities on islands. Island assemblages have fewer species, however, and it is possible that island species differ from their mainland counterparts in average mass. Island assemblages could be partitioned differently (fewer species or smaller individuals) from mainland sites without differing in aggregate biomass (density compensation). Our objective was to determine the generality of excess density compensation in island herpetofaunal assemblages.Location Our bounded removal plot data were obtained from Pacific Island sites (Guam, Saipan and Rota), the West Indies (British Virgin Islands), and the Indian Ocean (Ile aux Aigrettes off Mauritius). The literature values were taken from several locales. Other island locations included Barro Colorado Island, Bonaire, Borneo, Philippine Islands, Seychelle Islands, Barrow Island (Australia), North Brother Island (New Zealand), Dominica and Puerto Rico. Mainland sites included Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Australia, Thailand, Peru, Brazil, Panama and the USA.Method We added our thirty-nine bounded total removal plots from sixteen island habitats to fifteen literature records to obtain seventy-five venues with estimable density and biomass of arboreal or terrestrial herpetofaunal assemblages. These biomass estimates were evaluated geographically and in relation to sampling method, insularity, latitude, disturbance regime, seasonality, community richness, vegetative structure and climate. Direct data on trophic interactions (food availability, parasitism and predation pressure) were generally unavailable. Sampling problems were frequent for arboreal, cryptic and evasive species.Results and main conclusions We found strong evidence that herpetofaunal assemblages on small islands (mostly lizards) exhibit a much greater aggregate density of biomass (kg ha−1) than those of larger islands or mainland assemblages (small islands show excess density compensation). High aggregate biomass

  4. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  5. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  6. Female Experience of Migration and Ageing – the Perspective from the Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is result of research on the specificities of migration and their influence on the aging of women in particular island surroundings as well as on the causes and social consequences of these processes. It also discusses certain domains of the quality of life valued by the elderly. In addition to providing a theoretical overview, the authors present data collected by methods of secondary data analysis, and observation and semi-structured interviews in an effort to provide insight into aging on the Croatian islands from a gender standpoint. The qualitative data used were collected during several researches carried out from 2003 to 2013 within the project entitled “The influence of migrations on the regional development of Croatia”. The analysis focuses mainly on the experience of elderly women who live in small island communities, defined on the basis of similar economic, social and psychological parameters regardless of the island size. The data presented in this paper indicate that the aging of women on the islands and the quality of their life in later years are dependent on a number of factors – personal or family member (noninvolvement in migration, size of the community in which they live, degree of island isolation, quality of existing infrastructure, personal health, degree of participation in social life etc. Additionally, notwithstanding their individual specific life cycle or the island on which they reside, a high level of activity into very old age is a common denominator for elderly island women. In conclusion, due to current demographic trends, the authors expect the continuation of the process of population aging on the Croatian islands, increase in the number of predominantly female single households and continuation of equality in the division of roles between island males and females outside the home, with concurrent maintaining of “female roles” in the home and in caring for the elderly (professionally or

  7. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients

  8. A reevaluation of erythroid predominance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia using the updated WHO 2016 Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolskee, Elizabeth; Mikita, Geoff; Rea, Bryan; Bagg, Adam; Zuo, Zhuang; Sun, Yi; Goswami, Maitrayee; Wang, Sa A; Oak, Jean; Arber, Daniel A; Allen, M Brandon; George, Tracy I; Rogers, Heesun J; Hsi, Eric; Hasserjian, Robert P; Orazi, Attilio

    2018-02-05

    The 2016 WHO update changed the diagnostic criteria for myeloid neoplasms with erythroid predominance, limiting the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia to cases with ≥20% blasts in the bone marrow or peripheral blood. Although acute myeloid leukemia with ≥50% erythroid cells has historically been presumed to represent acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes, this hypothesis has never been systematically examined. We sought to investigate the clinicopathologic, cytogenetic, and molecular features of acute myeloid leukemia with erythroid predominance to subclassify cases as defined by the 2016 WHO. We retrospectively identified patients with ≥50% erythroid precursors and either ≥20% bone marrow blasts or ≥20% peripheral blood blasts at the time of initial diagnosis at seven major academic centers. Laboratory and clinical data were obtained. Patients were then reclassified according to 2016 WHO guidelines. A matched control group was also obtained. We identified 146 patients with acute myeloid leukemia with erythroid predominance (62% M, average age: 62 y, range: 5-93 y). Of these, 91 were acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes, 20 (14%) were therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, 23 (16%) acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified, and ten acute myeloid leukemia with recurrent cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities. The bone marrow blast count ranged from 9-41%. There was no difference in survival for patients with erythroid predominance compared to patients with acute myeloid leukemia without erythroid proliferations. In a multivariable analysis, cytogenetic risk was the only significant predictor of survival. We find a significantly lower rate of FLT3 and RAS pathway alterations in acute myeloid leukemia with erythroid predominance compared to controls. Our study is one of the first to apply the 2016 WHO guidelines for classification of acute myeloid leukemia. We find acute myeloid leukemia with erythroid

  9. Does index tumor predominant location influence prognostic factors in radical prostatectomies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Billis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To find any influence on prognostic factors of index tumor according to predominant location. Materials and Methods Prostate surgical specimens from 499 patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy were step-sectioned. Each transverse section was subdivided into 2 anterolateral and 2 posterolateral quadrants. Tumor extent was evaluated by a semi-quantitative point-count method. The index tumor (dominant nodule was recorded as the maximal number of positive points of the most extensive tumor area from the quadrants and the predominant location was considered anterior (anterolateral quadrants, posterior (posterolateral quadrants, basal (quadrants in upper half of the prostate, apical (quadrants in lower half of the prostate, left (left quadrants or right (right quadrants. Time to biochemical recurrence was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis and prediction of shorter time to biochemical recurrence using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Results Index tumors with predominant posterior location were significantly associated with higher total tumor extent, needle and radical prostatectomy Gleason score, positive lymph nodes and preoperative prostate-specific antigen. Index tumors with predominant basal location were significantly associated with higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen, pathological stage higher than pT2, extra-prostatic extension, and seminal vesicle invasion. Index tumors with predominant basal location were significantly associated with time to biochemical recurrence in Kaplan-Meier estimates and significantly predicted shorter time to biochemical recurrence on univariate analysis but not on multivariate analysis. Conclusions The study suggests that index tumor predominant location is associated with prognosis in radical prostatectomies, however, in multivariate analysis do not offer advantage over other well-established prognostic factors.

  10. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  11. Spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 in Asia and AbaR-type resistance islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, So Hyun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; So, Thomas Man-Kit; Yasin, Rohani M D; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Carlos, Celia C; Hsu, Li Yang; Buntaran, Latre; Lalitha, M K; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2013-11-01

    In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.

  12. Threats to avifauna on oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Heather S; Skibiel, Amy L; Karels, Tim J; Dobson, F Stephen

    2007-02-01

    Results of the study by Blackburn et al. (2004a) of avifauna on oceanic islands suggest that distance from the mainland and time since European colonization have major influences on species extinctions and that island area is a significant but secondary contributing factor. After augmenting the data of the study on geographical properties for some of the islands they examined, we used a causal analysis approach with structural equation modeling to reexamine their conclusions. In our model geographical properties of islands, such as island area and isolation, were considered constraints on biological factors, such as the number of introduced mammalian predators and existing number of avifauna, that can directly or indirectly influence extinction. Of the variables we tested, island area had the greatest total influence on the threat of extinction due to its direct and indirect effects on the size of island avifauna. Larger islands had both a greater number of threatened bird species and more avifauna, increasing the number of species that could become threatened with extinction. Island isolation also had a significant, positive, and direct effect on threats to island avifauna because islands farther from the mainland had fewer current extant avifauna. Time since European colonization had a significant negative, but relatively weaker, influence on threats compared with the traditional biogeographic factors of island area and distance to the mainland. We also tested the hypothesis that the amount of threat is proportionally lower on islands that have had more extinctions (i.e., there is a "filter effect"). Because the proportion of bird extinctions potentially explained only 2.3% of the variation in the proportion of threatened species on islands, our results did not support this hypothesis. Causal modeling provided a powerful tool for examining threat of extinction patterns of known and hypothesized pathways of influence.

  13. Spatial Tourist and Functional Diversity on the Volcanic Island of Gran Canaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda-Soroczyńska, Eleonora; Olczyk, Hanna

    2017-10-01

    The conducted research is focused on spatial, functional and landscape diversity, the existing tourist potential and the possibilities for further development of a small, volcanic island of Gran Canaria. The discussed island was compared against other islands of the Canarian archipelago (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, El Hierro). Similarly to the remaining Canary Islands, the economy of Gran Canaria is predominantly based on tourism (approx. 4,5-5,0 million tourists visit the Canary Island annually and approx. 2,8 million come to Gran Canaria). Additionally, Puerto de la Luz transhipment centre in Las Palmas plays a very important role because of the goods imported from overseas. It is one of the largest ports in Spain (it reloads almost 2 million containers per year) also being an important Atlantic refuelling station. Apart from tourism, an important role is played here by agriculture, primarily the cultivation of bananas and tomatoes, which represent the most significant export good of the archipelago. The conducted spatial research showed an extensive diversity. This situation is, to a great extent, influenced by the climate. The northern part is cooler and dominated by agriculture, whereas the southern one is much warmer and characterized by a well-developed tourism infrastructure. Site inspections performed out along the outer contour of the island resembling a circle. Numerous architectural and urban sketches, urban analyses and photographic documentation were made. Community surveys were carried out. For a researcher, it was extremely interesting to answer the questions whether Gran Canaria is different from the other Canary Islands, especially in the functional and landscape context, and if so what exactly these differences consist of. What is Gran Canaria in particular characterized by and what kind of role it plays in the economic sector of Spain?

  14. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  15. Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Visser, GH; Wells, JCK; Wright, A; Victoria, CG; Victora, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban

  16. Proteome-wide identification of predominant subcellular protein localizations in a bacterial model organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stekhoven, Daniel J. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Omasits, Ulrich [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Quebatte, Maxime [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland); Dehio, Christoph [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland); Ahrens, Christian H. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-03-01

    Proteomics data provide unique insights into biological systems, including the predominant subcellular localization (SCL) of proteins, which can reveal important clues about their functions. Here we analyzed data of a complete prokaryotic proteome expressed under two conditions mimicking interaction of the emerging pathogen Bartonella henselae with its mammalian host. Normalized spectral count data from cytoplasmic, total membrane, inner and outer membrane fractions allowed us to identify the predominant SCL for 82% of the identified proteins. The spectral count proportion of total membrane versus cytoplasmic fractions indicated the propensity of cytoplasmic proteins to co-fractionate with the inner membrane, and enabled us to distinguish cytoplasmic, peripheral innermembrane and bona fide inner membrane proteins. Principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbor classification training on selected marker proteins or predominantly localized proteins, allowed us to determine an extensive catalog of at least 74 expressed outer membrane proteins, and to extend the SCL assignment to 94% of the identified proteins, including 18% where in silico methods gave no prediction. Suitable experimental proteomics data combined with straightforward computational approaches can thus identify the predominant SCL on a proteome-wide scale. Finally, we present a conceptual approach to identify proteins potentially changing their SCL in a condition-dependent fashion.

  17. Pre- and perinatal risk factors for pyloric stenosis and their influence on the male predominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Gørtz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Pyloric stenosis occurs with a nearly 5-fold male predominance. To what extent this is due to environmental factors is unknown. In a cohort of all children born in Denmark, 1977-2008, the authors examined the association between pre- and perinatal exposures and pyloric stenosis and investigated w...

  18. The PedPAD study: boys predominate in the hypogammaglobulinaemia registry of the ESID online database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorjé, E. J. H.; Gathmann, B.; van Hout, R. W. N. M.; de Vries, E.; Alsina, L.; Baumann, U.; Belohradsky, B. H.; Bienemann, K.; Boardman, B.; Borte, M.; Bredius, R. G.; Brodszki, N.; Caracseghi, F.; Ciznar, P.; Driessen, G. J.; Dückers, G.; Duppenthaler, A.; Farmaki, E.; Galal, N.; Gennery, A.; Gonzalez-Granado, L. I.; Hlavackova, E.; Hoernes, M.; Kilic, S. S.; Krüger, R.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Kütükcüler, N.; Llobet, P.; Marques, L.; van Montfrans, J. M.; Papadopoulou-Alataki, E.; Paschenko, O.; Pasic, S.; Pietrogrande, M. C.; Pignata, C.; Reda, S. M.; Reisli, I.; Roesler, J.; Santos, J. L.; Schölvinck, E. H.; Schulze, I.; Seidel, M. G.; Shcherbina, A.; Sundin, M.; Szaflarska, A.; Velbri, S.; Warnatz, K.; Warris, A.

    2014-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinaemias are the most common primary immunodeficiency diseases. This group of diseases is very heterogeneous, and little is known about these diseases in children. In the Pediatric Predominantly Antibody Deficiencies (PedPAD) study, we analysed data from the European Society for

  19. The PedPAD study : boys predominate in the hypogammaglobulinaemia registry of the ESID online database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorjé, E J H; Gathmann, B; van Hout, R W N M; de Vries, E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    Hypogammaglobulinaemias are the most common primary immunodeficiency diseases. This group of diseases is very heterogeneous, and little is known about these diseases in children. In the Pediatric Predominantly Antibody Deficiencies (PedPAD) study, we analysed data from the European Society for

  20. Predominant Teaching Strategies in Schools: Implications for Curriculum Implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuonye, Keziah Akuoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey is hinged on predominant teaching strategies in schools, implications for curriculum implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Target population consisted of teachers in primary, secondary and tertiary schools. However, purposive sample of 900 respondents was drawn from the six BRACED states namely Bayelsa,…

  1. A Predominately Female Accounting Profession: Lessons from the Past and Other Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the accounting profession is in the process of transitioning from a male dominated profession to a predominantly female one. Other professions that have undergone this switch experienced declines in the status of the profession and the salaries. So, although women have not yet gained equal access to all levels of the accounting…

  2. Serological screening for celiac disease in adult Chinese patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hongling); G. Zhou (Guoying); L. Luo (Linjie); J.B.A. Crusius; A. Yuan (Anlong); J. Kou (Jiguang); G. Yang (Guifang); M. Wang (Min); J. Wu (Jing); B.M.E. von Blomberg (Mary); S.A. Morré (Servaas); A. Salvador Pena; B. Xia (Bing)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCeliac disease (CD) is common in Caucasians, but thought to be rare in Asians. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of CD in Chinese patients with chronic diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). From July 2010 to August 2012, 395 adult patients with IBS-D and 363 age

  3. African American Alumni Feelings of Attachment to a Predominately White Research Intensive University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Causey-Bush, Tonia; Bush, Lawson, V

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined African American alumni opinions of their experience at a predominately white research intensive university from the development office's perspective. Research on decades of African American alumni opinions of their alma mater is nonexistent. Gender, financial aid and matriculation period were the independent variables. The…

  4. The Black Student Experience at Predominantly White Colleges: Implications for School and College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.

    2010-01-01

    Research from higher education and cultural studies that has examined the Black college student experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) is presented to assist counselors in understanding how Black college students' relationships with faculty, family, friends from home, and peers in Black student organizations can become assets or…

  5. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  6. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  7. Black Female Voices: Self-Presentation Strategies in Doctoral Programs at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…

  8. Being White in Black Spaces: Teaching and Learning at a Predominately Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Timothy E.; Thomas, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper serves as a beginning conversation of how two White males perspectives' were shaped and how those perspectives evolved while attending and teaching at a Predominately Black Institution (PBI). Their initial understandings of Whiteness are introduced. This is an ethnographic study that utilized personal narratives from a college professor…

  9. Family Planning in a Predominantly Non-White Rural South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developments in family planning practice from 1966 to 1973 in a predominantly non-White rural community, namely the area under the jurisdiction of the Port Elizabeth Divisional Council, are described. Advantages of promoting family planning in conjunction with normal polyclinic health services are emphasised. Statistics ...

  10. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  11. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  12. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  13. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, W.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  14. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  15. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  16. The Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  17. Remote Monitoring of Island Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    particularly susceptible to the spread of virulent diseases. The key to rapidly detecting such a threat to the island fox is intensive monitoring. But...contributed to the death of each fox, and revealed no evidence of virulent disease, no further action was necessary. While the monitoring system used...a population-threatening disease (e.g. rabies , canine distemper virus) should immediately lead to vaccination efforts and the preparations to

  18. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  19. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C; Massa, Helen M; Thornton, Ruth B; Cripps, Allan W

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the complex combination of otopathogens within

  20. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  1. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  2. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  3. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  4. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine J.H. van Oppen

    2015-07-01

    isolation and contributes to the conservation value of the archipelago. The lack of evidence for genetic erosion, in combination with our observation that the North Keppel Island population samples collected in 2002 and 2008, respectively, exhibited a pairwise genetic distance of zero, supports previous published work indicating that, following bleaching, Acropora corals in the Keppel Islands predominantly recover from regrowth of small amounts of remaining live tissue in apparently dead coral colonies. This is likely supplemented by recruitment of larvae from genetically similar, less disturbed populations at nearby reefs, particularly following extreme flood events.

  5. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Berkelmans, Ray; Peplow, Lesa M; Jones, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    to the conservation value of the archipelago. The lack of evidence for genetic erosion, in combination with our observation that the North Keppel Island population samples collected in 2002 and 2008, respectively, exhibited a pairwise genetic distance of zero, supports previous published work indicating that, following bleaching, Acropora corals in the Keppel Islands predominantly recover from regrowth of small amounts of remaining live tissue in apparently dead coral colonies. This is likely supplemented by recruitment of larvae from genetically similar, less disturbed populations at nearby reefs, particularly following extreme flood events.

  6. Brain MR Imaging in Patients with Lower Motor Neuron-Predominant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Edoardo G; Agosta, Federica; Ferraro, Pilar M; Riva, Nilo; Lunetta, Christian; Falzone, Yuri M; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To investigate the patterns of cortical thinning and white matter tract damage in patients with lower motor neuron (LMN)-predominant disease compared with healthy control subjects and those with classic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to evaluate the relationship between brain structural changes and clinical and cognitive features in these patients. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethical committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before enrollment. Twenty-eight patients with LMN-predominant disease were compared with 55 patients with ALS and 56 healthy control subjects. Patients underwent a clinical and neuropsychological assessment and T1-weighted and diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Surface-based morphometry was used to assess cortical thickness. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography were used to study white matter tract damage. Results Patients with LMN-predominant disease did not show differences compared with healthy control subjects in cortical thickness and diffusion-tensor MR imaging metrics. Patients with ALS showed cortical thinning of the motor-related cortices and a distributed involvement of the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal gyri (P motor and extramotor tracts compared with control subjects and patients with LMN-predominant disease (tract-based spatial statistics: P disease, cognitive deficits correlated with alterations in diffusivity in the left cingulum (r = -0.66, P = .01) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (r = -0.65, P = .05). Conclusion Motor and extramotor cortical thinning and diffusion-tensor MR imaging alterations were specific for motor neuron disease phenotypes, with clinically overt upper motor neuron involvement. However, the lack of significant differences in cortical thickness between subjects with LMN-predominant disease and those with ALS and cognitive deficits associated with alterations in diffusivity in patients with LMN-predominant

  7. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/).

  8. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  9. Geology and petrology of Raiatea Island (Society islands, French Polynesia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blais, S.; Miau, D.; Guille, G.; Maury, R.C.; Cotten, J.; Guillou, H.

    1997-01-01

    Raiatea Island is made up of an alkali basaltic shield volcano, the upper 1000 m of which were emplaced between 2.75 and 2.52 Ma with an average construction rate of ca. 4 mm/year. Trachytic lavas were then emplaced between 2.54 and 2.44 Ma, both as flows and plugs along N-S trending fractures. Their geochemical characteristics point to a fractionation-controlled derivation from the basaltic magmas. Our new age set is consistent with a Pacific plate motion of 11 cm/year with respect to a fixed Society plume. (authors)

  10. ISLANDNESS AND REMOTENESS AS RESOURCES: EVIDENCE FROM THE TOURISM PERFORMANCE OF SMALL REMOTE ISLAND ECONOMIES (SRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamnaaz B. Sufrauj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small remote island economies are known to face a number of economic challenges, in particular, in their trade relations. In addition, their geographical handicap—remoteness—enhances their vulnerability. The cost of distance is well-documented in the economics literature. This paper takes an optimistic position and puts forward the strengths of islands. It investigates the impact of remoteness and islandness on tourism performance. Remote islands are found to be well-endowed in nature and scenery which plausibly play a major role in promoting tourism. The results of an empirical analysis favour the hypothesis that nature has a positive impact on tourism performance (revealed comparative advantage and tourism demand. Interestingly while being distant is detrimental to tourism performance, being both an island and remote is favourable. Tourism demand is negatively affected by being an island, a small country, or a remote country but favoured by being a small island or a remote island.

  11. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  12. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  13. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  14. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  15. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.

  16. Health and Well-being of Women Migrating from Predominantly Muslim Countries to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Pye, Mu; Sin, Kai; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Stoddard, Mary; Frost, Caren J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the health and well-being of women migrating from predominantly Muslim countries to the U.S. Women from predominantly Muslim countries completed a paper survey on the following topics from June to December in 2016 (N=102): depression; physical functioning; self-reported general health; experiences with health care; and demographic characteristics. There were several women's health-related issues: low rates for mammography and Pap smear screening, and preference for female physicians and/or physicians from the same culture. Only one-third of the participants had received a physical exam in the past year, and having done so was related to higher levels of depression and worse physical functioning. The participants who were not in a refugee camp reported higher levels of depression than those who were.

  17. Switching predominance of organic versus inorganic carbon exports from an intermediate-size subarctic watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornblaser, Mark M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrologic exports of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC, DOC) reflect permafrost conditions in arctic and subarctic river basins. DIC yields in particular, increase with decreased permafrost extent. We investigated the influence of permafrost extent on DIC and DOC yield in a tributary of the Yukon River, where the upper watershed has continuous permafrost and the lower watershed has discontinuous permafrost. Our results indicate that DIC versus DOC predominance switches with interannual changes in water availability and flow routing in intermediate-size watersheds having mixed permafrost coverage. Large water yield and small concentrations from mountainous headwaters and small water yield and high concentrations from lowlands produced similar upstream and downstream carbon yields. However, DOC export exceeded DIC export during high-flow 2011 while DIC predominated during low-flow 2010. The majority of exported carbon derived from near-surface organic sources when landscapes were wet or frozen and from mineralized subsurface sources when infiltration increased.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; Mikkelsen, Bjørg; Dam, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crème fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

  19. Inferring predominant pathways in cellular models of breast cancer using limited sample proteomic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinke David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecularly targeted drugs inhibit aberrant signaling within oncogenic pathways. Identifying the predominant pathways at work within a tumor is a key step towards tailoring therapies to the patient. Clinical samples pose significant challenges for proteomic profiling, an attractive approach for identifying predominant pathways. The objective of this study was to determine if information obtained from a limited sample (i.e., a single gel replicate can provide insight into the predominant pathways in two well-characterized breast cancer models. Methods A comparative proteomic analysis of total cell lysates was obtained from two cellular models of breast cancer, BT474 (HER2+/ER+ and SKBR3 (HER2+/ER-, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Protein interaction networks and canonical pathways were extracted from the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledgebase (IPK based on association with the observed pattern of differentially expressed proteins. Results Of the 304 spots that were picked, 167 protein spots were identified. A threshold of 1.5-fold was used to select 62 proteins used in the analysis. IPK analysis suggested that metabolic pathways were highly associated with protein expression in SKBR3 cells while cell motility pathways were highly associated with BT474 cells. Inferred protein networks were confirmed by observing an up-regulation of IGF-1R and profilin in BT474 and up-regulation of Ras and enolase in SKBR3 using western blot. Conclusion When interpreted in the context of prior information, our results suggest that the overall patterns of differential protein expression obtained from limited samples can still aid in clinical decision making by providing an estimate of the predominant pathways that underpin cellular phenotype.

  20. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, David A.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F.; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J.; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may co...

  1. Inferring predominant pathways in cellular models of breast cancer using limited sample proteomic profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Yogesh M; Suarez, Vivian; Klinke, David J II

    2010-01-01

    Molecularly targeted drugs inhibit aberrant signaling within oncogenic pathways. Identifying the predominant pathways at work within a tumor is a key step towards tailoring therapies to the patient. Clinical samples pose significant challenges for proteomic profiling, an attractive approach for identifying predominant pathways. The objective of this study was to determine if information obtained from a limited sample (i.e., a single gel replicate) can provide insight into the predominant pathways in two well-characterized breast cancer models. A comparative proteomic analysis of total cell lysates was obtained from two cellular models of breast cancer, BT474 (HER2+/ER+) and SKBR3 (HER2+/ER-), using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Protein interaction networks and canonical pathways were extracted from the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledgebase (IPK) based on association with the observed pattern of differentially expressed proteins. Of the 304 spots that were picked, 167 protein spots were identified. A threshold of 1.5-fold was used to select 62 proteins used in the analysis. IPK analysis suggested that metabolic pathways were highly associated with protein expression in SKBR3 cells while cell motility pathways were highly associated with BT474 cells. Inferred protein networks were confirmed by observing an up-regulation of IGF-1R and profilin in BT474 and up-regulation of Ras and enolase in SKBR3 using western blot. When interpreted in the context of prior information, our results suggest that the overall patterns of differential protein expression obtained from limited samples can still aid in clinical decision making by providing an estimate of the predominant pathways that underpin cellular phenotype

  2. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as a Predominantly Cystic Mass on Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Ah Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hyun [Gangnam MizMedi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most medullary thyroid carcinomas show suspicious malignant features such as hypoechogenicity, a spiculated margin and/or intranodular calcifications, which are well known features of papillary carcinoma. We report here on a case of medullary carcinoma that was seen as a predominantly cystic thyroid mass on ultrasonography. This type of case is not common in the literature and we discuss the way to diagnose a medullary thyroid carcinoma

  3. The Leisure Time of the Young Population in Local Island Communities – the Example of the Zadar Islands (Iž, Dugi Otok, Ugljan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2003-12-01

    programmes, listening to music predominate. Modern and even post-modern communication forms are already present even on the islands. Pupils spend their time behind various technological devices that create virtual reality. The scarcity of young people on the islands, together with the civilisational trend in this sphere, only increases the presence of passive forms of spending leisure time.

  4. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  5. Periodic Shoreline Morphology, Fire Island, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gravens, Mark B

    1999-01-01

    The presence of shoreline undulations along the Atlantic coast of Fire Island, NY requires careful consideration in developing erosion control and hurricane protection plans and design alternatives...

  6. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  7. [Non-arthrosic geodes in the femur head. Isolated or predominant geodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequesne, M; Castaing, N; Lamotte, J

    1985-04-01

    The isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head without signs of coxarthritis or coxitis, seem to form in response to: osteochondritis dissecans in 9 cases where the sequester was only visible in profile films or oblique images for 5 cases, and only at time of operation in 2 cases; incipient necrosis in 3 adult cases, not evidenced in frontal films and only seen in profile films with the patient under axial traction; femoral head dysmorphia in 6 cases among which were 4 polyepiphyseal dysplasias and 2 coxa plana without radiographically apparent sequesters; induced increased pressure caused by congenital subluxation or a major disorder of posture and locomotion of lower limbs in 3 cases. In 2 cases no classification could be assigned to isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head in spite of anatomic examination. The diagnosis of these isolated or predominant geodes of the head of the femur necessitates excellent films made from different angles of view (profile, "false" profile, usual profile, sometimes oblique shots, tomograms) and often enough a biopsy which must be obtained directly through the joint, not transcervically through the neck if a reliable specimen is desired. The surgical treatment indicated is voiding and packing to a maximum the geodes possibly correcting the former increased pressure discordance. But, in lots of cases the intensity of pain and discomfort remains moderate for years, so indication for surgery arises late after onset.

  8. Island shape, size and interface dependency on electronic and magnetic properties of graphene hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) in-plane hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Nurten; Özdoğan, Cem

    2018-04-01

    We systematically investigate the energetics of ion implantation, stability, electronic, and magnetic properties of graphene/hexagonal boron nitrate (h-BN) in-plane hybrids through first principle calculations. We consider hexagonal and triangular islands in supercells of graphene and h-BN layouts. In the case of triangular islands, both phases mix with each other by either solely Csbnd N or Csbnd B bonds. We also patterned triangles with predominating Csbnd N or Csbnd B bonds at their interfaces. The energetics of island implantation is discussed in detail. Formation energies point out that the island implantation could be even exothermic for all hybrids studied in this work. Effects of size and shape of the island, and dominating bonding sort at the island-layout interfaces on the stability, band gap, and magnetic properties of hybrids are studied particularly. The hybrids become more stable with increasing island size. Regardless of the layout, hybrids with hexagonal islands are all non-magnetic and semiconducting. One can thus open a band gap in the semimetallic graphene by mixing it with the h-BN phase. In general, hybrids containing graphene triangles show metallic property and exhibit considerable amount of magnetic moments for possible localized spin utilizations. Total magnetic moment of hybrids with both graphene and h-BN layouts increases with growing triangle island as well. The spin densities of magnetic hybrids are derived from interfaces of the islands and diminish towards their center. We suggest that the increase in stability and magnetic moment depend on the number of atoms at the interfaces rather than the island size.

  9. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  10. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  11. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  12. Solid waste management on small islands: the case of Green Island, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The

  13. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  14. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that are developed or...-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast... restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Catawba Island Club Memorial Day Fireworks. This...

  15. GE tackles the nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, G.G.; Sasso, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The General Electric Standard Safety Analysis Report (GESSAR) is discussed. This described a standard 1220 MWe BWR/6 nuclear steam supply system, the containment and includes all the structures, systems, equipment and interfaces with the 'nuclear island' so that fewer safety related interfaces need be defined and reviewed. The establishment of pre-approved sites as a method of shortening licensing schedules is discussed. The economic advantages of standardised design, and other benefits such as improved product control and productivity are considered. (U.K.)

  16. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...... on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present...

  17. Suppression of the Neoclassical Tearing Modes in Tokamaks under Anomalous Transverse Transport Conditions when the Magnetic Well Effect Predominates over the Bootstrap Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, S.V.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Shirokov, M.S.; Ozeki, T.; Tsypin, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    A study is made of the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks under anomalous transverse transport conditions when the magnetic well effect predominates over the bootstrap drive. It is stressed that the corresponding effect, which is called the compound suppression effect, depends strongly on the profiles of the electron and ion temperature perturbations. Account is taken of the fact that the temperature profile can be established as a result of the competition between anomalous transverse heat transport, on the one hand, and longitudinal collisional heat transport, longitudinal heat convection, longitudinal inertial transport, and transport due to the rotation of magnetic islands, on the other hand. The role of geodesic effects is discussed. The cases of competition just mentioned are described by the model sets of reduced transport equations, which are called, respectively, collisional, convective, inertial, and rotational plasmophysical models. The magnetic well is calculated with allowance for geodesic effects. It is shown that, for strong anomalous heat transport conditions, the contribution of the magnetic well to the generalized Rutherford equation for the island width W is independent of W not only in the collisional model (which has been investigated earlier) but also in the convective and inertial models and depends very weakly (logarithmically) on W in the rotational model. It is this weak dependence that gives rise to the compound effect, which is the subject of the present study. A criterion for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by the compound effect at an arbitrary level of the transverse heat transport by electrons and ions is derived and is analyzed for two cases: when the electron heat transport and ion heat transport are both strong, and when the electron heat transport is strong and the ion heat transport is weak

  18. Influence of Meteorological Regimes on Cloud Microphysics Over Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, C.; Wang, S. H.; Scott, R. C.; Bromwich, D. H.; Lubin, D.

    2017-12-01

    thin liquid water clouds from the Southern Ocean. Low pressure systems over the Bellingshausen Sea produce outflow of cold, dry continental polar air, yielding predominantly tenuous ice cloud at Ross Island.

  19. Development of the Islands of Calleja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chun; Puche, Adam C

    2013-01-15

    The Islands of Calleja are aggregations of granule cells located in the basal forebrain of most vertebrate species. These cellular aggregations are typically classified as consisting of a single island, the insula magna located adjacent to the nucleus accumbens, and numerous small islands scattered among the dorsal aspect of the olfactory tubercle. While these structures have been widely described in adult, comparatively little is known about their development. Islands are first identifiable at P2-P4 with formation of the Insula Magna and several small aggregations in the caudolateral aspect of the basal forebrain. The Insula Magna fully forms at approximately P4, with continued formation of the small islands through P10 in a caudal to rostral gradient. Historically, there has been controversy as to whether neurons in the islands are GABAergic, due to limitations in resolving immunolabeling for GABA in the densely packed islands. We investigated the neurochemical identity of island cells by exploiting transgenic reporter mice expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the GAD65 promoter. This demonstrated that the majority of neurons in the Islands of Calleja are GABAergic, primarily utilizing GAD65. Interestingly, several calcium binding protein expressing interneuron classes are present in the postnatal islands, but disappear with maturation. These findings show that the SVZ derived progenitors that migrate to the Islands of Calleja form different lineages to those destined for the olfactory bulbs, despite generation of both populations at the same age/location in the SVZ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  1. Updating Rhode Island's strategic highway safety plan (SHSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the peer exchange sponsored by the Rhode Island : Department of Transportation (RIDOT) that focused on Rhode Islands SHSP : update. : Rhode Islands goals for the peer exchange included learning from other States : expe...

  2. Electricity storage in island systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiou, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in zones which are not connected with the continental grid (ZNI). Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008, thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. However, the rapid and massive deployment of wind and solar energy may endanger the stability of the electric system: these productions are subject to rapid variations that are difficult to predict and that other local energy source are not able to compensate properly. As a consequence, a regulatory technical acceptability limit for intermittent energy has been defined to 30% above which it becomes difficult to balance the system. With controlled energy storage, it will be possible to maintain the stability and security of the electricity system. Owing to several experiments of storage of electricity, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix. (author)

  3. Eruption reported in Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 29, an airplane pilot reported the start of an eruption on Mount Westdahl on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands (54.52°N, 164.65°W), according to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network. The pilot sighted an ash plume rising to more than 7 km altitude at 1705 local time ( = UT-11 hours). The main portion of the plume, at about 5 km altitude, extended 80-95 km east-northeast by 0930 the next morning.About noon, U.S. Coast Guard pilots observed a NE-SW fissure vent 5-8 km long, with at least one active lava flow traveling down the east flank. The area surrounding the vent was ash-covered, and increased runoff and possible mudflows were observed. Vigorous steam and ash emission was visible throughout the day from False Pass (90 km NE), which experienced a very fine dusting of ash. A strong sulfur odor at False Pass lasted into the night, and similar odors were reported by pilots up to several hundred kilometers inland. No ashfall has been reported in Cold Bay (145 km NE).

  4. Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands: Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Trainor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40% of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria, and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50% of endemism in the regional ant fauna.

  5. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  6. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  7. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Nico; Reinhard, Stijn; Bets, van L.K.J.; Kuhlman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. However, at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems.

  8. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  9. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  10. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  11. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  12. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  13. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  14. Shape and coarsening dynamics of strained islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifani, Guido; Frisch, Thomas; Argentina, Mederic

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the formation and the coarsening dynamics of islands in a strained epitaxial semiconductor film. These islands are commonly observed in thin films undergoing a morphological instability due to the presence of the elastocapillary effect. We first describe both analytically and numer...

  15. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  16. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...

  17. Marine Resource Management for Misali Island: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    2Frontier-Tanzania, P.O. Box 9473, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... Abstract—In collaboration with local stakeholders, Frontier-Tanzania is collecting biophysical ... fishing industry. Misali Island's current management status. The Misali Island Marine Conservation Area. (MIMCA) was legally established by the then. Ministry of ...

  18. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  19. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  20. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in two Ionian Islands and northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Anagnostou, Vassiliki; Ivovic, Vladimir; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Rogozi, Elton; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Papa, Anna

    2011-12-01

    A field study on the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out during summer months of 2009 and 2010 in eight sites in two Ionian islands and in northern Greece. A total of 490 sandflies (74.5% females) were collected. Six species of the Phlebotomus genus and two of the Sergentomyia genus were identified. The species with the widest distribution in the islands were Phlebotomus neglectus (32.8%), Phlebotomus similis (30.3%), Phlebotomus tobbi (16.7%), and P. perfiliewi (15.9%), whereas P. simici (50%), P. neglectus (24.5%), and P. tobbi (9.6%) predominated in the mainland. As most of these species are proven or suspected vectors of human and animal pathogens, prevention measures have to be taken in these areas during the summer months when sandflies are active.

  1. Factors influencing tropical Island freshwater fishes: species, status, threats and conservation in Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hainan Island is located within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot, however, the freshwater fish fauna on this island is poorly understood. Based on field investigations and literature review, we compiled a list of 154 freshwater fish species (138 native and 16 non-native belonging to 10 orders, 31 families and 104 genera found on Hainan Island. Of these, 31 species are endemic to China. The native freshwater fish fauna in Hainan Island is affiliated to South China sub-region of the Oriental Region. Current knowledge suggests that overexploitation, water pollution, flow modification, habitat degradation, and non-native species have severely reduced the freshwater fish biodiversity in Hainan Island. To protect freshwater fish biodiversity and fisheries in Hainan Island, some new measures should be adopted and current measures better enforced. This study constitutes an important resource for conservation management of freshwater fishes in Hainan Island.

  2. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in above...... sea level, as determined by airborne laser scanning. High-quality geodetic GPS measurements determine the position of a small cairn erected on the island to 79 degrees 20'34.48" N, 15 degrees 46'31.23" W. Minor parts of the island are ice free, with small hills of gravel. Late Holocene shells...... of marine bivalves have been found and were presumably brought up by ice floe push. Shell fragments of southern extralimital marine invertebrates point to the presence of pre-Holocene deposits. Three species of moss are the only land plants that have been found on the island....

  3. Molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses in Bulgaria: annual shift of the predominant genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Z; Korsun, N; Geonova, T; Iturriza-Gómara, M

    2010-05-01

    Rotavirus molecular epidemiology investigations provide important information about the incidence of rotavirus diseases and rotavirus strains in circulation in the prevaccine era. The purpose of this investigation was to study the burden of rotavirus disease, rotavirus strain diversity, and epidemiology specificities of rotavirus infections in Bulgaria. A total of 3,130 stools collected between 2005 and 2008 were tested by immune enzyme tests. G-P genotype identification of rotavirus strains were performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rotavirus etiology was confirmed in 32.4% of the samples tested. Rotaviruses affected predominantly children under 5 years of age (95.5%), with a peak prevalence between the ages of 7 and 36 months. Four of the five globally distributed rotavirus strains (G1P[8], G2P[4], G4P[8], and G9P[8]) constituted 97.7% of all rotavirus strains in circulation. However, annual shifts of predominant rotavirus G-P genotypes were observed from season to season-G4P[8] was predominant in rotavirus season 2004/2005 (56.8%), but was replaced by G9P[8] in 2005/2006 (77.7%), and G2P[4] (41.6%) and G1P[8] (39.5%) in the following two consecutive rotavirus seasons. Year-round circulation of rotaviruses in the country with increased incidence in the winter-spring season and unexpected peaks preceding the rotavirus seasons were observed. Molecular epidemiology data are needed in Bulgaria for health policy makers in order to introduce routine rotavirus vaccination. The monitoring of rotavirus genetic diversity in Bulgaria in the postvaccination period will contribute to a successful rotavirus vaccination program.

  4. Does the histologic predominance of pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma influence the extent of resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Murakami, Shuji; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Kayoko; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2017-09-01

    We studied whether histologic subtype according to the new IASLC/ATS/ERS adenocarcinoma classification influences the extent of resection in patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Data on 288 patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared according to clinicopathological characteristics, including predominant histologic subtype and extent of resection. Median follow-up was 38.9 months. Lobectomy was performed in 146 patients, and sublobar resection in 142 patients. When recurrence was compared among the low-grade group (adenocarcinoma in situ, AIS; minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, MIA), intermediate-grade group (lepidic, acinar, and papillary) and high-grade group (solid and micropapillary), the RFS rate decreased as the grade increased (p = 0.037). There was no recurrence in the low-grade or lepidic predominant groups. The recurrence pattern did not differ according to the type of resection or histological subtype. Even in the intermediate- and high-grade groups, the extent of resection was not significantly related to the RFS rate (p = 0.622, p = 0.516). The results were unchanged after adjusting for independent risk factors. The concordance rate between clinical and pathological stage IA was good in low (98.6%) and intermediate grade (84.6%) and poor in high grade (41.2%). AIS, MIA, and lepidic predominant may be curable by any type of complete resection. Even in invasive subtypes, lobectomy does not offer a recurrence-free advantage over sublobar resection. However, in the high-grade group, less than half of clinical stage IA was actually pathological stage IA. Physicians should exercise caution whenever sublobar resection is planned.

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Resolution in Hypopnea- versus Apnea-Predominant Children after Adenotonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alice L; Cohen, Aliza P; Benke, James R; Stierer, Kevin D; Stanley, James; Ishman, Stacey L

    2016-10-01

    Given that 30% to 40% of children have persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after adenotonsillectomy, we evaluated whether children with hypopnea-predominant OSA were more likely to have complete disease resolution after adenotonsillectomy than those with apnea-predominant disease. We also identified risk factors that might modify the relationship between disease resolution and polysomnographic event type (ie, hypopnea vs apnea). Case series with chart review. Tertiary pediatric hospital. Consecutive 1- to 18-year-old typically developing children diagnosed with OSA from March 2011 to December 2012 underwent adenotonsillectomy and completed pre- and postoperative polysomnography within 1 year of surgery. Fifty-eight children were included (27 female; mean ± SD: age, 5.6 ± 3.1 years; body mass index z score, 1.1 ± 1.7). Overall, adenotonsillectomy resulted in significant improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) from 23.3 ± 40.0 to 4.3 ± 8.2 events per hour (P apnea index (5.1 ± 7.4 to 0.4 ± 0.8, P prematurity, age, oxygen saturation nadir, oHI, obstructive apnea index, and oAHI were predictive. Event type was not significant, even in a model controlling for age, race, sex, prematurity, asthma, body mass index, and baseline polysomnographic variables. This small study demonstrated no difference in disease resolution between children with hypopnea- and apnea-predominant OSA who underwent adenotonsillectomy. Additionally, adenotonsillectomy significantly improved OSA in most children, and high preoperative oAHI was associated with persistent postoperative OSA. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  6. High cancer-related mortality in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, David J; Mwangi, Evelyn Ivy W; Fantry, Lori E; Alexander, Carla; Hossain, Mian B; Pauza, C David; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2013-04-24

    To determine mortality associated with a new cancer diagnosis in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population. Retrospective cohort study. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cancer between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2010 were reviewed. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 470 cases of cancer among 447 patients. Patients were predominantly African-American (85%) and male (79%). Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs, 69%) were more common than AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, 31%). Cumulative cancer incidence increased significantly over the study period. The majority (55.9%) was taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at cancer diagnosis or started afterward (26.9%); 17.2% never received ART. Stage 3 or 4 cancer was diagnosed in 67%. There were 226 deaths during 1096 person years of follow-up, yielding an overall mortality rate of 206 per 1000 person years. The cumulative mortality rate at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 6.5, 32.2, and 41.4%, respectively. Mortality was similar between patients on ART whether they started before or after the cancer diagnosis but was higher in patients who never received ART. In patients with a known cause of death, 68% were related to progression of the underlying cancer. In a large cohort of urban, predominantly African-American patients with HIV and cancer, many patients presented with late-stage cancer. There was substantial 30-day and 2-year mortality, although ART had a significant mortality benefit. Deaths were most often caused by progression of cancer and not from another HIV-related or AIDS-related event.

  7. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  8. Analysis of hybrid systems for La Graciosa Island (Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Departament of Process Engineering Industrial Enviromental Section, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Leon, V. [Red Electrica de Espana, Polygono de la Majuelos 38108 San Cristobal de La Laguna (Spain); Nuez, I. [Departament of Electronic and Automatic Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The main objectives of the study are the integration of the renewable energies, the study of the production of the hydrogen and the utilization in areas where have a high potential of renewable origin sources and a low capacity of drinkable water and energy power. In this work, it has been done the study of the actual energy necessity of the island and it is posed a series of solutions to its energy system. It is analyzed three cases. In the first step, it is exposed an isolated system with renewable energies and hydrogen as energy storage; in the second step, it is studied a system with renewable energies, hydrogen and an electricity-generating group as support; and in the third step, it is analyzed a case with renewable energy and connexion to the network (in this case, it would already not be an isolated system). (authors)

  9. The predominant cholecystokinin in human plasma and intestine is cholecystokinin-33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Sun, G; Christensen, T

    2001-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) occurs in multiple molecular forms; the major ones are CCK-58, -33, -22, and -8. Their relative abundance in human plasma and intestine, however, is debated. To settle the issue, extracts of intestinal biopsies and plasma from 10 human subjects have been examined...... is the second most abundant ( approximately 34% and 30%, respectively). In contrast, CCK-58 is less abundant in human intestines ( approximately 18%) and plasma ( approximately 11%). Its predominance in feline intestines, however, was confirmed. Hence, the results show a significant species variation...... and emphasize the necessity of highly specific and well characterized assays in molecular studies of CCK....

  10. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  11. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O.; Plato, Brian M; Parker, John

    2011-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  12. Acculturation, depression, and function in individuals seeking pain management in a predominantly Hispanic southwestern border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristynia M; Monsivais, Jose J

    2011-06-01

    Acculturation does not inform practice in the acute or primary care setting; nor does it explain ethnic disparities in the recognition and treatment of chronic diseases, particularly chronic pain. As clinicians, it is imperative that we recognize contributing factors, comorbid conditions, and the impact of chronic pain on individuals and families. The purposes of this article are to present evidence that exemplifies the nonsignificant role acculturation plays in expression of pain and function of a predominantly Hispanic population on the United States border; and to identify more meaningful perspectives of culture that may lessen health disparities and improve pain management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutations in GALC cause late-onset Krabbe disease with predominant cerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi-Hong; Choquet, Karine; La Piana, Roberta; Tétreault, Martine; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Boycott, Kym M; Majewski, Jacek; Brais, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in GALC cause Krabbe disease. This autosomal recessive leukodystrophy generally presents in early infancy as a severe disorder, but sometimes manifests as a milder adult-onset disease with spastic paraplegia as the main symptom. We recruited a family with five affected individuals presenting with adult-onset predominant cerebellar ataxia with mild spasticity. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed one novel and one previously reported compound heterozygous variants in GALC. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the presence of typical Krabbe features. Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of adult-onset Krabbe disease and demonstrate the usefulness of combining WES and pattern-specific MRI for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Sexsomnia and REM- predominant obstructive sleep apnea effectively treated with a mandibular advancement device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Meira e Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasomnias with sexual behavior or sexsomnias are considered a subtype of NREM parasomnias. Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSAH has been described as a known triggering factor for parasomnias including sexsomnia. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been the standard of treatment for OSAH but mandibular advancement devices (MAD are becoming an important treatment alternative. We present the case of a patient with mild OSAH and sexsomnia who had resolution of both conditions with a MAD. This patient had the added uniqueness of having REM-predominant OSAH

  15. Quantifying and interpreting nestedness in habitat islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The concept of nestedness is important in determining the relative contribution to overall system diversity of different habitat patches within a fragmented system. Much of the previous work on nestedness has focused on islands within oceans (islands sensu stricto). The largest analysis...... of habitat island systems to date found significant nestedness to be a near universal feature, but the methods used have since been criticized as inappropriate. Thus, there is a need for an updated, critical examination of the prevalence, underlying drivers and implications of nestedness in multiple habitat...... island systems. Location: Global. Methods: Here, we collate 97 datasets from published habitat island studies, comprising multiple taxa. We use the NODF metric (nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing fill) to estimate nestedness and determine significance using the four-step proportional...

  16. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  17. A new golden era in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Fernandez-Palacios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For two centuries, islands have served as rich sources of inspiration and data for biogeographers, thus gaining renown as ideal natural laboratories. Their research potential continues to expand today thanks to the combined application of recent advances in several scientific fields. First, increasingly detailed geological and palaeoecological data are extending our understanding of the history of development of island biotas. At the same time, rapid methodological advances in molecular evolutionary biology and systematics are revealing the pathways by which species colonized islands, evolved, and formed communities. Third, basic data on species distributions are being collected from increasing numbers of islands and taxa, distributed widely through electronic resources, and analyzed with powerful software to reveal macroecological patterns. The pace and quality of recent advances signal a promising future in which islands will continue to play key roles in revealing how biodiversity is produced and maintained.

  18. Structural and functional diversity of free-living microorganisms in reef surface, Kra island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Monanunsap, Somchai; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-07-18

    Coral reefs worldwide are being harmed through anthropogenic activities. Some coral reefs in Thailand remain well-preserved, including the shallow coral reefs along Kra island, Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Interestingly, the microbial community in this environment remains unknown. The present study identified biodiversity of prokaryotes and eukaryotes of 0.22-30 μm in sizes and their metabolic potentials in this coral reef surface in summer and winter seasons, using 16S and 18S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. The marine microbial profiles in summer and winter seasons comprised mainly of bacteria, in phylum, particular the Proteobacteria. Yet, different bacterial and eukaryotic structures existed between summer and winter seasons, supported by low Lennon and Yue & Clayton theta similarity indices (8.48-10.43% for 16S rRNA, 0.32-7.81% for 18S rRNA ). The topmost prokaryotic phylum for the summer was Proteobacteria (99.68%), while for the winter Proteobacteria (62.49%) and Bacteroidetes (35.88%) were the most prevalent. Uncultured bacteria in phyla Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, SAR406 and SBR1093 were absent in the summer. For eukaryotic profiles, species belonging to animals predominated in the summer, correlating with high animal activities in the summer, whereas dormancy and sporulation predominated in the winter. For the winter, eukaryotic plant species predominated and several diverse species were detected. Moreover, comparison of our prokaryotic databases in summer and winter of Kra reef surface against worldwide marine culture-independent prokaryotic databases indicated our databases to most resemblance those of coastal Sichang island, Chonburi province, Thailand, and the 3 tropical GOS sites close to Galapagos island (GS039, GS040 and GS045), in orderly. The study investigated and obtained culture-independent databases for marine prokaryotes and eukaryotes in summer and winter seasons of Kra reef surface. The data helped understand seasonal dynamics of microbial

  19. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  20. Wild fauna as a carrier of Salmonella in Reunion Island: Impact on pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Claire; Parama Atiana, Laura; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is an economic burden to the livestock industry in Reunion Island. In this study, we wanted to improve our understanding of Salmonella epidemiology by studying the wild fauna of Reunion Island. We assessed Salmonella diversity in small non-flying mammals, birds and cockroaches in order to evaluate their potential role in the epidemiology of Salmonella. A total of 268 samples were collected from cockroaches, small mammals and birds. The bacteriological analyses revealed that 11.7% of non-flying mammals and 25% of cockroaches tested were Salmonella infected; two wild bird species were also detected positive. The 128 Salmonella isolates were distributed in fifteen serotypes and the most predominant were S. 4,[5],12:i:- (21.9% of positive samples) followed by S. Enteritidis (15.6%), S. Typhimurium (15.6%), S. Infantis (12.5%) and S. Weltevreden (12.5%). A total of 27 XbaI profiles were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Comparison of these Salmonella strains with our collection of Salmonella isolated from pigs and pig farm environments at the same period revealed 14 strains in common between wild fauna and pigs, especially for cockroaches. Our results suggest that wild fauna of Reunion Island could be infected by strains of Salmonella also isolated from pigs or pig environment. They may play a role in both persistence and spreading of Salmonella and therefore, could be a source of infection in pig farms. Pest control against cockroaches could be a helpful tool in the reduction of Salmonella infection of pigs, limiting contacts between wild fauna and both pigs and pig environment. Special attention should be paid to S. 4,[5],12:i:- since it was predominant in Reunion Island's wild fauna and pigs and was the third most frequently reported serotype in human salmonellosis in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-01-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T DM ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  2. Predominance of CCR5-dependent HIV-1 subtype E isolates in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, E; Reynes, J M; Müller-Trutwin, M C; Guillemot, L; Versmisse, P; Chiron, M; An, S; Trouplin, V; Charneau, P; Fleury, H; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Sainte Marie, F F

    1999-04-15

    To investigate the genetic and biologic features of HIV-1 strains circulating in Cambodia, viruses from 95 HIV-1-seropositive individuals were subtyped by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) and 23 were further analyzed for their biologic characteristics. Eighty-nine individuals were clearly infected by HIV-1 subtype E. The other six samples were sequenced, together with 17 HMA subtype E samples. All but one of the 23 Cambodian env sequences clustered with previously described Thai and Vietnamese subtype E sequences, bearing a GPGQ motif at the tip of the V3 loop; the last had a GPGR motif and was phylogenetically equidistant from Asian and African subtype E viruses. Nonsyncytium-inducing, CCR5-dependent viruses predominated in patients of clinical stage B even in some with a high viral load and were detected in about 50% of the patients of stage C. All syncytium-inducing strains, mostly from AIDS patients, used both CCR5 and CXCR4. The presence of syncytium-inducing viruses did not correlate with the plasma viral load. These data show that CCR5-dependent HIV-1 subtype E is currently predominant in Cambodia. The analysis of clinical and virologic markers strongly supports the idea that dynamics of the viral population during subtype E infection in Southeast Asia is similar to that of subtype B infection in Europe and the United States.

  3. Low back pain: guidelines for the clinical classification of predominant neuropathic, nociceptive, or central sensitization pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Apeldoorn, Adri; Hallegraeff, Hank; Clark, Jacqui; Smeets, Rob; Malfliet, Annaleen; Girbes, Enrique L; De Kooning, Margot; Ickmans, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a heterogeneous disorder including patients with dominant nociceptive (e.g., myofascial low back pain), neuropathic (e.g., lumbar radiculopathy), and central sensitization pain. In order to select an effective and preferably also efficient treatment in daily clinical practice, LBP patients should be classified clinically as either predominantly nociceptive, neuropathic, or central sensitization pain. To explain how clinicians can differentiate between nociceptive, neuropathic, and central sensitization pain in patients with LBP. Narrative review and expert opinion Universities, university hospitals and private practices Recently, a clinical method for the classification of central sensitization pain versus neuropathic and nociceptive pain was developed. It is based on a body of evidence of original research papers and expert opinion of 18 pain experts from 7 different countries. Here we apply this classification algorithm to the LBP population. The first step implies examining the presence of neuropathic low back pain. Next, the differential diagnosis between predominant nociceptive and central sensitization pain is done using a clinical algorithm. The classification criteria are substantiated by several original research findings including a Delphi survey, a study of a large group of LBP patients, and validation studies of the Central Sensitization Inventory. Nevertheless, these criteria require validation in clinical settings. The pain classification system for LBP should be an addition to available classification systems and diagnostic procedures for LBP, as it is focussed on pain mechanisms solely.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Type I, predominant genotype isolated from sheep in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Armand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to determine the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep using nested-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP in Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: The tissue samples of diaphragm and heart from 125 sheep were collected from the main slaughterhouses of Jahrom district in South of Fars province, Iran, between Aprils and June 2013. The DNA were extracted and analyzed by nested-PCR using specific primers for SAG2 and GRA6 loci. RFLP was used to classify strains into one of the three major lineages of T. gondii. Results: T. gondii Type I was predominant in this area. The data obtained from both loci demonstrated that the frequency of each genotype was 72% Type I, 2.4% Type III, 7.2% mixed Type I and II, 16.8% mixed Type I and III, 0.8% mixed Type II and III, and 0.8% mixed Type I, II and III. Conclusion: Although the previously published data indicated that Type II is the predominant T. gondii genotype in sheep in the other parts of the world, this study showed that genotype I is the dominant genotype of T. gondii in the southern Iran; however, other genotypes were detected. High diversity of T. gondii genotypes including mix genotypes in lambs is of importance for the public health. These studies depict a new mapping of T. gondii genotypes pattern which could be very helpful in toxoplasmosis control and prevention.

  5. An autopsy-confirmed case of progressive supranuclear palsy with predominant postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Carolin; Ebersbach, Georg; Respondek, Gesine; Giese, Armin; Arzberger, Thomas; Höglinger, Günter Ulrich

    2016-11-14

    Postural instability and supranuclear gaze palsy represent the key symptoms of Richardson's syndrome, the most frequent clinical manifestation of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, a proportion of PSP patients never develops ocular motor symptoms, which prevents clinicians from establishing the diagnosis during lifetime according to current diagnostic criteria. We present one instructive autopsy-confirmed PSP case with prospective video-documented clinical course, showing striking temporal divergence of initially present postural instability and delayed development of ocular motor dysfunction. Brain imaging and autopsy findings were typical of PSP, but the temporal sequence of symptoms was unusual with isolated postural instability predominating the clinical course for many years and slowing of vertical saccades/supranuclear gaze palsy evolving not until the 9 th /11 th year after disease onset. Although other differential diagnoses were unlikely, this patient did not pass the threshold for possible or probable diagnosis of PSP according to current diagnostic criteria until very late in the disease course. This first well documented, autopsy confirmed case of PSP with predominant postural instability further expands the clinical spectrum of PSP and points out the need of new clinical diagnostic criteria with sufficient sensitivity and specificity for an early and reliable diagnosis.

  6. Identification of a Predominantly Interferon-λ-Induced Transcriptional Profile in Murine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharini A. Selvakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I (α and β and type III (λ interferons (IFNs induce the expression of a large set of antiviral effector molecules via their respective surface membrane receptors. Whereas most cell types respond to type I IFN, type III IFN preferentially acts on epithelial cells and protects mucosal organs such as the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Despite the engagement of different receptor molecules, the type I and type III IFN-induced signaling cascade and upregulated gene profile is thought to be largely identical. Here, we comparatively analyzed the response of gut epithelial cells to IFN-β and IFN-λ2 and identified a set of genes predominantly induced by IFN-λ2. We confirm the influence of epithelial cell polarization for enhanced type III receptor expression and demonstrate the induction of predominantly IFN-λ2-induced genes in the gut epithelium in vivo. Our results suggest that IFN-λ2 targets the epithelium and induces genes to adjust the antiviral host response to the requirements at mucosal body sites.

  7. Rapid host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus involves alveolar macrophages with a predominance of alternatively activated phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Bhatia

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with chronic diseases such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA in patients with cystic fibrosis or severe asthma. Because of constant exposure to this fungus, it is critical for the host to exercise an immediate and decisive immune response to clear fungal spores to ward off disease. In this study, we observed that rapidly after infection by A. fumigatus, alveolar macrophages predominantly express Arginase 1 (Arg1, a key marker of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs. The macrophages were also found to express Ym1 and CD206 that are also expressed by AAMs but not NOS2, which is expressed by classically activated macrophages. The expression of Arg1 was reduced in the absence of the known signaling axis, IL-4Rα/STAT6, for AAM development. While both Dectin-1 and TLR expressed on the cell surface have been shown to sense A. fumigatus, fungus-induced Arg1 expression in CD11c(+ alveolar macrophages was not dependent on either Dectin-1 or the adaptor MyD88 that mediates intracellular signaling by most TLRs. Alveolar macrophages from WT mice efficiently phagocytosed fungal conidia, but those from mice deficient in Dectin-1 showed impaired fungal uptake. Depletion of macrophages with clodronate-filled liposomes increased fungal burden in infected mice. Collectively, our studies suggest that alveolar macrophages, which predominantly acquire an AAM phenotype following A. fumigatus infection, have a protective role in defense against this fungus.

  8. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineral Depositions of Calcifying Skin Disorders are Predominantly Composed of Carbonate Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Franzen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous calcifications can lead to complications, including pain, inflammation, ulceration and immobilization. Studies on the pathophysiology of mineral compositions and effective treatment modalities are limited. We therefore studied 14 patients with subcutaneous calcifications. Mineral material was collected and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Blood analyses were run to evaluate systemic alterations of mineral metabolism. Carbonate apatite (CAP was found to be the single constituent in the majority of patients (n = 9, 64.3%, 3 cases (21.4% had a composition of CAP and calcium oxalate dihydrate and one case had a combination of CAP and magnesium ammonium phosphate, whereas CAP was the major component in all 4 cases. Only one case showed predominantly calcium oxalate. Thus, CAP was found to be the only or predominant component in most cases of subcutaneous calcifications. Chemical analyses of the mineral compositions may aid in the development of new treatment regimes to improve the solubility of mineral components and to decrease extraosseous calcifications.

  10. Cerebellar granule cells are predominantly generated by terminal symmetric divisions of granule cell precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kie; Umeshima, Hiroki; Kengaku, Mineko

    2015-06-01

    Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) are generated by symmetric and asymmetric cell division of neural stem cells and their derivative progenitor cells. Cerebellar granule cells are the most abundant neurons in the CNS, and are generated by intensive cell division of granule cell precursors (GCPs) during postnatal development. Dysregulation of GCP cell cycle is causal for some subtypes of medulloblastoma. However, the details and mechanisms underlying neurogenesis from GCPs are not well understood. Using long-term live-cell imaging of proliferating GCPs transfected with a fluorescent newborn-granule cell marker, we found that GCPs underwent predominantly symmetric divisions, generating two GCPs or two neurons, while asymmetric divisions generating a GCP and a neuron were only occasionally observed, in both dissociated culture and within tissues of isolated cerebellar lobules. We found no significant difference in cell cycle length between proliferative and neurogenic divisions, or any consistent changes in cell cycle length during repeated proliferative division. Unlike neural stem cells in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord, which generate many neurons by repeated asymmetric division, cerebellar GCPs produce neurons predominantly by terminal symmetric division. These results indicate diverse mechanisms of neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Diversity of predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with cocoa fermentation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, Melanie; Ban-Koffi, Louis; Ottah-Atikpo, Margaret; Teniola, David; Schillinger, Ulrich; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2008-04-01

    The fermentation of cocoa relies on a complex succession of bacteria and filamentous fungi, all of which can have an impact on cocoa flavor. So far, few investigations have focused on the diversity of lactic acid bacteria involved in cocoa fermentation, and many earlier investigations did not rely on polyphasic taxonomical approaches, which take both phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques into account. In our study, we characterized predominant lactic acid bacteria from cocoa fermentations in Nigeria, using a combination of phenotypic tests, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative strains for accurate species identification. Thus, of a total of 193 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from common media used to cultivate LAB, 40 (20.7%) were heterofermentative and consisted of either L. brevis or L. fermentum strains. The majority of the isolates were homofermentative rods (110 strains; 57% of isolates) which were characterized as L. plantarum strains. The homofermentative cocci consisted predominantly of 35 (18.1% of isolates) Pediococcus acidilactici strains. Thus, the LAB populations derived from these media in this study were accurately described. This can contribute to the further assessment of the effect of common LAB strains on the flavor characteristics of fermenting cocoa in further studies.

  12. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  13. Visual navigation in the Neotropical ant Odontomachus hastatus (Formicidae, Ponerinae), a predominantly nocturnal, canopy-dwelling predator of the Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro A P; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-11-01

    The arboreal ant Odontomachus hastatus nests among roots of epiphytic bromeliads in the sandy forest at Cardoso Island (Brazil). Crepuscular and nocturnal foragers travel up to 8m to search for arthropod prey in the canopy, where silhouettes of leaves and branches potentially provide directional information. We investigated the relevance of visual cues (canopy, horizon patterns) during navigation in O. hastatus. Laboratory experiments using a captive ant colony and a round foraging arena revealed that an artificial canopy pattern above the ants and horizon visual marks are effective orientation cues for homing O. hastatus. On the other hand, foragers that were only given a tridimensional landmark (cylinder) or chemical marks were unable to home correctly. Navigation by visual cues in O. hastatus is in accordance with other diurnal arboreal ants. Nocturnal luminosity (moon, stars) is apparently sufficient to produce contrasting silhouettes from the canopy and surrounding vegetation, thus providing orientation cues. Contrary to the plain floor of the round arena, chemical cues may be important for marking bifurcated arboreal routes. This experimental demonstration of the use of visual cues by a predominantly nocturnal arboreal ant provides important information for comparative studies on the evolution of spatial orientation behavior in ants. "This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CD57+ T-cells are a subpopulation of T-follicular helper cells in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattarzadeh, Ahmad; Diepstra, Arjan; Rutgers, Bea; van den Berg, Anke; Visser, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is characterized by lymphocyte-predominant (LP) cells in a background of CD4+ CD57+ T-cells. These cells are normally present in the germinal center of lymphoid tissues. The cells rosetting LP cells are described to be PD-1 and

  15. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  16. Fuelwood production in Prince Edward Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    The most recent Prince Edward Island Fuelwood Survey occurred in 1990-91. Consumption of fuelwood rose again to 49% of Prince Edward Island's 43,170 households. Total residential fuelwood consumption was estimated to be 242,000 m 3 . The fuelwood industry makes an important contribution to the economy of Prince Edward Island. In the 1990-91 heating season, fuelwood valued at USD 9 million displaced approximately 43 million litres of domestic heating oil valued at USD 16.4 million. In addition, it is estimated that 70 cents of every dollar spent on fuelwood remains in the province and contributes spin-off benefits, whereas 90 cents of every dollar spent on heating oil is lost to the economy of Prince Edward Island. The percentage of people cutting their own fuelwood decreased from 52 in 1984-85 to only 23.4 in 1990-91. The governments of Canada and Prince Edward Island have implemented a series of Forest Resource Development Agreements (FRDAs) starting in 1983. The current 1988-1993 FRDA provides USD 24 million for research and incentives for reforestation and management of Prince Edward Island woodlots. It is expected that 3,800 Prince Edward Island woodlot owners will be participating in a woodlot management program by 1993. Silviculture treatments of hardwood stands include thinning, stand conversion (removal of lowgrade softwoods such as balsam fir in mainly hardwood stands), and shelterwood (strip) cutting, particularly in marginal stands. (9 refs.)

  17. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no

  18. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czepula AI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986 proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference. The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations

  19. Predominant typologies of psychopathology in the United States: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Tsai, Jack; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Hoff, Rani; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) offers a parsimonious way of classifying common typologies of psychiatric comorbidity. We used LCA to identify the nature and correlates of predominant typologies of Axis I and II disorders in a large and comprehensive population-based sample of U.S. adults. We analyzed data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,653), a population-based sample of U.S. adults. We derived latent classes based on all assessed Axis I and II disorders and examined the relationship between the identified Axis I classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. A four-class solution was optimal in characterizing predominant typologies of both Axis I and II disorders. For Axis I disorders, these included low psychopathology (n = 28,935, 84.0%), internalizing (n = 3693, 9.9%), externalizing (n = 1426, 4.5%), and high psychopathology (n = 599, 1.6%) classes. For Axis II disorders, these included no/low personality disorders (n = 31,265, 90.9%), obsessive/paranoid (n = 1635, 4.6%), borderline/dysregulated (n = 1319, 3.4%), and highly comorbid (n = 434, 1.1%) classes. Compared to the low psychopathology class, all other Axis I classes had significantly increased odds of mental disorders, elevated Axis II classes, suicide attempts and poorer quality of life, with the high psychopathology class having the overall highest rates of these correlates, with the exception of substance use disorders. Compared to the low psychopathology class, the internalizing and externalizing classes had increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, respectively. Axis I and II psychopathology among U.S. adults may be best represented by four predominant typologies. Characterizing co-occurring patterns of psychopathology using person-based typologies represents a higher-order classification system that may be useful in clinical

  20. Predominant hydro-climatic driver-effect relationships identified for the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Destouni, G.; Vigouroux, G.; Bring, A.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Climate model outputs include numerous variables of possible interest for modelling climate change impacts on the hydrodynamics and water quality of coastal-marine systems. In addition, various climate models perform differently well and their results exhibit various degrees of uncertainty. To constructively focus and increase robustness and reliability in projection simulations and assessments of future climate-change effects on coastal-marine environments, there is a need to investigate if any climate change variables may be particularly important to consider. As a way forward to determine this for the Baltic Sea, this study identifies and considers three representative years with different hydro-climatic driver-effect settings. These include, e.g., different conditions for heat flux, wind, water levels, and freshwater and saltwater influxes to the Baltic Sea. The three representative years and their different driver-effect characteristics are further used for forcing and validation of three-dimensional hydrodynamic Baltic Sea modeling, using the FVCOM open-source code model. The simulation results show that the heat flux input is the predominant driver of water temperature conditions in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, they show that the river runoff is significantly correlated with the saltwater influx at the open Baltic Sea boundary, with these two variables working together to predominantly determine the salinity conditions in the sea. Moreover, flow structure is studied in terms of flow directions and rates among the main marine basins of the Baltic Sea. The results show that the directions of flows are quite stable, but the flow magnitudes fluctuate considerably and are mainly influenced by the prevailing wind conditions. For the Baltic Sea, this study has thus identified as predominant driver-effect combinations: heat flux-sea temperature, runoff (and correlated open-boundary influx)-sea salinity, and wind-sea flow structure. These results facilitate and will

  1. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepula, Alexandra I; Bottacin, Wallace E; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J

    2016-01-01

    Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no statistically significant difference

  2. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date.

  3. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m 3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  4. Isotopic investigation of an Australian island environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groecke, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Collagen has been extracted from fossil bones of mega-fauna herbivores from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Australia). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of collagen have provided an insight into the palaeo-ecology of these late Pleistocene herbivores. In comparison with continental fossil localities in South Australia, the island herbivores have elevated nitrogen isotopic abundances. Carbon isotopic abundances suggest that browsing species had a mixed diet of grasses and leaves on the island, in contrast to the specimens from mainland Australia. Possible causes regarding elevated nitrogen isotope abundances and dietary shifts in this palaeo-ecology are discussed. (authors). 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-12-31

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children agedtypes prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation

  6. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  7. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  8. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  9. Eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdener AE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Elif Özdener, Anastasia Rivkin School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Eluxadoline is a novel drug approved for the management of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. It has unique pharmacology and works on three different opioid receptors. Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated eluxadoline’s efficacy in reducing symptoms related to IBS-D. Clinical trial results and postmarketing reports show a risk of pancreatitis in patients without a gallbladder or those abusing alcohol. This review article will include information on clinical trial results related to IBS-D management as well as eluxadoline’s limitations. Keywords: IBS-D, eluxadoline, diarrhea, gastrointestinal, Viberzi

  10. The unique entity of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: current approaches to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Eliza A; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Cunningham, David

    2012-03-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare disease constituting only 3-8% of all Hodgkin lymphoma. It has a distinct histological and clinical presentation as well as significantly different natural history compared to the classical form of Hodgkin lymphoma. Presenting most often as early-stage disease, NLPHL is characterized by frequent relapses, but paradoxically an overall good prognosis. The approach to management should therefore reflect this pattern and focus on attaining prolonged remissions, with long-term follow-up paramount. Due to the rarity of the disease, few prospective data exist. Options for treatment include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy plus radiotherapy and targeted anti-CD20 antibody therapy, as well as observation in selected patients.

  11. Acute axonal polyneuropathy with predominant proximal involvement: an uncommon neurological complication of bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Flavia Costa Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is frequently indicated in the treatment of morbid obesity. Previously unreported complications have been associated to this surgery; among them, neurological complications have gained attention. We report the case of a 25-year-old man submitted to gastric surgery for treatment of morbid obesity who developed, two months after surgery, acute proximal weakness in lower limbs. The electroneuromyography revealed axonal peripheral polyneuropathy with predominant proximal involvement. After treatment with immunoglobulin and vitamin supplementation, rapid clinical and neurophysiologic recovery was observed. We describe the clinical and electroneuromyographic features of this case, stressing the difficulty of initial diagnosis, particularly in the differential diagnosis with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We discuss the importance of nutritional follow-up and the eventual indication of routine vitamin supplementation in these patients.

  12. Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity Rates by Elementary School in a Predominantly Hispanic School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Richard; Huerta, Gabriel; Karki, Menuka; Cantarero, Andrea

    This study analyzes the social determinants associated with the overweight or obesity prevalence of 85 elementary schools during the 2010-11 academic year in a predominantly Hispanic school district. A binomial logistic regression is used to analyze the aggregate overweight or obesity rate of a school by the percent of Hispanic students in each school, selected school and neighborhood characteristics, and its geographical location. The proportion of Hispanic enrollment more readily explains a school's aggregate overweight or obesity rate than social determinants or spatial location. Number of fast food establishments and the academic ranking of a school appear to slightly impact the aggregate prevalence rate. Spatial location of school is not a significant factor, controlling for other determinants. An elementary school's overall overweight or obesity rate provides a valuable health indicator to study the social determinants of obesity among Hispanics and other students within a local neighborhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Observable lepton number violation with predominantly Dirac nature of active neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,Assam-781039 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab [Institute of Physics, HBNI,Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2017-01-17

    We study a specific version of SU(2){sub R}×SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub B−L} models extended by discrete symmetries where the new physics sector responsible for tiny neutrino masses at leading order remains decoupled from the new physics sector that can give rise to observable signatures of lepton number violation such as neutrinoless double beta decay. More specifically, the dominant contribution to light neutrino masses comes from a one-loop Dirac mass. At higher loop level, a tiny Majorana mass also appears which remains suppressed by many order of magnitudes in comparison to the Dirac mass. Such a model where the active neutrinos are predominantly of Dirac type, also predicts observable charged lepton flavour violation like μ→3e,μ→eγ and multi-component dark matter.

  14. Rat submaxillary gland contains predominantly P-type tachykinin binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, S.H.; Burcher, E.

    1985-11-01

    The specific binding of the /sup 125/I-Bolton-Hunter labeled tachykinins substance K (BHSK), eledoisin (BHE), and substance P (BHSP) was examined in crude membrane suspensions and by autoradiography in rat submaxillary gland. All three ligands at 0.1 nM concentrations exhibited binding that was inhibited by tachykinins in a potency rank order of substance P greater than physalaemin greater than substance K greater than eledoisin greater than kassinin greater than neuromedin K with slope factors essentially equal to unity. All tachykinins were 5 to 10 times more potent in inhibiting BHSK and BHE binding compared to BHSP binding. Autoradiographic visualization of BHSK and BHSP binding sites in the gland revealed extensive labeling of mucous and serous acini. The intensity of labeling was much less for BHSK than for BHSP. The results indicate that the rat submaxillary gland contains predominantly P-type tachykinin binding sites.

  15. Predominant catalase-negative soil bacteria. II. Occurrence and characterization of Actinomyces humiferus, sp. N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, W E; Casida, L E

    1969-07-01

    A microorganism resembling an Actinomyces species was found to be a numerically predominant inhabitant of various organically rich soils. This organism forms a hyphal-like structure with true branching that fragments into gram-positive diphtheroid and coccoid elements. Its cells ferment carbohydrates and contain both lysine and ornithine as the major basic amino acids of the cell wall. It is catalase-negative, microaerophilic to aerobic, and sensitive to lysozyme, and it is dependent on an organic nitrogen source and incubation at 30 C for optimum growth. Based on these characteristics, a new species, Actinomyces humiferus, is proposed. The ecological and medical implications of a large soil population of this microorganism are discussed.

  16. Approaches to sustainable rural development in a predominantly non-rural region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin Vasily

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper aims at investigation of contemporary approaches to sustainable rural development in Russia with focus on predominantly non-rural areas, gravitationally attracted by such urban agglomerations, as Moscow. It includes the overview of current experiences in rural development, analysis of major economic and social indicators of rural areas in comparison with urban ones, characteristic of specific features of rural areas in Moscow Oblast, and elaboration of perspective ways to ensure sustainable development of those areas. Methods of benchmarking analysis, SWOT-analysis and program prognosis are implemented. The major results of the current research are discoveries of growth points for rural development and recommendations on perspective measures of state and local policies in rural areas, directed on increase of living standards of rural population and retention of labour resources in their traditional rural areas of inhabitation.

  17. A blastema-predominant canine renal nephroblastoma with gingival metastasis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Li, Wen-Ta; Wang, Fun-In

    2018-03-01

    Nephroblastomas are uncommon embryonal tumors in dogs. We report herein a blastema-predominant nephroblastoma with gingival metastasis in an 8-y-old Miniature Pinscher dog. Histologically, the mass was composed mainly of blastemal elements with minor epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Metastatic masses in the gingiva had histologic and immunohistochemical features similar to those of the primary renal nephroblastoma. Neoplastic cells were extensively positive for both vimentin and PAX8, and scattered positive for cytokeratin. Using the clinical staging of human Wilms tumor, we staged our case as stage IV with <4 mo of survival time. We summarized previous studies of canine renal and spinal nephroblastomas, and analyzed the correlations among clinical staging, histologic classification, and mean survival time of dogs with renal nephroblastomas. Clinical staging was significantly correlated with survival time, as shown in humans. In dogs, however, additional factors can potentially influence the outcome of treatment and disease development.

  18. Novel and predominant pathogen responsible for the enterovirus-associated encephalitis in eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EV have been increasingly identified as the causative agent for unknown etiological encephalitis in many parts of the world, but the long period surveillance for enterovirus-associated encephalitis (EAE was not reported in China. From 2002-2012 in Zhejiang, Coxsackieviruses A9, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5; and echoviruses 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, 25, 30 were detected from the unknown etiological encephalitis cases, with coxsackievirus B4 been identified here for the first time. From 2002-2004 and 2010-2012, echovirus 30 was found to be the periodically predominant serotype for in the EAE. The molecular typing results showed that all the EV isolates from this study belonged to the human EV B (HEV B family and were distributed in three clusters.

  19. Rickettsia raoultii, the predominant Rickettsia found in Dermacentor silvarum ticks in China-Russia border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiao, Dan; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yao, De-Hai; Liu, Zhi-Xiang; Zhao, Gang; Ju, Wen-Dong; Cheng, Cheng; Li, Yi-Jing; Sun, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Since the year 2000, clinical patterns resembling tick-borne rickettsioses have been noticed in China-Russia border areas. Epidemiological data regarding species of the aetiological agent, tick vector prevalence and distribution as well as incidence of human cases in the areas are still sparse to date. In order to identify Rickettsia species occurring in the areas, we investigated Dermacentor silvarum collected in the selected areas. Rickettsia raoultii was the predominant Rickettsia found in D. silvarum evident with ompA, ompB, gltA and 17 kDa protein genes. The Rickettsia prevalence in D. silvarum appeared to be 32.25 % with no sex difference. The results extend the common knowledge about the geographic distribution of R. raoultii and its candidate vector tick species, which suggest an emerged potential threat of human health in the areas.

  20. Progressive Supranuclear Gaze Palsy with Predominant Cerebellar Ataxia: A Case Series with Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP with predominant cerebellar ataxia (PSP-C is a rare phenotype of PSP. The clinical and radiological features of this disorder remain poorly characterized. Through a retrospective case series, we aim to characterize the clinical and radiological features of PSP-C. Four patients with PSP-C were identified: patients who presented with prominent cerebellar dysfunction that disappeared with the progression of the disease. Supranuclear gaze palsy occurred at a mean of 2.0 ± 2.3 years after the onset of ataxia. Mild cerebellar volume loss and midbrain atrophy were detected on brain imaging, which are supportive of a diagnosis of PSP. Videos are presented illustrating the co-existence of cerebellar signs and supranuclear gaze palsy and the disappearance of cerebellar signs with disease progression. Better recognition and the development of validated diagnostic criteria would aid in the antemortem recognition of this rare condition.

  1. Supervised classification of RESURS MSY-E data for recognizing predominant cone-bearing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamarin, Victor I.; Protasov, Konstantin T.; Serykh, Aleksandr P.

    1999-11-01

    Digital classifications of RESURS MSY-E data of forest Tomsk region were used. One scene acquired on 22 October 1992 was selected for classification. A supervised approach was used to generate training signatures for input to ERDAS classification. The classes (forest predominate composition) for classification were: (1) 80% cedar (pinus sibirica) + 20% spruce (picea); (2) 80 - 100% cedar without spruce; (3) moorland; (4) recent wood-cutting area; (5) old wood-cutting area; (6) 90 - 100% pine. Parametric and non-parametric decision rule were used. The GIS-compatible classifications provided a comprehensive view and evaluation of the results. Comparison of the results of classification with the forest management inventory data shows a satisfactory agreement.

  2. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a unique disease deserving unique management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Engert, Andreas

    2017-12-08

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.2/100 000/y. Compared with the more common subtypes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, NLPHL is characterized by distinct pathological and clinical features. Histologically, the disease-defining lymphocyte predominant cells consistently express CD20 but lack CD30. Clinically, NLPHL mostly has a rather indolent course, and patients usually are diagnosed in early stages. The prognosis of early-stage NLPHL is excellent, with progression-free survival and overall survival rates exceeding 90% after involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) alone (stage IA) or combined modality treatment consisting of a brief chemotherapy with 2 cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy followed by IF-RT (early stages other than stage IA). In contrast, patients with advanced disease at diagnosis tend to relapse either with NLPHL histology or with histological transformation into aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma despite more aggressive first-line treatment with 6 to 8 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy. However, even NLPHL patients with multiple relapses successfully respond to salvage therapy in many cases. Salvage therapies range from single-agent anti-CD20 antibody treatment to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Treatment at disease recurrence should be chosen on the basis of various factors, including histology at relapse, time to relapse, extent of disease at relapse, and prior treatment. Because death among NLPHL patients is more often caused by therapy-related late effects than lymphoma-related complications, optimizing the risk-benefit ratio of treatment by decreasing toxicity whenever possible is the major goal of clinical research in this disease. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  3. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  4. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  5. Molecular source tracking of predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs and their production environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, I; Van der Meulen, R; De Vuyst, L; Vandamme, P; Huys, G

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the circulation of predominant sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species in the production environment of two Belgian artisan sourdough bakeries. Isolates were collected from sourdoughs, flour, hands of the baker and air in the bakery setting and taxonomically characterized using repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting, pheS and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. In parallel, PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis of V3-16S rDNA amplicons was applied to visualize the predominant bacterial population in the sourdoughs and the corresponding bakery environment (flour, hands of the baker, air and bakery equipment). Both approaches revealed that sourdoughs produced at D01 and D10 were mainly dominated by Lactobacillus spicheri and L. plantarum and by L. sanfranciscensis, respectively, and that these LAB species also circulated in the corresponding bakery environment. Furthermore, AFLP fingerprinting demonstrated that sourdough and bakery environment isolates of these species were genetically indistinguishable. For more sensitive source-tracking, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays were developed using species-specific primers targeting the pheS gene of L. plantarum and L. sanfranciscensis, detected in air samples from D01 and D10, respectively. The results obtained in this study indicate that specific strains of LAB persist in artisan doughs over years and circulate in the bakery environment. Furthermore, the importance of air as a potential carrier of LAB in artisan bakery environments was demonstrated. PheS-based real-time PCR can be used to detect, quantify and/or monitor specific LAB species (e.g. starter cultures) in sourdough and bakery environment samples.

  6. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. Infection among School Children in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.

  7. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  8. Attentional profiles and white matter correlates in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suzart Ungaretti Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I and 29 matched controls, aged 7 to 15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Fractional anisotropy values were obtained for 20 fibre tracts, and brain-behaviour correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability, vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE, processing speed (Hit RT, selective attention (Omissions, sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change, error profile (Response Style and inhibitory control (Perseverations. Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the typically developing participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fibre tracts analysed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average fractional anisotropy values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white-matter structure of the long associative fibres that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  9. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....

  10. Studying Islands: On Whose Terms? Some Epistemological and Methodological Challenges to the Pursuit of Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of nissology, or island studies, calls for a re-centering of focus from mainland to island, away from the discourse of conquest of mainlanders, giving voice and platform for the expression of island narratives. Yet, studying islands ‘on their own terms’, in spite of its predilection for “authenticity”, is fraught with epistemological and methodological difficulties. The insider/outsider distinction does not work all that well when it comes to islands, where hybridity is the norm. This paper seeks to extend this debate, grappling especially with the contributions of Grant McCall and Peter Hay to the sparse literature. Five dilemmas related to indigenous island geographies are presented and discussed, in a semi-autobiographical style.

  11. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...... multimodel comparisons demonstrated the nonlinear implementation of the power model to be the best overall model and thus to be a sensible choice for general use. As the z-value of the log–log power model varied in relation to ecological and geographical properties of the study systems, caution should...

  12. Botanical results of a trip to the Salajar Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docters van Leeuwen, W.M.

    1937-01-01

    The Salajar Islands strew the Flores Sea between Celebes and Flores. The group consists of no less than 73 smaller and larger islands. The principal islands are: Salajar or Tanadoang, Djampea, Kalao, Kalaotoa, and Bonerate. A number of smaller islands form together the group of the so-called Tiger

  13. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are held on Wake Island or Hawaii at times and places designated by the Chief Judge. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake...

  14. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological time-scales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that

  15. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... easternmost extremity of Hilton Head at latitude 32°13.0′ N. longitude 80°40.1′ W. [CGD 77-118a, 42 FR 35784...

  16. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  17. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML with erythroid predominance exhibits clinical and molecular characteristics that differ from other types of AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zuo

    Full Text Available The clinical importance of erythroid predominance in bone marrow of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML is controversial. These cases represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that historically have been classified into different categories. We studied 313 AML patients and specifically compared the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular features of cases of AML with erythroid predominance, arbitrarily defined as ≥50% erythroid precursors, to AML cases without erythroid predominance. We also assessed 51 patients with a high-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB. All neoplasms were classified according to the World Health Organization classification. With the exception of therapy-related AML/MDS, the presence of erythroid predominance in variously classified categories of AML was associated with a survival advantage. In addition, AML with erythroid predominance had a lower frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities as well as a lower frequency of mutations involving NPM1, NRAS and FLT3 as compared with AML without erythroid predominance. We conclude that the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular features of AML with erythroid predominance in the non-therapy-related setting are much closer to those of a high-grade myelodysplastic syndrome than they are to other types of AML.

  18. Elastic energies of coherent germanium islands on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderbilt, D.; Wickham, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by recent observations of coherent Ge island formation during growth of Ge on Si (100), the authors of this paper have carried out a theoretical study of the elastic energies associated with the evolution of a uniform strained overlayer as it segregates into coherent islands. In the context of a two-dimensional model, the authors have explored the conditions under which coherent islands may be energetically favored over both uniform epitaxial films and dislocated islands. The authors find that if the interface energy (for dislocated islands) is more than about 15% of the surface energy, then there is a range of island sizes for which the coherent island structure is preferred

  19. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...... with islanding detection on the utility side, whereas a local technique is associated with islanding detection on the DG side. Local techniques can further be divided into passive techniques, active techniques and hybrid techniques. These islanding detection techniques for DG are described and analyzed....

  20. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena