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Sample records for azolla caroliniana willd

  1. Performance of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. on fish farming effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, J J; Penha, J

    2011-02-01

    The increasing release of untreated fish farming effluents into water courses that flow to the Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso (Brazil) may drive this ecosystem to eutrophication. Therefore, the growth of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in fish farming effluent and their effect on its quality were evaluated for 48 days in a greenhouse. The results were compared to those obtained in a nutrient rich solution (Hoagland ½ medium). Azolla caroliniana showed lower relative growth rate in fish farming effluent (0.020 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.029 d-1). However, S. auriculata grew slightly better in fish farming effluent (0.030 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.025 d-1). The species apparently contributed to reduce nitrate and phosphate concentration in Hoagland ½ medium. However, in fish farming effluent, only electrical conductivity and pH were reduced by plants compared to the control without plants. Thus, A. caroliniana and S. auriculata show low potential for improving effluent quality.

  2. Performance of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. on fish farming effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ. Toledo

    Full Text Available The increasing release of untreated fish farming effluents into water courses that flow to the Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso (Brazil may drive this ecosystem to eutrophication. Therefore, the growth of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in fish farming effluent and their effect on its quality were evaluated for 48 days in a greenhouse. The results were compared to those obtained in a nutrient rich solution (Hoagland ½ medium. Azolla caroliniana showed lower relative growth rate in fish farming effluent (0.020 d-1 than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.029 d-1. However, S. auriculata grew slightly better in fish farming effluent (0.030 d-1 than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.025 d-1. The species apparently contributed to reduce nitrate and phosphate concentration in Hoagland ½ medium. However, in fish farming effluent, only electrical conductivity and pH were reduced by plants compared to the control without plants. Thus, A. caroliniana and S. auriculata show low potential for improving effluent quality.

  3. Removal of contaminants in a paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana

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    D. Sivakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on removal of various parameters in paper mill effluent using a method called bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana.  The experimental investigations have been carried out using Azolla caroliniana for conducting the sorption study with various dilution ratios (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 and biomass (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 g. The maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was obtained at the optimum dilution ratio of 6, pH of 8 and biomass of 800 g. The results of this study indicated that the maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was 82.3 %, 88.6 % and 79.1 % respectively.  Also, the study focused on uptake of TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana through bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor. The results of bioaccumulation factor revealed that TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent were adsorbed by Azolla caroliniana.  The results of translocation factor revealed that the roots of Azolla caroliniana translocate the TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent to the shoots of Azolla caroliniana. From the results, this study concluded that bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana could be effectively used for removing TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent. This study also suggested that Azolla caroliniana may be used for removing various contaminants, not only from paper mill effluent, but also from any other industrial effluents.

  4. Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water: the role of antioxidant metabolism of Azolla caroliniana Willd. (Salviniales

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    Gabriela Alves Leão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phytoremediation has proven to be an efficient technology for removing arsenic (As from water, but the plants used in this process need to be tolerant to the damage caused by As. The toxic effect of As on growth and functioning of the antioxidant system was studied in individual plants of Azolla caroliniana exposed to five concentrations of As (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 for the course of five days. Growth, As absorption, enzymatic activity, total and non-protein thiols and anthocyanin content were assessed. Azolla caroliniana was able to take up large amounts of the pollutant, reaching As concentrations of 386.1 µg g-1 dry weight without saturating the absorption mechanism. The tolerance index and the growth of A. caroliniana decreased with the increased As uptake. Superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductase activities increased at lower doses of As and subsequently declined with higher concentrations, whereas ascorbate peroxidase activity was reduced in all treatments. Unlike the enzymatic defence system, anthocyanin and thiol content increased consistently in all treatments and showed a positive correlation with As concentration. Therefore, the increased synthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants is most likely the main factor responsible for the high As tolerance of A. caroliniana.

  5. Ecotoxicidade de herbicidas para a macrófita aquática (Azolla caroliniana Ecotoxicity of herbicides for the aquatic macrophyte (Azolla caroliniana

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    A.F. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar Azolla caroliniana como planta-teste em estudos ecotoxicológicos e estimar a CL50;7d dos herbicidas 2,4-D, glyphosate, clomazone e oxyfluorfen. As plantas foram aclimatadas em sala de bioensaio. Para isso, foram selecionadas cinco plantas em 50 mL de meio de cultivo Hoagland. Após esse período, foram adicionados 50 mL de Hoagland mais o herbicida, completando o volume para 100 mL. A concentração letal de 50% (CL50;7d para A. caroliniana exposta ao herbicida 2,4-D foi de 708,35 mg L-1; ao glyphosate (formulação Scout®, de 23,66 mg L-1; ao glyphosate (formulação Trop®, de 38,91 mg L-1; ao clomazone, de 129,63 mg L-1; e ao oxyfluorfen, de 80,50 mg L-1. Os herbicidas glyphosate (Scout® e Trop® e oxyflourfen foram classificados como moderadamente tóxicos a A. caroliniana, e o clomazone e o 2,4-D, como praticamente não tóxicos. Conclui-se que A. caroliniana pode ser utilizada como planta bioindicadora de herbicidas à base de glyphosate e oxyfluorfen.The objectives of this study were to evaluate Azolla caroliniana as test plant in ecotoxicological studies and to estimate the LC50; 7d of the herbicides 2,4 D , glyphosate, and clomazone oxyfluorfen. The plants were acclimatized in the bioassay room. Five plants in 50 mL Hoagland culture medium were selected. After that, 50 mL of Hoagland and the herbicide were added, completing the volume to 100 mL. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50; 7d for A. caroliniana exposed to the herbicide 2,4- D, was 708.35 mg L-1; to glyphosate (formulation Scout®, 23.66 mg L-1; to glyphosate (formulation Trop®, 38.91 mg L-1; to clomazone, 129.63 mg L-1; and to oxyflourfen, 80.50 mg L-1. The herbicides glyphosate (Scout® and Trop® and oxyflourfen were classified as moderately toxic to A. caroliniana, while clomazone and 2,4-D were classified as practically non-toxic. It was concluded that A. caroliniana plants can be used as bio-indicators for glyphosate and

  6. Phytoremediation of heavy metals from fly ash pond by Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2012-08-01

    Abundance of naturally growing Azolla caroliniana (water fern) on the surface of metal enriched fly ash (FA) pond reflects its toxitolerant characteristics. Results indicate the efficiency of A. caroliniana for phytoremediation of FA pond because of its higher bioconcentration factor. The metal concentration ranged from 175 to 538 and 86 to 753mgkg(-1) in roots and fronds, respectively. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of all metals in root and frond ranged from 1.7 to18.6 and 1.8 to 11.0, respectively, which were greater than one and indicates the metal accumulation potential of A. caroliniana. Translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.37 to 1.4 for various heavy metals. The field result proved that A. caroliniana is a potential accumulator for the examined heavy metals and can be used for phytoremediation of FA pond. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arsenic accumulation by the aquatic fern Azolla: Comparison of arsenate uptake, speciation and efflux by A. caroliniana and A. filiculoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xin [State Key Lab of Urban and ONAL Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Lin Aijun [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Xu Guozhong [Agricultural Ecology Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350013 (China); Duan Guilan [State Key Lab of Urban and ONAL Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Lab of Urban and ONAL Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361003 (China)], E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-12-15

    This study investigates As accumulation and tolerance of the aquatic fern Azolla. Fifty strains of Azolla showed a large variation in As accumulation. The highest- and lowest-accumulating ferns among the 50 strains were chosen for further investigations. Azolla caroliniana accumulated two times more As than Azolla filiculoides owing to a higher influx velocity for arsenate. A. filiculoides was more resistant to external arsenate due to a lower uptake. Both strains showed a similar degree of tolerance to internal As. Arsenate and arsenite were the dominant As species in both Azolla strains, with methlyated As species accounting for <5% of the total As. A. filiculoides had a higher proportion of arsenite than A. caroliniana. Both strains effluxed more arsenate than arsenite, and the amount of As efflux was proportional to the amount of As accumulation. The potential of growing Azolla in paddy fields to reduce As transfer from soil and water to rice should be further evaluated. - Arsenic accumulation and efflux differ between strains of the aquatic fern Azolla.

  8. Arsenic accumulation by the aquatic fern Azolla: Comparison of arsenate uptake, speciation and efflux by A. caroliniana and A. filiculoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xin; Lin Aijun; Zhao Fangjie; Xu Guozhong; Duan Guilan; Zhu Yongguan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates As accumulation and tolerance of the aquatic fern Azolla. Fifty strains of Azolla showed a large variation in As accumulation. The highest- and lowest-accumulating ferns among the 50 strains were chosen for further investigations. Azolla caroliniana accumulated two times more As than Azolla filiculoides owing to a higher influx velocity for arsenate. A. filiculoides was more resistant to external arsenate due to a lower uptake. Both strains showed a similar degree of tolerance to internal As. Arsenate and arsenite were the dominant As species in both Azolla strains, with methlyated As species accounting for <5% of the total As. A. filiculoides had a higher proportion of arsenite than A. caroliniana. Both strains effluxed more arsenate than arsenite, and the amount of As efflux was proportional to the amount of As accumulation. The potential of growing Azolla in paddy fields to reduce As transfer from soil and water to rice should be further evaluated. - Arsenic accumulation and efflux differ between strains of the aquatic fern Azolla

  9. UV-B effect on constituents of Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Mostafa, Eazaz M

    2007-01-01

    Changes in growth and ultrastructure of Azolla caroliniana in response to elevated UV-B radiation were investigated. Exposure of plants to UV-B radiation for 1, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h exhibited a significant decrease in biomass and relative growth rate. This decrease resulted in an increase in doubling time over the control. Also, Chl a and b contents were significantly decreased especially after 16 h. The reduction was accompanied by a decrease in 5-aminolaevulinic acid content (precursor of chlorophyll). On the other hand, contents of carotenoid and UV-absorbing phenolic compounds (flavonoids and anthocyanins) were increased.

  10. Identification of mRNA transcript and screening of amino acids in response to interaction of salinity and nitrate in aquatic fern Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, A A; Mostafa, E M

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms by which Azolla caroliniana respond to salt stress in absence and presence of nitrate is investigated. Screening of amino acid and differential display is used to compare overall differences in gene expression between salinity-stressed and unstressed Azolla caroliniana by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PC R). Results showed that under saline conditions, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and leucine were the amino acids found to be abundant in Azolla caroliniana, accounting for 11.26%, 8.66%, 9.43%, and 12.36%, respectively. Following salinity stress, a decrease in free glutamate concomitant with a parallel decrease in free proline was indeed evident. Interaction between nitrate and salinity stress increased proline content significantly. By screening a cDNA library, we have identified protein products by homology with known proteins. The RNA transcripts encoding protein influencing secondary metabolites and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter that facilitate the transport system. The databasematched under interaction of nitrate and 50 mM NaCl were associated with wall biosynthesis, disease resistance, metabolite transport and protein regulator, other gene for metabolism of steroids and secondary transport. Results obtained from this research could represent a key step in understanding the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance of Azolla caroliniana in the presence and absence of nitrate.

  11. Azolla-Anabaena Relationship 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, John C.; Steinberg, Nisan A.; Enderlin, Carol S.; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Peters, Gerald A.

    1987-01-01

    The major radioactive products of the fixation of [13N]N2 by Azolla caroliniana Willd.-Anabaena azollae Stras. were ammonium, glutamine, and glutamate, plus a small amount of alanine. Ammonium accounted for 70 and 32% of the total radioactivity recovered after fixation for 1 and 10 minutes, respectively. The presence of a substantial pool of [13N]N2-derived 13NH4+ after longer incubation periods was attributed to the spatial separation between the site of N2-fixation (Anabaena) and a second, major site of assimilation (Azolla). Initially, glutamine was the most highly radioactive organic product formed from [13N]N2, but after 10 minutes of fixation glutamate had 1.5 times more radiolabel than glutamine. These kinetics of radiolabeling, along with the effects of inhibitors of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase on assimilation of exogenous and [13N]N2-derived 13NH4+, indicate that ammonium assimilation occurred by the glutamate synthase cycle and that glutamate dehydrogenase played little or no role in the synthesis of glutamate by Azolla-Anabaena. PMID:16665538

  12. Arsenic accumulation by the aquatic fern Azolla: comparison of arsenate uptake, speciation and efflux by A. caroliniana and A. filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Lin, Ai-Jun; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Xu, Guo-Zhong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates As accumulation and tolerance of the aquatic fern Azolla. Fifty strains of Azolla showed a large variation in As accumulation. The highest- and lowest-accumulating ferns among the 50 strains were chosen for further investigations. Azolla caroliniana accumulated two times more As than Azolla filiculoides owing to a higher influx velocity for arsenate. A. filiculoides was more resistant to external arsenate due to a lower uptake. Both strains showed a similar degree of tolerance to internal As. Arsenate and arsenite were the dominant As species in both Azolla strains, with methylated As species accounting for Azolla in paddy fields to reduce As transfer from soil and water to rice should be further evaluated.

  13. Effects of lead accumulation on the Azolla caroliniana-Anabaena association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anne E; Boylen, Charles W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2014-04-01

    The effect of lead accumulation on photopigment production, mineral nutrition, and Anabaena vegetative cell size and heterocyst formation in Azolla caroliniana was investigated. Plants were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1) lead acetate for ten days. Lead accumulation increased when plants were treated with higher lead concentrations. Results revealed a statistically significant decline in total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids in 5, 10, and 20 mg Pb L(-1) treatment groups as compared to plants with 0 or 1 mg Pb L(-1) treatments. No statistically significant change in anthocyanin production was observed. Calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations in plants decreased in increasing treatment groups, whereas sodium and potassium concentrations increased. Nitrogen and carbon were also found to decrease in plant tissue. Anabaena vegetative cells decreased in size and heterocyst frequency declined rapidly in a Pb dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that, while A. caroliniana removes lead from aqueous solution, the heavy metal causes physiological and biochemical changes by impairing photosynthesis, changing mineral nutrition, and impeding the growth and formation of heterocysts of the symbiotic cyanobacteria that live within leaf cavities of the fronds. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Methane emissions and microbial communities as influenced by dual cropping of Azolla along with early Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jingna; Xu, Heshui; Jiang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Azolla caroliniana Willd. is widely used as a green manure accompanying rice, but its ecological importance remains unclear, except for its ability to fix nitrogen in association with cyanobacteria. To investigate the impacts of Azolla cultivation on methane emissions and environmental variables...... in paddy fields, we performed this study on the plain of Dongting Lake, China, in 2014. The results showed that the dual cropping of Azolla significantly suppressed the methane emissions from paddies, likely due to the increase in redox potential in the root region and dissolved oxygen concentration...... at the soil-water interface. Furthermore, the floodwater pH decreased in association with Azolla cultivation, which is also a factor significantly correlated with the decrease in methane emissions. An increase in methanotrophic bacteria population (pmoA gene copies) and a reduction in methanogenic archaea (16...

  15. Uptake and toxicity of arsenic, copper, and silicon in Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofkar, Jordan R; Dwyer, Daryl F; Bobak, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the analysis of two aquatic plant species, Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor, with respect to tolerance and uptake of co-occurring arsenic, copper, and silicon for use in engineered wetlands. Plants were cultured in nutrient solution that was amended with arsenic (0 or 20 microM), copper (2 or 78 microM), and silicon (0 or 1.8 mM) either singly or in combination. We hypothesized that arsenic and copper would negatively affect the uptake of metals, growth, and pigmentation and that silicon would mitigate those stresses. Tolerance was assessed by measuring growth of biomass and concentrations of chlorophyll and anthocyanins. Both plant species accumulated arsenic, copper, and silicon; L. minor generally had higher levels on a per biomass basis. Arsenic negatively impacted A. caroliniana, causing a 30% decrease in biomass production and an increase in the concentration of anthocyanin. Copper negatively impacted L. minor, causing a 60% decrease in biomass production and a 45% decrease in chlorophyll content. Silicon augmented the impact of arsenic on biomass production in A. caroliniana but mitigated the effect of copper on L. minor. Our results suggest that mixtures of plant species may be needed to maximize uptake of multiple contaminants in engineered wetlands.

  16. Salinity induced physiological and biochemical changes in the freshly separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Tripathi, Keshawanand; Ramteke, Pramod Wasudeo; Varghese, Eldho; Abraham, Gerard

    2016-09-01

    Freshly separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana plants exposed to salinity showed decline in the cellular constituents such as chlorophyll (23.1 and 38.9%) and protein (12.9 and 19.3%). However, an increase in the carotenoid and sugar content was observed. Exposure to salinity stress reduced the heterocyst frequency (35.4 and 57.2%) and nitrogenase activity (37.7 and 46.3%) of the cyanobionts. Increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase (50.6 and 11.5%), ascorbate peroxidase (63.7 and 57.9%), catalase (94.2 and 22.5%) as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant proline (18.8 and 13.3%) was also observed in response to salinity. The cyanobionts exhibited significant increase in the intracellular Na(+) level and reduced intracellular K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in response to salinity. The results demonstrate the adverse impact of salinity on the freshly separated cyanobionts as similar to free living cyanobacteria. These results may be helpful in the critical evaluation of salinity tolerance mechanism of the cyanobiont and its interaction with the host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Methane Emissions and Microbial Communities as Influenced by Dual Cropping of Azolla along with Early Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingna; Xu, Heshui; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Yuegao; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2017-01-01

    Azolla caroliniana Willd. is widely used as a green manure accompanying rice, but its ecological importance remains unclear, except for its ability to fix nitrogen in association with cyanobacteria. To investigate the impacts of Azolla cultivation on methane emissions and environmental variables in paddy fields, we performed this study on the plain of Dongting Lake, China, in 2014. The results showed that the dual cropping of Azolla significantly suppressed the methane emissions from paddies, likely due to the increase in redox potential in the root region and dissolved oxygen concentration at the soil-water interface. Furthermore, the floodwater pH decreased in association with Azolla cultivation, which is also a factor significantly correlated with the decrease in methane emissions. An increase in methanotrophic bacteria population (pmoA gene copies) and a reduction in methanogenic archaea (16S rRNA gene copies) were observed in association with Azolla growth. During rice cultivation period, dual cropping of Azolla also intensified increasing trend of 1/Simpson of methanogens and significantly decreased species richness (Chao 1) and species diversity (1/Simpson, 1/D) of methanotrophs. These results clearly demonstrate the suppression of CH4 emissions by culturing Azolla and show the environmental and microbial responses in paddy soil under Azolla cultivation.

  18. Immunocytochemical localization of nitrogenase in bacteria symbiotically associated with Azolla spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, P; Bergman, B; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A

    1991-01-01

    In situ immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect nitrogenase in bacteria (bactobionts) symbiotically associated with leaf cavities of Azolla caroliniana and Azolla filiculoides. In A. caroliniana, the Fe protein of the nitrogenase complex was detected in a subset of the distinct bactobiont types present in leaf cavities of all ages. Similar results were obtained for the bactobionts of A. filiculoides with antisera against both the Fe and MoFe subunits of nitrogenase. Images PMID:1785936

  19. Comparison of biomass productivity and nitrogen fixing potential of Azolla SPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Singh, P.K. [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    2003-03-01

    Study was conducted on six different Azolla species, available in the germplasm collection of NCCUBGA, IARI, New Delhi namely A. filiculoides, A. mexicana, A. microphylla, A. pinnata, A. rubra and A. caroliniana in a polyhouse to assess their growth potential by determining their maximal biomass productivity, doubling time and relative growth rates. Their nitrogen fixing potential was assessed by acetylene reduction assay. Among them Azolla microphylla gave highest biomass production and relative growth rate followed by Azolla caroliniana. Both these had high nitrogenase activity also. Peak nitrogenase activity of these strains was found on 14th day of growth and it declined on further incubation. Azolla microphylla and Azolla rubra were more tolerant to salinity than others. On the other hand Azolla pinnata, which is endemic species found in India, exhibited low biomass production, relative growth rate and lower nitrogenase activity compared to other species. It was unable to sustain growth in saline medium. Under polyhouse conditions, A. microphylla was found to perform better than other cultures in terms of biomass productivity, N fixing ability and salt tolerance. Hence it is taken up for mass production.(author)

  20. The omnipresent water fern Azolla caroliniana does not contain lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Speelman, E.N.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Reichart, G.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of large amounts of lignin in ubiquitously occurring species of the freshwater fern Azolla. Molecular analysis using flash pyrolysis and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation shows, however, that neither the leaves nor the roots of Azolla contain

  1. Genetic diversity among and within cultured cyanobionts of diverse species of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, A; Prasanna, R; Prasanna, B M; Singh, P K

    2008-01-01

    The cyanobionts isolated from 10 Azolla accessions belonging to 6 species (Azolla mexicana, A. microphylla, A. rubra, A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. pinnata) were cultured under laboratory conditions and analyzed on the basis of whole cell protein profiles and molecular marker dataset generated using repeat sequence primers (STRR(mod) and HipTG). The biochemical and molecular marker profiles of the cyanobionts were compared with those of the free-living cyanobacteria and symbiotic Nostoc strains from Anthoceros sp., Cycas sp. and Gunnera monoika. Cluster analysis revealed the genetic diversity among the selected strains, and identified 3 distinct clusters. Group 1 included cyanobionts from all the 10 accessions of Azolla, group 2 comprised all the symbiotic Nostoc strains, while group 3 included the free-living cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Nostoc and Anabaena. The interrelationships among the Azolla cyanobionts were further revealed by principal component analysis. Cyanobionts from A. caroliniana-A. microphylla grouped together while cyanobionts associated with A. mexicana-A. filiculoides along with A. pinnata formed another group. A. rubra cyanobionts had intermediate relationship with both the subgroups. This is the first study analyzing the diversity existing among the cultured cyanobionts of diverse Azolla species through the use of biochemical and molecular profiles and also the genetic distinctness of these free-living cyanobionts as compared to cyanobacterial strains of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc.

  2. DNA Probes Show Genetic Variation in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of the Azolla Fern and a Closer Relationship to Free-Living Nostoc Strains than to Free-Living Anabaena Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazinski, Jacek; Zheng, Qi; Taylor, Rona; Croft, Lynn; Rolfe, Barry G.; Gunning, Brian E. S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two isolates of Anabaena azollae derived from seven Azolla species from various geographic and ecological sources were characterized by DNA-DNA hybridization. Cloned DNA fragments derived from the genomic sequences of three different A. azollae isolates were used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphism among all symbiotic anabaenas. DNA clones were radiolabeled and hybridized against southern blot transfers of genomic DNAs of different isolates of A. azollae digested with restriction endonucleases. Eight DNA probes were selected to identify the Anabaena strains tested. Two were strain specific and hybridized only to A. azollae strains isolated from Azolla microphylla or Azolla caroliniana. One DNA probe was section specific (hybridized only to anabaenas isolated from Azolla ferns representing the section Euazolla), and five other probes gave finer discrimination among anabaenas representing various ecotypes of Azolla species. These cloned genomic DNA probes identified 11 different genotypes of A. azollae isolates. These included three endosymbiotic genotypes within Azolla filiculoides species and two genotypes within both A. caroliniana and Azolla pinnata endosymbionts. Although we were not able to discriminate among anabaenas extracted from different ecotypes of Azolla nilotica, Azolla mexicina, Azolla rubra and Azolla microphylla species, each of the endosymbionts was easily identified as a unique genotype. When total DNA isolated from free-living Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 was screened, none of the genomic DNA probes gave detectable positive hybridization. Total DNA of Nostoc cycas PCC7422 hybridized with six of eight genomic DNA fragments. These data imply that the dominant symbiotic organism in association with Azolla spp. is more closely related to Nostoc spp. than to free-living Anabaena spp. Images PMID:16348182

  3. Altered Nitrogenous Pools Induced by the Azolla-Anabaena Azolla Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jack W.; Cavins, James F.

    1976-01-01

    The free amino acid and ammonia pools of Azolla caroliniana were analyzed by quantitative column chromatography on columns capable of separating all of the nitrogenous constituents normally found in physiological fluids. Comparisons were made of plants containing symbiotic algae and grown on nitrogen-free media, plants grown on media containing nitrate, and algae-free plants also grown on nitrate media. The major feature of the data was a very high level of intracellular ammonia found in plants which contain N2-fixing algal symbionts. In addition to the more usual amino acids, serine and cystathionine were found in the free amino acid pool. PMID:16659770

  4. Aspects of nitrogen and carbon interchange in the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.; Kaplan, D.; Meeks, J.C.; Buzby, K.M.; Marsh, B.H.; Corbin, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The free-floating aquatic pteridophytes in the genus Azolla contain an N 2 -fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae, as a symbiont. Six extant species usually are recognized. In each species the symbiotic Anabaena can provide the total N requirement of the association via N 2 fixation and the Azolla sporophytes are capable of prolific vegetative reproduction in the absence of a combined N source. While vegetative reproduction and growth is more common, sexual reproduction occurs and presumably provides a means for survival during unfavorable environmental conditions. Azolla is heterosporous, producing both megasporocarps and microsporocarps on the same plant. Species demarcation is based primarily upon the morphology of these structures. Anabaena filaments are partitioned into both types of sporocarps during their development. The endophyte within the megasporocarp provides an inoculum for the developing sporophyte, maintaining the symbiosis. This report is restricted to studies conducted with the vegetatively propagated Azolla caroliniana - Anabaena azollae symbiosis grown on medium without combined N. It focuses on recent approaches to further elucidate aspects of host-endophyte interaction and incorporates analyses of soluble amino acids and ammonium, assays of ammonia assimilating enzymes, the use of [ 13 N]N 2 and the analysis of soluble sugars as well as 14 CO 2 -pulse chase studies. For orientation purposes the results are preceded by a description of the symbiosis. 39 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  5. Identification of a common cyanobacterial symbiont associated with Azolla spp. through molecular and morphological characterization of free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, J S; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A

    1991-01-01

    Symbiotically associated cyanobacteria from Azolla mexicana and Azolla pinnata were isolated and cultured in a free-living state. Morphological analyses revealed differences between the free-living isolates and their symbiotic counterparts, as did restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses with both single-copy glnA and rbcS gene probes and a multicopy psbA gene probe. RFLP analyses with Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nifD excision element probes, including an xisA gene probe, detected homologous sequences in DNA extracted from the free-living isolates. Sequences homologous to these probes were not detected in DNA from the symbiotically associated cyanobacteria. These analyses indicated that the isolates were not identical to the major cyanobacterial symbiont species residing in leaf cavities of Azolla spp. Nevertheless, striking similarities between several free-living isolates were observed. In every instance, the isolate from A. pinnata displayed banding patterns virtually identical to those of free-living cultures previously isolated from Azolla caroliniana and Azolla filiculoides. These results suggest the ubiquitous presence of a culturable minor cyanobacterial symbiont in at least three species of Azolla. Images PMID:1685078

  6. Nitrogen fixation by the Azolla-Anabaena azollae symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becking, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A concise outline is presented on the main characteristics of the Azolla association in relation to tropical wetland rice cultivation and the nitrogen economy of paddy soils. Due to the presence of a nitrogen fixing cyanobiont occurring in a special leaf cavity of the Azolla leaf, the water fern Azolla can grow in a nitrogen-deficient environment and is able to contribute considerably to the nitrogen status of the soil. An experimental set-up is presented for how the nitrogen-fixing capacity of Azolla plants can be measured in the field by means of the acetylene reduction assay using a rather simple glass vessel. A comparison was made between 15 N 2 fixation by Azolla and acetylene reduction of Azolla plants under identical conditions

  7. Pengaruh Pemberian Tepung Azolla Fermentasi (Azolla microphylla Terhadap Performa Ayam Kampung Persilangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raras

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penggunaan tepung Azolla microphylla fermentasi terhadap performans ayam kampung persilangan. Materi penelitian adalah 80 ekor ayam kampung umur 5 minggu, ayam kampung ini persilangan antara ayam kampung keturunan Bangkok dan Lohman 202 dari peternakan rakyat Temanggung dengan bobot badan 469,80 ± 38 gram (CV = 3,33%. Bahan pakan yang digunakan yaitu jagung, bungkil kedelai, tepung ikan, pollard, bekatul, CaCO3, premix dan tepung azolla fermentasi. Fermentasi azolla menggunakan larutan EM4 dengan perbandingan 3 gram : 10 ml. Perlakuan pakan T0 (ransum basal tanpa tepung azolla fermentasi, T1 (ransum mengandung tepung azolla fermentasi 10%, T2 (ransum mengandung tepung azolla fermentasi 15% dan T3 (ransum mengandung tepung azolla fermentasi 20%. Kandungan protein pakan 17% dan energi metabolis 2800 kkal/kg. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah konsumsi ransum, pertambahan bobot badan dan konversi ransum. Data dianalisis dengan analisis ragam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan penggunaan tepung azolla terfermentasi berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap konsumsi pakan dan pertambahan bobot badan, sedangkan hasil penelitian perlakuan penggunaan azolla terfermentasi tidak berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap konversi pakan. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah pemberian tepung azolla terfermentasi dapat meningkatkan konsumsi pakan dan pertambahan bobot badan pada perlakuan T2, sedangkan untuk konversi pakan pada perlakuan penggunaan tepung azolla terfermentasi menurun.

  8. [The genetic diversity and homology of Anabaena azollae and its host plant (Azolla) based on rapd analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zheng, Wei-wen; Xu, Guo-zhong; Song, Tie-ying; Tang, Long-fei

    2002-01-01

    Symbiotic Anabeana azollae and its host plant Anabeana-free Azolla were isolated from 16 Azolla accessions representing different Azolla species or geographic origins.DNA polymorphic fragments were obtained by simultaneous RAPD amplification of both symbiont and host. The UPGMA clusters of Anabeana azollae and its host Azolla were established separately based on Dice coefficient caculation and a coordinated relationship was shown between Anabeana azollae and its Azolla host along both individual genetic divergence,but this genetic homology was reduced among different strains within Azolla species while the obvious mutants of Anabeana azollae were detected in some Azolla tested strains collected from different geographic area in the same host species.

  9. Biosolubilization of uranyl ions in uranium ores by hydrophyte plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Alexandru; Calmoi, Rodica; Melniciuc-Puica, Nicoleta

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigated the bioleaching of uranyl ions from uranium ores, in aqueous medium by hydrophyte plants: Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and Elodea canadensis under different experimental conditions. The oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI) species was done by the atomic oxygen generated in the photosynthesis process by the aquatic plants in the solution above uranium ores. Under identical experimental conditions, the capacity of bioleaching of uranium ores decreases according to the following series: Lemna minor > Elodea canadensis > Azolla caroliniana. The results of IR spectra suggest the possible use of Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis as a biological decontaminant of uranium containing wastewaters. (author)

  10. An ecophysiological study of the Azolla filiculoides- Anabaena azollae association

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique; Smolders, Fons; Speelman, Eveline; Reichart, Gert Jan; Barke, Judith; Brinkhuis, Henk; Lotter, Andy; Roelofs, Jan

    2010-05-01

    The long term effects of salinity stress on the growth, nutrient content and amino acid composition of the Azolla filiculoides - Anabaena azollae association was studied in a laboratory experiment. It was demonstrated that the symbiosis could tolerate salt stress up to 90 mM NaCl, even after a 100 day period of preconditioning at salt concentrations that were 30 mM NaCl lower. In the 120 mM NaCl treatment the Azolla filiculoides survived, but hardly any new biomass was produced. It was shown that during the experiment, A. filiculoides became increasingly efficient in excluding salt ions from the plant tissue and was thus able to increase its salt tolerance. The amino acid analysis revealed that the naturally occurring high glutamine concentration in the plants was strongly reduced at salt concentrations of 120 mM NaCl and higher. This was the result of the reduced nitrogenase activity at these salt concentrations, as was demonstrated in an acetylene reduction assay. We suggest that the high glutamine concentration in the plants might play a role in the osmoregulatory response against salt stress, enabling growth of the A. filiculoides -Anabaena azollae association up to 90 mM NaCl. In a mesocosm experiment it furthermore was demonstrated that Azolla might manipulate its own microenvironment when grown at elevated salt concentration (up to ~50 mmol•L-1) by promoting salinity stratification, especially when it has formed a dense cover at the water surface. Beside salt stress, we also studied the growth of Azolla filiculoides in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, in combination with different light intensities and different pH of the nutrient solution. The results demonstrated that as compared to the control (ambient pCO2 concentrations), Azolla filiculoides was able to produce twice as much biomass at carbon dioxide concentrations that were five times as high as the ambient pCO2 concentration. However, it was also shown that this

  11. Molecular identification of Azolla invasions in Africa: The Azolla specialist, Stenopelmus rufinasus proves to be an excellent taxonomist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa with the Azolla specialist Stenopelmus rufinasus has been highly successful. However, field surveys showed that the agent utilized another Azolla species, thought to be the native Azolla pinnata subsp. africana, which contradicted host specif...

  12. Modulation of cadmium-induced phytotoxicity in Cabomba caroliniana by urea involves photosynthetic metabolism and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenmin; Shao, Hui; Zhou, Sining; Zhou, Qin; Li, Wei; Xing, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Urea is a widespread organic pollutant, which can be a nitrogen source, playing different roles in the growth of submerged macrophytes depending on concentrations, while high cadmium (Cd) concentrations are often toxic to macrophytes. In order to evaluate the combined effect of urea and Cd on a submerged macrophyte, Cabomba caroliniana, the morphological and physiological responses of C. caroliniana in the presence of urea and Cd were studied. The results showed that high concentrations of urea (400mgL -1 ) and Cd (500µmolL -1 ) had negative effects on C. caroliniana. There were strong visible symptoms of toxicity after 4 days of exposure under Cd-alone, 400mgL -1 urea, and Cd+400mgL -1 urea treatments. In addition, 400mgL -1 urea and Cd had adverse effects on C. caroliniana's pigment system. Significant losses in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic rates, as well as Rubisco activity were also observed under Cd-alone, 400mgL -1 urea, and Cd+400mgL -1 urea treatments. 400mgL -1 urea markedly enhanced Cd toxicity in C. caroliniana, reflected by a sharp decrease in photosynthetic activity and more visible toxicity symptoms. The results of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) pointed to extreme oxidative stress in C. caroliniana induced under Cd or 400mgL -1 urea exposure. Exogenous ascorbate (AsA) protected C. caroliniana from adverse damage in 400mgL -1 urea, which further corroborated the oxidative stress claim under 400mgL -1 urea. However, results also demonstrated that lower urea concentration (10mgL -1 ) alleviated Cd-induced phytotoxicity by stimulating chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthetic activity, as well as activating the activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), which may explain the alleviating effect of urea on C. caroliniana under Cd stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DIVERSITY AND HOST SPECIFICITY OF AZOLLA CYANOBIONTS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Van Hove, Charles; Lejeune, André; Rasmussen, Ulla; Wilmotte, Annick

    2008-02-01

    A unique, hereditary symbiosis exists between the water fern Azolla and cyanobacteria that reside within a cavity in the dorsal leaf-lobe of the plant. This association has been studied extensively, and questions have frequently been raised regarding the number and diversity of cyanobionts (cyanobacterial symbionts) among the different Azolla strains and species. In this work, denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and a clone library based on the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the genetic diversity and host specificity of the cyanobionts in 35 Azolla strains covering a wide taxonomic and geographic range. DNA was extracted directly from the cyanobacterial packets, isolated after enzymatic digestion of the Azolla leaves. Our results indicated the existence of different cyanobiont strains among Azolla species, and diversity within a single Azolla species, independent of the geographic origin of the host. Furthermore, the cyanobiont exhibited host-species specificity and showed most divergence between the two sections of genus Azolla, Azolla and Rhizosperma. These findings are in agreement with the recent redefinition of the taxon Azolla cristata within the section Azolla. With regard to the taxonomic status of the cyanobiont, the genus Anabaena of the Nostocaceae family was identified as the closest relative by this work. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Hydrogen uptake by Azolla-Anabaena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Silva, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogen uptake in the Azolla-Anabaena system is studied. Tritium is used as tracer. Plants are incubated under different atmosphere composition: a) Air + 3 H 2 ; b) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO; c) Air + 3 H 2 + CO; d) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO to study the pathway of absorbed hydrogen in the Azolla - Anabaena system. Azolla-Anabaena showed greater hydrogen uptake under argonium atmosphere than under air. Carbon monoxide decreased hydrogen uptake. There are evidences of recycling of the hydrogen evolved through notrogenease. (Author) [pt

  15. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Külahoglu, Canan; Tazelaar, Anne O E; Kurz, Samantha; Nierop, Klaas G J; van der Werf, Adrie; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37 649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26 d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7 months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy. No claim to original European Union works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Research on some functions of Azolla in CELSS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Min, Chen; Xia-shi, Liu; Chungchu, Liu

    This article detailed the possibility of using Azolla in CELSS system, the characters of Azolla; the experiments on using Azolla as O 2-releasing plant to provide O 2 for human in airtight chamber; using Azolla as an important biological part for urine solution purification was also introduced.

  17. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Brautigam, A.; Kulahoglu, C.; Tazelaar, A.O.E.; Kurz, S.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Werf, van der A.K.; Weber, A.P.M.; Schluepmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome.

  18. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, A.; Külahoglu, C.; Tazelaar, A.O.E.; Kurz, S.; Nierop, K.G.J.; van der Werf, A.; Weber, A.P.M.; Schlupmann, Henriette

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome.

  19. Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the Danish Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Beyer, Claus; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Spores (massulae and megaspores) of the freshwater fern Azolla are recorded in several Danish Eocene outcrops and boreholes. The Azolla-bearing interval is 0.5 - ca. 3 m thick and occurs within the L2 Bed, a unit in the lower part of the hemipelagic, bathyal Lillebælt Clay Formation deposited in the central and eastern parts of the North Sea Basin. Intervals of organic-rich clay, usually including two distinctive, black sapropels, are present in the lower part of Bed L2, indicating a generally reduced oxygen content in the bottom waters during this time, with at least two episodes of severe, basinwide stagnation. The oxygen-deficit points to reduced circulation and/or enhanced marine productivity in the North Sea Basin. Azolla occurs in the upper part of this mainly organic-rich interval. The frequency of Azolla spores relative to marine dinoflagellate cysts fluctuates within the interval. The Azolla interval has previously been correlated to levels near the Ypresian/Lutetian transition in Belgium, based on dinoflagellate stratigraphy. Calibration of a new magnetostratigraphic study of the lower Lillebælt Clay with the dinoflagellate biostratigraphy suggests that Bed L2 spans the upper part of Chron 22r, C22n and lower part of C21r. The Azolla pulse spans the upper part of C22n and lowermost part of C21r. The combined bio-magnetostratigraphy from Denmark allows a detailed comparison with published data from the northern part of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (ODP Hole 913B). The correlation confirms earlier assumptions, which were based on biostratigraphy alone, that the marine Azolla pulse in the two areas, and therefore probably over the whole Norwegian-Greenland Sea - North Sea region, is of the same age. An ongoing palynological study of the L2 Bed has so far revealed no indication for freshwater episodes or brackish waters in the basin during the Azolla pulse, except perhaps for Azolla itself. It is, therefore, suggested that the Azolla spores were transported

  20. Use of azolla as a nitrogen source of lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Widjang, H.S.; Havid, S.; Hendratno; Soleh, S.; Goesworo, S.

    1991-01-01

    A four years experiment has been carried out to study possibility of using azolla as a nitrogen source for lowland rice. The work done in the first year, experiments were conducted in the wet season (WS) and the dry season (DS) of 1984/1985, was evaluate weather azolla could really increase rice yield. In the second year, experiments done in the WS and DS of 1985/1986, N-derived from azolla (N-dfA) and N-derived from urea (N-dfU) in rice plan were determined. The third year work done in the WS and DS of 1986/1987 was conducted to see what extend azolla could be applied in the terms of kg N/ha as a N-source for rice. While the last year was devoted to study the N-balance of azolla and urea, which was done in the DS of 1988/1989. Results of the experiments show that azolla has the same ability as urea to increase rice azolla interacted with urea. By increasing the azolla level N recovery in rice will decrease. The same phenomena was also found with urea. Another interesting fact is that an azolla cover in the rice field could promote N-uptake from urea. (author). 8 refs, 15 tabs

  1. ANALISIS BEBERAPA UNSUR KIMIA KOMPOS Azolla mycrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Utami Lestari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The most consumed part of the plants is the leaf part so that the fertilizer provided should contain high nitrogen (N. The nature of the N fertilizer is volatile and when the rainy season there can be washing.  When plants deficienci nutrients shows symtoms of yellowing leaves so that the application of N fertilizer to the plant must remain unfulfilled.  Azolla is a usable alternative.  Azolla has a high N nutrient content because it is symbiotic with anabaena in binding to free nitrogen in the air.            The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition (pH,N,P,K Azolla mycrophylla.  The experiment was conducted experimentally with the first stage of composting azolla after it was done chemical analysis in the laboratory.  The result of this research can be concluded that chemical analysis of Azolla mycrophylla cpmpost is as follows :pH 7,17, N 2,57%, P 0,34%, K 0,03%. 

  2. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwingira, V S; Mayala, B K; Senkoro, K P; Rumisha, S F; Shayo, E H; Mlozi, M R S; Mboera, L E G

    2009-01-01

    Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess mosquito larval productivity in irrigated rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania. A systematic larval sampling covering all open water bodies along designed transect was carried in rice-fields. Larval density was estimated by dipping water bodies with or without Azolla. The degree of Azolla coverage was categorized as 0%, 80%. Larvae densities were categorised as low ( or = 500/m2) productivity. A total of 120 water bodies were surveyed and 105 (87.5%) had Azolla microphyla and A. pinnata at varying degrees of coverage. Of the total 105 water bodies with Azolla, 80 (76.2%) had a green Azolla mat, and 25 (23.8%) a brown Azolla mat. Eighty-eight (73.3%) of the sites were infested with anophelines and 109 (90.8%) with culicine larvae. Seventy percent of all water bodies contained anophelines and culicines in sympatric breeding, while 20.8% and 3.3% had only culicines and anophelines, respectively. The majority (82%) of mosquito breeding sites were found in area with Azolla substrate. Mosquito larva productivity was low in sites with highest (>80%) Azolla coverage. Seventy-two (81.8%) of the anopheline and 90 (82.6%) culicine breeding sites were infested with Azolla. Water bodies infested with green Azolla were more productive than those covered by brown coloured Azolla substrates for both culicines (13%) and anophelines (8%). Of the 1537 field collected larvae that hatched to adult stage, 646 (42.03%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 42 (2.73%) were An. funestus and 769 (50.03%) were Culex quinquefasciatus. These findings suggest that the mosquito productivity is low when the Azolla coverage is high

  3. Pengaruh pemberian Azolla (Azolla microphyla, Kaulfuss dan mikroorganisme efektif terhadap produksi rumput raja (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumacher & Thonn c.v King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Yuniati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at determining the influence of azolla compost and effective microorganism (EM application on the production of King Grass at the 1st and the 2nd cuttings at Sumbersekar field laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry Brawijaya University for four months. The Randomized Block Factorial design was applied with two factors. The first factor was EM4 consists of E1 (EM4 addition and E0 (without EM4. The second factor was the dosage of fertilizer consists of A100 (100% azolla + 0% urea, A75 (75% azolla + 25% urea, A50 (50% azolla + 50% urea, A25 (25% azolla + 75% urea and A0 (0% azolla + 100% urea. The parameters observed comprised the number of tillers, plant height, dry matter (DM leaf production, organic matter (OM content, crude protein (CP content. The study indicates that there were interaction (P<0.05 between EM4 and fertilizer (azolla dosage on plant height, total OM, total CP, DM leaf production, DM stem production, total DM production, and total CP production at the first cutting. Then, at the second cutting there were interaction (P<0.05 among treatments on the number of tillers, total OM, total CP, DM leaf pro-duction, total DM production, and total CP. At the first cutting, the highest values of plant height, leaf OM, stem OM, leaf CP, stem CP, OM production were 86.39%, 92.40%, 7.85%, and 3.89% respectively found at ElA25. Furthermore, at the second cutting the best treatment were ElA25 in which the value of leaf CP content and total DM content were 8.08% and 4.64 kg/plot respectively. The leaf DM production and stem OM content at the first cutting were higher than those at the second cutting. It can be concluded that azolla can substitute the role of urea by 25%.

  4. Azolla--a model organism for plant genomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yin-Long; Yu, Jun

    2003-02-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation. Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture, its unique position in plant evolution, its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae, and its moderate-sized genome. The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes. Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing, the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  5. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country.

  6. PENGARUH DOSIS P DALAM FOSFAT ALAM PADA PENINGKATAN BIOMASA Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss

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    Mahmudah Hamawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Azolla microphylla is one of the green resources fertilizer, adding natural P respectively will increase the biomass including. The on time embedding of azolla are able to provide nutrition to the plants such as rice especially N. The experiment was conducted in Desember 2nd , 2006 - April 5th , 2007 in Tegalgondo, Karangploso, Malang, East Java ( 550 m up sea level. The experiment applied Randomized Block Design (RBD under two factors, dose and embedding time with three replications. The doses were applied are P0 = 0 kg ha-1; P1 = 25 kg P ha-1; P2 = 50 kg P ha-1; and P3 = 75 kg P ha-1 . The embedding times were a day before planting, 50 % azolla in 14, 28 and 24 days after planting, 50 % azolla in 21 and 49 days after planting, and 50 % azolla in 35 day after planting. The parameters of observation were wet weigh of azolla; N, P , K contents before and after treatments and azolla decompositions. The result showed 75 kg P ha-1 with interaction of azolla embedding, was the most effective dose to increased azolla biomass.

  7. Response of yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Tarom Hashemi in rice, duck and Azolla (Azolla sp. farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gharavi Baigi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Tarom Hashemi in integrated rice, duck and Azolla, an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources during 2012. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The number of ducks as main plots at four levels (0, 400, 800 and 1200 ducks.ha-1 and Nitrogen source as sub plots at four levels (without Azolla and nitrogen, Azolla, Azolla+nitrogen and nitrogen were the treatments. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences for the number of ducks, Azolla+nitrogen and their interaction effects of plant height, number of tillers.plant-1, number of panicle.plant-1, number of grains.panicle-1, panicle weight, panicle dry weight and grain yield. The results revealed that the highest values of plant height (133 cm, number of tillers (38 tillers.plant-1, number of panicle (24 numbers.plant-1, number of grains (171 numbers.panicle-1, panicle weight (23 g, panicle dry weight (13 g and grain yield (4 t.ha-1 were recorded in 1200 duck pieces per hectare while treated with Azolla (500 g.m-2 and nitrogen (50 kg.ha-1. In conclusion, results of the current experiment showed that increasing of duck number from 400 to 1200 pieces.ha-1 along with Azolla and nitrogen could enhance the yield and yield components of rice (Tarom Hashemi cultivar.

  8. Lead accumulation in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren Benaroya, Rony; Tzin, Vered; Tel-Or, Elisha; Zamski, Eli

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we characterized lead (Pb2+) accumulation and storage by the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides. Lead precipitates were detected in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells of Azolla plants cultured for 6 d in rich growth medium containing 20 mg l(-1) Pb2+. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the relative element content of leaves collected from these plants revealed a 100% increase in the levels of P, S, Na and Ca and a 40% decrease in Mg and Cl compared to the untreated plants. Both Azolla whole plants and isolated apoplasts were incubated for 6 d in 20 mg l(-1) Pb2+. Lead content in the whole plant composed 0.37%, 2.3% and 1.8% of the dry weight after 2, 4 and 6 d of growth, respectively, while the isolated Azolla apoplast contained 0.125%, 1.22% and 1.4% Pb2+, respectively. Lead content in Azolla whole plant increase by 200%, 100% and 22% after 2, 4 and 6 d of growth, respectively, when compared to Azolla apoplast. Dark, electron dense deposits of lead were observed in light and transmission electron microscope in leaf cells treated with lead. All the observed lead deposits were localized in vacuoles while larger lead deposits were found in mature leaves than in young leaves. No lead deposits were found in cells of the cyanobiont Anabaena when the plants were exposed to similar conditions. Activity and content of V-H+-ATPase were studied in Azolla plants grown in the presence of 20, 40 and 80 mg l(-1) of lead for a period of 4 d. Activity of V-H+-ATPase was increased by 190%, 210% and 220%, respectively, but the content of V-H+-ATPase was reduced by all lead concentrations. Copyright 2004 Elsevier SAS

  9. Na(+) regulation by combined nitrogen in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae symbiotic association during salt toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya S; Singh, Santosh K; Mishra, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    To study the regulation of Na(+) ion by combined-N sources in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae, Na(+) influx, intracellular Na(+) and Na(+) efflux were investigated in the presence of different N-sources (N(2), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and urea) and various NaCl concentrations. Sodium influx by Azolla pinnata fronds was minimum in the presence of NO(3)(-). Almost identical levels of intracellular sodium, although less than N(2) and NH(4)(+) incubated fronds were observed in the presence of NO(3)(-) and urea. Efflux of sodium was minimum in urea and NO(3)(-) grown fronds. A low residual sodium was observed in the fronds incubated in NO(3)(-) and urea supplemented media. Results suggest that nitrate and urea curtailed the entry of sodium, reduced salt toxicity maximally by maintaining the minimum level of sodium and also conserved energy due to slow influx and efflux of Na(+) within the fronds during salt shock and the process of adaptation.

  10. Response of nitrogen-fixing water fern Azolla biofertilization to rice crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, K; Singh, Pawan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The water fern Azolla harbors nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae as symbiont in its dorsal leaves and is known as potent N 2 fixer. Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of fresh Azolla when used as basal incorporation in soil and as dual cropped with rice variety Mahsoori separately and together with and without chemical nitrogen fertilizer in pots kept under net house conditions. Results showed that use of Azolla as basal or dual or basal plus dual influenced the rice crop positively where use of fern as basal plus dual was superior and served the nitrogen requirement of rice. There was marked increase in plant height, number of effective tillers, dry mass and nitrogen content of rice plants with the use of Azolla and N-fertilizers alone and other combinations. The use of Azolla also increased organic matter and potassium contents of the soil.

  11. The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E N; Van Kempen, M M L; Barke, J; Brinkhuis, H; Reichart, G J; Smolders, A J P; Roelofs, J G M; Sangiorgi, F; de Leeuw, J W; Lotter, A F; Sinninghe Damsté, J S

    2009-03-01

    Enormous quantities of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene, as was demonstrated by microscopic analysis of microlaminated sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302. The timing of the Azolla phase (approximately 48.5 Ma) coincides with the earliest signs of onset of the transition from a greenhouse towards the modern icehouse Earth. The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic oceanic basin may have contributed to decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels via burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. The consequences of these enormous Azolla blooms for regional and global nutrient and carbon cycles are still largely unknown. Cultivation experiments have been set up to investigate the influence of elevated pCO2 on Azolla growth, showing a marked increase in Azolla productivity under elevated (760 and 1910 ppm) pCO2 conditions. The combined results of organic carbon, sulphur, nitrogen content and 15N and 13C measurements of sediments from the Azolla interval illustrate the potential contribution of nitrogen fixation in a euxinic stratified Eocene Arctic. Flux calculations were used to quantitatively reconstruct the potential storage of carbon (0.9-3.5 10(18) gC) in the Arctic during the Azolla interval. It is estimated that storing 0.9 10(18) to 3.5 10(18) g carbon would result in a 55 to 470 ppm drawdown of pCO2 under Eocene conditions, indicating that the Arctic Azolla blooms may have had a significant effect on global atmospheric pCO2 levels through enhanced burial of organic matter.

  12. Aquatic plant Azolla as the universal feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana F; Biswas, Bijoy; Ramkumar, Narasimhan; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; James, Anton; Roddick, Felicity; Lal, Banwari; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Bhaskar, Thallada; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2016-01-01

    The quest for sustainable production of renewable and cheap biofuels has triggered an intensive search for domestication of the next generation of bioenergy crops. Aquatic plants which can rapidly colonize wetlands are attracting attention because of their ability to grow in wastewaters and produce large amounts of biomass. Representatives of Azolla species are some of the fastest growing plants, producing substantial biomass when growing in contaminated water and natural ecosystems. Together with their evolutional symbiont, the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, Azolla biomass has a unique chemical composition accumulating in each leaf including three major types of bioenergy molecules: cellulose/hemicellulose, starch and lipids, resembling combinations of terrestrial bioenergy crops and microalgae. The growth of Azolla filiculoides in synthetic wastewater led up to 25, 69, 24 and 40 % reduction of NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P and selenium, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. This led to a 2.6-fold reduction in toxicity of the treated wastewater to shrimps, common inhabitants of wetlands. Two Azolla species, Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata, were used as feedstock for the production of a range of functional hydrocarbons through hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-hydrogen and bio-ethanol. Given the high annual productivity of Azolla, hydrothermal liquefaction can lead to the theoretical production of 20.2 t/ha-year of bio-oil and 48 t/ha-year of bio-char. The ethanol production from Azolla filiculoides, 11.7 × 10 3  L/ha-year, is close to that from corn stover (13.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year), but higher than from miscanthus (2.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and woody plants, such as willow (0.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and poplar (1.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year). With a high C/N ratio, fermentation of Azolla biomass generates 2.2 mol/mol glucose/xylose of hydrogen, making this species a competitive feedstock for hydrogen production compared with other bioenergy crops

  13. Orbitally-forced Azolla blooms and middle Eocene Arctic hydrology; clues from palynology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barke, Judith; Abels, Hemmo A.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Greenwood, David R.; Sweet, Arthur R.; Donders, Timme; Lotter, Andre F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2010-05-01

    The presence of high abundances of the freshwater fern Azolla in the early Middle Eocene central Arctic Ocean sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during IODP Expedition 302, have been related to the presence of a substantial freshwater cap. Azolla massulae, belonging to the newly described Eocene species Azolla arctica Collinson et al., have been found over at least a ~4 m-thick interval. There are strong indications that Azolla has bloomed and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean for several hundreds of thousands of years. Possible causes for the sudden demise of Azolla at ~48.1 Ma include salinity changes due to evolving oceanic connections or sea-level change. Distinct cyclic fluctuation in the Azolla massulae abundances have previously been related to orbitally forced climate changes. In this study, we evaluate the possible underlying forcing mechanisms for these freshwater cycles and for the eventual demise of Azolla in an integrated palynological and cyclostratigraphical approach. Our results show two clear periodicities of ~1.3 and ~0.7 m in all major aquatic and terrestrial palynomorph associations, which we can relate to obliquity (41 ka) and precession (~21 ka), respectively. Cycles in the abundances of Azolla, freshwater-tolerant dinoflagellate cysts, and swamp vegetation pollen show co-variability in the obliquity domain. Their strong correlation suggests periods of enhanced rainfall and runoff during Azolla blooms, possibly associated with increased summer season length and insolation during obliquity maxima. Cycles in the angiosperm pollen record are in anti-phase with the Azolla cycles. We interpret this pattern as edaphically drier conditions on land and reduced associated runoff during Azolla lows, possibly corresponding to obliquity minima. The precession signal is distinctly weaker than that for obliquity, and is mainly detectable in the cold-temperate Larix and bisaccate conifer pollen abundances, which is interpreted as a response to

  14. Determination of The Adaptation of Some Azolla (Azolla anabaena L) Genotypes to The Mediterranean and Aegean Coastline Ecological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    GEVREK, Mithat Nuri

    2015-01-01

    u çalışmada bazı azolla (Azolla anabaena L.) genotiplerinin Akdeniz-Ege kıyı kuşağına adaptasyonunun belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma 20022003 ve 2003-2004 yıllarında Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi’nin Menemen

  15. Studies on Using Azolla for O2-Supplementation and Its Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Liu, X.-S.; Chen, M.; Bian, Z.-L.

    Establishment of Controlling Ecological Life Safety System (CELSS) is a key technical part in the study on manned station. In order to meet the requirement of long-term out-earth man-carrying flight, it is necessary to build plant-based O2-supplying CELSS. It also possesses the possibility to contribute the realization of mankind dream to live in out-earth planets. Using the physiological reaction of organisms, this system settled the problem in food supply, O2 and water recycle, the regeneration and utilization of CO2 and life residues, thus guarantee the spacemen the health, safety and efficient work when they are far from earth and arrived the space where human is difficult to life in. Azolla as a plant that possesses high growing speed, short growing cycle, high photosynthesis and O2-releasing capacity, and can be artificially grow in multi-layer facilities, it is hopeful to be an important biological part in CELSS for it's the function in O2 production and to be a part of fresh vegetable as well as CO2 absorption. This paper described the study in Azolla as a plant for supplementary O2 supply in future space station flight. The "Azolla-dog" controlling tight system was firstly established in order to determine the regulation of O2-CO2 variation and balance using different weights of dogs with different Azolla growing areas. The further studies included the development of air-tight cabinets where "Azolla-human" airtight experiments were conducted, and the relationship between Azolla-growing area and O2 requirement by human was analyzed. Based on these works, the further experiment on supplementary O2-supply of Azolla-human system was conducted in demonstration cabin for environmental controlling and life security. The O2-supplying amount of Azolla was further gained, and it will provide the experimental basis to probe optimum condition to grow Azolla in space and human-machine combining experiment, also to lay a basis for Azolla as a biological part to enter

  16. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation.

  17. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits.

  18. Climatic conditions governing extensive Azolla bloom during the Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Rolande; Speelman, Eveline N.; Barke, Judith; Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Sinninge Damste, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous amounts of intact mega- and microspores from the free floating aquatic fern Azolla were found in sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expedition 302, indicating that Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. In general, the Early/Middle Eocene is characterized by enhanced greenhouse conditions with elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Arctic (~10°C), while tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were only a little warmer than today (with a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 32-34 °C) (Pearson et al., 2007). The consequently reduced temperature gradient between the equator and the poles and the presence of freshwater at the North Pole as indicated by the presence of the freshwater fern Azolla (Brinkhuis et al., 2006) provide important boundary conditions for understanding the hydrological cycle and latent heat transport during this interval. Here we reconstruct variations in SST and mean annual air temperature using the TEX86 and MBT temperature proxies for the Azolla interval. Sediments from around the Arctic Basin have been analyzed, including samples from Alaska, the Mackenzie Basin, Greenland (IODP core 913b), and Denmark. Furthermore, a high resolution sea surface temperature record for the Azolla interval has been constructed from sediment samples from the Lomonosov Ridge, showing a cyclic signal. Model experiments have shown that the here confirmed low equator-to-pole temperature gradient modulated the hydrological cycle. Since the growth of Azolla is restricted to low salinity conditions, changes in the hydrological cycle are proposed to coincide with the cyclic occurrence of Azolla throughout the interval. To confirm the overlapping presence of high quantities of Azolla and increased precipitation, changes in the hydrogen cycle are reconstructed by creating a high resolution hydrogen isotope record throughout the interval. By performing compound specific analyses (δD) on terrestrial derived

  19. CHANGES IN SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC PADDY FIELD WITH AZOLLA APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Syamsiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizer is a way to improve soil fertility. Azolla can be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to determine the effect of Azolla (Azolla mycrophylla. L on some soil chemical properties on organic paddy field. The field experiments used factorial complete randomized block design of three factors, namely Azolla (0 and 2 tons/ha, Manure (0 and 10 tons/ha and Rice Varieties (Mira1, Mentik Wangi and Merah Putih, with three times replication. Using Azolla on an organic paddy field does not significantly increase the levels of soil N, organic C, Cation Exchange Capacity and soil pH. However Azolla’s influence on soil available P is significant.

  20. Potential of macrophytes for removing atrazine from aqueous solution Potencial de macrófitas para remoção de atrazine de solução aquosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three macrophytes, Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia minima, and Lemna gibba was assessed in this study to select plants for use in environmental remediation contaminated with atrazine. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse over six days in pots containing Hoagland 0.25 strength nutritive solution at the following atrazine concentrations: 0; 0.01; 0.1; 1.0; 10.0 mg L-1. Decrease in biomass accumulation was observed in the three macrophytes, as well as toxic effects evidenced by the symptomatology developed by the plants which caused their deaths. The chlorosis and necrosis allowed to observe in the plants the high sensitivity of the three species to the herbicide. Plants presented low potential for removal of atrazine in solution when exposed to low concentrations of the herbicide. However, at the 10.0 mg L-1 atrazine concentration, L. gibba and A. caroliniana showed potential to remove the herbicide from the solution (0.016 and 0.018 mg atrazine per fresh mass gram, respectively. This fact likely resulted from the processes of atrazine adsorption by the dead material. The percentage of atrazine removed from the solution by the plants decreased when the plants were exposed to high concentrations of the pollutant. Azolla caroliniana, S. minima, and L. gibba were not effective in removing the herbicide from solution. The use of these species to remedy aquatic environments was shown to be limited.Avaliou-se, neste estudo, o potencial de três macrófitas - Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia minima e Lemna gibba - com vistas à seleção de plantas para remediação de ambientes contaminados por atrazine. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação durante seis dias, em vasos contendo solução nutritiva Hoagland (0,25 de força iônica, nas seguintes concentrações de atrazine: 0; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0; e 10,0 mg L-1. A redução da biomassa acumulada pelas macrófitas foi observada, bem como os efeitos de toxidez evidenciados pela

  1. Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without N fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Sisworo, W.H.; Hendratno; Rasyid, H.; Solahuddin, S.; Partohardjono, S.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without fertilizer. An experiment to investigate the influence of azolla on growth of rice treated with and without N fertilizer has been carried out in the rainy season 1984/1985 at the Muara Experimental Station, Bogota. Rice variety used in this experiment was Atomita I. Eight treatments employed in this experiment were treatments without azolla and N fertilizer, with azolla alone, with N fertilizer alone, and a combination of azolla and N fertilizer used was urea labelled with 5% 15 N atom excess. Parameters observed were: dry weight, total-N and N-derived from fertilizer in rough grain, straw and plant. Data from this experiment indicated that azolla was able to produce similar yield of rough grain, straw and plant with those produced by N fertilizer applied at a rate of 90 kg N/ha. These data were much higher compared to N fertilizer applied at a rate of 30 and 60 kg N/ha. The same trend was found in yield of N. It turned out that apparently azolla is effective to increase rice production. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs

  2. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive.

  3. Phytochemical characterization of the threatened specie Fraxinus caroliniana Mill subsp. cubensis (Griseb. Borhidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabelkis Terry Rosabal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinus caroliniana Mill subsp. cubensis (Griseb. Borhidi is commonly known as buffalo, represents an endemic subspecies and categorized as critical danger of extinction in Cuba. This work aimed to characterize the phytochemical composition of plants of F. caroliniana in two localities of the Matanzas province. The presence of secondary metabolites in leaf extracts was qualitatively analyzed and reductive and total sugars were quantified. The results indicated the presence of flavonoids, terpenes, steroids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones in leaves that could be considered for further systematic studies and application in agriculture. The plants from the Ciénaga de Zapata showed contents of reducing sugars and totals higher than those obtained in the plants of Martí. These results provide information for the identification of characters of possible taxonomic and conservation value in this species.   Keywords: anthraquinons, extracts, swamp ash, steroids, tannins, terpens

  4. Fertilizer effect Azolla - Anabaena in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldás-Jarrín Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of natural resources in agricultural activities, has motivated the search for new alternatives to enrich the soil with macro and micro nutrients sustainably, for the benefit of future generations, just as you think about the conservation and maintenance of water, avoiding eutrophication problems by the accumulation of fertilizers (nitrates and nitrites leached and deposited in natural sources, for this purpose they have been measured several agro ecological options that provide proper nutrition and a delicate ecological balance; in this investigation at field level in maize cultivation and different states it applied dose of azolla as a natural source of nitrogen to enrich the soil in the canton Cevallos, Tungurahua province. Anabaena floors of the town, based on the state of azolla and the level established for such preparation, the states of azolla. Six mixtures were prepared substrates azolla studied were: Dry A1 and A2 in the fresh state; the doses were established in relation to the volume of azolla against soil volume used: (0.5: 1 (0.75: 1 and (1: 1. The data collected were plant height and percentage of nitrogen in dry matter at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. All this in order to establish the amount of nitrogen contributed by azolla as biofertilizer in growing corn. The best results were presented at the A1D3 (azolla dry-Dose 1: 1 treatment given plant height 15.02 cm at 15 days, 35.88 cm 30 days, 53.22 cm 60 66.12 days and 90 days; to 0.54% nitrogen percentage at 15 days, 0.90% at 30 days, 1.68% at 60 days and 2.08% after 90 days. In conclusion, the use of Azolla as a bio-fertilizer rich in nitrogen is feasible, as has been demonstrated in this research that the corn plant benefits from the contribution of this material, improving sustainable agricultural practices. It is recommended to expand this research in the same crop or other commercially important crops until the end of its production cycle, to report the results of

  5. Population Dynamics of Biota on the Roots of Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITA ETIKAWATI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla was a special fern that their associations with Anabaena azollae able to fix free nitrogen from air, to produce protein. Although by the ages, biota diversity those habits on the roots of Azolla increased and effected to protein concentration. The research was to find out population dynamics of biota on the roots of Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss and the growth peak. This study used Completely Randomized Design with 10 kinds of biota, i.e. bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes, Protozoa, Alga, Crustacean, Rotifers, Coelenterate, Insect and Molluscs, and it was used 3 replications. Research was conducted within 4 weeks and the populations of biota were observed every week. Data were statistically analyzed using Analysis Variant and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The population dynamics of biota on the roots of Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss were influenced on its quantity and composition, and the growth peak is done in 2nd week.

  6. Azolla-Anabaena Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Thomas B.; Mayne, Berger C.; Toia, Robert E.; Peters, Gerald A.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthesis in the Azolla-Anabaena association was characterized with respect to photorespiration, early products of photosynthesis, and action spectra. Photorespiration as evidenced by an O2 inhibition of photosynthesis and an O2-dependent CO2 compensation concentration was found to occur in the association, and endophyte-free fronds, but not in the endophytic Anabaena. Analysis of the early products of photosynthesis indicated that both the fern and cyanobacterium fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle. The isolated endophytic Anabaena did not release significant amounts of amino acids synthesized from recently fixed carbon. The action spectra for photosynthesis in the Azolla-Anabaena association indicated that the maximum quantum yield is between 650 and 670 nanometers, while in the endophyte the maximum is between 580 and 640 nanometers. Although the endophytic cyanobacterium is photosynthetically competent, any contribution it makes to photosynthesis in the intact association was not apparent in the action spectrum. PMID:16661055

  7. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three studies on pig-duck-fish-azolla integration were conducted simultaneously in La Union, Philippines. Growth performance of pigs and ducks as affected by different levels of azolla meal in their feed, and that of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under varying stocking rates are presented and discussed.

  8. Azolla filiculoides Nitrogenase Activity Decrease Induced by Inoculation with Chlamydomonas sp. †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Mitiku

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of Chlamydomonas sp. on nitrogen fixation (C2H2 → C2H4) in Azolla filiculoides and on the nitrogen fixation and growth of free-living Anabaena azollae 2B organisms. Inoculation of azolla medium with Chlamydomonas sp. was associated with decreased nitrogenase activity in A. filiculoides and with increases in the density of a fungal population identified as Acremonium sp. Subsequent inoculation of azolla medium with this fungus was also accompanied by a significant decrease in nitrogenase activity of A. filiculoides. However, the extent of depression of nitrogenase activity was significantly higher when azolla medium was inoculated with Chlamydomonas sp. than when it was inoculated with Acremonium sp. Inoculation of nitrogen-free Stanier medium with either Acremonium sp. or Chlamydomonas sp. did not adversely affect the growth or nitrogenase activity of free-living A. azollae. Decreased nitrogenase activity in A. filiculoides is apparently related to the adverse influence of the green alga and the fungus on the macrosymbiont. The mechanisms that might be involved are discussed. PMID:16347211

  9. Efficacy of oxygen-supplying capacity of Azolla in a controlled life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquan; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Chongchu

    2012-02-01

    Azolla shows high growth and propagation rates, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and high nutritional value. It is suitable as a salad vegetable and can be cultured on a multi-layered wet bed. Hence, it possesses potential as a fresh vegetable, and to release O2 and absorb CO2 in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we investigated the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in a closed chamber under manned, controlled conditions to lay a foundation for use of Azolla as a biological component in ground simulation experiments for space applications. A closed test chamber, representing a Controlled Ecological Life Support System including an Azolla wet-culture device, was built to measure the changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in the presence of coexisting Azolla, fish and men. The amount of O2 consumed by fish was 0.0805-0.0831 L kg-1 h-1 and the level of CO2 emission was 0.0705-0.0736 L kg-1 h-1; O2 consumption by the two trial volunteers was 19.71 L h-1 and the volume of respiration-released CO2 was 18.90 L h-1. Under 7000-8000 Lx artificial light and Azolla wet-culture conditions, human and fish respiration and Azolla photosynthesis were complementary, thus the atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside chamber were maintained in equilibrium. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the closed chamber enhanced the net photosynthesis efficiency of the Azolla colony. This study showed that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in favor of human survival and verifies the potential of Azolla for space applications.

  10. Understanding nutrient exchange between Azolla and its symbiont, Nostoc

    OpenAIRE

    Eily, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    This is an in-depth look at the research I am doing for my doctoral degree at Duke University, investigating the exchange of nutrients between the aquatic fern genus, Azolla, and its cyanobacterial symbiont, Nostoc azollae. All of the illustrations and microscopy images within this presentation are my own.

  11. Growth and cellular ion content of a salt-sensitive symbiotic system Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vandna; Sharma, Naveen Kumar; Rai, Ashwani K

    2006-09-01

    Salinity, at a concentration of 10 mM NaCl affected the growth of Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae association and became lethal at 40 mM. Plants exposed up to 30 mM NaCl exhibited longer roots than the control, especially during the beginning of incubation. Average root number in plants exposed to 10 and 20 mM NaCl remained almost the same as in control. A further rise in NaCl concentration to 30 mM reduced the root number, and roots shed off at 40 mM NaCl. Presence of NaCl in the nutrient solution increased the cellular Na+ of the intact association exhibiting differential accumulation by individual partners, while it reduced the cellular Ca2+ level. However, cellular K+ content did not show significant change. Cellular Na+ based on fresh weight of respective individual partners (host tissues and cyanobiont) remained higher in the host tissues than the cyanobiont, while reverse was true for K+ and Ca2+ contents. The contribution of A. azollae in the total cellular ion content of the association was a little because of meagre contribution of the cyanobiont mass (19-21%). High salt sensitivity of Azolla-Anabaena complex is due to an inability of the association to maintain low Na+ and high Ca2+ cellular level.

  12. Effect of inoculating blue-green algae and Azolla on rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulasooriya, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing blue-green algae (BGA) and the Azolla-Anaebaena symbiosis are potential alternative sources of nitrogen for lowland rice production. A survey of the literature shows that on the average, when BGA inoculation is effective, a rice yield increase of 14% (450 kg grain ha -1 ) has been observed. However, in Sri Lanka no significant increases in grain yield have been observed due to BGA inoculation. Azolla inoculation in broadcast, transplanted, and avenue transplanted rice gave yield increases of 12, 22 and 48%, and was equivalent to 55 to 80 kg N ha -1 as urea. Azolla was observed to reduce weed growth by 53%. Azolla is easier to establish in rice fields since it can be easily recognized with the naked eye, however, BGA are better able to withstand periods of desiccation which occur in rain-fed rice production. Most algalization experiments have been performed on a ''black box'' basis where only the final grain yield has been measured. Isotope experiments can play a vital role in understanding the processes by which BGA and Azolla increase rice yields. (author)

  13. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients

  14. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, M; Tel-Or, E; Fritz, E; Huttermann, A

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Berbagai Bentuk Azolla Dan Pupuk N Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea Mays Var. Saccharata)

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Dwi Firmansyah; Soenaryo, Soenaryo; Tyasmoro, Setyono Yudo

    2013-01-01

    Jagung manis sangat responsif terhadap pupuk N, agar kebutuhan N terpenuhi dan memberikan nilai tambah dapat menyuburkan tanah tanpa menurunkan produktifitas jagung manis, maka diperlukan penyeimbang berupa pupuk organik yang memiliki kandungan N tinggi. Pupuk organik potensial yang memiliki kandungan N tinggi yaitu Azolla. Azolla dapat ditemukan dalam 3 bentuk yaitu Azolla segar, Azolla kering dan kompos Azolla. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh aplikasi Azolla segar, Azolla...

  16. The potential of the fresh-water fern Azolla in aquatic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Werf, vd, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brouwer, Paul; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    With aquatic farming systems a new avenue in agriculture is explored, in which the competition with conventional arable land is avoided. The aquatic, ubiquitous, floating fern Azolla is not yet widely explored as potential crop in such farming systems, despite its high potential because it grows in many natural systems under low-light intensities, has an enormous annual yield, and has special biomass qualities for applications in food, feed and specialty chemical industries. But, what makes Azolla particularly interesting as cost-effective crop is its capability to take up atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla independent of nitrogen fertilization. In order to explore the potential of Azolla as a crop for a suite of applications, we have assembled a team of expertise: AZOFAST, consisting of agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, chemical engineers and organic chemists. Our growth experiments reveal high annual production yields with constant harvest. We are developing a germination and spore collecting/preservation protocol as a first step to domestication. Finally we have explored the biomass quality of different species of extant Azolla. We performed organic chemical analyses on lipid and tannin extracts, and quantified yields of specific compounds within these fractions. In our presentation we will present some of our results to show the potential of Azolla as a new, sustainable aquatic crop serving all kinds of industrial streams from protein feed to platform chemicals.

  17. Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

    Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

  18. The freshwater fern Azolla (Azollaceae) from Eocene Arctic and Nordic Sea sediments: New species and their stratigraphic distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burgh, J.; Collinson, M.E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Barke, J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of the freshwater fern Azolla are described from Eocene marine deposits of the Arctic and Nordic seas, bringing the total number of species now documented from these areas to five. Azolla arctica Collinson et al., Azolla jutlandica Collinson et al., Azolla nova sp. nov. and Azolla

  19. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Rice - azolla - fish culture - use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao.

    1991-01-01

    The primary aim of the expert mission was to provide advice on the use of nuclear techniques to study rice-azolla-fish culture. Results of the work performed so far show that basal application of azolla gives similar or better yields of rice than basal application of urea. Fish productivity was also found to be significantly higher when azolla is present. 2 tabs

  20. Pengaruh Biomassa Azolla Terhadap Status Logam Berat Timbal (Pb) Pada Tanah

    OpenAIRE

    Abror, Muhammad; Sabrina, Teuku; Hidayat, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Research on title the effect of Pb-Polluted azolla biomass on polluted on lead heavy metal status at polluted and unpolluted soil with Pb aimed to evaluate the potency of Pb-polluted azolla biomass on the availability of Pb in soil. The experiment design was factorial randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. First factor was Pb-polluted azolla biomass with 3 treatments 0 g/kg, 15 g/kg and 30g/kg, second factor was Pb application with 3 treatments 0 ppm/kg, 150 ppm/kg, and 3...

  1. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique M L; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  2. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique M L van Kempen

    Full Text Available In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  3. Microcosm investigation on phytoremediation of Cr using Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The extent of Chromium (Cr) pollution in Singrauli industrial region, India was assessed and phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae) was observed to purify waters polluted by Cr under microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata endemic to India is a potential hyper-accumulator of heavy metals. During 13 days of the experiment the fern was grown in the aqueous medium containing Cr3+ and CrO4(2-) ions, each in a concentration 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg L(-1). The presence of these ions caused a + 3.1 to -37.5% inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth in comparison to the control. After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution was decreased up to 70% (CrO4(2-) 3.0 mg L(-1) treatment) to 88% (CrO4(2-) 0.5 mg L(-1) treatment). In the Azolla pinnata tissues, the concentration of couple of the ionic forms of Cr under investigation ranged from 415 to 1095 mg kg(-1) dry mass (dm); the highest level being found for Cr (III) containing solution.

  4. Pengaruh Beberapa Dosis Kompos Dan Azolla ( Azolla Pinnata R. B ) Segar Pada Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil 2 Varietas Tanaman Wortel ( Daucus Carotta L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, M. Syahrial; Widaryanto, Eko; Nugroho, Agung

    2016-01-01

    Wortel termasuk jenis sayuran umbi yang bernilai ekonomis penting di dunia. Salah satu factor budidaya wortel adalah tanah yang tidak hanya sebagai media akar tanaman namun sebagai media tanaman dapat menyerap nutrisi, air dan oksigen. Salah satu peranan bahan organik adalah memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah. Azolla (Azolla pinnata) ialah tumbuhan paku air yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan organik untuk memperbaiki agregat tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk dapat mengetahui pengaruh dosis kom...

  5. The optimum energy harvest efficiency of nitrogen fixing hydrophyte: Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennakone, K. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK) Ruhuna Univ., Matara (LK). Dept. of Physics); Punchihewa, S.; Jayasuriya, A.C. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK))

    1989-01-01

    Azolla is a nitrogen fixing hydrophyte that can be cultivated in absence of nitrogenous fertilizer. It is found that when biomass is continuously harvested from a culture of Azolla, solar energy can be converted at an optimum efficiency of 1.1%. (author).

  6. Effects of atmospheric SO[sub 2] on Azolla and Anabaena symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J.-S.; Wellburn, A.R. (Division of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Lancaster Univ., Lancaster (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The water fern Azolla pinnata R. Br. was fumigated for 1 week with either 25, 50 or 100 nl l[sup -1] SO[sub 2]. The symbiosis of Azolla with Anabaena azollae (spp.) was severely damaged by atmospheric SO[sub 2] even at the lowest concentration studied showing significant reductions in growth, reduction of C[sub 2]H[sub 2], NH[sub 3] assimilation, protein synthesis, and heterocyst development. These disturbances appear to be mainly responsible for the extreme sensitivity of this fern to atmospheric SO[sub 2]. Changes in violaxanthin/antheraxanthin and epoxylutein/lutein ratios also indicate that free radical products are induced by atmospheric SO[sub 2]. These results suggest that the Azolla-Anabeana symbiotic system is a very responsive and reliable lower plant model to study the detailed effects of total sulfur deposition upon the balances between various important plant metabolic processes.

  7. Protection against salt toxicity in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae symbiotic association by using combined-N sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Singh, Satya S

    2006-09-01

    Protection from salt stress was observed in the terms of yield (fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein) and nitrogenase activity. Azollapinnata appeared highly sensitive to 40 mM external NaCl stress. Fronds of Azolla unable to grow beyond a concentration of 30 mM NaCl and accordingly death was recorded at 40 mM NaCl on the 6th day of incubation. Yield was inhibited by various levels of NaCl (0, 10, 20 and 30 mM). Addition of combined-N to the growth medium protected the association partially from salt toxicity. Among the N-sources (NO3-, NH4+ and urea) tried, urea mitigated the salt-induced toxicity most efficiently. Reduction in nitrogenase activity was observed when intact Azolla was grown in nutrient medium either supplemented with different levels of NaCl or combined nitrogen. Only NO3- (5 mM) protected the enzymatic activity from salt toxicity while other concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and urea slowed down the salt-induced inhibition of enzyme activity in Azolla-Anabaena association. These results suggested that an optimum protection from salt stress could be obtained by using a combination of combined nitrogen sources. The reason for this protection might be due to the availability of combined nitrogen to the association, nitrogen is only available through the biological nitrogen fixation which is the most sensitive to salt stress.

  8. Jasmonic and salicylic acid response in the fern Azolla filiculoides and its cyanobiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sophie; de Vries, Jan; Teschke, Hendrik; von Dahlen, Janina K; Rose, Laura E; Gould, Sven B

    2018-01-03

    Plants sense and respond to microbes utilizing a multilayered signalling cascade. In seed plants, the phytohormones jasmonic and salicylic acid (JA and SA) are key denominators of how plants respond to certain microbes. Their interplay is especially well-known for tipping the scales in plants' strategies of dealing with phytopathogens. In non-angiosperm lineages, the interplay is less well understood, but current data indicate that it is intertwined to a lesser extent and the canonical JA/SA antagonism appears to be absent. Here, we used the water fern Azolla filiculoides to gain insights into the fern's JA/SA signalling and the molecular communication with its unique nitrogen fixing cyanobiont Nostoc azollae, which the fern inherits both during sexual and vegetative reproduction. By mining large-scale sequencing data, we demonstrate that Azolla has most of the genetic repertoire to produce and sense JA and SA. Using qRT-PCR on the identified biosynthesis and signalling marker genes, we show that Azolla is responsive to exogenously applied SA. Furthermore, exogenous SA application influenced the abundance and gene expression of Azolla's cyanobiont. Our data provide a framework for JA/SA signalling in ferns and suggest that SA might be involved in Azolla's communication with its vertically inherited cyanobiont. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Metabolic adaptation, a specialized leaf organ structure and vascular responses to diurnal N2 fixation by nostoc azollae sustain the astonishing productivity of azolla ferns without nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Buijs, Valerie A.; Tazelaar, Anne O.E.; van der Werf, Adrie; Schlüter, Urte; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bolger, Anthony; Usadel, Björn; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture demands reduced input of man-made nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet N2 fixation limits the productivity of crops with heterotrophic diazotrophic bacterial symbionts. We investigated floating ferns from the genus Azolla that host phototrophic diazotrophic Nostoc azollae in leaf

  10. The pore of the leaf cavity of Azolla species: teat cell differentiation and cell wall projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veys, P; Lejeune, A; Van Hove, C

    2002-02-01

    The differentiation of the specialized secretory teat cells of the leaf cavity pore of Azolla species was investigated at the ultrastructural level with emphasis on their peculiar cell wall projections. The results indicated that the projections are formed as soon as the teat cells complete their differentiation and that their production is principally associated with changes in endoplasmic reticulum profiles. The number of projections increases with the teat cell age and is stimulated under salt and P deficiency stresses. Salt stress also promotes their emergence on Azolla species that under normal conditions do not produce projections. Cytochemical tests on different Azolla species showed that the projection composition is almost identical: proteins, acidic polysaccharides, and pectin are always detected. This study revealed that Azolla teat cell projections differ fundamentally from other types of hitherto described cell wall projections that are considered as remnant structures from cell separation. In contrast, in Azolla teat cells projections are actively produced and compounds are excreted by an exocytotic mechanism. The possible role of the projections in the symbiosis of Azolla spp. with Anabaena azollae is discussed.

  11. Localization and Toxic Effects of Cadmium, Copper, and Uranium in Azolla1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Mordechai; Tel-Or, Elisha; Fritz, Eberhardt; Huttermann, Aloys

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:16666274

  12. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  13. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  14. Phytodegradation potential of bisphenolA from aqueous solution by Azolla Filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Mahdavi, Yousef; Bazrafshan, Edris; Balarak, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Many organic hazardous pollutants such as bisphenolA (BPA) which are toxic and not easily biodegradable can concerns for environmental pollution worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine whether Azolla Filiculoides is able to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. In this study, the Azolla with different biomass (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g) has been cultured in solution that was contained 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm BPA. Samples were collected every 2 days from all of containers. The analytical determination of BPA was performed by using of DR4000 uv-visible at λmax = 276 nm. The results indicated that Azolla has high ability to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. The BPA removal was 60-90%. The removal efficiency is increasing with decreasing of BPA concentration and increasing of biomass amount and vice versa. The removal efficiency was more than 90% when BPA concentration was 5 ppm and amount of biomass was 0.9gr. It is concluded that Azolla able remove BPA by Phytodegradation from the aqueous solutions. Since conventional methods of BPA removal need to high cost and energy, phytoremediation by Azolla as a natural treatment system can decrease those issues and it can be a useful and beneficial method to removal of BPA.

  15. The cyanobiont in an Azolla fern is neither Anabaena nor Nostoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Judith A; Entsch, Barrie; McKay, David B

    2003-12-05

    The cyanobacterial symbionts in the fern Azolla have generally been ascribed to either the Anabaena or Nostoc genera. By using comparisons of the sequences of the phycocyanin intergenic spacer and a fragment of the 16S rRNA, we found that the cyanobiont from an Azolla belongs to neither of these genera.

  16. Die beiden Azolla-arten des Niederländischen Pleistozäns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florschütz, F.

    1938-01-01

    Die erste Mitteilung über die Möglichkeit des Vorkommens fossiler Azolla im niederländischen Boden rührt von J. LORIé her, der im Jahre 1905 bei der Beschreibung von Bohrproben die Entdeckung von Makrosporangien von Azolla filiculoides Lam. in einer dünnen Torfschicht unter Vogelenzang erwähnte

  17. Determining biotoxins in continental waters colonised by Azolla; Determinacion de biotoxinas en aguas continentales colonizadas por Azolla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada A-Buylla, J.; Sanchez Crespo, R.; Verdigo Althofer, M. [Confederacion Hidrografica del Guadina. Ciudad Real (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    During the period 1993-95, the presence of Azolla ferns was observed in the air/water interface along several kilometres of the river Guadina in both Spain and Portugal. This fern is symbiotically associated with the cyano-bacteria Anabaena azollae that is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, which can lead to vegetable growth and eutrophication. At the same time, the cyanobacteria may generate biotoxins, in which case a study is made of the hepatotoxins forming a family of 53 related cyclic peptides. Those consisting of seven aminoacids receive the name of microcystines, while formed by five aminoacids arc called nodulaincs. Chromatography was used to determine the presence of these peptides in the water from six sampling points. Microcystine-LR was found at concentrations of around 0.3 g/l at three points. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. The potential of the aquatic water fern Azolla within a biobased economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Jongerius, Anna L.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern capable of fixing atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the latter of which through its symbiosis with the cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae. It is currently ranked among the fastest growing plants on Earth and occurs in both tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, it is non-directly competitive with food crops. In addition, Azolla does not require inorganic fertilizers, which makes it a potential and unique source of biomass for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from fossil (fuel) sources. The biochemical composition of Azolla allows the production of biofuel or biobased chemicals that are of interest to the chemical industry. Of Azolla, two extractable groups of compounds are of particular interest, i.e. the polyphenols (condensed tannins and ester-bound caffeic acid) and the lipids. The antioxidant property of polyphenols and their application to the treatment of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases has further contributed to the growth of the polyphenol market. In addition, they can be chemically transformed into aromatic platform and specialty chemicals. The composition of the lipid fraction of Azolla is characterized by highly specific compounds consisting of C26-C36 carbon chains all bearing a ω20-hydroxy group. Such compounds produce an oil fraction upon hydrous pyrolysis, or, alternatively, are well suited to be converted to e.g. various specialty chemicals that are hardly available from both natural sources. Indeed, upon chemical conversion these lipids may yield components for fuels, plastics, cosmetics, and lubricants. Another group of interesting compounds within the lipid group are the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The demand for PUFAs has witnessed a significant increase over the last three years, particularly due to their benefits as cholesterol lowering agents. Here we will present some of the thermal and chemical conversions of the

  19. Treatment of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa Willd) with Colchicina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarillas Santa Cruz, H.

    1984-01-01

    The sample no. 559, coming from the Bank of Germoplasma of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) of the Experimental Station at Patacamaya, located in the province Aroma of the La Paz department Bolivia, was treated with an aqueous solution of 0.4% of Colchicina. The treatment did not give the expected result, due, probably, to the very special behaviour of the Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) during the process of mitosis

  20. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Nishibori, M

    2017-05-01

    The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D 1 (control), D 2 (D 1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water), D 3 (D 1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water), D 4 (D 1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T 1 (control), T 2 (5% Azolla in the diet), T 3 (7% Azolla in the diet) and T 4 (T 1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D 4 (p0.05). The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p0.05). However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D 2 followed by D 4 , D 1 , and D 3 , respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05). In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry.

  1. The Eocene Arctic Azolla phenomenon: species composition, temporal range and geographic extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Margaret; Barke, Judith; van der Burgh, Johan; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna; Pearce, Martin; Bujak, Jonathan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern that is renowned for its rapid vegetative spread and invasive biology, being one of the world's fastest growing aquatic macrophytes. Two species of this plant have been shown to have bloomed and reproduced in enormous numbers in the latest Early to earliest Middle Eocene of the Arctic Ocean and North Sea based on samples from IODP cores from the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and from outcrops in Denmark (Collinson et al 2009 a,b Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155,1-14; and doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.12.001). To determine the geographic and temporal extent of this Azolla phenomenon, and the spatial distribution of the different species, we have examined samples from 15 additional sites using material from ODP cores and commercial exploration wells. The sites range from the Sub-Arctic (Northern Alaska and Canadian Beaufort Mackenzie Basin) to the Nordic Seas (Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Sea Basin). Our data show that the Azolla phenomenon involved at least three species. These are distinguished by characters of the megaspore apparatus (e.g. megaspore wall, floats, filosum) and the microspore massulae (e.g. glochidia fluke tips). The Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and Danish occurrences are monotypic but in other sites more than one species co-existed. The attachment to one another and the co-occurrence of megaspore apparatus and microspore massulae, combined with evidence that these spores were shed at the fully mature stage of their life cycle, shows that the Azolla remains were not transported over long distances, a fact which could not be assumed from isolated massula fragments alone. Our evidence, therefore, shows that Azolla plants grew on the ocean surfaces for approximately 1.2 million years (from 49.3 to 48.1 Ma) and that the Azolla phenomenon covered the area from Denmark northwards across the North Sea Basin and the whole of the Arctic and Nordic seas. Apparently, early Middle Eocene Northern Hemisphere middle

  2. Lipid Yield and Composition of Azolla filiculoides and the Implications for Biodiesel Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Werf, van der Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert Jan; Nierop, Klaas G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic fern Azolla is one of the fastest-growing nitrogen-fixing plants on Earth and therefore considered as a potential source of biomass for bioenergy production. The lipid fraction from Azolla filiculoides was analyzed to investigate whether it suited biodiesel production. Since the

  3. Lipid yield and composition of Azolla filiculoides and the implications for biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; van der Werf, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert Jan; Nierop, Klaas G J

    The aquatic fern Azolla is one of the fastest-growing nitrogen-fixing plants on Earth and therefore considered as a potential source of biomass for bioenergy production. The lipid fraction from Azolla filiculoides was analyzed to investigate whether it suited biodiesel production. Since the

  4. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. Methods In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D1 (control, D2 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water, D3 (D1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water, D4 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T1 (control, T2 (5% Azolla in the diet, T3 (7% Azolla in the diet and T4 (T1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. Results In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D4 (p0.05. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR (p0.05. However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry.

  5. Breakdown of middle lamella pectin by (●) OH during rapid abscission in Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshiya; Koibuchi, Mizuki; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi; Uheda, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Azolla, a small water fern, abscises its roots and branches within 30 min upon treatment with various stresses. This study was conducted to test whether, in the rapid abscission that occurs in Azolla, breakdown of wall components of abscission zone cells by (●) OH is involved. Experimentally generated (●) OH caused the rapid separation of abscission zone cells from detached roots and the rapid shedding of roots from whole plants. Electron microscopic observations revealed that (●) OH rapidly and selectively dissolved a well-developed middle lamella between abscission zone cells and resultantly caused rapid cell separation and shedding. Treatment of abscission zones of Impatiens leaf petiole with (●) OH also accelerated the separation of abscission zone cells. However, compared with that of Azolla roots, accelerative effects in Impatiens were weak. A large amount of (●) OH was cytochemically detected in abscission zone cells both of Azolla roots and of Impatiens leaf petioles. These results suggest that (●) OH is involved in the cell separation process not only in the rapid abscission in Azolla but also in the abscission of Impatiens. However, for rapid abscission to occur, a well-developed middle lamella, a unique structure, which is sensitive to the attack of (●) OH, might be needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Application of Azolla for 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP is a phenolic compound which it can produce adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, the removal of these compounds is necessary. The aim of this study is the investigation of TCP removal by using Azolla filiculoides biomass. Materials & Methods: The Azolla biomass was dried in the sunlight, and then it was crushed and sieved to particle sizes in range of 1-2 mm. Next treated with 0.1M HCl for a period of 5h. The Azolla was washed with distilled water and it was used as adsorbent. The effect of operating parameters such as pH, contact time, TCP concentration and adsorbent dose on the TCP removal efficiency was investigated. The residues concentration of TCP was measured by spectrophotometer in λ max of 296 nm. Results: In optimum condition (pH 3, contact time 120 min , adsorbent dose 10 gr/l and TCP concentration 10 ppm, Azolla was able to remove 95% of TCP from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data follows the Langmuir isotherm and the proper kinetic model is pseudo-second model. Conclusions: Adsorption process by Azolla filiculoides is an efficient method for removal of 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions.

  7. Improving soil fertility through Azolla application in low land rice: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam Subedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The continuous usages of chemical fertilizers have harmful effects on soil organic matter reserves, soil health and environmental safety. The use of Bio-fertilizers like Azolla not only increases the rice productivity but also improves the long term soil fertility. Azolla is a fast growing aquatic pteridophyte which fixes atmospheric Nitrogen by forming a symbiotic association with the Blue-Green Algae, Anabaena azollae. Azolla is an efficient Nitrogen fixer. It is grown in lowland rice fields because flooded habitat is suitable for it. Under favorable field condition, it fixes atmospheric nitrogen at a rate exceeding that of the Legume-Rhizobium symbiotic relationship. It increases the rice yield equivalent to that produced by 30-60 kg N/ha. As green manure in water logged soil, it enhances the rapid mineralization of nitrogen. It reduces the NH3 volatilization losses through its influence on floodwater pH that leads to the conservation of urea-N in the system to improve the efficiency of N fertilizers. It significantly improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil including improvement in soil microbial activities. It helps in addition of Organic Matter and release of cations such as Magnesium, Calcium and Sodium. The total N, available P and exchangeable K in the soil and N-uptake by rice can be improved. Therefore, Azolla application is considered as a good practice for sustaining soil fertility and crop productivity irrespective of some limitations.

  8. Coupling Fe0 nano particles with living and dead Azolla filicoloides to improve removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan

    2015-11-01

    Fe0 nano particles (FNPs) were connected to the cell wall of the dead and living Azolla filicoloides as an aquatic fern, individually. FNPs mean size was decreased due to the stabilization, especially using the living one. It was compared the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), saturation magnetization (Ms), zeta potential (ZP) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) of the dead and living Azolla connected to FNPs, and also the findings of potentiometric titration (PT) of the cell wall's pectin of the dead and living Azolla. It was confirmed (by XRD and XPS) that Fe0 nano particles when were connected to the living Azolla did not produce Fe3O4 due to oxidation unlike the bare FNPs and the connected form to the dead Azolla, by reason of the more stabilization (more surface protection) of nano iron particles after connecting to the living Azolla. To adsorb methylene blue by these agents at the optimum pre-treatment pH 10 and adsorption pH 8, the parameters of equilibrium sorption, rate constant of second-order sorption and activation energy were obtained as: living Azolla-FNPs > dead Azolla-FNPs > FNPs > dead Azolla, while, their thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) had the reverse arrangement. It was also studied the various factors rule such as photoperiod and the presence of heavy metals on the living Azolla growth coupled with FNPs and its MB removal ability.

  9. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  10. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  11. Metabolic Adaptation, a Specialized Leaf Organ Structure and Vascular Responses to Diurnal N2 Fixation by Nostoc azollae Sustain the Astonishing Productivity of Azolla Ferns without Nitrogen Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Buijs, Valerie A; Tazelaar, Anne O E; van der Werf, Adrie; Schlüter, Urte; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bolger, Anthony; Usadel, Björn; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture demands reduced input of man-made nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet N 2 fixation limits the productivity of crops with heterotrophic diazotrophic bacterial symbionts. We investigated floating ferns from the genus Azolla that host phototrophic diazotrophic Nostoc azollae in leaf pockets and belong to the fastest growing plants. Experimental production reported here demonstrated N-fertilizer independent production of nitrogen-rich biomass with an annual yield potential per ha of 1200 kg -1 N fixed and 35 t dry biomass. 15 N 2 fixation peaked at noon, reaching 0.4 mg N g -1 dry weight h -1 . Azolla ferns therefore merit consideration as protein crops in spite of the fact that little is known about the fern's physiology to enable domestication. To gain an understanding of their nitrogen physiology, analyses of fern diel transcript profiles under differing nitrogen fertilizer regimes were combined with microscopic observations. Results established that the ferns adapted to the phototrophic N 2 -fixing symbionts N. azollae by (1) adjusting metabolically to nightly absence of N supply using responses ancestral to ferns and seed plants; (2) developing a specialized xylem-rich vasculature surrounding the leaf-pocket organ; (3) responding to N-supply by controlling transcripts of genes mediating nutrient transport, allocation and vasculature development. Unlike other non-seed plants, the Azolla fern clock is shown to contain both the morning and evening loops; the evening loop is known to control rhythmic gene expression in the vasculature of seed plants and therefore may have evolved along with the vasculature in the ancestor of ferns and seed plants.

  12. Dry weight and N-uptake by rice plants fertilized with azolla and N-15 enriched urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abbady, Kh.

    1994-01-01

    Integrated soil fertility management is essential if soil productivity is to be sustained or improved. In view the recently high cost of N-fertilizers, interest was generated in using Azolla in rice fields. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the fate of N-15 labelled urea to rice with or without Azolla application, also to examine the effect of the soil moisture regime at the time of urea application on nitrogen recovery. The results indicated that addition of urea to dry soil gave more than 20% of the rice dry matter as compared to the urea application to wet soil which was also reflected on the N-uptake by the rice. Also N-15 recovery by plant was increased from 22% to 41% when urea was applied to wet and dry soil respectively. At the same time N-losses dropped from 62% to 29%. Addition of Azolla to rice provided rice with 63% of the nitrogen provided by urea, this may be attributed not only to N-fixation by Azolla, but also to its role in reducing the N-losses. Application of Azolla reduced the losses of applied nitrogen from 45.5% to 22.5%. Thus, integration between Azolla and urea is valuable in N-fixation as well as inhibiting nitrogen losses. 2 tabs

  13. TRATAMIENTO DE EFLUENTES PISCÍCOLAS (TILAPIA ROJA EN LAGUNAS CON Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO CHAUX F

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas con plantas acuáticas flotantes son una alternativa económicamente sostenible para el tratamiento de efluentes piscícolas. Se evaluó a escala piloto el desempeñ,o de un sistema de lagunas con Azolla pinnata en serie para el tratamiento de efluentes de cría de tilapia roja durante el proceso de levante y engorde. El sistema construido en la piscícola La Yunga (Popayán, Colombia consistió en dos líneas de cinco lagunas en serie; la primera con A. pinnata y la segunda sin la planta acuática; cada laguna se operó con un tiempo de detención de un día. La evaluación se realizó en época seca. La producción de Azolla fresca osciló entre 42 y 87 g/m2.d y el contenido de proteína entre 18,5% y 20,4%. Las eficiencias de remoción obtenidas en las líneas (con Azolla, sin Azolla fueron respectivamente: 56% y 46% DBO5; 49% y 26% DQO; 56% y 33% SST; 28% y 36% N-NTK; -108% y 23% N-NH4+; 64% y 34% fósforo total, mostrando superioridad del sistema con Azolla. Con solo tres lagunas en serie plantadas con A. pinnata se alcanzan las eficiencias máximas obtenidas en la remoción de DBO5, DQO, SST y fósforo total.

  14. Lipid production in aquatic plant Azolla at vegetative and reproductive stages and in response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana F; Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2018-03-01

    The aquatic plant Azolla became increasingly popular as bioenergy feedstock because of its high growth rate, production of biomass with high levels of biofuel-producing molecules and ability to grow on marginal lands. In this study, we analysed the contribution of all organs of Azolla to the total yield of lipids at vegetative and reproductive stages and in response to stress. Triacylglycerol-containing lipid droplets were detected in all (vegetative and reproductive) organs with the highest level in the male microsporocarps and microspores. As a result, significantly higher total yields of lipids were detected in Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata at the reproductive stage. Starving changed the yield and composition of the fatty acid as a result of re-direction of carbon flow from fatty acid to anthocyanin pathways. The composition of lipids, in regard the length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, in Azolla meets most of the important requirements for biodiesel standards. The ability of Azolla to grow on wastewaters, along with their high productivity rate, makes it an attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. N-Urea Efficiency In Lowland Rice Applied With Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, E.L.; Wemay, Y.; Sisworo, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Two N-fertilizer experiments have been conducted using urea tablet and prill urea combined with Azolla application. Twelve treatments have been tested using 2 rice varieties namely Atomita-4 and IR-64. To enable the determination of N-urea efficiency 15 N labelled urea was used. The experiments were conducted in the dry and wet season (DS and WS) 1994/1995 at the experimental station, pusaka negara, Subang West Java. Data obtained from the two experiments showed that the highest N-urea efficiency was found in Atomita-4 applied with urea-tablet (DS=46,1%, WS= 35,8%). Letting the Azolla grow during one lowland rice growth period could increase the N-urea prill efficiency (±5%) compared when no azolla was applied. Apparently Atomita-4 could use N-urea more efficiently compared to IR-64, showing higher grain yield (atomita-4 DS=6.2 ton ha -1 WS=5.9 ton ha -1 ) vs IR-64 (DS=5.8 ton ha -1 , WS=5.3 ton ha -1 ). Decreasing the levels of TSP not influence to the urea efficiency at the DS and WS

  16. Combined use of Azolla and loach suppressed paddy weeds and increased organic rice yield: second season results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming uses alternatives to agricultural chemicals such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The primary challenge in organic rice farming is controlling weeds without using herbicides and improving rice yield without chemical fertilizers. In our previous paper entitled as combined use of Azolla and loach suppressed weed Monochoria vaginalis and increased rice yield without agrochemicals, we reported the first year rice growth season results from an in situ container experiment. The experiment was designed with 4 treatments—control (with neither Azolla nor loach, Azolla (Azolla alone, loach (loach alone, and Az+Lo (combined Azolla and loach—with 3 replications each. The first year results showed that combined use of Azolla and loach was successful in weed suppression and increase in rice yield in 2012. In this paper, we report the second year results from the continuous container experiment in 2013. M.vaginalis emergences were very low in second year rice growth season on all treatments. Compared first year, the rice yields decreased in second year on all treatments due to different weather condition and with or without organic soybean oil cake application between two rice growth seasons. The second year results also showed the raising loach had a stronger effect to increase tiller and panicle numbers, and spikelet number per panicle, then improve rice yields to 2.3 times than control. The Azolla residues left from first year have weaker effect on rice growth and yield, but increase soil organic matter accumulation at second year. The two years study indicated that combined use of Azolla and loach can meet two of the greatest challenges in organic rice production: providing effective weed control and improving rice nutrition without agrochemicals.

  17. Biotechnological potential of Azolla filiculoides for biosorption of Cs and Sr: Application of micro-PIXE for measurement of biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh Mashkani, Saeid; Tajer Mohammad Ghazvini, Parisa

    2009-03-01

    The presence of Cs and Sr in culture medium of Azolla filiculoides caused about 27.4% and 46.3% inhibition of biomass growth, respectively, in comparison to A. filiculoides control weight which had not metals. Biosorption batch experiments were conducted to determine the Cs and Sr binding ability of native biomass and chemically modified biosorbents derived from Azolla namely ferrocyanide Azolla sorbents type 1 and type 2 (FAS1 and FAS2) and hydrogen peroxide Azolla sorbent (HAS). The best Cs and Sr removal results were obtained when A. filiculoides was treated by 2M MgCl(2) and 30ml H(2)O(2) 8mM at pH 7 for 12h and it was then washed by NaOH solution at pH 10.5 for 6h. Pretreatment of Azolla have been suggested to modify the surface characteristics which could improve biosorption process. The binding of Cs and Sr on the cell wall of Azolla was studied with micro-PIXE and FT-IR.

  18. Separation of abscission zone cells in detached Azolla roots depends on apoplastic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kazuma; Yamada, Yoshiya; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi; Uheda, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    In studies on the mechanism of cell separation during abscission, little attention has been paid to the apoplastic environment. We found that the apoplastic pH surrounding abscission zone cells in detached roots of the water fern Azolla plays a major role in cell separation. Abscission zone cells of detached Azolla roots were separated rapidly in a buffer at neutral pH and slowly in a buffer at pH below 4.0. However, cell separation rarely occurred at pH 5.0-5.5. Light and electron microscopy revealed that cell separation was caused by a degradation of the middle lamella between abscission zone cells at both pH values, neutral and below 4.0. Low temperature and papain treatment inhibited cell separation. Enzyme(s) in the cell wall of the abscission zone cells might be involved in the degradation of the pectin of the middle lamella and the resultant, pH-dependent cell separation. By contrast, in Phaseolus leaf petioles, unlike Azolla roots, cell separation was slow and increased only at acidic pH. The rapid cell separation, as observed in Azolla roots at neutral pH, did not occur. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, using anti-pectin monoclonal antibodies, revealed that the cell wall pectins of the abscission zone cells of Azolla roots and Phaseolus leaf petioles looked similar and changed similarly during cell separation. Thus, the pH-related differences in cell separation mechanisms of Azolla and Phaseolus might not be due to differences in cell wall pectin, but to differences in cell wall-located enzymatic activities responsible for the degradation of pectic substances. A possible enzyme system is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of thermal stability of specific biomarker lipids of the freshwater fern Azolla through hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sap, Merel; Speelman, Eveline N.; Lewan, Michael D.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous blooms of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla occurred within the Arctic Basin during an extended period of ~1.2 Ma during the middle Eocene (Brinkhuis et al. 2006; Speelman et al., GB, 2009). The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic basin may have substantially contributed to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels by burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. Speelman et al. (OG, 2009) reported biomarkers for Azolla (1,w20 C32 - C36 diols, structurally related C29 ω20,ω21 diols, C29 1,20,21 triols, C29 dihydroxy fatty acids as well as a series of wax esters containing these mono- and dihydroxy lipids), which can be used to reconstruct palaeo-environmental conditions. Here we assess the thermal stability of these compounds, to extend their biomarker potential. We specifically focused on the thermal stability of the Azolla biomarkers using hydrous pyrolysis in order to determine which burial conditions allow reconstruction of past occurrences of Azolla. In addition, hydrous pyrolysis was also performed on samples from the Eocene Arctic Ocean (ACEX core), to test if and how the biomarkers change under higher temperatures and pressures in situ. During hydrous pyrolysis, the biomass was heated under high pressure at temperatures ranging between 220 and 365°C for 72 hours. Four experiments were also run using different durations to explore the kinetics of biomarker degradation at specific temperatures. First results indicate that the Azolla specific diols are still present at 220°C, while the corresponding wax esters are already absent. At 300°C all Azolla specific biomarkers are destroyed. More specific determination of the different biomarkers' stability and kinetics would potentially allow the reconstruction of the temperature and pressure history of Azolla deposits. Literature: • Brinkhuis, H., Schouten, S., Collinson, M. E., Sluijs, A., Sinninghe Damste, J. S., Dickens, G. R., Huber

  20. Evaluation of isotopic dilution method for measuring N2 fixation in azolla: comparison with other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.N.; Goyal, S.S.; Rains, D.W.; Paige, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    An isotopic dilution method that overcomes the drawbacks of commonly used methods for measuring N 2 fixation by aquatic N‐fixers such as Azolla pinnata‐Anabaena azollae association (Azolla) is presented. The method was compared with 15 N2 gas (while maintaining CO 2 ) and the difference methods of measuring N 2 fixation. The isotopic dilution method was used for two conditions: a. For 15 N‐free growth medium, Azolla was pre‐enriched with 15 N, and N 2 fixation was determined by measuring the dilution of 15 N in the tissue. b. For the growth medium containing N, N2 fixation was determined by providing 15 N enriched ammonium sulfate in the growth medium and measuring 15 N to 14 N ratio in the tissue. An airtight chamber, necessary for 15 N 2 gas and acetylene reduction methods, was not representative of the growing environment of Azolla. Temperature in the airtight chamber was far from uniform and CO 2 was rapidly depleted. The isotopic dilution method is simpler, relatively inexpensive, subject to fewer errors and applicable to more diverse conditions, and yet was as accurate as 15 N2‐gas method. (author)

  1. Coeval Eocene blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla in and around Arctic and Nordic seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Burgh, A.H.P. van der; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. van; Collinson, M.E.; Pearce, M.A.; Bujak, J.; Heilman-Clausen, C.; Lotter, A.F.; Speelman, E.N.; Kempen, M.M.L. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    For a short time interval (c. 1.2 Myr) during the early middle Eocene (~ 49 Myr), the central Arctic Ocean was episodically densely covered by the freshwater fern Azolla, implying sustained freshening of surface waters. Coeval Azolla fossils in neighboring Nordic seas were thought to have been

  2. The aquatic fern Azolla as a natural plant-factory for ammonia removal from fish-breeding fresh wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Pietro; Padovani, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study has investigated the potential of an Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis, a marriage between the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae and the aquatic fern (Azolla), to remove ammonia from freshwater fish breeding areas. Experiments were carried out under artificial light of 20, 70, and 140 μmol m(-2) s(-1). We investigated three different water temperatures for the growing Azolla, ranging from sub-optimal to optimal temperatures (15, 22, and 28 °C). The capability of Azolla to remove ammonia from wastewater was demonstrated, and the highest ammonia concentration tolerated by the symbiosis between Azolla-anabaena without any toxic effect on the aquatic ferns was ascertained. The shortest time taken to remove ammonia from wastes, 2.5 cm deep and at 28 °C, was 40 min. The ammonia removal rate (A RR) was both light and temperature dependent and the highest rate (6.394 h(-1)) was attained at light intensity of 140 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and at a temperature of 28 °C; the lowest (0.947 h(-1)) was achieved at 20 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and 15 °C. The depth of the fish-wastewater pool also affected the A RR with the relation between A RR and the depth being a hyperbolic function.

  3. Coupling Fe{sup 0} nano particles with living and dead Azolla filicoloides to improve removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan, E-mail: roohan_rakhshaee@guilan.ac.ir

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • The novel living and dead bio–nano couples were prepared. • Living Azolla was more effective stabilizer for nano particles. • Increasing stabilization increased methylene blue (MB) adsorption. • The portion of Fe{sup 0} NPs had the main rule to determine kinetic model to adsorb MB. • It was studied the various factors rule on the living Azolla growth and MB removal. - Abstract: Fe{sup 0} nano particles (FNPs) were connected to the cell wall of the dead and living Azolla filicoloides as an aquatic fern, individually. FNPs mean size was decreased due to the stabilization, especially using the living one. It was compared the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), saturation magnetization (Ms), zeta potential (ZP) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) of the dead and living Azolla connected to FNPs, and also the findings of potentiometric titration (PT) of the cell wall's pectin of the dead and living Azolla. It was confirmed (by XRD and XPS) that Fe{sup 0} nano particles when were connected to the living Azolla did not produce Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} due to oxidation unlike the bare FNPs and the connected form to the dead Azolla, by reason of the more stabilization (more surface protection) of nano iron particles after connecting to the living Azolla. To adsorb methylene blue by these agents at the optimum pre-treatment pH 10 and adsorption pH 8, the parameters of equilibrium sorption, rate constant of second-order sorption and activation energy were obtained as: living Azolla–FNPs > dead Azolla–FNPs > FNPs > dead Azolla, while, their thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) had the reverse arrangement. It was also studied the various factors rule such as photoperiod and the presence of heavy metals on the living Azolla growth coupled with FNPs and its MB removal ability.

  4. Effects of different combinations of Hoagland's solution and Azolla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALAN

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... hydroponic cultures containing different compositions of hydroponic solutions were evaluated in ... (Hoagland's solution minus N solution excluding Azolla; ..... nutrient deficiencies on photosynthesis and respiration in spinach.

  5. Reproductive Organography of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. is of prime importance for horticulture, as well as potentially for pharmaceutical industries, agriculture and environmental industries. However, its floral development is not yet well understood. A detailed study on floral structure and floral organography in the sp...

  6. Effect of Azolla feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio, blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits of growing turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayank; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Shukla, Pankaj Kumar; Roy, Debashis; Yadav, Brijesh; Sirohi, Rajneesh

    2018-04-01

    In the recent past,few studies have been carried out in chicken to assess the effect of Azolla meal and raw Azolla feeding on the performance of chicken. If turkeys effectively use unconventional feedstuffs like Azolla without reducing the performance, it will increase the profitability of turkey business. Hence, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried Azolla pinnata vis-a-vis raw Azolla as choice feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), blood biochemical attributes, and immune competence traits of growing turkeys under intensive system. A total of 72, 8-week-old grower turkey poults of black variety were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having three replicates each with eight birds. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet (CP - 19.71% and ME - 2789.79 Kcal/kg), while the other group (T2) and choice-feeding group (T3) were fed 5% of basal diet replaced by dry Azolla powder on DM basis and ad libitumAzolla along with basal diet, respectively. There was no significant difference among the different groups in the average weekly weight gain during the entire experiment. FCR was significantly better (pdiet may improve FCR without any adverse effect on blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits.

  7. Population isolation results in low genetic variation and high differentiation in Carolina hemlock (tsuga caroliniana), an imperiled southern Appalachian conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Lia Campbell; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson; Robert M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a rare conifer species that grows in small, isolated populations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. The species is additionally imperiled by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an invasive insect that can...

  8. Exploring the effects of inclusion of dietary fresh Azolla on the performance of White Pekin broiler ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Parag; Mohanty, G P; Pradhan, C R; Mishra, S K; Beura, N C; Moharana, B

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary advantages of inclusion of unconventional nutrient source, i.e., Azolla in the basal diet of White Pekin broilers. All ducklings were randomly distributed into three treatment groups with three replicates each and each replicate having 12 ducklings and were reared in deep litter system. Groups were subjected to three dietary treatments such as G1: Basal diet, G2: Basal diet + 5% fresh Azolla of basal diet, G3: Basal diet + 10% fresh Azolla of basal diet. During experimental period, parameters, such as bodyweight, bodyweight gain, feed consumption,feed conversion ratio(FCR), and economic of production,wererecorded. The result showed that body weights in every week, except the 5(th) week, did not differ significantly between groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups in any week in terms of absolute body weight gain and feed consumption. As regard to FCR, the 10% Azolla group (G3) showed the best feed efficiency followed by the 5% Azolla group (G2) and the control group (G1). On the basis of profit/bird or profit/kg live weight, each of the Azolla-fed group showed a higher economic efficiency than the control. From the experiment, it was concluded that Azollaat 5 or 10% level can be included in the diet to economize the White Pekin broiler farming, and it can be great impetus to poultry farming to include unconventional nutrient source as a dietary supplement.

  9. Endosulfan induced changes in growth rate, pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of mosquito fern Azolla microphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja W.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first in a series reporting a study on the effects of different concentrations of insecticide, Endosulfan (0-600ppm was premeditated on 5th day after insecticide exposure with respect to growth rate, pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of Azolla microphylla under laboratory conditions which become non-target organism in the rice fields. Endosulfan inhibited the relative growth rate, pigment content and photosynthetic O2 evolution. Phycocyanin was main target followed by carotenoid and total chlorophyll. Significant increase in pigment, flavonoid and Anthocyanin was noticed after six days of treatment. In contrast to the photosynthetic activity, the rate of respiration in Azolla microphylla was increased significantly. Our results show that Endosulfan at normally recommended field rates and intervals are seldom deleterious to the beneficial and Eco friendly Azolla microphylla and their activities and thus in turn suppress plant growth and development. Phytotoxity of Azolla microphylla can be minimized by restrictions on application, timing, method and rate of application.

  10. Effect of azolla-incorporated diets on the growth and survival of Labeo fimbriatus during fry-to-fingerling rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gangadhar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of 75 days duration was conducted in fertilized outdoor circular cement tanks (1,000 L with soil base for evaluating the growth and survival of Labeo fimbriatus fry fed with pelleted feed containing varied levels of dried azolla (Azolla pinnata. The Control feed contained 45% groundnut oilcake plus 45% rice bran and 10% finger millet flour added as binder for pelleting. Dried azolla powder was incorporated into the feed at 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels, replacing the groundnut cake and rice bran proportionately. L. fimbriatus (mean length 2.42 cm fry were stocked in all the tanks at 30 m−3. The fish were fed 10% of body weight during the first month, followed by 7% during the second month and 5% during the last 15 days. Incorporation of azolla did not affect (p > 0.05 the water quality, growth and survival of fingerlings at harvest. Incorporation of azolla in the diet reduced the cost of feed (Rs. per 100 g biomass; Rs: Indian rupee, INR; 1 INR ≈ 0.015 EUR from 3.35 to 2.53, with a cost saving of 24.48%. The study indicated the possibility of incorporating azolla in diets of L. fimbriatus up to 40% during fry-to-fingerling rearing, resulting in savings on feed cost.

  11. Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata in produced water ... Toxicity symptoms of produced water on the plant include chlorosis, frond ... easily to various conditions and can tolerate a wide ... The aquatic macrophyte used for this experiment was .... the Kathloni oilfield in northeast India.

  12. Application of Azolla and intermittent irrigation to improve the productivity and nutrient contents of local black rice variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulandjari; Yunindanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Black rice is a local rice variety that contains a high level of anthocyanin pigment. Anthocyanin has been reported to be very effective in reducing cholesterol levels as well as cancer cell invasion. One of the main problems in rice cultivation is lack of water. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has shown to be able to increase rice productivity by increasing the number of tillers. This system is known as a water-efficient cultivation. Other rice cultivation barrier is related to the use of nitrogen fertilizer. One of replacement of nitrogen fertilizer is by adding azolla. The objective of this research was identifying growth and yield of organic black rice with intermittent irrigation and application of azolla. The plant material used was black rice Cempo variety from Sleman, Yogyakarta. This experiment utilized 4 dosages of azolla as the first treatment: 100 gm-2, 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2. The second treatment was water supply consisted of continuous flooded 2 cm; flooded 2 cm every 3 days; flooded 2 cm every 6 days. The results depicted that the application of azolla was able to increase the growth of black rice. Azolla of 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2 and intermittent 3 days to 6 days generated higher dry grain, anthocyanin and antioxidant. Azolla 200 gm-2 with intermittent irrigation 3 days could be a good combination to improve plant growth, yield and properties of local black rice.

  13. Polyamine-Induced Rapid Root Abscission in Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Sushma; Cohen, Michael F; Fukuto, Jon; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Floating ferns of the genus Azolla detach their roots under stress conditions, a unique adaptive response termed rapid root abscission. We found that Azolla pinnata plants exhibited dose-dependent rapid root abscission in response to the polyamines spermidine and spermine after a substantial time lag (>20 min). The duration of the time lag decreased in response to high pH and high temperature whereas high light intensity increased the time lag and markedly lowered the rate of abscission. The oxidation products of polyamines, 1,3-diaminopropane, β-alanine and hydrogen peroxide all failed to initiate root abscission, and hydroxyethyl hydrazine, an inhibitor of polyamine oxidase, did not inhibit spermine-induced root abscission. Exposure of A. pinnata to the polyamines did not result in detectable release of NO and did not affect nitrite-dependent NO production. The finding of polyamine-induced rapid root abscission provides a facile assay for further study of the mode of action of polyamines in plant stress responses.

  14. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using 1 H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrogen and azolla response on growth of rice plant of Mitra-I variety with SRI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmayulis; Putra Utama; Dewi Firnia; Hasnan Yani; Ania Citraresmini

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted in Cisadap, Bunter Village, District of Sukadana, Ciamis Regency, West Java Province from January to May 2011. This study was carried out to know the response of growth of rice plant which was fertilized by nitrogen fertilizer and Azolla michrophylla using the system of rice intensification. This research used five dozes of nitrogen fertilizer (0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100 %) from N 92 kg ha -1 as a recommended nitrogen fertilizer (urea 200 kg ha -1 ), and also 1,13 ton ha -1 Azolla michrophylla. The result obtained from this research showed that the application of N fertilizer at 50 % of the recommend dose (100 kg ha -1 ) with adding Azolla at a rate of 1.13 t ha -1 gave good result in the terms of plant height at 2-6 weeks after planting and number of tillers at 2-7 weeks after planting. Interaction of the 50 % N fertilizer from the recommended dose planting 1,13 t ha -1 give the highest dry weight of Azolla of plants at seven weeks after planting. (author)

  16. Fermentation of Azolla sp. leaves and the utilization as a feed ingredient of tilapia Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to study the effect of incubation period on the nutritional content of Azolla sp. meal fermented by Trichoderma harzianum, and its optimum supplementation level in the feed of tilapia Oreochromis sp. In incubation period treatments, fermentation of Azolla meal was performed in two, six, eight, and ten days (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10 using Trichoderma harzianum as the fermentor. The fish used in this study was tilapia Oreochromis sp. with an average weight of 10.59±1.29 g. The design of the feeding treatments was repeletting commercial feed with Azolla leaves by with different supplementation levels, i.e. 0% (A/control, 30% (B, 60% (C, and 90% (D. Faecal collection for digestibility measurement was conducted for 15 days and fish growth rate was observed for 40 days. Azolla meal fermented for two days (AF2 showed the best results among the other treatments with a crude fiber decrease of 37.19% and protein increase of 38.65%. The results of this study indicate that fermentation can increase the nutritional quality of Azolla meal and its most optimal supplementation level in the diet of tilapia is 30%.Keywords: crude fiber, Azolla sp., tilapiaABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama waktu fermentasi daun mata lele Azolla sp. menggunakan kapang Trichoderma harzianum serta dosis optimal dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. Proses fermentasi tepung daun mata lele dilakukan selama dua, enam, delapan, dan sepuluh hari (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10. Ikan uji pada penelitian ini menggunakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. dengan bobot rata-rata 10,59±1,29 g yang ditebar sebanyak 6 ekor/akuarium berukuran 50×45×30 cm3. Sebagai pakan perlakuan yakni repeletting daun mata lele dengan pakan komersil pada tingkat suplementasi 0% (A/kontrol, 30% (B, 60% (C, dan 90% (D. Pemeliharaan ikan uji dan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan feses ikan untuk uji ketercernaan selama 15 hari dan mengamati pertumbuhan

  17. Optimation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Azolla Growth as Biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Handajani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most important minerals for living organisms. Azolla is known as a small water fern which can fix nitrogen through the symbiotic association with the blue green algae Anabaena. Experimental studies were carried out in the glass house, investigating the growth of Azolla using different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the media. The experiment used 12 treatments with 3 levels of nitrogen (0, 5, and 10 mg atom/L and 4 levels of phosphorus (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg atom/l in a factorial design with 3 replicates. The results show that the highest biomass for fresh weight (13.28 g, dry weight (1,126 g, and the fastest doubling time (7.71 days were found in combination of 10 mg atom/L N and 30 mg atom/L P. Meanwhile, the highest protein content was found in combination of 5 mg atom/L N and 20 mg atom/L P. After the third day heterocyst cells in Anabaena could only be found in those two combinations, but the highest heterocyst cells was found in the lower N and P combination similar to the highest protein content. Further experiment is suggested to introduce Azolla as bio-fertilizer for acid water system, such as peat land water.

  18. Is there foul play in the leaf pocket? The metagenome of floating fern Azolla reveals endophytes that do not fix N2but may denitrify

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Laura W.; Brouwer, Paul; Bolhuis, Henk; Reichart, Gert Jan; Koppers, Nils; Huettel, Bruno; Bolger, Anthony M.; Li, Fay Wei; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Xin; Wong, Gane Ka Shu; Pryer, Kathleen; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation by Nostoc azollae residing in specialized leaf pockets supports prolific growth of the floating fern Azolla filiculoides. To evaluate contributions by further microorganisms, the A. filiculoides microbiome and nitrogen metabolism in bacteria persistently associated with Azolla

  19. APLIKASI KOMBINASI KOMPOS JERAMI, KOMPOS AZOLLA DAN PUPUK HAYATI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN JUMLAH POPULASI BAKTERI PENAMBAT NITROGEN DAN PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN PADI BERRBASIS IPAT-BO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferina Rosiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk mengetahui efek pemberian kombinasi kompos jerami dengan Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk terhadap peningkatan populasi bakteri penambat N dan produktivitas tanaman padi dengan teknologi IPAT-BO dilaksanakan dari bulan April hingga Juli 2012 di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, dengan ketinggian + 740 m dpl. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktor tunggal dengan dua belas perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari (A tanpa kompos jerami, (B kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1, (C kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1, (D kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (E kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (F kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (G pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (H kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (I kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (J kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (K kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (L kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1.Aplikasi perlakuan kompos jerami, kompos Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk memberikan pengaruh terhadap populasi penambat N (Azotobacter sp. dan Azospirilium sp. dan produktifitas tanaman padi. Aplikasi kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 dengan pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1 memberikan hasil GKP yaitu 64,39 g tanaman-1 (6,13 ton ha-1. Kata kunci: IPAT-BO, kompos Azolla, kompos jerami, pupuk hayati.

  20. Effect of Azolla feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio, blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits of growing turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Shukla

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the recent past, few studies have been carried out in chicken to assess the effect of Azolla meal and raw Azolla feeding on the performance of chicken. If turkeys effectively use unconventional feedstuffs like Azolla without reducing the performance, it will increase the profitability of turkey business. Hence, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried Azolla pinnata vis-a-vis raw Azolla as choice feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR, blood biochemical attributes, and immune competence traits of growing turkeys under intensive system. Materials and Methods: A total of 72, 8-week-old grower turkey poults of black variety were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having three replicates each with eight birds. The birds of the control group (T1 were fed a basal diet (CP - 19.71% and ME - 2789.79 Kcal/kg, while the other group (T2 and choice-feeding group (T3 were fed 5% of basal diet replaced by dry Azolla powder on DM basis and ad libitum Azolla along with basal diet, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference among the different groups in the average weekly weight gain during the entire experiment. FCR was significantly better (p<0.05 in the choice-feeding group compared to the other two experimental groups during 8-16 weeks of age. There was no significant difference among the treatment groups in any of the blood biochemical indices except plasma uric acid, which was significantly decreased (p<0.01 in T2 compared to T1 at 16 weeks of age. HA and IgM response to 1% sheep red blood cells (log2 titer were numerically better in T2 and T3 compared to the T1. Conclusion: Thus, it may be inferred that choice feeding with Azolla, and basal diet may improve FCR without any adverse effect on blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits.

  1. L-Myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaroya, Rony Oren; Zamski, Eli; Tel-Or, Elisha

    2004-02-01

    L-Myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (INPS EC 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate to L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate. INPS is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytate which is a common form of stored phosphates in higher plants. The present study monitored the increase of INPS expression in Azolla filiculoides resulting from exposure to inorganic phosphates, metals and salt stress. The expression of INPS was significantly higher in Azolla plants that were grown in rich mineral growth medium than those maintained on nutritional growth medium. The expression of INPS protein and corresponding mRNA increased in plants cultured in minimal nutritional growth medium when phosphate or Zn2+, Cd2+ and NaCl were added to the growth medium. When employing rich mineral growth medium, INPS protein content increased with the addition of Zn2+, but decreased in the presence of Cd2+ and NaCl. These results indicated that accumulation of phytate in Azolla is a result of the intensified expression of INPS protein and mRNA, and its regulation may be primarily derived by the uptake of inorganic phosphate, and Zn2+, Cd2+ or NaCl.

  2. Invasion and spreading of Cabomba caroliniana revealed by RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofeng; Ding, Bingyang; Gao, Shuqin; Jiang, Weimei

    2005-12-01

    Applying randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), the genetic variation of Cabomba caroliniana Gray (cabomba or fanwort), a new alien plant in China, was analyzed in this paper. Total 143 bands, including 47 polymorphic bands, were amplified from 23 primers in 20 samples. The sampling distance was large, but its genetic diversity was low. The main results were that: (1) Cabomba, which grew and dispersed mainly in fragment, was an abundant and dominant species in freshwater, and its main dispersal mechanism was vegetative reproduction (2) Cabomba was originally introduced into China as an aquarium submerged plant. Somehow, those discarded cabomba became invasive species in the areas of Hangzhou, Shanghai, and Meicheng, and other places. (3) Although the level of genetic diversity in cabomba was low, their rapid dispersion and propagation could seriously harm to local aquatic community. Therefore, specific measure should be used to control cabomba from uncontrolled spreading and damage to local vegetation communities.

  3. Ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove chemical oxygen demand and polyphenols from olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi, Angelo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biofiltration ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove polyphenols and chemical oxygen demand (COD from olive mill wastewater (OMWw collected from the traditional (TS and continuous (CS extraction systems. Azolla biomass was packed into five sequential Imhoff cones and five sequential columns. In both experiments, the filtrates collected from the 5th biofilter showed a decrease in polyphenol contents: from 7650 mg l–1 to 3610 mg l–1 in TS OMWw and from 3852 mg l–1 to 1351 mg l–1 in CS OMWw. The COD contents decreased from 110200 mg L–1 to 52400 mg L–1 in TS OMWw and from 41600 mg L–1 to 2300 mg L–1 in CS OMWw. A 5:1 OMWw to Azolla-fresh-weight ratio was optimal for both polyphenol and COD removal. The biofiltration ability of alfalfa was compared with that of Azolla, but the treatment with alfalfa did not result in the reduction of COD or polyphenols.La eficacia del helecho de agua azolla para eliminar polifenoles y reducir la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO de los alpechines obtenidos en el proceso de obtención tradicional y continuo del aceite de oliva, fue investigado mediante ensayos de filtración. Cinco conos secuenciales de Imhoff y cinco columnas secuenciales se rellenaron de biomasa de Azolla. En ambos experimentos, el filtrado procedente de la quinta extracción mostró una disminución en el contenido de polifenoles de 7650 mg L–1 a 3610 mg L–1en el alpechín obtenido mediante el sistema tradicional y de 3852 mg L–1 a 1351 mg L–1en el alpechín del sistema continuo. La demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín del sistema tradicional disminuyó de 110200 mg L–1 a 52400 mg L–1 en y de 41600 mg L–1a 2300 mg L–1en el procedente del sistema continuo. Una proporción en peso 5:1 de alpechín: Azolla fue la óptima tanto para la reducción de los polifenoles como para la de la DQO. La eficiencia del tratamiento biológico con alfalfa se comparó con la obtenida con Azolla. Los

  4. Effect of P nature phosphate dosage and embedding time of Azolla mycrophylla Kaulfuss on Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudah Hamawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort of growing azolla in intercroping rice will be hoped to supply a green manure for rice plants. Additing P of the phosphat rock in the field can be expected to increase the result of rice yield.The research was conducted on December 2, 2006 to April 5, 2007 at Tegalgondo Karangploso of Malang. onsidering those problems, the researcher employs the factorial group randome desigh that compose two factor by controlling as comparison tool (inorganic treatment. The first factor is P in the phosphat rock contained 4 stages. As followed Po (without P, P1 (25 kg P ha-1, P2 (50 kg P ha-1, P3 (25 kg P ha-1. The second factor is time of incorporated Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss (W, which consist 4 stage. As followed W1 (incorporated 1 day before transplanting rice, W2 (50 % the azolla biomass in the field was incorporated during 14, 28, and 42 days after transplanting rice, W3 (50 % the azolla biomass in the field was incorporated during 21, and 49 days after transplanting rice, W4 (50 % the azolla biomass in the field was incorporated during 35 days after transplanting rice. The research was replicated 3 replications. The research finding showed that phosphat rock with 25 kg of P ha-1 doses combinationed with time of incorporating the azolla biomass at 14, 28 and 42 days after transplanting rice, the result of rice would be increasing in 31,4 % and R/C value resulted 1,47. Giving phosphat rock with 25 – 75 kg P ha-1 doses increased the azolla biomass at 146,4 % until 153 % and increased the yield of rice at 21,1% until 43,8 %.

  5. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichilichi, Biswal; Mohanty, G P; Mishra, S K; Pradhan, C R; Behura, N C; Das, A; Behera, K

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38(th) day of age. At 42(nd) day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  6. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Chichilichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  7. Azolla as a component of the space diet during habitation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kishida, Yoshiro; Liu, Chung-Chu; Watanabe, Iwao; Wada, Hidenori; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We evaluate a candidate diet and specify its space agricultural requirements for habitation on Mars. Rice, soybean, sweet potato and a green-yellow vegetable have been selected as the basic vegetarian menu. The addition of silkworm pupa, loach, and Azolla to that basic menu was found to meet human nutritional requirements. Co-culture of rice, Azolla, and loach is proposed for developing bio-regenerative life support capability with high efficiency of the usage of habitation and agriculture area. Agriculture designed under the severe constraints of limited materials resources in space would make a positive contribution toward solving the food shortages and environmental problems facing humans on Earth, and may provide an effective sustainable solution for our civilization.

  8. Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The level of heavy metal pollution in Singrauli, an industrial region in India, was assessed and the phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae), was observed to purify waters polluted by two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) under a microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata is endemic to India and is an abundant and easy-growing free-floating water fern usually found in the rice fields, polluted ponds, and reservoirs of India. The fern was grown in 24 40-L aquariums containing Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions each in concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mgL(-1) during the course of this study. The study revealed an inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth by 27.0-33.9% with the highest in the presence of Hg (II) ions at 0.5 mgL(-1) in comparison to the control After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution were decreased up to 70-94%. In the tissues of Azolla pinnata, the concentration of selected heavy metals during investigation was recorded between 310 and 740 mgKg(-1) dry mass, with the highest levelfoundfor Cd (II) treatment at 3.0 mgL(-1) containing a metal solution.

  9. Ketersediaan Nitrogen Tanah dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Bayam (Amaranthus tricolor L. yang Diperlakukan dengan Pemberian Pupuk Kompos Azolla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Amir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOWNLOAD PDFPenelitian  ini  bertujuan  untuk  mengetahui kadar  nitogen  tanah  dan  pertumbuhantanaman bayam yang diberi pupuk kompos Azolla. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancanganacak kelompok (RAK yang terdiri atas 2 kelompok, dimana tiap kelompok terdiri atas 4perlakuan dan  1  kontrol  dengan  3  ulangan.  Parameter  pengamatan adalah  pertumbuhantanaman bayam yang meliputi tinggi tanaman (cm, berat kering tanaman bayam (gram,kadar amonium (NH4+ dan nitrat (NO3- pada tanah serta kadar nitrat (NO3- air lindihan.Hasil  penelitian  menunjukkan  bahwa  pupuk  kompos  Azolla  mulai  berpengaruh  nyataterhadap  tinggi  tanaman  sejak  pengamatan  minggu  ke-tiga  dan  berpengaruh  nyata  pulaterhadap berat kering tanaman bayam. Pemberian pupuk kompos Azolla berpengaruh nyataterhadap kadar amonium dan nitrat tanah masing-masing pada minggu ke dua dan mingguke  dua  dan  ke  empat.  Disamping  itu  pemberian  pupuk  tersebut  juga  berpengaruh  nyataterhadap kadar nitrat pada air lindihan.Kata kunci : Pupuk kompos Azolla, pertumbuhan tanaman bayam, nitrogen tanah

  10. Evaluation of butachlor for control of some submerged macrophytes along with its impact on biotic components of freshwater system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chattopadhyay, S. Adhikari, S. P. Adhikary, S. Ayyappan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the efficacy of the herbicide butachlor, (N-butoxymethyl-2 chloro-21, 61 diethyl acetanilide was tested against few common submerged macrophytes namely Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L. Royale, Najas (Najas minor All., Nechamandra (Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. Thwaites and Ottelia (Ottelia alismoides (L. Pers. of freshwater fish ponds. Almost complete decay of Hydrilla, Nechamandra and Ottelia was achieved at 7.5 L of active ingredient/ha/m butachlor within 15 days while the herbicide showed no negative effect on Najas. However at the same concentration of butachlor, total mortality of zooplankton and water fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana Lamarck occurred within seven days. In case of few freshwater fish species like Rohu (Labeo rohita, Channa (Channa punctatus, Anabas (Anabas testitudineus and Heteropneustes (Heteropneustes fossilis, total mortality occurred upto 90 days after application of the same dose of butachlor but fish survived beyond 120 days of herbicide application indicating degradation of the herbicides.

  11. Kinetic modeling and thermodynamic study to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution using dead and living Azolla filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan; Khosravi, Morteza; Ganji, Masoud Taghi

    2006-06-30

    Dead Azolla filiculoides can remove Pb(2+),Cd(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) corresponding to second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q(max)) to remove these metal ions by the alkali and CaCl(2)/MgCl(2)/NaCl (2:1:1, molar ratio) activated Azolla from 283 to 313K was 1.431-1.272, 1.173-0.990, 1.365-1.198 and 1.291-0.981mmol/g dry biomass, respectively. Q(max) to remove these heavy metals by the non-activated Azolla at the mentioned temperature range was obtained 1.131-0.977, 1.092-0.921, 1.212-0.931 and 1.103-0.923mmol/g dry biomass, respectively. In order to remove these metal ions by the activated Azolla, the enthalpy change (DeltaH) was -4.403, -4.495, -4.557 and -4.365kcal/mol and the entropy change (DeltaS) was 2.290, 1.268, 1.745 and 1.006cal/molK, respectively. While, to remove these metal ions by the non-activated Azolla, DeltaH was -3.685, -3.766, -3.967 and -3.731kcal/mol and DeltaS was 2.440, 1.265, 1.036 and 0.933cal/molK, respectively. On the other hand, the living Azolla removed these heavy metals corresponding to first-order kinetic model. It was also shown that pH, temperature and photoperiod were effective both on the rate of Azolla growth and the rate of heavy metals uptake during 10 days. It was appeared the use of Ca(NO(3))(2) increased both Azolla growth rate and the rate of heavy metals uptake while the using KNO(3) although increased Azolla growth rate but decreased the rate of heavy metals uptake.

  12. Kinetic modeling and thermodynamic study to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution using dead and living Azolla filiculoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, P.O. Box 41335-3516, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khosravi, Morteza [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, P.O. Box 191367-4711, Tehran 191367-4711 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: drm_khosravi@yahoo.com; Ganji, Masoud Taghi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, P.O. Box 191367-4711, Tehran 191367-4711 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-06-30

    Dead Azolla filiculoides can remove Pb{sup 2+},Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} corresponding to second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q {sub max}) to remove these metal ions by the alkali and CaCl{sub 2}/MgCl{sub 2}/NaCl (2:1:1, molar ratio) activated Azolla from 283 to 313 K was 1.431-1.272, 1.173-0.990, 1.365-1.198 and 1.291-0.981 mmol/g dry biomass, respectively. Q {sub max} to remove these heavy metals by the non-activated Azolla at the mentioned temperature range was obtained 1.131-0.977, 1.092-0.921, 1.212-0.931 and 1.103-0.923 mmol/g dry biomass, respectively. In order to remove these metal ions by the activated Azolla, the enthalpy change ({delta}H) was -4.403, -4.495, -4.557 and -4.365 kcal/mol and the entropy change ({delta}S) was 2.290, 1.268, 1.745 and 1.006 cal/mol K, respectively. While, to remove these metal ions by the non-activated Azolla, {delta}H was -3.685, -3.766, -3.967 and -3.731 kcal/mol and {delta}S was 2.440, 1.265, 1.036 and 0.933 cal/mol K, respectively. On the other hand, the living Azolla removed these heavy metals corresponding to first-order kinetic model. It was also shown that pH, temperature and photoperiod were effective both on the rate of Azolla growth and the rate of heavy metals uptake during 10 days. It was appeared the use of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} increased both Azolla growth rate and the rate of heavy metals uptake while the using KNO{sub 3} although increased Azolla growth rate but decreased the rate of heavy metals uptake.

  13. Valorisation de Azolla spp, Moringa oleifera, son de riz, et de co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    FAST)/ Université d'Abomey- .... la production de viande (Figueroa and Ly, 1990). ..... International Conference on Sustainable Food ... Azolla-Anabaena's behaviour in urban .... characteristics and consumer preference of.

  14. Influence of an azolla layer on growth, production and efficiency and use of 15N Labelled urea fertilizer of lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrarti, Etty; Sopandie, Didy; Komarudin Idris; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of an Azolla mat on rice growth, percentage of N-total, N derived from fertilizer and urea efficiency. The experiment used a factorial design which consists of 2 factors : the using of an Azolla mat and the doses of N fertilizer. The first factor comprised 2 levels, with (A1) and without an azolla mat (A0). The second factor comprised 4 levels, 0(N0), 30 (N1), 60(N2) and 90 kg N/ha(N3).Application of 15 N labeled Urea done to determine percentage N-derived from Urea efficiency , which was divided in 2 experiment series as follows : application Urea at planting (experiment I) and one month after planting (experiment II). The experiments were carried out in the green house of Agricultural Faculty of IPB and continued in the laboratory of BATAN. Parameters observed were plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains/panicle, dry weight of grain, straw and percentage of empty grain. Result of the experiment showed that an Azolla mat, the doses of N fertilizer and interaction of both increased all the parameters observed yield, except for percentage of empathy grain, up to the dose of N fertilizer at 60 kg N/ha and decreased at the dose of N fertilizer at 90 kg N/ha. The treatment of Urea fertilizer doses resulted in a significant difference on the percentage of N- derived from Urea for both experiment, but not for the treatment of an Azolla mat and the interaction of both treatment. An azolla mat, N fertilizer and interaction of both did not result in a significantly difference on the percentage of total-N and Urea efficiency. The best treatment combination was treatment of an azolla mat and dose of Urea fertilizer of 60 kg N/ha. (author)

  15. Pre-treatment processes of Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution in the batch and fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Morteza; Rakhshaee, Roohan; Ganji, Masuod Taghi

    2005-12-09

    Intact and treated biomass can remove heavy metals from water and wastewater. This study examined the ability of the activated, semi-intact and inactivated Azolla filiculoides (a small water fern) to remove Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) from the aqueous solution. The maximum uptake capacities of these metal ions using the activated Azolla filiculoides by NaOH at pH 10.5 +/- 0.2 and then CaCl(2)/MgCl(2)/NaCl with total concentration of 2 M (2:1:1 mole ratio) in the separate batch reactors were obtained about 271, 111, 71 and 60 mg/g (dry Azolla), respectively. The obtained capacities of maximum adsorption for these kinds of the pre-treated Azolla in the fixed-bed reactors (N(o)) were also very close to the values obtained for the batch reactors (Q(max)). On the other hand, it was shown that HCl, CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, FeCl(2), SrCl(2), BaCl(2) and AlCl(3) in the pre-treatment processes decreased the ability of Azolla to remove the heavy metals in comparison to the semi-intact Azolla, considerably. The kinetic studies showed that the heavy metals uptake by the activated Azolla was done more rapid than those for the semi-intact Azolla.

  16. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic diversity in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) an important medicinal plant collected from 7 different locations covering Madhya Pradesh. High level of genetic similarity was observed in the collected accessions. 4 random primers generated a ...

  17. Is there foul play in the leaf pocket? The metagenome of floating fern Azolla reveals endophytes that do not fix N2 but may denitrify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Laura W; Brouwer, Paul; Bolhuis, Henk; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Koppers, Nils; Huettel, Bruno; Bolger, Anthony M; Li, Fay-Wei; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Xin; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Pryer, Kathleen; Weber, Andreas; Bräutigam, Andrea; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation by Nostoc azollae residing in specialized leaf pockets supports prolific growth of the floating fern Azolla filiculoides. To evaluate contributions by further microorganisms, the A. filiculoides microbiome and nitrogen metabolism in bacteria persistently associated with Azolla ferns were characterized. A metagenomic approach was taken complemented by detection of N 2 O released and nitrogen isotope determinations of fern biomass. Ribosomal RNA genes in sequenced DNA of natural ferns, their enriched leaf pockets and water filtrate from the surrounding ditch established that bacteria of A. filiculoides differed entirely from surrounding water and revealed species of the order Rhizobiales. Analyses of seven cultivated Azolla species confirmed persistent association with Rhizobiales. Two distinct nearly full-length Rhizobiales genomes were identified in leaf-pocket-enriched samples from ditch grown A. filiculoides. Their annotation revealed genes for denitrification but not N 2 -fixation. 15 N 2 incorporation was active in ferns with N. azollae but not in ferns without. N 2 O was not detectably released from surface-sterilized ferns with the Rhizobiales. N 2 -fixing N. azollae, we conclude, dominated the microbiome of Azolla ferns. The persistent but less abundant heterotrophic Rhizobiales bacteria possibly contributed to lowering O 2 levels in leaf pockets but did not release detectable amounts of the strong greenhouse gas N 2 O. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    The Azolla interval, as encountered in Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean, is characterized by organic rich sediments ( 4wt% Corg). In general, high levels of organic matter may be caused by increased productivity, i.e. extensive growth of Azolla, and/or enhanced preservation of organic matter, or a combination of both. Anoxic (bottom) water conditions, expanded oxygen minimum zones, or increased sedimentation rates all potentially increase organic matter preservation. According to plate tectonic, bathymetric, and paleogeographic reconstructions, the Arctic Ocean was a virtually isolated shallow basin, with one possible deeper connection to the Nordic Seas represented by a still shallow Fram Strait (Jakobsson et al., 2007), hampering ventilation of the Arctic Basin. During the Azolla interval surface waters freshened, while at the same time bottom waters appear to have remained saline, indicating that the Arctic was highly stratified. The restricted ventilation and stratification in concert with ongoing export of organic matter most likely resulted in the development of anoxic conditions in the lower part of the water column. Whereas the excess precipitation over evaporation maintained the freshwater lid, sustained input of Nordic Sea water is needed to keep the deeper waters saline. To which degree the Arctic Ocean exchanged with the Nordic Seas is, however, still largely unknown. Here we present a high-resolution trace metal record (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) for the expanded Early/Middle Eocene section capturing the Azolla interval from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 (ACEX) drilled on the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean. Euxinic conditions throughout the interval resulted in the efficient removal of redox sensitive trace metals from the water column. Using the sedimentary trace metal record we also constrained circulation in the Arctic Ocean by assessing the relative importance of trace metal input sources (i.e. fluvial, eolian, and

  19. Alien and exotic Azolla in northern Iran | Hashemloian | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azolla filiculoides a planktonic fern found floating on the surface of wetlands, ponds and rivers. Because of its ability to fix nitrogen through symbiotic cyanobacteria, it causes more rice production in paddy fields and is used as a green fertilizer. A. filiculoides was introduced from Philippine as a green fertilizer for rice crop to ...

  20. Improvement Bio sorption of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater Using Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to improve the removal process which is vital for some heavy metals and natural radionuclides from industrial wastewater by bio sorption using living organisms with rapid growth as a trial to increase the efficient use of those organisms in the removal process is vital for the toxic elements. Bio sorption of heavy metal (Copper, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Lead and Strontium) from industrial waste water (contaminated) with six different time periods for Azolla growth. The results indicate that Azolla plant able to on the absorption of ions of heavy elements and Sr and was up to the maximum absorption of most of the elements at a concentration of 50% of polluted water + 50% fresh water so we recommend using the plant Azolla as bio sorbent in the disposal and collection of heavy metals and radionuclides from industrial waste water and deal with it safely to humans and the environment. The results obtained confirm the ability of the fern to grow and absorb ion of heavy metal when mixed with industrial waste water and other sources of polluted water and act as bio filter. The optimum conditions for maximum removal of heavy metals were also determined. Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azollamicrophylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N bio fertilizer and has other applications as green manure,animal feed and bio filter.

  1. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, etc. Arsenic is one of the most severe toxic elements; it is widely distributed in the environment, usually found in combination with chloride, oxygen, sulphur and metal ions as a result of mineral dissolution from sedimentary or volcanic rocks and the dilution of geothermal water. The effluents from both industrial and agricultural sectors are also regarded as sources to contaminate water. From the accumulation point of view, several aquatic plants have been mentioned as good arsenic accumulators and their performance is evaluated using the green technology method. These include Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia globosa, Lemna gibba, L. minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, Azolla pinnata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Pistia stratiotes. The up-to-date information illustrated in this review paper generates knowledge about the ability of some common aquatic plants around the globe to remediate arsenic from contaminated water.

  2. Biology and preliminary host range of Hydrotimetes natans Kolbe (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)a natural enemy candidate for biological control of Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae) in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae), otherwise known as cabomba or water fanwort, is a submerged, rooted macrophyte with heavily dissected leaves that produces flowers that extend above the water’s surface. It has been disseminated around the world through the aquarium trade and has become a nox...

  3. Agronomic efficiency and physiologic efficiency determination of Azolla-N and Urea-N applied to lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsje L.; Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, Widjang H.; Wemay, Johannis; Djawanas, Amrin

    1994-01-01

    Data from three field experiments using 15 N labelled Azolla and urea as an N source have been used to determine the agronomical and physiological efficiency of the N-Azoll and N-Urea applied tolowland rice. In general physiological efficiency of N from N-sources applied was lower than the agronomical efficiency. It seems that the increase of N-rates would enhance the agronomical and physiological efficiency of N applied to lowland rice but on the other hand the efficiency of N derived from the applied N-source decreased. Azolla+inorganic N-fertilizer when applied to lowland rice could increase rice yield expresses in dry weight of grain and straw above the control plants. Applying Azolla+inorganic N-fertilizer in the farmer's field located in West Java and West Sumatera often showed higher yields compared to when applied with inorganic N-fertilizer alone although the latter has higher total N-rates. (author). 9 refs, 8 tabs, 5 figs

  4. Investigation of Pb(II Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by Using Azolla Filiculoides Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Discharge of industrial wastewater containing Pb into the environment can have harmful effects in the live organisms. Therefore, Pb must be removed from polluted water using an effective method before being discharged into the environment. The purpose of the present study was to examine Pb removal using alga Azolla biomass. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, removal of Pb(II was performed using Azolla biomass considering changes in time, pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of Pb and mixing speed. Experiments were performed in batch reactor in flasks on Shaker. , Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for Pb determination. All experiments were conducted in triplicate and the mean removal percent was reported. Finally, biosorption kinetic and equilibrium isotherms of adsorbent was investigated. Results: It was found that the higher removal efficiency of Pb occurred in pH 6 and aoptimum dsorbent dose 7 g/L. With increase in the initial concentration of Pb, removal efficincy decreased and with increasing of contact time and mixing speed,efficincy increased. Data also showed that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic are compliance. Conclusion: Azolla biomass is an efficient and low-cost adsorbent for removing of Pb (II from water and wastewater.

  5. Application of Azolla for 2-Chlorophenol and 4-Chrorophenol Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The 2-chlorophenol (2-CP and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP are phenolic compounds which may have adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, removing these compounds from water and wastewater is necessary. This study aims to analyze 2-CP and 4-CP removal by using Azolla filiculoides biomass. Materials & Methods: Azolla biomass was sun dried, crushed and sieved to particle sizes ranging 1-2 mm. Then it was treated with 0.1M HCl for 5h followed by washing with distilled water and it was used as adsorbent. The residues concentration of 2-CP and 4-CP was measured by spectrophotometer in λmax of 274 and 280 nm, respectively. Results: The solute removed increases as contact time rises. The equilibrium time for 2-CP and 4-CP is 90 and 75, respectively. The removal efficiency of 4-CP is more than 2-CP. An increase in initial concentration of both compounds can lead to decrease of their removal efficiency. The optimum pH to remove both compounds is 5. The equilibrium data matched best on Freundlich isotherm and the adsorption kinetic model follows pseudo-second model. Conclusion: The results indicated that Azolla is an effective adsorbent for removing 2-CP and 4-CP from water and wastewater.

  6. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.

    2010-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  7. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers.

  8. Factors regulating nitrogenase activity and hydrogen evolution in Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, M.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, H.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogenase activity and H{sub 2} production capacity have been studied in intact Azolla plants. Under aerobic conditions the plants showed a C{sub 2}H{sub 2} reduction rate of 6.65 nmoles C{sub 2}H{sub 4} mg {sup -1} fresh weight in light at 48 h. Considerable activity was also present in the dark. Though H{sub 2} evolution was detected under aerobic conditions there was multifold stimulation under anaerobic conditions. There was no significant change in nitrogenase activity under anaerobic conditions. Increasing concentrations of O{sub 2} inhibited nitrogenase activity but 5% O{sub 2} proved stimulatory for H{sub 2} evolution in light. In the dark, there was a gradual stimulation in H{sub 2} evolution even up to 20% O{sub 2}. The addition of combined nitrogen sources, namely NH{sub 4}Cl or KNO{sub 3} (10 mM), resulted in complete inhibition of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-reduction activity within 48 h, but H{sub 2} evolution was not inhibited. Indeed, these combined nitrogen sources stimulated H{sub 2} evolution. Though nitrogenase activity was affected, the heterocyst frequency remained unaltered. Phosphate addition resulted in significant stimulation of nitrogenase and H{sub 2} evolution activity. These results suggest that nitrogenase and H{sub 2} evolution activity in Azolla are affected by a number of factors which show a differential effect on nitrogenase and H{sub 2} evolution. Furthermore, our results indicate the presence of a soluble reversible hydrogenase in Azolla. (author).

  9. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of glutamine synthetase in hair cells of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uheda, Eiji; Maejima, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-15

    In the Azolla-Anabaena association, the host plant Azolla efficiently incorporates and assimilates ammonium ions that are released from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont, probably via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) in hair cells, which are specialized cells protruding into the leaf cavity. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying ammonium assimilation in the Azolla-Anabaena association, Azolla plants were grown under an argon environment (Ar), in which the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont was inhibited specifically and completely. The localization of GS in hair cells was determined by immunoelectron microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling. Azolla plants grew healthily under Ar when nitrogen sources, such as NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), were provided in the growth medium. Both the number of cyanobacterial cells per leaf and the heterocyst frequency of the plants under Ar were similar to those of plants in a nitrogen environment (N(2)). In hair cells of plants grown under Ar, regardless of the type of nitrogen source provided, only weak labeling of GS was observed in the cytoplasm and in chloroplasts. In contrast, in hair cells of plants grown under N(2), abundant labeling of GS was observed in both sites. These findings indicate that specific inhibition of the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of GS isoenzymes. Ammonium fixed and released by the cyanobiont could stimulate GS synthesis in hair cells. Simultaneously, the abundant GS, probably GS1, in these cells, could assimilate ammonium rapidly.

  10. Responses of the nitrogen-fixing aquatic fern Azolla to water contaminated with ciprofloxacin: Impacts on biofertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; de Brito, Júlio César Moreira; Carvalho Carneiro, Marília Mércia Lima; Ribeiro da Cunha, Mariem Rodrigues; Garcia, Queila Souza; Figueredo, Cleber Cunha

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to take up ciprofloxacin (Cipro), as well as the effects of that antibiotic on the N-fixing process in plants grown in medium deprived (-N) or provided (+N) with nitrogen (N). Azolla was seen to accumulate Cipro at concentrations greater than 160 μg g -1 dry weight when cultivated in 3.05 mg Cipro l -1 , indicating it as a candidate for Cipro recovery from water. Although Cipro was not seen to interfere with the heterocyst/vegetative cell ratios, the antibiotic promoted changes with carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. Decreased photosynthesis and nitrogenase activity, and altered plant's amino acid profile, with decreases in cell N concentrations, were observed. The removal of N from the growth medium accentuated the deleterious effects of Cipro, resulting in lower photosynthesis, N-fixation, and assimilation rates, and increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Our results shown that Cipro may constrain the use of Azolla as a biofertilizer species due to its interference with nitrogen fixation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of AzollaFiliculoides Biomass in Acid Black 1 Dye Adsorption from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The textile dyes are considered as important pollutants due to the toxicity on human and environment. Therefore, the dye removal from industrial effluents is necessary. This study evaluates the ability of Azolla for the adsorption of acid black 1 (AB1 dye from aqueous solution. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental-laboratory study. The Azolla biomass was sun dried, crushed and sieved to particle sizes in the range of 1-2 mm. Then, it treated with 0.1 M HCl for 5 h, followed by washing with distilled water, and it used as an adsorbent. The effect of study parameter was investigated, and the residues AB1 concentration was measured by DR2800 spectrophotometer at in λmax = 622 nm. Results: The results indicated that the efficiency of AB1 adsorption decreased with increased initial dye concentration. It increased with increased contact time and adsorbent. The highest adsorption efficiency was occurred at pH = 2. The equilibrium data were the best fitted on Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Conclusion: The Azolla could present high ability in dye removal. Therefore, it can be used as inexpensive and effective adsorbent in textile effluent treatment.

  12. Pemberian Kombinasi Pupuk Hijau Azolla Pinnata Dengan Pupuk Guano Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Pakchoy (Brassica Chinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    OS, Ozi Nurhasanah; Yetti, Husna; Ariani, Erlida

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to look the influence of the combination of green fertilizer Azolla pinnata with guano toward the growth and production of pakchoy and to obtain the best treatment from Azolla pinnata with guano toward pakchoy. This research was conducted at the experimental farm of Farming Faculty of Riau University. This research was accomplished during 3 months that was from June to August 2014. It was carried out experimentally with Group Random Design (GRD), the treatment given which ...

  13. Dynamics of N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil nitrogen in paddy field with azolla and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Wahyuningsih, G. I.; Syamsiyah, J.; Mujiyo

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of macronutrients which is dynamic in the soil and becomes constraint factor for rice crops. The addition of nitrogen fertilizers and its absorption in paddy field causes the dynamics of nitrogen, thus declines of N absorption efficiency. The aim of this research is to know influence Azolla, biochar and different varieties application on N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil N in paddy field. This research was conducted in a screen house located in Jumantono Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) with altitude 170 m asl from April to June 2016. Treatment factors that were examined consisted of azolla (0 and 10 tons/ha), biochar (0 and 2 tons/ha), and rice varieties (Cisadane, Memberamo, Ciherang, IR64). The results of this research showed that there was no interaction between azolla, biochar and varieties. Nevertheless, azolla treatment with dose of 10 tons/ha increased soil NH4 + content (41 days after planting, DAP) by 13.4% but tend to decrease at 70 and 90 DAP. Biochar treatment with dose of 2 ton/ha increases NO3 - soil content (70 DAP) by 1.7% but decreases total N soil by 5.8% (41 DAP) and 4.7% (90 DAP). Different rice varieties generated different soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) and rice root volume. Cisadane variety can increase soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) by 52.08% and root volume by 51.80% (90 DAP) compared with Ciherang variety. Organic rice field management with azolla and biochar affects the availability of N in the soil and increase N absorption efficiency through its role in increasing rice root volume.

  14. Orbitally forced Azolla blooms and Middle Eocene Arctic hydrology: Clues from palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Abels, H.A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Greenwood, D.R.; Sweet, A.R.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A.F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early-Middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface-water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  15. Orbitally forced Azolla blooms And Middle Eocene Arctic hydrology: Clues from palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Abels, H.A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Greenwood, D.R.; Sweet, A.R.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A.F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early-Middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface-water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  16. Alimentation des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) à base de Azolla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les systèmes intégrés de production constituent l'une des voies essentielles pour une agriculture durable. Cette étude a pour but d'évaluer l'effet d'une alimentation à base de Azolla filiculoïdes, Elaeis guineensis, Ipomoea aquatica et Panicum maximum sur les performances zootechniques des lapins et le potentiel nutritif ...

  17. Limited Multiplication of Symbiotic Cyanobacteria of Azolla spp. on Artificial Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L. F.; Watanabe, I.; Liu, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    We examined various media and conditions to isolate symbiotic cyanobacteria from the leaf cavities of Azolla spp. Cyanobacteria survived and multiplied to a limited extent on a medium with fructose, Casamino Acids, yeast extract, and NaNO3 under 1% O2. These cyanobacteria were antigenically identical to the endosymbionts. Images PMID:16348366

  18. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dufech Esteves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  19. Evaluating the combined effects of pretilachlor and UV-B on two Azolla species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Kumar, Sushil; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Anita; Singh, Rachana

    2016-03-01

    The present study assessed the comparative responses of two agronomic species of Azolla (A.microphylla and A. pinnata) exposed to man-made and natural stressors by evaluating biomass accumulation, pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid contents), photosynthetic activity and nitrogen metabolism. The study was carried out in field where two species of Azolla were cultured and treated with various concentrations (5, 10 and 20 μg ml(-1)) of herbicide; pretilachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(2-propoxyethyl) acetanilide] and enhanced levels (UV-B1: ambient +2.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1) and UV-B2: ambient +4.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) of UV-B, alone as well as in combination. Biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigments; chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, photosynthetic oxygen yield and photosynthetic electron transport activities i.e. photosystem II (PS II) and photosystem I (PS I) in both the species declined with the increasing doses of pretilachlor and UV-B radiation, which further declined when applied in combination. The lower doses (5 and 10 μg ml(-1)) of pretilachlor and UV-B (UV-B1 and UV-B2) alone, damaged mainly the oxidation side of PS II, whereas higher dose (20 μg ml(-1)) of pretilachlor alone and in combination with UV-B1 and UV-B2 caused damage to PS II reaction centre and beyond this towards the reduction side. A significant enhancement in respiration was also noticed in fronds of both the Azolla species following pretilachlor and UV-B treatment, hence indicating strong damaging effect. The nitrate assimilating enzymes - nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase and ammonium assimilating enzymes - glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase were also severely affected when treated either with pretilachlor and/or UV-B while glutamate dehydrogenase exhibited a stimulatory response. The study suggests that both the species of Azolla showed considerable damage under pretilachlor and UV-B treatments alone, however, in combination the effect was more intense. Further, in

  20. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan

    2012-07-01

    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  1. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-L-Sisworo; H-Rasjid; Haryanto; Idawati

    2008-01-01

    Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days), dry season (120 days), wet season (120 days) at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m 2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m 2 . The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15 N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1) and IR-64 (V2); several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc), Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi ), Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St), grain (G), plant (P1 = St + G) in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to) of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu) of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S) of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1) is better than V2 (IR-64) expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM) and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N. (author)

  2. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. Sisworo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days, dry season (120 days, wet season (120 days at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m2. The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1 and IR-64 (V2; several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 = urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc, Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi , Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St, grain (G, plant (P1 = St + G in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1 is better than V2 (IR-64 expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N

  3. Sensitivity of aquatic organisms to ethanol and its potential use as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility for the use of the organisms Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana, Hyphessobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata and Daphnia magna as exposure bioindicators for ethanol (lethal and effective concentration 50% - LC50(I/EC50(I. Thus, the following concentrations were used 5.0; 10.0; 20.0; 30.0; 40.0 and 50.0 mg L-1 ethanol on L. minor; 25.0; 50.0; 75.0; 100.0; 150.0 and 200.0 mg L-1 on A. caroliniana; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1 on H. eques; 0.05; 0.10; 0.20; 0.40 and 0.80 mg L-1 on P. canaliculata; and 40.0; 60.0; 80.0; 100.0; 120.0 and 140.0 mg L-1 on D. magna. An untreated control was also kept for all organisms, with three repetitions. The increase in the ethanol concentration elevated the electrical conductivity and decreased the water dissolved oxygen and pH. The ethanol LC50 for L. minor and A. caroliniana were 12.78 and 73.11 mg L-1, respectively, and was classified as slightly toxic; 1.22 mg L-1 for H. eques (moderately toxic; 0.39 mg L-1 for P. canaliculata (highly toxic and 98.85 mg L-1 for D. magna (slightly toxic. Thus, H. eques and P. canaliculata have showed good potential for the use as ethanol exposure bioindicators on water bodies.

  4. Effects of 60Co γ-rays radiation on biological characters of Platanus acerifolia Willd. weed and seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhineng; Liu Guofeng; Bao Manzhu

    2006-01-01

    The dry seeds of Platanus acerifolia Willd. were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ-rays, and the effect of the radiation on M 1 were investigated. Results showed that the seed germination rate, emerged seedling rate and survival seedling rate of Platanus aceriflia Willd. Decreased with dose increase at the dose of 50-400 Gy, as well as the plant height, fresh weight and length of root. The radiation inhibited the seeding growth significantly. Compared with CK, the true leaf emerging time of samples irradiated at 50-250 Gy was late for 2, 5, 9 and 14d, respectively. But the young seedlings of samples treated at 300-400 Gy were severely twisted and abnormal, and gradually died after 15d. Based on the data of seeding rate and root growth, it is concluded that the semi-lethal radiation dose of Platanus acerifolia Willd. dry seed was 50 Gy, and the suitable dose range for radiation breeding was 50 to 250 Gy. (authors)

  5. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepesh Bharat; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Vinod; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Muneendra; Kushwaha, Raju; Vaswani, Shalini

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1) served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental groups in the present study, cell

  6. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Bharat Mishra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1 served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P. Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all

  7. Modulation of physiological responses with TiO2 nano-particle in Azolla pinnata R.Br. under 2,4-D toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arnab Kumar; Ghosh, Arijit; Debnath, Subhas Chandra; Sarkar, Bipul; Saha, Indraneel; Adak, Malay Kumar

    2018-06-05

    The present work is emphasised with the herbicidal tolerance of Azolla pinnata R.Br. and its modulation with TiO 2 nano-particle. Both carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism were effected with 2,4-D as herbicide and in few cases TiO 2 -NP had recovered few detrimental effects. From the nutrient status in Azolla it recorded the recovery of nitrogen as well as potassium by TiO 2 -NP but not in case of phosphorus. However, a conversion of nitrate to ammonium was more induced by TiO 2 -NP under herbicidal toxicity. Similar results were obtained for inter-conversion of amino acid-nitrate pool, but no changes with glutamine synthase activity with TiO 2 -NP. Initially, the effects of 2,4-D was monitored with changes of chlorophyll content but had not been recovered with nanoparticle. Photosynthetic reserves expressed as both total and reducing sugar were insensitive to TiO 2 -NP interference but activity of soluble and wall bound invertase was in reverse trend as compared to control. The 2,4-D mediated changes of redox and its oxidative stress was ameliorated in plants with over expressed ADH activity. As a whole the Azolla bio system with TiO 2 supplementation may be useful in sustenance against 2,4-D toxicity through recovery of nitrogen metabolism. Thus, Azolla-TiO 2 -NP bio system would be realised to monitor the herbicidal toxicity in soil and its possible bioremediation.

  8. PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE Geranium chilloense WILLD. EX KUNTH. PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE PLANTAS COMPLETAS

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Thaly; Córdova, Adriana; Vaca, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth es conocida con el nombre de Geranio de los Chillos, es una planta ornamental silvestre, nativa de Los Andes se encuentra distribuida en las quebradas del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito y forma parte de la historia de la flora nativa de Quito ya que ha sido descrita desde la expedición de Alexander Humboldt y Aimé Bonpland en 1802. El presente estudio presenta un protocolo de propagación in vitro de Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth, para la ...

  9. Azolla along a phosphorus gradient: biphasic growth response linked to diazotroph traits and phosphorus-induced iron chlorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmink, Ralph J M; Harpenslager, Sarah F; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Dijk, Gijs; Peters, Roy C J H; Lamers, Leon P M; van Kempen, Monique M L

    2018-03-13

    Azolla spp., a water fern often used for phytoremediation, is a strong phosphorus (P) accumulator due to its high growth rate and N 2 fixing symbionts (diazotrophs). It is known that plant growth is stimulated by P, but the nature of the interactive response of both symbionts along a P gradient, and related changes in growth-limiting factors, are unclear. We determined growth, and N and P sequestration rates of Azolla filiculoides in N-free water at different P concentrations. The growth response appeared to be biphasic and highest at levels ≥10 P µmol l -1 . Diazotrophic N sequestration increased upon P addition, and rates were three times higher at high P than at low P. At 10 µmol P l -1 , N sequestration rates reached its maximum and A. filiculoides growth became saturated. Due to luxury consumption, P sequestration rates increased until 50 µmol P l -1 . At higher P concentrations (≥50 µmol l -1 ), however, chlorosis occurred that seems to be caused by iron- (Fe-), and not by N-deficiency. We demonstrate that traits of the complete symbiosis in relation to P and Fe availability determine plant performance, stressing the role of nutrient stoichiometry. The results are discussed regarding Azolla's potential use in a bio-based economy.

  10. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Ghanshyam Das Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show ...

  11. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growing Azolla to produce sustainable protein feed: the effect of differing species and CO2 concentrations on biomass productivity and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Paul; Schluepmann, Henriette; Nierop, Klaas Gj; Elderson, Janneke; Bijl, Peter K; van der Meer, Ingrid; de Visser, Willem; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Smeekens, Sjef; van der Werf, Adrie

    2018-03-24

    Since available arable land is limited and nitrogen fertilizers pollute the environment, cropping systems ought to be developed that do not rely on them. Here we investigate the rapidly growing, N 2 -fixing Azolla/Nostoc symbiosis for its potential productivity and chemical composition to determine its potential as protein feed. In a small production system, cultures of Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides were continuously harvested for over 100 days, yielding an average productivity of 90.0-97.2 kg dry weight (DW) ha -1  d -1 . Under ambient CO 2 levels, N 2 fixation by the fern's cyanobacterial symbionts accounted for all nitrogen in the biomass. Proteins made up 176-208 g kg -1 DW (4.9 × total nitrogen), depending on species and CO 2 treatment, and contained more essential amino acids than protein from soybean. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (800 ppm) significantly boosted biomass production by 36-47%, without decreasing protein content. Choice of species and CO 2 concentrations further affected the biomass content of lipids (79-100 g kg -1 DW) and (poly)phenols (21-69 g kg -1 DW). By continuous harvesting, high protein yields can be obtained from Azolla cultures, without the need for nitrogen fertilization. High levels of (poly)phenols likely contribute to limitations in the inclusion rate of Azolla in animal diets and need further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Production of biogas from Azolla pinnata R. Br. and Lemna minor L. : effect of heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, S K; Gujral, G S; Jha, N K; Vasudevan, P [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1992-01-01

    The absorption of iron, copper, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc, manganese and cobalt by Azolla pinnata R.Br and Lemna minor L., and subsequent utilization of this biomass for production of biogas (methane), have been investigated. Iron or manganese did not have any toxic effect on the anaerobic fermentation of Azolla and Lemna, while copper, cobalt, lead and zinc showed toxicity. At low concentrations cadmium and nickel showed a favourable effect on the rate of biogas production and its methane content, but with increase in concentrations,rate of biogas production and methane content decreased. However, although there was this decrease in biogas production and methane content, the methane content of biogas was still higher than that which was obtained from non-contaminated biomass. (author).

  15. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael F; Gurung, Sushma; Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  16. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Cohen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  17. Cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass on secondary-treated Delhi municipal effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Saxena, S. [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Centre for Conservation of Blue Green Algae

    2005-07-01

    Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N biofertiliser and has other applications as green manure, animal feed and biofilter. Secondary-treated municipal wastewaters were collected from Wazirabad sewage treatment plant in New Delhi during all four seasons and tested for reactive P and heavy metal content. The reactive P levels in effluents ranged between 1-2 ppm and levels of heavy metals like Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn were well below permissible limits. A. microphylla was grown in sewage effluents and its dilutions prepared with tapwater. It showed good growth potential on sewage effluents. Doubling times during September and December months compared well with those on Espinase and Watanabe (E and W) medium and tapwater. Dried Azolla biomass produced on sewage waters did not show presence of toxic heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb. However, levels of P in dried biomass cultivated on sewage effluents were lower as compared to those from E and W medium and tapwater. The biomass produced can be used for inoculating paddy fields or for other applications and polished wastewaters can be recycled for irrigation purposes. (author)

  18. Sugar supported H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction by the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozen, A.; Tel-Or, E.

    1986-01-01

    Sugar supported activities of H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction were characterized in axenic cell cultures of the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae isolated from the water fern Azolla filiculoides. Fructose was found to be the favoured substrate, enhancing activities in both the light and the dark even at relatively low concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mM. Higher concentrations of sucrose, (10-20mM) also supported H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction, while glucose was less effective. Levels of H/sub 2/ production were always lower than those of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction. 13 references.

  19. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  20. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  1. Oxygen uptake from aquatic macrophyte decomposition from Piraju Reservoir (Piraju, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bianchini Jr.

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxygen consumption related to mineralisation of 18 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (Cyperus sp, Azolla caroliniana, Echinodorus macrophyllus, Eichhornia azurea, Eichhornia crassipes, Eleocharis sp1, Eleocharis sp2, Hetereanthera multiflora, Hydrocotyle raniculoides, Ludwigia sp, Myriophyllum aquaticum, Nymphaea elegans, Oxycaryum cubense, Ricciocarpus natans, Rynchospora corymbosa, Salvinia auriculata, Typha domingensis and Utricularia foliosa from the reservoir of Piraju Hydroelectric Power Plant (São Paulo state, Brazil were described. For each species, two incubations were prepared with ca. 300.0 mg of plant (DW and 1.0 L of reservoir water sample. The incubations were maintained in the dark and at 20 ºC. Periodically the dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations were measured; the accumulated DO values were fitted to 1st order kinetic model and the results showed that: i high oxygen consumption was observed for Ludwigia sp (533 mg g-1 DW, while the lowest was registered for Eleocharis sp1 (205 mg g-1 DW mineralisation; ii the higher deoxygenation rate constants were verified in the mineralisation of A. caroliniana (0.052 day-1, H. raniculoides (0.050 day-1 and U. foliosa (0.049 day-1. The oxygen consumption rate constants of Ludwigia sp and Eleocharis sp2 mineralisation (0.027 day-1 were the lowest. The half-time of oxygen consumption varied from 9 to 26 days. In the short term, the detritus of E. macrophyllus, H. raniculoides, Ludwigia sp, N. elegans and U. foliosa were the critical resources to the reservoir oxygen demand; while in the long term, A. caroliniana, H. multiflora and T. domingensis were the resources that can potentially contribute to the benthic oxygen demand of this reservoir.

  2. Growth and solar energy conversion of Azolla sp., cultivated under four solar irradiance flux density; Crescimento e conversao da energia solar de Azolla sp. cultivada em quatro densidades do fluxo radiante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, E.F. de [Acre Univ., Rio Branco, AC (Brazil); Lopes, N.F. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal

    1994-02-01

    Growth and solar energy conversion were studied in three Azolla species grown under four levels (30, 50, 70 and 100%) of solar radiation incidence under outdoor conditions. Under full sunlight, the specie A. microphylla showed higher crop growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and efficiency of solar energy conversion than the other ones. (author). 8 figs., 23 refs.

  3. Reinterpretation of Azolla primaeva (Azollaceae, Eocene, Canada) using electron microscopy and X-ray tomographic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collinson, Margaret E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H.A.; Marone, Federica; Brain, Anthony P.R.

    Azolla primaeva (Penhallow) Arnold fertile whole plants from the lower Eocene of Driftwood Creek, Canada have been examined using LM, SEM, TEM and SRXTM methods on hand specimens and sieved residues. The new data have resulted in an emended diagnosis. The megaspore is partly covered by filosum and

  4. Crowdfunding the Azolla fern genome project: a grassroots approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fay-Wei; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Much of science progresses within the tight boundaries of what is often seen as a "black box". Though familiar to funding agencies, researchers and the academic journals they publish in, it is an entity that outsiders rarely get to peek into. Crowdfunding is a novel means that allows the public to participate in, as well as to support and witness advancements in science. Here we describe our recent crowdfunding efforts to sequence the Azolla genome, a little fern with massive green potential. Crowdfunding is a worthy platform not only for obtaining seed money for exploratory research, but also for engaging directly with the general public as a rewarding form of outreach.

  5. Armazenamento de sementes de Erythrina velutina willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelina Bernardo Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes embalagens e ambientes de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Erythrina velutina Willd.. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Departamento de Fitotecnia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (CCA-UFPB, localizado no município de Areia (PB. As sementes de Erythrina velutina Willd. foram coletadas embaixo de árvores matrizes, no mesmo município e levadas para o laboratório, onde se realizou a homogeneização e acondicionamento em embalagens de papel, pano e vidro e, posterior armazenamento em condições não controladas de laboratório (±25ºC, geladeira (6 ± 2ºC e câmara fria (4 ± 2ºC, por um período de 225 dias. Antes e após os intervalos de 45 dias foram retiradas amostras de cada embalagem e ambiente de armazenamento para avaliação das seguintes características: teor de água, emergência (porcentagem e índice de velocidade, comprimento e massa seca de epicótilo, hipocótilo e raiz das plântulas normais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições de 25 sementes para cada teste. As sementes de mulungu são ortodoxas e acondicionando-as nas embalagens de papel, pano ou vidro podem ser armazenadas nos ambientes de laboratório, geladeira e câmara fria, durante 225 dias sem perdas significativas na emergência das plântulas.

  6. Distribution of Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczęśniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla filiculoides has been an ephemeral plant in Poland since the end of the 20th century. In the last 15 years this species appeared in 5 locations in south-west Poland. Habitat and plants of two populations became destroyed, three other still exist. A. filiculoides occurs in eutrophic or even polluted water where it forms dense mats, up to 10 cm thick. It stays sterile and propagates only in a vegetative manner. Frost resistance of Lower Silesia populations is higher than reported so far; fern may winter and rebuild the population after frost reaching 22oC. Size of the populations is changeable during the vegetation season. A. filiculoides occurs in water habitats and plant communities in which it substitutes Lemna minor.

  7. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  8. Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.: a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sampaio Octaviano de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plant species are used throughout the world to achieve the modified states of conscientiousness. Some of them have been used for the therapeutic purposes, such as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poir. (family Mimosaceae known as "jurema-preta", an hallucinogenic plant traditionally used for curing and divination by the Indians of northeastern Brazil. In this review, several aspects of the use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of this plant are considered.Numerosas espécies de plantas são usadas para alterar estados de consciência. Algumas são utilizadas para fins terapêuticos, como Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poir. (Mimosaceae conhecida como "jurema-preta", uma planta alucinógena, tradicionalmente utilizada pelos índios no nordeste do Brasil. Nesta revisão, são considerados diversos aspectos do uso, fitoquímica e farmacologia desta planta.

  9. Azolla-Anabaena's behaviour in urban wastewater and artificial media--influence of combined nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M L; Santos, M C R; Carrapiço, F; Pereira, A L

    2009-08-01

    The results of using the nitrogen fixing symbiotic system Azolla-Anabaena to improve the quality of treated urban wastewater, particularly on what concerns phosphorus removal efficiencies (40-65%), obtained in continuous assays performed during the past few years and presented earlier, were very promising. Nevertheless, the presence of combined nitrogen in some wastewaters can compromise the treatment efficiency. The main goal of this work was to compare plants behaviour in wastewater and in mineral media with and without added nitrogen. Azolla filiculoides's specific growth rates in wastewater and in mineral media without added nitrogen or with low nitrate concentration were very similar (0.122 d(-1)-0.126 d(-1)), but decreased in the presence of ammonium (0.100 d(-1)). The orthophosphate removal rate coefficients were similar in all the growth media (0.210 d(-1)-0.232 d(-1)), but ammonium removal rate coefficient in wastewater was higher (0.117 d(-1)) than in mineral medium using that source of nitrogen (0.077 d(-1)). The ammonium present in wastewater, despite its high concentration (34 mg NL(-1)), didn't seem to inhibit growth and nitrogen fixation, however, in mineral media, ammonium (40 mg NL(-1)) was found to induce, respectively, 18% and 46% of inhibition.

  10. Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters in free water surface constructed wetlands using Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbile, Christopher O; Ogunrinde, Temitope A; Che Bt Man, Hasfalina; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Two constructed wetlands, one with Azolla pinnata plant (CW1) and the other without (CW2) for treating domestic wastewaters were developed. Fifteen water parameters which include: Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3N), Turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), and heavy metals such as Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The experiments were conducted in two (dry and wet) seasons simultaneously. Results showed considerable reductions in all parameters and metals including Zn in CW1 compared with CW2 in the two seasons considered while Pb and Mn were not detected throughout the study. Zn concentration levels reduced significantly in both seasons just as removal efficiencies of 70.03% and 64.51% were recorded for CW1 while 35.17% and 33.45% were recorded for CW2 in both seasons. There were no significant differences in the removal efficiencies of Fe in both seasons as 99.55%, 59.09%, 88.89%, and 53.56% were recorded in CW1 and CW2 respectively. Azolla pinnata has proved effective in domestic wastewater phytoremediation studies.

  11. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  12. Aboveground biomass equations for 7-year-old Acacia mangium Willd in Botucatu, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo A. A. Veiga; Maria A. M. Brasil; Carlos M. Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    The biomass of steins, leaves, and branches was determined for 152 sample trees of Acacia mangium Willd were in a 7-year-old experimental plantation in Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After felling, dimensional measurements were taken from each tree. Cross sections were collected in 125 sample trees at ground level (0 percent), 25 percent, 50...

  13. Desarrollo de un producto de panadería con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) / Bakery product development with quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Diana Paola

    2011-01-01

    Para este trabajo, se obtuvo harina de quinua de la variedad Nariño como materia prima en grano (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), para esto se adecuó la materia prima extrayendo las saponinas del grano y posterior secado con aire caliente. Se probó su uso en panificación utilizando mezclas de harina de quinua con harina de trigo, para conocer y aprovechar las ventajas a nivel nutricional de este grano tan poco conocido y comercializado, que puede ser fuente de proteína de calidad, utilizándose en p...

  14. Microcosm investigation of growth and phytoremediation potential of Azolla japonica along nitrogen gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun; Song, Uhram

    2017-10-03

    Although Azolla species are among the most promising plants for use in phytoremediation, more studies on their growth and nitrogen (N) uptake along the N gradients of growing media are required. In this study, N concentration-dependent growth in growing media and phosphorus (P) and N accumulation by Azolla japonica were studied by estimating direct N uptake from media by molybdenum-iron proteins. The doubling time of A. japonica was less than a week, regardless of the N concentration (0, 5, and 25 mg N/L) present in the growth media, indicating that this plant is suitable for remediation. Plants showed a high uptake of P, probably via plant-bacteria symbiosis, indicating their potential for effective P remediation. A. japonica also showed more than 4% N content regardless of the treatment and accumulated more than 40 mg of N per microcosm in 3 weeks. iron and molybdenum levels in plants were strongly associated with N fixation, and N uptake from media was estimated to be more than 25 mg per microcosm in 3 weeks, indicating that A. japonica has N remediation potential. As A. japonica is a rapidly growing plant, capable of efficient P and N remediation, it has great potential for use in phytoremediation of nutrient-enriched waters such as agricultural or urban wastewater and eutrophicated aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Point and interval estimation of pollinator importance: a study using pollination data of Silene caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J; Fenster, Charles B

    2008-05-01

    Pollinator importance, the product of visitation rate and pollinator effectiveness, is a descriptive parameter of the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator interactions. Naturally, sources of its variation should be investigated, but the SE of pollinator importance has never been properly reported. Here, a Monte Carlo simulation study and a result from mathematical statistics on the variance of the product of two random variables are used to estimate the mean and confidence limits of pollinator importance for three visitor species of the wildflower, Silene caroliniana. Both methods provided similar estimates of mean pollinator importance and its interval if the sample size of the visitation and effectiveness datasets were comparatively large. These approaches allowed us to determine that bumblebee importance was significantly greater than clearwing hawkmoth, which was significantly greater than beefly. The methods could be used to statistically quantify temporal and spatial variation in pollinator importance of particular visitor species. The approaches may be extended for estimating the variance of more than two random variables. However, unless the distribution function of the resulting statistic is known, the simulation approach is preferable for calculating the parameter's confidence limits.

  16. Cellular responses in the cyanobacterial symbiont during its vertical transfer between plant generations in the Azolla microphylla symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwen; Bergman, Birgitta; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Siping; Guan, Xiong; Xiang, Guan; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between cyanobacteria and the water fern Azolla microphylla is, in contrast to other cyanobacteria-plant symbioses, the only one of a perpetual nature. The cyanobacterium is vertically transmitted between the plant generations, via vegetative fragmentation of the host or sexually within megasporocarps. In the latter process, subsets of the cyanobacterial population living endophytically in the Azolla leaves function as inocula for the new plant generations. Using electron microscopy and immunogold-labeling, the fate of the cyanobacterium during colonization and development of the megasporocarp was revealed. On entering the indusium chamber of the megasporocarps as small-celled motile cyanobacterial filaments (hormogonia), these differentiated into large thick-walled akinetes (spores) in a synchronized manner. This process was accompanied by cytoplasmic reorganizations and the release of numerous membrane vesicles, most of which contained DNA, and the formation of a highly structured biofilm. Taken together the data revealed complex adaptations in the cyanobacterium during its transition between plant generations.

  17. Characterization and expression of a metallothionein gene in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor-Fumbarov, Tamar; Goldsbrough, Peter B; Adam, Zach; Tel-Or, Elisha

    2005-12-01

    A cDNA encoding a type 2 metallothionein (MT) was isolated from Azolla filiculoides, termed AzMT2, accession no. AF482470. The AzMT2 transcript was expressed in sterile A. filiculoides that were free of the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae after erythromycin treatment, proving that AzMT2 is encoded by the fern genome. AzMT2 RNA expression was enhanced by the addition of Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Zn(+2) and Ni(+2) to the growth medium. The transcript level of AzMT2 correlated with the metal content in the plants. Temporal analysis of AzMT2 expression demonstrated that Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) induction of AzMT2 RNA expression occurred within 48 h. AzMT2-enhanced expression responded more intensely to the toxic Cd and Ni ions in A. filiculoides suggesting that AzMT2 may participate in detoxification mechanism. The more moderate response of AzMT2 to Zn and Cu ions, which are essential micronutrients, suggest a role for AzMT2 in metal homeostasis.

  18. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical prod...

  19. Reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean environment during the Eocene Azolla interval using geochemical proxies and climate modeling. Geologica Ultraiectina (331)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    With the realization that the Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the aquatic floating fern Azolla 49 Myrs ago, new questions regarding the Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. This dissertation describes the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions

  20. Azolla planting reduces methane emission and nitrogen fertilizer application in double rice cropping system in southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Heshui; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jingna

    2017-01-01

    Rice paddies are a major source of methane. How to reduce the methane emission in the paddy field without decreasing the yield has become a major concern of scientists, environmental groups, and agricultural policymakers worldwide. Azolla, used as a dual crop in rice cultivation, has multiple agr...

  1. Performance of dead Azolla filiculoides biomass in Biosorption of Au from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, L J; Duncan, J R; Burgess, J E

    2006-01-01

    Dried milled biomass of Azolla filiculoides removed up to 98.2% of gold from wastewater from a gold plating factory containing 5 mg gold/l in solution in batch biosorption. The gold uptake capacity of the biomass was 98 mg/g. Whole dried biomass used in a continuous flow column removed up to 100% of gold from diluted wastewater. A similar column was linked to a sulphide precipitation process to provide a two-step system which was able to remove 98% of gold from undiluted wastewater containing 41 mg Au/l. The lifetime of the column was five days.

  2. Effects of Paclobutrazol on Growth and Flowering of Bougainvillea spectabilis WILLD

    OpenAIRE

    KARAGÜZEL, Osman

    2014-01-01

    The effects of paclobutrazol were examined in respect to the growth and flowering of Bougainvillea spectabilis WILLD under conditions of long and short natural photoperiods. In the middle of July and at the beginning of November, doses of paclobutrazol; 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 50 mg a.e./pot soil drench, and 0 (control), 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm foliage spray, were applied to plants grown in 18 cm pots (h=16.5 cm). With the application of paclobutrazol in the form of soil drench and fol...

  3. Bio indices for 2,4-D sensitivity between two plant species: Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Vernonia cinerea L. with their cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arnab Kumar; Dey, Narottam; Adak, Malay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    In the present experiment a pteridophytic species Azolla and an angiospermic species Vernonia were evaluated on the basis of cellular reactivity for herbicidal action through ongoing concentrations. Initially, both the species recorded a significant activity of IAA-oxidase as mark of IAA metabolism with herbicidal sensitivity. Still, Vernonia species were more affected on 2,4-D mediated auxin catabolism. The loss of auxin concentrations on the tissues by 2,4-D reaction was also reflected on growth parameters including relative growth rate and chlorophyll biosynthesis. In a dose dependent manner Vernonia plants were more affected with loss of chlorophyll content and decline in relative growth rate. On the other hand, both those parameters were adjusted significantly with 2,4-D accumulation in Azolla . The stability of cellular metabolism was documented by significant down regulation of protein and lipid peroxidation with concomitant moderation to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. The later two were more vulnerable to damage in the Vernonia plant with profuse accumulation of protein and lipid peroxidation products. Similarly, tissue specific reaction to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide accumulation were distinctly demarcated in two species significantly. As a whole, the cellular responses and metabolite distribution to 2,4-D sensitization are the features to describe bio-indices for aquatic fern species Azolla with comparison to angiospermic species Vernonia .

  4. Azolla-anabaena-bacteria system as a natural microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapico, Francisco J.

    2002-02-01

    Azolla is an aquatic fern that contains a permanent endosymbiotic prokaryotic community (cyanobacteria and bacteria) inside of the cavity in the leaf dorsal lobe of the pteridophyte. This is a unique situation and can be seen as a microcosm inside of an organism and also can be considered a good example of a living model for biological and environmental studies. These symbionts are specific of this symbiosis and lives immobilized in a mucilaginous fibrillar network, which fills part of the cavity. The symbionts works as immobilized organisms in a natural system that can be used as a model for biotechnological research and in biologically based life support systems. The nature and the complexity of this system is simultaneously a reference and a challenge for the research in the communication between the two levels of nature organization (microcosm and mesocosm), and can also be used as a reference for the design of new environmental engineered symbiotic systems that include man as a prelude to life in space.

  5. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis; Aplicacion del analisis por activacion neutronica y la fluorescencia de rayos X en el estudio de la composicion elemental de Chenopodium Quinoa Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Moran, R L [Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba). Facultad de Fisica; Szegedi, S [Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Fizikai Kemiai Intezete; Llopiz, J L [Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba). Instituto de Materiales y Reactivos para la Electronica

    1996-05-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer.

  6. Water ferns Azolla spp. (Azollaceae as new host plants for the small China-mark moth, Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Acentropinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atousa Farahpour-Haghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water ferns (Azolla spp., Azollaceae are reported for the first time as host plants for the larvae of the small China-mark moth Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Acentropinae in rice fields and waterways of northern Iran. Cataclysta lemnata is a semi-aquatic species that has been recorded to feed on Lemnaceae and a few other aquatic plants. However, it has not been reported before on Azolla spp. Larvae use water fern as food source and shelter and, at high population density in the laboratory, they completely wiped water fern from the water surface. Feeding was confirmed after rearing more than eight continual generations of C. lemnata on water fern in the laboratory. Adults obtained this way are darker and have darker fuscous markings in both sexes compared with specimens previously reported and the pattern remains unchanged after several generations.

  7. L’orobe (Vicia ervilia L. Willd.) au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    El Fatehi, Salama; Ater, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Dans cette contribution nous allons présenter certains aspects de l’histoire de la nomenclature et des usages de la culture de l’orobe (Vicia ervilia L. Willd.). Bien que cette culture soit actuellement considérée comme mineure et utilisée uniquement dans l’alimentation animale, cela n’a pas été toujours le cas. A certaines époques la culture de l’orobe était plus importante et occupait une place importante parmi les légumineuses cultivées. Même si elle était peu appréciée, elle était utilisé...

  8. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szegedi, S.; Llopiz, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer

  9. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to new regions demands acclimation to day-length, in addition to a host of other abiotic factors. To further elucidate the effects of photoperiod on development of quinoa, two differently adapted cultivars, Achachino (short day) from Bolivia and Ti...

  10. Effects of the naturally-occurring contaminant microcystins on the Azolla filiculoides-Anabaena azollae symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A L; Monteiro, B; Azevedo, J; Campos, A; Osório, H; Vasconcelos, V

    2015-08-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) contaminate aquatic ecosystems and are responsible for animal poisoning worldwide. We conducted a toxicity test with the aquatic fern and the biofertilizer, Azolla filiculoides. The sporophytes were exposed to three concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1μgmL(-1)) of a microcystin (MC) cyanobacterial crude extract and purified MC-LR. The growth of A. filiculoides decreased only at 1μgmL(-1) crude extract concentration while with MC-LR it decreased at all the tested concentrations, indicating that the presence of other compounds in the crude extract altered toxicity and stimulated the fern growth at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1μgmL(-1)). Both phycoerythrocyanin and allophycocyanin levels decreased in all the concentrations of crude extract and MC-LR. The phycocyanin had a marked increase at 0.1μgmL(-1) crude extract concentration and a marked decrease at 1μgmL(-1) MC-LR concentration. These changes in the phycobiliprotein content indicate a shift in the antenna pigments of the cyanobionts of A. filiculoides. The changes in two oxidative stress enzymes, glutathione reductase for the crude extract assay and glutathione peroxidase for MC-LR assay, points towards the induction of stress defense responses. The low bioconcentration factor in both crude extract and MC-LR treatments can suggest the low uptake of microcystins, and indicates that the aquatic fern can be used as a biofertilizer and as animal feed but is not suitable for MC phytoremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  12. Salinity-induced inhibition of growth in the aquatic pteridophyte Azolla microphylla primarily involves inhibition of photosynthetic components and signaling molecules as revealed by proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagela, Preeti; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Mishra, Vagish; Dahuja, Anil; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Budhi Sagar; Abraham, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in the growth and productivity of a plant. Azolla, a symbiotic pteridophyte and potent candidate for biofertilizer due to its nitrogen fixation ability, shows reduced growth and nitrogen fixation during saline stress. To better understand regulatory components involved in salinity-induced physiological changes, in the present study, Azolla microphylla plants were exposed to NaCl (6.74 and 8.61 ds/m) and growth, photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, ion accumulation, and changes in cellular proteome were studied. Maximum dry weight was accumulated in control and untreated plant while a substantial decrease in dry weight was observed in the plants exposed to salinity. Exposure of the organism to different concentrations of salt in hydroponic conditions resulted in differential level of Na + and K + ion accumulation. Comparative analysis of salinity-induced proteome changes in A. microphylla revealed 58 salt responsive proteins which were differentially expressed during the salt exposure. Moreover, 42 % spots among differentially expressed proteins were involved in different signaling events. The identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and defense. Downregulation of these key metabolic proteins appears to inhibit the growth of A. microphylla in response to salinity. Altogether, the study revealed that in Azolla, increased salinity primarily affected signaling and photosynthesis that in turn leads to reduced biomass.

  13. Photoproduction of hydrogen by a non-sulphur bacterium isolated from root zones of water fern Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Pandey, K.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1990-01-01

    A photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. BHU strain 1 was isolated from the root zone of water fern Azolla pinnata. The bacterium was found to produce hydrogen with potato starch under phototrophic conditions. The immobilized bacterial cells showed sustained hydrogen production with a more than 4-fold difference over free cell suspensions. The data have been discussed in the light of possible utilization of relatively cheaper raw materials by non-sulphur bacteria to evolve hydrogen. (author).

  14. Isotopic studies on nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycling in blue-green algae and azolla. Final report for the period 1985-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauser, A M; Sikander, A [Nuclear Inst. for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    1990-12-31

    Under the IAEA coordination project, a series of field and pot experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the various aspects of Azolla technology as a contribution of nitrogen to the nutrition of agricultural crops, especially rice. This final report summarizes the previous experiments and gives details on the last experiments. 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Isotopic studies on nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycling in blue-green algae and azolla. Final report for the period 1985-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauser, A.M.; Sikander, A.

    1989-01-01

    Under the IAEA coordination project, a series of field and pot experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the various aspects of Azolla technology as a contribution of nitrogen to the nutrition of agricultural crops, especially rice. This final report summarizes the previous experiments and gives details on the last experiments. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  16. Potential of the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides in biodegradation of an azo dye: modeling of experimental results by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, A R; Movafeghi, A; Vafaei, F; Lisar, S Y Salehi; Zarei, M

    2013-01-01

    The potential of an aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides, in phytoremediation of a mono azo dye solution, C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92), was studied. The effects of operational parameters such as reaction time, initial dye concentration, fern fresh weight, pH, temperature and reusability of the fern on biodegradation efficiency were investigated. The intermediate compounds produced by biodegradation process were analyzed using GC-MS analysis. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biodegradation efficiency. The findings indicated that ANN provides reasonable predictive performance (R2 = 0.961). The effects of AB92 solutions (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) on growth, chlorophylls and carotenoids content, activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase and formation of malondialdehyde were analyzed. AB92 generally showed inhibitory effects on the growth. Moreover, photosynthetic pigments in the fronds significantly decreased in the treatments. An increase was detected for lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity, suggesting that AB92 caused reactive oxygen species production in Azolla fronds, which were scavenged by induced activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiana; Huang, Min; Cao, Fangbo; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Zou, Yingbin

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata.

  18. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Ruwali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD in chicken lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m, gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME. Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 107 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and concanavalin A (Con A, respectively. Results: Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 μg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05 upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS and a significant (p<0.05 increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A, as compared to the control. Conclusion: The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  19. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwali, Pushpa; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Gautam, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells) proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD) in chicken lymphocytes. Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae) specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m), gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME). Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 10 7 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A), respectively. Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD) was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 µg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05) upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS) and a significant (p<0.05) increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A), as compared to the control. The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  20. A study on the Phytoremediation Potential of Azolla pinnata under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upekha Mandakini Lenaduwa Lokuge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments has become one of the major environmental problems all over the world. Phytoremediation is a plant based technology that utilizes special plants known as hyperaccumulators to purify heavy metal contaminated sites. Hyperaccumulators are capable of absorbing heavy metals in greater concentrations.  Azolla pinnata is an aquatic macrophyte that has been earmarked for its hyperaccumulation ability. This green technology is often more favoured over conventional methods due to its low cost, low environmental impacts and wider public acceptance.This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to assess the ability of A. pinnata for the removal of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb through rhizofiltration, which is one of the phytoremediation strategies under laboratory conditions. Under three main experiments, the fern’s phytoremediation ability was investigated. In the first experiment, A. pinnata was exposed to prepared solutions of Cr, Ni and Pb of 2ppm, 4ppm, 6ppm, 8ppm and 10ppm and of Cd solutions of 0.5ppm, 1.0ppm, 1.5ppm, 2.0ppm, 2.5ppm and 3.0ppm respectively. Experiments were carried out separately for Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations for 7 days. The concentrations of heavy metals used in the experiments largely agreed with the environmentally measured values, although in certain experiments, the initial concentrations exceeded the environmental pollution levels.The presence of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb caused a maximum inhibition of A.pinnata growth by 47%, 54%, 52% and 45% respectively while the highest removal percentages of Cr- 98%, Ni- 57%, Cd- 88% and Pb- 86% were recorded in 2ppm, 2ppm, 0.5ppm and 8ppm treatments respectively. The highest Bio Concentration Factor (BCF for Cr was 1376.67 when treated with 6ppm, 684.95 at 4ppm for Ni, 1120.06 at 0.5ppm for Cd and 1332.53 at 8ppm for Pb respectively. At the end of the experiments toxic symptoms were observed in plats exposed to Cd and Ni. The findings of

  1. Zoochoric and hydrochoric maritime dispersal of the Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Martins Fraga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations in the morphology and physiology of cactus species have been associated to their mechanisms of dispersal and colonization. The dispersal mechanisms and modes of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae were characterized in two beaches in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A marsupial from the genus Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae was the only frugivorous and, thus, disperser of fruits, presenting specific eating places. The maritime hydrochory was due to the overwash on restinga vegetation, it is characterized by the dispersal of cladodes and fruits at various times of the year. It is here firstly described the sea action as a potential disperser for a cactus species.

  2. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  3. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36,091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiana Chen

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata.

  5. Estrutura anatômica da madeira e qualidade do carvão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir Anatonical structure and charcoal quality of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas características anatômicas e dimensões de fibras, elementos dos vasos, células do parênquima e dos raios da madeira da Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Determinaram-se, ainda, a fração parede das fibras e o porcentual das fibras, dos vasos, dos raios e das células parenquimatosas, bem como a densidade, rendimento e propriedades do carvão vegetal. Conclui-se que a madeira de Mimosa tenuiflora possui poros predominantemente solitários, geminados e múltiplos em agrupamento radial; poros distribuídos em porosidade difusa uniforme; parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico, vasicêntrico confluente, aliforme e aliforme confluente; raios multisseriados, bisseriados e, menos freqüentemente, unisseriados; e fibras de parede espessa e muito curtas. Obteve-se um rendimento de 39,68% em carvão vegetal, com teor de carbono fixo de 71,70%, densidade igual a 0,51g/cm³, carbono fixo de 71,79 e poder calórico de 6.866 cal/g.The objective of this work was to determine anatomical characteristics, and dimensions of fibers, vessels and parenchyma and ray cells of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir wood. Fibers wall fraction, the percentage of fibers, vessels and ray and parenchyma cells, as well as density and charcoal production and properties were determined. The wood of Mimosa teniflora presents predominantly solitary, geminated and multiple porous in radial groups; porous distributed in uniform diffuse porosity; axial parenchyma paratracheal vasicentric, confluent vasicentric, aliform and confluent aliform; multiseriate, biseiat rays and, less frequently, uniseriate ones; very short fibers with thick walls. Charcoal yield was 39.68% with a 0.51g/cm³ density, 71.79% carbon content and 6886cal/g calorific value.

  6. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Interactive effects of herbicide and enhanced UV-B on growth, oxidative damage and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in two Azolla species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Kumar, Sushil; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Rachana

    2016-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of alone and combined exposures of herbicide pretilachlor (5, 10 and 20μgml(-1)) and enhanced UV-B radiation (UV-B1; ambient +2.2kJm(-2) day(-1) and UV-B2; ambient +4.4kJm(-2) day(-1)) on growth, oxidative stress and the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in two agronomically important Azolla spp. viz., Azolla microphylla and Azolla pinnata. Decreased relative growth rate (RGR) in both the species under tested stress could be linked to enhanced oxidative stress, thus higher H2O2 accumulation was observed, that in turn might have caused severe damage to lipids and proteins, thereby decreasing membrane stability. The effects were exacerbated when spp. were exposed to combined treatments of enhanced UV-B and pretilachlor. Detoxification of H2O2 is regulated by enzymes/metabolites of AsA-GSH cycle such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity that were found to be stimulated. While, dehydroascorabte reductase (DHAR) activity, and the amount of metabolites: ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and ratios of reduced/oxidized AsA (AsA/DHA) and GSH (GSH/GSSG), showed significant reduction with increasing doses of both the stressors, either applied alone or in combination. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), an enzyme involved in scavenging of xenobiotics, was found to be stimulated under the tested stress. This study suggests that decline in DHAR activity and in AsA/DHA ratio might have led to enhanced H2O2 accumulation, thus decreased RGR was noticed under tested stress in both the species and the effect was more pronounced in A. pinnata. Owing to better performance of AsA-GSH cycle in A. microphylla, this study substantiates the view that A. microphylla is more tolerant than A. pinnata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  9. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and identification of potential antimicrobial compounds from aquatic pteridophyte, Azolla microphylla Kaulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, G; Yadav, R K; Kaushik, G K

    2015-04-01

    Azolla microphylla Kaulf. is an aquatic nitrogen fixing pteridophyte commonly found in aquatic habitats including paddy fields. Methanolic extract of the fronds of A. microphylla was subjected to partial purification by solvent partitioning with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate followed by hydrolysis, and further partitioning with ethyl acetate. The two fractions, thus obtained were tested for antibacterial activity. It was observed that the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the growth of the pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae. The GC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction showed several prominent peaks with retention time ranging from 8.83 to 45.54 min. A comparison of these peaks with the GC-MS libraries revealed that it could be eicosenes and heptadecanes with potential of antimicrobial activity.

  11. New locality of Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd. (Orobanchaceae at the NW limit of its geographical range

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    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new locality of Orobanche coerulescens Stephan ex Willd. in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland (Garb Pińczowski hummock in central Poland is presented. Over 290 specimens were recorded in a xerothermic grassland of the class Festuco-Brometea comprising species of the class Koelerio glaucae-Corynephoretea canescentis on alkaline, sandy soil. O. coerulescens is extinct at the majority of its localities in Poland and only two localities are known at present.

  12. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

  13. Effect of Azolla Based - Organic Fertilizer, Rock Phosphate and Rice Hull Ash on Rice Yield and Chemical Properties of Alfisols

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    Sudadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemical fertilizer for long time may adverse soil environment. Organic agriculture, for example combination use of azolla based-organic fertilizer, phosphate rock and rice hull ash, was one of ways that able to recover it. Research was conducted in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar while soi chemical properties analysis was analysed in Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory, Fac. of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University April to November 2013. Research design used was RAKL with 5 treatments, each repeated 5 times. The treatments applied were P0 (control, P1 ( azola inoculum dosage 250 g/m2 + phosphate rock + rice hull ash equal to 150 kg/ha KCl, P2 (azola inoculum dosage 500 g/m2 + phosphate rock equal to 150kg/ha, SP-36 + rice hull ash equal to 100 kg/ha KCl, P3 (manure dosage of 5 ton/ha,P4 (Urea 250 kg/ha + SP-36 150 kg/ha + KCl 100 kg/ha. Data analysed statistically by F test (Fisher test with level of confident 95% followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test if any significant differences. The result showed that the treatment combination of azolla, phosphate rock and rice hull ash increase soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, available-P and exchangeable-K as well as rice yield ( (at harvest-dry grain weight and milled-dry grain weight.

  14. Toxicity of Diclofenac in the Fern Azolla filiculoides and the Lichen Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Paoli, Luca; Vichi, Marco; Bačkor, Martin; Bačkorová, Miriam; Loppi, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240 h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100 mg/L) and the longest time (240 h). In addition, also the mycobiont of the lichen X. parietina showed similar toxic effects, expressed as ergosterol content. The absence of relevant alterations at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L) suggested a very limited susceptibility of these species to environmentally relevant levels of this pharmaceutical.

  15. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  16. Revision of species of Minerisporites, Azolla and associated plant microfossils from deposits of the Upper Palaeocene and Palaeocene/Eocene transition in the Netherlands, Belgium and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, D J.; Collinson, M E.

    2001-05-01

    Species of the megaspore genus Minerisporites Potonié, megaspore apparatuses of species of the water fern Azolla Lamarck, and some associated organic-walled microfossils recovered from deposits of the Upper Palaeocene and Palaeocene/Eocene transition in the southern part of the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium are redescribed on the basis of an examination of specimens under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Originally studied about 40 years ago by S.J. Dijkstra, the re-examination has enabled emended diagnoses to be produced for six taxa: Minerisporites glossoferus (Dijkstra) Tschudy, M. mirabilis (Miner) Potonié, M. mirabilissimus (Dijkstra) Potonié, Azolla schopfii Dijkstra, A. teschiana Florschütz, and A. velus (Dijkstra) Jain and Hall. In addition, a revised description is provided for massulae of Salvinia Séguier that were originally thought to be megaspores and, hence, named by Dijkstra as Triletes? exiguus. The gross morphology and construction of the exospore of the species of Minerisporites are similar, but nevertheless sufficiently distinct for them to be maintained as separate taxa. Monolete microspores are preserved in hollows in the reticulate surface of some of the specimens of M. mirabilissimus. This is consistent with the presumed isoetalean affinity of Minerisporites. An apparent stratigraphic morphocline from M. glossoferus to M. mirabilis, suggested previously, is confirmed following our reassessment of their characteristics. The species of Azolla are all multi-floated, but they differ from each other in several ways, in particular with respect to the ultrastructure of the megaspore wall. They are also distinct from all other species that have been considered in sufficient detail for satisfactory comparisons to be made. The massulae of A. teschiana are described for the first time. The floats in A. velus are attached to the proximal part of the megaspore only by suprafilosal hairs. There are no maniculae. It is argued that

  17. Skin Colour, Abdominal Fat, and Carcass Fat of Male Alabio Duck (Anas plathyrhincos Borneo Fed Azolla Based Ration

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    R Samudera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This was conducted to know the effect of Azzola usage in their dietary toward skin color abdomen fat and carcass fat of male Alabio duck. The subject of this research was male Alabio duck attain the age 3 weeks as number 80 tails, with average first body weight 390,82 ± 0,63 g.  The dietary contain 16% protein and 3000 kcal energy.  Observation parameters including abdomen fat percentage, carcass fat, and skin color. Complete Random Design (RAL consist of 4 treatments and 5 repeating was applied.  Each treatment unit consisted of 4 tails of male Alabio duck.  Set as treatment was levels of Azzola pinnata flour usage as much as 0 (A0; 7.5 (A2; 15 (A3; and 22.5% (A4.  The effect of treatment towards abdomen fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 1.50; 1.41; 1.23; 0.92 %, carcass fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 7.99; 7.53; 5.74; 5.25 %, and skin color (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 2.66; 3.62; 3.94; 4.20.  this research showed result of that treatment influence was significantly difference (P < 0.05.   Conclusion of this research, that azolla usage within dietary is able to decrease abdomen fat degree and carcass fat, reform skin color, thus, produce yellow color or un-pale. (Animal Production 10(3: 164-167 (2008   Key Words: Alabio duck, azolla, skin color, abdomen fat, carcass fat

  18. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-02-28

    Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of "green" gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants' metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio

  19. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  20. Sea surface salinity of the Eocene Arctic Azolla event using innovative isotope modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Reichart, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions regarding Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. Our present research focuses on constraining the actual salinity of, and water sources for, the Eocene Arctic basin through the application of stable water isotope tracers. Precipitation pathways potentially strongly affect the final isotopic composition of water entering the Arctic Basin. Therefore we use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3), developed by NCAR, combined with a recently developed integrated isotope tracer code to reconstruct the isotopic composition of global Eocene precipitation and run-off patterns. We further addressed the sensitivity of the modeled hydrological cycle to changes in boundary conditions, such as pCO2, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice formation. In this way it is possible to assess the effect of uncertainties in proxy estimates of these parameters. Overall, results of all runs with Eocene boundary conditions, including Eocene topography, bathymetry, vegetation patterns, TEX86 derived SSTs and pCO2 estimates, show the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. Enriched, precipitation weighted, isotopic values of around -120‰ are reported for the Arctic region. Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses (δD) on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model outcomes make it possible to verify climate reconstructions for the middle Eocene Arctic. Furthermore, recently, characteristic long-chain mid-chain ω20 hydroxy wax constituents of Azolla were found in ACEX sediments. δD values of these C32 - C36 diols provide insight into the isotopic composition of the Eocene Arctic surface water. As the isotopic signature of the runoff entering the Arctic is modelled, and the final isotopic composition of

  1. Comparative assessment of Azolla pinnata and Vallisneria spiralis in Hg removal from G.B. Pant Sagar of Singrauli Industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to monitor the Hg pollution in water and sediments of G.B. Pant Sagar located in Singrauli Industrial Region, India and to suggest the efficient aquatic plants for its phytoremediation. The study assessed the comparative potential of a free floating water fern Azolla pinnata and submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis to purify waters polluted by Hg. Six days laboratory experiments have been conducted to mark the percentage removal of Hg at initial concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg L(-1). The percentage removal of Hg was higher for A. pinnata (80-94%) than V. spiralis (70-84%). Likewise, the Hg accumulated in dry mass was much higher for A. pinnata and a high correlation (R(2) = 0.91 for A. pinnata and 0.99 for V. spiralis) was obtained between applied Hg doses and accumulated amounts in biomass. A concentration dependent decrease in chlorophyll a, protein, RNA, DNA and nutrients (NO(3-) and PO(4)(3-)) uptake was detected in A. pinnata and V. spiralis due to Hg toxicity. The decrease was more prominent in Azolla than Vallisneria. The results recommended the use of A. pinnata and V. spiralis to ameliorate the industrial effluents (thermal power, chlor-alkali and coal mine effluent) contaminated with Hg.

  2. Anti-free radical activities of kaempferol isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex. Del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Singh, Bikram; Singh, Sukhpreet; Kumar, Neeraj; Kumar, Subodh; Arora, Saroj

    2008-12-01

    In the present study the polyphenolic compound has been isolated from methanol extract of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del. which has been identified as kaempferol (AN-5) by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant potential of the AN-5 was demonstrated in several in vitro assays: measuring the proton radical scavenging activity (DPPH scavenging assay), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (deoxyribose degradation assay), metal chelating activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. It was found that the effect of the compound AN-5 was strongly dose dependent up to the concentrations 1-50 microg/ml in DPPH assay and 1-100 microg/ml in deoxyribose degradation assay but did not show further change above the highest concentrations.

  3. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lan Li

    Full Text Available Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01 at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V--fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001, indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01 while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01, while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001 while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001. Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the

  4. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Mendes Costa; Arcângelo Loss; Heitor Paulo Nascimento Pereira; Jander Ferreira Almeida

    2015-01-01

    O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA) como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA). As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l). Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, e...

  5. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Artemisia biennis Willd

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    M. Mojarrab*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Artemisia contains over 250 species all over the world. A. biennis Willd is one of the species which grows wildly in Iran. Camphor and (E-beta-farnesene have been reported as the major components of the essential oil from A. biennis. In spite of the presence of a rather wide range of reported bioactivities there is no previous phytochemical study on  A. biennis. Methods: The plant was collected from Zoshk (Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Extraction was done by maceration method using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and equal amounts of water and ethanol (hydroethanolic extract, respectively. A combination of solid phase extraction (SPE and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC of the hydroethanolic extract was used to purify the compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means, including MS and 1HNMR. Results: Three known flavonoids, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin were isolated and identified from the hydroethanolic extract. Conclusion: Our results are in good agreement with dominant presence of derivatives of the flavones luteolin and apigenin in the genus Artemisia which has been previously reported .

  6. Removal of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions by Azolla rongpong: batch and continuous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedumaran, B; Velan, M

    2008-01-01

    Batch and packed bed continuous biosorption studies were conducted to investigate the kinetics and isotherms of Cu(II) ions on the biomass of blue green alga Azolla rongpong. It is observed that the biosorption capacity of algae depends on initial pH and dosage. The biosorption capacity increases with increasing concentration and follows Freundlich isotherm model well with k and n values 0.06223 and 0.949 respectively. The optimum pH of 3.5 with an algae dosage of 1 g/L was observed. The results indicate that with the advantage of high metal biosorption capacity and recovery of Cu(II) ions, A. rongpong can be used as an efficient and economic biosorbent for the removal and recovery of toxic heavy metals from aqueous wastes even at higher concentration.

  7. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem affected by sewage, mine and industrial pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wet, L.P.D. de; Schoonbee, H.J.; Pretorius, J.; Bezuidenhout, L.M. (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg (South Africa). Depts. of Zoology and Botany, Research Unit for Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems)

    1990-10-01

    The bio-accumulation of the heavy metals, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem polluted by effluents from sewage works, mines and industries was investigated. Results showed that the different metals can be accumulated by the water fern at concentration levels not necessarily related to their actual concentrations in the aquatic environment, as measured in this case, in the bottom sediments. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. PROPAGACIÓN IN VITRO DE Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ ANGELA TORRES

    Full Text Available Acacia Acacia mangium Willd es una de las especies forestales más plantadas por la calidad de su madera y rápido crecimiento; sin embargo, los estudios de propagación clonal son pocos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un protocolo de micropropagacion a partir de explantes con meristemos preexistentes. Los explantes consistieron de brotes de plantas de tres meses de edad mantenidas en invernadero. La desinfección se realizó con diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio y antibióticos, y fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones (0; 0,44; 0,88 y 2,22 µM de BAP. Los brotes micropropagados fueron enraizados con diferentes dosis de ANA y AIB, finalmente los brotes, con o sin raíces, fueron transferidos a condiciones ex vitro para evaluar el porcentaje de supervivencia. Los datos mostraron que 1,0% NaOCl y cefalexina (2 mg L-1 permitieron obtener el mayor porcentaje de explantes libres de contaminación (67%. El mayor número promedio de brotes ocurrió con 2,22 µM de BAP y el mayor número promedio de raíces se observo al utilizar 2,69 µM de ANA. La adaptación de las plantas en condiciones ex vitro fue exitoso lográndose obtener un 87% de supervivencia

  9. Protective effect of Azolla microphylla on biochemical, histopathological and molecular changes induced by isoproterenol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Sreenath Kunnathupara; Kannappan, Poornima

    2017-05-01

    Azolla microphylla is an important fast-growing aquatic plant trusted for its agronomic, nutritious and therapeutic uses. The present work is undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of Azolla microphylla (EAM) against the Isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats were pre-treated with EAM (250 and 500mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days along with ISO (85mg/kg; s.c.) on the 29th and 30th days. ISO-induced rats displayed significant diminution in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activities, increased lipid peroxidation and alteration in cardiac marker enzymes. The same group also displayed an increase in levels of serum lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) accompanied with a significant reduction in the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-10). Moreover, the histopathological investigations in the heart tissue of ISO-induced group exhibited myocardial necrosis and inflammation, which correlated with the increased immunoreactivity for Bax/iNOS, whereas an absence of reactivity for Bcl-2 proteins. However, in EAM pre-treated rats, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, cardiac marker enzymes, membrane-bound ATPases together with the levels of lipid profile, non-enzymatic antioxidants, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines were maintained at normalcy that was further supported by improving histopathological changes and myocardial architecture. The IHC results of EAM pre-treated rats indicate up-regulated and down-regulated expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax/iNOS proteins, respectively. Thus, the present study reveals that A. microphylla alleviates myocardial damage in ISO-induced cardiac injury and demonstrates cardioprotective potential which could be attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. A possible mechanism for the protective effect is the elevated expression of endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, anti-inflammatory cytokines, degraded lipid peroxidation products and improved

  10. Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical evaluation of stem bark of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd., a folk plant of the Dimasa tribe of Assam.

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Terangpi; Ratan Basumatary; A K Tamuli; R Teron

    2013-01-01

    Bark of Acacia pennata is used in preparation of starter cakes among the Dimasa community of Assam state. The present study attempts to evaluate the pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. The transverse section of the stem revealed an epidermis externally subtended by trichomes, a crashed cortical region due to massive secondary growth and large stellate pith. The physico-chemical parameters were evaluated- loss on drying (7%), total ash content (9.3%),...

  11. Anticonvulsant evaluation of Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    Full Text Available The Aim of this study was to evaluated the effects of the ethanol extract of Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, roots (EER in animal models of epilepsy. The EER increased the latency for convulsions significantly different from control (p<0,05 and in the PTZ induced convulsions test on 62,5 mg/kg (i.p. decreased mortality. This effect was blocked by flumazenil administration, suggesting an involvement of GABAergic system in the anticonvulsant activity of EER. The EER had a moderate effect only against PIC- or STR-induced convulsions at doses 125 and 250 mg/kg. But in the MES test it did not demonstrate effect on this animal model. Therefore, the EER reduced the development of PTZ-induced kindling in both experimental groups. It also significantly (p<0.05 decreased the latency for convulsions and reduced its percentage. Our results suggest that EER owns anticonvulsant property.

  12. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.F.; Elamin, K.H.; Salih, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, A F; Elamin, K H [Forestry Research Section, Wad Medani (Sudan); Salih, A A [Soil Science Section, Wad Medani (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety...... increased CS for stomatal conductance, CT for transpiration and CLfor leaf water potential. Achachino showed significantly lower CT and CL when compared with Titicaca, implying that transpiration and leaf water potential were less affected under mild drought conditions in the Bolivian variety. CS...... in Achachino was significantly higher than CL and CT, which indicated that stomatal conductance declined before transpiration and leaf water potential were reduced. Such difference was found in Titicaca where reduction of leaf area had more effect on transpiration than stomatal closure. Slower growth rate...

  15. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) miers on some weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF; M. Badruzzaman SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.). Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germinati...

  16. Response of microbial communities to pesticide residues in soil restored with Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Under conditions of Azolla imbricata restoration, the high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to determine change trends of microbial community structures in the soil that had undergone long-term application of pesticides. The relationship between the content of pesticide residues in the soil and the microbial community structure was analyzed. The results indicated that the microbial diversity was strongly negatively correlated with the contents of pesticide residues in the soil. At a suitable dosage of 5 kg fresh A. imbricata per square meter of soil area, the soil microbial diversity increased by 12.0%, and the contents of pesticide residues decreased by 26.8-72.1%. Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Thermincola, Sphingobium, Acaryochloris, Megasphaera, Ralstonia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Desulfitobacterium, Nostoc, Oscillochloris, and Aciditerrimonas may play major roles in the degradation of pesticide residues. Thauera, Levilinea, Geothrix, Thiobacillus, Thioalkalispira, Desulfobulbus, Polycyclovorans, Fluviicola, Deferrisoma, Erysipelothrix, Desulfovibrio, Cytophaga, Vogesella, Zoogloea, Azovibrio, Halomonas, Paludibacter, Crocinitomix, Haliscomenobacter, Hirschia, Silanimonas, Alkalibacter, Woodsholea, Peredibacter, Leptolinea, Chitinivorax, Candidatus_Lumbricincola, Anaerovorax, Propionivibrio, Parasegetibacter, Byssovorax, Runella, Leptospira, and Nitrosomonas may be indicators to evaluate the contents of pesticide residues.

  17. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd. (V. anthelmintica. Method: Hot plate method in mice, acetic acid induced writhing response in mice, tail immersion test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats method were used for screening analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruit of V. anthelmintica (family: Asteraceae. Results: The result of the study showed that the ethanolic extract of V. anthelmintica (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. fruits possed peripheral and central analgesic activity in animal model. The V. anthelmintica fruits extract showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity models in rats. Conclusions: On the basis of result it can be concluded that saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids are the major constituents that are present in the fruits of V. anthelmintica which may be responsible for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Guadarrama-Flores, Berenice; Guerrero-Rubio, M Alejandra; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2018-01-17

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 μM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 μM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.

  20. Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Andola, Harish Chandra

    2014-07-01

    The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value. The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand. The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil. Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by β-pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value.

  1. STUDI PRODUKTIVITAS DAN RENDEMEN INDUSTRI PENGGERGAJIAN KAYU AKASIA DAUN LEBAR (Acacia mangium Willd DI KECAMATAN LANDASAN ULIN KOTA BANJARBARU KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah R Radam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of sawmill have been long enough done by local society because very assistive and add production socialize, some of owner of bandsaw/sawmill also make this effort as effort remain to and there is also making it as effort peripheral.  Intention of this research is to know industrial and rendemen productivity of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd.  The method that being used is method of direct measurement and observation in industrial location of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood and method of direct interview and also record data that related to this research.  The analyse data is productivity calculation, rendemen and waste.  Productivity mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 6,38 m3/day or 0,0160 m3/hours. Rendemen mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 80,011%.  Mean of industrial disposal of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 19,99% (1,62 m3, this matter is caused by a quality wood of good Acacia (not many experiencing of handicap of wood.  From result of research suggested to conduct research of continuation hit influence of other factor to productivity and rendemen at acacia wide leaf wood sawmill like age, environmental work (arrange situation, and the worker education. Keyords :  productivity, rendemen, waste, sawmill, acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd

  2. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity and yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters to invest...... matter. Increasing salinity from 20 to 40 dS m-1 did not further decrease the seed number per m2 and seed yield, which shows that quinoa (cv. Titicaca) acclimated to saline conditions when exposed to salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m-1....

  3. Induction of salt tolerance in Azolla microphylla Kaulf through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Gerard; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2010-09-01

    Azolla microphylla plants exposed directly to NaCl (13 dsm(-1)) did not survive the salinity treatment beyond a period of one day, whereas plants exposed directly to 4 and 9 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass. However, plants pre-exposed to NaCl (2 dsm(-1)) for 7 days on subsequent exposure to 13 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass although at a slow rate and are hereinafter designated as pre-exposed plants. The pre-exposed and directly exposed plants distinctly differed in their response to salt in terms of lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, APX, and CAT, and Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Efficient modulation of antioxidant enzymes coupled with regulation of ion transport play an important role in the induction of salt tolerance. Results show that it is possible to induce salt adaptation in A. microphylla by pre-exposing them to low concentrations of NaCl.

  4. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  5. Erythrina velutina Willd. - Fabaceae: Árvore de múltiplos usos no nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Wanderley dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 800x600  O mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. é uma árvore que ocorre no nordeste do Brasil e usada como medicinal, madeireira, artesanal, ornamental e como componente de sistema agroflorestais. A partir de consulta a Bases Bibliográficas foi realizada uma revisão sobre a espécie tratando os aspectos taxonômicos e botânicos, composição química e aplicações na fitoterapia, propagação e conservação. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";}

  6. SHADING AND SUBSTRATE ON THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS OF Erythrina velutina Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Wanderley dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812341Erythrina velutina Willd. (Fabaceae is used in traditional medicine in northeastern Brazil for its sudorificproperties, soothing, emollient, pectoral and local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of substrate and shading on seedlings of Erythrina velutina. The experimental design was completelyrandomized in factorial scheme 5 x 2 (five substrates and two shades, with four replications and 10 plantsin each plot. The substrates were arisco, arisco + cattle manure 2:1 v/v, arisco + cattle manure 3:1 v/v, sand+ cattle manure 2:1 v/v, sand + cattle manure 3:1 v/v. The shadings were 0% shading (full sunlight and50% shading. The characteristics evaluated were stem diameter, height, leaf area, green and dry biomass ofroots and shoots, height/diameter and Dickson quality index.There was no significant difference in diameterbetween the different substrates. The environment in full sun favored the diameter and the root biomasswhereas the height was favored by shade. The substrates with cattle manure in its composition favorsthe development of plants of Erythrina velutina and higher seedling quality are produced in full sun andsubstrate arisco + cattle manure in the ratio 2:1

  7. Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Arlorio, Marco; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Russo, Maria T; Pirisi, Filippo M; Satta, Maurizio; Cabras, Paolo

    2003-02-12

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of the Sardinian dwarf curry plant [Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym] was studied. Genetic analysis suggested the presence of two chemotypes; morphological and chemical differences confirmed the presence of two chemotypes (A and B). The maximum yields were 0.18 and 0.04% (v/w) for flowering tops and stems, respectively. The concentrations of nerol and its esters (acetate and propionate), limonene, and linalool reach their highest values during the flowering stage both in flowers and in stems. Besides the essential oil, type B showed an interesting antifungal activity.

  8. Substrate for tests of seedlings emergency and seed vigor of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae/ Substratos para testes de emergência de plântulas e vigor de sementes de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de Almeida Cardoso

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as objective to evaluate the effect of different substrates on emergence and seedlings development of Erythrina velutina Willd. The experiment was carried out at the greenhouse of the Laboratory of Vegetable Ecology in the Center of Agrarian Sciences - Federal University of Paraíba. The substrates evaluated were washed sand; washed sand + vermiculite in the proportions of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3; vegetable earth, vegetable earth + washed sand in the proportions of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3, vegetable earth + vermiculite in the proportions of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3, vermiculite, bioclone®, bioplant® and plugmix®. The experimental design was completely randomized with fifteen treatments (substrates and four replications of 25 seeds. The effect was evaluated through percent of emergence, first count, emergence velocity index, medium time and relative frequency of emergency, length and dry mass of the root and it leaves aerial of the seedling. The substrates sand and vermiculite had the best results and are recommended for conduction of tests of emergency of mulungu seedlings.Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento de plântulas de Erythrina velutina Willd. foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação pertencente ao Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Foram comparados os substratos areia lavada; areia lavada + vermiculita na proporção de 1:1, 3:1 e 1:3; terra vegetal, terra vegetal + areia lavada na proporção de 1:1, 3:1 e 1:3, terra vegetal + vermiculita na proporção de 1:1, 3:1 e 1:3, vermiculita, bioclone®, bioplant® e plugmix®. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 15 tratamentos (substratos e quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem, índice de velocidade, tempo médio e frequência relativa de

  9. Potential of macrophyte for removing arsenic from aqueous solution Potencial de remoção de arsênio de solução aquosa por macrofita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Guimaraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three aquatic macrophytes, Azoll caroliniana, Salvinia minima and Lemna gibba, was evaluated in this work aimed at selection of plants to be used in remediation of environments contaminated by arsenic (As. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse during six days in pots containing Hoagland solution (¼ ionic strength at As concentrations of 0.5; 2.5 and 5.0 mg L-1. The three species showed greater As accumulation as the concentration of the metalloid in solution increased. However, a reduction was detected in fresh and dry mass gain when the plants were exposed to high As concentrations. The macrophytes showed differences in efficiency of removal of As in solution. A. caroliniana, S. minima and L. gibba accumulated, on average, 0.130; 0.200; and 1.397 mg mDM-1, respectively, when exposed to 5.0 mg L-1 of As. The macrophytes absorbed a greater quantity of As in solution with low phosphate content. The greater As concentration in L. gibba tissues lowered the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents as shown by the high chlorosis incidence. Lemna gibba also exhibited a decrease in leaf size, with the total chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis not being affected by As in A. caroliniana. This species exhibited purplish leaves with high concentration of anthocyanin, whose presence suggested association to phosphate deficiency. Marginal necrosis occurred on S. minima floating leaves, with the released daughter-plants not showing any visual symptoms during the treatment. The percentage of As removed from the solution decreased when the plants were exposed to high concentrations of the pollutant. Among the three species studied, only L. gibba could be considered an As hyper-accumulator. The use of this plant species for remediation of aquatic environments was shown to be limited and requires further investigation.O potencial de três macrófitas aquáticas - Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia mínima e Lemna gibba - foi avaliado neste

  10. Rentabilidad de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) asociada a la implementación del riego tecnificado en el Callejón de Huaylas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Bojórquez, Oscar Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Economía Agrícola Esta investigación busca determinar los beneficios económicos que reportara la implementación de un sistema de riego tecnificado asociado al cultivo de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en la zona del Callejón de Huaylas. Aprovechando las ventajas comparativas que presenta el cultivo de la quinua en nuestro medio, en un mercado de precios crecientes, alta demanda en el mercado interno y grandes p...

  11. A green chemistry approach for the synthesis and characterization of bioactive gold nanoparticles using Azolla microphylla methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the environmentally benign synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using methanol extract of Azolla microphylla as the stabilizing and reducing agent. The GNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR, and the morphological characteristics were analyzed by XRD, FESEM-EDX and HRTEM. The GNPs could be formed in very short time, even in less than 30 min. The nanoparticles measured by UV-spectrophotometer demonstrated a peak at 540 nm corresponding to surface plasmon resonance spectra, and the peaks showed by FTIR suggested the presence of organic biomolecules on the surface of the GNPs. XRD results confirmed the crystalline nature of the GNPs, and FESEM-EDX and HRTEM analyses had been performed in the size ranges of 17-40 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm respectively. The synthesized GNPs showed excellent antioxidant activity. This study shows the feasibility of using plant sources for the biosynthesis of GNPs.

  12. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  13. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, Phytotoxic and Antioxidant Potential of Heliotropium strigosum Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurm, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Bashir A; Uzair, Muhammad; Janbaz, Khalid H

    2016-07-28

    Background: Heliotropium strigosum Willd. (Chitiphal) is a medicinally important herb that belongs to the Boraginaceae family. Traditionally, this plant was used in the medication therapy of various ailments in different populations of the world. The aim of the study is to probe the therapeutic aspects of H. strigosum described in the traditional folklore history of medicines. Methods: In the present study, the dichloromethane crude extract of this plant was screened to explore the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, phytotoxic and antioxidant potential of H. strigosum . For antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities, microplate alamar blue assay (MABA), agar tube dilution method and diphenyl picryl hydrazine (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay were used, respectively. The cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential were demonstrated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and Lemna minor assay. Results: The crude extract displayed positive cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay, with 23 of 30 shrimps dying at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL. It also showed moderate phytotoxic potential with percent inhibition of 50% at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL. The crude extract exhibited no significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus , Shigella flexneri , Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Non-significant antifungal and radical scavenging activity was also shown by the dichloromethane crude extract. Conclusion: It is recommended that scientists focus on the identification and isolation of beneficial bioactive constituents with the help of advanced scientific methodologies that seems to be helpful in the synthesis of new therapeutic agents of desired interest.

  15. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

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    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  16. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

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    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of a protected species: Polygala tenuifolia Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan Qun; Fan, Ling Ling; Mao, Fu Ying; Zhao, Yun Sheng; Xu, Rui; Yin, Yu Jie; Chen, Xin; Wan, De Guang; Zhang, Xin Hui

    2018-03-01

    Polygala tenuifolia Willd. is an important protected species used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were employed to characterize the genetic diversity in wild and cultivated P. tenuifolia populations. Twelve primer combinations of AFLP produced 310 unambiguous and repetitious bands. Among these bands, 261 (84.2%) were polymorphic. The genetic diversity was high at the species level: percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL)=84.2%, Nei's gene diversity (h)=0.3296 and Shannon's information index (I)=0.4822. Between the two populations, the genetic differentiation of 0.1250 was low and the gene flow was relatively high, at 3.4989. The wild population (PPL=81.9%, h=0.3154, I=0.4635) showed a higher genetic diversity level than the cultivated population (PPL=63.9%, h=0.2507, I=0.3688). The results suggest that the major factors threatening the persistence of P. tenuifolia resources are ecological and human factors rather than genetic. These results will assist with the design of conservation and management programs, such as in natural habitat conservation, setting the excavation time interval for resource regeneration and the substitution of cultivated for wild plants. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cadmium-induced changes in pigments, total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in fronds of Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Huang, Yu; Li, Min-Jing

    2006-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of cadmium on several color-related parameters (including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin), total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in an aquatic fern species Azolla imbricate (A. imbricata). Cd accumulation and effects in the fronds were closely related with Cd concentration in the growth medium. The fronds under 0.5 mg/L Cd treatment turned red on the 3rd day, and this color change also appeared under 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L Cd treatment on the 5th day. Correlated with the color change, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the fronds significantly decreased in the presence of high Cd concentrations, while the anthocyanin content increased during the experiment. Significant increase in total phenolics content and PAL activity were also detected during Cd treatment. The results suggested that the Cd-induced change in color of fronds might be due to the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid and the increase in anthocyanin. Anthocyanin, total phenolics and their biosynthesis-related PAL might play a role in detoxification of Cd in A. imbricata.

  19. Effects of growth retardants and fumigations with ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and flowering of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathey, H.M.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1973-01-01

    Eight cultivars of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., were evaluated for sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-cyclopropyl-..cap alpha.. (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol) and protection from ozone and sulfur dioxide injury afforded by applications of ancymidol and (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat). Foliar sprays of ancymidol were at least 80 to 500 times and the soil drench 1000 times more active than chlormequat in retarding stem elongation. The diam of the bracts was reduced, but branching increased more on plants treated with ancymidol than on untreated plants. The cv. Annette Hegg (AH) was more sensitive to ozone fumigations than was Eckespoint C-1' (C-1). Sulfur dioxide also caused more injury to AH than to C-1. Ancymidol and chlormequat reduced visible injury induced by ozone and sulfur dioxide.

  20. Water deficit stress-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Water deficit stress followed by re-watering during grain filling resulted in the induction of the ornithine pathway and in changes in Quinoa grain quality. The genetic diversity of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is accompanied by an outstanding environmental adaptability and high nutritional properties of the grains. However, little is known about the biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with the abiotic stress tolerance of Quinoa. Here, we characterized carbon and nitrogen metabolic changes in Quinoa leaves and grains in response to water deficit stress analyzing their impact on the grain quality of two lowland ecotypes (Faro and BO78). Differences in the stress recovery response were found between genotypes including changes in the activity of nitrogen assimilation-associated enzymes that resulted in differences in grain quality. Both genotypes showed a common strategy to overcome water stress including the stress-induced synthesis of reactive oxygen species scavengers and osmolytes. Particularly, water deficit stress induced the stimulation of the ornithine and raffinose pathways. Our results would suggest that the regulation of C- and N partitioning in Quinoa during grain filling could be used for the improvement of the grain quality without altering grain yields.

  1. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  2. Predicting the Potential Distribution of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. under Climate Change in China.

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    Hongjun Jiang

    Full Text Available Global warming has created opportunities and challenges for the survival and development of species. Determining how climate change may impact multiple ecosystem levels and lead to various species adaptations is necessary for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable biological resource utilization. In this study, we employed Maxent to predict changes in the habitat range and altitude of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. under current and future climate scenarios in China. Four representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 were modeled for two time periods (2050 and 2070. The model inputs included 732 presence points and nine sets of environmental variables under the current conditions and the four RCPs in 2050 and 2070. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC was used to evaluate model performance. All of the AUCs were greater than 0.80, thereby placing these models in the "very good" category. Using a jackknife analysis, the precipitation in the warmest quarter, annual mean temperature, and altitude were found to be the top three variables that affect the range of P. tenuifolia. Additionally, we found that the predicted highly suitable habitat was in reasonable agreement with its actual distribution. Furthermore, the highly suitable habitat area was slowly reduced over time.

  3. Phytotoxicity of organic extracts of Turnera ulmifolia L. and Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. in cucumber seeds

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    Daniel Moreto Silvestre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the phytotoxic effects that the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from leaves and branches of the species Turnera ulmifolia L. and Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. (Turneraceae, at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00 mg ml-1, have on seed germination and seedling development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.. None of the extracts tested prevented germination, although the ethyl acetate extracts of T. diffusa, at 3.75 and 5.00 mg ml-1, reduced the mean germination speed and time to germination. Hexane extracts of both species reduced the main root length, number of secondary roots and hypocotyl length. In the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, the number of secondary roots and hypocotyl length varied by species and concentration. Ethyl acetate extracts of T. ulmifolia at 2.50 mg ml-1. Comparatively, T. diffusa extracts inhibited development to a greater degree, thus presenting greater allelopathic potential, than did T. ulmifolia extracts.

  4. KARAKTERISASI DAN SKRINING FITOKIMIA DAUN SINGKIL (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd

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    Risa Supriningrum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, singkil leaves are used as uric acid medicine. Preliminary research data on the characterization of simplicia and singkil leaf extract (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd have not been reported. The purpose of this research is to know the characteristics of simplicia and young and old leaf extracts and their chemical content. The simplisia extraction was done by maceration using 70% ethanol solvent. The research stages are starting from sampling, plant determination, simplisia making, maceration extraction, characteristic examination and phytochemical screening. Result of characterization of simplicia, macroscopic of singkil leaves have green color, tip of tapered leaf, root of blunt leaf, rompang, jagged leaf edge, round and round leaves shape, pinnate leaf bone, thin leaf meat, leaf length 10.9 to 15 cm. Leaf width 6.3 to 9.6 cm. Microscopic observations found fragments of stodata type identifiers of diasitik, parasitic, spiral vein formation, hair cover, glandular trichomes. Water content of young leaves 8%, 5.5% old leaves, 3% water soluble sari content, 1.5% old leaves, 2% ethanol soluble sugary leaves, 1.5% leaflets, young leaf ash content 4,86%, old leaf of 7.01%, ash content of young leaf acid 2,20% and old leaf 3,14%. Moisture content of young leaves 17,5%, 17% old leaves, 0% water soluble leaf extract, 1% old leaf, soluble ethanol extract 0,5%, old leaf 4%, young leaf ash content 38, 5%, 11.6% old leaves, ash content of young leaf acids 1.51%, old leaves 2.33%. Secondary metabolites of simplicia and extracts are known to contain flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids / terpenoids.

  5. Effect of aquatic plants on 95Zr concentration in slightly polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Yang Ziyin; Chen Hui

    2004-01-01

    Effect of three aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Azolla caroliniana and Eichhornia crassipes) on 95 Zr concentration in slightly polluted water was studied by using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the aquatic plants had strong ability of 95 Zr concentration in water. The concentration factor (CF) were from 56.78 to 112.94, so three aquatic plants were suggested be bio-indicators for 95 Zr polluted water. The specific activity of 95 Zr in water decreased with time when the aquatic plants were put in slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The descent of specific activity of 95 Zr in water was very quick during the beginning period (0-3d). The time for the specific activity reduced to 50% was only 3 days, indicating that theres aquatic plants could be used to purge slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The effect of Eichhornia crassipes on purging 95 Zr in water was the best among the three aquatic plants. The specific activity of 95 Zr in bottom clay only decreased 5% after putting aquatic plants in water, indicating that desorption of 95 Zr from bottom clay was not easy. As the bottom clay had strong ability of adsorption and fixation to 95 Zr, the effect of aquatic plant on purging 95 Zr adsorbed by bottom clay was not visible

  6. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

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    Elias Mendes Costa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA. As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l. Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, enraizadas e com brotos; o número de brotos e de raízes por estaca e o comprimento da maior raiz e maior broto. As menores porcentagens de enraizamento foram verificadas nas estacas sem o uso de IBA. Maiores diferenças foram verificadas para as estacas lenhosas. O uso do IBA favorece o enraizamento de estacas de Bougainvillea, com melhor desempenho para as estacas lenhosas e na concentração de 2000 mg/l de IBA

  7. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A

    2010-12-01

    Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

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    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12529-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.81 9 ( EJ308578 ) 1095390124987 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-27-01-01-1... 34 0.84 3 ( EF520892 ) Azolla... microphylla voucher T. Lumpkin s.n. (DUKE)... 48 0.96 1 ( EF520891 ) Azolla microphyll...a voucher Watanabe s.n. (DUKE) t... 48 0.96 1 ( EF520887 ) Azolla mexicana voucher Zimmerman s.n. (DUKE) tRN...... 48 0.96 1 ( EF520885 ) Azolla mexicana voucher D.W. Rains s.n. (DUKE) tR... 48 0.96 1 ( DQ066515 ) Azo...lla microphylla voucher Reid & Peters 80 tRNA-... 48 0.96 1 ( DQ066511 ) Azolla mic

  10. Chromosomal localization of two novel repetitive sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, B; Gardunia, B W; Michalska, M; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D; Maughan, P J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Jellen, E N; Maluszynska, J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa.

  11. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  12. Field based investigation on phytoremediation potentials of Lemna minor and Azolla filiculoides in tropical, semiarid regions: Case of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Elfu; Kebede, Fassil; Berihu, Tesfay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-10-16

    This study investigated the concurrent accumulation of eight heavy metals by two floating aquatic macrophytes (Lemna minor and Azolla filiculoides) cultivated in ambient media and blended wastewaters in the semiarid regions of Ethiopia. Both species accumulated heavy metals in varying degrees with a significant concentration gradient within the immediate water media. Highest bioconcentration factor was determined for Mn and Fe in both plants. Results revealed that L. minor was high phytoaccumulator for Fe, Mn, Zn and Co but moderate for Cd, Cu, Ni and Cr. On the other hand, A. filiculoides was a high accumulator for Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, but its potency was moderate for Co, Cr and Ni, but lower for Cd. Both species exhibited significant difference in accumulating Co, Zn and Mn (p < 0.05). In general, the bioconcentration factors for both plants were comparable within the same treatment. In this study, stronger associations between the heavy metal concentrations in the plant tissues and in the grown water media were observed for A. filiculoides.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Martin; Tollbäck, Petter; Bergman, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification using peptide mass fingerprinting [matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-MS)], tandem MS analyses, and sequence homology searches resulted in an identification success rate of 79% of proteins analysed in the unsequenced cyanobiont. Compared with a free-living strain, processes related to energy production, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and stress-related functions were up-regulated in the cyanobiont while photosynthesis and metabolic turnover rates were down-regulated, stressing a slow heterotrophic mode of growth, as well as high heterocyst frequencies and nitrogen-fixing capacities. The first molecular data set on the nature of the NifH post-translational modification in cyanobacteria was also obtained: peptide mass spectra of the protein demonstrated the presence of a 300-400 Da protein modification localized to a specific 13 amino acid sequence, within the part of the protein that is ADP-ribosylated in other bacteria and close to the active site of nitrogenase. Furthermore, the distribution of the highest scoring database hits for the identified proteins points to the possibility of using proteomic data in taxonomy.

  14. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  15. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

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    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  16. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r 2 = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Carya illinoensis Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Carya ovata...americana sedges Carex spp. ironwood Carpinus caroliniana water hickory Carya aquatica bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis pecan Carya illinoensis ...and water hickory ( Carya aquatica). Less flooded sites are often dominated by green ash, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii), or willow oak, and the driest

  18. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and phytotoxic potential of non-polar and polar fractions of seeds of Dioteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd. from Venezuelan regions

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    Alberto de J. Oliveros-Bastidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd. is a tall arboreal species native to Central and Northern South America. This paper describes the chemical characterization and phytotoxic potential of polar and non-polar extracts from D. odorata seeds. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and analyzed by GC/MS. The chemical composition of the non-polar fraction (hexane and dichloromethane presented fatty acids as major constituent. Medium polar and polar fractions (ethyl acetate and ethanol: water contained carboxylic acid and high 6,7-Dyhidroxycoumarin-β-D-glucopyranoside content, not previously reported for seeds of D. odorata. Extracts showed a significant level of phytotoxic activity, correlated to the content of coumarin derivatives, predominantly in the polar fraction.

  19. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

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    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  20. Dispersão zoocórica e hidrocórica marítima de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

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    Maurício Lenzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p47 Adaptações evolutivas na morfologia e fisiologia das cactáceas têm sido associadas aos seus mecanismos de dispersão e colonização. Os mecanismos e modos de dispersão de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae foram caracterizados em duas praias de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Um marsupial do gênero Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae foi o único frugívoro e, portanto, dispersor de frutos, apresentando locais específicos para alimentação. A hidrocoria marítima ocorreu após a invasão marinha sobre a vegetação de restinga, caracterizando-se pela dispersão de cladódios e frutos em várias épocas do ano. Descreve-se pela primeira vez a ação do mar como potencial dispersor para uma espécie de cactos.

  1. Anxiolytic-like effect of Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd: ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, in the elevated plus-maze and hole-board tests

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    Sueli Mendonça Netto

    Full Text Available Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. (Apocynaceae, popularly known as "arrebenta-boi" and "paratudo". In behavioral screening ethanol extract of R. ligustrina roots demonstrated depressant effect on the CNS and anticonvulsant properties. The purpose of this study was to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of the ethanol extract of Rauvolfia ligustrina roots (EER using the elevated plus maze (EPM and the hole-board apparatus in rodents. This extract, administered intraperitoneally, in different doses (3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 mg/kg was able to increase significantly the number of entries (p < 0.05, as well as the time spent in the open arms of the EPM, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. Additionally, EER-treated (3.9 and 7.8 mg/kg increased significantly the number of border visit and head-dipping. This data suggest an anxiolytic effect of EER in animal models of anxiety.

  2. The effect of seed moisture and temperature on grinding characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

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    Hassoon Waleed Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is a native food plant of the Andean region of South America. Quinoa seeds have remarkable nutritional properties, not only from its high protein content, but also from its good amino acid balance. The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of quinoa seed moisture content (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% and temperature (-20, 3, 20 and 40°C, with the initial grain moisture content of 10.5% on grinding process. Especially the particle size distributions and grinding energy indices were determined. The results showed that the increase of seed moisture content from 10 to 16% caused an increase the specific grinding energy from 6.9 to 8.3 kJ·kg-1, beside of this as the moisture increased the average particle also increased. The highest changes were observed in the fraction of coarse particles (above 1.0 mm. Interestingly, the mass fraction of fine particles (below 0.2 mm also increased. Other grinding indices also confirmed an increase the grinding energy requirements with the increase seed moisture content. The temperature of seed has little influence on quinoa grinding process. The highest grinding energy requirements were observed when the frozen seeds were ground.

  3. Restoration using Azolla imbricata increases nitrogen functional bacterial groups and genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Yang, Ke

    2017-05-01

    Microbial groups are major factors that influence soil function. Currently, there is a lack of studies on microbial functional groups. Although soil microorganisms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, systematic studies of the effects of environmental factors on microbial populations in relation to key metabolic processes in the nitrogen cycle are seldom reported. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the changes in nitrogen functional groups in mandarin orange garden soil treated with Azolla imbricata. The structures of the major functional bacterial groups and the functional gene abundances involved in key processes of the soil nitrogen cycle were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results indicated that returning A. imbricata had an important influence on the composition of soil nitrogen functional bacterial communities. Treatment with A. imbricata increased the diversity of the nitrogen functional bacteria. The abundances of nitrogen functional genes were significantly higher in the treated soil compared with the control soil. Both the diversity of the major nitrogen functional bacteria (nifH bacteria, nirK bacteria, and narG bacteria) and the abundances of nitrogen functional genes in the soil showed significant positive correlations with the soil pH, the organic carbon content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents. Treatment with 12.5 kg fresh A. imbricata per mandarin orange tree was effective to improve the quality of the mandarin orange garden soil. This study analyzed the mechanism of the changes in functional bacterial groups and genes involved in key metabolic processes of the nitrogen cycle in soil treated by A. imbricata.

  4. Separation of toxic rhodamine B from aqueous solution using an efficient low-cost material, Azolla pinnata, by adsorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B L; Lim, Lee Hoon; Dahri, Muhammad Khairud

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of untreated Azolla pinnata (AP) to remove toxic rhodamine B (RB) dye. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength, contact time, and concentration were studied. Experiments involving the effects of pH and ionic strength indicated that hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions might be the dominant force of attraction for the RB-AP adsorption system. The kinetics modelling of the kinetics experiment showed that pseudo-second-order best represented the adsorption process. The Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model showed that intraparticle diffusion is not the rate-limiting step, while the Boyd model suggested that film diffusion might be rate-limiting. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 72.2 and 199.7 mg g(-1) at 25 and 65 °C, respectively. Thermodynamics study indicates spontaneity, endothermic and physisorption-dominant adsorption process. The adsorbents were regenerated to satisfactory level with distilled water, HNO3 and NaOH. Pre-treatment of adsorbent with oxalic acid, citric acid, NaOH, HCl and phosphoric acid was investigated but the adsorption capacity was less than the untreated AP.

  5. Pengujian Kompos dan Inokulan Mikroba terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sengon Buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Willd Pada Lahan Bekas Tailing Pond di Cikotok

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    Hartati Imamuddin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has been so attracting considerable public attentions over the last decades. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to clean up pollutant soils. The study was carried out in gold mining Cikotok, Banten. Sengon buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, (Willd which is used as cyanogenic plant, compost and microbes inoculant is as stimulator to growththis plant. The experiment consist of K0 as control (plant without compost, K1 as plant + compost and K2 as plant+compost + microbe inoculant, with 3 replicated. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the potential for phytoremediation of cyanide contaminated soils using hyperaccumulator/cyanogenic plants and to assess the fate and transport of cyanide compounds in soils.The results showed that compost and microbe were able to stimulate growth of Sengon Buto after 7 months planting and to reduce cyanide until 66% Total bacteria in the study was relatively stable but NFB bacteria was decline.

  6. Bioactivity-guided isolation of flavonoids from Cynanchum acutum L. subsp. sibiricum (willd.) Rech. f. and investigation of their antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ilyas; Sen, Ozkan; Erenler, Ramazan; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Behcet, Lutfi

    2017-11-01

    Cynanchum acutum L. subsp. sibiricum (Willd.) Rech. f. was extracted with hexane, acetone, methanol and water individually. A sample was heated in water then extracted with ethyl acetate. Among the extracts, the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most antiproliferative activity, so isolation of bioactive compounds was carried out from this extract. A new compound, kaempferol-3-O-β-xylopyranosyl-(1-2)-β-rhamnopyranoside (1) along with five known compounds, quercetin-3-O-β-xyloside (2), kaempferol-3-O-β-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-β-rhamnopyranoside (5), and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-neohesperidoside (6) were isolated from ethyl acetate extract. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, basically 1D NMR, 2D NMR and LC-TOF/MS. Antiproliferative effects of isolated compounds were determined by xCELLigence using the HeLa (human uterus carcinoma) cell lines. Compound 2 and compound 5 revealed the good antiproliferative activity against HeLa cell lines.

  7. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd

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    Upendra B Gandagule

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruit decoction of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd. is used toward increase sterility in woman intended birth control in some parts of Rajasthan, India. This plant is widely used in Turkish medicines as a potent sedative. One to two inches of the fresh stem bark of this species are chewed with 1-2 peppers, and the sap swallowed once a day for 5 days in the treatment of cough. Standardization is one of the challenges in herbal medicine. It is essential to evaluate the herbal plants scientifically and proper documentation should be made to know their medicinal properties. Materials and Methods: Leaf samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied as recommended by World Health Organization for morphological, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical, powder characteristics and other methods for standardization. Results: Morphologically the leaves are obovate or orbicular in shape, pinnate venation having aromatic odour and pungent taste. Microscopically leaves showed the presence of ground tissue, vascular strand, xylem and phloem. The crystals are mostly rosette type. Microscopic examination of powder showed the presence of stomata, covering trichomes, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, epidermal cells and vascular strands. Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids in it. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value to be higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Conclusion: Results may be helpful for further confirmation of selected species and in future these characters may be compared with the new batch of the same plant materials.

  8. Soil Fertility Status on Organic Paddy Experiment

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    Mujiyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine fertility status of the soil after organic paddy experiments using kinds and doses of organic fertilizers. Experiment was conducted at greenhouse laboratory in Faculty of Agriculture Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Experimental design used completely randomized design with 9 kinds of treatment was replicated 3 times. Experiments were the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations that are based on fulfilling nutrient requirements of 120 kg N ha-1. Result shows that the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizers and Azolla inoculum had no effect on changes of soil fertility status. Soil fertility status was not significantly correlated with cow manure (0,16ns, Azolla fertilizer (0,26ns and Azolla inoculum (0,16ns. Average of final soil fertility status included fertile category, which was similar as the initial soil fertility status. Average of final soil properties of treatment but nevertheless was relatively higher than in no treatment, indicating the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations had greater impact to soil properties. Cow manure despite increased available K2O and dry grain, but it did not significantly increase the soil fertility status from fertile to very fertile. This was presumably due to the relatively short experiment period, only one planting season had not given significant effect to soil properties. Implication of this study is the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations although did not increase the soil fertility status but could maintain soil fertility status as the initial conditions before planting.

  9. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources.

  10. Is there foul play in the leaf pocket? The metagenome of floating fern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.W.; Brouwer, P.; Bolhuis, H.; Reichart, G.-J.; Koppers, N.; Huettel, B.; Bolger, A.M.; Li, F.-W.; Cheng, S.; Liu, X.; Wong, G.K.-S.; Pryer, K.; Weber, A.; Bräutigam, A.; Schluepmann, H.

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation by Nostoc azollae residing in specialized leaf pockets supports prolific growth of the floating fern Azolla filiculoides. To evaluate contributions by further microorganisms, the A. filiculoides microbiome and nitrogen metabolism in bacteria persistently associated with Azolla

  11. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Uncover the Multiple Mechanisms of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. on Colorectal Cancer

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    Xinkui Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer diseases globally, colorectal cancer (CRC remains an important cause of cancer-related death. Although the traditional Chinese herb Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (HDW has been proven to be effective for treating CRC in clinical practice, its definite mechanisms have not been completely deciphered. Objective. The aim of our research is to systematically explore the multiple mechanisms of HDW on CRC. Methods. This study adopted the network pharmacology approach, which was mainly composed of active component gathering, target prediction, CRC gene collection, network analysis, and gene enrichment analysis. Results. The network analysis showed that 10 targets might be the therapeutic targets of HDW on CRC, namely, HRAS, PIK3CA, KRAS, TP53, APC, BRAF, GSK3B, CDK2, AKT1, and RAF1. The gene enrichment analysis implied that HDW probably benefits patients with CRC by modulating pathways related to cancers, infectious diseases, endocrine system, immune system, nervous system, signal transduction, cellular community, and cell motility. Conclusions. This study partially verified and predicted the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of HDW against CRC from a holistic perspective, which will also lay a foundation for the further experimental research and clinical rational application of HDW.

  12. Polyphenols From Cutch Tree (Acacia catechu Willd.: Normalize In Vitro Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity

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    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME. It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

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    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  14. Evaluation of Fresh Azolla pinnata as a Low-Cost Supplemental Feed for Thai Silver Barb Barbonymus gonionotus

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    Mousumi Das

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic fern Azolla pinnata comprises significant high food value with a good proportion of protein, vitamins, and minerals. This study was carried out to examine the effect of fresh A. pinnata as a substitution of commercial fish feed (CFF for Thai silver barb Barbonymus gonionotus. Post fingerlings of B. gonionotus were reared in five treatments, labeled T1 to T5, by substituting 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% protein of CFF with A. pinnata protein (dry matter basis respectively for 56 days. The specific growth rate, net production rate, protein efficiency ratio, proximate composition, and overall conditions of fish were not significantly varied between the fish reared completely with CFF and 25% substitution with A. pinnata. However, a significantly higher profit rate (431.49 USD ha−1 56 day−1 was calculated for fish reared in T2 than other treatments. In contrast, there was a significant reduction of growth and other parameters of the fish that were observed in the case where more than 25% CFF was substituted with A. pinnata. The poorest performance was observed in fish fed completely with A. pinnata, at T5. Based on the results, 25% of CFF of Thai silver barb could be substituted with fresh A. pinnata without significantly lowering their growth and product quality and could contribute significant to a higher profit margin.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal from South Americas that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in saponins. However, the saponins in quinoa seeds planted in China were poorly known. We obtained 4 quinoa saponin fractions, Q30, Q50, Q70, and Q90, and 11 saponins were determined by HPLC-MS. Q50 possessed 8 individual saponins and had the highest content of saponins. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells of the 4 fractions. The 4 fractions not only dose-dependently decreased the production of inflammatory mediators NO but also inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that quinoa saponins may be used as functional food components for prevention and treatment of inflammation. Our findings demonstrate that saponins from the quinoa have the potential to anti-inflammation by suppressing the release of inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P.J.; Inubushi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH 4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N 2 O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH 4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and inorganic amendments

  17. Batch and column studies on biosorption of acid dyes on fresh water macro alga Azolla filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmesh, T V N; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sekaran, G; Velan, M

    2005-10-17

    The biosorption of Acid red 88 (AR88), Acid green 3 (AG3) and Acid orange 7 (AO7) by deactivated fresh water macro alga Azolla filiculoides was investigated in batch mode. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the batch biosorption equilibrium data and model constants were evaluated. The adsorption capacity was pH dependent with a maximum value of 109.0 mg/g at pH 7 for AR88, 133.5 mg/g at pH 3 for AG3 and 109.6 mg/g at pH 3 for AO7, respectively, was obtained. The pseudo first and second order kinetic models were also applied to the experimental kinetic data and high correlation coefficients favor pseudo second order model for the present systems. The ability of A. filiculoides to biosorb AG3 in packed column was also investigated. The column experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as initial dye concentration (50-100 mg/L), bed height (15-25 cm) and flow rate (5-15 mL/min) to the well-adsorbed dye. At optimum bed height (25 cm), flow rate (5 mL/min) and initial dye concentration (100 mg/L), A. filiculoides exhibited 28.1mg/g for AG3. The Bed Depth Service Time model and the Thomas model were used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated.

  18. Stress responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and water velvet (Azolla filiculoides Lam.) to anionic surfactant sodium-dodecyl-sulphate (SDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, C; Braglia, R; Harren, F J M; Cristescu, S M

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are used for several purposes and recently they have attracted the attention for their ability to modify the behavior of other preexistent or co-disposed contaminants, although their use or discharge in wastewaters can represent a real or potential risk for the environment. Lemna minor L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. are floating aquatic macrophytes, very effective in accumulating several pollutants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In this work we evaluated the effects of SDS on these species by determining the stress ethylene production via laser-based trace gas detection, and the activities of enzymes involved in stress response, such as guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol-oxidase (PPO). Phenolics content was also determined. The macrophytes were treated with different concentrations of SDS for one week. SDS affected duckweed enzymatic activities and phenol content. While in the fern phenolics amount, PAL, G-POD and PPO activities were not affected by SDS except for 100 ppm SDS, the only concentration that was taken up and not completely degraded. Stress ethylene production was induced only in the fern treated with 50 and 100 ppm SDS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dormancy overcoming, temperatures and substrates on germination of Mimosa tenuiflora Willd seeds

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    Clarisse Pereira Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora Willd., popularly known as jurema-preta, is an arboreal species of great importance for the brazilian Northeast due to its uses as a medicinal plant and in the restoration of degraded soils. No information is available in the Rules for Seed Analysis and the Instructions for Seed Analysis of Forest Species regarding ideal conditions for of this species. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of pre-germination treatments, in addition to verifying the germination performance at different temperatures and in different substrates. In both experiments, four replicates of 25 seeds were used for each treatment. In experiment I, seeds were submitted to the following methods for overcoming dormancy: witness - Intact seeds (T1 immersion in water at 100 °C for 1 (T2, 2 (T3, 3 (T4, 4 (T5, 5 (T6 and 6 min (T7, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid for 1 (T8, 4 (T9, 7 (T10, 10 (T11 and 13 min (T12, scarification on sandpaper n° 80 (T13 and lopping in the region opposite the micropyle (T14. In experiment II, seed germination was evaluated in four types of substrates: between sand, paper on, paper roll and between vermiculite and at six different temperatures: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C and alternating between 20 and 30 °C. Immersion in hot water for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 min, sulfuric acid treatment for 10 and 13 min, sand paper and lopping were the most appropriate treatments to overcome seed dormancy. The seed germination of M. Tenuiflora should be carried out at 25 °C on paper roll substrate.

  20. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam, E-mail: litonaslam@yahoo.com [Dept. of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Kim, P.J., E-mail: pjkim@nongae.gsnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Inubushi, K. [Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and

  1. EFECTO DE LA EXTRUSIÓN SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA LORENA CERÓN FERNANDEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD is a pseudocereal produced for many years in Andean regions and allows different transformations taking advantage of their nutritional qualities becoming it a food agribusiness alternative. Objective of this study was to observe physical and chemical changes from two quinoa flour varieties (Blanca dulce de Jericó and Tunkahuan during extrusion process and determine conditions (flour moisture, temperature and screw speed that allow obtain an extruded similar to precooked functional properties. Water absorption index (IAA, water solubility index (ISA and swelling power (PH was response variables. Two flour extrusion at 105°C degrees, 150 rpm screw speed and 25 to 30% moisture improved functional properties (IAA increased from 1,81 g gel/g D.M to 4,22 g gel/g D.M in Tunkahuan extruded quinoa flour and 2,00 g gel/g to 4,27 g gel MS/MS g flour in Blanca dulce de Jericó but nutriotional properties decreased as digestibility except for a carbohydrate content increase.

  2. Competition Between Lemna minuta, Lemna minor, and Azolla filiculoides. Growing Fast or Being Steadfast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Paolacci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of Lemnaceae are invasive outside their natural distribution area. Lemna minuta is considered invasive in several European countries, where it can occur in the same habitat as invasive Azolla filiculoides and native Lemna minor. In this study the presence, abundance and growth rates of all three species were monitored across 24 natural ponds and in a series of mesocosms in order to explore the importance of species invasiveness and habitat invisibility. Field monitoring showed that the distribution of the three species of macrophytes is heterogeneous in space and time. However, the data show no association of nutrient or light levels with plant distribution. Indeed, using reciprocal transplanting experiments it was demonstrated that all species are able to grow in all ponds, even ponds where the species do not naturally occur. It is concluded that distribution of L. minor, L. minuta, and A. filiculoides is not limited by the prevailing physicochemical characteristics of the ponds during the summer period. Remarkably, in these experiments A. filiculoides displayed the highest RGR, and exerted a negative influence on growth rates and surface cover of L. minor and L. minuta. Despite such apparent invasiveness, A. filiculoides was relatively rare in the study area. Rather, the species most abundant was L. minor which has the lowest RGR under field conditions in summer. Therefore, this study shows that the invasiveness of the species during the summer months is not necessarily reflected in the actual distribution pattern in natural ponds. In fact, alien L. minuta and A. filiculoides are under-represented in the monitored area. It is concluded that the interaction of several factors, including growth under winter-conditions and/or dispersal after disturbances, is the major determinant of the abundance and heterogeneous distribution of L. minor, L. minuta, and A. filiculoides in the study area.

  3. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, K.H.; Mustafa, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elamin, K H; Mustafa, A F [Gezira Agricultural Research Centre, Wad Medani (Sudan). Forestry Research Section

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  5. SOIL N, P AND K CONCENTRATIONS AND RICE YIELD INCREASED DUE TO THE APPLICATION OF Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arivin Rivaie*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies showed that application of Azolla pinnata as biofertilizer improved soil fertility some agricultural crops, including rice, whereas farmers in Lampung consider that A. pinnata suppresses growth of rice seedlings, so they throw it field by raising irrigation water surface. Information on effects A. pinnata application on changes in nutrient availability and rice yield obtained from paddy fields of regions still rare. A study was carried out to investigate effects of different rates of A. pinnata on changes in N, P, K concentrations in paddy soils, N uptake, and rice yield. A well-irrigated paddy field was incorporated with A. pinnata, and then rice seedlings of Ciherang variety had been grown from June up to December 2009. Results: application of A. pinnata at dose of five t per ha increased concentration of N, P and K as well as rice yield. A. pinnata had a relatively high N content, ie 2.43 percent. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha increased significantly available soil P, indicated that A. pinnata requires a fairly high P to grow optimally. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha gave highest dry grain yield, suggests that application A. pinnata did not suppress rice yield, even use of A. pinnata as organic matter source will help to conserve fossil fuels and foreign exchange as well as will allow more paddy fields that can be fertilized by N.

  6. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P J; Inubushi, K

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK+fly ash, NPK+silicate slag, NPK+phosphogypsum(PG), NPK+blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK+revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK+silicate slag (50%)+RFS (50%), NPK+biochar, NPK+biochar+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+silicate slag+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+phosphogypsum (PG)+Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5-14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0-12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0-30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43-50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  8. Chitosan mediated enhancement of hydrolysable tannin in Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd via plant cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Malayaman; N, Sisubalan; R P, Senthilkumar; S, Sheik Mohamed; R, Ranjithkumar; M, Ghouse Basha

    2017-11-01

    Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. is wild medicinal plant used in the traditional system of medicine. This plant has been actively used for hepatoprotection and to cure many diseases including jaundice and so on; which leads to complete extinction of this particular species. Therefore, the chitosan mediated cost effective cell suspension method has been developed for the production of hydrolysable tannin. The hydrolysable tannins are the main therapeutically active constituents with antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. An in vitro cell suspension culture was optimized by adding chitosan for production of hydrolysable tannin. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 4.46±0.06g fresh cell weight and 1.33±0.04g dry cell weight were obtained from the optimal suspension medium consisted of MS medium+0.5mgL -1 BAP+1.5mgL -1 NAA. Chitosan was treated at the stationary phase which leads to the highest accumulation of hydrolysable tannin compared to the untreated control. Hydrolysable tannin was observed and compared using HPLC at the Rt of 4.91 in both chitosan treated and untreated cells. This is the first ever report where use of chitosan has been done to enhance the production of the hydrolysable tannin in P. debilis using cell suspension culture technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical and growth performance of the aquatic macrophyte Azolla filiculoides to sub-chronic exposure to cylindrospermopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Catarina; Azevedo, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Pereira, Ana L

    2015-11-01

    Physiological and biochemical effects of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanobacterial toxin that inhibits protein synthesis and released during a harmful cyanobacterial bloom, has been overlooked in plants. Therefore, at the present research, the toxic effects (physiological and biochemical) of a crude extract containing CYN were assessed in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides exposed to three concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg CYN mL(-1)). At 5 μg CYN mL(-1), fern growth rate has showed a drastic decrease (0.001 g g(-1) day(-1)) corresponding to a 99.8% inhibition, but at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 μg CYN mL(-1) the growth rate was similar to the control plants. Growth rate also indicated a IC50 of 2.9 μg CYN mL(-1). Those data point to the presence of other compounds in the crude extract may stimulate the fern growth and/or the fern is tolerant to CYN. Chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoids and protein content as well as the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) has increased at 5 μg CYN mL(-1) which may indicate that photosynthesis and protein synthesis are not affected by CYN and the probable activation of defense and detoxifying mechanisms to overcome the effects induced by the presence of CYN. Low uptake of cylindrospermopsin (1.314 μg CYN g(-1) FW) and low bioconcentration factor (0.401) point towards to a safe use of A. filiculoides as biofertilizer and as food source, but also indicate that the fern is not suitable for CYN phytoremediation.

  10. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf degradation of Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae and invertebrate colonization in a subtropical lake (Brazil Degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae e colonização por invertebrados em um lago subtropical (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Telöken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate leaf degradation and invertebrate colonization of Salix humboldtiana Willd. in a subtropical shallow lake on the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; METHODS: Litter bags containing 6.85 g of leaves were incubated in the superficial layer of sediment in the littoral region for 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 and 71 days; RESULTS: After 71 days, a loss of 51% of the initial leaf weight was observed (k = 0.0100 d-1. We estimated that it would take 300 days to lose 95% of the initial weight. A total of 16040 organisms and 35 taxa were identified. Caenidae (25.9%, Oligochaeta (19%, Ostracoda (13.8%, Hydracarina (9.8%, Tanypodinae (9.7% and Coenagrionidae (7.7% were the most highly represented taxa. We observed increases in density, richness and diversity of taxa over time, with a stabilizing trend noted in the taxa diversity. Regarding the functional trophic groups (FTGs, gathering-collectors accounted for 57.6% of the community, while predators (25%, scrapers (15.8%, filtering-collectors (0.88% and shredders (0.73% were also represented. The diversity and evenness of the FTGs had stabilized by day 14; CONCLUSIONS: S. humboldtiana detritus provides a favorable habitat for a sufficient duration to support a high density and diversity of aquatic invertebrates. The small percentage of shredders indicates the minor influence of the invertebrate community on the rate of detrital degradation. The main contribution of invertebrates to detrital processing comes from the consumption of fine particulate organic matter by gathering-collectors.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd. e a colonização pela comunidade de invertebrados aquáticos em um lago raso subtropical, planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil; MÉTODOS: Bolsas de decomposição contendo 6,85 g de folhas foram incubadas na região litorânea, na superfície do sedimento, e retiradas após 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 e 71 dias de decomposi

  12. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  13. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New taxa and combinations in neotropical Juncus (Juncaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    1983-01-01

    Juncus arequipensis andJ. breviculmis are described as new species, andJ. ramboi subsp.colombianus as a new subspecies.Juncus arcticus Willd. var.mexicanus (Willd.), var.montanus (Engelm.), and var.andicola (Hook.) are proposed as new combinations.......Juncus arequipensis andJ. breviculmis are described as new species, andJ. ramboi subsp.colombianus as a new subspecies.Juncus arcticus Willd. var.mexicanus (Willd.), var.montanus (Engelm.), and var.andicola (Hook.) are proposed as new combinations....

  15. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  16. Preliminary comparison of the uptake of chromium-51 and zinc-65 by three species of aquatic plants from Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklar, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides was much greater for duckweed (Spirodela punctata) than for larger aquatic plants of slower growth (Bacopa caroliniana and Elodea canadensis). Higher specific activity (dpm/gm) was recorded in leaves than in stems. Chromium-51 accumulation factors ranged from a low of 66 for stems of E. canadensis to a high of 436 for S. punctata fronds. Zinc-65 accumulation factors were much higher: 142 for stems of B. caroliniana and 18,118 for fronds of S. punctata. Significant reductions in zinc-65 activity in the water surrounding growing S. punctata was detected within 10 minutes

  17. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. miers on some weed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.. Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germination was observed for 15 days after that the root length and shoot length was measured. Dry weight was measured after oven drying the seedlings. The aqueous extracts from root and aerial root had inhibitory effect on seed germination of test plants. Aqueous extracts from root and aerial root significantly inhibited not only germination and seedling growth but also reduced dry weight of the seedlings. Root length, shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when plants were exposed to increasing concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. Aqueous extract of aerial root shows the least inhibition. The pH of aqueous extracts of different parts of T. cordifolia does not show any major change when the concentration increases.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF EUPHORBIA MILLI VAR. SPLENDENS (BOJER EX HOOK. URSCH & LEANDRI AND EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA WILLD. EX KLOTZSCH SPECIES LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study concerning the leaf structure of two Euphorbia species belonging to Euphorbiaceae family: Euphorbia milli var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook. Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch. Anatomically, the leaves of the studied species are quite similar in the basic structure. The petiole has a single-layered epidermis, a collenchyma tissue – hypodermis - and three collateral bundles embedded in a basic tissue. Differences occur concerning the relationship between the collateral bundles. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract petiole has almost the same structure as those of the leaf petiole. The blade is amphistomatic for Euphorbia milli var. splendes and hipostomatic for E. pulcherrima. The heterogeneous mesophyll is isobilateral in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade and bifacial in E. pulcherrima. The vascular system of the mid rib is represented by one collateral bundle for both species, more developed in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade. Differences appear concerning the epidermal cells cuticle thickness, the type of mesophyll, the abundance of the non-articulated laticifers and the development of the vascular system. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract has the same organization plan structure as the leaf blade but some features differences occur.

  19. AcEST: DK944536 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tion tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides...lignments: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculo

  20. AcEST: DK951670 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides Align length ...ts) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 47 ...entus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides GN=AzMT2

  1. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd. e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.. Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exudation. The transversally cut wood showed ashy colored pith, that desenvolved numerous perithecia when kept in a humid chamber. These perithecia were transferred aseptically to potato-dextrose-agar and the culture was classified as Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Four mounth old Acacia plants inoculated with the isolate died after 14 days. The fungus was again isolated from these dead plants. Cross inoculation tests with isolate of C. fimbriata from Acacia and mango (Mangifera indica L. showed pathogenic effects for both hosts.

  2. Decay of oak Wood provoked by fungus Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S. F. Gray. and its' essential physiological requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Milenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi usually decompose cell walls of attacked wood destroying tissue elements (i.e. parenchyma cells, wood fibres, tension wood, tracheas etc in different amount, depending to wood-species as well as to its' zones. Different fungi secrete specific enzymes that are responsible for certain damages. As consequence, the wood structure use to be significantly and unfixable decomposed and changed. Microscopical analyses that have been run provided clear and indicative information relating to effects of fungal activity on wood tissue. Physiological requirements of fungi are for shore of the highest importance in understanding of mechanism of decaying process in the wood. The most important factors as like temperature and concentration of H ions, as well as main nutrients as sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus can affect the behaviour of wood decaying fungi. The impacts of these factors on the growth and production on mycelial mass of Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S.F. Gray., have been investigated. This fungus is one of the most frequent appearing on the Sessile- and Pedunculate Oak weakened trees or felled logs, behaving as parasite as well as saprophyte. As a causer of Oak sapwood white rot S. hirsutum causes significant damages of wood at forest- as well as at industrial storages.

  3. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AcEST: DK946149 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides Align...nts: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...thus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides G

  5. AcEST: DK957493 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M2 Definition tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla fil...ificant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...onein OS=Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  6. Pollinator specialization and pollination syndromes of three related North American Silene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J; Westbrook, M Jody; Rohde, Alexandra S; Cridland, Julie M; Fenster, Charles B; Dudash, Michele R

    2009-08-01

    Community and biogeographic surveys often conclude that plant-pollinator interactions are highly generalized. Thus, a central implication of the pollination syndrome concept, that floral trait evolution occurs primarily via specialized interactions of plants with their pollinators, has been questioned. However, broad surveys may not distinguish whether flower visitors are actual pollen vectors and hence lack power to assess the relationship between syndrome traits and the pollinators responsible for their evolution. Here we address whether the floral traits of three closely related hermaphroditic Silene spp. native to eastern North America (S. caroliniana, S. virginica, and S. stellata) correspond to predicted specialized pollination based on floral differences among the three species and the congruence of these floral features with recognized pollination syndromes. A nocturnal/diurnal pollinator exclusion experiment demonstrated that all three Silene spp. have diurnal pollinators, and only S. stellata has nocturnal pollinators. Multiyear studies of visitation rates demonstrated that large bees, hummingbirds, and nocturnal moths were the most frequent pollinators of S. caroliniana, S. virginica, and S. stellata, respectively. Estimates of pollen grains deposited and removed per visit generally corroborated the visitation rate results for all three species. However, the relatively infrequent diurnal hawkmoth pollinators of S. caroliniana were equally effective and more efficient than the most frequent large bee visitors. Pollinator importance (visitation X deposition) of each of the animal visitors to each species was estimated and demonstrated that in most years large bees and nocturnal moths were the most important pollinators of S. caroliniana and S. stellata, respectively. By quantifying comprehensive aspects of the pollination process we determined that S. virginica and S. stellata were specialized on hummingbirds and nocturnal moths, respectively, and S

  7. Effects of ascorbate feeding on chlorophyll fluorescence and xanthophyll cycle components in the lichen Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio exposed to atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, A.; Deltoro, V.I.; Barreno, E. [Univ. de Valencia, Inst. `Cavanilles` de Biodiversitat y Biologia Evolutiva, Burjassot (Spain); Abadia, A. [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei, CSIC, Dept. of Plant Nutrition, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    The effects of environmental stresses on photosynthetic responses, ascorbate levels and pigment composition were investigated in samples of Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio from control and polluted regions of the northern Castellon area (Valencia, Spain). In response to sustained pollutant stress in the field, lichen thalli has closed PSII traps and exhibited lower rates of electron transport and non-radiative energy dissipation. The xanthophyll concentration was not affected by exposure to atmospheric pollutants. The ascorbate concentration was lower in samples exposed to ambient air pollutants compared to control thalli. Ascorbate feeding of thalli from polluted sites stimulated electron flow, photochemical quenching and non-raditive energy dissipation. Additionally, ascorbate feeding enhances the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll pool in polluted thalli. The partial recovery for non-radiative energy dissipation was presumabley due to the interaction between the increased thylakoid pH gradient and de-epoxidized xanthophylls. Furhtermore, ascorbate feeding descreased photon excess in thalli from polluted sites owing to the stimulation of linear electron flow and non-radiative energy dissipation. The present study suggests that atmospheric pollutants besides their intrinsic toxicity, put on an additional burden by hampering the operation of photoprotective mechanisms. (au)

  8. AcEST: DK951482 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S3M2 Definition tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla f...gnificant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...hionein OS=Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  9. Genetic and chemical diversity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Schult. DC. in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina Gomes Honório

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult. DC., a plant native to the Amazon region, is used widely in popular medicine and by the pharmaceutical industry because of its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the survival of this species is endangered by deforestation and indiscriminate collection, and a preservation plan is urgently required. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic and chemical variability between and within eight populations of U. tomentosa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Pará and Amapá, and to investigate possible correlations between genetic and geographical distances, and between geographical distances or altitude and the accumulation of bioactive oxindole alkaloids. Three sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were employed to fingerprint genomic DNA, and the amounts of mitraphylline and isomitraphylline in leaf samples were established by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although significant divergence existed between the tested populations (FST = 0.246, the largest genetic diversity and the highest percentage of polymorphism (95.68% was found within the population from Mâncio Lima, Acre. Gene flow was considered rather limited (Nm = 1.57, and no correlations between genetic and geographical distances were detected, suggesting that population structure followed an island model. Accumulations of mitraphylline and isomitraphylline varied in the range 32.94 to 0.57 and 3.75 to 0.36 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. The concentration of isomitraphylline was positively influenced by altitude, such that the population collected at the site with the highest elevation (Tarauacá, Acre exhibited the greatest alkaloid content. SRAP markers were very efficient in fingerprinting genomic DNA from U. tomentosa populations and clearly showed that genetic variability within populations was greater than between populations. A conservation and management plan should prioritize the creation of germplasm

  10. Changes in symbiotic and associative interrelations in a higher plant-bacterial system during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, V. A.; Man'ko, V. G.; Popova, A. F.; Shcherbak, O. H.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Nguen-Hgue-Thyok

    The miniature cenosis consisting of the water fern Azolla with its associated symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena and the concomitant bacteria was investigated. Ecological closure was shown to produce sharp quantitative and qualitative changes in the number and type of concomitant bacteria. Changes in the distribution of bacterial types grown on beef-extract broth after space flight were recorded. Anabaena azollae underwent the most significant changes under spaceflight conditions. Its cell number per Azolla biomass unit increased substantially. Thus closure of cenosis resulted in a weakening of control over microbial development by Azolla. This tendency was augmented by spaceflight factors. Reduction in control exerted by macro-organisms over development of associated micro-organisms must be taken into account in constructing closed ecological systems in the state of weightlessness.

  11. Carbon stock quantification of Morella pubescens (H. & B. ex Willd. Wilbur in two agroecosystems (Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Andrés Delgado Vargas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon stored in radical biomass of Morella pubescens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Wilbur, was quantified, in San Pablo, Nariño, Colombia, with height of 2010 m, average annual rainfall of 1300 mm and average temperature of 17ºC. Three experimental unites: silvopastoral system pasture alley cropping (Ac in two planting distances 4x3m and 4x4m, and natural regeneration system (Rn, 7 individual ware taken by experimental unite with (diameters 5 – 7 cm, by experimental unit, the sample was taken to 70 cm and 140 cm from the tree and three depths (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm. In total 24 simples/trees were taken in 21 selected individuals. The mayor quantity of radical biomass and C stock was presented in the Ac arrangement 4x3 m of 27.6 t.ha-1 (14.1 t.C.ha-1; 24 4 t.ha-1 (12.1 t.C.ha-1 distance 4x4 m and 7.5 t.ha-1 and 2.9 t.ha-1In natural regeneration. In system Ac distance 4x4 m there were not differences in C stored by tree Rn, there was a decrease by 4x3 m, thus, the differences of accumulation between the systems, can obey to the density of the sowing.

  12. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  13. The antioxidant activity and nitric oxide production of extracts obtained from the leaves of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lan, Xiang-Zhen; Wu, Yan-Yi; Ou, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tsung Chi; Wu, Wen-Tzu

    2017-12-01

    Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of quinoa leaf extracts were assessed by the ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and iron chelating. The total phenolic content was determined. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells was examined to gauge the anti-inflammatory activity. The 95% EQL showed a higher level of total phenolic content (569.5 mg GAE/g extract) and better DPPH scavenging activity. The WQL exhibited a better iron chelating capacity (28.9% at 10 mg/ml). The iron chelating activity of the 95% EQL increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which ranged from 10.9% up to 53.9%. The 50% EQL and 95% EQL significantly inhibited NO production in the LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We demonstrate that the extracts of quinoa leaves possess the biological activities of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Our finding suggests that the leaf extract of quinoa has potential to be utilized for natural health products. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  14. AcEST: DK953912 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t_id Q8S3M2 Definition tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...cing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...etallothionein OS=Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  15. AcEST: DK955431 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t_id Q8S3M2 Definition tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...cing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...etallothionein OS=Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  16. Phytoextraction potential of water fern (Azolla pinnata) in the removal of a hazardous dye, methyl violet 2B: Artificial neural network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B L; Lim, Lee-Hoon; Malik, Owais Ahmed

    2018-04-16

    This study investigated the potential of Azolla pinnata (AP) in the removal of toxic methyl violet 2B (MV) dye wastewater using the phytoextraction approach with the inclusion of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling. Parameters examined included the effects of dye concentration, pH and plant dosage. The highest removal efficiency was 93% which was achieved at a plant dosage of 0.8 g (dye volume = 200 mL, initial pH = 6.0, initial dye concentration = 10 mg L -1 ). A significant decrease in relative frond number (RFN), a growth rate estimator, observed at a dye concentration of 20 mg L -1 MV indicated some toxicity, which coincided with the plant pigments studies where the chlorophyll a content was lower than the control. There were little differences in the plant pigment contents between the control and those in the presence of dye (5 to 15 mg L -1 ) indicating the tolerance of AP to MV at lower concentrations. A three-layer ANN model was optimized (6 neurons in the hidden layer) and successfully predicted the phytoextraction of MV (R = 0.9989, RMSE = 0.0098). In conclusion, AP proved to be a suitable plant that could be used for the phytoextraction of MV while the ANN modelling has shown to be a reliable method for the modelling of phytoextraction of MV using AP.

  17. AcEST: DK961355 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rEMBL tr_hit_id Q8S3M2 Definition tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoid...ences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...G67_AMACR Metallothionein OS=Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  18. Metabolic adaptation, a specialized leaf organ structure and vascular responses to diurnal N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Buijs, Valerie A.; Tazelaar, Anne O.E.; Werf, van der Adrie; Schlüter, Urte; Reichart, Gert Jan; Bolger, Anthony; Usadel, Björn; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture demands reduced input of man-made nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet N2 fixation limits the productivity of crops with heterotrophic diazotrophic bacterial symbionts. We investigated floating ferns from the genus Azolla that host phototrophic diazotrophic Nostoc azollae in leaf

  19. Caracterização genética de mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. em áreas de baixa ocorrência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira Gonçalves

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina Willd., popularmente conhecida como mulungu, apresenta propriedades farmacológicas e se encontra em estado de raridade em regiões do Estado de Sergipe. Devido ao interesse econômico, torna-se fundamental gerar informações para definir planos de conservação e exploração sustentável. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os indivíduos de Erythrina velutina por meio de marcadores ISSRs. Para isto foram estudados 40 indivíduos do Estado de Sergipe pertencentes a três localidades (Município de Pinhão - Caatinga; Município de Santana do São Francisco e São Cristóvão - Mata Atlântica. Ao total, foram avaliados e obtidos 149 locos a partir de 11 primers ISSR. O número mínimo de locos para estudo de diversidade em E. velutina foi de 117 de acordo com o valor do estresse de Kruskal. Na população de Santana ocorre estruturação genética espacial e a população de Pinhão não possui estruturação genética espacial, seus indivíduos estão distribuídos de forma aleatória o que compromete a sustentabilidade ao longo do tempo, e, portanto, requer ações imediatas de conservação e recuperação.

  20. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Zaki, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  1. Seed size effects on the response of seedlings of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd to water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Atta, H.A.; Areef, I.M.; Ahmed, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are characterized by unpredictable spells of drought and climate change. Saudi Arabia mostly falls within the arid zone and some few scattered areas fall in the semiarid zone mainly in the South Western region. Rainfall is sparse and with sporadic distribution. Drought is the most critical factor for restoration of the tree cover. Within a tree, seeds vary in size from large to small seeds. Although several researchers have studied the effect of within species variation in seed size on seedlings growth parameters, however there is a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of seed size on stress tolerance (Khurana and Singh 2000). We assumed that seedlings grown from different seed sizes from the same tree species may influence their response to water stress. Seeds of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd. were categorized into large, medium and small seeds on the basis of the seed weight. Seedlings from the three seed sizes were grown in potted soil and subjected to 5 levels of field water capacity (FC) (100, 75, 50, 25 and 15 percent) in the greenhouse. The Objective was to evaluate the response of seedling grown (from different seed sizes) to water stress and to understand the acclimation of seedlings to water stress. Water stress significantly reduced RWC, leaf area, and shoot length, fresh and dry weight. Significant correlations between growth parameters and water stress level were recorded. Seedlings from large seeds were heavier and comparatively less affected by drought compared to seedlings from smaller seeds. In all seedlings root length increased significantly and more biomass was allocated to roots than to shoots. However, at severe water stress (15 percent FC) no significant differences were reported between the three seedling categories. Therefore, raising of seedlings from large seeds is more appropriate for tree restoration programs under drought conditions. (author)

  2. The omnipresent water fern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Speelman, E.N.; de Leeuw, J.W.; Reichart, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of large amounts of lignin in ubiquitously occurring species of the freshwater fern Azolla. Molecular analysis using flash pyrolysis and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation shows, however, that neither the leaves nor the roots of Azolla contain

  3. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  4. AcEST: DK946119 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TrEMBL tr_hit_id Q8S3M2 Definition tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...llothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 47 6e-04 tr|Q1W3C8|Q1W3C8_CAMSI Metallothionin 2 OS=Camellia sinens...4G67_AMACR Metallothionein OS=Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  5. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles on acetaminophen - induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gold nanoparticles (GNaP) biosynthesized through the mediation of Azolla microphylla and A. microphylla extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes in different conditions: treatment I (before 12 mM acetaminophen), treatment II (after 12 mM acetaminophen), and treatment III (both before and after 12 mM acetaminophen), and incubated. Among these, control group treated with 12 mM acetaminophen produced significantly elevated levels (50-80%) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decreased the levels (60-75%) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Treatment with methanol extract of A. microphylla phytochemically biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla methanol extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) significantly improved the viability of cells in a culture medium. It also significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CAT, GOT, GPT, and MDA, and significantly increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. In conclusion, gold nanoparticles biosynthesized through A. microphylla demonstrated effective hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects than methanol extract of A. microphylla.

  6. AcEST: DK943775 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 54 3e-06 tr|O81528|O81528_MESCR Metallothionein OS=Mes...etallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides GN=AzMT2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 77 Score = 54.3 bits (129),

  7. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  8. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sob influência do sombreamento por Acacia mangium Willd Morphophysiological alterations in leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' shaded by Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Angélica Cordeiro Gomes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças na disponibilidade de radiação podem causar modificações na estrutura e função das folhas do cafeeiro, que podem responder de maneira diferencial à radiação por alterações morfológicas, anatômicas, de crescimento e na taxa fotossintética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características morfofisiológicas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sombreados por acácia (Acacia mangium Willd. na época seca e chuvosa no sul de Minas Gerais. As maiores taxas fotossintéticas e maiores espessuras da epiderme adaxial foram observadas na estação chuvosa nas linhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol. O sombreamento influenciou em menor espessura das folhas e em espaços intercelulares maiores no tecido esponjoso. Foi também verificada mudança na forma dos cloroplastos, os quais apresentaram-se mais alongados em folhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol quando relacionados aos arborizados.Light availability is one of the most important environmental factors affecting leaf structure and functions in coffee plants that can respond differently to radiation by changes in leaf anatomy, morphology, growth and photosynthetic rate. The objective of this research was evaluate some morphophysiological aspects in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' cropped under shelter trees in the south of Minas Gerais during the rainy and dry season. The shade caused lower leaves thickness and higher intercellular spaces in spongious tissue. There was also verified a change in chloroplast shape, which showed more elongated in coffee tree kept at full sunlight in relation to that ones maintained on shading.

  9. The simulation model of growth and cell divisions for the root apex with an apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska-Stachowiak, Anna; Nakielski, Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to seed plants, the roots of most ferns have a single apical cell which is the ultimate source of all cells in the root. The apical cell has a tetrahedral shape and divides asymmetrically. The root cap derives from the distal division face, while merophytes derived from three proximal division faces contribute to the root proper. The merophytes are produced sequentially forming three sectors along a helix around the root axis. During development, they divide and differentiate in a predictable pattern. Such growth causes cell pattern of the root apex to be remarkably regular and self-perpetuating. The nature of this regularity remains unknown. This paper shows the 2D simulation model for growth of the root apex with the apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata. The field of growth rates of the organ, prescribed by the model, is of a tensor type (symplastic growth) and cells divide taking principal growth directions into account. The simulations show how the cell pattern in a longitudinal section of the apex develops in time. The virtual root apex grows realistically and its cell pattern is similar to that observed in anatomical sections. The simulations indicate that the cell pattern regularity results from cell divisions which are oriented with respect to principal growth directions. Such divisions are essential for maintenance of peri-anticlinal arrangement of cell walls and coordinated growth of merophytes during the development. The highly specific division program that takes place in merophytes prior to differentiation seems to be regulated at the cellular level.

  10. THE DIFFERENCE OF MACHINING PROPERTIES OF TIMO (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. And KABESAK WOOD (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. FROM EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Rianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.

  11. Effets de l'alimentation des poissons avec Azolla sur la production d'un écosystème agro-piscicole en zones marécageuses au Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanangire, CK.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Azolla-based Meal on the Production of an Agro-piscicultural Ecosystem in Rwanda Marshlands. Cette étude analyse les différences de caractères au niveau de la descendance des croisements interspécifiques entre Sesamum indicum L. et Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l'héritabilité de la présence d'une forte pilosité sur les tiges et sur les pétioles est contrôlée par deux gènes assortis et indépendants. Les deux gènes dominants S et P confèrent aux plantes une importante pilosité sur les tiges et sur les pétioles tandis qu'un allèle dominant S-pp et ss-P confère aux plantes une pilosité respectivement abondante sur les tiges st sur les pétioles. Seuls les génotypes homozygotes sspp avec deux gènes récessifs produisent des plantes avec peu de poils sur les tiges et sur les pétioles. Les implications de ces résultats dans l'évolution de ces espèces sont discutées.

  12. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) Bougainvillea spectabilis had an LD50 > 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV.

  13. ESTRUTURA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS DE CAATINGA EM PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO TAVARES CALIXTO JÚNIOR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. (jurema preta is a xerophytic species of the shrub-arboreal habit, indicative of secondary succession stage of recovery or progressive, widely disseminated by different caatinga physiognomies of northeastern Brazil, bringing great potential. For the few studies that address their environmental performance, this study aimed to investigate structural and ecological aspects of its population, based data in diameter and height, and characterize the spatial distribution pattern of this species in the study areas. The phytosociological survey was conducted in two areas with 2 and 80 hectares of caatinga at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Semiarid, Petrolina - PE. 10 units were plotted on a random sample measuring 8.0 x 40m, and included all individuals living in diameter at soil level K 3 cm, and measured the total height of the same. Were sampled 283 and 61 individuals in 100 and 80% of plots in areas I and II respectively, inserted mostly in the first diameter classes (3.0 - 6.0 cm and 6.1 - 9.0 cm and height (2.0 - 3.0 m and 3.1 - 4 m, without trend to standard reverse-J-shape in areas. The spatial distribution, measured by the Payandeh index, reached a value of 2.4 in area I and 7.8 in area II, indicating that the species has a aggregated distribution in both areas. The calculated values for the of Liocourt quotient in areas I and II respectively, got an average of 0.67 and 1.12 with great variation, showing unbalance, despite being in progressive process of natural regeneration.

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ferraz Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality-selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality.

  15. AcEST: DK945877 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ionein-like type 1 protein OS=Ip... 57 5e-07 tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides GN=AzMT2 PE=4 SV=1

  16. AcEST: DK960984 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 57 6e-07 tr|O81529|O81529_MESCR Metallothionein OS=Mesembryant...S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides GN=AzMT2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 77 Score

  17. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  18. Indicadores de sustentabilidade para conservação genética de Erythrina velutina Willd., em área de mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilla Cristina Lemos Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Um dos grandes desafios para o sistema agropecuário é estabelecer a produção agrícola aliada à conservação dos recursos genéticos, principalmente visando à proteção de Áreas de Preservação Permanente. Nesse contexto, mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd, entre outras espécies nativas, vem sofrendo com as pressões antrópicas nos mais diversos ecossistemas, o que causa reduções em sua base genética. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar parâmetros ecológicos e genéticos populacionais como indicadores de sustentabilidade em duas populações naturais de mulungu, situadas em áreas de floresta ciliar, no Estado de Sergipe, bem como avaliar a tendência à sustentabilidade delas, visando à conservação genética da espécie. Utilizou-se a matriz de Pressão-Estado-Impacto/Efeito-Resposta (PEI/ER com a seleção de 13 indicadores, a partir do uso de marcadores moleculares RAPD e bioquímicos (enzimas nas populações, de modo a apresentá-los como informações relevantes para medir o progresso quanto à sustentabilidade e conservação de mulungu. As populações estudadas apresentaram baixa tendência à sustentabilidade, necessitando de estratégias para mudança desse status.

  19. Establecimiento in vitro y cultivo de células de la uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Alvarenga Venutolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. D.C., (uñade gato es una liana del bosque tropical,que se distribuye en forma natural en lazona Atlántica de Costa Rica, a alturasmenores de 600 msnm. La infusión dela corteza de la raíz forma parte delacervo de la medicina tradicional deCosta Rica para aliviar diversas dolencias,como son: la gastritis, la artritis; además,funciona como fortificante del sistemainmunológico y, recientemente, para tratarel cáncer y el VIH.El cultivo in vitro sedesarrolló como una herramienta para lamicropropagación de plantas en la zonade Guápiles (Pococí, como estrategiade conservación para la explotacióncomercial sostenible de la especie. En esteartículo se describen los protocolos para elestablecimiento y la micropropagación apartir de microestacas, en un medio M & S(1962 con 2 mg/L de BA, 3% de sacarosay 7 g/L de agar; así como la germinaciónin vitro en el mismo medio M & S (1962semi sólido (1,8 g/L de Phyta-Gel.Se probó el cultivo en medio líquido, en jarrasfermentadoras y en sistemas de inmersióntemporal automatizado (RITA®, y fueefectivo el método de inmersión cada treshoras, durante tres minutos. Se describe elproceso de aclimatación, el crecimiento ydesarrollo de las vitroplantas.

  20. Effect of Two Kinds of Green Manure and Urea on Production and N Uptake by Lowland Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati; Havid Rasjid; Elsje L Sisworo

    2004-01-01

    One field experiment has been conducted to study effect of two kinds of green manure and urea on production and N uptake in lowland rice. This experiment were used 11 treatments : (U) applying urea fertilizer at dose 200 kg urea/ha or recommended dose, (1/2 U) urea at 100 kg/ha, (1/2 U + Az) urea at 100 kg/ha + Azolla inoculation, (1/2 U + S) urea at 100 kg/ha + Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT (days after transplanting), (Az + S) Azolla inoculation + Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT, (Az + Sph) Azolla inoculation + Sesbania crop imported into the soil as green manure applied at preparation time of the land, (1/2 U + Az + S) treatment of (Az + S) combined with 100 kg urea/ha application, (1/2 U + Az + Sph) treatment of (Az + Sph) combined with 100 kg urea/ha application, (A) inoculation of Azolla, (S) Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT, and Control (without urea, Azolla, and Sesbania). Lowland rice variety Cilosari was used in this experiment. This experiment was designed by Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replicates for each treatment. To study the N-derived from fertilizer and green manure the 15 N isotope technique was used with the non direct method. Labelled 15 N ammonium sulphate with 10.12% 15 N was applied at 1 m x 1 m isotope plots for each plot in this experiment. The result showed that treatment combination of 100 kg urea/ha + Azolla inoculation + Sesbania crop incorporated into the soil as green manure applied at preparation time of the land gave N availability of soil higher than that resulted by 200 kg Urea/ha application. These treatments were not significantly different for total N uptake and N-derived from fertilizer in the rice grain. (author)

  1. AcEST: DK943861 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 57 6e-07 tr|O81529|O81529_MESCR Metallothionein OS=Mesemb...tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides GN=AzMT2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 77

  2. Effects of Permanently Raised Water Tables on Forest Overstory Vegetation in the Vicinity of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Mississippi Valley* Common Name Scientific Name Very Tolerant** Water hickory Carya aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis...Table I (Concluded) Common Name Scientific Name Intolerant* Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis Shellbark

  3. Natural Areas Inventory 1981 (GREAT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    lanuginosa 3 Campsis radicans Carpinus caroliniana Carya cordifonnis Carya illinoensis Carya laciniosa Carya ovalis 2. Carya ovata Carya ...texana Carya toraentosa Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens 2, Celtis laevigata ^Celtis occidentalis Celtis tenuifolia 3 Cephalanthus

  4. Temporal variation in the biomass and nutrient status of Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Salviniaceae in a small shallow dystrophic lake Variação temporal de biomassa e estado nutricional de Azolla filiculoides Lam (Salviniaceae em um pequeno lago raso distrófico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossano Trindade Trindade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study determined the temporal variation of the biomass and the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a small (0.5 ha shallow dystrophic lake located in the city of Rio Grande (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. METHOD: Sampling was conducted monthly between November 2000 and October 2001. The macrophytes were collected randomly in three replicates with a circular collector 0.3 m in diameter and subsequently washed with tap water and oven-dried at 60 ºC for determination of the dry weight and the nutrient status (i.e., carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Primary productivity was estimated by the variation in biomass among successive samples. RESULTS: A. filiculoides was present in the lake throughout the year and occupied between 50 and 80% of the surface area. The biomass values ranged from 34.2 g DW.m-2, recorded in May (autumn, to 170.9 g DW.m-2 in January (summer. The highest rate of primary productivity was 3.3 g DW.m-2.d-1, observed in June. The concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant ranged between 403 and 551 g.kg-1, 13.4 and 25.7 g.kg-1 and 0.5 and 1.9 g.kg-1, respectively. The water N:P ratio ranged between 19:1 and 368:1. CONCLUSION: The coverage of the surface of the lake by A. filiculoides throughout the study period and the nutritional status of the plant demonstrate the importance of the cycling of nutrients by macrophytes in this aquatic environment. The higher N:P ratio in the water column, compared with other neighboring environments without macrophytes, shows that the enrichment of the lake may result from the biological N-fixation activity produced by A. filiculoides.OBJETIVO: Este estudo determinou a variação temporal da biomassa e as concentrações de carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo de Azolla filiculoides Lam., em um pequeno lago raso distrófico situado no município do Rio Grande (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODO: As amostragens foram realizadas

  5. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to increasing concentrations of trivalent chromium in the Andean crop species Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Valeria; Bucchini, Anahi E; Iacobucci, Marta; Ruiz, Karina B; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment. Leaves accumulated the lowest amounts of Cr, while roots and stems accumulated the most at low and at high metal concentrations, respectively. Fresh weight and photosynthetic pigments were reduced only by the higher Cr(III) doses. Substantially increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline levels were observed only with 5mM Cr(III). Except for a significant decrease at day 7 with 5mM Cr(III), total polyphenols and flavonoids maintained control levels in Cr(III)-treated plants, whereas antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum polyamine accumulation was observed in 1mM CrCl3-treated plants. Even though α- and γ-tocopherols also showed enhanced levels only with the 1mM concentration, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, EC 2.6.1.5) activity increased under Cr(III) treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, results suggest that polyamines, tocopherols, and TAT activity could contribute to tolerance to 1mM Cr(III), but not to the highest concentration that, instead, generated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  7. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M{sub 2}, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley; Seleccion de mutantes de Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la generacion M{sub 2}, cuantificacion de saponinas en las variedades Isluga y Barandales adaptadas al Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez V, S O

    1997-12-31

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M{sub 2} lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author).

  8. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir par

  9. Fate of 15N-labelled urea as affected by organic amendments and oils applied to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.R.; Singh, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using 2 organic compounds (p-benzoquinone and catechol), 2 oils (neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) oil) and 3 polyphenolic plant residues, viz. catechu (Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.), babul acacia (Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Del. sub.indica (Benth.) Brenan, syn. A. arabica (Lamk.) Willd.) and yellow myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz.) when applied with 15 N-tagged urea to observe their effectiveness in decreasing N losses. (author). 8 refs

  10. Assessment of six tapping systems for four Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.,clones in the Colombian High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Mendez, Isaac; Aristizabal Gutierrez, Fabio Ancizar; Chaves Cordoba, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    The rubber yield of four Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg. clones was evaluated on the Colombian high plains in the Meta department: IAN 873 and RRIM 600 (third year of tapping being done) and PB 260 and GT 1 (first year of tapping). Six tapping systems were used, including a combination of different tapping frequencies (d/4 and d/5), Ethephon concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 3.3% and 5%) and a number of applications per year (4 to 8) were also used depending on the clone. The production figures for one commercial year were obtained from assays, using a completely random- block design (having four repetitions) independently defined for each clone: having on average 4446 g rubber/tree of produce per year for the RRIM 600 clone within a system 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 7/y; 2696 g rubber/tree for the PB 260 clone with 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 5/y; 3822 g rubber/tree for the IAN 873 clone, 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 3.3%, Pa 8/y, and 3472 g rubber/ tree for the GT 1 clone, 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 5/y. The highest produce was obtained with a four-day tapping frequency.

  11. AcEST: DK960896 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ke protein OS=Ipomoea b... 57 4e-07 tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 57 6...SNC C DPC C Sbjct: 45 KATEGGHACKCGSNCPC-DPCNC 66 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  12. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  13. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M2, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M 2 lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author)

  14. AcEST: DK958586 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=Ipomoea b... 57 3e-07 tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 57 6e-07 tr|O8...PC C Sbjct: 45 KATEGGHACKCGSNCPC-DPCNC 66 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla f

  15. AcEST: DK962367 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 57 2e-06 tr|O81529|O81529_MESCR Metallothion...DPCNC 66 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides GN=AzMT2 PE=4 SV=1 Le

  16. 2068-IJBCS-Article-Saidou Ousseina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    que Schoenefeldia gracilis Kunth., Aristida mutabilis Trin. et Rupr., Dactyloctenium aegyptiaca (L.) Willd., Tribulus terrestris L. (Ousseina, 2012) parsemée de plantes ligneuses (Maerua crassifolia. Forsk.,. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan,.

  17. Controlled free radical attack in the apoplast: a hypothesis for roles of O, N and S species in regulatory and polysaccharide cleavage events during rapid abscission by Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael F; Gurung, Sushma; Fukuto, Jon M; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    Shedding of organs by abscission is a key terminal step in plant development and stress responses. Cell wall (CW) loosening at the abscission zone can occur through a combination chain breakage of apoplastic polysaccharides and tension release of cellulose microfibrils. Two distinctly regulated abscission cleavage events are amenable to study in small water ferns of the genus Azolla; one is a rapid abscission induced by environmental stimuli such as heat or chemicals, and the other is an ethylene-induced process occurring more slowly through the action of hydrolytic enzymes. Although free radicals are suggested to be involved in the induction of rapid root abscission, its mechanism is not fully understood. The apoplast contains peroxidases, metal-binding proteins and phenolic compounds that potentially generate free radicals from H2O2 to cleave polysaccharides in the CW and middle lamella. Effects of various thiol-reactive agents implicate the action of apoplastic peroxidases having accessible cysteine thiols in rapid abscission. The Ca(2+) dependency of rapid abscission may reflect the stabilization Ca(2+) confers to peroxidase structure and binding to pectin. To spur further investigation, we present a hypothetical model for small signaling molecules H2O2 and NO and their derivatives in regulating, via modification of putative protein thiols, free radical attack of apoplastic polysaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AcEST: DK962530 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 3.2 tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla ... 34 3.2 tr|B5U0R0|B5U0R0_ANABR Met...7 +DHD Sbjct: 192 TGHDHD 197 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  19. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water distilled essential oils from the air dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-seven and 3...

  20. Stylet bundle morphology and trophically related enzymes of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly L.F. Oten; Allen C. Cohen; Fred P. Hain

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a pest of eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) in the eastern United States and has already caused catastrophic changes to eastern forests. As one of the significant...

  1. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  2. AcEST: DK952680 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein OS=Ipomoea b... 57 3e-07 tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...onein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla filiculoides GN=AzMT2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 77 Score = 56.6 bits (135), Expect =...C C DPC C Sbjct: 45 KATEGGHACKCGSNCPC-DPCNC 66 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothi

  3. Maintenance of eastern hemlock forests: Factors associated with hemlock vulnerability to hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Petra Bohall Wood

    2010-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.]) is the most shade-tolerant and long-lived tree species in eastern North America. The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA), is a nonnative invasive insect that feeds on eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). HWA currently is established in...

  4. Application of macrophytes as biosorbents for radioactive liquid waste treatment; Aplicacao de macrofitas como biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira

    2016-07-01

    Radioactive waste as any other type of waste should be treated and disposed adequately. It is necessary to consider its physical, chemical and radiological characteristics for choosing the appropriate action for the treatment and final disposal. Many treatment techniques currently used are economically costly, often invalidating its use and favoring the study of other treatment techniques. One of these techniques is biosorption, which demonstrates high potential when applied to radioactive waste. This technology uses materials of biological origin for removing metals. Among potential biosorbents found, macrophyte aquatics are useful because they may remove uranium present in the liquid radioactive waste at low cost. This study aims to evaluate the biosorption capacity of macrophyte aquatics Pistia stratiotes, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna sp and Azolla sp in the treatment of liquid radioactive waste. This study was divided into two stages, the first one is characterization and preparation of biosorption and the other is tests, carried out with uranium solutions and real samples. The biomass was tested in its raw form and biosorption assays were performed in polypropylene vials containing 10 ml of solution of uranium or 10ml of radioactive waste and 0.20g of biomass. The behavior of biomass was evaluated by sorption kinetics and isotherm models. The highest sorption capacities found was 162.1 mg / g for the macrophyte Lemna sp and 161.8 mg / g for the Azolla sp. The equilibrium times obtained were 1 hour for Lemna sp, and 30 minutes for Azolla sp. With the real waste, the macrophyte Azolla sp presented a sorption capacity of 2.6 mg / g. These results suggest that Azolla sp has a larger capacity of biosorption, therefore it is more suitable for more detailed studies of treatment of liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  5. Application of macrophytes as biosorbents for radioactive liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste as any other type of waste should be treated and disposed adequately. It is necessary to consider its physical, chemical and radiological characteristics for choosing the appropriate action for the treatment and final disposal. Many treatment techniques currently used are economically costly, often invalidating its use and favoring the study of other treatment techniques. One of these techniques is biosorption, which demonstrates high potential when applied to radioactive waste. This technology uses materials of biological origin for removing metals. Among potential biosorbents found, macrophyte aquatics are useful because they may remove uranium present in the liquid radioactive waste at low cost. This study aims to evaluate the biosorption capacity of macrophyte aquatics Pistia stratiotes, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna sp and Azolla sp in the treatment of liquid radioactive waste. This study was divided into two stages, the first one is characterization and preparation of biosorption and the other is tests, carried out with uranium solutions and real samples. The biomass was tested in its raw form and biosorption assays were performed in polypropylene vials containing 10 ml of solution of uranium or 10ml of radioactive waste and 0.20g of biomass. The behavior of biomass was evaluated by sorption kinetics and isotherm models. The highest sorption capacities found was 162.1 mg / g for the macrophyte Lemna sp and 161.8 mg / g for the Azolla sp. The equilibrium times obtained were 1 hour for Lemna sp, and 30 minutes for Azolla sp. With the real waste, the macrophyte Azolla sp presented a sorption capacity of 2.6 mg / g. These results suggest that Azolla sp has a larger capacity of biosorption, therefore it is more suitable for more detailed studies of treatment of liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  6. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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    Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth. (Syn. C.dentata (Willd.) Roemer) – Black Currant. Grape Lime of the family Rutaceae is a small aromatic evergreen tree. Leaves are odd-pinnate with elliptic-ovate and oblique leaflets. Inflorescence is a raceme and flowers are greenish-white, and. 4-merous. Fruit is an ovoid small ...

  7. Desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. sob influência de sombreamento Initial development of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. saplings under shading influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Ribeiro da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento inicial de plântulas de Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (cupuaçu, em função de diferentes níveis de sombreamento. Ao final de 50 dias, após a emergência, as plântulas de cupuaçu foram submetidas a três níveis de sombreamento, sendo: 0% de sombreamento, 50% de sombreamento e Sombra Natural. O crescimento das mudas foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 15 repetições, sendo cada planta considerada como uma repetição. Foram avaliados a altura, o diâmetro e o número de folhas aos 60, 82, 103, 124, 145 dias após a emergência das plântulas. A Massa Seca de Folhas (MSF, Massa Seca do Caule (MSC, Massa Seca da Raiz (MSR e Massa Seca Total (MST, Relação parte aérea/raiz (PA/R e relação Altura da planta/Diâmetro do colo (A/D, foram avaliadas no final do experimento. O crescimento inicial de Theobroma grandiflorum foi corroborado com os padrões da espécie, que ocorre no interior das matas primárias, tendo melhor desenvolvimento dos parâmetros avaliados em condições de 50% de sombreamento. A condição de 50% de sombreamento pode ser recomendada para a formação de mudas de Theobroma grandiflorum, devido o seu melhor desempenho em altura, diâmetro, número de folhas e alocação de massa nas partes da planta.The objective of this work was to evaluate the initial growth of sapling of Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçú, in function of different levels of solar radiation. Fifty days, after the emergency, the saplings were submitted to three levels of shade, being: 0%, 50% and natural shade. Sapling development was carried out in randomized block design with 15 repetitions (15 saplings. The sapling height, lap diameter and the numbers of leaves being evaluated on the 60st, 82nd, 103rd, 124th, 145 days after sapling emergence. The Dry Mass of the leaves (DML, Dry Mass of the stem (DMS, Dry Mass of the root (DMR and Dry

  8. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  9. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  10. Bocadito con alto contenido proteico: un extruido a partir de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y camote (Ipomoea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Pérez Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo la elaboración de un bocadito extruido de elevado tenor proteico, a partir de quinua ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi ( Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y fécula de camote ( Ipomoea batatas L.. Para su formulación se aplicó el método de diseño de mezclas usando la herramienta computacional - estadíst ica Design Expert® versión 7.0, siendo las variables independientes las harinas de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote; y las variables dependientes el contenido de proteína, índice de expansión, densidad aparente y dureza de los extruidos. La formulación ópt ima se determinó aplicando la prueba de deseabilidad basada en los modelos de regresión ajustado, dicha formulación se obtuvo maximizando el contenido de proteína e índice de expansión; y minimizando la dureza y densidad aparente de los extruidos. La formu lación óptima tuvo un porcentaje de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote de 57%, 26% y 17 % respectivamente. El análisis fisicoquímico de la fórmula óptima dio como resultado 20,16% de proteína, 2,19 de índice de expansión, 0,220 g/cm 3 densidad aparente y 9,31 N de dureza. La calidad proteica de la formulación óptima fue determinada mediante los ensayos de digestibilidad verdadera y valor biológico verdadero en ratas, obteniéndose 83,5% y 62,9% respectivamente.

  11. AcEST: DK953214 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hit_id Q8S3M2 Definition tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla...ducing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azoll... Metallothionein OS=Amaranthus cruentus PE... 41 0.026 >tr|Q8S3M2|Q8S3M2_AZOFI Metallothionein-like protein 2 OS=Azolla

  12. Antioxidant activity of free and bound compounds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in comparison with durum wheat and emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Gagliardi, Anna; Soccio, Mario; Flagella, Zina; Pastore, Donato

    2012-11-01

    Antioxidant activity (AA) of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds, as well as of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) and of emmer (T. turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum Schübler) grains, was evaluated by studying hydrophilic (H), lipophilic (L), free-soluble (FSP) and insoluble-bound (IBP) phenolic extracts using the new lipoxygenase/4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (LOX/RNO) method, able to simultaneously detect different antioxidant mechanisms, as well as using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays, which measure the scavenging activity against peroxyl and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radicals, respectively. The species under study were compared with respect to the sum of AA values of H, L and FSP extracts (AA(H+L+FSP)), containing freely solvent-soluble antioxidants, and AA values of IBP extracts (AA(IBP)), representing the phenolic fraction ester-linked to insoluble cell wall polymers. The LOX/RNO and ORAC methods measured in quinoa flour a remarkable AA(H+L+FSP) higher than durum wheat, although lower than emmer; according to the same assays, the IBP component of quinoa resulted less active than the durum wheat and emmer ones. The TEAC protocol also revealed a high AA(H+L+FSP) for quinoa. Interestingly, the ratio AA(H+L+FSP)/AA(H+L+FSP+IBP), as evaluated by the LOX/RNO and ORAC assays, resulted in quinoa higher than that of both durum wheat and emmer, and much higher than durum wheat, according to the TEAC protocol. This may suggest that antioxidants from quinoa seeds may be more readily accessible with respect to that of both the examined wheat species. Quinoa seeds may represent an excellent source of natural antioxidant compounds and, in particular, of the free-soluble antioxidant fraction. These compounds may improve nutritive and health-beneficial properties of quinoa-based gluten-free products, thus expanding interest for quinoa utilization from

  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 175822 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available agen triple helix repeat-containing protein 'Nostoc azollae' 0708 MRLIEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGEDGGEIFLMPYALCPMPYALCPMPYALCPMPYALCPMPYALCPMPYAQNQDFSHPNRESSVKLFSSVAPKP ...

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXX. Cynaropicrin in species of the subtribe Centaureanae Dumort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cynaropicrin was determined in 13 species of the subtribe Centaureinae Dumort.: Centaurea declinata M. B.- C. leucophylla M. B.. C. dealbata Willd.. C. zangezuri (Sosn. Sosn., C. carthalinica (Sosn. Sosn., C. thracica (Janka Hayek, C. exarata Boiss. ex Cosson, C. phaeopappoides Bordz., Chartolepis intermedia Bioss., Ch. glastifolia (L. Cass., Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin, Rh. serratuloides (Georgi Bobr., Leuzea rhapontica (L. Holub.

  15. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Arapa Carcasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar características físicas en semillas de quinua mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. Se usaron computadoras, cámaras digitales y un escáner. Se utilizaron dos muestras de quinua procesada. Con la primera muestra se ensayaron los programas PHOTO-PAINT, Photoshop, Paint, SmartGrain y GrainScan para comparación. Con Photoshop se determinó el color en porción de granos y de harina. Con la segunda muestra se midieron dimensiones con PHOTO-PAINT, que no ofreció diferencias con Photoshop y Paint, para la determinación de las características físicas. Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas (p 0,05 entre los programas (PHOTO-PAINT, SmartGrain y GrainScan. Los valores de las coordenadas colorimétricas en la muestra de semillas de quinua fueron L* 70, a* 8 y b* 44 y en la harina L* 71, a* 3 y b* 34. La segunda muestra presentó valores promedios de largo 2,3638; ancho 2,0129 y espesor 1,0605 mm.

  16. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  17. Anticaries Activity of Azolla pinnata and Azolla rubra | Prashith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i3.21 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 298492611 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 551115:2260 ... 50S ribosomal protein L20 'Nostoc azollae' 0708 MTRVKRGNVARKRRNKILKLAKGFRGSHSTLFRTAHQQVMKALRSAYRDRKKKKRDFRRLWITRINAASRQNGLSYSQLIGNLKKANVELNRKMLAQLAVLDPASFAKVAELANSVKA

  19. CYANOBACTERIA FOR MITIGATING METHANE EMISSION FROM SUBMERGED PADDY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upasana Mishra; Shalini Anand [Department of Environmental Studies, Inderprastha Engineering College, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad (India)

    2008-09-30

    Atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas with high absorption potential for infrared radiation, is responsible for one forth of the total anticipated warming. It is forming a major part of green house gases, next after carbon dioxide. Its concentration has been increasing alarmingly on an average at the rate of one percent per year. Atmospheric methane, originating mainly from biogenic sources such as paddy fields, natural wetlands and landfills, accounts for 15-20% of the world's total anthropogenic methane emission. With intensification of rice cultivation in coming future, methane emissions from paddy fields are anticipated to increase. India's share in world's rice production is next after to China and likewise total methane emission from paddy fields also. Methane oxidation through planktophytes, particularly microalgae which are autotrophic and abundant in rice rhizospheres, hold promise in controlling methane emission from submerged paddy fields. The present study is focused on the role of nitrogen fixing, heterocystous cyanobacteria and Azolla (a water fern harboring a cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae) as biological sink for headspace concentration of methane in flooded soils. In this laboratory study, soil samples containing five potent nitrogen fixer cyanobacterial strains from paddy fields, were examined for their methane reducing potential. Soil sample without cyanobacterial strain was tested and taken as control. Anabaena sp. was found most effective in inhibiting methane concentration by 5-6 folds over the control. Moist soil cores treated with chemical nitrogen, urea, in combination with cyanobacteria mixture, Azolla microphylla or cyanobacteria mixture plus Azolla microphylla exhibited significance reduction in the headspace concentration of methane than the soil cores treated with urea alone. Contrary to other reports, this study also demonstrates that methane oxidation in soil core samples from paddy fields was stimulated by

  20. Prioritizing conservation seed banking locations for imperiled hemlock species using multi-attribute frontier mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Hastings; Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch; Mark Megalos; Robert M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (HWA) is an invasive forest insect sweeping across the native range of eastern (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carr.) and Carolina (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.) hemlocks, threatening to severely reduce eastern hemlock extent and to push Carolina hemlock to extirpation. HWA poses a significant threat to these eastern US natives, now...

  1. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir (Leguminosae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluze P Cruz

    Full Text Available The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret (Leguminosae family, popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test; and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test. Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8, with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg, in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg, and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg. EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg, reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg, respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B and anti-inflammation (H, D, E. Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg. Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  2. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliro, Moses F A; Guwela, Veronica F; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237-3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62-692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height ( r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity ( r = 0.76), and (3) biomass ( r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was

  3. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F. Willd. (Asteraceae sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F. Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifosato em 90% água, um herbicida amplamente utilizado com conhecido potencial genotóxico, e de um controle negativo composto por água destilada. Após período de 24 horas, as radículas foram coletadas das infusões, fixadas em etanol-ácido acético (3:1 por 24 horas e estocadas em etanol 70%. Foram analisadas células em todas as fases do ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 2500, para cada grupo de bulbos. Os índices mitóticos (IM foram calculados e submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste χ² a 5%. Os resultados mostraram que, em ambas as populações de M. cordifolia, houve redução do IM de todos os tratamentos em relação ao controle negativo. Em ambas as populações, obteve-se aumento nos valores dos índices mitóticos em função do aumento da concentração da infusão. Ocorreram aberrações cromossômicas em ambas as populações estudadas. Concluiu-se que as infusões de M. cordifolia, nas concentrações estudadas, possuem efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico sobre o ciclo celular de A. cepa.

  4. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  5. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  6. Absorption and degradation of 14C-2, 4-D by some free-floating aquatic weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    Plants of Salvinia, Lemna, Azolla and Limnobium, which are free-floating aquatic weeds, were grown separately in glass dishes containing initially 400 ml of nutrient solution and 2 μCi of 14 C-2,4-D under controlled conditions of temperature, light and relative humidity. The total uptake of 2,4-D by these plant species increased with the increasing duration of exposure to herbicide. 2,4-D uptake, calculated on per unit dry weight of weed, was maximum in case of Limnobium, followed by Salvinia, Lemna and Azolla. After 20 days of treatment, the highest radioactivity (24%) was obtained in the organic fraction of the extracts of Limnobium and Azolla; followed by Salvinia (8%) and Lemna (6%). In a separate experiment, root uptake and subsequent translocation of 14 C-2,4-D was also studied. At all the stages of sampling, more than half to 3/4th of the absorbed 14 C-2,4-D was found in the roots, and the remaining was present in the shoot. (author)

  7. Using climate and genetic diversity data to prioritize conservation seed banking for imperiled hemlock species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hastings; K.M. Potter; F.H. Koch; M.A. Megalos; R.M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) is an invasive forest insect that has caused mortality of eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana) at an alarming rate. Now infesting 19 states and over 400 counties of the eastern United States, HWA poses a significant threat to native host species. The current biological and chemical methods for...

  8. Validating the Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-Gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    blackgum, wild black cherry (Prunus serotina), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), red maple, and...virginiana), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), and slippery elm . Buffalo nut (Pyrularia pubera), wild hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens...Pinus strobus), wild black cherry, boxelder (Acer negundo), sycamore, black locust (Robinia pseudo-acacia), slippery elm , and white ash. The shrub

  9. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  11. Genetic Variability and Symbiotic Efficiency of Erythrina velutina Willd. Root Nodule Bacteria from the Semi-Arid Region in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Alexsandra Souza Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Legume-rhizobia symbiosis is a cross-kingdom association that results in large amounts of nitrogen incorporated in food webs. For the Brazilian semi-arid region, data on genetic variability and symbiotic efficiency of Papilionoidae rhizobial communities are very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and the symbiotic efficiency of eight rhizobial isolates obtained from “mulungu” (Erythrina velutina Willd. nodules. For 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the genomic DNA was extracted using a commercial kit, amplified with universal primers, and subjected to sequencing reactions. For the isolate ESA 71, PCR amplifications for nodC and nodA genes were attempted. Rhizobial efficiency was assessed by two greenhouse experiments. The first assay was carried out under gnotobiotic conditions, with sterile sand as a substrate; the second experiment was conducted in a non-sterile soil. For both experiments, the inoculation treatments consisted of a single inoculation of each isolate, in addition to a treatment with Bradyrhizobium elkanii BR 5609 as a reference strain. Furthermore, two non-inoculated control treatments, supplied and not supplied with mineral N, were also evaluated. Bacterial identification indicated that both α and β-rhizobia could be found in “mulungu” root nodules. Three isolates where classified within the Rhizobium genus, four bacteria belonged to Bradyrhizobium and one isolate clustered with Burkholderia. Positive amplification of an intragenic fragment of the nodA gene using a primer set to β-rhizobia could be found for ESA 71 (Burkholderia. All bacterial isolates were effective in colonizing “mulungu” roots. In the first experiment, all inoculated treatments and N fertilization increased the N concentration in “mulungu” shoot tissues. For total N in the shoots, the isolates ESA 70, ESA 72, and ESA 75 stood out. In the non-sterile substrate experiment, the isolates ESA 70, ESA 71, ESA

  12. POTENSI BIJI DAN EKSTRAK BIJI TERATAI (Nymphaea pubescens Willd SEBAGAI PENCEGAH DIARE PADA TIKUS PERCOBAAN YANG DIINTERVENSI E.coli ENTEROPATOGENIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuspihana Fitrial

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Potency of Waterlily’s Seed (Nymphaea pubescens Willd and Its Extract as DiarrheaPreventative in Rats that Intervented with Enterophatogenic Escherichia coli Yuspihana Fitrial, Made Astawan, Soewarno T.Soekarto,Komang G.Wiryawan, Tutik Wresdiyati ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komponen Þ tokimia yang terdapat pada biji teratai dan ekstrak etil asetat bijiteratai dan mengetahui aktivitas antibakterinya terhadap E.coli penyebab diare (E.coli Enteropatogenik K1.1, EPECK1.1 pada tikus percobaan. Perlakuan diberikan pada tikus jantan jenis Sprague Dawley (berat 140 ±5 g selama28 hari. Tikus percobaan dibagi menjadi 4 grup yaitu, grup 1, kontrol (mendapatkan ransum standar, grup 2 yangmendapat ransum yang disubstitusi tepung biji teratai (18,7 g/100 g, grup 3 yang mendapat ransum yang disubstitusiFOS (fruktooligosakarida, 6 g/100 g, dan grup 4 yang mendapat ransum standar dan ekstrak etil asetat biji teratai(17,8 mg/ml. Setelah 2 minggu perlakuan ransum, tikus percobaan diintervensi secara oral dengan 0,3 ml dari 106CFU/ml EPEC K1.1 selama 1 minggu sehingga diare. Aktivitas biologis ransum perlakuan diamati dengan mengamatibobot badan, konsumsi ransum per hari, eÞ siensi ransum, total mikroba, total E.coli dan total bakteri asam laktatdari isi sekum tikus percobaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa biji teratai mengandung alkaloid, ß avonoid,steroid, glikosida, tanin, saponin, dan triterpenoid, sedangkan ekstrak etil asetat biji teratai mengandung alkaloid,ß avonoid, tanin, glikosida, saponin dan triterpenoid. Substitusi biji teratai pada ransum mampu menurunkan totalE.coli isi sekum, baik setelah intervensi maupun setelah intervensi EPEC dihentikan. Sementara pemberian ekstrakbiji teratai mampu menurunkan total E.coli isi sekum setelah intervensi dihentikan. EÞ siensi ransum pada grup yangdisubstitusi biji teratai lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol dan ekstrak biji teratai (P<0.05. Perlakuan substitusi bijiteratai, dan

  13. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the southern Appalachians: Control strategies, ecological impacts, and potential management responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; David N. Wear; Albert E. Mayfield; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annad; or HWA) is a non-native invasive pest that attacks and kills eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). Hemlock is a ‘‘foundation species’’ due to its strong influence on ecosystem structure and function,...

  14. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Ajacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-04

    27. Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Plants Possibly Occurring on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge ALABAMA FEDERAL SPECIES FAMILY STATUS1...SSC NL Oxalis grandis Oxalidaceae SSC NL Actaea pachypoda Ranunculaceae SSC NL Anemone caroliniana Ranunculaceae SSC NL Veronica anoacalis - agutc...River Valley base camps and seasonally dispersing into small groups of nuclear families to exploit the uplands. Later, during the Woodland period, the

  15. Impacts of integrated nutrient management on methane emission, global warming potential and carbon storage capacity in rice grown in a northeast India soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Ashmita; Baruah, Kushal Kumar; Baruah, Sunitee Gohain; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2018-02-01

    Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH 4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv. Ranjit) ecosystem (June-November, 2014 and 2015). Combined application of inorganic (NPK) with Sesbania aculeata resulted in high global warming potential (GWP) of 887.4 kg CO 2 ha -1 and low GWP of 540.6 kg CO 2 ha -1 was recorded from inorganic fertilizer applied field. Irrespective of the type of organic amendments, flag leaf photosynthesis of the rice crop increased over NPK application (control). There was an increase in CH 4 emission from the organic amended fields compared to NPK alone. The combined application of NPK and Azolla compost was effective in the buildup of soil carbon (16.93 g kg -1 ) and capacity of soil carbon storage (28.1 Mg C ha -1 ) with high carbon efficiency ratio (16.9). Azolla compost application along with NPK recorded 15.66% higher CH 4 emission with 27.43% yield increment over control. Azolla compost application significantly enhanced carbon storage of soil and improved the yielding ability of grain (6.55 Mg ha -1 ) over other treatments.

  16. Soil water effect on crop growth, leaf gas exchange, water and radiation use efficiency of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel in semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Scordia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been placed to identify the most suited bioenergy crop under different environments and management practices, however, there is still need to find new genetic resources for constrained areas. For instance, South Mediterranean area is strongly affected by prolonged drought, high vapour pressure deficit (VPD and extremely high temperatures during summertime. In the present work we investigated the soil water effect on crop growth and leaf gas exchange of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel, a perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous grass. Furthermore, the net increase of biomass production per unit light intercepted [radiation use efficiency (RUE] and per unit water transpired [water use efficiency (WUE] was also studied. To this end a field trial was carried out imposing three levels of soil water availability (I100, I50 and I0, corresponding to 100%, 50% and 0% of ETm restutition under a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Leaf area index (LAI, stem height, biomass dry matter yield, CO2 assimilation rate, and transpiration rate resulted significantly affected by measurement time and irrigation treatment, with the highest values in I100 and the lowest in I0. RUE was the highest in I100 followed by I50 and I0; on the other hand, WUE was higher in I0 than I50 and I100. At LAI values greater than 2.0, 85% photosynthetically active radiation was intercepted by the Saccharum stand, irrespective of the irrigation treatment. Saccharum spontaneum spp. aegyptiacum is a potential species for biomass production in environment characterized by drought stress, high temperatures and high VPD, as those of Southern Europe and similar semi-arid areas.

  17. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  18. How Does Temperature Impact Leaf Size and Shape in Four Woody Dicot Species? Testing the Assumptions of Leaf Physiognomy-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M.; Royer, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The physiognomy (size and shape) of fossilized leaves has been used to reconstruct the mean annual temperature of ancient environments. Colder temperatures often select for larger and more abundant leaf teeth—serrated edges on leaf margins—as well as a greater degree of leaf dissection. However, to be able to accurately predict paleotemperature from the morphology of fossilized leaves, leaves must be able to react quickly and in a predictable manner to changes in temperature. We examined the extent to which temperature affects leaf morphology in four tree species: Carpinus caroliniana, Acer negundo, Ilex opaca, and Ostrya virginiana. Saplings of these species were grown in two growth cabinets under contrasting temperatures (17 and 25 °C). Compared to the cool treatment, in the warm treatment Carpinus caroliniana leaves had significantly fewer leaf teeth and a lower ratio of total number of leaf teeth to internal perimeter; and Acer negundo leaves had a significantly lower feret diameter ratio (a measure of leaf dissection). In addition, a two-way ANOVA tested the influence of temperature and species on leaf physiognomy. This analysis revealed that all plants, regardless of species, tended to develop more highly dissected leaves with more leaf teeth in the cool treatment. Because the cabinets maintained equivalent moisture, humidity, and CO2 concentration between the two treatments, these results demonstrate that these species could rapidly adapt to changes in temperature. However, not all of the species reacted identically to temperature changes. For example, Acer negundo, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ostrya virginiana all had a higher number of total teeth in the cool treatment compared to the warm treatment, but the opposite was true for Ilex opaca. Our work questions a fundamental assumption common to all models predicting paleotemperature from the physiognomy of fossilized leaves: a given climate will inevitably select for the same leaf physiognomy

  19. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TUMBUHAN AIR PADA AIR LIMBAH RUMAH TANGGA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN IKAN GURAMI (Osphronemus gouramy SEBAGAI INFORMASI BAGI MASYARAKAT TENTANG PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DAN DAUR ULANG LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafzon Exaputra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilization fern (Azolla pinnata and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes in addition to preserving the environment also produces elements that are needed for the growth of living things. Household wastewater by plants Azolla pinnata and hyacinth will return sustainability, and can be used as a maintenance gourami (Osphronemus gouramy.        The purpose of this research are: (1 to determine the effect of aquatic plants in domestic wastewater to the quality of the water quality standard household waste and growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy. (2 to find out which one is better growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy in household waste water between the new and old by fern (Azolla pinnata and by plants hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. (3 as a source of information for the public about environmental pollution and recycling of waste water by using plants in domestic wastewater.        This type of research experiments. Samples of each treatment 20 fish carp with 4 treatments. Treatment I (wastewater new households by ferns, treatment of II (wastewater new households by plants hyacinth, Treatment III (domestic wastewater long by ferns, treatment IV (household wastewater long by water hyacinth plants. The measured parameters ie width, length and weight of carp within a certain period. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA two lanes and qualitative analysis.        The results obtained by analysis of existing water plants on the effect of domestic wastewater on growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy, as well as the provision of fern (Azolla pinnata provides the most good influence on the growth of carp. Kata Kunci: Tumbuhan air, air limbah rumah tangga, pertumbuhan ikan gurami.

  20. DNA barcoding and NMR spectroscopy-based assessment of species adulteration in the raw herbal trade of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd, an important medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urumarudappa, Santhosh Kumar Jayanthinagar; Gogna, Navdeep; Newmaster, Steven G; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Subramanyam, Ragupathy; Saroja, Seethapathy Gopalakrishnan; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Dorai, Kavita; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2016-11-01

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd, commonly known as "Asoka" or "Ashoka," is one of the most important medicinal plants used in raw herbal trade in India. The bark extracts of the tree are used in the treatment of leucorrhea and other uterine disorders besides also having anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-pyretic, anti-helminthic, and analgesic activity. The indiscriminate and rampant extraction of the wood to meet the ever-increasing market demand has led to a sharp decline in naturally occurring populations of the species in the country. Consequently, the species has recently been classified as "vulnerable" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Increasing deforestation and increasing demand for this medicinal plant have resulted in a limited supply and suspected widespread adulteration of the species in the raw herbal trade market. Adulteration is a serious concern due to: (i) reduction in the efficacy of this traditional medicine, (ii) considerable health risk to consumers, and (iii) fraudulent product substitution that impacts the economy for the Natural Health Product (NHP) Industry and consumers. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to assess the extent of adulteration in the raw herbal trade of S. asoca using DNA barcoding validated by NMR spectroscopic techniques. Analyzing market samples drawn from 25 shops, mostly from peninsular India, we show that more than 80 % of the samples were spurious, representing plant material from at least 7 different families. This is the first comprehensive and large-scale study to demonstrate the widespread adulteration of market samples of S. asoca in India. These results pose grave implications for the use of raw herbal drugs, such as that of S. asoca, on consumer health and safety. Based on these findings, we argue for a strong and robust regulatory framework to be put in place, which would ensure the quality of raw herbal trade products and reassure consumer confidence in indigenous

  1. ACTIVITATEA ANTIOXIDANTĂ A SUBSTANŢELOR DIN MUGURII ARBORILOR STEJARULUI PUFOS (QUERCUS PUBESCENS WILLD. CARE CRESC ÎN DIFERITE CONDIŢII STAŢIONALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe FLORENTA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A fost determinată activitatea sumară a oxidazelor, catalazelor şi a substanţelor reducătoare a extractelor din mugurii stejarului pufos prelevaţi primăvara de la arborii care cresc în diferite condiţii staţionale din sudul Republicii Moldova. În extracte se manifesta clar tendinţa de sporire a capacităţii sumare de utilizare a oxigenului datorită potenţialului reductiv al substanţelor fenolice şi activităţii oxidazelor la arborii care cresc mai la sud, ceea ce corespunde gradientului de sporire a temperaturii primăvara în direcţia nord-sud. Această tendinţă s-a manifestat şi pentru activitatea catalazelor, dar mai puţin pronunţat. Primăvara, în celulele mugurilor apicali schimbările componentelor care determină potenţialul oxidoreductiv se manifestă mai timpuriu, în comparaţie cu cele din mugurii laterali. Această accelerare poate fi o cauză a eliminării mai timpurii a dormitării mugurilor apicali în comparaţie cu cei laterali.THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PUBESCENT OAK TREE BUDS (QUERCUS PUBESCENS WILLD. WHICH GROW UNDER DIFFERENT STATIONARY CONDITIONSIt was determined the summary activity of oxidases, catalases and reducing substances of extracts from pubescent oak shoots taken in spring from trees growing in different stationary conditions in the southern part of the Republic of Moldova. In the extracts, the tendency to increase the overall capacity of oxygen use due to the reductive potential of the phenolic substances and the activity of the oxidases in trees growing southwards is clearly manifested, which corresponds to the gradient of increasing the spring temperature in the north-south direction. This trend also manifested itself in the catalase activity, but less pronounced. In apical buds, in spring, the changes in the components that determine the oxidoreductive potential are manifested earlier, compared to those in lateral buds. This acceleration may be a reason of the early removal of

  2. Uranium removal from water by five aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Nan; Ding Dexin; Li Guangyue; Wang Yongdong; Li Le; Zheng Jifang

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic solution culture experiments were conducted on the growth of Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor L, Azolla imbircata, Potamogeton crispus, and Alligator alternanthera Herb in water with 0.15, 1.50 and 15.00 mg . L -1 concentrations of uranium, and on the uranium removal from the water by the aquatic plants. For the 21 days of hydroponic solution culture experiments, Azolla imbircata exhibited the strongest resistance to uranium and its growth inhibition rates induced by the water with 0.15, 1.50 and 15.00 mg · L -1 concentrations of uranium were 4.56%, 2.48%, 6.79%, respectively, and the uranium removal rates from the water by the plant amounted to 94%, 97% and 92%, respectively. Further experiments revealed that the most uranium removal could be achieved when 7.5 g Azolla imbircata was grown in 1 L of water, and the time required for the plant to reduce the uranium concentration in water with 1.25, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg · L -l concentrations of uranium below that stipulated in the national emission standards of China were 17, 19, 23 and 25 days, respectively. The results have laid foundation for further studies of phytoremediation of uranium contaminated water. (authors)

  3. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    i.e., swamp bay) ( Persea borbonia) in the overstory or midstory ERDC/EL TR-11-11 20 (Monk 1966, Nelson 1986, Wharton et al. 1977, USACE 1988). In...biflora swamp tupelo Persea borbonia redbay Pinus glabra spruce pine Pinus taeda loblolly pine Quercus laurifolia laurel oak Quercus michauxii swamp... American elm Group 22 Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam 0.66 Celtis laevigata sugarberry Cornus foemina stiff dogwood Diospyros virginiana

  4. (Retz.) Willd.(Rhamnaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    world's population rely on traditional medicine for prim health care needs. The dependence of people on her medicine is cost effectiveness, health benef acceptability and most importantly the accessibility. Pla are extensively used in various systems of medicine su as Ayurveda, Sidda and Unani. The therapeutic poten.

  5. Actividad de la fitasa y comparación en la composición química, contenido de ácido fítico en cuatro variedades de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rosero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es una planta que ha sido cultivada en las regiones andinas de Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. Su importancia se debe al alto contenido de proteínas y de aminoácidos esenciales en su grano. El objetivo principal en la investigación fue encontrar la relación entre el ácido fítico y la actividad de la fítasa en las variedades de quinua Nariño procedente de Colombia (QC, quinua Anapquis (QBA y quinua -IICA 020 Oruro (QB procedentes de Bolivia, y quinua Huancavelica de Perú (QP. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las proporciones de proteína, grasa, fibra y ceniza entre las cuatro variedades. El análisis de los aminoácidos esenciales mostró que las variedades de quinua tienen altas concentraciones de arginina, leucina, fenilalanina y lisina, y tirosina como aminoácidos semi-esenciales. La fracción de grasa presentó concentraciones altas de ácido oleico, linoleico, a-linolénico y ácido palmítico. Las variedades presentaron altos contenidos de P y Ca. El ácido fítico en QC (19.64% fue significativamente más bajo que en las otras variedades. En la variedad QC (1052 FTU/kg se encontraron altas proporciones de actividad de la fítasa. Se encontró relación significativa y negativa (r = -0.89 entre la actividad de la fítasa y el ácido fítico en todas las variedades.

  6. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  7. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  8. ANATOMICAL-HISTOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS CONDUCTED ON AQUATIC FERNS IN THE DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca SÂRBU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses aquatic ferns from the genera Azolla Lam., Marsilea L. and Salvinia Séguier, which occur in the Danube Delta, Romania, and comprises a series of anatomical and histological observations of taxonomical, chorological and eco-morphological importance. The research conducted on specimens collected between 2005-2013 from the natural habitats of the Danube Delta, but also from the extra-deltaic artificial habitats have enabled: i a reconsideration of some chorological aspects regarding the species of the genus Azolla in Romania; ii a greater understanding of the adaptive plasticity relative to the factor water for the taxon Marsilea quadrifolia L. collected from natural and artificial habitats; iii the enrichment of the data regarding the structural characteristics of the taxon Salvinia natans (L. All., particularly around the adaptive elements associated with living on the surface of the water.

  9. Differential patterns of evolution and distribution of the symbiotic behaviour in nostocacean cyanobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papaefthimiou, D.; Hrouzek, Pavel; Mugnai, M. A.; Rasmussen, U.; Lukešová, Alena; Turicchia, S.; Ventura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, - (2008), s. 553-564 ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nostoc strains * ardra * azolla Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.222, year: 2008

  10. Analysis of the Impact of Isoquinoline Alkaloids, Derived from Macleaya cordata Extract, on the Development and Innate Immune Response in Swine and Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjia Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal extract has been chronicled extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. Isoquinoline alkaloids, extract of Macleaya cordata (Willd. R. Br., have been used as feed additive in both swine and poultry. Dietary supplementation with isoquinoline alkaloids increases feed intake and weight gain. In addition, recent researches have demonstrated that isoquinoline alkaloids can regulate metabolic processes, innate immune system, and digestive functioning in animals. This review summarizes the latest scientific researches on isoquinoline alkaloids which are extracted from Macleaya cordata (Willd. R. Br. This review specifically focuses on its role as a feed supplement and its associated impact on growth performance and innate immune system, as well as its capacity to act as a substitute for oral antibiotics.

  11. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  12. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. versus soja (Glycine max [L.] Merr. en la nutrición humana: revisión sobre las características agroecológicas, de composición y tecnológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maria Chito Trujillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El diseño de alimentos funcionales a partir de productos vegetales muy estudiados como la soja (Glycine max [L.] Merr. y la potencialización de productos ancestrales como la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. son estrategias factibles para contrarrestar la desnutrición mundial. El objetivo de la presente revisión es describir las características agroecológicas, de composición, nutricionales y tecnológicas de estas dos especies vegetales diferentes (leguminosa y pseudocereal, basado en las publicaciones previas. Se realizó una revisión en bases de datos (Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo y se complementó con una búsqueda manual en Google Scholar y páginas web de instituciones acreditadas. Los estudios incluidos (n=117 en esta revisión muestran que la soja se adapta mejor a altitudes bajas (~1.000 m s. n. m., mientras que la quinoa lo hace en un rango de mayores altitudes (500-4.000 m s. n. m. con mayor tolerancia a heladas. Ambas son fuente de una alta calidad proteica por suplir los requerimientos de aminoácidos esenciales sugeridos para niños y adultos sin diferencias significativas (p>0,05, particularmente triptófano y lisina y por los altos porcentajes de digestibilidad (>70%. Sus concentraciones bajas de prolaminas y aceptables de Fe, Zn, Ca, daidzeína y genisteína los convierten en productos de interés para la industria alimentaria.

  13. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  14. Evaluation of trace elements in different species of lichens by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccaro, D.M.B.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the determination of trace elements in five epiphytic lichens: Canoparmelia texana, Canoparmelia caroliniana, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmotrema sancti-angeli and Usnea sp. that were collected at the same sampling area of the Botanic Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The elemental concentration results showed that these five lichens can be chosen in the species intercalibration for biomonitoring studies. Also, some aspects related to the occurrence, tolerance to pollution, treatment and ease of sampling of the species are presented. (author)

  15. (Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fisiologia Vegetal

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... metabolism, is a phenomenon that occurs in large extensions of arable areas ..... Effect of salinity on antioxidant responses of chickpea seedlings. ... Osmoregulation and antioxidant metabolism in drought-stressed. Helianthus ...

  16. Effect of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on nodulation of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 on Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Paredes, Y.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Alarcon, A.

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that are considered toxic and carcinogenic compounds to living organisms. There us scarce information about the effect of PAH on symbiotic systems such as Azolla-Anabaena, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plants, or legume-rhizobia. (Author)

  17. Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

  18. Effects of organic matter application on methane emission from paddy fields adopting organic farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nungkat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to determine the effect of the use of organic manure and azolla on methane emission on paddy field of organic systems was conducted on paddy fields in the Gempol Village, Sambirejo District of Sragen Regency, Indonesia. The experimental design performed for this study was a completely randomized block design consisting of three factors; the factor I was rice cultivars (Mira-1; Mentik Wangi; Merah Putih; factor II was dose of organic manure (0 t/ha and 10 t/ha and factor III was Azolla inoculums dose (0 t/ha and 2 t/ha. Gas sampling was conducted 3 times in one growing season when the rice plants reached ages of 38, 66 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that there was no correlation between the uses of organic fertilizers for rice production on methane emission. The increase of methane emission was very much influenced by the redox potential. Methane emission from Mira-1 field was higher than that from Mentik Wangi and Merah Putih fields. Emission of methane gas from Mira-1 field ranged from -509.82 to 791.34 kg CH4/ha; that from Wangi ranged from -756.77 to d 547.50 kg CH4/ha and that from Merah Putih ranged from -399.63 to 459.94 kg CH4/ha. Application of 10 t organic manure /ha and 2 t azolla/ha in Mentik Wangi reduced methane emissions with a high rice production compared to Merah Putih and Mira-1.

  19. Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the algal communities of six ponds colonised by aquatic macrophytes in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Plankton samples were collected from the water column and epiphytic samples from macrophytes such as Azolla, Pistia, Nymphaea, Ipomoea and Ludwigia. Pond pH, temperature, conductivity, ...

  20. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology - Vol 6, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for Paddy Rice Production in Fogera Plain, Northwestern Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Feyisa, T Amare, EA Adgo, YG Selassie, 1-11 ...

  1. Proanthocyanidin Characterization, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Three Plants Commonly Used in Traditional Medicine in Costa Rica: Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of aerial parts from Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd., species commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicines, was studied using UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS on enriched-phenolic extracts. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content (TPC, as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, were observed for P. niruri extracts (328.8 gallic acid equivalents/g than for S. reticulata (79.30 gallic acid equivalents/g whereas P. alliaceae extract showed the lowest value (13.45 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 20 phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were identified in the extracts, including hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, prochatechuic, salicylic, syringic and vanillic acids; hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids; and flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin]. Regarding proanthocyanidin oligomers, five procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5 and one trimer (T2 are reported for the first time in P. niruri, as well as two propelargonidin dimers in S. reticulata. Additionally, P. niruri showed the highest antioxidant DPPH and ORAC values (IC50 of 6.4 μg/mL and 6.5 mmol TE/g respectively, followed by S. reticulata (IC50 of 72.9 μg/mL and 2.68 mmol TE/g respectively and P. alliaceae extract (IC50 >1000 μg/mL and 1.32 mmol TE/g respectively. Finally, cytotoxicity and selectivity on gastric AGS and colon SW20 adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated and the best values were also found for P. niruri (SI = 2.8, followed by S. reticulata (SI = 2.5. Therefore, these results suggest that extracts containing higher proanthocyanidin content also show higher bioactivities. Significant positive correlation was found between TPC and ORAC (R2 = 0.996 as well as between phenolic content as measured by UPLC-DAD and ORAC (R2 = 0.990. These findings show evidence for the first time of the diversity of phenolic acids in P. alliaceae and S

  2. Proanthocyanidin Characterization, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Three Plants Commonly Used in Traditional Medicine in Costa Rica: Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Mirtha; Moreira, Ileana; Arnaez, Elizabeth; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Alvarado, Diego; Monagas, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    The phenolic composition of aerial parts from Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd., species commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicines, was studied using UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS on enriched-phenolic extracts. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content (TPC), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, were observed for P. niruri extracts (328.8 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for S. reticulata (79.30 gallic acid equivalents/g) whereas P. alliaceae extract showed the lowest value (13.45 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 20 phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were identified in the extracts, including hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, prochatechuic, salicylic, syringic and vanillic acids); hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids); and flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin)]. Regarding proanthocyanidin oligomers, five procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5) and one trimer (T2) are reported for the first time in P. niruri, as well as two propelargonidin dimers in S. reticulata. Additionally, P. niruri showed the highest antioxidant DPPH and ORAC values (IC50 of 6.4 μg/mL and 6.5 mmol TE/g respectively), followed by S. reticulata (IC50 of 72.9 μg/mL and 2.68 mmol TE/g respectively) and P. alliaceae extract (IC50 >1000 μg/mL and 1.32 mmol TE/g respectively). Finally, cytotoxicity and selectivity on gastric AGS and colon SW20 adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated and the best values were also found for P. niruri (SI = 2.8), followed by S. reticulata (SI = 2.5). Therefore, these results suggest that extracts containing higher proanthocyanidin content also show higher bioactivities. Significant positive correlation was found between TPC and ORAC (R2 = 0.996) as well as between phenolic content as measured by UPLC-DAD and ORAC (R2 = 0.990). These findings show evidence for the first time of the diversity of phenolic acids in P. alliaceae and S

  3. Influence of natural and synthetic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on primary and secondary metabolites and associated metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants under water deficit regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aniqa; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Phytoextracts are being widely used these days as a source of bioactive compounds for mitigating the harmful effects of abiotic stresses including drought stress. In this study, it was assessed how far foliar applied pure synthetic ascorbic acid (AsA) or natural sweet orange juice (OJ) enriched with AsA could mitigate the drought stress induced adverse effects on growth and some key metabolic processes in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; cultivar V 9 ) plants. Two weeks old quinoa seedlings were subjected to varying irrigation regimes as control [100% field capacity (FC)] and drought stress (60% FC, 40% FC and 20% FC). After one month of water deficit treatments, various levels of ascorbic acid (150 mg L -1 AsA or 25% OJ) besides control [distilled water (DW) and no spray (NS)] were applied as a foliar spray. After 15 days of AsA application, different physio-biochemical attributes were measured. The results showed that water deficit markedly decreased plant growth, relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic rate, total carotenoids (CAR) and total flavonoids, while it increased relative membrane permeability (RMP), intrinsic AsA content, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA), glycinebetaine (GB), total phenolics, total soluble proteins (TSP), total free amino acids, activities of key antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD)], total soluble sugars (TSS), reducing (RS) and non-reducing sugars (NRS). Most obvious results of most of these parameters were observed at 40% and 20% FC. Foliar-applied pure 150 mg L -1 AsA and 25% OJ were found to be very effective in improving plant growth, RMP, photosynthetic rate, CAR, proline, AsA, MDA, GB, TSP, free amino acids, SOD, POD, TSS, RS, NRS and total flavonoids. It was noticed that 25% OJ enriched with AsA and other essential nutrients and biomolecules was as efficient as 150 mg L -1 AsA in reducing the adverse effects of drought stress on quinoa plants. So, it was concluded

  4. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  5. Alternative energy from agriculture: biological conversion and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massantini, F.; Caporali, F.; Masoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    A review on producing methanol and ethanol from agricultural products (sugar beet, sweet sorghum sugar cane, etc.) and biogas from aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes) and algae (Azolla, Chlorella) is given. Anaerobic fermentation of liquid manure and sewage, straw, distillery residues, and other organic wastes is also covered. (Refs. 42).

  6. Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... A cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd with high level ... mechanisms to repair UV-induced damages via repairing ... for treatment or prevention of solar radiation. ..... working as both UV-B absorbing compounds and.

  7. Fern of the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuis, H.; Bijl, P.K.

    Held in the palm of a human hand, a single specimen of Azolla filiculoides looks downright inconsequential. Even with the scaly leaves of this miniature aquatic fern spread flat, it barely spans the distance between the creases that cleave the flesh. Its fibrous root tendrils dangle like a lock of

  8. Registro da Agathodes designalis (Guenée, 1854 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae em Mulungu (Erythrina velutina no Viveiro de Mudas de Espécies Florestais Nativas em São Cristóvão, Sergipe, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilene Correia de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Entre os anos de 2005 e 2007, foram observados mensalmente os danos causados por lagartas sobre as plantas Erythrina velutina (Willd. no município de São Cristovão, Sergipe, Brasil. As mudas com os danos foram levadas ao laboratório, com o objetivo de caracterizar os danos e identificar a praga. Esta foi identificada como Agathodes designalis (Guenée, encontrada em 35% das plantas em 2005 e 49% em 2007, causando danos da base para o ápice. Este é o primeiro registro de A. designalis atacando E. velutina no Estado de Sergipe, Brasil.Registration of the Agathodes designalis (Guenée, 1854 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in Mulungu (Erythrina velutina (Willd. in the Nursery of Seedlings of Native Forest Species in São Cristovão’s District, Sergipe, BrazilAbstract. Among the years 2005 to 2007, it was observed monthly the damaged caused by caterpillars on the Erythrina velutina (Willd. plants in São Cristovão’s District, Sergipe, Brazil. The damaged seedlings were taken to the laboratory, with the objective to characterize the damage and identify the insect pest. It was identified as Agathodes designalis (Guenée, found in 35% of plants in 2005 and 49% in 2007, causing damage to the base for the higher. It was the first record of the A. designalis attacking on E. velutina in Sergipe State, Brazil.

  9. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  10. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  11. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED), guard cell length (GCL) and guard cell width (GCW) of normal and abnormal leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd were studied. This can be useful for further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. Epidermal cells were ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feyisa, T. Vol 6, No 1 (2013) - Articles Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for Paddy Rice Production in Fogera Plain, Northwestern Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2312-6019. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adgo, EA. Vol 6, No 1 (2013) - Articles Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for Paddy Rice Production in Fogera Plain, Northwestern Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2312-6019. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  14. Three new fern records for Kilimanjaro | Hemp | Journal of East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working on the flora and vegetation of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, three ferns in three families were found that are not yet recorded for the floral region T2. The altitudinal range, localities and habitat description are given for Adiantum reniforme, Azolla africana and Trichomanes radicans. Journal of East African Natural History ...

  15. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azolla filiculoides a planktonic fern found floating on the surface of wetlands, ponds and rivers. Because of its ability to fix nitrogen through symbiotic cyanobacteria, it causes more rice production in paddy fields and is used as a green fertilizer. A. filiculoides was introduced from Philippine as a green fertilizer for rice crop to ...

  17. Physical and ionic characteristics in water soluble fraction (WSF) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of ionic and physical characteristics at 25, 50 and 100% water soluble fraction (WSF) of Olomoro well-head crude oil before and after exposure to Azolla africana were investigated. The WSF values before and after exposure to the plants showed that more ions were available after the introduction of the test plant.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adusei-Okrah, V. Vol 13, No 1 (2008) - Articles Improving the Nitrogen Mineralization of Dried Azolla pinnata as a Bio-fertilizer for Increased Rice Production in the Vertisol Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-4307. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  19. OPERATIONAL AND FINANCIAL STRATEGIES FOR PEKING DUCK BREEDING START UP BUSINESS INTEGRATED WITH ECO-GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T.U.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Duck farming needs to be innovated from traditional maintenance management systems that must be abandoned, costly modern intensive maintenance management and pollute the environment into an efficient and eco-green intensive maintenance system by applying the same system partnership pattern to its core. Integrated eco-green intensive peking duck breeding farm utilizing Azolla Microphylla and hedge leaf as feed supplement and other germplasm utilization. The Azolla Microphylla plant serves as a phytoremediation where it can recycle livestock wastewater into clean water thereby reducing excessive water exploitation and reducing the pollution of the stench. The purpose of this research is to obtain information about the financial strategy to start up the business of peking duck integrated with eco-green model. Beginning from planning activities, the company implements project management system with its Gantt Chart. The mapping of operational strategy is carried out comprehensively by always making continuous improvement (kaizen because in the current era to be good alone is not enough, but struggle is needed to be superior (market leader by beginning by cost leader.

  20. Inter-specific relationships among two Tunisian Thymus taxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between two sympatric species Thymus capitatus Hoffm. et Link. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Thymus hirtus Willd. subsp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut.) were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eighteen natural populations from different geographical and ...