Sample records for aziridines

  1. Allene functionalization via bicyclic methylene aziridines. (United States)

    Boralsky, Luke A; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R David; Hershberger, John C; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Chemoselective allene aziridination via Ag(I) catalysis. (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Weatherly, Cale D; Vo, Brian T; Neale, Samuel; Meis, Alan R; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Allene aziridination generates useful bicyclic methylene aziridine scaffolds that can be flexibly transformed into a range of stereochemically complex and densely functionalized amine-containing stereotriads. The scope of this chemistry has been limited by the poor chemoselectivity that often results when typical dinuclear Rh(II) catalysts are employed with homoallenic carbamates. Herein, Ag(I) catalysts that significantly improve the scope and yield of bicyclic methylene aziridines that can be prepared via allene aziridination are described.

  3. Unexplored Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Aziridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The reactivity of dianions of carboxylic acids towards aziridines has been studied. Although, a similar reactivity to that of enolates from ketones, esters or amides has been observed, the method directly yields g-aminoacids in one step. The method is complementary of previous results of enenediolate reactivity with other electrophiles. A comparative study with the reactivity of this enediolates with epoxides is included.

  4. Asymmetric Synthesis of Fluoroamines from Chiral Aziridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeonjeong; Yoon, Dooha; Ha, Hyunjoon [Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Son, Se In; Lee, Won Koo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We described an efficient preparation of fluoroamines by the ring-opening reactions of chiral aziridines with Et{sub 3}N·3HF. At most cases both regioisomers were obtained from the ring openings at C2 and C3 positions depending on the substituents at C2 of the starting substrates.The fluorinated organic molecules have attracted great attentions from synthetic and medicinal chemists with wide use of various agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Their uniqueness is originated from its electronic characteristics and the small size without altering the molecular conformations of non-fluorinated compounds. The fluorine is the second most widely used atom in the commercial drugs following the amine. Thereby, the elaboration of fluoro-amines bearing two most widely used atoms in drugs is one of the most challenging problems in drug synthesis and its development.

  5. Efficient, regioselective ring-opening of activated aziridine-2-carboxylates with [18F]fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth-Eskesen, Christina; Hansen, Paul Robert; Kjær, Andreas


    Aziridines can undergo a range of ring-opening reactions with nucleophiles. The regio- and stereochemistry of the products depend on the substituents on the aziridine. Aziridine ring-opening reactions have rarely been used in radiosynthesis. Herein we report the ring opening of activated aziridine...

  6. Synthetic Aziridines in Medicinal Chemistry: A Mini-Review. (United States)

    Singh, Girija S


    Azaheterocyclic compounds are well-known to have diverse types of biological activity. Among them, azacyclopropanes, commonly referred as aziridines, occupy a prominent place in synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry due to its occurrence in natural resources, complexity involved in synthesis due to ring-strain, building blocks in organic synthesis, and its biological properties. Several novel compounds containing aziridine ring have been designed and synthesized recently by medicinal chemists for evaluating their biological profile. A number of compounds are reported as cysteine protease inhibitors, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antileishmanial, and antimalarial agents. This review article summarizes the biological activity of such compounds. The preparation of such compounds is also described.

  7. Uncatalyzed thermal gas phase aziridination of alkenes by organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkene aziridination by azides through uncatalyzed thermal gas phase routes has been studiedusing the DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method, where the possible role of discrete nitrene intermediates is emphasized.The thermal decomposition of azides is studied using the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ strategy as well. The MP2(but not the ...

  8. Guanidine-catalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan


    An amino-indanol derived chiral guanidine was developed as an efficient Brønsted base catalyst for the desymmetrization of meso-aziridines with both thiols and carbamodithioic acids as nucleophiles, which provided 1,2-difunctionalized ring-opened products in high yields and enantioselectivities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Ring-Opening Reactions of the N-4-Nosyl Hough-Richardson Aziridine with Nitrogen Nucleophiles. (United States)

    Ručil, Tomáš; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Cankař, Petr


    Dinosylated α-d-glucopyranoside was directly transformed into α-d-altropyranosides via in situ formed N-4-nosyl Hough-Richardson aziridine with nitrogen nucleophiles under mild conditions in fair to excellent yields. The scope of the aziridine ring-opening reaction was substantially broadened contrary to the conventional methods introducing solely the azide anion at high temperatures. If necessary, the N-4-nosyl Hough-Richardson aziridine can be isolated by filtration in a very good yield and high purity.

  10. Chemo- and Enantioselective Intramolecular Silver-Catalyzed Aziridinations. (United States)

    Ju, Minsoo; Weatherly, Cale D; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Asymmetric nitrene-transfer reactions are a powerful tool for the preparation of enantioenriched amine building blocks. Reported herein are chemo- and enantioselective silver-catalyzed aminations which transform di- and trisubstituted homoallylic carbamates into [4.1.0]-carbamate-tethered aziridines in good yields and with ee values of up to 92 %. The effects of the substrate, silver counteranion, ligand, solvent, and temperature on both the chemoselectivity and ee value were explored. Stereochemical models were proposed to rationalize the observed absolute stereochemistry of the aziridines, which undergo nucleophilic ring opening to yield enantioenriched amines with no erosion in stereochemical integrity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide: a versatile catalyst for aziridination of olefins using Chloramine-T. (United States)

    Ali, S I; Nikalje, M D; Sudalai, A


    [reaction: see text] Pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide (Py x HBr3) catalyzes effectively the aziridination of electron-deficient as well as electron-rich olefins using Chloramine-T (N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide) as a nitrogen source to afford the corresponding aziridines in moderate to good yields.

  12. Microwave-assisted regioselective ring opening of non-activated aziridines by lithium aluminium hydride. (United States)

    Stanković, Sonja; D'hooghe, Matthias; De Kimpe, Norbert


    A new synthetic protocol for the LiAlH(4)-promoted reduction of non-activated aziridines under microwave conditions was developed. Thus, ring opening of 2-(acetoxymethyl)aziridines provided the corresponding beta-amino alcohols, which were then used as eligible substrates in the synthesis of 5-methylmorpholin-2-ones via condensation with glyoxal in THF. The same procedure was applied for the preparation of novel 5(R)- and 5(S)-methylmorpholin-2-ones starting from the corresponding enantiopure 2-(hydroxymethyl)aziridines. Additionally, 2-(methoxymethyl)- and 2-(phenoxymethyl)aziridines were treated with LiAlH(4) under microwave irradiation, giving rise to either isopropylamines or 1-methoxypropan-2-amines depending on the reaction conditions.

  13. Ficellomycin: an aziridine alkaloid antibiotic with potential therapeutic capacity. (United States)

    He, Xihong; Li, Meng; Song, Shuting; Wu, Xiaonong; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Guoguo; Yue, Rong; Cui, Huanhuan; Song, Siqing; Ma, Congcong; Lu, Fuping; Zhang, Huitu


    Ficellomycin is an aziridine antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ficellus, which displays high in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria including multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Compared to currently available antibiotics, ficellomycin exhibits a unique mechanism of action-it impairs the semiconservative DNA replication by inducing the formation of deficient 34S DNA fragments, which lack the ability to integrate into larger DNA pieces and eventually the complete bacterial chromosome. Until recently, some important progress has been made in research on ficellomycin synthesis and biosynthesis, opening the perspective to develop a new generation of antibiotics with better clinical performance than the currently used ones. In this review, we will cover the discovery and biological activity of ficellomycin, its biosynthesis, mode of action, and related synthetic analogs. The role of ficellomycin and its analogs as an important source of drug prototypes will be discussed together with future research prospects.

  14. Room Temperature Activation of Aryloxysulfonyl Azides by [Co(II)(TPP)] for Selective Radical Aziridination of Alkenes via Metalloradical Catalysis. (United States)

    Subbarayan, Velusamy; Jin, Li-Mei; Xin, Cui; Zhang, X Peter


    Aryloxysulfonyl azides can be effectively activated by commercially available cobalt(II) complex of meso -tetraphenylporphyrin ([Co(TPP)]) at room temperature under neutral and nonoxidative conditions for selective radical aziridination of alkenes via metalloradical catalysis. The [Co(TPP)]-catalyzed radical aziridination system is suitable for different combinations of olefin substrates and aryloxysulfonyl azides, producing various N -aryloxysulfonyl aziridine derivatives in good to excellent yields. In addition to generating the environmentally benign N 2 as the only byproduct, this Co(II)-based metalloradical aziridination process features mild reaction conditions and operational simplicity.

  15. A novel and selective fluoride opening of aziridines by XtalFluor-E. synthesis of fluorinated diamino acid derivatives. (United States)

    Nonn, Melinda; Kiss, Loránd; Haukka, Matti; Fustero, Santos; Fülöp, Ferenc


    The selective introduction of fluorine onto the skeleton of an aminocyclopentane or cyclohexane carboxylate has been developed through a novel and efficient fluoride opening of an activated aziridine ring with XtalFluor-E. The reaction proceeded through a stereoselective aziridination of the olefinic bond of a bicyclic lactam and regioselective aziridine ring opening with difluorosulfiliminium tetrafluoroborate with the neighboring group assistance of the sulfonamide moiety to yield fluorinated diamino acid derivatives. The method based on the selective aziridine opening by fluoride has been generalized to afford access to mono- or bicyclic fluorinated substances.

  16. A comparative Study of C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands in Some Transition Metal-Mediated Asymmetric Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Johansson, Fredrik; Harden, Adrian


    A comparative study has been made of the performance of differently substituted Ca-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands in a variety of metal-mediated asymmetric reactions. The metals studied were osmium (dihydroxylation), palladium (allylic alkylation) and copper (cyclopropanation and aziridination...

  17. A mechanistic investigation of the ruthenium porphyrin catalysed aziridination of olefins by aryl azides. (United States)

    Zardi, P; Pozzoli, A; Ferretti, F; Manca, G; Mealli, C; Gallo, E


    A mechanism for the aziridination of olefins by aryl azides (ArN3), promoted by ruthenium(ii) porphyrin complexes, is proposed on the basis of kinetic and theoretical studies. All the recorded data support the involvement of a mono-imido ruthenium complex as the active intermediate in the transfer of the nitrene moiety "ArN" to the olefin. The selectivity of the aziridination vs. the uncatalysed triazoline formation can be enhanced by fine-tuning the electronic features of the porphyrin ligand and the olefin/azide catalytic ratio. The DFT study highlights the importance of an accessible triplet ground state of the intermediate ruthenium mono-imido complex to allow the evolution of the aziridination process.

  18. Reactions of Nitroso Hetero Diels-Alder Cycloadducts with Azides: Stereoselective Formation of Triazolines and Aziridines (United States)

    Bodnar, Brian S.


    The addition of azides to acylnitroso hetero Diels-Alder cycloadducts derived from cyclopentadiene affords exo triazolines in excellent yield. The reaction is greatly affected by reducing the level of alkene strain, while sterically demanding azides do not hinder the reaction. Conversion of the triazolines to aziridines is also described. PMID:17429998

  19. Induction of DNA strand breaks by RSU-1069, a nitroimidazole-aziridine radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.R.J.; O'Neill, P.; Jenkins, T.C.


    [2- 14 C]-RSU-1069 [1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-(1-aziridino)-2-propanol], either as a parent or following radiation reduction, binds to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Radiation-reduced RSU-1069 binds to a greater extent and more rapidly than the parent compound. RSU-1137, a non-aziridino analogue of RSU-1069, binds following radiation reduction. Radiation-reduced misonidazole exhibits binding ratios a thousand-fold less than those of reduced RSU-1069. Both parent and reduced RSU-1069 cause single strand breaks (ssbs) in pSV2 gpt plasmid DNA with the reduced compound causing a greater number of breaks. Parent and reduced RSU-1137 and misonidazole do not cause ssbs. It is inferred that the aziridine moiety present in both parent and reduced RSU-1069 is required for ssb production. RSU-1069 reacts with inorganic phosphate probably via nucleophilic ring-opening of the aziridine fragment. Incubation of plasmid DNA with reduced RSU-1069 in the presence of either phosphate or deoxyribose-5-phosphate at concentrations greater than 0.35 mol dm -3 prevents strand breakage, whereas 1.2 mol dm -3 deoxyribose does not protect against strand breakage formation. It is proposed that the observed binding to DNA occurs via the aziridine and the reduced nitro group of RSU-1069 and that these two have different target sites. Binding to DNA via the reduced nitro group may serve to increase aziridine attack due to localization at or near its target. (author)

  20. Ring opening of a resin-bound chiral aziridine with phenol nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Franzyk, Henrik


    An efficient and versatile solid-phase route for the preparation of aryl-alkyl ethers is described. Regioselective ring opening of a resin-bound chiral aziridine with phenolic nucleophiles constitutes the key feature of the present protocol that allows incorporation of fluorescent moieties...

  1. Solid-Phase Parallel Synthesis of Functionalised Medium-to-Large Cyclic Peptidomimetics through Three-Component Coupling Driven by Aziridine Aldehyde Dimers. (United States)

    Treder, Adam P; Hickey, Jennifer L; Tremblay, Marie-Claude J; Zaretsky, Serge; Scully, Conor C G; Mancuso, John; Doucet, Annie; Yudin, Andrei K; Marsault, Eric


    The first solid-phase parallel synthesis of macrocyclic peptides using three-component coupling driven by aziridine aldehyde dimers is described. The method supports the synthesis of 9- to 18-membered aziridine-containing macrocycles, which are then functionalized by nucleophilic opening of the aziridine ring. This constitutes a robust approach for the rapid parallel synthesis of macrocyclic peptides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Stereocontrolled Syntheses of Seven-Membered Carbocycles by Tandem Allene Aziridination/[4+3] Reaction. (United States)

    Gerstner, Nels C; Adams, Christopher S; Tretbar, Maik; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    A tandem allene aziridination/[4+3]/reduction sequence converts simple homoallenic sulfamates into densely functionalized aminated cycloheptenes, where the relative stereochemistry at five contiguous asymmetric centers can be controlled through the choice of the solvent and the reductant. The products resulting from this chemistry can be readily transformed into complex molecular scaffolds which contain up to seven contiguous stereocenters. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ring-Opening Reactions of Aziridines Fused to a Conformationally Locked Tetrahydropyran Ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karban, Jindřich; Kroutil, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Sýkora, Jan; Císařová, I.


    Roč. 2009, č. 36 (2009), s. 6399-6406 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720703; GA AV ČR IAA400720706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : aziridines * carbohydrates * regioselectivity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2009

  4. Short and Efficient Synthesis of Optically Active N-Tosyl Aziridines from 2-Amino Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. F. de Araújo


    Full Text Available Two alternative and complementary one-pot procedures for the direct transformation of 2-amino alcohols to N-tosyl aziridines are presented. The unsubstituted parent compound and its less hindered homologues can be obtained in high yields by tosylation and in situ cyclisation effected by potassium hydroxide in water/dichloromethane. Higher substituted amino alcohols give better yields using potassium carbonate in acetonitrile. Both procedures use simple inorganic bases and produce only inorganic salts as byproducts.

  5. Catalytic aziridination of electron-deficient olefins with an N-chloro-N-sodio carbamate and application of this novel method to asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Minakata, Satoshi; Murakami, Yuta; Tsuruoka, Ryoji; Kitanaka, Shinsuke; Komatsu, Mitsuo


    A new method for the aziridination of electron-deficient olefins using an N-chloro-N-sodio carbamate is described; the reaction was promoted by phase-transfer catalysis (solid-liquid) and afforded aziridines from alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, esters, sulfones and amides.

  6. Catalytic Asymmetric Ring-Opening Reactions of Aziridines with 3-Aryl-Oxindoles. (United States)

    Wang, Linqing; Li, Dan; Yang, Dongxu; Wang, Kezhou; Wang, Jie; Wang, Pengxin; Su, Wu; Wang, Rui


    A highly enantioselective ring-opening alkylation reaction between 3-aryl-oxindole and N-(2-picolinoyl) aziridine has been realized for the first time. The reaction is efficiently mediated by a simple in-situ-generated magnesium catalyst and 3,3'-fluorinated-BINOL (BINOL=1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol) has been identified as a powerful chiral ligand. Notably, the fluorine atom on the chiral ligand plays a key role in providing the desired chiral 3-alkyl-3-aryl oxindoles with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Aziridine Carboxylates, Carboxamides and Lactones: New Methods for Their Preparation and Their Transformation into α- and β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Dodd


    Full Text Available The preparation of a variety of novel aziridine-γ-lactones (3 from carbohydrates is described. In contrast to aziridine-2-carboxylates, the lactones react regiospecifically at C-2 with soft nucleophiles to provide optically pure substituted β-amino acid precursors. Hard nucleophiles react exclusively at the C-3 position to provide α-amino acid precursors. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated by the preparation of (3S,4S-dihydroxy-L-glutamic acid (DHGA from the appropriate aziridine-γ-lactone. DHGA was subsequently shown to be a selective partial agonist of mGluR1 receptors. A more concise preparation of aziridine-γ-lactones was achieved by 1,4-Michael addition of benzylamine to 2-O-triflylbutenolides. Use of a 2-O-mesylbutenolide led, under the same conditions, to the corresponding aziridine-2-carboxamides or 2-carboxylates. Finally, a new Evanstype aziridinating agent, Ses-iminoiodinane, was developed and shown to react efficiently with unsaturated substrates to give the corresponding aziridines, whose N-Ses protecting groups can be removed under mild conditions.

  8. Enantioselective Addition of Organolithium Reagents to Imines Mediated by C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, F.; Tanner, David Ackland


    The C-2-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands 1 - 5 have been screened in the enantioselective addition of organolithium reagents to imines. Ligand 1 (used in stoichiometric amounts) was found to be superior in terms of chemical yield and enantioselectivity, the best result being 90% yield and 89% e.......e. in the addition of vinyllithium to imine 6a. Use of ligand 1 in substoichiometric amounts gave poorer yield and lower enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity of the reaction was investigated as a function of substrate, reagent, stoichiometry and temperature, but no firm mechanistic conclusions could be drawn....... Preliminary results with deuterium-labelled methyllithium indicate complexation/exchange processes involving ligand, reagent and substrate. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Aziridine- and Azetidine-Pd Catalytic Combinations. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Ligand Ring Size Impact on Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Boufroura


    Full Text Available The synthesis of new vicinal diamines based on aziridine and azetidine cores as well as the comparison of their catalytic activities as ligand in the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction are described in this communication. The synthesis of three- and four-membered ring heterocycles substituted by a methylamine pendant arm is detailed from the parent nitrile derivatives. Complexation to palladium under various conditions has been examined affording vicinal diamines or amine-imidate complexes. The efficiency of four new catalytic systems is compared in the preparation of variously substituted biaryls. Aziridine- and azetidine-based catalytic systems allowed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions from aryl halides including chlorides with catalytic loadings until 0.001% at temperatures ranging from 100 °C to r.t. The evolution of the Pd-metallacycle ring strain moving from azetidine to aziridine in combination with a methylamine or an imidate pendant arm impacted the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction issue.

  10. Synergistic Catalysis for the Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Vinyl Aziridines with α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes. (United States)

    Naesborg, Line; Tur, Fernando; Meazza, Marta; Blom, Jakob; Halskov, Kim Søholm; Jørgensen, Karl Anker


    The first asymmetric [3+2] cycloaddition of vinyl aziridines with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, based on synergistic catalysis, is disclosed. This methodology allows the formation of attractive pyrrolidine structures in good yields (up to 84 %), moderate diastereoselectivity, and high enantioselectivity values (up to >99 % ee). Additionally, a tricyclic pyrrolidine core structure found in biologically active molecules was synthesized in a one-pot fashion by using the presented reaction concept. Finally, a mechanistic proposal is outlined. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 2-[2-(Aziridin-1-ylethyl]-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-4H-benzo [e]isoindol-4-one (Cytotoxic Oxonaphthalene-Pyrroles, Part IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Spreitzer


    Full Text Available An aziridine-containing side chain is attached to an oxonaphthalene-annelated pyrrole in expectation of DNA alkylating properties. The cytotoxicity is evaluated against two cell lines, KB-31 and KB-8511, respectively.

  12. Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker. (United States)

    Leffler, C T; Milton, D K


    A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. This case illustrates the importance of using appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment to minimize exposure. Occupational asthma is diagnosed by a history of work-related symptoms and exposure to known causative agents. The diagnosis is confirmed by serial pulmonary function testing or inhalational challenge testing. The risk of asthma attributable to occupational exposures is probably underappreciated due to underreporting and to inappropriate use of narrow definitions of exposure in epidemiologic studies of attributable risk.

  13. Reactivity of N-(omega-haloalkyl)-beta-lactams with regard to lithium aluminium hydride: novel synthesis of 1-(1-aryl-3-hydroxypropyl)aziridines and 3-aryl-3-(N-propylamino)propan-1-ols. (United States)

    D'hooghe, Matthias; Dekeukeleire, Stijn; De Kimpe, Norbert


    The reactivity of 4-aryl-1-(2-chloroethyl)azetidin-2-ones and 4-aryl-1-(3-bromopropyl)azetidin-2-ones with regard to lithium aluminium hydride has been evaluated for the first time. 4-Aryl-1-(2-chloroethyl)azetidin-2-ones were transformed into novel 1-(1-aryl-3-hydroxypropyl)aziridines through an unprecedented conversion of beta-lactams into 2,3-unsubstituted aziridine derivatives. Unexpectedly, 4-aryl-1-(3-bromopropyl)azetidin-2-ones underwent dehalogenation towards 3-aryl-3-(N-propylamino)propan-1-ols upon treatment with LiAlH(4). 1-(1-Aryl-3-hydroxypropyl)aziridines were further elaborated by means of ring opening reactions using benzyl bromide in acetonitrile towards 3-aryl-3-[N-benzyl-N-(2-bromoethyl)amino]propan-1-ols and using aluminium(iii) chloride in diethyl ether, affording 3-aryl-3-[N-(2-chloroethyl)amino]propan-1-ols.

  14. Diastereomerically and enantiomerically pure 2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidines from 2,3-aziridin-1-ols using a sulfoxonium ylide: a one-carbon homologative relay ring expansion. (United States)

    Schomaker, Jennifer M; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Yan, Jun; Borhan, Babak


    An ylide-based aza-Payne rearrangement of 2,3-aziridin-1-ols leads to an efficient process for the preparation of pyrrolidines. The aza-Payne rearrangement under basic reaction conditions favors the formation of epoxy amines. Subsequent nucleophilic attack of the epoxide by the ylide yields a bis-anion, which upon a 5-exo-tet ring-closure yields the desired pyrrolidine, thus completing the relay of the three-membered to the five-membered nitrogen-containing ring system. This process takes place with complete transfer of stereochemical fidelity and can be applied to sterically hindered aziridinols.

  15. Metodologia AGOA: a modelagem de clusters de hidratação no complexo aziridina···ácido fluorídrico AGOA methodology: modeling the hydration clusters for the aziridine···hydrofluoric complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz G. Oliveira


    Full Text Available We present a theoretical study of solvent effect on C2H5N···HF hydrogen-bonded complex through the application of the AGOA methodology. By using the TIP4P model to orientate the configuration of water molecules, the hydration clusters generated by AGOA were obtained through the analysis of the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP of solute (C2H5N···HF. Thereby, it was calculated the hydration energies on positive and negative MEP fields, which are maxima (PEMmax and minima (PEMmin when represent the -CH2- methylene groups and hydrofluoric acid, respectively. By taking into account the higher and lower hydration energy values of -370.6 kJ mol-1 and -74.3 kJ mol-1 for PEMmax and PEMmin of the C2H5N···HF, our analysis shows that these results corroborate the open ring reaction of aziridine, in which the preferential attack of water molecules occurs at the methylene groups of this heterocyclic.

  16. Ring opening of pymisyl-protected aziridines with organocuprates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius


    the corresponding sulfonamides in high yields, and the pymisyl group can subsequently be removed upon treatment with a thiolate. The versatility of this new nitrogen protecting group is illustrated with a new synthesis of Selegiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease....

  17. Diastereoselective Synthesis of the Aminocyclitol Core of Jogyamycin via an Allene Aziridination Strategy. (United States)

    Gerstner, Nels C; Adams, Christopher S; Grigg, R David; Tretbar, Maik; Rigoli, Jared W; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Oxidative allene amination provides rapid access to densely functionalized amine-containing stereotriads through highly reactive bicyclic methyleneaziridine intermediates. This strategy has been demonstrated as a viable approach for the construction of the densely functionalized aminocyclitol core of jogyamycin, a natural product with potent antiprotozoal activity. Importantly, the flexibility of oxidative allene amination will enable the syntheses of modified aminocyclitol analogues of the jogyamycin core.

  18. Sulfonyl azide-mediated norbornene aziridination for orthogonal peptide and protein labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gattner, M. J.; Ehrlich, M.; Vrábel, Milan


    Roč. 50, č. 83 (2014), s. 12568-12571 ISSN 1359-7345 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Diels-Adler reactions * transfer RNA synthetase * free click chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.834, year: 2014

  19. Regioselective Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Epoxides and Aziridines derived from Homoallylic Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Groth, Thomas


    The regioselectivity of nucleophilic ring opening of some 3,4-epoxy and 3,4-aziridino alcohols has been studied. The nucleophiles chosen were complex hydrides (LiAlH4, Red-Al and DIBAL) and Lipshutz- or Gilman-type organocuprate reagents. The C-4 substituent in the substrates was varied in order...... to study steric and electronic effects on the ring opening reactions. For alkyl substituents at C-4, most of the results can be explained on the basis of intramolecular delivery of the nucleophile to C-3 via a six-membered transition state, leading to 1,4-diols or 1,4-amino alcohol derivatives. In general......, the epoxy alcohols gave poorer regioselectivity than the N-tosyl aziridino alcohols, for which selectivities of >95:5 were routinely obtained. The activating effect of a phenyl group at C-4 led to a switch in regiochemistry, with the 1,3-diol or 1,3-amino alcohol derivative as the major product. (C) 1997...

  20. Aziridine ring cleavage by nucleophiles in epimino derivatives of 1,6-anhydro-á-D-hexopyranoses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroutil, J.; Trnka, T.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Černý, M.

    č. 15 (2002), s. 2449-2459 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0862 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : carbohydrates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2002

  1. Cycloaddition of CO 2 to challenging N -tosyl aziridines using a halogen-free niobium complex: Catalytic activity and mechanistic insights

    KAUST Repository

    Arayachukiat, Sunatda


    An efficient and facile approach to the regioselective synthesis of N-tosyloxazolidinones from the corresponding N-tosylaziridines and CO2 was developed using dual catalytic systems involving an early transition metal coordination compound as a Lewis acid and a nucleophilic cocatalyst. Among the screened Lewis acids, halogen-free niobium pentaethoxide (Nb(OEt)5) displayed the best catalytic activity when used in the presence of tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI). Systematic DFT calculations, supported by catalytic experiments, demonstrate that CO2 insertion is the rate determining step for this process and it is highly dependent on the steric hindrance at the niobium center.

  2. Solid-phase synthesis of piperazinones via disrupted Ugi condensation. (United States)

    Treder, Adam P; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Yudin, Andrei K; Marsault, Eric


    The first application of aziridine aldehyde dimers in solid-phase synthesis is reported. The solid-supported disrupted Ugi condensation between an aziridine aldehyde dimer, isonitrile, and backbone-anchored amino acids delivered N-acyl aziridine intermediates, which were reacted with nucleophiles to yield the corresponding piperazinones. Subsequent cleavage from the resin provided a diverse set of 2,3,6-trisubstituted piperazinones starting from various amino acids, aziridine aldehydes, and nucleophiles.

  3. Reusable radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanselow, D.L.; Ersfeld, D.A.


    An integrating, reusable device for monitoring exposure to actinic radiation is disclosed. The device comprises a substrate having deposited thereon at least one photochromic aziridine compound which is sealed in an oxygen barrier to stabilize the color developed by the aziridine compound in response to actinic radiation. The device includes a spectral response shaping filter to transmit only actinic radiation of the type being monitored. A color standard is also provided with which to compare the color developed by the aziridine compound

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Activation of Aliphatic Amines Using Chiral Anionic BINOL-Phosphoric Acid Ligands. (United States)

    Smalley, Adam P; Cuthbertson, James D; Gaunt, Matthew J


    The design of an enantioselective Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H amination reaction is described. The use of a chiral BINOL phosphoric acid ligand enables the conversion of readily available amines into synthetically valuable aziridines in high enantiomeric ratios. The aziridines can be derivatized to afford a range of chiral amine building blocks incorporating motifs readily encountered in pharmaceutically relevant molecules.

  5. Synthesis of 1,6-Anhydro-2,3,4-trideoxy-2,3-epimino- and 1,6-Anhydro-2,3,4-trideoxy-3,4-epimino-beta-D-hexopyranoses and their NMR and Infrared Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karban, Jindřich; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kroutil, J.


    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2004), s. 1939-1954 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : anhydrosugars * aziridines * azides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  6. Intramolecular Azide to Alkene Cycloadditions for the Construction of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines and Azetidino-Benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hemming


    Full Text Available The coupling of proline- and azetidinone-substituted alkenes to 2-azidobenzoic and 2-azidobenzenesulfonic acid gives precursors that undergo intramolecular azide to alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to give imine-, triazoline- or aziridine-containing pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs, pyrrolo[1,2,5]benzothiadiazepines (PBTDs, and azetidino[1,4]benzodiazepines. The imines and aziridines are formed after loss of nitrogen from a triazoline cycloadduct. The PBDs are a potent class of antitumour antibiotics.

  7. Aminolysis of resin-bound N-nosylaziridine-2-carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A; Christensen, Caspar; Nielsen, Birgitte


    [Structure: see text] Solid-phase synthesis is a rapidly developing area of organic chemistry, of particular importance for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. Aziridines have previously only rarely been applied in solid-phase synthesis. In the present work, aminolysis of resin-bound, spring......-loaded N-nitrobenzenesulfonyl-activated aziridine-2-carboxylic acids has been optimized and employed in the synthesis of a number of open-chain and heterocyclic scaffolds, including enantiopure products....

  8. Reactions of ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) has found wise use in catalysis, including the epoxidation and metathesis of olefins, aldehyde olefination, and oxygen transfer. Extensive reports have now appeared in the area of MTO-catalyzed substrate oxidations with hydrogen peroxide. Certain catalytic applications of MTO for organic reactions that do not utilize peroxide have now been realized. In particular, a catalytic amount of MTO with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) will convert aromatic imines to aziridines and convert aldehydes and ketones to epoxides. The aziridine preparation proceeds in high yields under anaerobic conditions more conveniently than with existing methods. Compounds with a three-membered heterocyclic ring can be obtained with the EDA/MTO catalytic system. Aromatic imines undergo cycloaddition reactions to give aziridines under mild conditions.

  9. A Stereoselective [3+1] Ring Expansion for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Methylene Azetidines. (United States)

    Schmid, Steven C; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    The reaction of rhodium-bound carbenes with strained bicyclic methylene aziridines results in a formal [3+1] ring expansion to yield highly substituted methylene azetidines with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. The reaction appears to proceed through an ylide-type mechanism, where the unique strain and structure of the methylene aziridine promotes a ring-opening/ring-closing cascade that efficiently transfers chirality from substrate to product. The resultant products can be elaborated into new azetidine scaffolds containing vicinal tertiary-quaternary and even quaternary-quaternary stereocenters. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Keniche


    Full Text Available A new series of aziridines was synthesized in our laboratory, which displays potent antibiotic activities. However, a practical synthesis by using the coupling method of this aziridines with either phosphonate or N-phtaloyl acide moiety can be converted into various derivatives. This work describes new results of our ongoing research targeting new derivatives of biological interest. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity, they all showed comparable moderate to good growth inhibitory activity with reference to Tetracyclin and Gentamicin.

  11. Selective synthesis of N-substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines from furans by copper-induced concurrent tandem catalysis. (United States)

    Fructos, Manuel R; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Pérez, Pedro J


    A novel transformation in which mono- or dialkyl-substituted furans are converted into 1,2-dihydropyridines upon reaction with PhI horizontal lineNTs at room temperature is reported. The reaction is catalyzed by complexes of general formula Tp(x)M (M = Cu, Ag) and consists of a one-pot procedure with four consecutive catalytic cycles. Furan aziridination is followed by aziridine ring-opening, transimination reaction, inverse-electronic-demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction, and a final hydrogen elimination reaction. The mechanism of the overall transformation is proposed where the metal complex displays a crucial role along the reaction pathway.

  12. Expedite Protocol for Construction of Chiral Regioselectively N-Protected Monosubstituted Piperazine, 1,4-Diazepane, and 1,4-Diazocane Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Witt, Matthias; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.


    This paper describes the first study of solution-phase synthesis of chiral monosubstituted piperazine building blocks from nosylamide-activated aziridines. The protocol, involving aminolysis of the starting aziridines with ω-amino alcohols and subsequent Fukuyama−Mitsunobu cyclization, offers the...... the advantage of mild conditions as well as short reaction times, and it leads to optically pure N-Boc- or N-Ns-protected piperazines. This four-step sequence, requiring only a single final chromatographic purification, was extended to include novel diazepane and diazocane derivatives....

  13. Easy preparation of enantiopure C-2 symmetrical hydroxy and amino sulfides derived from ephedrine and their application in a Pd catalyzed coupling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, B; Hulst, R; Kellogg, RM

    Ephedrine can be readily converted by means of intramolecular S(N)2 substitution by the hydroxyl or amino substituent into, respectively, the corresponding epoxide or aziridine with high stereocontrol. Subsequent stereoselective ring opening at the benzylic centre using tetrabutylammonium fluoride

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jj of... - Pollutants Excluded From Use in Cleaning and Washoff Solvents (United States)


    ...) 101144 Acrylonitrile 107131 Ethylene dibromide (1,2-Dibromoethane) 106934 DDE (1,1-p-chlorophenyl 1-2... carbamoyl chloride 79447 Chromium compounds (hexavalent) 1,2-Propylenimine (2-Methyl aziridine) 75558... compounds 7440417 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 96128 N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62759 Cadmium compounds Benzo (a...

  15. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 6. SN2-type ring opening of substituted--tosylaziridines with zinc (II) halides: Control of racemization by quaternary ammonium salt ... Keywords. Haloamines; aziridines; enantioselective; Lewis acid; nucleophilic ring opening; quaternary ammonium salts.

  16. Reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide and 2-methyl-N-phenylaziridine with lithium aluminium hydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Østergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted


    -chloropropanamide, which indicates that Lewis acid catalysis (by aluminium chlorohydrides) facilitates the reduction of the aziridine. In addition, Lewis acid catalysis increases the relative yield of the propylamine product. The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide furnishes 2-phenylamino-1-propanol as a by......-product, rather than the previously proposed 1-phenylamino-2-propanol....

  17. Annulation Reactions of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes with (1-Azidovinyl)benzene and 3-Phenyl-2H-azirine. (United States)

    Curiel Tejeda, Joanne E; Irwin, Lauren C; Kerr, Michael A


    Under the influence of heat and Lewis acid, donor/acceptor cyclopropanes underwent annulation reactions with (1-azidovinyl)benzene and 3-phenyl-2H-azirine to form an unusual azabicyclic scaffold with an imbedded aziridine. The mechanism of reaction is believed to proceed via a vinyl nitrene intermediate.

  18. Aziridino Alcohols as Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Kornø, Hanne Tøfting; Guijarro, David


    addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde, with up to 90% stereoselectivity. The absolute configuration of the alcohol product is dependent on the substitution pattern of the aziridine ring, and different transition state models are proposed to explain the observed switch in enantioselectivity. The C-2...

  19. Synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard


    Enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines were assembled through ring-opening of a N-2-benzothiazolesulfonyl (Bts) activated aziridine with organocuprates followed by a ring annulation reaction with a vinylsulfonium salt under microwave conditions. Deprotection of the N-Bts group proceeds under very ...

  20. N-Alkylation of sulfonamides by alkyl halides in the presence of electrophilic catalysts and transformations of alkylated compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa V. Dmitrikova


    Full Text Available Vicinal halo amines constitute an important class of compounds due to their diverse biological activity and a broad application as synthones in the production of pharmaceutical agents. The reaction of aryl- and alkylsulfonamides with 1,2-dibromo-2-phenylethane in the presence of Lewis acids (such as FeCl3 and ZnCl2 in 1,2-dichloroethane can represent one of the most efficient ways of halo amine synthesis. It has been shown that methanesulfonamides and benzylsulfonamides starting materials produced the alkylation products with good yields while p-toluenesulfonamides appeared to be less active and 6-methyl-3-nitrobenzylsulfonamides did not give the expected compounds. It has been found that synthesized vicinal halo amides can easily cyclize in alkaline conditions to give 1-sulfonylaziridines. The regioselectivity of aziridine ring opening has also been studied. It was established that strong nucleophile attacks terminal carbon which leads to the breaking-up of 1–3 bond and subsequent aziridine ring opening. In contrast, weak nucleophiles (water, potassium rhodanide, hydrogen bromide trigger the cleavage of aziridine cycle by breaking-up of 1–2 bond under acidic conditions which is in accordance with molecular orbital theory. Substituents at the aromatic ring of sulfonyl fragment do not influence on the pathway of aziridine ring opening.

  1. Synthesis of thiazolidine-thiones, imino-thiazolidines and oxazolidines via the base promoted cyclisation of epoxy-sulfonamides and heterocumulenes. (United States)

    Anitha, Mandala; Swamy, K C Kumara


    Epoxy-sulfonamides react with heterocumulenes (carbon disulfide/isothiocyanates/isocyanates) in the presence of a base to afford ring expansion products in good to high yields with excellent regioselectivity. N-(2-Bromoethyl)-sulfonamides can also be employed as substrates. This reaction proceeds through a 5-exo-tet pathway without forming aziridine intermediates.

  2. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. R H DUNCAN LYNGDOH. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 128 Issue 5 May 2016 pp 681-693 Regular Articles. Uncatalyzed thermal gas phase aziridination of alkenes by organic azides. Part I: Mechanisms with discrete nitrene species · S PREMILA ...

  3. NMR Investigation of the complexation of (S-2-isopropyl- 1-(o-nitrophenylsulfonylaziridine with -cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Z. Sliman


    Full Text Available Aziridines are known to undergo hydrolysis in the presence of cyclodextrins, whereas the latter are largely investigated as potential vectors of biologically active compounds. Despite this easy cyclodextrin-induced cleavage of aziridines in aqueous medium, it was of interest to find out a model aziridine derivative that would be sufficiently water-stable and form a stable complex with b-cyclodextrin in aqueous medium, so that it could be used as a reference in future formulations or vectorization work. Among compounds we have investigated, we found out that only (S-2-isopropyl-1-(o-nitrophenylsulfonylaziridine complied with the above-mentioned solubility and stability requirements. NMR studies of the inclusion complex of this derivative with b-cyclodextrin provided useful parameters related to the stoichiometry of the complex and the association constant Ka. The geometry of the complex was assessed by 2D-ROESY experiments, suggesting a deep insertion of the aziridine into the cavity of b-cyclodextrin.

  4. Chemistry of phosphorus ylides 31: Reaction of azidocoumarin with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reaction of 4- azidochromen-2-one (1) with the nucleophilic phosphacumulene ylides 2, 8, and 12 afforded the new heterocyclic triazoles, triazepines, aziridine, pyrrolone containing a coumarin moiety. Cycloaddition reactions took place first to give triazoline 3 and 9. The triazolines rearranged to the triazepines 4, 10, ...

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jj of... - VHAP of Potential Concern (United States)


    ... dibromide(1,2-Dibromoethane) 0.01 72559 DDE (1,1-p-chlorophenyl 1-2 dichloroethylene) 0.01 510156...′-Methylenedianiline 1.0 90040 o-Anisidine 1.0 1746016 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.00000006 92875 Benzidine 0... carbamoyl chloride 0.002 75558 1,2-Propylenimine (2-Methyl aziridine) 0.0003 57147 1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine 0...

  6. Dual-function 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and bioreductive cytotoxins: In vivo evaluation in KHT murine sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Adams, G.E.; Fielden, E.M.; Jenkins, T.C. (Medical Research Council, Didcot, Oxon (England))


    The efficacies of a series of potential prodrugs of RSU-1069 and its alkyl-aziridine analogues were assessed. These 1-(2-haloethylamino)-3-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol compounds were designed to cyclize in vivo to generate 2-nitro-imidazoles with aziridine (RSU-1069) or alkyl-substituted aziridine (RSU-1164, RB-7040, or RSU-1150) functions. Maximum tolerated single, intraperitoneal doses (MTD) were determined in C3H/He mice bearing subcutaneous KHT sarcomas, and a drug dose-response relationship for radiosensitization was established for each compound administered at the optimum time (45-60 min) before local irradiation of tumors with a 10-Gy dose of X-rays. The potentials of the compounds as bioreductive cytotoxins were studied by administering them immediately after irradiation. Tumor cell survival was measured 18-24 h after treatment in an in vitro soft agar clonogenic assay. Results of toxicity, radiosensitization, and bioreductive cytotoxicity assays for each of the prodrugs (RB-6171, RB-6172, RB-6173, RB-6174, and RB-6175) of the alkyl-substituted aziridines were entirely consistent with complete conversion to their respective target compounds. For example, RB-6171 (the prodrug form of RSU-1164) was only about four times less efficient than RSU-1069 as a radiosensitizer and bioreductive cytotoxin but had an MTD 7.5 times higher. In contrast, prodrugs of RSU-1069 (RB-6144 and RB-6145) were two- to threefold less toxic than their expected product. RB-6144 was a poor radiosensitizer and bioreductive agent compared with RSU-1069 and was similar to RB-6170, a nonalkylating nitroimidazole. This is consistent with the observation that there is limited conversion of RB-6144 to RSU-1069 in vitro. However, radiosensitization and bioreductive cytotoxicity produced by RB-6145 were only slightly less than the effects produced by RSU-1069.

  7. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines. (United States)

    Hameed, Arruje; Javed, Sadia; Noreen, Razia; Huma, Tayyaba; Iqbal, Sarosh; Umbreen, Huma; Gulzar, Tahsin; Farooq, Tahir


    Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  8. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruje Hameed


    Full Text Available Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  9. Crosslinked and Dyed Chitosan Fiber Presenting Enhanced Acid Resistance and Bioactivities


    Xiao-Qiong Li; Ren-Cheng Tang


    The application of biodegradable chitosan fiber for healthy and hygienic textiles is limited due to its poor acid resistance in wet processing and poor antioxidant activity. In order to prepare chitosan fiber with good acid resistance and high antioxidant activity, chitosan fiber was first crosslinked by a water-soluble aziridine crosslinker, and then dyed with natural lac dye consisting of polyphenolic anthraquinone compounds. The main application conditions and crosslinking mechanism of the...

  10. Nitrogen Atom Transfer From High Valent Iron Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Smith, Jeremy M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    This report describes the synthesis and reactions of high valent iron nitrides. Organonitrogen compounds such as aziridines are useful species for organic synthesis, but there are few efficient methods for their synthesis. Using iron nitrides to catalytically access these species may allow for their synthesis in an energy-and atom-efficient manner. We have developed a new ligand framework to achieve these goals as well as providing a method for inducing previously unknown reactivity.

  11. Preparation of LC monodomain structures in polymer systems (United States)

    Ujiie, Seiji; Yano, Yumi; Mori, Akira; Iimura, Kazuyoshi


    The thermal polymerization of aziridine monomers without a mesophase was performed in rubbing and non-treated sandwich cells. Cross-linked polymers, having homogeneous and homeotropic structures, were prepared. The thermal polymerization process was examined by X-ray diffraction measurements and polarizing microscopy. The cross-linked polymers exhibited a smectic A layered structure. In the rubbing sandwich cell, an aziridine monomer with an ethanol terminal group gave a cross-linked polymer having a homogeneous alignment. The homeotropic structure was obtained by thermal polymerization of an aziridine monomer with a nitro terminal group in a non-treated sandwich cell. The homeotropic structure was also formed on the surface of a glass plate and an aluminum thin film. A uniaxial-optical property of the homeotropic structure was characterized by conoscopic observation. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed the formation of the smectic A domain within an isotropic fluid by thermal polymerization at 100°C as well as optical texture observations. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the homeotropic structure was composed of first, second, and third inner reflections and a wide-angle halo, corresponding to the smectic A fluid phase.

  12. Preformulation studies on imexon. (United States)

    Kuehl, P J; Hoye, W L; Myrdal, P B


    Imexon is an aziridine containing iminopyrrolidone that, through aziridine ring opening, is able to induce oxidative stress resulting in apoptosis. The main objective of this research was to conduct extensive preformulation studies on Imexon in order to understand the factors that affect its stability. The results obtained indicate that the stability of Imexon is dependent on pH, ionic strength, temperature, buffer species, and initial concentration. Degradation of Imexon follows apparent first-order degradation kinetics with the primary degradation product resulting from opening of the aziridine ring. In order to maximize stability, ionic strength, temperature, and initial concentration should be minimized, with an optimal range pH between 7.2 and 9.0. Experimentation with other aqueous solutions indicates that Imexon has increased stability in D5W as opposed to normal saline, while it undergoes rapid degradation in 6% H(2)O(2). Imexon is not ionizable between pH 5.0 to 8.5 and has an aqueous solubility of approximately 25 mg/mL over this range. Solid-state characterization has concluded that Imexon is a crystalline solid that begins decomposition at 165 degrees C, prior to melting.

  13. Utilization of N-X bonds in the synthesis of N-heterocycles. (United States)

    Minakata, Satoshi


    Nitrogen-containing heterocycles--such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and oxazolines--frequently show up as substructures in natural products. In addition, some of these species show potent biological activities. Therefore, researchers would like to develop practical and convenient methods for constructing these heterocycles. Among the available methods, the transfer of N(1) units to organic molecules, especially olefins, is a versatile method for the synthesis of N-heterocycles. This Account reviews some of our recent work on the synthesis of N-heterocycles using the N-X bond. A nitrogen-halogen bond bearing an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen can be converted to a halonium ion. In the presence of C-C double bonds, these species produce three-membered cyclic halonium intermediates, which can be strong electrophiles and can produce stereocontrolled products. N-Halosuccinimides are representative sources of halonium ions, and the nitrogen of succinimide is rarely used in organic synthesis. If the nitrogen could act as a nucleophile, after releasing halonium ions to C-C double bonds, we expect great advances would be possible in the stereoselective functionalization of olefins. We chose N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T, CT), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, as our desired reactant. In the presence of a catalytic amount of CuCl or I(2) and AgNO(3), we achieved the direct aziridination of olefins with CT. The reaction catalyzed by I(2) could be carried out in water or silica-water as a green process. The reaction of iodoolefins with CT gave pyrrolidine derivatives under extremely mild conditions with complete stereoselectivity. We also extended the utility of the N-chloro-N-metallo reagent, which is often unstable and difficult to work with. Although CT does not react with electron-deficient olefins without a metal catalyst or an additive, we found that N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates react with electron

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of alpha-(((2-haloethyl)amino)methyl)-2- nitro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanols as prodrugs of alpha-((1-aziridinyl)methyl)-2- nitro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol (RSU-1069) and its analogues which are radiosensitizers and bioreductively activated cytotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, T.C.; Naylor, M.A.; O' Neill, P.; Threadgill, M.D.; Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Adams, G.E.; Fielden, E.M.; Suto, M.J.; Stier, M.A. (Medical Research Council Radiobiology Unit, Didcot, Oxfordshire (England))


    alpha-((1-Aziridinyl)methyl)-2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanols, of general formula ImCH2CH(OH)CH2NCR1R2CR3R4, where Im = 2-nitroimidazole and R1, R2, R3, R4 = H, Me, are radiosensitizers and selective bioreductively activated cytotoxins toward hypoxic tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of the aziridines with hydrogen halide in acetone or aqueous acetone gave the corresponding 2-haloethylamines of general formula ImCH2CH(OH)CH2(+)-NH2CR1R2CR3R4X X-, where R1, R2, R3, R4 = H, Me, and X = F, Cl, Br, I. These 2-haloethylamines were evaluated as prodrugs of the parent aziridines. The rates of ring closure in aqueous solution at pH approximately 6 were found to increase with increasing methyl substitution and to depend on the nature of the leaving group (I approximately Br greater than Cl much greater than F). A competing reaction of ImCH2CH(OH)CH2+NH2CH2CH2X X- (X = Cl, Br) with aqueous HCO3- ions gives 3-(2-hyroxy-3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-2-oxazolidinone. The activities of these prodrugs as radiosensitizers or as bioreductively activated cytotoxins were consistent with the proportion converted to the parent aziridine during the course of the experiment. alpha-(((2-Bromoethyl)amino)methyl)-2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1- ethanol (RB 6145, 10), the prodrug of alpha-((1-aziridinyl)methyl)-2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol (RSU-1069, 3), is identified as the most useful compound in terms of biological activity and rate of ring closure under physiological conditions.

  15. Synthesis of 1,3-diaminated stereotriads via rearrangement of 1,4-diazaspiro[2.2]pentanes. (United States)

    Weatherly, Cale D; Rigoli, Jared W; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    The synthesis of 1,3-diaminated stereotriads via the bis-aziridination of allenes is reported. The reactive 1,4-diazaspiro[2.2]pentane intermediates undergo a mild Brønsted acid-promoted rearrangement to yield 1,3-diaminated ketones in good yields with excellent stereocontrol. Directed reduction of the ketone can be achieved to yield a C-N/C-O/C-N stereotriad in high dr. The ability to transfer the axial chirality of the substrates to the products allows for the facile preparation of enantioenriched stereotriads from allenes in two simple steps.

  16. Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads. (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad.

  17. Tunable, chemoselective amination via silver catalysis. (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Weatherly, Cale D; Alderson, Juliet M; Vo, Brian T; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Organic N-containing compounds, including amines, are essential components of many biologically and pharmaceutically important molecules. One strategy for introducing nitrogen into substrates with multiple reactive bonds is to insert a monovalent N fragment (nitrene or nitrenoid) into a C-H bond or add it directly to a C═C bond. However, it has been challenging to develop well-defined catalysts capable of promoting predictable and chemoselective aminations solely through reagent control. Herein, we report remarkable chemoselective aminations that employ a single metal (Ag) and a single ligand (phenanthroline) to promote either aziridination or C-H insertion by manipulating the coordination geometry of the active catalysts.

  18. Chemoselective construction of novel steroid derivatives. (United States)

    Troisi, Luigino; Florio, Saverio; Granito, Catia


    Alpha-halo-alpha-heteroarylalkyllithiums, generated by deprotonation of the corresponding halides, when added promptly to steroids with C=O or C=NR groups, lead to epoxides and aziridines. The reactions are regio- and stereoselective; in fact, in the presence of more than one C=O group, the oxido or aziridino functions are formed uniquely at the C=O of C-17 (or C-20 depending on its position in the starting molecule), and the C-20(R) stereoisomer is often the only product isolated. Protection of the hydroxyl group present on several considered steroids was required, and it was accomplished through derivatization in acetyl, ether, or lactone.

  19. Aziridino Alcohols as Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Kornø, Hanne Tøfting; Guijarro, David


    The chiral aziridino alcohols 1 -3 have been prepared either from amino acids (1a from serine; 1b - 1i and 3 from threonine; 2a - 2e from allo-threonine) or via asymmetric synthesis (1j, 1k, 1l and 2f from methyl cinnamate). These easily available ligands act as catalysts for the enantioselective...... addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde, with up to 90% stereoselectivity. The absolute configuration of the alcohol product is dependent on the substitution pattern of the aziridine ring, and different transition state models are proposed to explain the observed switch in enantioselectivity. The C-2...

  20. Liants Polyethers et Polyesters dans les Propergols Composites (Polyether and Polyester binders in Composite Propellants), (United States)


    ticul6 avec los 6poxydes et los sels do chrome pour former un 61astomare. Une 16g~re modification do cc systame est obtenue par r6action du R45M avec um...une amilioration de l’allongement sans modification do 1𔄀nergic du liant (Tableau XI). 4.4.2 Propergols polyesters a partir de R4SM/ACIID Les propri...qu’aprbs 56 jours de vieillissement . 8. L’effet d’un polyester d’aziridine (PEA) employ6 a la place du polyester d’amine (N8C) am~liore tr~s peu les

  1. 1,4-Diazaspiro[2.2]pentanes as a flexible platform for the synthesis of diamine-bearing stereotriads. (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Boralsky, Luke A; Hershberger, John C; Marston, Dagmara; Meis, Alan R; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads occur in a number of biologically active compounds, but general and flexible methods to access these compounds are limited mainly to the manipulation of chiral olefins. An alternative approach is to employ a highly chemo-, regio-, and stereocontrolled allene oxidation that can install a new carbon-heteroatom bond at each of the three original allene carbons. In this paper, an intramolecular/intermolecular allene bis-aziridination is described that offers the potential to serve as a key step for the construction of stereotriads containing vicinal diaminated motifs. The resultant 1,4-diazaspiro[2.2]pentane (DASP) scaffolds contain two electronically differentiated aziridines that undergo highly regioselective ring openings at C1 with a variety of heteroatom nucleophiles to give chiral N,N-aminals. Alternatively, the same DASP intermediate can be induced to undergo a double ring-opening reaction at both C1 and C3 to yield vicinal diaminated products corresponding to formal ring opening at C3. The chirality of a propargyl alcohol is easily transferred to the DASP with good fidelity, providing a new paradigm for the construction of enantioenriched nitrogen-containing stereotriads.

  2. [Fe(III)(F(20)-tpp)Cl] is an effective catalyst for nitrene transfer reactions and amination of saturated hydrocarbons with sulfonyl and aryl azides as nitrogen source under thermal and microwave-assisted conditions. (United States)

    Liu, Yungen; Che, Chi-Ming


    [Fe(III)(F(20)-tpp)Cl] (F(20)-tpp=meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato dianion) is an effective catalyst for imido/nitrene insertion reactions using sulfonyl and aryl azides as nitrogen source. Under thermal conditions, aziridination of aryl and alkyl alkenes (16 examples, 60-95 % yields), sulfimidation of sulfides (11 examples, 76-96 % yields), allylic amidation/amination of α-methylstyrenes (15 examples, 68-83 % yields), and amination of saturated C--H bonds including that of cycloalkanes and adamantane (eight examples, 64-80 % yields) can be accomplished by using 2 mol % [Fe(III)(F(20)-tpp)Cl] as catalyst. Under microwave irradiation conditions, the reaction time of aziridination (four examples), allylic amination (five examples), sulfimidation (two examples), and amination of saturated C--H bonds (three examples) can be reduced by up to 16-fold (24-48 versus 1.5-6 h) without significantly affecting the product yield and substrate conversion.

  3. Highly dispersive ion exchangers in the analytical chemistry of uranium, particularly regarding separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, R.


    The reaction of water-insoluble polyvinyl pyrrolidon with uranium VI was investigated and a determination method for uranium was worked out in which the polyvinyl pyrrolidon was used as specific exchanger. Good separations of uranium from numerous transition metal ions were achieved here. The application of this exchanger for a fast and simple elution and determination method was of particular importance. A possible sorption mechanism was suggested based on the capacity curve of uranium with polyvinyl pyrrolidon and nitrogen and chloride content at maximum load. The sorption occurs by coordination of the carbonyl oxygen of single pyrrolidon rings with the protons of the complex acides and uranium. This assumption is supported by IR investigations. The sorbability of other inorganic acids was also investigated and possible structures were formulated for the sorption mechanism. In addition to this, ion exchangers were prepared based on cellulose by converting cellulose powder with aziridine and tris-1-aziridinyl-phosphine oxide. A polyethylene imine cellulose of high capacity was obtained in the conversion of cellulose powder with aziridine. This exchanger absorbs cobalt III very strongly. The exchanger loaded with cobalt III was used to separate the uranium as cyanato complex. The exchanger obtained in converting chlorated cellulose with tris-1-aziridinyl phosphine oxide also absorbs uranium VI very strongly. Thus a separation method of high specifity and selectivity was developed. (orig.) [de

  4. Long chain branching of PLA (United States)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Fahnhorst, Grant; Macosko, Christopher W.


    A trifunctional aziridine linker, trimethylolpropane tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinepropionate) (TTMAP), was melt blended with linear polylactic acid (PLA) to make star branched PLA. Adding pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) led to long chain branched (LCB) PLA. Mixing torque evolution during melt processing revealed high reactivity of aziridine with the carboxyl end group on PLA and an incomplete reaction of PMDA with the hydroxyl end group. Star-shaped PLA exhibited higher viscosity but no strain hardening in extensional flow while LCB PLA showed significant extensional hardening. Excess TTMAP in the branching reaction resulted in gel formation, which led to failure at low strain in extension. PMDA conversion was estimated based on gelation theory. The strain rate dependence of extensional hardening indicated that the LCB PLA had a low concentration of long chain branched molecules with an H-shaped topology. Unlike current methods used to branch PLA, free radical chemistry or use of an epoxy functional oligomers, our branching strategy produced strain hardening with less increase in shear viscosity. This study provides guidelines for design of polymers with low shear viscosity, which reduces pressure drop in extrusion, combined with strong extensional hardening, which enhances performance in processes that involve melt stretching.

  5. A study on the electrical, optical, and physicochemical properties of poly(MMA-co-MAA)/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid thin films. (United States)

    Han, Yong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeong Eun; Hwangbo, Kyung-Hee; Yim, Jin-Heong; Cho, Kuk Young


    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has good properties as a conductive polymer such as high conductivity, optical transmittance, and chemical stability, while offering relatively weak physicochemical properties. The main purpose of this paper is to improve physicochemical properties such as solvent resistance and pencil hardness of PEDOT. Carboxyl groups in the poly(MMA-co-MAA) polymer chains can effectively crosslink each other in the presence of aziridine, resulting in physicochemically robust PEDOT/poly(MMA-co-MAA) hybrid conductive films. The electrical conductivity, optical properties, and physicochemical properties of the hybrid conductive film were compared by varying the solid content and poly(MMA-co-MAA) portion in the coating precursor solution. From the results, the transparency and surface resistance of the hybrid film show a tendency to decrease with increasing solid content in the coating precursor. Moreover, solvent resistance and hardness were dramatically enhanced by hybridization of PEDOT and crosslinked poly(MMA-co-MAA) due to curing reactions between carboxyl groups. The chemical composition of 30 wt-% of poly(MMA-co-MAA) (MMA:MAA mole ratio 9:1) and 3 wt-% - 5 wt-% of aziridine yields the best physicochemical properties of poly(MMA-co-MAA)/PEDOT hybrid thin films.

  6. N-Heterocycle-Forming Amino/Carboperfluoroalkylations of Aminoalkenes by Using Perfluoro Acid Anhydrides: Mechanistic Studies and Applications Directed Toward Perfluoroalkylated Compound Libraries. (United States)

    Kawamura, Shintaro; Dosei, Kento; Valverde, Elena; Ushida, Kiminori; Sodeoka, Mikiko


    This work describes a practical and efficient method for synthesizing a diverse array of perfluoroalkylated amines, including N-heterocycles, to afford perfluoroalkylated chemical libraries as potential sources of drug candidates, agrochemicals, and probe molecules for chemical-biology research. Perfluoro acid anhydrides, which are commonly used in organic synthesis, were employed as a perfluoroalkyl source for intramolecular amino- and carbo-perfluoroalkylations of aminoalkenes, affording perfluoroalkylated N-heterocycles, including: aziridines, pyrrolidines, benzothiazinane dioxides, indolines, and hydroisoquinolinones. Diacyl peroxides were generated in situ from the perfluoro acid anhydrides with urea·H 2 O 2 , and allowed to react with aminoalkenes in the presence of copper catalyst to control the product selectivity between amino- and carbo-perfluoroalkylations. To illustrate the synthetic utility of bench-stable trifluoromethylated aziridine, which was prepared on a gram scale, we used it to synthesize a wide variety of trifluoromethylated amines including complex molecules, such as trifluoromethylated tetrahydroharmine and spiroindolone. A mechanistic study of the role of the copper catalyst in the aminotrifluoromethylation of allylamine suggested that Cu(I) accelerates CF 3 radical formation via decomposition of diacyl peroxide, which appears to be the turnover-limiting step, while Cu(II) controls the product selectivity.

  7. Reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide and 2-methyl-N-phenylaziridine with lithium aluminium hydride. (United States)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Ostergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Hammerum, Steen


    The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide with LiAlH(4) has been re-examined. In contrast to previous findings, we obtain in almost equal quantities two amines from this reaction, namely N-propylaniline and the rearranged product N-isopropylaniline. 2-Methyl-N-phenylaziridine is an intermediate in the reduction and can be isolated from reactions with less LiAlH(4). Reduction of 2-methyl-N-phenylaziridine itself proceeds non-regioselectively to provide a mixture of propyl- and isopropylanilines. Formation of the amines by reduction of the aziridine is much slower than formation by reduction of the 2-chloropropanamide, which indicates that Lewis acid catalysis (by aluminium chlorohydrides) facilitates the reduction of the aziridine. In addition, Lewis acid catalysis increases the relative yield of the propylamine product. The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide furnishes 2-phenylamino-1-propanol as a by-product, rather than the previously proposed 1-phenylamino-2-propanol.

  8. Crosslinked and Dyed Chitosan Fiber Presenting Enhanced Acid Resistance and Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiong Li


    Full Text Available The application of biodegradable chitosan fiber for healthy and hygienic textiles is limited due to its poor acid resistance in wet processing and poor antioxidant activity. In order to prepare chitosan fiber with good acid resistance and high antioxidant activity, chitosan fiber was first crosslinked by a water-soluble aziridine crosslinker, and then dyed with natural lac dye consisting of polyphenolic anthraquinone compounds. The main application conditions and crosslinking mechanism of the aziridine crosslinker, the adsorption mechanism and building-up property of lac dye on the crosslinked fiber, and the effects of crosslinking and dyeing on the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of chitosan fiber were studied. The crosslinked fiber exhibited greatly reduced weight loss in acidic solution, and possessed excellent acid resistance. Lac dye displayed a very high adsorption capability on the crosslinked fiber and a high utilization rate under weakly acidic medium. The Langmuir–Nernst isotherm was the best model to describe the adsorption behavior of lac dye, and Langmuir adsorption had great contribution to total adsorption. Lac dyeing imparted good antioxidant activity to chitosan fiber. Crosslinking and dyeing had no impact on the good inherent antibacterial activity of chitosan fiber.

  9. Syntheses and Post-Polymerization Modifications of Well-Defined Styrenic Polymers Containing Three-Membered Heterocyclic Functionalities (United States)

    McLeod, David Charles

    compositions, architectures, and thermal stabilities of the resulting ?-hydroxy ether-functionalized homopolymers were evaluated using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Aziridines and thiiranes (saturated, three-membered heterocycles containing either a single nitrogen or sulfur atom, respectively) are also susceptible to nucleophilic ring-opening reactions, and functional materials derived from aziridine- or thiirane-containing polymers could potentially have many interesting properties as a result of their high amine or thiol content, such as the ability to form pH- or redox-responsive structures. The synthesis of polymers containing aziridines that are activated towards nucleophilic ring-opening by C-aryl and/or N-sulfonyl substituents is unprecedented in the literature. Efficient methods for synthesizing styrenic monomers that contain these highly-reactive functionalities, namely 2-(4-vinylphenyl)aziridine (VPA) and its sulfonyl-activated derivative, N-mesyl-2-(4-vinylphenyl)aziridine (NMVPA), were developed utilizing 4VPO as a starting material. VPA was polymerized under LCC ATRP and RAFT conditions, but these methods were ineffective at producing well-defined polymers due to side reactions between the aziridine groups and the polymerization mediating compounds. Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMRP) produced well-defined polyVPA at low to moderate conversions of monomer, but cross-linking side reactions were evident at higher monomer conversions. Nearly all undesirable side reactions were prevented by attaching a mesyl group to the aziridine nitrogen atom, and well-defined polyNMVPA was realized under RAFT and NMRP conditions. Under ATRP conditions, reactions between the aziridine groups and catalyst still occurred, so the polymerization of NMVPA was not controlled using this technique. The synthesis of thiirane-containing styrenic polymers from either 2-(4-vinylphenyl)thiirane (VPT) or 2

  10. Effect of support structure on CO2 adsorption properties of pore-expanded hyperbranched aminosilicas

    KAUST Repository

    Drese, Jeffrey H.


    Hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) CO 2 adsorbents are prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of aziridine from SBA-15 mesoporous silica, as in the original synthesis of HAS materials, as well as over an array of new support materials with substantially larger average pore diameters to elucidate the effect of support porosity on final adsorbent properties. Pore-expanded hyperbranched aminosilica (PEHAS) CO 2 adsorbents are prepared from several different pore-expanded, ordered mesoporous silicas including pore-expanded SBA-15, mesocellular foam, and a large-pore commercial silica. The effect of the nature of the silica support is determined by examining the degree of aziridine polymerization and the CO 2 adsorption kinetics and capacities of the resulting organic/inorganic hybrid materials. Comparisons are made to non-pore-expanded SBA-15 based HAS adsorbents, reported previously, where pores become blocked at higher amine loadings. The PEHAS materials unexpectedly possess lower amine loadings than the previously reported HAS materials and do not exhibit pore blocking. The use of acetic acid as a catalyst during PEHAS synthesis only marginally increases amine loading. The adsorption kinetics of PEHAS adsorbents are similar to HAS adsorbents with low amine loadings and do not show the detrimental effects of pore-blocking. However, the inability to synthesize PEHAS adsorbents with high amine loadings via this approach limits the total amount of CO 2 captured per gram of material, compared to HAS adsorbents with high amine loadings. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A stereodivergent strategy to both product enantiomers from the same enantiomer of a stereoinducing catalyst: agelastatin A. (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Dong, Guangbin


    In this article, we report a full account of our recent development of pyrroles and N-alkoxyamides as new classes of nucleophiles for palladium-catalyzed AAA reactions, along with application of these methodologies in the total synthesis of agelastatin A, a marine natural product with exceptional anticancer activity and other biological properties. Our method allows for access to either regioisomer of the pyrrolopiperazinones (6 and 19) with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Note that isomer 19 was obtained via a cascade reaction through a double allylic alkylation pathway. From regioisomer 6, the total synthesis of (+)-agelastatin A was completed in a very short fashion (four steps from 6), during the course of which we developed a new copper catalyst for aziridination and an In(OTf)(3)/DMSO system to oxidatively open an N-tosyl aziridine. Starting with the other pyrrolopiperazinone 19, a five-step sequence has been developed to furnish a formal total synthesis of (-)-agelastatin A. A unique feature of our syntheses is the use of two rather different strategies for the total syntheses of both enantiomers of agelastatin A using the same enantiomer of a chiral palladium catalyst.

  12. Electric discharge synthesis of HCN in simulated Jovian atmospheres. (United States)

    Stribling, R; Miller, S L


    HCN has been detected in the Jovian atmosphere at a column density of about 2.2 x 10(-7) moles cm-2. While photochemical synthesis from methylamine and aziridine, upwelling, and lightning have been proposed as possible sources of this HCN, corona discharge has not been previously considered. HCN energy yields (moles J-1) were measured using corona discharge for gas mixtures containing H2, CH4, NH3, with H2/CH4 ratios from 4.4 to 1585. The yields are approximately proportional to the mole fraction of methane in the gas mixture. Assuming that the 3/1 ratio of corona discharge to lightning energy on the Earth applies to Jupiter, HCN column densities from corona discharge could account for approximately 10% of the observed HCN. These estimates are very dependent on the values used for the energy available as lightning on Jupiter and the eddy diffusion coefficients in the region of synthesis.

  13. Catalyst-Controlled and Tunable, Chemoselective Silver-Catalyzed Intermolecular Nitrene Transfer: Experimental and Computational Studies. (United States)

    Dolan, Nicholas S; Scamp, Ryan J; Yang, Tzuhsiung; Berry, John F; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    The development of new catalysts for selective nitrene transfer is a continuing area of interest. In particular, the ability to control the chemoselectivity of intermolecular reactions in the presence of multiple reactive sites has been a long-standing challenge in the field. In this paper, we demonstrate examples of silver-catalyzed, nondirected, intermolecular nitrene transfer reactions that are both chemoselective and flexible for aziridination or C-H insertion, depending on the choice of ligand. Experimental probes present a puzzling picture of the mechanistic details of the pathways mediated by [( t Bu 3 tpy)AgOTf] 2 and (tpa)AgOTf. Computational studies elucidate these subtleties and provide guidance for the future development of new catalysts exhibiting improved tunability in group transfer reactions.

  14. Oxidative allene amination for the synthesis of azetidin-3-ones. (United States)

    Burke, Eileen G; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Regioselectivity in the aziridination of silyl-substituted homoallenic sulfamates is readily diverted to the distal double bond of the allene to yield endocyclic bicyclic methyleneaziridines with excellent stereocontrol. Subsequent reaction with electrophilic oxygen sources initiates facile rearrangement to densely functionalized, fused azetidin-3-ones in excellent d.r., effectively transferring the axial chirality of the allene to central chirality in the products. The steric nature of the silyl group dictates which of the two rings of the fused azetidin-3-one will undergo further functionalization, providing an additional element of diversity for the preparation of enantioenriched azetidine scaffolds with potential biological activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mono- and Di-Alkylation Processes of DNA Bases by Nitrogen Mustard Mechlorethamine. (United States)

    Larrañaga, Olatz; de Cózar, Abel; Cossío, Fernando P


    The reactivity of nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (mec) with purine bases towards formation of mono- (G-mec and A-mec) and dialkylated (AA-mec, GG-mec and AG-mec) adducts has been studied using density functional theory (DFT). To gain a complete overview of DNA-alkylation processes, direct chloride substitution and formation through activated aziridinium species were considered as possible reaction paths for adduct formation. Our results confirm that DNA alkylation by mec occurs via aziridine intermediates instead of direct substitution. Consideration of explicit water molecules in conjunction with polarizable continuum model (PCM) was shown as an adequate computational method for a proper representation of the system. Moreover, Runge-Kutta numerical kinetic simulations including the possible bisadducts have been performed. These simulations predicted a product ratio of 83:17 of GG-mec and AG-mec diadducts, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sequence selectivity of azinomycin B in DNA alkylation and cross-linking: a QM/MM study. (United States)

    Senthilnathan, Dhurairajan; Kalaiselvan, Anbarasan; Venuvanalingam, Ponnambalam


    Azinomycin B--a well-known antitumor drug--forms cross-links with DNA through alkylation of purine bases and blocks tumor cell growth. This reaction has been modeled using the ONIOM (B3LYP/6-31+g(d):UFF) method to understand the mechanism and sequence selectivity. ONIOM results have been checked for reliability by comparing them with full quantum mechanics calculations for selected paths. Calculations reveal that, among the purine bases, guanine is more reactive and is alkylated by aziridine ring through the C10 position, followed by alkylation of the epoxide ring through the C21 position of Azinomycin B. While the mono alkylation is controlled kinetically, bis-alkylation is controlled thermodynamically. Solvent effects were included using polarized-continuum-model calculations and no significant change from gas phase results was observed.

  17. A novel regiospecific cascade synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives from N-(2-polychloroethyl)sulfonamides via chloroaziridine intermediates in the presence of mercaptoethanol. (United States)

    Rozentsveig, Igor B; Popov, Aleksandr V; Rozentsveig, Gulnur N; Serykh, Valeriy Yu; Chernyshev, Kirill A; Krivdin, Leonid B; Levkovskaya, Galina G


    N-(1-Aryl-2-polychloroethyl)arenesulfonamides obtained on the basis of N,N-dichlorosulfoamides and polychloroethenes or phenylacetylene undergo a reaction cascade in the presence of mercaptoethanol. The reaction cascade opens a new route to the series of cyclic or open-chain sulfonamide derivatives. The process includes cyclization to aziridine intermediates, their further recyclization, and isomerization to imidoylchlorides or chloroimines, followed by substitution or reduction under the action of mercaptoethanol or hydrolysis. The final sulfonamide structures depend on the starting N-(polychloroethyl)sulfonamides. N-(2,2-Dichloroethyl)sulfonamides were transformed into sulfonamide-containing 1,4-oxathians while N-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)sulfonamides were converted to N-(2-arylacetyl)arenesulfonamides. N-(2-Phenyl-2,2-dichloroethyl)sulfonamides form enamide derivatives that were transformed into aromatic ketones.

  18. Selectively N-protected enantiopure 2,5-disubstituted piperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Olsen, Christian Adam; Witt, Matthias


    An efficient solid-phase route to ring-substituted piperazines from O-linked resin-bound (S)-aziridine-2-methanol is described. Regioselective microwave-assisted aminolysis followed by intramolecular Fukuyama-Mitsunobu cyclization constitute the key features of the protocol. Simple piperazines...... agents, for example, Fmoc-Cl and Alloc-Cl tended to give bis-protected by-products. Thus, novel microwave-assisted solid-phase N-protection procedures were developed for efficient introduction of Fmoc, Boc and Alloc groups. The subsequent cyclization proceeded in moderate to excellent yields depending...... of combinatorial libraries with a higher chemical diversity compared to those containing simple N,N'-difunctionalized piperazines, often present in drug-like compounds....

  19. A New Approach to Non-Coordinating Anions: Lewis Acid Enhancement of Porphyrin Metal Centers in a Zwitterionic Metal$-$Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jacob A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Petersen, Brenna M. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kormos, Attila [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Echeverría, Elena [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Chen, Yu-Sheng [Univ. of Chicago, Argonne, IL (United States). ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Zhang, Jian [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Here, we describe a new strategy to generate non-coordinating anions using zwitterionic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). By assembly of anionic inorganic secondary building blocks (SBUs) ([In(CO2)4]$-$) with cationic metalloporphyrin-based organic linkers, we prepared zwitterionic MOFs in which the complete internal charge separation effectively prevents the potential binding of the counteranion to the cationic metal center. We demonstrate the enhanced Lewis acidity of MnIII- and FeIII-porphyrins in the zwitterionic MOFs in three representative electrocyclization reactions: [2 + 1] cycloisomerization of enynes, [3 + 2] cycloaddition of aziridines and alkenes, and [4 + 2] hetero-Diels–Alder cycloaddition of aldehydes with dienes. Lastly, this work paves a new way to design functional MOFs for tunable chemical catalysis.

  20. Synthetic studies on heterocyclic natural products. (United States)

    Ciufolini, Marco A


    This article reviews past and ongoing research in the author's laboratory directed toward the synthesis of natural products displaying an azaspirocyclic framework, or incorporating a medium-ring nitrogen heterocycle. New synthetic technologies were devised in order to address the synthetic problems posed by the target molecules. Thus, efforts in the area of azaspirocyclic substances have relied on an oxidative amidation of phenols promoted by iodobenzene diacetate, whereas access to medium-ring nitrogen heterocycles has been secured by means of a ring expansion sequence that relies on the fragmentation of an aziridine triggered by a homo-Brook transposition. Details of the development of these technologies are presented, together with applications to the total synthesis of FR-901483, TAN-1251C, cylindricines, and mitomycinoids.

  1. Synthesis of 2-amino-3-arylpropan-1-ols and 1-(2,3-diaminopropyl-1,2,3-triazoles and evaluation of their antimalarial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias D’hooghe


    Full Text Available A variety of 2-amino-3-arylpropan-1-ols, anti-2-amino-3-aryl-3-methoxypropan-1-ols and anti-2-amino-1-arylpropan-1,3-diols were prepared selectively through elaboration of trans-4-aryl-3-chloro-β-lactams. In addition, a number of 2-(azidomethylaziridines was converted into novel 2-[(1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethyl]aziridines by Cu(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, followed by microwave-assisted, regioselective ring opening by dialkylamine towards 1-(2,3-diaminopropyl-1,2,3-triazoles. Although most of these compounds exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity, six representatives showed moderate antiplasmodial activity against both a chloroquine-sensitive and a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50-values of ≤25 μM.

  2. Convergent and enantioselective syntheses of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α inhibiting N-(1-indazol-1-ylpropan-2-yl)carbamates. (United States)

    Sundermann, Tom; Arnsmann, Martina; Schwarzkopf, Julian; Hanekamp, Walburga; Lehr, Matthias


    Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is an important enzyme of the inflammation cascade. Therefore, inhibitors of cPLA2α are assumed to be promising drug candidates for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recently we have found that indole-5-carboxylic acid with a 3-(4-octylphenoxy)-2-(phenoxycarbonylamino)propyl substituent in position 1 is an inhibitor of cPLA2α. We have now synthesized a corresponding derivative with the indole heterocycle replaced by an indazole (4) employing an analogous reaction sequence as for the synthesis of the indole derivative. Besides, a more convergent synthesis for 4 was established using an aziridine as central intermediate. Furthermore, a chiral-pool based enantioselective synthesis was developed for the synthesis of (R)- and (S)-4. Starting compound for both enantiomers was the (R)-serine derived oxazolidine (R)-25. Compound 4 proved to be a moderate inhibitor of cPLA2α, with the S-enantiomer being twice as active as the R-enantiomer. The racemate 4 and the enantiomers (R)- and (S)-4 showed a high in vitro metabolic stability in rat liver S9 fractions.

  3. Ruthenium complexes with chiral tetradentate PNNP ligands: asymmetric catalysis from the viewpoint of inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Mezzetti, Antonio


    This is a personal account of the application of ruthenium complexes containing chiral tetradentate ligands with a P(2)N(2) ligand set (PNNP) as catalyst precursors for enantioselective "atom transfer" reactions. Therewith are meant reactions that involve bond formation between a metal-coordinated molecule and a free reagent. The reactive fragment (e.g. carbene) is transferred either from the metal to the non-coordinated substrate (e.g. olefin) or from the free reagent (e.g. F(+)) to the metal-bound substrate (e.g.beta-ketoester), depending on the class of catalyst (monocationic, Class A; or dicationic, Class B). The monocationic five-coordinate species [RuCl(PNNP)](+) and the six-coordinate complexes [RuCl(L)(PNNP)](+) (L = Et(2)O, H(2)O) of Class A catalyse asymmetric epoxidation, cyclopropanation (carbene transfer from the metal to the free olefin), and imine aziridination. Alternatively, the dicationic complexes [Ru(L-L)(PNNP)](2+) (Class B), which contain substrates that act as neutral bidentate ligands L-L (e.g., beta-ketoesters), catalyse Michael addition, electrophilic fluorination, and hydroxylation reactions. Additionally, unsaturated beta-ketoesters form dicationic complexes of Class B that catalyse Diels-Alder reactions with acyclic dienes to produce tetrahydro-1-indanones and estrone derivatives. Excellent enantioselectivity has been achieved in several of the catalytic reactions mentioned above. The study of key reaction intermediates (both in the solid state and in solution) has revealed significant mechanistic aspects of the catalytic reactions.

  4. A structural insight into the P1S1 binding mode of diaminoethylphosphonic and phosphinic acids, selective inhibitors of alanine aminopeptidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Węglarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Łukasz; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Nocek, Bogusław; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur


    N0 -substituted 1,2-diaminoethylphosphonic acids and 1,2-diaminoethylphosphinic dipeptides were explored to unveil the structural context of the unexpected selectivity of these inhibitors of M1 alanine aminopeptidases (APNs) versus M17 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The diaminophosphonic acids were obtained via aziridines in an improved synthetic procedure that was further expanded for the phosphinic pseudodipeptide system. The inhibitory activity, measured for three M1 and one M17 metalloaminopeptidases of different sources (bacterial, human and porcine), revealed several potent compounds (e.g., Ki ¼ 65 nM of 1u for HsAPN). Two structures of an M1 representative (APN from Neisseria meningitidis) in complex with N-benzyl-1,2-diaminoethylphosphonic acid and N-cyclohexyl-1,2- diaminoethylphosphonic acid were determined by the X-ray crystallography. The analysis of these structures and the models of the phosphonic acid complexes of the human ortholog provided an insight into the role of the additional amino group and the hydrophobic substituents of the ligands within the S1 active site region.

  5. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor synthesis and degradation in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardulli, A.M.


    It was the intent of this study to determine the turnover of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in rat uterine and human breast cancer cells, respectively, and to examine the effect of estrogen and progestin on PR levels. The rates of synthesis and degradation of ER were determined in rat uterine cells in vitro and in vivo. The affinity labeling antiestrogen, (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine, was used in pulse chase experiments to show that the 65,000 molecular weight ER has a half-life of 3-4h in primary cultures of rat uterine cells in vitro and in the intact rat uterus in vivo. Density shift analyses using dense (/sup 15/N, /sup 13/C, /sup 2/H) amino acid incorporation corroborate the rapid turnover of ER in rat uterine cell cultures. The regulation of PR by progestins in T47D human breast cancer cells was examined using density shift-dense amino acid incorporation. When T47D cells, which normally maintain high PR levels, are exposed to progestin (R5020), PR levels decline. Receptor half-life, which is 21h in control cells, is reduced to 6h when cells are exposed to 20 nM (/sup 3/H)R5020. In addition, PR synthesis rate declines exponentially following R5020 exposure. The reduction in receptor level is thus due to dramatic increases in PR degradation as well as marked decreases in PR synthesis.

  6. Solid-phase route to Fmoc-protected cationic amino acid building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jacob Dahlqvist; Linderoth, Lars; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck


    Diamino acids are commonly found in bioactive compounds, yet only few are commercially available as building blocks for solid-phase peptide synthesis. In the present work a convenient, inexpensive route to multiple-charged amino acid building blocks with varying degree of hydrophobicity was devel...... of simple neutral amino acids as well as analogs displaying high bulkiness or polycationic side chains was prepared. Two building blocks were incorporated into peptide sequences using microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis confirming their general utility.......Diamino acids are commonly found in bioactive compounds, yet only few are commercially available as building blocks for solid-phase peptide synthesis. In the present work a convenient, inexpensive route to multiple-charged amino acid building blocks with varying degree of hydrophobicity...... was developed. A versatile solid-phase protocol leading to selectively protected amino alcohol intermediates was followed by oxidation to yield the desired di- or polycationic amino acid building blocks in gram-scale amounts. The synthetic sequence comprises loading of (S)-1-(p-nosyl)aziridine-2-methanol onto...

  7. 4-[4-(4-Fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide–4-[3-(4-fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-4-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (0.6/0.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Margutti


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C16H16FN2O2+·I−, was determined as part of a study of the biological activity of isoxazolone derivatives as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors. The X-ray crystal structure of 4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide showed the presence of the regioisomer 4-[3-(4-fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-4-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide. The synthesis of the former compound was achieved by reacting 4-(4-fluorophenyl-3-(4-pyridylisoxazol-5(2H-one after treatment with Et3N in dimethylformamide, with iodomethane. The unexpected formation of the regioisomer could be explained by a rearrangement occurring via aziridine of the isoxazolone compound. The regioisomers have site occupancies of 0.632 (4/0.368 (4. The two six members rings make a dihedral angle of 66.8 (2°.

  8. Combined antitumor activity of the nitroreductase/CB1954 suicide gene system and γ-rays in HeLa cells in vitro. (United States)

    Teng, Geling; Ju, Yuanrong; Yang, Yepeng; Hua, Hu; Chi, Jingyu; Mu, Xiuan


    Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) may convert the prodrug CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) into a bifunctional alkylating agent, which may lead to DNA crosslinks and the apoptosis of cancer cells. NTR/CB1954 has been demonstrated to be an effective gene therapy in cancer cells. The present study examined whether the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system had cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells and may improve the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells to γ‑rays. It was observed that the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system exerted marked cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. The combined therapeutic effects of NTR/CB1954 and γ‑rays on HeLa cells demonstrated a synergistic effect. CB1954 at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 µmol/l increased the sensitization enhancement ratio of HeLa cells to 1.54 and 1.66, respectively. Therefore, when compared with monotherapy, the combined therapy of NTR/CB1954 and γ‑rays may increase the apoptotic rate and enhance the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combined therapy of γ‑ray radiation and the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system may be a novel and potent therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

  9. Combined antitumor activity of the nitroreductase/CB1954 suicide gene system and γ-rays in HeLa cells in vitro (United States)

    Teng, Geling; Ju, Yuanrong; Yang, Yepeng; Hua, Hu; Chi, Jingyu; Mu, Xiuan


    Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) may convert the prodrug CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) into a bifunctional alkylating agent, which may lead to DNA crosslinks and the apoptosis of cancer cells. NTR/CB1954 has been demonstrated to be an effective gene therapy in cancer cells. The present study examined whether the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system had cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells and may improve the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells to γ-rays. It was observed that the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system exerted marked cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. The combined therapeutic effects of NTR/CB1954 and γ-rays on HeLa cells demonstrated a synergistic effect. CB1954 at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 µmol/l increased the sensitization enhancement ratio of HeLa cells to 1.54 and 1.66, respectively. Therefore, when compared with monotherapy, the combined therapy of NTR/CB1954 and γ-rays may increase the apoptotic rate and enhance the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combined therapy of γ-ray radiation and the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system may be a novel and potent therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma. PMID:27840931

  10. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel 4-Hydroxy-7-hydroxy- and 3-Carboxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Wen Lee


    Full Text Available Coumarin derivatives are used as fluorescent dyes and medicines. They also have some notable physiological effects, including the acute hepatoxicity and carcinogenicity of certain aflatoxins, the anticoagulant action of dicoumarol, and the antibiotic activity of novobicin and coumerymycin A1. Because the number of drug resistant strains is increasing at present, the synthesis of new antibacterial compounds is one of the critical methods for treating infectious diseases. Therefore, a series of coumarin-substituted derivatives, namely 4-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxycoumarins, and 3-carboxycoumarins were synthesized. 4-Hydroxycoumarin derivatives 4a–c underwent rearrangement reactions. Both 4- and 7-hydroxycoumarins were treated with activated aziridines which produced series of ring-opened products 7, 8, 10, and 11. 3-Carboxy-coumarin amide dimer derivatives 14–21 were prepared by reacting aliphatic alkylamines and alkyldiamines with PyBOP and DIEA. In this study, we use a new technique called modified micro-plate antibiotic susceptibility test method (MMAST, which is more convenient, more efficient, and more accurate than previous methods and only a small amount of the sample is required for the test. Some of the compounds were produced by reactions with acid anhydrides and demonstrated the ability to inhibit Gram-positive microorganisms. The dimer derivatives displayed lower antibacterial activities.

  11. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori


    This volume contains the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 24 in 1992. First, clinical experiences of BNCT in the Kyoto University Research Reactor in 1992 were briefly reported. Then, the killing effects of boron cluster-containing nucleic acid precursors on tumor cells were shown (Chap. 2). The various trials of the optical resolution of B-p-boronophenylalanine for neutron capture therapy were made (Chap. 3). The borate-dextran gel complexes were investigated by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The stability constants of borate complexes were listed, and are useful in the solution chemistry of boron compounds (Chap. 4). The interactions between boron compounds and biological materials were studied by the paper electrophoresis which had been developed by us (Chap. 5). Molecular design of boron-10 carriers and their organic synthesis were reported (Chap. 6). Carborane-containing aziridine boron carriers which were directed to the DNA alkylation were synthesized and their cancer cell killing efficacies were tested (Chap. 7). The solution chemistry of deuterium oxide which is a good neutron moderator was reported, relating to the BNCT (Chap. 8). (author)

  12. The p53-dependent apoptotic pathway of breast cancer cells (BC-M1) induced by the bis-type bioreductive compound aziridinylnaphthoquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu-Ping; Kuo, Hsien-Shou; Tsai, Hsin-Da; Peng, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yuh-Ling


    Several aziridinylbenzoquinone drugs have undergone clinical trials as potential antitumor drugs. These bioreductive compounds are designed to kill cells preferentially within the hypoxia tumor microenvironment. The bioreductive compound of bis-type naphthoquinone synthesized in our laboratory, 2-aziridin-1-yl-3-[(2-{2-[(3-aziridin-1-yl-1,4-dioxo-1, 4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)thio]ethoxy}ethyl)thio]naphthoquinone (AZ-1), had the most potent death effect on the breast cancer cells BC-M1 in our previous screening. In the present study, we determined that the mechanism of the death effect of BC-M1 cells induced by AZ-1 was mediated by the apoptosis pathway. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of AZ-1 and the anti-breast cancer drugs tamoxifen and paclitaxel to BC-M1 cells and MCF-7 cells by the MTT assay and measured the apoptosis phenomena by Hoechst 33258 staining for apoptotic bodies. We also quantified the sub-G 1 peak area and the ratio of the CH 2 /CH 3 peak area of the cell membrane in BC-M1 cells by flow cytometry and 1 H-NMR spectra, respectively. The apoptosis-related protein expressions, including p53, p21, the RNA-relating protein T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-related protein, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cell cycle regulating kinase) and pro-caspase 3, were detected by western blot, and the caspase-3 enzyme activity was also quantified by an assay kit. AZ-1 induced two of the breast cancer cell lines, with IC 50 = 0.51 μM in BC-M1 cells and with IC 50 = 0.57 μM in MCF-7 cells, and showed less cytotoxicity to normal fibroblast cells (skin fibroblasts) with IC 50 = 5.6 μM. There was a 10-fold difference between two breast cancer cell lines and normal fibroblasts. Of the two anti-breast cancer drugs, tamoxifen showed IC 50 = 0.12 μM to BC-M1 cells and paclitaxel had much less sensitivity than AZ-1. The expression of p53 protein increased from 0.5 to 1.0 μM AZ-1 and decreased at 2.0 μM AZ-1. The p21 protein increased from 0.5 μM AZ-1, with the highest

  13. Exploring rearrangements along the fragmentation pathways of diuron anion: A combined experimental and computational investigation (United States)

    Kanawati, Basem; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe


    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), a common herbicide from phenyl urea class, was investigated by studying the formation of several negative ions [M-H]- in the gas phase and the fragmentation behaviour of the thermodynamically most probably formed isomeric anions upon linear ion acceleration/collision experiments. The collision induced dissociation experiments (CID) were carried out in a hexapole-quadrupole-hexapole hybrid system coupled to 12 T magnet with infinity ICR cell for high resolution measurements. Two distinctive main pathways were observed in the MS/MS spectrum. Sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI) experiments inside the ICR cell reinforce the fragmentation channels obtained from linear ion acceleration experiments. The fragmentation pathways were also completely investigated by the use of B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory. Elimination of dimethylamine takes place in a two-step process, by which two successive 1,3 proton shifts occur. The second 1,3 proton shift is concerted with the departure of dimethylamine. The driving force for the (CH3)2NH elimination is the formation of isocyanate group. The formed primary product ion can further decompose to release HCl through a new transition state. A stable new aromatic product ion is formed with 10[pi] electrons. Loss of C3H5NO neutral from another anionic isomer of the precursor ion was also observed and is characteristic for the amide terminal of the diamide functional group. A concerted mechanism is proposed, by which N-C bond breakage and cyclization of the eliminated neutral fragment C3H5NO takes place simultaneously to form 1-methyl-aziridin-2-one.

  14. Synthesis and Antitumor Evaluation of Novel Bis-Triaziquone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ling Lin


    Full Text Available Aziridine-containing compounds have been of interest as anticancer agents since late 1970s. The design, synthesis and study of triaziquone (TZQ analogues with the aim of obtaining compounds with enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity are an ongoing research effort in our group. A series of bis-type TZQ derivatives has been prepared and their cytotoxic activities were investigated. The cytotoxicity of these bis-type TZQ derivatives were tested on three cancer lines, including breast cancer (BC-M1, oral cancer (OEC-M1, larynx epidermal cancer (Hep2 and one normal skin fibroblast (SF. Most of these synthetic derivatives displayed significant cytotoxic activities against human carcinoma cell lines, but weak activities against SF. Among tested analogues the bis-type TZQ derivative 1a showed lethal effects on larynx epidermal carcinoma cells (Hep2, with an LC50 value of 2.02 mM, and also weak cytotoxic activity against SF cells with an LC50 value over 10 mM for 24 hr treatment. Comparing the viability of normal fibroblast cells treated with compound 1a and TZQ, the LC50 value of the latter was 2.52 mM, indicating more toxicity than compound 1a. This significantly decreased cytotoxicity of compound 1a towards normal SF cells, while still maintaining the anticancer activity towards Hep2 cells is an interesting feature. Among the seven compounds synthesized, compound 1c has similar toxicity effects on the three cancer cell lines and SF normal cells as the TZQ monomer.

  15. Insights into the redox cycle of human quinone reductase 2. (United States)

    Reybier, Karine; Perio, Pierre; Ferry, Gilles; Bouajila, Jalloul; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A; Nepveu, Françoise


    NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (QR2) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of quinones, such as menadione and co-enzymes Q. With the aim of understanding better the mechanisms of action of QR2, we approached this enzyme catalysis via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the by-products of the QR2 redox cycle. The variation in the production of oxidative species such as H(2)O(2), and subsequent hydroxyl radical generation, was measured during the course of QR2 activity under aerobic conditions and using pure human enzyme. The effects on the activity of the following were compared: (i) synthetic (N-benzyldihydronicotinamide, BNAH) or natural (nicotinamide riboside, NRH) co-substrates; (ii) synthetic (menadione) or natural (co-enzyme Q0, Q2) substrates; (iii) QR2 modulators and inhibitors (melatonin, resveratrol and S29434); (iv) a pro-drug activated via a redox cycle [CB1954, 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. The results were also compared with those obtained with human QR1. The production of hydroxyl radicals is: (i) observed whatever the substrate/co-substrate used; ii) quenched by adding catalase; (iii) not observed with the specific QR2 inhibitor S29434; (iv) observed with the pro-drug CB1954. While QR2 produced free radicals with this pro-drug, QR1 gave no EPR signal showing the strong reducing capacity of QR2. In conclusion, EPR analysis of QR2 enzyme activity through free radical production enables modulators and effective inhibitors to be distinguished. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  16. Palladium-catalysed C-H activation of aliphatic amines to give strained nitrogen heterocycles (United States)

    McNally, Andrew; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Collins, Beatrice S. L.; Gaunt, Matthew J.


    The development of new chemical transformations based on catalytic functionalization of unactivated C-H bonds has the potential to simplify the synthesis of complex molecules dramatically. Transition metal catalysis has emerged as a powerful tool with which to convert these unreactive bonds into carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds, but the selective transformation of aliphatic C-H bonds is still a challenge. The most successful approaches involve a `directing group', which positions the metal catalyst near a particular C-H bond, so that the C-H functionalization step occurs via cyclometallation. Most directed aliphatic C-H activation processes proceed through a five-membered-ring cyclometallated intermediate. Considering the number of new reactions that have arisen from such intermediates, it seems likely that identification of distinct cyclometallation pathways would lead to the development of other useful chemical transformations. Here we report a palladium-catalysed C-H bond activation mode that proceeds through a four-membered-ring cyclopalladation pathway. The chemistry described here leads to the selective transformation of a methyl group that is adjacent to an unprotected secondary amine into a synthetically versatile nitrogen heterocycle. The scope of this previously unknown bond disconnection is highlighted through the development of C-H amination and carbonylation processes, leading to the synthesis of aziridines and β-lactams (respectively), and is suggestive of a generic C-H functionalization platform that could simplify the synthesis of aliphatic secondary amines, a class of small molecules that are particularly important features of many pharmaceutical agents.

  17. Identification of novel nitroreductases from Bacillus cereus and their interaction with the CB1954 prodrug. (United States)

    Gwenin, Vanessa V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Halliwell, Jennifer; Ball, Patrick; Robinson, George; Gwenin, Chris D


    Directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a form of cancer chemotherapy in which bacterial prodrug-activating enzymes, or their encoding genes, are directed to the tumour before administration of a prodrug. The prodrug can then be activated into a toxic drug at the tumour site, reducing off-target effects. The bacterial nitroreductases are a class of enzymes used in this therapeutic approach and although very promising, the low turnover rate of prodrug by the most studied nitroreductase enzyme, NfnB from Escherichia coli (NfnB_Ec), is a major limit to this technology. There is a continual search for enzymes with greater efficiency, and as part of the search for more efficient bacterial nitroreductase enzymes, two novel enzymes from Bacillus cereus (strain ATCC 14579) have been identified and shown to reduce the CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) prodrug to its respective 2'-and 4'-hydroxylamine products. Both enzymes shared features characteristic of the nitro-FMN-reductase superfamily including non-covalently associated FMN, requirement for the NAD(P)H cofactor, homodimeric, could be inhibited by Dicoumarol (3,3'-methylenebis(4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one)), and displayed ping pong bi bi kinetics. Based on the biochemical characteristics and nucleotide alignment with other nitroreductase enzymes, one enzyme was named YdgI_Bc and the other YfkO_Bc. Both B. cereus enzymes had greater turnover for the CB1954 prodrug compared with NfnB_Ec, and in the presence of added NADPH cofactor, YfkO_Bc had superior cell killing ability, and produced mainly the 4'-hydroxylamine product at low prodrug concentration. The YfkO_Bc was identified as a promising candidate for future enzyme prodrug therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tunable, Chemo- and Site-Selective Nitrene Transfer Reactions through the Rational Design of Silver(I) Catalysts. (United States)

    Alderson, Juliet M; Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bonds are ubiquitous in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, diverse bioactive natural products, and ligands for transition metal catalysts. An effective strategy for introducing a new C-N bond into a molecule is through transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer chemistry. In these reactions, a metal-supported nitrene can either add across a C═C bond to form an aziridine or insert into a C-H bond to furnish the corresponding amine. Typical catalysts for nitrene transfer include Rh 2 L n and Ru 2 L n complexes supported by bridging carboxylate and related ligands, as well as complexes based on Cu, Co, Ir, Fe, and Mn supported by porphyrins and related ligands. A limitation of metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer is the ability to predictably select which specific site will undergo amination in the presence of multiple reactive groups; thus, many reactions rely primarily on substrate control. Achieving true catalyst-control over nitrene transfer would open up exciting possibilities for flexible installation of new C-N bonds into hydrocarbons, natural product-inspired scaffolds, existing pharmaceuticals or biorenewable building blocks. Silver-catalyzed nitrene transfer enables flexible control over the position at which a new C-N bond is introduced. Ag(I) supported by simple N-donor ligands accommodates a diverse range of coordination geometries, from linear to tetrahedral to seesaw, enabling the electronic and steric parameters of the catalyst to be tuned independently. In addition, the ligand, Ag salt counteranion, Ag/ligand ratio and the solvent all influence the fluxional and dynamic behavior of Ag(I) complexes in solution. Understanding the interplay of these parameters to manipulate the behavior of Ag-nitrenes in a predictable manner is a key design feature of our work. In this Account, we describe successful applications of a variety of design principles to tunable, Ag-catalyzed aminations, including (1) changing Ag/ligand ratios to influence

  19. Cytotoxicity and Radiosensitising Activity of Synthesized Dinitrophenyl Derivatives of 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrou Abdi


    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Dual functional agents in which nitroaromatic or nitroheterocyclic compounds are attached through a linker unit to mustards and aziridines have shown higher cytotoxicities than the corresponding counterparts to both aerobic and hypoxic cells and enhanced radiosensitizing activity. In thepresent investigation cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing activity of 2,4-dinitrobenzyl, 2,4-dinitrobenzoyl, and 2,4-dinitrophenacetyl derivatives of 5-fluorouracil which was assumed to release cytotoxic active quinone methidide,and 5-fluorouracil under hypoxic conditions on HT-29 cell line under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions wasinvestigated.Methods: 5-fluorouracil derivative X-XIII were prepared by the reaction of the corresponding di-nitro substitutedbenzyl, benzoyl and phenacetyl halides with 5-fluorouracil protected at N-1 with di-t-butoxydicarbonate (BOC in dimethyl formamide (DMF in the presence of the potassium carbonate followed by hydrolysis of the blocking,group by potassium carbonate in methanol. Cytotoxicity of fluorouracil VIII and tested compounds X-XIII against HT-29cell line under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions after 48 hrs incubation were measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and percent of the dead cells using propidium iodide(PI-digitonine assay and results were used to calculate the corresponding IC50 values. Radiosensitization experiments were carried out by irradiation of the incubations with a 60Co source and clonogenic assay was performed to determine the cell viabilities following treatment with the tested compounds and/or radiation. Sensitization Enhancement Ratio (SER of each tested compound was obtained from the radiation survival curves in the absence and presence of each sensitizer for 37% survival respectively.Results and major conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that

  20. Comparison of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutation and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster V79 cells with forty chemical and physical agents. (United States)

    Nishi, Y; Hasegawa, M M; Taketomi, M; Ohkawa, Y; Inui, N


    The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and mutation at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus and toxicities of 40 different chemical and physical agents were examined on Chinese hamster V79 cells. These agents included mono-, di-, tri-, and polyfunctional alkylating agents, intercalators, gamma-rays, and UV light irradiation. Mutation was measured as resistance to 6-thioguanine and toxicity as loss of cell-plating efficiency. SCE were examined 29 hr after treatment. With the agents examined, a highly positive correlation (r = 0.89) existed between SCE-inducing and mutagenic potencies, when expressed as increase in the number per a unit dose over the control values. But the great difference of the ratios of mutagenic potencies versus SCE-inducing potencies among agents was observed, the maximal difference in the ratios being about 200-fold. The agents that showed the higher values of the ratio (agents producing more mutations than SCE) were bleomycin, cobalt-60 gamma-rays, all ethylating agents (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, and diethylsulfate), N-propyl-N-nitrosourea, N-butyl-N-nitrosourea, isopropyl methanesulfonate, intercalating acridine compounds (2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(ethyl-2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino]-acridine X 2HCl and 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(chloroethyl)-aminopropylamino]acridine 2HCl) and UV light at 254 nm. The agents that showed the lower values (agents producing more SCE than mutations) were platinum compounds (cis-diamminedichloro-platinum and trans-diamminedichloroplatinum), epoxides (epichlorohydrin, styrene oxide, and diepoxybutane) and aziridines (mitomycin C, decarbamoyl mitomycin C, tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide, triethylenemelamine, and carboquone). The agents that showed the intermediate values included all methylating agents (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, methyl methanesulfonate, and dimethyl sulfate), N-(2

  1. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitising activity of synthesized dinitrophenyl derivatives of 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshayand Mohammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Dual functional agents in which nitroaromatic or nitroheterocyclic compounds are attached through a linker unit to mustards and aziridines have shown higher cytotoxicities than the corresponding counterparts to both aerobic and hypoxic cells and enhanced radiosensitizing activity. In the present investigation cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing activity of 2,4-dinitrobenzyl, 2,4-dinitrobenzoyl, and 2,4-dinitrophenacetyl derivatives of 5-fluorouracil which was assumed to release cytotoxic active quinone methidide and 5-fluorouracil under hypoxic conditions on HT-29 cell line under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions was investigated. Methods 5-fluorouracil derivative X-XIII were prepared by the reaction of the corresponding di-nitro substituted benzyl, benzoyl and phenacetyl halides with 5-fluorouracil protected at N-1 with di-t-butoxydicarbonate (BOC in dimethyl formamide (DMF in the presence of the potassium carbonate followed by hydrolysis of the blocking group by potassium carbonate in methanol. Cytotoxicity of fluorouracil VIII and tested compounds X-XIII against HT-29 cell line under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions after 48 hrs incubation were measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and percent of the dead cells using propidium iodide(PI-digitonine assay and results were used to calculate the corresponding IC50 values. Radiosensitization experiments were carried out by irradiation of the incubations with a 60Co source and clonogenic assay was performed to determine the cell viabilities following treatment with the tested compounds and/or radiation. Sensitization Enhancement Ratio (SER of each tested compound was obtained from the radiation survival curves in the absence and presence of each sensitizer for 37% survival respectively. Results and major conclusion Findings of the present study

  2. Semibullvalene and diazasemibullvalene: recent advances in the synthesis, reaction chemistry, and synthetic applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng


    applications of NSBV. Several novel reaction patterns have been explored, including thermolysis, C-N bond insertion, rearrangement-cycloaddition, oxidation, and nucleophilic ring-opening reactions. Diverse and interesting N-containing polycyclic skeletons can be constructed, such as nickelaazetidine, 1,5-diazatriquinacenes, and triazabrexadienes, which are not available by other means. Our results show that NSBV not only features a rapid aza-Cope rearrangement with a low activation barrier but also acts as unique synthetic reagent that is significantly different from aziridine. The strained rigid ring systems as a whole can be involved in the reactions. Our achievements highlight two significant advances: (i) the well-established efficient synthesis and isolation of NSBV has greatly accelerated the development of NSBV chemistry, and (ii) the previously unattainable molecules have become "normal" and routine starting materials for the synthesis of otherwise unavailable but interesting structures. We expect that our pursuits will inspire and help direct future chemical and physical research on NSBV.