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Sample records for azedarach sobre larvas

  1. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  2. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis

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    Perez Marlene Piña

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.

  3. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis

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    Marlene Piña Perez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.

  4. Mortality of Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima, 1936 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Larvae Exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis and Extracts of Melia azedarach

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    Diouneia Lisiane Berlitz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima 1936 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae cause important crop losses in southern Brazil. Control is possible by the use of the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and extracts of Melia azedarach. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, in vivo, of O. oryzae and S. frugiperda submitted to two isolates of B. thuringiensis and the aqueous extract of M. azedarach. The LC50 for O. oryzae due to bacteria was 5.40μg/mL (Bt 2014-2 and due to plant extract 0.90μg/mL. For S. frugiperda, the Bt 1958-2 bacterial suspension (1.10(10UFC/mL caused a 100% of corrected mortality, showing that the purified Cry proteins caused a CL10 of 268μg/mL five days after the treatments, and M. azedarach toxins caused a CL50 173μg/mL four days after the treatment. Corrected mortality for O. oryzae and S. frugiperda in the interaction between the bacterial and plant toxins were 11 and 6%, respectively. In the PCR analysis of B. thuringiensis isolates, DNA fragments were enlarged and corresponded to the cry1 and cry2 genes for Bt 1958-2. Thus, it could be concluded that the usage of Bt 2014-2 active against O. oryzae larvae; Bt 1958-2 for S. frugiperda and, for both the insect species, M. azedarach aqueous extract could be used.

  5. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis Molluscicidal activity of Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae on Lymnaea cubensis, host snail of Fasciolosis

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    Marlene Piña Perez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.INTRODUÇÃO: A Fasciolosis constitui em diversas regiões fonte importante de perdas econômicas, e quando não se adotam medidas de controle de seus hospedeiros (moluscos, junto a condições ecológicas favoráveis, pode ocorrer o aparecimento de casos isolados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro dos métodos alternativos para o seu controle está o uso de extratos vegetais e se tem pretendido avaliar o provável emprego do suco extraído do fruto e sementes do Paraíso (Melia azedarach L., no controle de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vetor da Fasciolosis em Cuba. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Diferentes concentra

  6. Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae.

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    Ramanibai, R; Velayutham, K

    2015-02-01

    Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fluorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 7.94, LC90 = 23.82 ppm and LC50 = 13.58 and LC90 = 40.03 ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 4.27 and 3.43 µg/mL; LC90 = 12.61 and 10.29 µg/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24 h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes.

  7. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  8. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  9. Repellent and insecticidal activities of Melia azedarach L. against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.).

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    Farag, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed H M; Yousef, Heba; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

    2011-01-01

    A crude acetone extract and oil of ripe fruits from Melia azedarach L. were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Both oil and extract exhibited highly significant growth inhibition at all concentrations tested, while the oil of M. azedarach recorded higher insecticidal activity against both instars than the crude extract. GC-MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of linoleic acid methyl ester, oleic acid methyl ester, and free oleic acid as the main components in addition to hexadecanol, palmitic acid, methyl esters of stearic acid and myristic acid. Fatty acids and their esters were not only the main constituents of essential oil from the ripe fruits of M. azedarach, but also mainly responsible for the insecticidal and growth inhibition activity against S. littoralis.

  10. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.

  11. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  12. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

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    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S

    2006-08-31

    Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids.

  13. Actividad antibacteriana de extracto de hojas de Melia azedarach L

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    Johanna Norela Rojas Sierra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of leaf extract Melia azedarach L. Resumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de extractos de hojas de Melia azedarach L. sobre seis bacterias patógenas. Inicialmente mediante extracción por el método Soxhlet se obtuvo extracto total en etanol y a partir de éste se prepararon fracciones líquido-líquido con éter de petróleo y acetato de etilo. El extracto total y las dos fracciones fueron diluidos a diferentes concentraciones (ppm para evaluar in vitro su actividad antibacteriana.  Las bacterias de mayor susceptibilidad fueron las patógenas de humanos Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Klebsiella oxytoca, en relación a la fitopatógena Burkholderia glumae quien mostró resistencia a todos los tratamientos. Las bacterias patógenas fueron más susceptibles a la fracción éter de petróleo a concentración mínima de 25 ppm. El screen fitoquímico de la planta indicó presencia de metabolitos secundarios tipo alcaloides, terpenos/esteroles, saponinas, taninos y antocianinas. Estos resultados evidencian el posible uso de M. azederach como alternativa de control biológico sobre las bacterias analizadas. Palabras clave: bacterias; patógenas; inhibición; extractos. Abstract: The work was objective to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts from leaves of Melia azedarach (L on six pathogenic bacteria. Total ethanol extract was obtained initially by extraction with method Soxhlet and from this prepared liquid-liquid fractions with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. The total extract and the two fractions were diluted at different concentrations (ppm to evaluate its antibacterial activity in vitro.  More susceptible bacteria were the pathogenic human Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca, in relation to

  14. Effect of Melia azedarach aqueous extract on the development of immature and reproductive stages of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae / Efeito de extrato aquoso de Melia azedarach no desenvolvimento das fases imatura e reprodutiva de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Daniel Marchetti Maroneze

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach on Spodoptera frugiperda biology was investigated under laboratory conditions. Corn leaves were immersed in solutions with extract concentrations of 0.1%; 1.0% and 5.0% and offered to newly-born larvae. At higher doses (1.0% and 5.0% the extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae. Observations of dead larvae showed abnormal moults and death at ecdysis. At the concentration of 0.1%, chinaberry extract increased the larval phase and reduced significantly the larval and pupal weight. Reproduction parameters, as the number of eggs per female, eggs per oviposition and eggs viability were affected using emerged adults from treated larvae with concentration of 0.1% Melia extract. The fecundity was drastically reduced. Survival and duration of egg stage were not affected by the extracts. No effect was observed in relation to attractiveness of caterpillars at first instar in tests with possibility of choice. The chinaberry aqueous extract showed good potential to be used as a control agent for S. frugiperda.Determinou-se, em condições de laboratório, o efeito de diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso de Melia azedarach sobre a biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda. Folhas de milho foram imersas nos extratos (0,1%; 1,0% e 5,0% e oferecidas a lagartas recém-eclodidas. Em doses elevadas (1,0% e 5,0% os extratos causaram 100% de mortalidade larval. Observações das lagartas mortas indicaram mudas anormais e morte durante o processo de ecdise. Na concentração de 0,1% o extrato provocou o alongamento da fase larval e redução do peso das lagartas e pupas. Adultos provenientes de lagartas previamente intoxicadas com extrato a 0,1% apresentaram alterações em parâmetros reprodutivos tais como: número de ovos por fêmea, ovos por postura e viabilidade dos ovos. A fecundidade sofreu drástica redução. A sobrevivência dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário n

  15. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  16. Evaluación de la actividad insecticida de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Anopheles albimanus y Culex quinquefasciatus en condiciones experimentales

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    Estrella Cárdenas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus causa alergias por las picaduras y ha sido asociado con la encefalitis equina, mientras que Anopheles albimanus es vector de malaria. El objetivo fue evaluar la toxicidad de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus. El estudio fue realizado sobre larvas de C. quinquefasciatus (Sibaté y Villavicencio y An albimanus (Cartagena y Barranquilla. Las concentraciones ensayadas de B. sphaericus fueron: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 y 500 ppm para larvas de An. albimanus y para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 y 16 ppm. Se utilizaron 20 larvas en tres repeticiones por cada concentración del producto y el tiempo de exposición fue de 48 horas. El producto de B. sphaericus mostró alta mortalidad (entre 80 y 100% a bajas concentraciones (8 y 12 ppm para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus; mientras que para larvas de An. albimanus a concentraciones más altas (entre 40 y 200 ppm la mortalidad no superó el 50%. La CL50 Logit fue 176 ppm y la Probit fue 192 ppm de B. sphaericus para larvas de An. albimanus; mientras que para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus la CL50 Logit fue 1, 9 ppm y la Probit fue 2, 2 ppm. Se concluye que las larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron más susceptibles a bajas concentraciones (2 a 12 ppm de B. sphaericus, mientras que las larvas de An. albimanus mostraron alta toxicidad a concentraciones de 500 ppm.

  17. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon

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    ARAUJO LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.

  18. Influência da temperatura sobre os tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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    Carneiro M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de se verificar a influência de três temperaturas (18, 27 e 32°C sobre os tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Seis tipos celulares básicos foram encontrados na hemolinfa: prohemócitos (PR, plasmatócitos (PL, granulócitos (GR, esferulócitos (ES, adipohemócitos (AD e oenocitóides (OE. Os ES foram divididos em dois subtipos (ES I e ES II, devido às variações morfológicas encontradas. O efeito da temperatura foi mais acentuado sobre o estádio de larva. Ocorreu queda acentuada de GR e aumento de ES II na temperatura de 18°C, enquanto que à 27 e 32°C, os valores foram semelhantes. GR foi o tipo celular mais abundante, indicando o seu envolvimento no metabolismo. Para ninfas este também foi o tipo celular mais abundante, porém não ocorreram variações acentuadas segundo a temperatura, indicando que cada estádio de desenvolvimento apresenta determinada necessidade metabólica que se expressa nos tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa.

  19. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

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    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management.

  20. Efecto de Vibrio harveyi en la sobre vivencia de larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos acuícolas son de gran relevancia en la alimentación humana, pero crean un medio ambiente artificial que promueve el crecimiento de diferentes especies de bacterias. Las especies del género Vibrio son bacterias de la microflora normal de los camarones peneidos y son también agentes patógenos oportunistas que pueden tomar ventaja de éstos cambios ecológicos generados en los cultivos acuícolas causando diferentes enfermedades, sobrevivencias bajas y pérdidas económicas en la producción de camarón. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la variación en la sensibilidad, de diferentes subestadios larvarios (nauplio, zoea I-III, misis I-III y en el de postlarva 1, del camarón blanco del Pacifico Litopenaeus vannamei al ser expuestos a tres dosis [103, 105, y 107 unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC ml-1] de V. harveyi, mediante infecciones por inmersión (30 min. Esta especie generó una sobrevivencia baja significativa en las larvas (p < 0,05 solamente en las dosis más altas (105 y 107 UFC ml-1, siendo la última dosis la que presentó los valores más bajos de sobrevivencia. Además, se observó que los subestadios larvales y en el de postlarva 1 fueron más resistentes a V. harveyi al aumentar la edad de los mismos. Esta información tiene gran significado para la industria acuícola, ya que les permite generar estrategias que disminuyan los efectos de V. harveyi y que les permita mejorar el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de las larvas y de postlarva 1 del camarón.

  1. Efecto tóxico de Argemone subfusiformis Ownb. y Tagetes patula Link sobre larvas del IV estadio y pupas de Aedes aegypti L.

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    Judith Vidal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto tóxico de los extractos etanólicos foliares de Argemone subfusiformis “cardo santo” y Tagetes patula “marigold” sobre larvas IV y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El procesamiento de los extractos y los bioensayos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú, de abril a diciembre de 2007, basados en los lineamientos metodológicos de la World Health Organization (2005. En larvas, se registró 100% de mortalidad con 76,8 y 153,6 mg/L del extracto de A. subfusiformis a las 12 horas de exposición, mientras que en pupas el mismo porcentaje de mortalidad se alcanzó con 153,6 mg/L a las 24 horas. De otro lado, el 92% y 77% de mortalidad en larvas y pupas respectivamente se registró con el extracto de T. patula al emplear 153,6 mg/L del extracto a las 48 horas. En A. subfusiformis las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 6,24 y 9,91 mg/L sobre larvas y con 9,45 mg/L. y 16,92 mg/L sobre pupas. En T. patula la CL50 y CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 72,21 mg/L. y 137,37 mg/L sobre larvas y con 89,1 mg/L. y 167,38 mg/L sobre para pupas. Según el ANAVA existen diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de exposición y los tratamientos. La susceptibilidad de larvas y pupas de A. aegypti se evidenciaron mediante las rectas probit-logarítmicas que indican efecto tóxico de sus hojas, siendo A. subfusiformis la especie con mayor índice de mortalidad.

  2. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide Caracterización Física y Química del Fruto y Hoja de Melia azedarach para Uso en Manejo Integrado de Plagas

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    Italo Chiffelle G

    2009-03-01

    mediante bioensayos de laboratorio sobre Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae, como insecto modelo. El diámetro del fruto de M. azedarach se situó en el límite inferior con referencia a otros estudios. La harina obtenida del fruto verde tuvo un peso seco promedio inferior al maduro. Las hojas tuvieron pesos secos promedio similares, tanto en el estado juvenil como en el maduro. Los frutos verdes tuvieron un contenido de humedad de 50%, similar a las hojas juveniles (60% y maduras (57%, pero mayor que los frutos maduros (44%. El análisis químico de los estados de madurez del fruto determinó un aumento leve en el contenido de fibra cruda según aumentaba la madurez. En las hojas hubo una disminución cercana a 60% en la cantidad de lípidos cuando maduran. Además, un análisis de polifenoles, por HPLC-DAD (Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con Detector de Arreglo de Diodos identificó 14 compuestos como causantes del efecto insecticida del fruto de M. azedarach, de los cuales tres corresponderían a flavonoides: una catequina y dos kaempferoles. Finalmente, los extractos acuosos de hojas y frutos de M. azedarach fueron eficaces como insecticidas sobre D. melanogaster, alcanzando mortalidades de hasta 90% con hojas juveniles (125 000 mg kg-1 y 73,3% con frutos verdes (10 700 mg kg-1.

  3. Influência do pH sobre ovos e larvas de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes Influence of pH on eggs and larvae of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A influência do pH sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos e larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy e Gaimard, 1824 foi avaliada utilizando-se experimentos inteiramente casualizados com 6 tratamentos (pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9, em três desovas. Todos os ovos incubados em pH 4 morreram, o mesmo acontecendo quando a temperatura atingiu 17ºC. Nas desovas com temperatura semelhante os diferentes tratamentos não apresentaram diferença com relação à taxa de fertilização, enquanto na desova que apresentou maior temperatura, os pH 6 e 7 apresentaram a menor taxa. O tempo de eclosão das larvas foi diretamente proporcional à temperatura, e, após a eclosão, todas as larvas submetidas ao pH 5 morreram. O tempo para abertura da boca foi influenciado pela temperatura, e não pelos tratamentos. A taxa de sobrevivência sofreu influência do pH nas diferentes condições de temperatura da águaThe influence of pH on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 eggs and larvae was evaluated in experiments with 6 treatments (pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 in three spawnings. All eggs in pH 4 died. Same results occurred when temperature fell to 17ºC. There was no difference in fertilization rates of spawnings at the same water temperature. In spawning with higher temperature the lowest fertilization rate was registered at pH 6 and 7. Eclosion time was directly proportional to temperature, whilst after eclosion all eggs at pH 5 died. Mouth-opening time was influenced by temperature. Survival rate was influenced by pH in different water temperature conditions

  4. Efecto de variedades de algodón genéticamente modificadas sobre larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Sandra Jimena Valencia Cataño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda es una plaga polífaga de importancia económica en países tropicales y subtropicales. En Colombia ataca el algodonero (Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivo que ha tomado importancia gracias a la adopción de variedades genéticamente modificadas (GM. En el estudio se determinaron los efectos subletales de algunas de estas variedades sobre larvas de este insecto. Para el efecto, en condiciones de laboratorio (27°C, 65 ± 10% HR y 12 h fotoperiodo se evaluaron las variedades NuOPAL RR (proteína Cry1Ac, DP141 B2RF (proteínas Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab y DeltaOPAL RR (no Bt. Los parámetros evaluados fueron: (a peso de larvas, (bpeso de heces, (c peso del alimento ofrecido y (d peso del alimento no consumido. Como índices de consumo y digestibilidad se calcularon la tasa relativa de consumo (TRCo, la tasa relativa de crecimiento (TRCr, la eficiencia de conversión del alimento ingerido (ECI y la digestibilidad aproximada (DA. Los índices mostraron actividad antialimentaria de la variedad DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab que afecta de forma negativa la tasa de crecimiento y la conversión del alimento por parte de las larvas. El peso de las larvas alimentadas en DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab fue 58.6% menor que en la variedad no Bt. Los resultados muestran un efecto adverso de la variedad DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab en el desarrollo larval de S. frugiperda. Se confirman los efectos antibióticos de las variedades GM evaluadas que inciden en un menor desarrollo y en la supervivencia de las larvas.

  5. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Melia Azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its Phytochemical Investigation

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    Samineh Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.Methods:In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.Results:Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1. In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.Conclusions:The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows

  6. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  7. Lignanes from the Brazilian Melia azedarach, and their activity in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Marise M. O. Cabral

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the phagoinhibitor and anti-moulting activities of the Brazilian Melia azedarach, collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, allowed the isolation of four lignanes identified as pinoresinol, bis-epi-pinoresinol, the hemicetal and the diacid. These substances are devoid of anti-moulting activity.

  8. Descrição da larva de Erythemis mithroides (Brauer e notas sobre outras larvas conhecidas do gênero (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer and notes on other known larvae of the genus (Odonata, Libellulidae

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    J.M. Costa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer, 1900 is described and figured based on exuviae of reared specimens. A comparative analysis of this immature stage and the known larvae of the genus are furnished according to the data available in the literature and of specimens of E credula (Hagen, 1861 and E. vesiculosa (Fab., 1775 permiting a diagnose for the larvae of the genus Erylhemis Hagen, 1861.

  9. Effect of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves on the growth and development of ovary and histological structure of the mid gut in the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera : Muscidae

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    N. S. Gorgees

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four sub lethal concentrations 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5% of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. were used against the second instars larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L.. The results of the microscopical preparations and statistical analysis have shown that this aqueous extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development on the ovaries and ovarian follicles of the adult flies obtained from previously treated larvae with four stage of age, 24, 48, 72, 96 hour after birth. The extract also led decreased in the numbers of ovarian follicles and their degradation. In some instances the microscopically preparations of the mid gut of the housefly have also shown that this aqueous extract has seriously affected the histological structure of the alimentary canal particularly the mid gut. It has led to the separation of the muscular layer from the epithelial lining.

  10. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

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    Abdul Viqar Khan

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

  11. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  12. Efeitos da aplicação tópica de hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovários de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae Effect of topic application of juvenile hormone on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    William Fernando Antonialli-Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento do ovário de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera foi analisada levando em conta a determinação trófica das castas, segundo a qual a alimentação larval é controlada pelas operárias de maneira a promover uma diferenciação de castas controlada pela produção e disponibilidade desse hormônio. A hipótese testada é que a ação do hormônio juvenil seja capaz de proteger ou prevenir a degeneração nos ovários das larvas de operárias. Foi feita aplicação tópica de 1 ml de hormônio dissolvido em hexano na concentração de 1 mg/ml do segundo até o quinto dia de vida larval, e a morfologia dos ovários avaliada nos dias subseqüentes à aplicação até ao sexto dia de vida larval. Como controles foram utilizadas larvas nas quais se aplicou 1 ml de hexano e larvas que não receberam nenhum tratamento. Constatou-se que o efeito do hormônio juvenil varia conforme a idade larval em que é aplicado e que este efeito foi maior quando a aplicação foi feita no terceiro dia de vida larval.The influence of juvenile hormone (JH on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera was analyzed, taking into account the trophic determination of the castes. The workers control the larval feeding in order to promote caste differentiation, which is regulated by the production and availability of this hormone. The hypothesis tested was that the action of juvenile hormone is capable of protecting or preventing the degeneration of the ovaries in worker larvae. A preparation of 1 ml of juvenile hormone dissolved in hexane at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was applied topically to 2- to 5-day-old larvae. The morphology of the ovaries was evaluated on the days following the application, until the larvae were 6 days old. The controls consisted of larvae to which 1 ml of hexane was applied, and larvae that received no treatment. The effect of juvenile hormone varied according to the age

  13. Toxicidad de agentes antiparasitarios, antimicrobianos e insecticidas sobre larvas del camarón salino Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Artemiidae

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    JJ Iannacone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemia franciscana “camarón salino”, es un crustáceo sensible a un amplio rango de compuestos químicos, de fácil manejo en el laboratorio, y con un cultivo relativamente sencillo y barato. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la toxicidad de agentes antiparasitarios, antimicrobianos e insecticidas sobre A. franciscana para establecer la concentración prevista que no causa efectos (PNEC sobre los organismos marinos y obtener los niveles guía para la protección de la vida acuática. Con los nauplios II de A. franciscana, dentro de las 24 h de eclosión, se procedió a realizar los bioensayos de toxicidad calculando la Concentración letal media (CL50 a 24 h y 48 h de exposición. Se observó la siguiente secuencia de mayor a menor toxicidad a 48 h de exposición para tres agentes antiparasitarios comerciales: Mebendazol >Albendazol >Metronidazol. Con relación al efecto tóxico letal de seis agentes antimicrobianos comerciales se vio la siguiente secuencia de mayor a menor toxicidad a 48 h de exposición: Triclosan >Clotrimazol >Itraconazol >Ketoconazol >Oxitetraciclina >Mimosa. El camarón salino mostró efectos de mortalidad por acción de cinco sustancias con propiedades insecticidas, encontrándose el siguiente orden de mayor a menor mortalidad a 48 h de exposición: Cipermetrina >Rotenona >Carbaryl >Canela >Malation. Las tres sustancias químicas calificadas como muy tóxicas y que presentaron los niveles guía más bajos para la protección de la vida acuática fueron Triclosan (0,72 ug·L-1, Cipermetrina (0,84 ug·L-1 y Clotrimazol (0,97 ug·L-1. Se observó que diez (71,42% de las sustancias químicas mostraron fuerte actividad citotóxica.

  14. Avaliação in vitro dos efeitos do óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos In vitro evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. seed oil effects on larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep

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    M.P.O Farias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar in vitro a ação do óleo da semente da Carapa guianensis (Andiroba no cultivo de larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de animais das espécies caprina e ovina, foram testadas cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba (100, 50, 30, 25 e 10%, com três repetições por tratamento, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante, formando-se ainda três grupos controle, um controle negativo (água destilada, outro controle negativo (água destilada + tween 80 e um controle positivo (Doramectina. A atividade da andiroba sobre os ovos de nematóides gastrintestinais foi determinada pelo cálculo dos percentuais de redução de larvas por gramas de fezes. Os resultados revelaram na espécie caprina redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais para os tratamentos 100, 50 e 30% com médias nulas para todos os gêneros de nematóides. Na espécie ovina observou-se redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais em todos os tratamentos, com médias nulas nos tratamentos 100, 50 e 30%. Os resultados obtidos neste experimento demonstram que o óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis possui atividade in vitro contra larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos.This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro action of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba seed oil on the cultivation of larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep. Five andiroba oil dilutions (100, 50, 30, 25, and 10% were assayed, with three replicates per treatment, using Tween 80 as surfactant. Three control groups were formed: a negative control (distilled water, another negative control (distilled water + Tween 80 and a positive control (Doramectin. The activity of andiroba on the eggs from gastrointestinal nematodes was obtained by calculating larva reduction percentages per gram of feces. In goats, a highly effective reduction in the total number of larvae was detected for treatments 100, 50 and 30%, with null means for all nematode genera

  15. Toxicidad de δ-endotoxinas recombinantes de Bacillus thuringiensis sobre larvas de la polilla guatemalteca (Tecia solanivora (Lepidóptera: Gelechiidae

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    Javier Hernández-Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la actividad tóxica específica de las proteínas recombinantes Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1B y Cry1C de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, sobre larvas de primer instar de Tecia solanivora se estableció la CL50 para las toxinas. Para este fin se implementó la cría masiva de este insecto bajo condiciones de laboratorio, 58±5% de humedad relativa, 18±5ºC de temperatura y un fotoperiodo de 23 h oscuridad y 1 h luz. Se utilizó una dieta seminatural consistente en láminas de papa variedad parda pastusa autoclavada con solución preservante (ácido ascórbico 7 g/L y metilparabeno 5 g/L, ya que fue estable en el tiempo, garantizó la reproducibilidad de los resultados y fue de fácil evaluación. Las proteínas recombinantes se evaluaron a una concentración de 0,1 μg/cm2. Los resultados obtenidos de porcentaje de mortalidad indicaron que no había diferencias entre las delta-endotoxinas recombinantes Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1B y Cry1C de Bt (PPalabras clave: Bacillus thuringiensis; proteínas recombinantes; Tecia solanivora; papa parda pastusa; Bacillus thuringiensis; bioassay; recombinant endotoxin; Tecia solanivora; pastusa potato variety.

  16. Avaliação da atividade repelente do timol, mentol, salicilato de metila e ácido salicilico sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of repellent activity of thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate and salicylic acid on Boophilus microplus larvae (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    A.M.S. Novelino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a atividade repelente do timol, mentol, ácido salicílico e salicilato de metila sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus. Essas substâncias foram usadas em emulsões em dimetilsulfuxido aquoso a 1% ou solução aquosa. Para cada substância foram testadas três concentrações, 1,0%; 0,5% e 0,25%, com cinco repetições cada. Cerca de 100 larvas, com 21 dias de idade, foram inseridas na base de hastes de madeira para avaliação da repelência, a cada duas horas, totalizando 12 horas. As concentrações mais elevadas apontaram que as quatro substâncias causaram alteração no comportamento das larvas. Timol, com mortalidade de 65% e 35% de repelência e mentol e salicilato de metila, ambos com 80% de repelência foram os mais eficientes.The repellent activity of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus larvae was studied. These substances were tested according to their solubility: emulsions in 1% aqueous dimethylsulphoxide or in pure water. Three concentrations were tested for each substance, 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.25%, with five repetitions for each. Approximately 100 larvae at 21 days of age were placed on the base of wooden sticks and then observed for repellent action every two hours, during twelve hours. The results obtained from the higher concentrations showed that the four substances caused alterations on the larvae behavior. However, thymol (65% of mortality and 35% of repellency, menthol (80% of repellency and methyl salicylate (80% of repellency were the most efficient.

  17. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Viqar Khan; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; M Ramzan Mir; Indu Shukla; Athar Ali Khan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods: Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results: All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions: Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

  18. Efecto antihelmíntico in vitro de extractos de plantas sobre larvas infectantes de nematodos gastrointestinales de rumiantes In vitro anthelmintic effect of plant extracts against infective larvae of ruminants gastrointestinal nematode parasites

    OpenAIRE

    FC Moreno; Gordon IJ; AD Wright; MA Benvenutti; CA Saumell

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de estudiar la capacidad antihelmíntica de algunas especies de plantas presentes en el Estado de Queensland, Australia, se evaluó el efecto in vitro de extractos de hojas de plantas en la migración de larvas infectantes (L3) de Haemonchus placei, Cooperia sp., Haemonchus contortus y Trichostrongylus colubriformis. En general, los extractos de plantas redujeron la migración de larvas de H. placei y Cooperia sp. Las plantas con mayor actividad antihelmíntica contra estas especies ...

  19. Seis novas larvas do gênero Micrathyria Kirby e notas sobre a distribuição no Brasil (Odonata, Libellulidae Six new larvae of genus Micrathyria Kirby and notes on distribution in Brazil. (Odonata, Libellulidae

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    Cristiane Vieira de Assis

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Six new Micrathyria Kirby, 1889 larvae from Brazil are described and compared to those described by SANTOS (1968, 1972, 1978 and NEEDHAM (1943. The distribution of the species is studied based on material deposited in colection of Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MN-UFRJ.

  20. Intoxicação experimental com frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae em suínos Experimental poisoning by fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae in pigs

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    Maria del Carmen Méndez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Frutos maduros, triturados, de Melia azedarach foram administrados misturados à ração a 8 suínos em doses únicas de 5-20g/kg. Diarréia passageira foi o único sinal nos 2 suínos que consumiram 5g/kg. Os sinais clínicos observados nos animais que ingeriram doses únicas de 10, 15 e 20g/kg caracterizaram-se por incoordenação, tremores musculares, dificuldade para manter-se de pé, relutância para levantar-se, decúbito esternal e hipotermia. Os 2 suínos que ingeriram 20g/kg morreram. Macroscopicamente observou-se congestão do intestino delgado e da mucosa do estômago. As alterações histológicas caracterizaram-se por discreta a moderada necrose do tecido linfático, necrose dos músculos esqueléticos, congestão e necrose da mucosa gástrica e do intestino delgado e alterações degenerativas moderadas no fígado e rim. Os níveis séricos de AST e CPK aumentaram após a ingestão do tóxico. Observaram-se valores altos de CPK nos animais que morreram, evidenciando a mionecrose. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que, para suínos, a ingestão de altas doses de frutos de Melia azedarach induz ao aparecimento de sinais clínicos da intoxicação e causa lesões em diversos órgãos, inclusive a morte.Mature ground fruits of Melia azedarach were administered mixed with the food to 8 pigs at single doses of 5-20g/kg. Transient diarrhea was the only sign observed in the 2 pigs that ingested 5g/kg. Clinical signs observed in the pigs that ingested 10, 15 and 20 g/kg were incoordination, muscular tremors, difficulty to stand or to get up, sternal decubitus and hypothermia. The 2 pigs that ingested 20g/kg died. The gross lesions were congestion and necrosis of the small intestine and the stomach mucosa. The microscopic alterations were characterised by necrosis of the lymphatic tissues and skeletal muscles, congestion and necrosis of the stomach and small intestine, and moderate degenerative alterations of liver and kidneys. The serum

  1. Insecticide and antifeedant activity of different plant parts of Melia azedarach on Xanthogaleruca luteola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, M; Valladares, G; Banchio, E; Carpinella, C; Palacios, S

    2006-12-01

    In laboratory choice and no-choice bioassays, treatment of elm leaves with extracts obtained from unripe fruits and green or senescent leaves of Melia azedarach at 1-10% concentration significantly deterred feeding by adults of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola. Also, in no-choice tests, adults fed on leaves treated with 2, 5 or 10% extract showed a dramatic increase in mortality rates. Extracts from the different plant structures were similarly active, and starvation as a consequence of their strong antifeedant activity could play a significant role in the high mortality values observed.

  2. Efeito de níveis crescentes de levedura de álcool em rações contendo fígado bovino sobre a performance de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Effect of crescent levels of yeast of alcohol used in rations containing bovine liver on larvae of (Rhamdia quelen performance

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    Rosamari Piaia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de levedura sobre o desempenho inicial de larvas de Rhamdia quelen durante as trêss primeiras semanas de vida. Um total de 3000 larvas foram distribuídas em quinze grupos, em um sistema de criação com reutilização de água, termoregulada. Utilizou-se cinco tratamentos com níveis crescentes de levedura (T1 - 50%, T2 - 60%, T3 - 70%, T4 - 80% e T5 - 90% em substituição ao fígado bovino fresco. Os níveis de proteína bruta (PB e energia digestível variaram de 41,36 a 26,56% de PB e 3197 a 2789kcal ED/kg. A granulometria dos alimentos testados foi de 100 a 200mi, 200 a 400mi e 400 a 600mi para as três semanas experimentais, respectivamente. O alimento foi fornecido a vontade entre 8 e 20 horas. Dentro dos limites de proteína estudados houve efeito positivo de níveis mais elevados de PB sobre os comprimentos total e padrão e peso individual. Porém houve um efeito negativo sobre a sobrevivência das larvas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen.The present study was developed with the purpose of evaluating the effects of different protein levels in initial performance of Rhamdia quelen larvae during the first three weeks of life. The sample contained 3000 larvae distributed in fifteen groups, maintained in controlled conditions of culture and utilizing termoregulatory water re-use system. Five crescent levels of yeast (T1 50%, T2 60%, T3 70%, T4 80% and T5 90% were used in rations in substituition of bovine liver. Levels of crude protein and digestible energy varied 41,36% to 26,56% CP and from 3197 to 2789 kcal ED/kg. The granulometry of tested food was of 100 a 200mu, 200 a 400mu and 400 a 600mu for three experimental weeks respectively. Food distribution provided at ease between 8 Am and 8 Pm. Within the net protein used in this research, there was found a positive effect for the highest protein levels for total, standard lenght and individual weight

  3. Dietary soybean meal on growth and intestinal morphology of South American catfish, Rhamdia quelen, larvae Farelo de soja em dietas para larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen sobre o crescimento e morfologia intestinal

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    David Roque Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the replacement of bread yeast by soybean meal in diets for Rhamdia quelen larvae on growth, survival, and intestinal morphology were analysed. Larvae were fed for 20 days with five diets: a control diet formulated with 57% of bread yeast, and other four diets in which soybean meal at concentrations of 14.25, 28.5, 42.75 and 57% was added to obtain 25, 50, 75 and 100% of bread yeast replacement. Growth and survival parameters were negatively affected by dietary soybean meal inclusion. Larvae fed control diet showed significantly higher mean weight, specific growth rate, final biomass, and survival rate than larvae from other treatments. Enterocyte height and fold width of the posterior intestine showed highest values in the control group, and an inverse linear relationship with the level of dietary soybean meal inclusion was observed, however, in the anterior intestine the morphology parameters were not affected by the diet. These results indicate that inclusion of soybean meal in diets for R. quelen larvae negatively affects growth and survival, as well as the capacity for digestion and absorption of nutrients, mainly in the posterior intestine.Neste estudo, foi analisado o efeito da substituição de levedura de pão por farelo de soja em dietas para larvas de Rhamdia quelen no crescimento, sobrevivência e morfologia intestinal. As larvas foram alimentadas durante 20 dias com cinco dietas experimentais: uma dieta controle formulada com 57% de levedura de pão e quatro dietas em que o farelo de soja foi adicionado em 14,25, 28,5, 42,75 e 57% para obter 25, 50, 75 e 100% de substituição de levedura de pão. As variáveis de crescimento e sobrevivência foram negativamente afetadas pela inclusão da soja na dieta. As larvas alimentadas com a dieta controle apresentaram maior peso médio, taxa de crescimento específico, biomassa final e sobrevivência, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. A altura dos enter

  4. Influência do pH sobre ovos e larvas de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes) Influence of pH on eggs and larvae of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer; Arthur Augusto Ferreira; Juan Ramon Esquivel

    2001-01-01

    A influência do pH sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos e larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) foi avaliada utilizando-se experimentos inteiramente casualizados com 6 tratamentos (pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9), em três desovas. Todos os ovos incubados em pH 4 morreram, o mesmo acontecendo quando a temperatura atingiu 17ºC. Nas desovas com temperatura semelhante os diferentes tratamentos não apresentaram diferença com relação à taxa de fertilização, enquanto na desova que apresentou maio...

  5. The Phenological Division of Distribution area in China for Melia azedarach%苦楝中国分布区的物候区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程诗明; 顾万春

    2005-01-01

    Based on the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of phenological observation data from 70 meteorological observation stations for 8 years (1994--2002), which were located in all the distribution regions of Melia azedarach in China, the distribution regions of Melia azedarach in Chinese were divided into 11 phenological areas. It will provide a scientific basis for seedling rational allocation and germplasm resources conversation for Melia azedarach; and the phonological isophene map will be a guidance for agriculture and forestry production in the most parts of southern China.

  6. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Maria Goretti Araújo de Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL, in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida dos hidrolatos obtidos por destilação à vapor de caule e folha das espécies de Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus e Croton zehntneri contra Aedes aegypti. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 25 larvas de 3º estádio juntamente com 50 mL de cada hidrolato, dispostos em recipientes plásticos, num esquema de quatro repetições, utilizando-se como controle a água e avaliando-se a mortalidade com 24 horas de tratamento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa tanto em relação aos hidrolatos das diferentes espécies vegetais, quanto em relação às diferentes partes de cada planta (p < 0,001. Os hidrolatos referentes ao caule e folha de C. nepetaefolius e C. zehntneri causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas e diferiram das demais espécies, exceto da folha do C. argyrophylloides que apresentou o mesmo resultado. Os compostos presentes em C. zehntneri e C. nepetaefolius são fenil propanóides mais solúveis em água que os monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos detectados em C. argyrophylloides e C. sonderianus. Esta pesquisa evidenciou que todas as espécies testadas possuem compostos com

  7. Anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach fruits in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes / Atividade anti-helmíntica do fruto da Melia azedarach em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais

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    Daniela Guzzo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach grounded dry fruits, in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty four (24 mixed-breed Ile de France x Corriedale, male lambs, aged 3 month, were separeted into three (3 groups of eight (8 animals: the first group was medicated with 5mg.Kg-1 of albendazole orally, in a single dose, the second group was medicated with 2g.Kg-1 of Melia azedarach fruits orally, in a single dose, and the third group remained untreated, as control. The results showed that the group that presented the best efficacy was the one treated with albendazole (51.96%, followed by the group treated with Melia azedarach fruits that presented 33.21% of efficacy.Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos frutos secos e moídos da planta Melia azedarach, em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais. Utilizou-se 24 cordeiros, com 90 dias de idade, machos, mestiços Ile de France x Corridale, os quais foram divididos em 3 grupos de oito animais cada, sendo: grupo 1, medicado com 5mg.Kg-1 em dose única, de albendazole pela via oral (V.O; grupo 2, com 2g.Kg-1 (V.O, em dose única, do fruto do cinamomo (Melia azedarach e o grupo 3, controle, não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que o grupo tratado com albendazole foi o que apresentou melhor eficácia 51.96%, seguido do grupo tratado com frutos de cinamomo o qual apresentou eficácia de 33.21%.

  8. IN-VITRO CULTURE FOR REGENERATION OF Melia azedarach L. USING AGITATED LIQUID MEDIUM

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    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the applicability of liquid medium in direct organogenesis of in-vitro culture of Melia azedarach L. Explants were collected from in-vitro multiplication originating from aseptically germinated seedling and from a 48 - years old mature tree. For adventitious shoot differentiation, 2 mm length of excised explants were cultured on liquid medium of MS (Murashige and Skoog's basal medium supplemented with 28 combinations of hormone BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and NAA (á- naphthaleneacetic acid. Differentiated shoots were subsequently cultured for shoot elongation in solid medium using MS basal medium supplemented with hormone BAP individually as well as in combinations with NAA. Finally, rooting culture were done using MS medium supplemented with IBA (3  indolebutyric acid. The results showed that the rate of shoot organogenesis of M. azedarach could be obtained through agitated liquid medium culture technique. The combination of hormone BAP 0.1-1 µM and NAA 0.01-0.1 µM are induced more adventitious shoot at a rate of 5 shoots / 2 mm length size of explants are transferring into rooting medium containing IBA 4.92 µM.

  9. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida). Both extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 12.5, 6.2, 3.12, 1.56, and 0.78 mg/ml. The leaves aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts inhibited 99.4% and 100% of the egg hatching and 100% of larval development at 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In a similar way, the leaves hydro-alcoholic extract was the most active on egg inhibition (ED (50) = 1.97 and ED ( 90 ) = 5.05 mg/ml), leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts showed the best inhibition of larval development (ED ( 50 ) = 3.01, 2.43, 3.17, 2.40, and ED ( 90 ) = 10.53, 8.14, 11.94, and 8.19 mg/ml), respectively. These results suggest that utilization of M. azedarach extracts is useful in the control of H. contortus.

  10. Influência da disponibilidade de presas, do contraste visual e do tamanho das larvas de Pantala sp. (Odonata, Insecta sobre a predação de Simocephalus serrulatus (Cladocera, Crustacea Influence of prey availability, visual contrast and size of dragonfly (Pantala sp. larvae (Odonata, Insecta on the predation of Simocephalus serrulatus (Cladocera, Crustacea

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    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da disponibilidade de presas, do contraste visual e do tamanho das larvas de Odonata (Pantala sp. sobre a predação de cladóceros (Simocephalus serrulatus. Para estudar a taxa de predação em função da disponibilidade de cladóceros em contraste visual, foram utilizadas 24 larvas de Odonata (12,57±0,05 mm e 100,01±9,16 mg. Foram utilizados 5, 10, 15 20 cladóceros/litro, em aquários de vidro transparente (1-L, e as mesmas densidades em aquários revestidos por plástico preto. Os cladóceros (1,63±0,21 mm e 0,78 mg foram contados e repostos a cada hora, por cinco horas consecutivas. Para estudar o efeito do tamanho de larvas de Odonata na predação de cladóceros, foram utilizadas 24 larvas de diferentes tamanhos, as quais foram colocadas em recipientes (50-ml. Colocaram-se 20 cladóceros com cada larva, realizando-se contagem e reposição dos indivíduos consumidos, a cada dez minutos, por duas horas consecutivas. Observou-se efeito quadrático (p The influence of prey availability, visual contrast and size of dragonfly (Pantala sp larvae on the predation of cladocerans (Simocephalus serrulatus is provided. Twenty-four dragonfly naiads (12.57±0.05 mm and 100.01±9.16 mg were employed to study the relation between predation rate and availability of cladocerans and visual contrast. 5,10, 15 and 20 cladocerans/L were placed in 1L transparent and black plastic lined aquariums. Cladocerans (1.63±0.21 mm and 0.78 mg were counted and replaced hourly for five consecutive hours. Twenty-four naiads of different sizes were placed in 50mL recipients to study effects of size of dragonfly larvae. Each larvae received 20 cladocerans; counting and reposition of individuals consumed every ten minutes during two consecutive hours were undertaken. Quadratic effect (p < 0.02 in predation rate was reported, with an increase in prey availability: 21.67; 39.00; 42.44 and 49.67% were reported for densities of 5, 10, 15

  11. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

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    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

  12. EFEITOS DOS EXTRATOS AQUOSO E METANÓLICO DE ALGAROBA SOBRE CULTURAS DE LARVAS DE NEMATÓDEOS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CAPRINOS

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    MARIA JOSÉ MOREIRA BATATINHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves and fruits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C., respectively, on larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of the methanol extract (724.5; 557.3; 428.7; 329.8; 253.7; 195.1mg/mL and one of the aqueous extracts (110.0mg/mL were used for thetreatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Destilled water and doramectin were used to treat cultures considered to be negative and positive control, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 90% of the infective larvae between the concentrations of724.5 up to 253.7 mg/mL for the methanol extract and a low percentage of reduction (59.87% for the aqueous extract. Only the methanol extract of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. was effective in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goat.

  13. Virulencia, producción y desplazamiento de nematodos entomopatógenos sobre larvas del picudo de la guayaba Conotrachelus psidii Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en laboratorio.

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    Adriana Sáenz Aponte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The guava weevil Conotrach­elus psidii Marshall is a major pest affecting guava cultiva­tion in Santander, Colombia; it causes serious losses in the quality and the volume of fruit produced. Biological control is a viable option for pest management; entomo­pathogenic nematodes (EPNs, particularly, have shown good results (63-90% mortality in controlling fourth in­star larvae of the guava weevil. In this study we evaluated the effect of seven species of EPNs isolated in Colom­bia: Steinernema websteri JCL006, Steinernema sp. 1 JCL024, Steinernema sp. 2 JCL007, Steinernema sp. 3 JCL027, S. co­lombiense SNI0198, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HNI0100 and Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 on fourth instar larvae of the guava weevil in laboratory conditions, and measured the production and the displacement of the most viru­lent. Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 induced mortality of 85%, Steinernema sp. 1 JCL024 75% and S. colombiense SNI0198 55%, the other species of EPNs, less than 25% mortality. Increased production of JI by weevil larva was recorded in Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708, which also showed greater recognition capability when the host was C. psidii.

  14. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae leaves

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    Md. Asadujjaman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation. Methods: A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively. Results: The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro. Conclusion: Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract ’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  15. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Asadujjaman; Abu Saed; Md Aslam Hossain; Utpal Kumar Karmakar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae) for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation.Methods:A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively.Results:The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro.Conclusion:Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  16. [Larva migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  17. Diversidade de policetídeos produzidos por espécies de Penicillium isoladas de Melia azedarach e murraya paniculata Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Pastre; Marinho,Andrey M. R; Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Souza,Antônia Q. L.; José Odair Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crisophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin.

  18. Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae); Esteroides produzidos por Penicillium herquei, um fungo endofitico isolado dos frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosario [Universidade do Estado do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais], e-mail: andreymoacir@yahoo.com.br; Marinho, Patricia Santana Barbosa; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

  19. Esteroides produzidos por Penicillium herquei, um fungo endofítico isolado dos frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Moacir do Rosario Marinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14,22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14,22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS.

  20. Diversidade de policetídeos produzidos por espécies de Penicillium isoladas de Melia azedarach e murraya paniculata Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pastre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crisophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin.

  1. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata; Diversidade de policetideos produzidos por especies de penicillium isolados de Melia azedarach e Murraya paniculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao

    2007-07-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  2. Efecto sobre los alérgenos de las larvas L3 de "anisakis" al aplicar tratamientos selectivos en pescado parasitado

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo general del trabajo de investigación fue diseñar estrategias para disminuir o eliminar la presencia de antígenos de Anisakis spp. en pescado y productos de la pesca infestados con larvas L3. Como punto de partida de la investigación, se verificó que la sensibilidad y precisión de las técnicas de extracción y detección de antígenos de Anisakis habitualmente utilizadas en pescado y productos de la pesca, fuera aplicable en condiciones más extremas de conservación o tratamiento. S...

  3. Avaliação de diferentes fontes protéicas sobre o desempenho inicial de larvas do jundiá Rhamdia quelen Evaluation of different sources of protein on the initial performance of south american catfish larvae Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamari Piaia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes protéicas sobre a sobrevivência e crescimento de larvas de Rhamdia quelen durante as três primeiras semanas de vida. Utilizou-se 3000 larvas distribuídas em 15 grupos, estocadas em condições controladas de cultivo, em um sistema de criação com reutilização de água, termoregulada. As rações testadas eram isoprotéicas com 35% de PB (proteína bruta e níveis energéticos variando entre 3075 e 3286kcal ED/kg, formuladas com fontes de origem animal, vegetal e pó de levedura Saccharomyces cerevisae. Agranulometria dos alimentos testados foi de 100 a 200mi, 200 a 400mi e 400 a 600mi para as três semanas experimentais, respectivamente. A distribuição do alimento foi feita a vontade entre 8 e 20 horas. No final deste experimento o tratamento T1, contendo figado bovino e levedura, resultou na maior taxa de sobrevivencia (61% apresentando diferença altamente significativa em relação aos demais tratamentos. Os tratamentos 2 (soja, levedura, 3 (soja, figado bovino, 4 (soja, milho e 5 (soja, carne, milho não diferiram significativamente entre si, apresentando baixas taxas de sobrevivência (1,17 a 10,19%. OT1 apresentou o maior comprimento total aos 21 dias, com media individual de 16,46mm, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Nestas condições conclui-se que o pó de levedura juntamente com o fígado bovino em rações, proporcionou o melhor desempenho de larvas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the survival and growth of catfish larvae Rhamdia quelen with different sources of protein during the first three weeks of life. Five treatments, with three replications, were tested. A total of 3000 larvae were randomly distributed into 15 groups, maintained under controlled conditions using a termoregulatory water re-use system. The artificial diets tested contained 35% of crude protein and digestible

  4. Experimental intoxication by the leaves of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae in cattle Intoxicação experimental pelas folhas de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Méndez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Green leaves of Melia azedarach were administered at single doses ranging from 5 to 30 g/kg bw to 11 calves. Clinical signs were depression, ruminal stasis, dry feces with blood, ataxia, muscle tremors, sternal recumbency, hypothermia and abdominal pain. Serum AST and CPK were increased. Signs appeared from 8 to 24 hours after dosing, and the clinical course lasted from 2 to 72 hours. Three calves dosed with 30g/kg bw died. The macroscopic findings included intestinal congestion, yellow discoloration of the liver, brain congestion and dry feces with blood in the rectum. The liver showed swollen and vacuolated hepatocytes. Necrotic hepatocytes were scattered throughout the parenchyma or concentrated in the periacinar zone. Degenerative and necrotic changes were observed in the epithelium of the forestomachs. There was also necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. Skeletal muscles showed hyaline degeneration and fiber necrosis. The necrotic fragments contained floccular or granular debris with infiltration by macrophages and satellite cells.Folhas verdes de Melia azedarach foram administradas em dose única a 11 bovinos nas doses de 5 a 30g/kg de peso vivo. Os sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se por depressão, atonia ruminal, fezes duras com sangue, incoordenação, tremores musculares, decúbito esternal, hipotermia e dores abdominais. Os níveis séricos de AST e CPK estavam aumentados. O aparecimento dos sinais clínicos foi observado entre 8-24 horas após a ingestão das folhas e o curso clínico durou entre 2 e 72 horas. Três animais que receberam 30g/kg morreram. Os achados macroscópicos caracterizaram-se por congestão dos intestinos e do cérebro, fígado amarelado e presença de fezes duras com sangue no reto. Os hepatócitos estavam tumefeitos e com vacuolização citoplasmática. Observaram-se hepatócitos necróticos distribuídos no parênquima ou próximos à veia centrolobular. Lesões degenerativas e necróticas foram observadas no epit

  5. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  6. Efecto bioinsecticida del extracto etanólico de las semillas de Annona cherimolia Miller “chirimoya” Y A. muricata Linneaus “guanábana” sobre larvas del IV estadio de Anopheles sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla Álvarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En vista del incremento de la resistencia a los insecticidas químicos frente al control de mosquitos vectores de enfermedades metaxénicas, es que se viene realizando la búsqueda de métodos alternativos, utilizando extractos de plantas con actividad larvicida debido a su capacidad de biodegradación generando menor daño ambiental. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la mortalidad de larvas del IV estadio de Anopheles sp. mediante el extracto etanólico de las semillas de A. cherimolia (E1 y A. muricata (E2. Los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad, corregidos por la fórmula de Abbott, fueron de 100% a las 24 horas de exposición a la concentración de 0,8 y 0,12 ml/100 mL en E1 y E2, respectivamente, observándose un mayor efecto tóxico larvario a favor de E2 sobre E1 en 4,58% de mortalidad. El análisis probit mostró un patrón de respuesta heterogéneo de las larvas a las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a lo largo de todos los tiempos de evaluación y una mayor homogeneidad a los tiempos letales al 50% (TL50 y al 90% (TL90 a medida que aumentaban las concentraciones de los extractos. Asimismo, la forma de las rectas de regresión muestran individuos larvarios con diferentes susceptibilidades a los extractos, lo que establece diferentes poblaciones o genotipos intervinientes. El trabajo permitió demostrar el efecto larvicida de ambas semillas y subraya la necesidad de realizar mayores ensayos in vitro como alternativa al control de insectos de importancia en salud pública.

  7. Atividade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Artrobotrys robusta sobre larvas infectantes de Strongyloides stercoralis Predatory activity of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Arthrobotrys robusta on Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ribeiro Braga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Strongyloides stercoralis é um nematoide que infecta grande parte da população mundial. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a capacidade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 e Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31 sobre larvas infectantes (L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis em condições laboratoriais no meio ágar-água 2%. RESULTADOS: Ao final do experimento, os percentuais de redução de L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis observados foram de: 83,7% (AC001; 75,5% (NF34 e 73,2% (I-31. CONCLUSÕES: Os fungos nematófagos foram capazes de capturar e destruir in vitro as L3, podendo ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de Strongyloides stercoralis.INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode that infects much of the population worldwide. METHODS: This study aimed to compare the ability of predatory nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 and Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31 on infective larvae (L3 of Strongyloides stercoralis in laboratory conditions on 2% water-agar. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the percentage reductions in Strongyloides stercoralis L3 were 83.7% (AC001, 75.5% (NF34 and 73.2% (I-31. CONCLUSIONS: The nematophagous fungi were able to capture and destroy the L3 in vitro and may be used as biological controls of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  8. Micropropagation of paradise tree (Melia azedarach) by in vitro culture of axillary buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroginski, Luis A; Rey, Hebe Y

    2013-01-01

    Paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.) is a multipurpose ornamental and timber tree, and its extracts are used to make insecticides and fungicides. Conventional propagation is done by seeds; however, sexual reproduction results in wide genetic variability. Therefore, clonal propagation is desirable to reduce genetic variation. This chapter describes a protocol for in vitro propagation of paradise tree by axillary buds. There are major steps for this protocol. Firstly, shoot induction by in vitro culture of axillary buds, excised from potted plants obtained by rooting of cuttings of 10-15-year-old adult trees. The initiation medium was composed of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (benzylaminopurine), 0.1 mg/L IBA (indolebutyric acid), and 0.1 mg/L GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Secondly, multiplication of the regenerated shoots on MS medium amended with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L GA(3). Thirdly, rooting of the regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA. Fully well-developed plants were transferred to pots containing sand, peat moss, and perlite (1:1:1), and maintained initially in the greenhouse or plastic tunnels.

  9. Sifat Anatomi dan Sifat Fisika Kayu Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn dari Hutan Rakyat di Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Praptoyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical  and Physical Properties of Mindi Wood (Melia azedarach Linn from Community Forest in Yogyakarta Information about mindi wood characteristics is very limited while utilisation of this wood on our society is very extensive. Better knowledge on anatomical and physical wood properties of mindi wood optimizes its utilization. Therefore, this study aims to identify anatomical (macroscopic and microscopic and physical (moisture content, specific gravity and dimensional changes wood properties of mindi taken from community forests around Yogyakarta. The macroscopic structural characteristics results showed that annual ring appeared clearly at transversal surface, having single vessel, vasicentric and diffuse parenchyma, rough texture, straight fiber direction, and no resin canal. Cell proportion of wood showed that fibers occupy more than 44%, followed by vessel (20%, parenchyma (19% and rays (15%. Wood fiber dimension showed fiber length of 0.83 mm, fiber diameter of 14.57µ, and cell wall thickness of 2.50µ. Physical wood properties showed that mindi has 31% moisture content and 0.416 of basic specific gravity. Wood shrinkage from green to kilndry on longitudinal was 3.94 %, tangensial 5.74 %, and radial 2.60 %, with T/R ratio 2.38. Based on T/R ratio value, mindi wood is not recommended for wood construction due to its low dimensional stability. Furthermore, mindi wood also has high longitudinal wood shrinkage and low specific gravity indicating juvenility.

  10. The anti-tubercular activity of Melia azedarach L. and Lobelia chinensis Lour. and their potential as effective anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis candidate agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won Hyung Choi; In Ah Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-mycobacterial activity of Melia azedarach L. (M. azedarach) and Lobelia chinensis Lour. (L. chinensis) extracts against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts were evaluated using different indicator methods such as resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system assay. The M. tuberculosis was incubated with various concentrations (50–800 mg/mL) of the ex-tracts for 5 days in the REMA, and for 4 weeks in MGIT 960 system assay. Results: M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts showed their anti-M. tuberculosis ac-tivity by strongly inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in a concentration-dependent manner in the REMA and the MGIT 960 system assay. Particularly, the methanol extract of M. azedarach and n-hexane extract of L. chinensis consistently exhibited their effects by effectively inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in MGIT 960 system for 4 weeks with a single-treatment, indicating higher anti-M. tuberculosis activity than other extracts, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were measured as 400 mg/mL and 800 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts not only have unique anti-M. tuberculosis activity, but also induce the selective anti-M. tuberculosis effects by consistently inhibiting or blocking the growth of M. tuberculosis through a new pharmacological action. Therefore, this study suggests the potential of them as effective candidate agents of next-generation for developing a new anti-tuberculosis drug, as well as the advantage for utilizing traditional medicinal plants as one of effective strategies against tuberculosis.

  11. Efeito in vitro do extrato etanólico das folhas do melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia L. sobre ovos e larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos In vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of "melão de São Caetano" (Momordica charantia L. leaves on the eggs and larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Cordeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento in vitro foi realizado para avaliar a ação do extrato etanólico das folhas do melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia L. sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos e motilidade de larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos. As larvas foram obtidas de coproculturas e a recuperação de ovos foi feita pela técnica dos quatro tamises, a partir de fezes de caprinos naturalmente infectados da mesorregião do Sertão Paraibano. O extrato foi utilizado nas diluições de 50; 25; 12,5; 6,25 e 3,12% para ambos os testes e como controle positivo e para controle negativo, utilizou-se água destilada estéril. As placas foram examinadas ao microscópio óptico para contagem dos ovos em desenvolvimento e larvas móveis e imóveis, após 24, 48 e 72 horas de incubação. As concentrações do extrato etanólico de M. charantia e os tratamentos controle negativo e positivo diferiram quanto ao número de ovos inviáveis. No teste de motilidade larval as concentrações acima de 12% apresentaram médias significativas quanto ao número de larvas inviáveis. Nas condições ensaiadas a M. charantia apresentou atividade ovicida e larvicida.The experiment in vitro was performed to evaluate the action of the ethanolic extract of "melão de São Caetano" (Momordica charantia L. leaves on the development of eggs and motility of larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from goats. The nematode larvae were obtained from coproculture and the recovery of eggs was done in sieves, from feces of naturally infected goats from the Mesoregion of Paraíba State. The extract was used at the dilutions of 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.12% for both tests and as positive control; for negative control, sterile distilled water was used. The plates were examined under optical microscope to count the eggs in development and mobile larvae after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. The concentrations of M. charantia ethanolic extract and the negative and positive controls differed as

  12. Limonoids from Melia azedarach Fruits as Inhibitors of Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tubercolosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Sanna

    Full Text Available The biological diversity of nature is the source of a wide range of bioactive molecules. The natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, have been a successful source of inspiration for the development of new drugs. The present work was carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimycobacterial activity of the methanol extract and of four identified limonoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae. The extract and purified limonoids were tested in cell-based assays for antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Very interestingly, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and melianone showed a potent antiviral activity (EC50 in the range of 3-11μM against three important human pathogens, belonging to Flaviviridae family, West Nile virus, Dengue virus and Yellow Fever virus. Mode of action studies demonstrated that title compounds were inhibitors of West Nile virus only when added during the infection, acting as inhibitors of the entry or of a very early event of life cycle. Furthermore, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and methyl kulonate showed interesting antimycobacterial activity (with MIC values of 29 and 70 μM respectively. The limonoids are typically lipophilic compounds present in the fruits of Melia azeradach. They are known as cytotoxic compounds against different cancer cell lines, while their potential as antiviral and antibacterial was poorly investigated. Our studies show that they may serve as a good starting point for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of infections by Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for which there is a continued need.

  13. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach an Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, K.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  14. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  15. Studies on Iron Embedded Polyesteramide Resin Derived from Melia-azedarach Seed oil-A Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasnat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the depletion of petroleum oil reserves and the environmental issues both, efforts have made to utilize the renewable resources in the polymer synthesis now-a-days.Among the different renewable resources seed oils of different plants pay considerable attraction due to its unique properties. Melia azedarach is a medium sized tree largely cultivated throughout the country as a shadow tree. The seeds of the plant have approximately 40-wt% non edible oil with sufficiently high unsaturation. In the present work, oil of the Melia azedarach seeds utilized in making iron embedded polyesteramide with the objective to provide satisfactory utilization of abundantly available raw material significantly going waste in every season. The physico-chemical characterization of the polymeric material and intermediates were carried out as per standard laboratory methods.The structural elucidation of the polymeric resin was carried out by spectral analyses. The film properties of the iron embedded polyesteramide were also investigated in different environments. The results show that the iron embedded polyesteramide derived from Melia azedrach show good physic-mechanical and corrosion resistance performances in different service conditions.

  16. 苦楝内生菌研究进展%Advances of Endophyte Associated with Melia azedarach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓君; 李会珍; 张志军

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes' specific ecology, metabolism and bioactivities make themselves as an important treasure for structurally novel bioactive natural products. Recent advances on the biodiversity, metabolites and bioactive of endophyte associated with Melia azedarach were summarized in this article. Some problems about the study of endophyte were brought forward, it was hoped to provide some references to the resource exploitations of the endophytic fungi associated with Melia azedarach.%植物内生菌拥有特殊的生态环境、代谢途径和生物活性,是结构新颖、活性多样的天然产物的重要来源.本研究综述了苦楝内生菌多样性、次生代谢产物及其生物活性,并据此提出了关于苦楝内生菌研究的一些问题,以期为苦楝内生菌的开发利用提供参考.

  17. Steroids from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach and their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Ji, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Yun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Ying-He; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2009-09-01

    Three new (1-3) and several known (4-6) steroids were isolated from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry to be (20S)-5,24(28)-ergostadiene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (1), (20S)-5-ergostene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (2), and 2alpha,3beta-dihydro-5-pregnen-16-one (3). The cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds against three human cancer cell lines (A549, H460, U251) were evaluated; only compounds 1, 2, and (20S)-5-stigmastene-3beta,7alpha,20-triol (4) were found to show significant cyctotoxic effects with IC(50)s from 12.0 to 30.1 microg/mL.

  18. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  19. Efeito de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomateiro Effect of aqueous extracts of meliaceous plants on Bemisia tabaci B biotype on tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO PANCRÁCIO DE SOUZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos a 3% (p/v de três meliáceas, Melia azedarach L. (frutos verdes, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (sementes, em relação à mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. No primeiro experimento os extratos foram aplicados sobre ovos e sobre ninfas com três dias de idade, avaliando-se a mortalidade e a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa. No segundo experimento os extratos foram aplicados apenas sobre as ninfas, avaliando-se a mortalidade nessa fase e a longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos. Em relação à fase de ovo, o extrato de T. pallida foi o que provocou maior mortalidade, seguindo-se os de A. indica e M. azedarach. A maior mortalidade ninfal foi constatada com o extrato de A. indica, seguindo-se os de T. pallida e M. azedarach. Nenhum dos extratos afetou a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa, assim como a longevidade e fecundidade.The objective of this research was to compare the effect of aqueous extracts of fresh fruits of Melia azedarach L., twigs of Trichilia pallida Swartz and seeds of zadirachta indica A. Juss, on eggs and nymphs of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype reared on tomato plants. The extracts were tested at a concentration of 3%. In the first experiment, the extracts were applied on eggs and 3-day-old nymphs. Records were taken on mortality, duration of egg and nymphal stages. In the second experiment the extracts were applied on 3-day-old nymphs and records were taken on nymphal mortality, adult longevity and fecundity. The extracts of T. pallida were the most effective on eggs, followed by A. indica and M. azedarach. The extracts of A. indica were the most effective on nymphs followed by T. pallida and M. azedarach. In both experiments, the duration of egg and nymph stages, longevity and fecundity were not affected by the extracts.

  20. Nutrient dynamics associated with leaf litter decomposition of three agroforestry tree species (Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sissoo, and Melia azedarach) of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Hossain; Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique; Md. Saidur Rahman; Md. Zaber Hossain; Md. Mahedi Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss,Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.,and Melia azedarach L.are little studied species in nutrient return capabilities from leaf litter decomposition to maintenance of the soil fertility despite their importance in agroforestry practices of Bangladesh.A leaf litter decomposition experiment was conducted using a litterbag technique to assess the nutrient return efficiency of these species.The decomposition rate of leaf liter was highest for M.azedarach and lowest for D.sissoo.Rainfall and temperature of study sites showed a significant (p<0.05) positive relationship with the rate of leaf litter decomposition.The highest decay constant was observed for M.azedarach (6.67).Nitrogen and Phosphorus concentration in leaf litter showed a decreased trend sharply at the end of the first month,whereas rapid decrease of Potassium concentration was reported within 10 days.Conversely,higher concentration of nutrient was observed at the later stages of decomposition.All three species showed a similar pattern of nutrient release (K > N> P) during the decomposition process of leaf litter.Among the studied species,D.sissoo was best in terms of N and P return and A.indica was best in terms of K return.

  1. Efeito do clima sobre a infecção parasitária em bezerros e presença de larvas em manejo rotativo de pasto em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Climatological effects on parasitic infection in calves and the presence of larvae in a pasture rotation management in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Heck

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi correlacionar os dados climáticos e parasitários através de exames laboratoriais e da pastagem. O experimento foi realizado no período de março a junho de 2004, utilizando 110 bezerros com idade média de cinco meses, em pastos com diferentes relevos. Foi avaliado o número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG, a coprocultura e o número de larvas na pastagem em intervalos de 15 dias, e dados climáticos deciduais. A coprocultura revelou a presença de 60% de parasitas do gênero Trichostrongylus spp. e 40% de Cooperia spp. assim como Moniezia spp. e oocistos de Eimeria spp. A temperatura permitiu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento das larvas infectantes na pastagem durante o experimento. O aumento do número de larvas na pastagem está associado ao acréscimo da precipitação após um período de seca. O relevo com maior número de larvas apresentou maior concentração de massa seca de capim arroz (Echinochloa spp.. Pode-se comprovar que em condições climáticas ideais ocorreu uma rápida contaminação da pastagem com larvas infectantes quando animais naturalmente infectados foram transferidos para a área após colheita de milho.The objective of this work was to correlate climatic and parasitological data from laboratory and field samples. The experiment was executed from March to June of 2004, using 110 naturally infected five months old calves. The counting of eggs per gram of feces (EPG, fecal culture and the number of larva on pasture was evaluated every 15 days in relation to decidual climatic data. The EPG increased during the study. The same observation occurred with the pluviometric level. Coproculture revealed the presence of 60% of Trichostrongylus spp. and 40% of Cooperia spp. as well as Moniezia spp. and Eimeria spp. oocists. The temperature during all the experimental periods was favorable to infecting larvae survival and development on pasture. The area with higher larvae count had the higher

  2. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  3. Working with dauer larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Xantha

    2016-07-14

    Dauer diapause is a stress-resistant, developmentally quiescent, and long-lived larval stage adopted by Caenorhabditis elegans when conditions are unfavorable for growth and reproduction. This chapter contains methods to induce dauer larva formation, to isolate dauer larvae, and to study pre- and post-dauer stages.

  4. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their eff...

  5. Las larvas del género Idaea Treitschke, 1825 (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Geometridae): Nuevos datos sobre su morfología y biología

    OpenAIRE

    Viejo Montesinos, J.L.; King, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    The biology and larval chaetotaxy of six species or subspecies were studied in the genus Idaea Treitschke, 1825 through an analysis of the larvae or the larval exuviae of I. sericeata calvaria Wehrli, 1927, I. ochrata albida (Zerny, 1936), I. incisaria (Staudinger, 1892), I. bigladiata Herbulot, 1975, I. cervantaria (Millière, 1869) and I. degeneraria (Hübner, 1799), whilst larval biological data was provided on another six species: I. ochrata (Scopoli, 1763), I. macilentaria (Herrich-Schäffe...

  6. Molluscicidal effect and mechanism of Melia azedarach L.leaves against Oncomelania hupensis%苦楝叶杀螺效果及机制初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨光; 陈钧; 韩邦兴; 房伟伟; 杨学娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究苦楝叶石油醚提取物杀螺活性及对湖北钉螺软体组织糖原和蛋白质的生理生化影响,并进行鱼毒的测定.方法 采用系统分离法分离苦楝叶不同极性部位,按照WHO”杀螺剂实验室终筛法”中的浸杀法筛选苦楝叶杀螺活性部位;采用蒽酮显色法、考马斯亮蓝法分别测定苦楝叶杀螺活性部位对钉螺软体组织糖原和蛋白质含量的影响;用斑马鱼急性毒性试验考察其对非靶生物的毒性.结果 苦楝叶杀螺活性部位集中于石油醚提取物,经72 h处理的LC50为101.6 mg/L,并能显著降低钉螺软体组织糖原的含量,减少量为75.61%,且对斑马鱼毒性很小,72 h的LC50为285.6 mg/L.结论 苦楝叶中可能含有安全有效的植物杀螺成分.%Objective To identify the molluscicidal effect and mechanism of Melia azedarach L. Leaves against Oncomelania hupensis. Methods Different polar parts of M, azedarach L. Leaves were isolated to screen for active compounds. The molluscicidal effects of M. Azedarach L. Leaves at different concentrations were detected using the laboratory screening methods recommended by WHO. The glycogen and protein contents of 0. Hupensis treated with light petroleum extract of M. Azedarach L. Leaves were determined by Anthrone and Coomassie reactions, respectively. Acute toxicity on non-target organisms was determined using Zebrafish as a bioindicator. Results The light petroleum extract of M. Azedarach L. Leaves was the most active component with snail-killing effects. The Lcso values of the light petroleum extract was 101.6 mg/L after 72 h treatment. The snail glycogen content decreased remarkably (by 75.61%) after treatment with the light petroleum extract. The LC? Value of the zebrafish extract was as small as 285.6 mg/L after 72 h treatment. Conclusion M. Azedarach L. Leaves may contain safe and effective molluscicidal ingredients.

  7. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  8. Emergencia de semilla de piocho (Melia azedarach L.) sometida a diferentes tiempos de escarificación con H2SO4

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jarillo-Rodríguez; E. Castillo-Gallegos; O. Degollado-Hoyos; F. R. Flores-de la Rosa; B. Valles-de la Mora; R. Escobar-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Se escarificaron semillas de piocho (Melia azedarach L.) con H2SO4 a 30, 45, 60, 90 y 120 min. y un testigo, para evaluar emergencia (%), plántulas/semilla y pureza (%), con 200 semillas/tratamiento en cuatro repeticiones. La emergencia fue similar (p>0.05) entre tratamientos: 42.90±3.40%. La pureza y semillas/drupa, promediaron 74.30% y 3.47+0.92, respectivamente. Para días a emergencia fueron diferentes (p

  9. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera

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    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera. Este estudo constitui o primeiro registro de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte em larvas de Megaloptera, como um possível predador de larvas de Chironomidae. Vinte e oito larvas de Corydalidae (Corydalus e Protochauliodes foram examinadas sobre estereomicroscópio na busca por Temnocephala e larvas de Chironomidae, das quais cinco larvas de Megaloptera continham 24 Temnocephala sp. associadas. Além disso, oito Temnocephala possuíam em seu conteúdo estomacal larvas de Chironomidae, uma interação desconhecida anteriormente. A análise do conteúdo estomacal revelou Corynoneura como o quironomídeo mais abundante, e também algumas larvas de Larsia, Rheotanytarsus e Tanytarsus. Este estudo inclui Corydalus e Protochauliodes como hospedeiros de Temnocephala, os quais podem ser importantes

  10. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  11. Baylisascaris larva migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  12. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposição de Plutella xylostella Effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, Melia azedarach (L. and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. on the development and oviposition of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalci Leite Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a CL50 e o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na biologia, oviposição e período embrionário de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Para determinação da CL50 foram utilizadas concentrações entre 0,03 e 0,8 % para amêndoas de Azadirachta indica (A. Juss. 0,5 e 7,0 % para casca de Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. e 0,5 e 12,5 % para frutos de Melia azedarach (L., obtendo-se as CL50 de 0,06; 2,17 e 2,90%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies vegetais afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto, principalmente na fase larval. Na fase de pupa, os extratos reduziram a massa e a viabilidade. Houve deformação de adultos para os extratos de A. pyrifolium e M. azedarach e o de A. indica causou maior porcentagem. Todos os extratos possuem efeito tóxico para ovos de P. xylostella, sendo dependente do aumento da concentração. Nos extratos da casca de A. pyrifolium, do fruto de M. azedarach e da amêndoa de A. indica observa-se ação ovicida quando usados na concentração letal de lagartas de primeiro ínstar da praga. Em observações do ovo de P. xylostella com auxílio de um microscópio eletrônico de varredura, verificou-se a existência de microporos onde pode ocorrer a penetração do produto ovicida, além da constatação da textura rugosa da casca do ovo que pode reter ou fixar os extratos.The effects of aqueous extracts of plants on the biology, preference for oviposition and embryonic period of Plutella xylostella were evaluated. Concentrations between 0.03 and 0.8 % for kernel of Azadirachta indica, 0.5 and 7.0% for peel of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and 0.5 and 12.5% for fruits of Melia azedarach were used, with LC50 values of 0.06; 2.17 and 2.90%, respectively, being obtained. It was verified that the aqueous extracts of all of the appraised vegetable species affected the development of the insect, mainly in the larval phase. In the pupae phase, the extracts reduced the

  13. The Toxicity and Anti-cancer Activity of the Hexane Layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's Bark Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Kang, Se Chan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the 4-week oral toxicity and anti-cancer activity of the hexane layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's bark extract were investigated. We carried out a hollow fiber (HF) assay and 28- day repeated toxicity study to confirm the anti-cancer effect and safety of the hexane layer. The HF assay was carried out using an A549 human adenocarcinoma cell via intraperitoneal (IP) site with or without cisplatin. In the result, the 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer with 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin treated group, showed the highest cytotoxicity aginst A549 carcinoma cells. For the 28-day repeated toxicity study, 6 groups of 10 male and female mice were given by gavage 200, 100, or 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer with or without 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin against body weight, and were then sacrificed for blood and tissue sampling. The subacute oral toxicity study in mice with doses of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer showed no significant changes in body weight gain and general behavior. The cisplatin-treated group significantly decreased in body weight compared to the control group but regained weight with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer. The biochemical analysis showed significant increase in several parameters (ALT, total billirubin, AST, creatinine, and BUN) in cisplatin-treated groups. However, in the group given a co-treatment of hexane layer (200 mg/kg b.w), levels of these parameters decreased. In hematological analysis, cisplatin induced the reduction of WBCs and neutrophils but co-treatment with hexane layer (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w) improved these toxicities caused by cisplatin. The histological profile of the livers showed eosinophilic cell foci in central vein and portal triad in cisplatin treated mice. These results show that hexane layer might have an anti-cancer activity and could improve the toxicity of cisplatin.

  14. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

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    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%. These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain. The weevils rearing and some biological tests were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results showed that these extracts have anti-oviposition activity and ovicidal dose-dependent. Doses 25 and 50% of Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum have completely inhibited the spawning activity of C. maculatus 24 h after treatment. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between oviposition due to the positive control (Stargrain and that due to dose 50% of the three extracts. Compared to the negative control (ethanol 95%, all these plant extracts have significantly reduced (p<0.05 oviposition of C. maculatus female (38 eggs per 100 seeds after 4 days. The dose 10% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum showed no weevil emergency. It have been also noticed a reduction in seeds depreciation and rate attack in all the treated settings compared to the control. So the rate attack and the mass loss were proportional to the doses of B. aegyptiaca leaves extract but conversely proportional to doses of Melia azedarach and O. gratissimum leaves extracts. No depreciation of seeds was recorded at doses 10 and 15% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum. The different treatments did not affect the germination of seeds; the highest germination rate (93.67% was recorded with seeds treated with the dose 50% of O. gratissimum against only 65% with those treated with the positive control. These ethanolic extracts have shown insecticidal

  15. Perreyia flavipes larvae toxicity

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    Djeison L. Raymundo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh or thawed Perreyia flavipes larvae were ground and mixed with water and orally ad ministered to sheep. At 5mg/kg, neither clinical nor enzymatic changes were observed. Unique do ses of 7.5 and 10mg/kg induced characteristic clinical signs of Perreyia sp. larvae poisoning, increased GGT and AST values, and decreased glycemic curves. However, doses of 5, 10, and 15mg/kg repeated at 30 or 15 days intervals caused no disease and mild disease followed by death, respectively. These fin dings indicate that these animals probably developed some degree of tolerance to the toxins in P. flavipes larvae. Ultrastru ctural examination of liver revealed proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the hepatocytes, which may be associated with an increased ability to metabolize toxins and could consequently lead to the tolerance observed in the present study. Further investigations may elucidate whether such tolerance effects could be applied as a control measure for P. flavipes poioning or other hepatotoxic diseases. In addition, clinicopathological findings were discussed.

  16. Efeito da densidade de estocagem sobre o biofilme e o desempenho de pós-larvas do camarão-rosa FarfantePenaeus paulensis cultivadas em gaiolas Effect of stocking density on the biofilm and the performance of post-larvae of the pink shrimp FarfantePenaeus paulensis in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Lima Preto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da densidade de estocagem na sobrevivência e no crescimento de pós-larvas de F. paulensis cultivadas em gaiolas durante a fase de berçário. Além disso, foram identificados e quantificados os principais microrganismos presentes no biofilme formado nos substratos artificiais colocados dentro das gaiolas. Foram usadas gaiolas com 4 m² de fundo e com substratos artificiais, nas densidades de 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500PL25 m-2. O experimento durou 35 dias. Observou-se uma relação negativa entre o aumento da densidade de estocagem de camarões e a sobrevivência e o crescimento destes. Foi observada uma preferência pelo consumo de diatomáceas cêntricas. A viabilidade técnica do cultivo de F. paulensis em gaiolas foi confirmada. O cultivo de F. paulensis em gaiolas na fase de berçário pode ser feito em densidades de até 400PL m-2, sem maiores perdas em sua sobrevivência e seu crescimento.The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the stocking density in the survival and growth of FarfantePenaeus paulensis postlarvae reared in cages during the nursery phase. Additionally, we identified and quantified the main microorganisms present on the biofilm formed on artificial substrates placed inside the cages. We used 4 m² bottom surface cages with artificial substrates and shrimp stocking densities of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500PL25 m-2. The experiment lasted for 35 days. A negative relationship was observed between the increase of shrimp stocking density and their survival/growth rates. A preference for centric diatoms was also observed. The technical feasibility of culturing F. paulensis in cages was confirmed. The rearing of F. paulensis in nursery cages may be conduced in densities at also 400PL m-2, without more loss in survival and growth.

  17. Growth and structure of the digestive system of pacu larvae fed microencapsulated diet produced experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    Olívia Cristina Camilo Menossi; Rodrigo Takata; María Isabel Sánchez-Amaya; Thiago Mendes de Freitas; Manuel Yúfera; Maria Célia Portella

    2012-01-01

    Foram comparados os efeitos de diferentes dietas e da transição alimentar sobre o desempenho zootécnico e a morfologia do trato digestório de larvas de pacu alimentadas com duas dietas comerciais e uma dieta experimental microencapsulada produzida por gelificação interna. Larvas com quatro dias de vida receberam os seguintes protocolos alimentares: somente náuplios de artêmia em quantidades crescentes (controle positivo); larvas mantidas em jejum (controle negativo); três tipos de alimento fo...

  18. Analysis on the Soil Fungal Community Structure in Melia azedarach-Triticum aestivum Agroforestry Ecosystem%苦楝-小麦农林复合生态系统土壤真菌群落结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 周鹏; 季永华

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To explore the influence of tree species on rhizosphere-associated fungal community in an agroforestry ecosystem, and to provide new insights into agroforestry practice, the fungal community structure in rhizosphere and bulk soil in Melia azedarach-Triticum aestivum agroforestry ecosystem was investigated by 18S rDNA PCR-DGGE.[Method]After the fungal DNA was extracted from extraction of nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere-associated soil, and the targeted fungal 18 S rDNA was amplified using universal primers GC-FR1 and FF390 . And then the amplified DNA fragments were analyzed by density gradient gel electrophoresis ( DGGE) . Similarity among different groups was analyzed using the UPGMA ( unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) method,and the fungal diversity was evaluated with species richness ( S ) ,Shannon-Wiener index ( H ) and the equitability index ( E ) . Finally,dominant DGGE bands were excised,sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. [Result]Results showed that the structure and diversity of rhizosphere-associated fungi community were much more complex than that of the bulk soil,and more dominant bands were observed in DGGE profiles of rhizosphere soil samples. The DGGE profiles were further investigated by cluster analysis using the UPGAMA method,revealing that the similarity among the three replicates of each treatment was more than 70% except for the rhizosphere soil of M. azedarach. In clustering diagram,all the samples were grouped into three clusters with a similarity of 51%. The highest similarity ( 72%) was found between the rhizosphere-associated fungal community from wheat and wheat grown under M. azedarach,which indicated that M. azedarach had minor influence on the rhizosphere-associated fungal community of wheat. In addition,only 51% similarity was noticed between the rhizosphere-associated fungal community of M. azedarach and the other groups. The principal-component analysis ( PCA) also demonstrated that all

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Developmental stages (yolk sac, preflexion, flexion, postflexion, or transformation) of selected fish larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets.

  20. Influência da alcalinidade da água sobre o crescimento de larvas de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 Perciformes, Cichlidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1630 Water alkalinity influence on the growth of Nile Tilapia larvae (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 Perciformes, Cichlidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1630

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Eduardo Torres Rojas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento de larvas de Oreochromis niloticus foi estudado em diferentes níveis de alcalinidade da água. O experimento de laboratório, conduzido durante 42 dias em aquários de 20 litros, consistiu de três tratamentos: A – 15,55mg CaCO3/L, B – 32,58mg CaCO3/L e C – 56,77mg CaCO3/L, com dezoito repetições cada. Foram monitorados os valores de temperatura, alcalinidade, dureza, cálcio, pH e condutividade da água. Foram determinados o crescimento em comprimento total, peso seco e peso úmido, as relações peso seco-comprimento total e o fator de condição relativo das larvas nos diferentes tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a manutenção de larvas de tilápia sob valor médio de alcalinidade de 32,58±5,64mg CaCO3/L, que proporcionou valor de cálcio de 13,27±1,44mg Ca+2/L (tratamento B, é recomendada por promover melhor crescimento em comprimento total (3,14±0,21cm, peso seco (67,66±14,95mg, peso úmido (415,40±90,75mg e fator de condição relativo (1,043The growth of Oreochromis niloticus larvae was studied in different levels of water alkalinity. The laboratory experiment, which was carried out over a period of 42 days in 20-liter aquariums, consisted of three treatments: A – 15.55mg CaCO3/L, B – 32.58mg CaCO3/L and C – 56.77mg CaCO3/L, with eighteen repetitions each. Water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, calcium, pH and conductivity values were monitored. The growth in total length, dry weight and wet weight were determined, as well as the relationships between dry weight and total length and the larvae relative condition factor in the different treatments. The result indicate that the maintenance of tilápia larvae under medium value of alkalinity of 32.58±5.64mg CaCO3/L, which provided calcium concentration of 13.27±1.44mg Ca+2/L (treatment B, is recommended for promoting better growth in total length (3.14±0.21cm, dry weight (67.66±14.95mg, wet weigh (415.40±90.75mg and relative condition

  1. Descriptions of the Larvae of Two Species of Paranomala and One Species of Strigoderma (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae from Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alfonso Cuate Mozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The third instar larvae of Paranomala flavilla  (Bates, P. hoepfneri  (Bates and Strigoderma costulipennis  Bates, collected in Puebla, Mexico, in soils cultivated with amaranth are described. Illustrations of the diagnostic structures and comments on the differences with other larvae of the genera studied in Mexico are included.CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS LARVAS DE DOS ESPECIES DE Paranomala Y UNA ESPECIE DE Strigoderma (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE: RUTELINAE DE PUEBLA, MÉXICO.Se presentan las descripciones de la larva de tercer estadio de Paranomala flavilla (Bates, P. hoepfneri (Bates y Strigoderma costulipennis Bates, recolectadas en el estado de Puebla, México, en suelos con cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.. Se incluyen ilustraciones distintivas y comentarios sobre las diferencias con las larvas de otras especies de los géneros estudiados en México.

  2. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  3. Primer registro de infestación en un reptil por larvas de Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Natalio Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma parvitarsum es una garrapata endémica del Altiplano Andino de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú. En la provincia de San Juan adultos de esta garrapata fueron encontrados en el Parque Nacional San Guillermo sobre Vicugna vicugna. En Argentina también existen citas de adultos de A. parvitarsum sobre bovinos, ovinos y el ñandú . El primer caso de parasitismo de larvas de A. parvitarsum en Liolaemus fue realizado en Chile. El presente trabajo menciona por primera vez para Argentina la presencia de larvas de A. parvitarsum parasitando al lagarto Liolaemus eleodori.

  4. Desenvolvimento e morfologia funcional dos estÃmagos de larvas e pÃs-larvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon Aguiar Melo

    2005-01-01

    O conhecimento sobre o correto regime alimentar das larvas e pÃslarvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda à considerado essencial para o sucesso no cultivo larval. InformaÃÃes sobre o desenvolvimento e morfologia dos apÃndices bucais e estÃmago destes crustÃceos tÃm auxiliado na identificaÃÃo de alimentos e condiÃÃes de cultivo satisfatÃrias para o aumento da sobrevivÃncia e do crescimento durante o desenvolvimento larval. O desenvolvimento da estrutura do estÃmago e da funÃÃo digestiva f...

  5. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  6. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  7. Mananoligossacarídeo em dietas para larvas de tilápia Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for tilapia larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kalko Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar níveis crescentes de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS na dieta de larvas de tilápias-do-nilo (linhagem Supreme® na fase de reversão sexual durante 30 dias. Larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (n=1500, P=0,01 g ± 0,001 g foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 30 tanques de 100 litros. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. A dieta controle (isenta de MOS foi elaborada para conter aproximadamente 35% de proteína bruta e 3.100 kcal de ED/kg. As demais foram suplementadas com 0; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% de MOS em substituição ao milho da dieta controle. Com o aumento nos níveis de MOS nas dietas, foi observado aumento linear sobre o comprimento do intestino, a altura das vilosidades intestinais e a densidade dos vilos. Não houve diferença na composição corporal, no ganho em peso, no peso final, no comprimento final, no fator de condição, na taxa de sobrevivência e no número de células caliciformes do intestino das larvas. Os níveis de MOS tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, cujos melhores resultados foram obtidos com 0,34% de MOS. A utilização de MOS no nível de 0,34% em dietas para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo melhora a conversão alimentar e promove aumento do comprimento do intestino, da altura das vilosidades e da densidade de vilos intestinal.This experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing levels of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS in the diet of Nile tilapia larvae (Supreme® at the sex reversal stage for 30 days. Nile tilapia larvae (n = 1500, p = 0.01 ± 0.001 g, were randomly distributed in 30 tanks of 100 liters each, for 30 days. The fish were distributed in a randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. The control diet (no MOS was elaborated to contain approximately 35% of crude protein and 3,100 kcal DE/kg. Mannanoligosaccharides were included in the other diets

  8. Composição, abundância e notas sobre a ecologia de espécies de larvas de lepidópteros associadas a cinco espécies de plantas hospedeiras no Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ Composition, abundance and notes on ecology of lepidopteran larvae associated with five plant species in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Monteiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a composição, ocorrência temporal e aspectos ecológicos das espécies de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a cinco espécies de plantas: Erythroxylum ovalifolium e E. subsessile (Erythroxylaceae, Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae, Protium icicariba e P. heptaphyllum (Burseraceae, 1.455 plantas foram vistoriadas durante o período de Julho de 2003 a Agosto de 2005 no Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (PNRJ. Foram encontradas 32 espécies de Lepidoptera associadas a essas cinco espécies de plantas hospedeiras, sendo que as quatro espécies mais abundantes pertenciam à família Elachistidae. Manilkara subsericea apresentou o maior número de espécies de Lepidoptera associadas, 14 espécies, seguida por E. ovalifolium, com 10 espécies, P. icicariba, com sete, E. subsessile com seis e P. heptaphyllum com duas espécies de Lepidoptera associadas. Apenas uma das 32 espécies de Lepidoptera criadas apresentava hábito gregário e 56% utilizavam algum tipo de abrigo para alimentação e/ou defesa. Seis espécies de Lepidoptera identificadas (27% eram polífagas, três (14% oligófagas e 13 (59% tiveram apenas uma única espécie de planta hospedeira registrada. As espécies mais abundantes de mariposas apresentaram dois períodos reprodutivos no ano, predominantemente, no inverno e outono. Fatores abióticos, como a forte insolação na primavera e verão na formação aberta de restinga, podem ser importantes determinando esse padrão temporal de reprodução dos insetos, mas não podemos descartar também fatores bióticos como a pressão de inimigos naturais.In order to describe the species composition, temporal occurrence and ecological aspects of larvae associated with five plant species: Erythroxylum ovalifolium and E. subsessile (Erythroxylaceae, Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae, Protium icicariba and P. heptaphyllum (Burseraceae, 1.680 plants were bimonthly surveyed from July of 2003 to August of 2005 in

  9. GC-EAD Response ofAnoplophora chinensis to Volatiles fromMelia azedarach%星天牛成虫对楝挥发性物质的GC-EAD反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳敏; 徐华潮

    2014-01-01

    Voltile organic compounds/VOCs fromMelia azedarach were collected by dynamic headspace and determined by TDS/ GC/MS. Response ofAnoplophora chinensis to VOCs was detected by GC-EAD. The result demonstrated that there were 20 types of VOCs fromM. azedarach, including 8 terpenoids(97.71%), 5 aromatics(1.021%), 3 alcohols(0.23%), 1 ketones(0.02%). GC-EAD detection showed that that the antenna ofA. chinensis were sensitive to five compounds. Beta-pinene had the most effective to the insect, and L-alpha-pinene, myrcene, styrene butadiene and myrtenol had litter effect.%采用活体植物动态顶空套袋法与气质联用分析技术,对楝(Melia azedarach)的挥发性化学物质进行分析,并且利用GC-EAD技术测定了星天牛(Anoplophora chinensis)成虫对楝挥发性化学物质的GC-EAD反应,结果表明:楝的挥发性化学物质有20种,其中含有萜烯类化合物(97.71%)8种,烃类化合物(1.021%)5种,醇类化合物(0.23%)3种,酮类化合物(0.02%)1种;星天牛成虫的触角对5种化合物的刺激作用比较敏感,其中对β-蒎烯刺激活性最高,对左旋-α-蒎烯、月桂烯、丁苯、桃金娘烯醇有较轻微的反应。

  10. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  11. Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Liliam Dalla Corte; Mariana Vale Scribel da Silva; Paulo Ricardo Martins Souza

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to ...

  12. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  13. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to ob

  14. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS LARVAS DE DOS ESPECIES DE Paranomala Y UNA ESPECIE DE Strigoderma (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE: RUTELINAE DE PUEBLA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR ALFONSO CUATE MOZO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las descripciones de la larva de tercer estadio de Paranomala flavilla (Bates, P. hoepfneri (Bates y Strigoderma costulipennis Bates, recolectadas en el estado de Puebla, México, en suelos con cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.. Se incluyen ilustraciones distintivas y comentarios sobre las diferencias con las larvas de otras especies de los géneros estudiados en México.

  15. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  16. Kemampuan Larva Oryctes Rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Menularkan Cendawan Metarhizium Anisopliae Ke Larva Sehat Di Pertanaman Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Perabu Jaya Sitepu

    2009-01-01

    Perabu Jaya Sitepu, Kemampuan larva Oryctes rhinoceros menularkan Metharizium anisopliae ke larva sehat di pertanaman kelapa sawit. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan larva O. rhinoceros menularkan M. anisopliae ke larva O. rhinoceros yang lain di lapangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) Non Faktorial yang terdiri dari 4 perlakuan dan enam ulangan yaitu : L1 (kontrol), L2 (5 larva dilumuri M. anisoplioae), L3 (10 larva dilumuri M. anisoplioae), L4 (15 la...

  17. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  18. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  19. Analysis of Fruit Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Kernel Oil in Azadirachta indica ×Melia azedarach%杂交楝果实含油量及籽油脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春玲; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    The fruit oil content of 7-years-old hybrid neem tree which was produced from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Melia azedarach by somatic hybridization technology, and the fatty acid composition of seed kernel oil were analyzed. Results showed lower oil content in fruit peel and fruit pulp, i.e. 1.65 % and 1.53 %, respectively. However, high oil content (39.20 % ) in seed kernel was found. Seed kernel oil was analyzed by GC-MS and six kinds of fatty acids were determined. There were linoleic acid( C18 : 2) 67.00 % , oleic acid ( C18 : 1 ) 18.03 % , palmitic acid ( C16 : 0 ) 8.96 %, stearic acid ( C18 : 0 ) 3.94 %, arachidic acid (C20:0)0.35 % and unknown fatty acid 1.72 %. The content of unsaturated fatty acid of seed kernel oil was 85.03%. Compared with the M. azedarach, the oil content of hybrid neem tree seed kernel was 1.6 percentage points higher.%对印楝和苦楝2个亲本采用体细胞融合技术杂交形成的7年生杂交楝进行了果实含油量测定,并对其籽油进行了脂肪酸组成分析。结果表明:果皮和果肉含油量较低,分别为1.65%和1.53%;种仁含油量较高,为39.20%。种仁经提取获得籽油后进行甲酯化处理,再进行GC—MS分析,共检测出6种脂肪酸。它们是亚油酸(C18:2)67.00%、油酸(C18:1)18.03%、棕榈酸(C16:0)8.96%、硬脂酸(C18:0)3.94%、花生酸(C20:0)0.35%和未知脂肪酸1.72%;其中不饱和脂肪酸占85.03%。杂交楝种仁含油量比苦楝高出1.6个百分点。

  20. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue.

  1. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers.

  2. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... 1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae......Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...

  5. Ocular larva migrans: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyness, R. W.; Earley, O E; Logan, W C; Archer, D B

    1987-01-01

    A case of intraocular toxocara larva migrans occurring in a 12-year-old boy is presented. Motility is inferred from the nature of multiple intraocular lesions observed. Possible mechanisms preventing a conclusive immunological response to the organism are discussed.

  6. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  7. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  8. 不同林龄杂交楝(Azadirachta indica× Melia azedarach)人工林土壤水土保持功能研究%Soil and Water Conservation Functions of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach Plantation at Different Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成向荣; 虞木奎; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    为了明确林龄对杂交楝(印楝×苦楝)人工林土壤水土保持功能的影响,通过测定土壤持水能力、渗透能力和抗蚀能力来综合评价不同林龄杂交楝人工林保持水土功能.结果表明,随着杂交楝林龄增加,林地土壤孔隙结构得到改善、持水性能增加、渗透能力增大,提高了土壤水稳性指数,增加了土壤抗蚀性,土壤水土保持功能得到增强.3年生杂交楝林分的土壤持水性能、渗透能力和抗蚀性与1年生林分之间无显著差异,5年生杂交楝林地各指标均比1年生和3年生林分有显著提高.5年生杂交楝林地的土壤最大持水量、总孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度、平均渗透速率和水稳性指数分别比1年生林地增加18.6%、11.4%、19.8%、45%、30.1%.因此,种植杂交楝可以在短期内提高林分的土壤水土保持功能,在山地丘陵地区值得大力发展杂交楝.%In order to evaluate the effect of forest age of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach (hybrid neem tree) plantation on soil and water conservation function, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity and erosion resistance of hybrid neem plantation in different ages were studied. The results showed that soil pore structure, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance increased with the increase of hybrid neem stand age, soil and water conservation function was further enhanced. Soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance were not significant difference between 3-year-old and 1-year-old hybrid neem stands, however, these variables of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand were significantly higher than that of 1-year-old and 3-year-old stands. Compared to 1-year-old stand, maximal soil water-holding capacity, total porosity, non-capillary porosity, the average infiltration rate and water stability index of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand increased by 18.6%, 11.4%, 19.8%, 45

  9. 苦楝种源幼林期生长性状地理变异的研究%Geographic variations in growth traits of different Melia azedarach provenances in the young forest period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 廖柏勇; 王芳; 陈丽君; 阙青敏; 陈晓阳

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To study the geographic variations and trends in growth traits of different Melia a-zedarach provenances, select appropriate M. azedarach provenances for afforestation in Guangdong Prov-ince, and provide the basis for seed allocation.[Method] The provenance test on M. azedarach from 53 provenances was conducted in Zengcheng, Guangzhou. Growth traits including tree height, ground diam-eter, branch number, trunk shape and crown were measured. The geographic variations, their trends, and their climatic and ecological basis were explored. [Results]There were significant differences among provenances for the tested six traits:Height and diameter showed the highest variations with the ranges of 5-280 cm and 1. 2-64. 0 cm respectively. Except that trunk shape showed a significant level of varia-tion ( P<0. 05 ) , the other five traits all showed highly significant differences ( P<0. 01 ) . The repeat-ability of height, east-west crown and south-north crown were above 40%, suggesting that their variations among provenances were relatively more stable compared to other traits. The repeatability of ground diam-eter was only 29. 92%, indicating low stability of the variation. Regarding the geographic variations in growth traits of M. azedarach at seedling stage, the growth rate of the seedlings decreased as the prove-nances changed from south to north. The provenances which originated from high altitude grew faster compared to low altitude. The growth traits were influenced by multiple factors including longitude, lati-tude and altitude, among which latitude was the key factor. In addition, there were apparent climatic and ecological characteristics in the geographic variations of growth traits. The seedlings grew faster and had larger biomass for the provenances from areas of higher temperature, higher mean minimum temperature, more sunshine, more precipitation, and lower atmospheric pressure. Based on the growth traits of young forest, the 53 provenances were

  10. Mortalidad en larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus (díptera: culicidae, causada con un producto de Bacillus sphaericus (bacteria: bacillaceae en presentación granulada en condiciones experimentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cárdenas Castro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue ensayar una serie de concentraciones de un producto granulado preparado con Bacillus sphaericus, sobre larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus en condiciones de laboratorio. Se utilizaron once concentraciones (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 y 500 ppm sobre larvas de An. albimanus, y ocho concentraciones diez veces menores (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 y 16 ppm sobre larvas de Cx. quinquefasciatus. Se utilizaron 60 larvas y un control con 20 larvas por concentración. El tiempo de exposición fue de 48 h, a una temperatura de 28 ± 2 ºC. Para estimar las concentraciones letales 50 y 95 se utilizó la prueba Probit. Se encontró una CL95 de B. sphaericus entre 6,45 y 7,28 ppm para larvas de Cx. quinquefasciatus; mientras que en larvas de An. albimanus se observó una CL95 entre 450,56 y 466,76 ppm.

  11. Notas sobre fanerógamas de la flora argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se informa la existencia en Argentina de ocho especies de pastos marinos no catalogados. Ellos son Bromus inermis, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, Melia azedarach, Anethum graueolens, Costus pilgeri, Desmodium arechaualetae  e Ipomoea morongii. Se menciona también el cultivo de Gymnopogon biflorus y Heteropterys angustifolia.

  12. Performance of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae fed on artificial diets Desempenho das larvas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae alimentadas com dietas artificiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. L. Fontellas-Brandalha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas das frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 são conhecidas por sua importância econômica devido aos danos que elas causam nos frutos comerciais. As exigências nutricionais dos estágios imaturo e adulto são diferentes e as larvas não se desenvolvem bem utilizando a mesma dieta do adulto. Embora as necessidades nutricionais básicas dos insetos sejam bem conhecidas, existe ainda o problema de elaborar dietas de criação adequadas para espécies com necessidades específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes tipos e quantidades de carboidratos na dieta sobre a performance larval de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Larvas foram criadas individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo uma das dietas artificiais a serem testadas onde elas foram mantidas até a pupação. A composição básica das dietas testadas incluia 2,5 g de agar, 3,25 g de levedo de cerveja e quantidades variadas de sacarose e farinha de trigo. A adequação do meio artificial para A. obliqua foi testada pela avaliação da sobrevivência larval e pupal (% e o tempo de desenvolvimento larval, pupal e de larva-adulto. A dieta contendo farinha de trigo (2 g e sacarose (2 g e a dieta somente com sacarose (5,5 g foram as que apresentaram melhor performance larval. Todas as dietas testadas apresentaram resultados similares ou superiores às dietas utilizadas em outros trabalhos. A importância da presença da farinha de trigo e seu valor nutricional para as larvas são discutidos.Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 are well-known for having economical importance since they damage commercially cultivated fruits. Nutritional demands during the immature and adult stages are different, so the larvae do not develop well using the same diet as the adults. Although the insect basic nutritional needs are well-known, there is also the challenge to elaborate rearing diets adequate to species with specific needs. The aim of this study

  13. Live and formulated diet evaluation through initial growth and survival of jundiá larvae, Rhamdia quelen Alimento vivo e formulado, crescimento inicial e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro

    2003-12-01

    éplicas foram alimentadas ad libitum com uma das três dietas por 20 (para DF ou 48 dias (para AL ou a combinação DF + AL. As larvas alimentadas com apenas DF apresentaram crescimento e sobrevivência reduzidos quando comparadas àquelas alimentadas com AL ou a combinação DF + AL. Adicionalmente, as larvas do tratamento DF + AL apresentaram maior crescimento em peso (170 mg que aquelas alimentadas apenas com AL (110 mg. O melhor desempenho das larvas alimentadas com DF + AL mostra que a maioria dos nutrientes exigidos pelas larvas é fornecida mais adequadamente quando ambas as dietas são fornecidas juntamente. Contudo, trabalhos sobre nutrição larval poderão contribuir ainda mais sobre a elucidação deste tema quando feitas comparações com o uso combinado de DF + AL, do que apenas testando isoladamente novos ingredientes e fontes protéicas normalmente utilizadas na elaboração de dietas para juvenis e adultos.

  14. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento

  15. Tingkat Kepadatan Larva Anopheles spp. di Delta Lakkang Kecamatan Tallo Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Mardilah

    2016-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang tingkat kepadatan larva Anopheles spp di Delta Lakkang Kecamatan Tallo. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kepadatan larva dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode observasi dengan mengambil larva nyamuk selanjutnya dipelihara kemudian dilakukan perhitungan tingkat kepadatan larva. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kepadatan larva Anopheles tertinggi ditemukan di bagian barat dengan jumlah larva 179 larva p...

  16. PERKEMBANGAN AWAL LARVA KERAPU KERTANG (Epinephelus lanceolatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Observasi pada larva kerapu kertang (E. lanceolatus dilaksanakan di Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut (BBRPBL, Gondol-Bali, untuk mengumpulkan informasi dasar tentang perkembangan awal morfologi larva yang penting untuk menunjang keberhasilan pembenihannya. Larva berasal dari telur hasil pemijahan yang dirangsang dengan hormon (di Taiwan dan ditransportasikan segera setelah menetas (D-0 melalui transportasi udara ke laboratotium pembenihan BBRPBL, Gondol. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan fasilitas tangki 500 L dengan sistem air resirkulasi. Dari data yang dihimpun diketahui bahwa rata-rata panjang total larva (D-1 2,48 mm; D-8 3,17 mm; dan tumbuh dengan cepat mencapai 10,79 mm pada D-19. Kuning telur larva yang berumur sehari (D-1 rata-rata bervolume 150,3 x 10-4 mm3 dan pada hari ketiga terserap 42,61% dan habis pada hari keempat (D-4. Butir minyak larva D-1 sebesar 41,9 x 10-4 mm3 dan masih tersisa sebesar 0,34 x 10-4 mm3 sampai dengan D-6. Mulut larva diperhitungkan sudah mencapai lebar sebesar 200 μm pada D-2. dan mampu untuk memangsa rotifer sejalan dengan pigmentasi mata yang mulai terjadi pada D-2 dan sempurna pada D-3. Dari analisis pertumbuhan terjadi titik belok (flexion point pada D-8 dan setelah itu terjadi kurva pertumbuhan yang cepat y= 0,6747x-2,5508. Berdasarkan hasil observasi tersebut maka pemberian pakan awal untuk larva kerapu kertang sudah bisa diberikan pada D-2 akhir (sore, pada D-8 komposisi pakan alami sudah harus diubah dengan memberikan pakan yang lebih besar dan bernutrisi tinggi. Observation on early development of E. lanceolatus larvae have been conducted in laboratory condition at Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture (GRIM Bali; the purpose was to gain basic data mainly on the larval development stage to support both larval rearing and aquaculture technique of this species. The larvae from egg were produced by induced spawning technique and transported on D-0 to GRIM. Observation have been

  17. Quantifying and predicting Drosophila larvae crawling phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Maximilian N.; Nettesheim, Guilherme; Shubeita, George T.

    2016-06-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for cell biology, development, disease, and neuroscience. The fly’s power as a genetic model for disease and neuroscience can be augmented by a quantitative description of its behavior. Here we show that we can accurately account for the complex and unique crawling patterns exhibited by individual Drosophila larvae using a small set of four parameters obtained from the trajectories of a few crawling larvae. The values of these parameters change for larvae from different genetic mutants, as we demonstrate for fly models of Alzheimer’s disease and the Fragile X syndrome, allowing applications such as genetic or drug screens. Using the quantitative model of larval crawling developed here we use the mutant-specific parameters to robustly simulate larval crawling, which allows estimating the feasibility of laborious experimental assays and aids in their design.

  18. Incidence of ascaridoid larvae in Kuwaiti food fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sey, O; Petter, A J

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred and six fish of 83 species were carefully examined in Kuwait during the period from October 1992 to September 1995 for ascaridoid larvae. Thirty-nine fishes (12.7%) belonging to 23 species were infected with 9 types of ascaridoid third-stage larvae: Anisakis simplex, Terranva spp, Contracaecum spp and 6 different types of Hysterothylacium spp (KA-KF). Hysterothylacium larvae (including all types) were found in all the infected fish except one (94.6%); Terranova larvae were found in 12 fishes (10 species, 56.1%); Anisakis simplex larvae occurred in 2 fishes (2 species, 8.6%) and Contracaecum spp larvae in one fish only.

  19. Attraction to and learning from social cues in fruitfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2013-09-22

    We examined the use of social information in fruitfly larvae, which represent an ideal model system owing to their robust learning abilities, small number of neurons and well-studied neurogenetics. Focal larvae showed attraction to the distinct odour emanating from food occupied by other larvae. In controlled learning experiments, focal larvae preferred novel odours previously paired with food occupied by other larvae over novel odours previously paired with unoccupied food. When we gave groups of larvae a choice between food patches differing in quality, more larvae aggregated on the higher-quality food, suggesting that attraction to and learning about cues associated with other larvae can be beneficial. Furthermore, larvae were more likely to find the best available food patch in trials when that food patch was occupied by other larvae than in trials when that food patch was unoccupied. Our data suggest, however, that the benefits from joining others may be at least partially offset by the fitness costs of increased competition, because larvae reared in isolation did as well as or better than larvae reared in groups on three key fitness parameters: developmental rate, survival rate and adult dry body mass. Our work establishes fruitfly larvae as a highly tractable model species for further research on the mechanisms that modulate behaviour and learning in a social context.

  20. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SJ to ST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    the Indian Ocean, their regional, seasonal as well as diurnal variations. Engyprosopon grandisquamis dominated contributing to 23.2% of the total larvae. Numerically the incidence of bothid larvae suggested a uniform pattern of distribution during the two...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OY to PI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names V to Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names BCE to BZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SU to TE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LB to LI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AS to BA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MB to MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LJ to MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names EV to GN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names A to AM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names Q to SA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HJ to ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PP to PZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names ED to EU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PL to PO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AN to AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MP to NA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  8. Appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Rohwedder, Astrid; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Thum, Andreas S

    2013-02-18

    In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative learning in a simple larval brain. Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary organization of the nervous system comprising only about 10,000 neurons (albeit with some concessions: cognitive limitations, few behavioral options, and richness of experience questionable). Drosophila larvae can form associations between odors and appetitive gustatory reinforcement like sugar. In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement. Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). In the following both groups are tested for their preference between the two odors. Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning--presented as a performance index (PI). The conclusion regarding the associative

  9. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso Visceral larva migrans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bortoli Machado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs from the environment originating from roundworms which commonly infect dogs and cats, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate through the tissues causing disorders consequent to an inflammatory immune response¹. The authors describe a clinical case of visceral larva migrans with an unusual clinical presentation and also its clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  10. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS(LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE ACCEPTANCE OF AN ARTIFICIAL DIET FOR CATERPILLARS OF THE BUTTERFLY BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Claro

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de dietas artificiales para la alimentación de larvas de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. A las larvas se les ofrecieron dietas en diferentes presentaciones y composiciones: en discos, vertida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero y plantas hospedero como control. La composición de la dieta se realizó de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la planta hospedera, Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae. La longevidad de las larvas, criadas en laboratorio, se vio afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. Solo se finalizó el ciclo de desarrollo entre las larvas alimentadas con hojas jóvenes de la planta (control y con dieta esparcida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero; las curvas de sobrevivencia no presentaron diferencias significativas entre las larvas sostenidas con estos dos tratamientos. En contraste, las tasas de crecimiento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento, obteniéndose mayor biomasa en las alimentadas con hojas con suplemento. Se sustenta la cría de mariposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial como suplemento esparcido sobre hojas del hospedero bajo condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.We evaluated the acceptability of an artificial diet for the feeding larval stage of the butterfly Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae under control conditions. We offered to the larvae a diet in different forms and composition: disks, spilled like a supplement over the host sheet plant and host plant like a control. The diet composition was made according with preliminary essays and nutritional analyses to the larvae and the host plant, Aristolochia maxima. The longevity of the

  11. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  12. Predatory cannibalism in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2013-01-01

    Hunting live prey is risky and thought to require specialized adaptations. Therefore, observations of predatory cannibalism in otherwise non-carnivorous animals raise questions about its function, adaptive significance and evolutionary potential. Here we document predatory cannibalism on larger conspecifics in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and address its evolutionary significance. We found that under crowded laboratory conditions younger larvae regularly attack and consume 'wandering-stage' conspecifics, forming aggregations mediated by chemical cues from the attacked victim. Nutrition gained this way can be significant: an exclusively cannibalistic diet was sufficient for normal development from eggs to fertile adults. Cannibalistic diet also induced plasticity of larval mouth parts. Finally, during 118 generations of experimental evolution, replicated populations maintained under larval malnutrition evolved enhanced propensity towards cannibalism. These results suggest that, at least under laboratory conditions, predation on conspecifics in Drosophila is a functional, adaptive behaviour, which can rapidly evolve in response to nutritional conditions.

  13. Toxicidade aguda do nitrito em larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae Acute toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Sampaio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a determinar o efeito tóxico do nitrito sobre larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis através de testes agudos com 96h de duração. As larvas utilizadas neste experimento foram cultivadas no Laboratório de Maricultura da FURG (Rio Grande - RS. Foi utilizada água do mar filtrada na salinidade 35‰, na temperatura de 23°C, com fotoperíodo de 14 horas de luz e aeração constante. Diariamente, as larvas mortas foram retiradas e, em seguida, 100% do meio experimental foi renovado. Não foi fornecido alimento durante a exposição ao nitrito. As larvas foram expostas a cinco concentrações de nitrito: 50, 150, 250, 350 e 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, mais um controle onde o nitrito não foi adicionado. A CL50-96h (concentração letal para 50% dos organismos após 96 horas e seu intervalo de confiança (95% foram de 199,3 (142,0-279,6mg L-1 N-NO2-. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que, assim como outras espécies de peixes marinhos, o O. argentinensis é uma espécie tolerante a altas concentrações de nitrito e é pouco provável que este último seja um problema para o cultivo intensivo desta espécie.This work evaluated the toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis through acute exposure during 96h. Larvae used in this experiment were cultivated in the Laboratory of Mariculture of the University of Rio Grande. During the tests temperature was 23°C, salinity 35‰, and 14 hours of light were provided. Every day dead larvae were removed and the experimental media were completely renewed. Larvae were deprived of food during the test. Concentrations for the acute tests were 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, plus a control with no nitrite added. Lethal concentration for 50% of the organisms (LC50-96h, and its confidence interval, was 199.3 (142.0-279.6mg L-1 N-NO2-. The results of the acute tests suggest that, as other species of marine fish larvae, O. argentinensis is

  14. Seletividade de inseticidas utilizados em cultura cafeeira para larvas de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant Selectivity of insecticides used in the coffee crop to larvae of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assim como a maioria dos cultivos, em cafeeiro, a associação de inimigos naturais com produtos fitossanitários seletivos é uma importante estratégia no manejo integrado de pragas (MIP. Dessa forma, este estudo objetivou avaliar a seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura cafeeira sobre larvas de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 1853 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, em laboratório. Os bioensaios foram realizados em condições controladas (25±2°C, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Cada bioensaio consistiu em seis tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por duas larvas. Para as comparações das médias dos tratamentos, empregou-se um esquema fatorial inteiramente ao acaso de produtos x número de instares para os diferentes instares subsequentes à aplicação. Os inseticidas utilizados e suas respectivas dosagens de aplicação, em g de i.a. L-1 foram: tiametoxam (0,5, imidacloprido (0,7, óleo mineral (13,3, endossulfam (2,63 e dimetoato (0,48. A testemunha foi composta apenas por água destilada. A aplicação dos produtos foi realizada por meio de torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se a sobrevivência dos espécimes após serem contaminados com os produtos e os efeitos dos compostos sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos do predador. Tiametoxam (0,5, imidacloprido (0,7 e endossulfam (2,63 foram os mais prejudiciais, tendo sido observados, para os dois primeiros, 100% de mortalidade de larvas de primeiro e de segundo instares um dia após a aplicação e significativa redução na sobrevivência das larvas de terceiro e quarto instares. Dimetoato (0,48 foi nocivo para larvas de primeiro instar e levemente nocivo para larvas de quarto instar. Em função da seletividade apresentada pelo óleo mineral (13,3, este pode ser recomendado em compatibilização com o predador C. montrouzieri em programas de MIP na cultura cafeeira, sem prejuízo ao desempenho do inimigo natural.As well as most of the crops, in coffee crop, the

  15. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental.

  16. Learning and Memory in Zebrafish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Christopher Roberts; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promisi...

  17. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promisin...

  18. Estimulantes alimentares para larvas de pacu Feeding stimulants for pacu lavae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Tesser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar o efeito estimulante de cinco aminoácidos (alanina, arginina, glicina, histidina e lisina da betaína e de suas misturas sobre a taxa de ingestão de dieta microencapsulada durante o desenvolvimento larval de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Os resultados da análise estatística comprovaram a existência de efeito significativo, tanto da idade das larvas como dos aminoácidos, sobre a taxa de ingestão. No entanto, não houve significância estatística para a interação dos dois fatores. A glicina, a lisina e a beta��na foram considerados bons estimuladores do comportamento alimentar de larvas de pacu.The present study aimed to investigate the stimulant effect of five amino acids (alanine, arginine, glycine, histidine and lysine from betaine and their mixtures on the ingestion rates of formulated diet during the larval development of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. The statistical results showed significant effect of age and treatment. However, no significant effect was observed for the interaction of both factors. Glycine, lysine and betaine are considered good stimulants of the pacu feeding behavior.

  19. Spring phenology variation of Guangxi bead tree (Melia azedarach) based on GIS technology%基于GIS技术的广西苦楝春季物候变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 李耀先; 符合; 史彩霞; 莫建飞; 李永健

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]In this study, the phenological changes of bead tree (Melia azedarach) during spring time in Guangxi were analyzed. [Method]By mainly using Guangxi phenological data and conventional meteorological observation data combined with geographic spatial data, the special functions of geographical information system were statistical analyzed. [Result]During various phenological periods in Guangxi, the geographical factors were affected in different degrees. During the nutritional phenological period, the effect of longitude on phenological periods was slightly larger than that of latitude; however, during the reproductive phenological period, the effect of latitude was slightly larger than that of longitude. From the meteorological factor perspective and the geographical factor perspective, the phenological change regulation of bear tree during spring time in Guangxi was analyzed with roughly the same results as this resulting research data. [ Conclusion ] Guangxi bear tree phenological period was postponed from west to east, from south to north, and from plain valley to the mountains. The biggest influencing meteorological factor on phenology of bear tree in spring time was temperature, and the effecting time was mainly concentrated around 1 month to 3 months before phenology.%[目的]对广西苦楝春季物候变化的规律进行分析研究.[方法]主要采用广西物候资料、气象常规观测数据,结合相应地理空间数据资料,基于地理信息系统的空间分析功能进行统计分析.[结果]不同的物候期受地理因素影响的程度不同,在其营养时期的物候期受经度影响比纬度影响略大,在其生殖时期的物候期受纬度影响比经度影响大.从气象因子角度和地理因子角度分析可得到大致相同的广西苦楝春季物候变化的规律.[结论]广西苦楝物候期发生的时间是自西向东、自南向北、从河谷平原到山区推迟;对苦楝春季物候影响最大的气象

  20. Impuesto sobre la renta

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Grup d'Innovació Docent en Economia dels Impostos (GIDEI)

    2016-01-01

    Tema 7. Esquema de presentación del tema "Impuesto sobre la renta". Incorpora datos actuales, gráficos, cuadros y tablas. Esquema de presentació del tema "Impuesto sobre la renta". Incorpora dades actuals, gràfics, quadres i taules.

  1. Impuesto sobre sociedades

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Grup d'Innovació Docent en Economia dels Impostos

    2016-01-01

    Tema 8. Esquemas de la presentación del tema "Impuesto sobre sociedades". Incorpora datos actuales, gráficos, cuadros y tablas. Esquemes de la presentació del tema "Impuesto sobre sociedades". Incorpora dades actuals, gràfics, quadres i taules

  2. Digital signage sobre IP

    OpenAIRE

    Casademont Filella, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Projecte que versa sobre el disseny i la implementació d'un sistema de Digital Signage (Cartelleria Digital) sobre IP, creant un gestor que permeti controlar de forma remota tot un conjunt de petits dispositius connectats a pantalles que emeten continguts multimèdia com vídeos, imatges, feeds rss...

  3. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  4. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  5. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPHAGOUS SCARABAEIDAE (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA LARVAE IN DIFFERENT SUCCESSION CROP SYSTEMS OCORRÊNCIA DE LARVAS DE SCARABAEIDAE FITÓFAGOS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE SUCESSÃO DE CULTURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elison Floriano Tiago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about Scarabaeidae phytophagous are still rare for the Center-West Region of Brazil. Thus, in the experimental area of the Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, the succession of soybean, maize, and forage turnip was sowed from February 2004 to October 2005, when the larvae population dynamics was evaluated. From October 2006 to May 2008, nine succession systems were sowed, the larval density evaluated, and the identification of the current species was carried out. When the larvae were sampled for soybean, in January 2005 and 2006, the highest densities were found in the field (3.44 larvae m-2 and 4.19 larvae m-2, respectively. The forage turnip, sampled in October 2004 and 2005, showed the lowest densities (0.03 larvae m-2 and 0.02 larvae m-2, respectively. In the crop succession systems, the following species were found: Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (highest amount, Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard, Paranomala inconstans (Burmeister, Geniates borelli Camerano, Cyclocephala forsteri Endrodi, Cyclocephala verticalis Burmeister, and Phyllophaga sp. For the succession systems with maize sowed at the traditional season, the highest larval densities were found, specially favoring the development of L. fuscus, while the succession systems with soybean, maize, and under fallow, and soybean, crotalaria, and forage turnip, as well as the three systems with cotton-plant, did not favor it.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; Glycine max; Raphanus sativus; soil pests; larvae density.Informações sobre Scarabaeidae fitófagos são ainda escassas para a região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Por esta razão, na área experimental da Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, em Aquidauana (MS, foi semeada, de fevereiro de 2004 a outubro de 2005, a sucessão de culturas soja, milho e nabo forrageiro, onde se avaliou a dinâmica da densidade larval. De outubro de 2006 a maio

  6. Influência de diferentes níveis de ph, no desempenho de ovos, larvas e pós-larvas de Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Arthur Augusto

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. A concentração e volume de sêmen foram avaliados e machos de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, sem indução hormonal. A motilidade espermática em pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9 foi avaliada, em machos induzidos e não induzidos. A influência desses pH descritos sobre ovos e larvas de jundiá, em diferentes desovas, com diferentes temperaturas, também foi examinada, no intervalo entre fertilização e abertura da boca das ...

  7. Self-mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Zhang, Bryan; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  8. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  9. Learning and Memory in Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Christopher Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory.

  10. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory.

  11. PEMIJAHAN DAN PEMELIHARAAN LARVA IKAN BERONANG (Siganus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lante

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Untuk menghasilkan benih ikan beronang Siganus guttatus yang baik, maka penanganan induk yang meliputi: pemeliharaan, pematangan gonad dengan implan pelet hormon LHRH-a, dan penambahan vitamin C dalam pakan serta pemeriksaan siap pijah sangat penting. Pengamatan perkembangan embrio dalam telur dan larva pada tahap awal, penyediaan pakan alami serta pemeliharaan larva merupakan tahap lanjutan dari pemeliharaan larva yang baik, maka benih-benih ikan Siganus guttatus yang dihasilkan juga akan baik.

  12. Larvae of Nearshore Fishes in Oceanic Waters near Oahu, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Larvae of over 50 families of nearshore fishes were taken in oceanic waters about 13 km offshore of the leeward (southwest) coast of Oahu, Hawaii during 1977-78, The five most frequently taken families (Labridae, Parapercidae, Serranidae, Gobiidae, and Carangidae) made up over 50% of the total nearshore larvae. Most other families were taken very infrequently. Comparison of catch data from three types of nets indicated that 1.25-m diameter bongo nets often sampled larvae as well or better tha...

  13. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  15. Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nilssen

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

  16. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  17. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alex; Louis, Matthieu; Webb, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  18. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  19. Metamorphosis of cinctoblastula larvae (Homoscleromorpha, porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Tokina, Daria B; Bézac, Chantal; Boury-Esnault, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    The metamorphosis of the cinctoblastula of Homoscleromorpha is studied in five species belonging to three genera. The different steps of metamorphosis are similar in all species. The metamorphosis occurs by the invagination and involution of either the anterior epithelium or the posterior epithelium of the larva. During metamorphosis, morphogenetic polymorphism was observed, which has an individual character and does not depend on either external or species specific factors. In the rhagon, the development of the aquiferous system occurs only by epithelial morphogenesis and subsequent differentiation of cells. Mesohylar cells derive from flagellated cells after ingression. The formation of pinacoderm and choanoderm occurs by the differentiation of the larval flagellated epithelium. This is possibly due to the conservation of cell junctions in the external surface of the larval flagellated cells and of the basement membrane in their internal surface. The main difference in homoscleromorph metamorphosis compared with Demospongiae is the persistence of the flagellated epithelium throughout this process and even in the adult since exo- and endopinacoderm remain flagellated. The antero-posterior axis of the larva corresponds to the baso-apical axis of the adult in Homoscleromorpha.

  20. Biocirugía: utilización de larvas de insectos necrófagos en la curación de heridas. La terapia larval

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Corredor, Magda-Carolina; Chuaire-Noack, Lilian; Narváez, Raúl; Segura, Nidya Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    La terapia larval es una técnica que permite aplicarlas larvas de algunas especies de dípteros sobre heridas crónicas o sobre focos de infección localizados, con la finalidad de restaurar el tejido afectado. La velocidad y la eficacia del tratamiento, sumadas a la casi nula pérdida de tejido sano durante el proceso de reparación tisular, han hecho de la terapia larval o biocirugía una alternativa viable para la curación de heridas asociadas con entidades como pie diabético, úlceras venosas, ú...

  1. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  2. Escenarios evolutivos en larvas y adultos de Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera analizados en función de diferentes hipótesis filogenéticas Evolutionary scenarios in larvae and adults of Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera under different phylogenetic hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Archangelsky

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan cinco hipótesis filogenéticas de las relaciones, a nivel de familia, de la superfamilia Hydrophiloidea (s.str. en función de la evolución de cuatro caracteres bionómicos y morfológicos: hábitat de adultos (acuático o ripario, hábitat de larvas (terrestre, acuático o ripario, tipo de sistema respiratorio en larvas (holopnéustico o metapnéustico y número de segmentos abdominales en larvas (décimo segmento no reducido o décimo segmento reducido. Si bien no se favorece una hipótesis sobre la otra, éstas se evalúan por el nivel explicativo de la secuencia de cambios de estado de los caracteres de interés, y se destaca cuáles de ellas explican de forma más parsimoniosa la secuencia de cambios.The evolution of four bionomic and morphological characters is compared under five different phylogenetic hypotheses depicting the family relationships of the superfamily Hydrophiloidea (s.str.. These characters are: adult habitat (aquatic or riparian, larval habitat (terrestrial, aquatic or riparian, type of respiratory system in larvae (holopneustic or metapneustic and number of abdominal segments in larvae (tenth segment not reduced or tenth segment reduced. Even though no phylogenetic hypothesis is favored above the others, they are evaluated according to how they explain the sequence of state changes of the above mentioned characters, and those that explain this sequence more parsimoniously are brought out.

  3. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  4. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of coco

  5. Prey capture of pike Esox lucius larvae in turbid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, M; Engström-Ost, J

    2010-06-01

    Pike Esox lucius larvae captured fewer calanoid and cyclopoid copepods in turbid than in clear water, whereas no differences were detected in feeding rates on Daphnia longispina. Decreased capture of copepods may lead to lower growth and survival of E. lucius larvae in turbid areas, in particular, if cladocerans are scarce.

  6. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  7. Active downward propulsion by oyster larvae in turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Hunter, Elias J; Schmitt, Erika L; Guazzo, Regina A

    2013-04-15

    Oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) could enhance their settlement success by moving toward the seafloor in the strong turbulence associated with coastal habitats. We characterized the behavior of individual oyster larvae in grid-generated turbulence by measuring larval velocities and flow velocities simultaneously using infrared particle image velocimetry. We estimated larval behavioral velocities and propulsive forces as functions of the kinetic energy dissipation rate ε, strain rate γ, vorticity ξ and acceleration α. In calm water most larvae had near-zero vertical velocities despite propelling themselves upward (swimming). In stronger turbulence all larvae used more propulsive force, but relative to the larval axis, larvae propelled themselves downward (diving) instead of upward more frequently and more forcefully. Vertical velocity magnitudes of both swimmers and divers increased with turbulence, but the swimming velocity leveled off as larvae were rotated away from their stable, velum-up orientation in strong turbulence. Diving speeds rose steadily with turbulence intensity to several times the terminal fall velocity in still water. Rapid dives may require a switch from ciliary swimming to another propulsive mode such as flapping the velum, which would become energetically efficient at the intermediate Reynolds numbers attained by larvae in strong turbulence. We expected larvae to respond to spatial or temporal velocity gradients, but although the diving frequency changed abruptly at a threshold acceleration, the variation in propulsive force and behavioral velocity was best explained by the dissipation rate. Downward propulsion could enhance oyster larval settlement by raising the probability of larval contact with oyster reef patches.

  8. Rapid bioassay to screen potential biopesticides in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simplified assay was devised to evaluate the response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to potential insect control products. The assay incorporates punched disks of flattened whole-grain bread placed in 96-well plates, with treatments applied topically, and neonate larvae added to each well. To evalua...

  9. Cultivation of sponge larvae: settlement, survival, and growth of juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Otjens, H.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to culture sponge juveniles from larvae. Starting from larvae we expected to enhance the survival and growth, and to decrease the variation in these parameters during the sponge cultures. First, settlement success, morphological changes during metamorphosis, and survival of

  10. [Tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans: unpleasant travel souvenirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-12-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) and cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption) are parasitic skin diseases in which the infectious agents only temporarily invade human skin. The parasites die in situ and eventually are eliminated by tissue repair mechanisms. Both diseases are zoonoses. Humans only accidentally become a host for animal hookworm larvae (resulting in cutaneous larva migrans), but get infected with Tunga penetrans as frequent as domestic animals. In travelers to tropical and subtropical regions tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans are the most common imported skin diseases. The diagnosis is made clinically. In tungiasis the clinical manifestations depend on the stage of the disease. Intense local inflammation and bacterial superinfection are common. Cutaneous larva migrans is treated orally with ivermectin or albendazole. A repellent based on coconut oil effectively prevents penetration of sand fleas.

  11. Implantation of human bot fly larvae in host skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A C R; Nascimento, M F A; Serafim, L R

    2010-01-01

    Adult males of Mus musculus each infested with four first-instar (L1) larvae of Dermatobia hominis (Linneaus, Jr.) were used as donors of larvae to other mice (recipients). Larvae at four (L1), six (early L2), 12 (L2), or 20 (L3) days postinfestation (dpi), were implanted into the skin of each recipient. Only two of 38 mice (5.3%) were refractory to implants and three died after implantation. Developmental times (pre- plus postimplantation) of implanted larvae were of similar duration to those in larvae that completed their development in the original mice. The L3 that emerged from implanted hosts developed to pupae and fertile adult specimens, whose L1 descendants were used to maintain the D. hominis life cycle in our laboratory. The model described here has several potential applications, including studies of the host relationship with specific instars and the development of management and control measures to combat this Neotropical myiasis.

  12. Neuromechanics of crawling in D. melanogaster larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlevan, Cengiz; Paoletti, Paolo; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Nervous system, body and environment interact in non-trivial ways to generate locomotion and thence behavior in an organism. Here we present a minimal integrative mathematical model to describe the simple behavior of forward crawling in Drosophila larvae. Our model couples the excitation-inhibition circuits in the nervous system to force production in the muscles and body movement in a frictional environment, which in turn leads to a proprioceptive signal that feeds back to the nervous system. Our results explain the basic observed phenomenology of crawling with or without proprioception, and elucidate the stabilizing role of proprioception in crawling with respect to external and internal perturbations. Our integrated approach allows us to make testable predictions on the effect of changing body-environment interactions on crawling, and serves as a substrate for the development of hierarchical models linking cellular processes to behavior.

  13. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  14. Iodine nutrition and toxicity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Penglase

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Copepods as feed promote better growth and development in marine fish larvae than rotifers. However, unlike rotifers, copepods contain several minerals such as iodine (I, at potentially toxic levels. Iodine is an essential trace element and both under and over supply of I can inhibit the production of the I containing thyroid hormones. It is unknown whether marine fish larvae require copepod levels of I or if mechanisms are present that prevent I toxicity. In this study, larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua were fed rotifers enriched to intermediate (26 mg I kg-1 dry weight; MI group or copepod (129 mg I kg-1 DW; HI group I levels and compared to cod larvae fed control rotifers (0.6 mg I kg-1 DW. Larval I concentrations were increased by 3 (MI and 7 (HI fold compared to controls during the rotifer feeding period. No differences in growth were observed, but the HI diet increased thyroid follicle colloid to epithelium ratios, and affected the essential element concentrations of larvae compared to the other groups. The thyroid follicle morphology in the HI larvae is typical of colloid goitre, a condition resulting from excessive I intake, even though whole body I levels were below those found previously in copepod fed cod larvae. This is the first observation of dietary induced I toxicity in fish, and suggests I toxicity may be determined to a greater extent by bioavailability and nutrient interactions than by total body I concentrations in fish larvae. Rotifers with 0.6 mg I kg-1 DW appeared sufficient to prevent gross signs of I deficiency in cod larvae reared with continuous water exchange, while modelling of cod larvae versus rotifer I levels suggests that optimum I levels in rotifers for cod larvae is 3.5 mg I kg-1 DW.

  15. Alimento vivo como alternativa en la dieta de larvas y juveniles de Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luna-Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La nutrición en los estadios iniciales de los peces constituye uno de los principales problemas de cultivo, debido a que es la etapa en la que se presenta la mayor mortalidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó, como alternativa en la alimentación de larvas y juveniles de Pterophyllum scalare, el efecto de tres alimentos vivos (Moina wierzejski, Artemia franciscana y Panagrellus redivivus y un alimento comercial (Aquarian Tropical Flakes sobre la tasa específica de crecimiento (TEC y la sobrevivencia. La TEC de larvas resultó más alta con nauplios de A. franciscana (17.57 ± 0.39a% peso corporal ganado mg/ día, seguida de M. wierzejski (16.63 ± 0.41b, P. redivivus (14.25 ± 0.42c y del alimento comercial (13.20 ± 0.42d (P<0.05. En los juveniles, la TEC fue mayor con M. wierzejski (6.28 ± 0.21a% peso corporal ganado mg/día, seguida de A. franciscana (6.04 ± 0.23b, P. redivivus (4.86 ± 0.23c y del alimento comercial (4.39 ± 0.23d (P<0.05. La sobrevivencia de las larvas fue 80.00 ± 10.00a% con A. franciscana y M. wierzejski, mayor 25 y 40.62% con respecto a P. redivivus (60.00 ± 10.00b% y al alimento comercial (45.00 ± 10.00b% (P<0.05. En los juveniles, la sobrevivencia del 100% no difirió con ningún alimento. Finalmente, los nauplios de Artemia en la etapa larval y la Moina en juveniles estimularon favorablemente la TEC y la sobrevivencia de P. scalare.

  16. Todo sobre el neobarroco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Carrera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lo que hemos escuchado y atendido hasta aquí, hoy, ayer, sobre todo en la propuesta poética esbozada por Sergio Raimondi en su ensayo sobre Aldo Oliva, demuestra que las singularidades, su pasión, anulan subrepticiamente las nominaciones.Anoche en la televisión una orquesta sinfónica y un coro numeroso. Súbitamente, me hubiera gustado ser uno de esos intérpretes solitarios para sí, a pesar de la armonía, anónimos, a pesar del brillo sonoro… un violín, un triángulo… apenas… tres grillos… como ...

  17. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  18. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANAN EFENDI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m asl., Mrutu (1875 m asl., and Air Terjun (1600 m asl.. The screened insect-larvae were grouped its family and counted their individual number. The diversity was counted using Shanon-Weiner diversity indices. In this research was found 12 families of insect-larvae consisted of two families of Odonata order, 3 families of Coleopteran order, and a family of Lepidoptera. Nine families identified, while the three insect-larvae i.e. 2 of Coleoptera and 1 of Lepidoptera were not identified yet. The Parkiran station indicated the highest diversity index of 0.1436.

  19. Resumen estudios sobre tabaquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gónzalez, M.M. (M.)

    2009-01-01

    Este documento se realizó para publicar en la página Web de la Gerencia de Atención primaria del Área III. Este documento es una recopilación de estudios sobre tabaquismo. Gerencia de Atención Primaria Área III

  20. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  1. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF Napoleon WRASSE, Cheilinus undulatus LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Harianto Hutapea

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the survival rate, napoleon wrasse larval rearing trial was conducted at Research Institute for Mariculture, Gondol-Bali in 2003. The trial aims at assessing initial feed for larvae, food habit, and morphological development from early larval stage to juvenile. The results showed that chicken egg yolk could be applied as initial feed and followed by rotifer, Artemia and mysid (Mesophodopsis sp.. Three swimming behavior of larvae were observed, drifting, free swimming and hiding on the substrate as larvae develop. Digestive system development, simple tube like, transition stage and coiled where digestive system could be distinguished between stomach, intestine and rectum.

  3. Eventos externos e internos da infecção de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae External and internal events of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs infection by Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se a adesão, a germinação, a penetração e a colonização de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae, assim como as lesões infringidas pelo fungo nas respectivas fases do ciclo de vida do ácaro. Realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos contendo 250 larvas e 11 grupos contendo 75 ninfas de R. sanguineus, por meio de banho, durante três minutos sob agitação manual, em suspensão contendo 10(8 conídios/ml do fungo. Nos grupos-controles, o banho foi realizado usando o veículo da suspensão. Larvas e ninfas foram processadas para um estudo histopatológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura nos seguintes tempos após a infecção: uma e 18 horas, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e 11 dias. A germinação dos conídios ocorreu em até 18 horas pós-inoculação, e o fungo penetrou nas larvas e ninfas através do tegumento, dois e três dias após a infecção, respectivamente. Após penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo das larvas e ninfas, promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Lesões significativas não foram observadas. A morte das larvas e ninfas ocorreu no terceiro e quarto dias pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver foi iniciada no sexto dia pós-infecção.The adhesion, germination and colonization of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs by Metarhizium anisopliae as well as the lesions caused by the fungus were studied. For this purpose, 11 groups of 250 larvae each and 11 groups of 75 nymphs each were bathed during 3 minutes under manual shaking in a 10(8 conidia/ml suspension. Corresponding control groups were bathed only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were also submitted to both conventional microscopy and scanning eletronmicrocopy analyses at several post-infection periods (1 and 18 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 days. Conidial germination occurred in less

  4. What do barnacle larvae feed on ? Implications in biofouling ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Anil, A.C.

    and diversity indicated that the percentage of defaecating larvae (an indicator of food consumed) was comparatively higher during the pre-monsoon season. Generally this season is characterized by lower chlorophyll-a concentration. However, the average number...

  5. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. However, the rearing of larvae suffers from high larval mortalities, and water quality might be a crucial factor...... for larval survival in rearing systems. By applying antibiotic treatment as a research tool, it was possible to determine the extent of microbial interference in the production of high numbers of good quality larvae. By controlling microbiota during egg and larval incubation, the egg hatching success...

  6. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai S; Apiwathnasorn C; Leemingsawat S; Wongwit W; Overgaard HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods: Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 μg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions: The Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques.

  7. Improved Software for Quantifying the Behavior of Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Natalie; Gershow, Marc

    A key advantage of small crawling organisms like C elegans and the Drosophila larva is that their behaviors may be assayed automatically using computer vision software. Current state of the art software is capable of detecting the positions and postures of crawling larvae and automatically categorize their behaviors in parallel. However, these algorithms, which are based on frame-by-frame analysis of thresholded black and white images, fail to correctly describe the postures of larvae executing sharp bends and have difficulty separating multiple larvae that are physically touching. We present new tracking software that uses intensity information in grayscale images and applies temporal smoothness constraints to positions and postures. We implemented this software as an ImageJ plugin, extending its portability and applicability.

  8. [Community features of Sacrabaeoida larvae in Stipa grandis steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinmin, Liu; Ning, Wu

    2004-09-01

    The study showed that in the Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, there were 4 families and 9 species of Scarabaeoidea larvae, among which, the numbers of species and individuals of Melolonthidae were more than those of other families. The important value of the dominant species in Scarabaeoidea larvae community were Trematodes tenebrioides > Serica orientalis > Amphimallon solstitialis > Cyriopertha arcuata. Based on the features of their seasonal dynamics, they could be classified into three kinds. The first kind was that their density peak occurred in spring and autumn, such as Serica orientalis. Cyriopertha arcuata belonged to the second kind, and its density had no obvious fluctuation through all the year. Trematodes tenebrioides and Amphimallon solstitialis could be classified into the third kind, and their density peak all occurred in autumn. The biodiversity index of Scarabaeoidea larvae community was relatively higher in autumn than in spring and summer. Although the richness of Scarabaeoidea larvae populations was not lower in spring, their composition was very simple.

  9. Starvation threshold of Balanus amphitrite larvae in relation to temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Desai, D.V.

    Energy content in the non-feeding (lecithotrophic) cyprid larvae of B. amphitrite plays an important role in determining its metamorphic characteristics. In this context it is important to understand the energy transformed to this stage from...

  10. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  11. Effects of Dimethoate on Tree Frog (Hyla arborea) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ferah SAYIM; Kaya, Uğur

    2006-01-01

    Considering the global decline of amphibian populations, the present study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of tree frogs to a common pesticide, dimethoate. Our study reports the effects of dimethoate on 21st- and 25th-stage Hyla arborea larvae under standardized laboratory conditions in an acute toxicity test using the static system. Specimens used for testing were obtained from the eggs of mating pairs collected at a local natural pond. Each experimental group contained 10 healthy larva...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L. B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M.; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  13. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  14. Long-duration feedings and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The duration of feedings received by Bombus terrestris larvae was studied using video-recordings. In the last days of development all larvae received feedings mainly of long duration. Worker larvae of the third brood received significantly longer feedings than worker larvae reared in the other brood

  15. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  16. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  17. Biorheological action of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae on human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Del Balzo, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Bibiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that A. lumbricoides extracts capture sialic acid (SA) from human red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to study hemorheological alterations in vitro caused by parasite larvae. The biorheological action of three larva concentrates of first and second larval stage on group O erythrocytes was analyzed by incubating the erythrocyte packed together with an equal volume of larvae (treated RBC) and PBS (control RBC). Distribution and parameters of aggregation (digital image analysis), aggregation kinetics (erythroaggregameter), and viscoelasticity (erythrodeformeter) were measured. The digital image analysis showed that all the larvae diminished the isolated cells percentage and increased the size of the formed aggregates. The aggregate formation velocity was lower in the treated than in the control. The deformability index (ID) values of treated RBC did not present variations with respect to those of the control, but a decrease in the erythrocyte elastic modulus (μ(m)) and membrane surface viscosity (η(m)) values was observed, indicating that the larvae not only induced a diminution in the membrane surface viscosity of RBC but also altered the dynamic viscoelasticity of the membrane. Experiments carried out in vitro support the conclusion that the contact between larvae and RBC produces hemorheological alterations.

  18. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  19. Optokinetic behavior is reversed in achiasmatic mutant zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, J M; Horschke, I; Neuhauss, S C

    2000-05-18

    The vertebrate optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is a compensatory oculomotor behavior that is evoked by movement of the visual environment. It functions to stabilize visual images on the retina. The OKN can be experimentally evoked by rotating a drum fitted with stripes around the animal and has been studied extensively in many vertebrate species, including teleosts. This simple behavior has earlier been used to screen for mutations affecting visual system development in the vertebrate model organism zebrafish. In such a screen, we have found a significant number of homozygous belladonna (bel) mutant larvae to be defective in the correct execution of the OKN [1]. We now show that about 40% of homozygous bel larvae display a curious reversal of the OKN upon visual stimulation. Monocular stimulation leads to primary activation of ipsilateral eye movements in larvae that behave like the wild type. In contrast, affected larvae display contralateral activation of eye movements upon monocular stimulation. Anatomical analysis of retinal ganglion cell axon projections reveal a morphological basis for the observed behavioral defect. All animals with OKN reversal are achiasmatic. Further behavioral examination of affected larvae show that OKN-reversed animals execute this behavior in a stimulus-velocity-independent manner. Our data support a parsimonious model of optokinetic reversal by the opening of a controlling feedback loop at the level of the optic chiasm that is solely responsible for the observed behavioral abnormality in mutant belladonna larvae.

  20. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  1. Tesis sobre municipalismo libertario

    OpenAIRE

    Bookchin, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Históricamente, la teoría y la práctica social radical se han centrado sobre dos campos de la actividad social humana: el lugar de trabajo y la comunidad. A partir de la creación del Estado-nación y de la Revolución Industrial, la economía ha ido adquiriendo una posición predominante sobre la comunidad; y no sólo en la ideología capitalista, sino también en los diferentes socialismos, libertarios y autoritarios, que han ido apareciendo en el último siglo. Este cambio de posición del socialism...

  2. Escrito sobre el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Malalana Ureña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El catálogo, en una edición bilingüe español-inglés, es una pequeña guía de la exposición Shirin Neshat. Escrito sobre el cuerpo, muestra que se integra dentro de los actos de PHOTOESPAÑA13, el festival internacional de fotografía y artes visuales. El esquema del libro es sencillo y los textos son extremadamente divulgativos. El primero de ellos, Escrito sobre el cuerpo (pp. 10-15, cuyo autor es Octavio Zaya, comisario de la exposición, resume la trayectoria de esta intelectual, que "interactúa" con la fotografía y los formatos audiovisuales, y nos presenta la argumentación narrativa de los documentos expuestos, contextualizando la obra recopilada.

  3. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira M. Allende

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el analizado en este trabajo. Algunos resultados experimentales obtenidos usando Recocido Simulado ilustran el procedimiento. Su papel en el estudio de modelos económicos y de mercadeo es discutido.

  4. Predação de pós-larvas de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, Valenciennes, 1836 por larvas de Odonata (Pantala, Fabricius, 1798 em diferentes tamanhos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2105 Predation of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 post-larvae by dragonfly (Pantala Fabricius, 1978 fry in different development phases - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2105

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmino Hayashi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar a predação de larvas de Odonata (Pantala sp. em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento sobre pós-larvas de curimba, Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae. Foram utilizadas 54 larvas de Odonata distribuídas em oito grupos de comprimento (2,54; 3,89; 6,37; 9,67; 10,98; 12,81; 18,50 e 24,50 mm. Essas foram colocadas em 27 aquários com capacidade para 1,0 L de água, com iluminação constante por lâmpadas florescentes (40 watts, sendo inseridas duas larvas de tamanho similar por unidade experimental. Em cada aquário foram colocadas 15 pós-larvas de curimba (Lt: 6,20±0,22 mm e Wt: 0,91 mg às 18h, sendo que a cada três horas (21, 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18 horas foram contadas as pós-larvas vivas e realizada a reposição das que faltavam. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos como o pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e temperatura, foram tomados no início e no final do experimento, sendo os valores médios desses de 7,83±1,11; 6,57±1,23 mg/L, 212,71±3,93 µS/cm e 27,19±0,27ºC, respectivamente. Observou-se efeito quadrático do tamanho das larvas de Odonata sobre o número total de pós-larvas de curimba consumidas com ponto máximo com larvas de Odonata com 24,46 mm. Verificou-se, ainda, redução no número de larvas consumidas ao longo do período experimental. Conclui-se que ocorre aumento no número de larvas de curimba predadas com o aumento no tamanho das larvas de OdonataThe aim of this experiment was to evaluate the predation of dragonfly (Pantala sp. fry in different development phases by the Prochilodus lineatus post-larvae (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae. Fifty-four dragonfly fry were distributed among eight length groups (2.54, 3.89, 6.37, 9.67, 10.98, 12.81, 18.50 e 24.50 mm, then they were also distributed among 27 aquarium (1.0 L, with constant illumination by fluorescent lamps (40 watts, and two dragonfly fry of similar size were put in each

  5. Description of larva and puparium of Oplodontha rubrithorax (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from the Oriental Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerudová, Jana; Kovac, Damir; Tóthová, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    This is the first description of larva and puparium of Oplodontha rubrithorax (Macquart, 1838) from the Oriental Region. Larvae were found at a hot spring in North Thailand. The morphological features and cuticular structures of the larva are documented by drawings and SEM micrographs and the main characters are compared with the European O. viridula (Fabricius, 1775), the only described larva of this genus. Differences between larvae of both species were only found in pubescence. The characteristic, somewhat dilated and slightly clavate hairs on the dorsal surface of the body segments of O. viridula larva are apparently lacking in the larva of O. rubrithorax.

  6. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both....... Measurements demonstrated a distinct bottom front at the southern slope of the Trench with deepening isopycnals and high chlorphyll a concentrations. Abundances of both gadoid fish larvae and copepods peaked in vicinity of the front around mid-depth, and findings points to an inter-connection between...... the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone...

  7. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite in larvae and post-larvae of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Orlando B S; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-08-01

    Sodium metabisulphite (SMB) is used in marine shrimp aquaculture to prevent the occurrence of black spot. The release SMB into the estuarine environment from shrimp farm pond effluents has been reported. This study evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and post-larvae of land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi to this salt. A decrease in dissolved oxygen and pH occurred with increasing concentration of SMB and exposure time. LC(50) values after 48 h of exposure were 34 ± 1.1 mg/L, 31.1 ± 1.9 mg/L, and 30.6 ± 0.5 mg/L for I zoea larvae, megalopa larvae and stage I juveniles, respectively.

  8. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  9. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.

  10. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  11. Descrição da larva de Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius, 1775 is described and figured based on exuviae of last instar of reared specimes collected on still waters in São João river, Silva Jardim (22º38' - 42º18', Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The relationship among the larva of D. obscura and larvae of Celithemis are discussed.

  12. Puente sobre el Rin

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    Gortz, Wilhelm

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available Del total de 35 proyectos presentados al concurso del puente para carretera sobre el Rin, entre Duisburg-Ruhrort y Homberg, sólo dos proposiciones de la Demag fueron consideradas: Una con tablero suspendido por vientos que parten de dos torres, y otra, con suspensión por cables flexibles que se apoyan en dos torres y anclaje en la misma estructura. Por razones netamente estéticas fue elegida la propuesta Demag de puente suspendido por cables, aunque la solución con vientos hubiera sido la más económica, teniendo en cuenta las condiciones existentes.

  13. Saber sobre la radio

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, María Cristina; Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Argentina

    1998-01-01

    La autora propone en este artículo repensar los fundamentos sobre los cuales se estructuran las asignaturas y talleres de radio en las escuelas de Comunicación Social en Latinoamérica, con el proposito de romper la escisión  entre teoría/práctica y de no violentar su complejidad: en la radio, entendida como práctica comunicativa, se juega en primer lugar una "red de vinculaciones e intercambios" en condiciones privilegiadas para la dialoguicidad. En un segundo lugar, asociado al desarrollo de...

  14. Excertos sobre o sedentarismo

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Palma; Murilo Mariano Vilaça; Monique Ribeiro de Assis

    2014-01-01

    O sedentarismo tem sido tratado como algo perfeitamente determinável, objetivo e, portanto, que pode ser apreendido. Por outro lado, o conceito de sedentarismo ainda permanece questionável e, por conseguinte, os instrumentos mostram-se inconsistentes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi mostrar que diferentes discursos de verdade vêm concorrendo por esse conceito, o que nos motiva a pensar qual é a verdade ou, até mesmo, se há alguma verdade sobre ele. Após apresentarmos diferent...

  15. Key to larvae of the South American subfamilies of weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea Clave para larvas de las subfamilias sudamericanas de gorgojos (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E. MARVALDI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from South America are classsified into seven families and 28 subfamilies as follows: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae and Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae and Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae and Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae and Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae. A dichotomous key for the larval stage is provided for identification of the families and subfamilies of Curculionoidea present in South America. The key is based on external morphological characters and contains data on larval feeding habitsLos gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea de Sudamérica están clasificados en siete familias y 28 subfamilias como se muestra a continuación: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae y Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae y Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae y Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae y Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae y Platypodinae. Se brinda una clave dicotómica para el estado de larva de Curculionoidea en Sudamérica, para su determinación a nivel de familias y subfamilias. La clave está basada sobre caracteres morfológicos externos y se presentan además datos de hábitos alimentarios

  16. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process.

  17. Inactivation of Chironomid Larvae with Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xin-bin; CUI Fu-yi

    2008-01-01

    Chironomid larvae propagate prolifically in eutrophic water body and they cannot be exterminated by conventional disinfection process.The inactivation effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on Chironomid larvae were investigated and some boundary values in practice were determined under conditions of various oxidant dosage,organic precursor concentration and pH value.In addition,removal effect of differmt pre-oxidation combined with coagulation process on Chironomid larvae in law water was evaluated.It was found that chlorine dioxide possessed better inactivation effect than chlorine.Complete inactivation of Chironomid larvae in raw water was resulted by 1.5mg/L of chlorine dioxide with 30min of contact time. Additionally,the ocgallic precursor concentration,pH value had little influence on the inactivation effect.The coagulation jar test showed that Chironomid larvae in the raw water could be completely ronxwed by chlorine dioxide pre-oxidation in combination with the omgulation process at chlorine dioxide dosage of 0.8 mg/L.

  18. Image enhancement for tracking the translucent larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant Khurana

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-dish edges encountered in many behavioral paradigms. To alleviate these issues, we enhanced the larval contrast to obtain complete tracks. Our method employed a dual approach of optical-contrast boosting and post-hoc image processing for contrast enhancement. We reared larvae on black food media to enhance their optical contrast through darkening of their digestive tracts. For image processing we performed Frame Averaging followed by Subtraction then Thresholding (FAST. This algorithm can remove all static objects from the movie, including petri-dish edges prior to processing by the image-tracking module. This dual approach for contrast enhancement also succeeded in overcoming fluctuations in illumination caused by the alternating current power source. Our tracking method yields complete tracks, including at the edges of the behavioral arena and is computationally fast, hence suitable for high-throughput fine-grained behavioral measurements.

  19. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments.

  20. Fontes de erros na mensuração do comprimento e peso de larvas de peixes - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.393 Origins of sample mistakes in the measure of the length and weight of fish larvae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nilvan Ferreira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos com larvas de peixes, sejam de cultivo ou ecológicos invariavelmente empregam o comprimento e o peso como parâmetros. Assim sendo, este experimento foi realizado com larvas de Lophiosilurus alexandri pacamã objetivando determinar algumas fontes de erros amostrais na medição do tamanho e do peso de larvas de peixes. Avaliou-se cinco possíveis fontes de erros. O primeiro foi o erro na medida dos comprimentos total e padrão, devido a acuidade de medição de dois observadores. O segundo, foi o erro na medida dos comprimentos total e padrão, devido ao encolhimento proporcionado pelo fixador formalina a 10%. O terceiro foi o erro devido a duas formas de secagem das larvas na obtenção da biomassa. O quarto experimento foi sobre a influência do tamanho e do agrupamento das larvas na obtenção de pesos. Por fim, o quinto teste observou a alteração da biomassa devido ao tempo de permanência das larvas na balança. Pôde-se verificar a importância de se determinar e cumprir um protocolo de amostagem para medições de larvas de peixes. Por apresentarem tamanho e peso reduzidos, uma pequena variação na condição da mensuração, pode alterar substancialmente o resultado, pois alterações significativas foram verificadas para os testes acima referidos.Experiments in the cultivation or ecological with fish larvae, invariably use the length and weight with parameters. Therefore, this experiment was accomplished with larvae of Lophiosilurus alexandri pacamã aiming at to determine some sources of mistakes sampling in the measurement of the size and of the weight of fish larvae. It was evaluated five possible sources of mistakes then. The first was the mistake in the measure of the lengths total and standard, due sharpness of two observers' measurement. The second the mistake in the measure of the lengths total and standard, due to the proportionate shrink for the fixative formomalin to 10%. The third party was the mistake due two

  1. Ecdysteroids in the larvae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a invasive alien pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG FangHai; ZHANG GuRen; WEN RuiZhen; HE GuoFeng

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and quantitative variation of ecdysteriods in the larvae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a invasive alien pest, we analyzed the larval ecdysteroid composition and titers in this pest. The main component of ecdysteriods in the larvae of O. Sacchari is 20-hydroxyecdysone, and also there is a little 26-hydroxyecdysone. The titer of ecdysteriods in the larvae from the 1st instar to the 7th instar was gotten higher gradually compared on ng ecdysteroid/larva, but no regularity could be found about the titer if compared on ng ecdysteroid/g avoirdupois. There was only one peak of ecdysteroids (0.5475 ng/larva) showed at day 2 during the developmental time of the 6th instar larvae. However, there were two peaks appearing during the developmental time of the 7th instar larvae , one peak (0.29415 ng/larva) at day 3, another (0.214 ng/larva) at day 5.

  2. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of uninfected and granulosis virus-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study on the lipid and fatty acid composition of the uninfected and GV-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae was performed. Higher levels of free fatty acids were found in GV-infected larvae compared to those of the uninfected larvae, while the latter had more triacylglycerol compared to the former. The known identified phospholipids were fewer in the GV-infected larvae compared to those in the uninfected larvae. However, an unidentified phospholipid was found to be approximately two times higher in GV-infected larvae. The total lipid of both larvae had palmitic, oleic, and linoleic as the major fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of the GV-infected larval phospholipid differed considerably compared to that of the uninfected larvae, in that the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid was 3.5 times less in the GV-infected larvae.

  3. Sobre historia mundial hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Weiler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de globalización son una realidad; su enorme impacto sobre la vida humana los ha convertido en un tema recurrente sobre el que se escribe y se comenta a diario también en Colombia. Los libros que de ellos tratan, ante todo los que 10 hacen en tono crítico, baten records en la industria editorial en todo el mundo. Las expectativas que acerca del futuro abrigan cientos de millones de personas se relacionan con 10 que ellas esperan, para bien o para mal, de la globalización. Las posturas que los gobernantes ocupan al respecto en el mundo son, cuando menos de aceptación, generalmente de activa participación en pos de la globalización. Por un lado, crece la preocupación y se multiplican las protestas; por el otro, dominan los razonamientos de los especialistas en materia de maximización de los rendimientos de los capitales que presentan la globalización, al estilo que se viene imponiendo, como el camino ineludible del gobierno universal de la eficiencia. ¿Tienen que decir algo los historiadores frente a todo esto?.

  4. Sobre la tragedia griega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vélez Upegui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luego de caracterizar la tragedia griega clásica como expresión de un arte ciudadano que participa por igual de un carácter festivo, cierto régimen discursivo y una clara inscripción físico-espacial, el texto se demora en considerar tres aspectos fundamentales de esta forma dramática inventada por los griegos, a saber: una exposición sobre las fuentes orales míticas de las que los autores echan mano para componer la historia de cada una de las piezas que son llevadas a escena al amparo de un espíritu agonal; una explicación del funcionamiento formal de la tragedia, basado en la alternancia de partes cantadas (coro y partes recitadas (héroe; y, finalmente, una acotación sobre el sentido –interno y externo– que la acción dramática posee, en tanto elemento articulador de la trama.

  5. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial concentr......We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial...... to presence of fish larvae. There were no significant differences between A. aurita feeding rates in light and darkness for yolk sac prey ages 0-7 days (at 7.5 degrees C). Although prey vision and escape abilities of fish may develop rapidly during early larval ontogeny, these factors apparently have little...

  6. Effects of endosulfan on Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Yusuf; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Ogutcu, Ayse; Suludere, Zekiye; Kalender, Suna

    2005-01-01

    Thaumetopoea pityocampa larvae are very harmful to pines and they also cause allergic reactions in men and animals. In this study, different concentrations of endosulfan were administered to T. pityocampa larvae via pine needles which were prepared by the dipping method. The data obtained were statistically evaluated using probit analysis and a LC(50/48 hrs) value for T. pityocampa larvae found to be 1.679 mg/l. Also, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hrs after 1.679 mg/1 endosulfan treatment, ultrastructural changes in the midgut epithelium of T. pityocampa were investigated. No pathological changes were observed after 12 hrs, swelling and vacuolization of mitochondria and dilation ofendoplasmic reticulum after 24 hrs, swelling ofmitochondria and breaking of mitochondrial cristae and dissolving of nucleoplasm after 36 hrs, finally large vacuoles in the midgut epithelium cells were observed after 48 hrs.

  7. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  8. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...... metamorphosis in flatfish species is often unsuccessful, resulting in different types of abnormal development. The objective of this thesis was to analyse the feeding behaviour of the flatfish species turbot (Psetta maxima L.) larvae during the two crucial life periods, 1) first feeding and 2) metamorphosis....... To analyse whether these two periods are critical for the correct development and survival of turbot, feeding behaviours of larvae during the period of first feeding and during the first stages of metamorphosis was studied using video recordings. This provided qualitative and quantitative descriptions...

  9. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure. Measurements demonstrated a distinct bottom front at the southern slope of the Trench with deepening isopycnals and high chlorphyll a concentrations. Abundances of both gadoid fish larvae and copepods peaked in vicinity of the front around mid-depth, and findings points to an inter-connection between the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone encompasses specific ecological niches to which each species of fish larvae is adapted.

  10. Predation on crown-of-thorns starfish larvae by damselfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Zara-Louise; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Caballes, Ciemon F.; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2016-12-01

    Examining the functional response of predators can provide insight into the role of predation in structuring prey populations and ecological communities. This study explored feeding behaviour and functional responses of planktivorous damselfishes when offered captive reared larvae of crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster sp., with the aim of determining whether these predators could ever play a role in moderating outbreaks of Acanthaster sp. We examined predatory behaviour of 11 species of planktivorous damselfish, testing: (1) the relationship between predator size and predation rate, both within and among fish species; (2) consumption rates on larvae of Acanthaster sp. versus larvae of a common, co-occurring coral reef asteroid Linckia laevigata; (3) maximal feeding rates upon both Acanthaster sp. and L. laevigata; and (4) functional responses of planktivorous fishes to increasing densities of Acanthaster sp. Consumption rates of crown-of-thorns larvae by damselfishes were independent of predator size; however, there was a significant negative relationship between predator size and consumption rate of L. laevigata, when pooling across all predatory species. Some damselfishes, including Acanthochromis polyacanthus and Amblyglyphidodon curacao, consumed larval Acanthaster sp. at a greater rate than for L. laevigata. Most predatory species (all except A. curacao and Pomacentrus amboinensis) exhibited a Type II functional response whereby the increasing feeding rate decelerated with increasing prey density. In addition to revealing that a wide range of planktivorous fishes can prey upon larvae of Acanthaster sp., these data suggest that planktivorous damselfishes may have the capacity to buffer against population fluctuations of Acanthaster sp. Importantly, predators with Type II functional responses often contribute to stability of prey populations, though planktivorous fishes may be swamped by an abnormally high influx of larvae, potentially contributing to the

  11. CONTROLE DE LARVAS DE Diloboderus abderus COM INSETICIDAS EM TRIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mauro Tadeu Braga da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A larva de Diloboderus abderus Sturm (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae é uma praga importante da cultura do trigo (Triticum aestivum L. em plantio direto na região Sul do Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes inseticidas aplicados nas sementes (fipronil e tiametoxam e via pulverização do solo (clorpirifós e lambdacialotrina para o controle dessa praga. A eficiência dos inseticidas foi determinada através do número de larvas vivas no solo aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a emergência das plantas (DAE, da massa seca da parte aérea das plantas aos 90 DAE e da produção de grãos. Foram observadas correlações negativas significativas entre a dose dos inseticidas fipronil e tiametoxam e o número de larvas, e correlações positivas significativas entre estes inseticidas e a massa seca da parte aérea e a produtividade de grãos. Infestações de larvas nas testemunhas não tratadas reduziram a produtividade em relação às áreas tratadas com inseticidas. A produtividade incrementou à medida que aumentou a eficiência de controle do inseto pelos inseticidas. Concluiu-se que clorpirifós (960 e 1200g i.a./ha e lambdacialotrina a 25g i.a./ha (formulação CE, aplicados em pulverização do solo, são eficientes para reduzir a população de larvas de D. abderus, garantindo a produtividade de grãos. Sugerem-se novos testes com os inseticidas fipronil, tiametoxam e lambdacialotrina (formulação SC para determinar doses técnica e economicamente adequadas para o controle de larvas de D. abderus em trigo.

  12. Distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae. Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10 mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5 d. Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F. chinensis eggs after the parental exposure, with the highest residue detected in ovary. To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae, we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F. chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure. From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0 h post-metamorphosis, h.p.m), samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m. HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10 mg L-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5 h, i.e., 0.332 and 0.454 μg g-1, respectively. At the two NFLX exposure levels, the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h, respectively, followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h), mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h). Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect. The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F. chinensis tissue, eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level. The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth, and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  13. Distribution and Elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ming; LI Jian; ZHAO Fazhen; LI Jitao; CHANG Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae.Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5d.Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F.chinensis eggs after the parental exposure,with the highest residue detected in ovary.To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae,we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F.chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure.From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0h post-metamorphosis,h.p.m),samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m.HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10mgL-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5h,i.e.,0.332 and 0.454μgg-1,respectively.At the two NFLX exposure levels,the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h,respectively,followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h),mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h).Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect.The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F.chinensis tissue,eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level.The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth,and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  14. Análise da degradação de dieta microencapsulada por larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg, 1887 através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2088 Degradation analysis of microencapsulated diet in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 larvae intestine through scanning electron microscopy (SEM - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2088

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Portella

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o grau de degradabilidade de dietas microencapsuladas por larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os seguintes tratamentos alimentares foram testados: AMD - larvas alimentadas por 6 dias, com náuplios de Artemia, com transição brusca para dieta microencapsulada; C6MD - alimentação inicial com Artemia por 6 dias, 6 dias de co-alimentação e o restante do tempo (8 dias somente com dieta microencapsulada; e C9MD - idêntico ao tratamento anterior, porém, com 9 dias de co-alimentação. O conteúdo presente no trato digestório das larvas foi coletado e processado para análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os grânulos provenientes das larvas do tratamento de transição brusca (AMD possuíam poucas áreas de degradação, semelhantes às dietas secas. Já as dietas coletadas das larvas durante o período de co-alimentação possuíam uma maior área degradada. Os resultados sugerem uma influência dos náuplios de Artemia sobre a degradação das dietas microencapsuladas.This research analyzed the microencapsulated diet degradation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae intestine. The pacu larvae received the following feeding treatments: AMD- larvae fed initially Artemia nauplii for six days, followed by microencapsulated diet; C6MD- larvae fed initially Artemia for six days, followed by six days of co-feeding and the rest of the experiment (8 days with microencapsulated diet; C9MD- larvae fed initially Artemia for six days, followed by nine days of co-feeding and the rest of the experiment (5 days with microencapsulated diet. The pacu digestive tract contents were removed, processed and analyzed under scanning electronic microscopy. Diets from AMD larvae treatment showed few degradation areas, when compared to original dry diets. On the other hand, diets removed during co-feeding period showed the highest degradation areas. The

  15. Simulação do dano causado por larvas de Oryzophagus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae a cultivares de arroz irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins José Francisco da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima, 1936 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae é a praga-chave da cultura do arroz irrigado na Região Sul do Brasil. As larvas causam os principais danos ao cortarem drasticamente as raízes das plantas. Dois experimentos sobre simulação do dano larval foram realizados testando um equipamento cujo componente principal é uma lâmina metálica em forma de U, para corte das raízes. Raízes das cultivares BR-Irga 414 e Bluebelle, de ciclo biológico curto, e suscetíveis ao inseto e BR-Irga 410 e Dawn, de ciclo médio e resistentes, foram submetidas aos tratamentos de (1 corte artificial, com o simulador, (2 corte natural, pelas larvas e (3 sem corte, artificial ou natural, protegidas com inseticida. A simulação foi praticada na fase vegetativa das plantas, 31 dias pós-irrigação por inundação, época do pico da população larval nas raízes. Avaliaram-se dados sobre comprimento, peso de matéria seca e volume de raízes, imediatamente após a aplicação do tratamento de simulação e na pré-emissão de panículas, população larval em plantas submetidas ao dano natural, e produtividade de grãos. Na avaliação efetuada imediatamente após a simulação, em todas as cultivares, não ocorreu diferença entre índices de dano às raízes resultantes do uso do simulador e da alimentação de larvas. Na fase de pré-emissão das panículas, os índices de recuperação do sistema radicular das plantas submetidas aos danos natural e artificial, também foram similares. As cultivares de ciclo médio apresentaram maior recuperação dos tecidos radiculares e menor perda de produtividade de grãos, confirmando o maior grau de resistência a O. oryzae. Concluiu-se que o método de simulação é aplicável em pesquisas sobre resistência de arroz ao inseto, principalmente na identificação de genótipos tolerantes.

  16. Ultrastructural observations of the larva of Tubiluchus corallicola (Priapulida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. P.; Storch, V.

    1989-03-01

    Larvae of Tubiluchus corallicola van der Land 1968 were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The scalids are sensory organs, each has a bipolar receptor cell with a single apical cilium similar to the scalid in the adult. Muscle cells of the larva are more differentiated than previously reported for other Priapulida; the larval arrangement of circular and longitudinal musculature differs from that of the adult, and a diaphragm is reported for the first time in Priapulida. The diaphragm may function in hydrostatic control of eversion and inversion of the introvert and mouth cone. The functional morphology of these two structures is discussed and contrasted with the Kinorhyncha.

  17. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  18. The Early Cretaceous Hemeroscopid larva fossils from Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    More than 100 Hemeroscopid larva fossils were discovered from the Lower Cretaceous in Southwest Beijing,which effectively ends the discussion of morphology and makes it more complete. It is assigned within the LibelluIoidea, and shows close evolutionary correlations with modern Libellulidae. Although the wing characters of adult Hemeroscopus from the same formation indicates the close relationship to Aeschnoidea, we suggest that the larvae and the adults were the same species. Therefore, it probably shows the evolutionary ancestors of Libellulidae. Being the fundamental species discriminating Jehol Entomofauna and Lushangfen Entomofauna, Hemeroscopus bears great significance in the study of stratigraphy.``

  19. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. Our project aims to develop a tracking microscope that maintains the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva.

  20. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  1. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Bava; Lucia G Gonzalez; Celeste M Seley; Gisela P Lpez; Alcides Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing 'protective' footwear. A case of CLM is described in this article.

  2. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Bava; Lucia; G; Gonzalez; Celeste; M; Seley; Gisela; P; Lopez; Alcides; Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans(CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis.CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas,and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it.The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion,intense itching and history of foreign travel.CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing ’protective’ footwear.A case of CLM is described in this article.

  3. Culture of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae in Ponds in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang RUAN; Liangcheng HU; Hai ZHOU; Dawen MA; Yabin TANG

    2016-01-01

    A total of 15 pools were selected from a greenhouse, and they were randomly and evenly divided into three groups. In each group, one stocking density of Eriocheir sinensis was arranged. The results showed that after 45-d culture, the crab number per kilogram reached about 300 with survival rate of about 20%; the initial stocking density had significantly effect on the body size of E. sinensis on sel , instead on the survival rate of E. sinensis larvae. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct the culture of E. sinensis larvae in a pool in greenhouse.

  4. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of the honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae to the antibiotic tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, Adriana M; Albo, Graciela N; Reynaldi, Francisco J; De Giusti, Marisa R

    2005-08-10

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tylosin were determined to 67 strains of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) disease, from different geographical origins. MIC values obtained ranged from 0.0078 to 0.5 microg/ml. These very low values imply that no resistance to tylosin was found in any isolate of the Foulbrood pathogen. The measurement of diseased larvae with AFB-clinical symptoms in three different field studies demonstrated that tylosin treatment could be effective in vivo. No negative effects in colonies were noted at any dosage rates or forms of application. These studies demonstrate that tylosin, as tartrate, can be used to treat AFB in honeybee colonies.

  5. Excertos sobre o sedentarismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Palma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O sedentarismo tem sido tratado como algo perfeitamente determinável, objetivo e, portanto, que pode ser apreendido. Por outro lado, o conceito de sedentarismo ainda permanece questionável e, por conseguinte, os instrumentos mostram-se inconsistentes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi mostrar que diferentes discursos de verdade vêm concorrendo por esse conceito, o que nos motiva a pensar qual é a verdade ou, até mesmo, se há alguma verdade sobre ele. Após apresentarmos diferentes possibilidades de compreender o sedentarismo, através do uso de aforismos, entendemos que postular um discurso como verdade talvez apenas signifique que as pessoas nele creem e que há uma vontade de verdade como uma vontade voltada para o poder.

  6. Sobre el Portugal ilustrado

    OpenAIRE

    Santolaya Heredero, Laura

    1992-01-01

    El mismo título invita a preguntarse, a modo de introducción, en qué consistió la Ilustración en Portugal. Me refiero a las prácticas, sin pretender entrar en un debate filosófico. Desde luego, las prácticas políticas y económicas de los Estados del XVIII poco tuvieron que ver con las ideas de los filósofos de la Ilustración. El fenómeno de la Ilustración se aprovechió de una propaganda anecdótica para hacer suponer a los lectores de libros sobre ella que en los diversos ...

  7. Sobre multifunciones Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato César Scarparo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan y demuestran algunos resultados de D.T. Luc y C, Vargas referentes a multifunciones con dominio y blanco en espacios vectoriales topológicos de Hausdorff sobre R, como así mismo se explícita el concepto de multifunción fuzzy de acuerdo a Papageogiou, y se demuestran dos teorema de S. S. Chag, con respecto a las multifunciones fuzzy, proposiciones todas estas, que integran una línea de resultados necesarios para la demostración de desigualdades variacionales para multifunciones fuzzy, a su vez necesarias, para la extensión fuzzy de conocido teorema de Walras.

  8. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  9. The larvae of decapods and fishes of Amba estuary, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Govindan, K.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.

    larvae to the total zooplankton population were 3.63 and 0.03 respectively. In the assessment of larval stocks environmental parameters and the presence of adult fish caught in the area were considered. The estuarine area supported fairly high fishery...

  10. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    recovered from the brain on days 14 and 21, with a maximum on day 14 p.i. No larvae were found in the eyes. Severe pathological changes were observed in the liver and lungs, especially on day 14 p.i.; also, development of granulomas was observed in the kidneys. Finally, a strong specific antibody response...

  11. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (marine biota. Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.

  12. Behavioral Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haein; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Insect larvae, which recognize food sources through chemosensory cues, are a major source of global agricultural loss. Gustation is an important factor that determines feeding behavior, and the gustatory receptors (Grs) act as molecular receptors that recognize diverse chemicals in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). The behavior of Drosophila larvae is relatively simpler than the adult fly, and a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map was established in a previous study of the major external larval head sensory organs. Here, we extensively study the bitter taste responses of larvae using 2-choice behavioral assays. First, we tested a panel of 23 candidate bitter compounds to compare the behavioral responses of larvae and adults. We define 9 bitter compounds which elicit aversive behavior in a dose-dependent manner. A functional map of the larval GRNs was constructed with the use of Gr-GAL4 lines that drive expression of UAS-tetanus toxin and UAS-VR1 in specific gustatory neurons to identify bitter tastants-GRN combinations by suppressing and activating discrete subsets of taste neurons, respectively. Our results suggest that many gustatory neurons act cooperatively in larval bitter sensing, and that these neurons have different degrees of responsiveness to different bitter compounds.

  13. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  14. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Subhaneil; Shen, Konlin; Klein, Mason; Tang, Anji; Kane, Elizabeth; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2011-01-01

    When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement) into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1) peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2) asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  15. Electric shock-induced associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Dennis; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E R; Krebs-Wheaton, Rebecca; Selcho, Mareike; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S

    2010-05-01

    Associative plasticity is a basic essential attribute of nervous systems. As shown by numerous reports, Drosophila is able to establish simple forms of appetitive and aversive olfactory associations at both larval and adult stages. Whereas most adult studies on aversive learning employed electric shock as a negative reinforcer, larval paradigms essentially utilized gustatory stimuli to create negative associations, a discrepancy that limits the comparison of data. To overcome this drawback, we critically revisited larval odor-electric shock conditioning. First, we show that lithium chloride (LiCl), which was used in all previous larval electric shock paradigms, is not required per se in larval odor-electric shock learning. This is of considerable practical advantage because beside its peculiar effects LiCl is attractive to larvae at low concentration that renders comparative learning studies on genetically manipulated larvae complicated. Second, we confirm that in both a 2-odor reciprocal and a 1-odor nonreciprocal conditioning regimen, larvae are able to associate an odor with electric shock. In the latter experiments, initial learning scores reach an asymptote after 5 training trials, and aversive memory is still detectable after 60 min. Our experiments provide a comprehensive basis for future comparisons of larval olfactory conditioning reinforced by different modalities, for studies aimed at analyzing odor-electric shock learning in the larva and the adult, and for investigations of the cellular and molecular substrate of aversive olfactory learning in the simple Drosophila model.

  16. Cryopreservation of Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) trochophore larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, E; Adams, S L; Tervit, H R; Smith, J F; McGowan, L T; Gale, S L; Morrish, J R; Watts, E

    2012-12-01

    The Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) is the main shellfish species farmed in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectant concentration, loading and unloading strategy as well as freezing and thawing method in order to develop a protocol for cryopreservation of trochophore larvae (16-20 h old). Toxicity tests showed that levels of 10-15% ethylene glycol (EG) were not toxic to larvae and could be loaded and unloaded in a single step. Through cryopreservation experiments, we designed a cryopreservation protocol that enabled 40-60% of trochophores to develop to D-larvae when normalized to controls. The protocol involved: holding at 0 °C for 5 min, then cooling at 1 °C min⁻¹ to -10 °C, holding for a further 5 min, then cooling at 0.5 °C min⁻¹ to -35 °C followed by a 5 min hold and then plunging into liquid nitrogen. A final larval rearing experiment of 18 days was conducted to assess the ability of these frozen larvae to develop further. Results showed that only 2.8% of the frozen trochophores were able to develop to competent pediveligers.

  17. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers.

  18. [Effect of wound to growth of larva of host to Ophiocordyceps sinensis during artificial breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, De-li; Zeng, Wei; Li, Li; Luo, Qing-ming; Tu, Yong-qin; Chen, Shi-jiang; Yin, Ding-hua

    2015-01-01

    To clear the effect of the wound to the growth of the larva of the host to the Ophiocordyceps sinensis, the wounds of same severity at the same position were made artificially to the larva and which were artificial fed at the same environment and condition. The results indicated that, over the winter, the survival rate of the wounded of the infection larva was lower than that of the healthy larva, but the weight had no significant difference between the wounded and the healthy larva. The survival rate of the wounded of the no infection larva was lower than that of the healthy larva, but except with black skin, the wounded larva with offwhite and dusty red had no influence on the variety of the weight. In summery, wound had no advantage to the survival rate, but had no influence to the weight. The result had provided theoretical basis to the reforming of the system of the artificial culture O. sinensis.

  19. The method by which Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer larvae invade reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Anderson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory electrostimulated C. trompe (Modeer females forcefully expelled (sprayed larvae for 5-20 cm. The watery spray consisted of about 20 tiny droplets containing two to several larvae. Crawling first-instar larvae exhibited negative geotactic and phototropic responses; they were subject to rapid desiccation and became immobile as the tiny droplets dried within a few seconds. When 5-50 larvae from dissectedfemales were dropped in physiological saline onto different areas of the muzzle of restrained reindeer, only larvae placed deep within the nostrils and on the lips crawled out-of-sight down the nostril passage or into the mouth. Drops of larvae placed elsewhere quickly desiccated and the larvae became immobile. Larvae deposited by wild females onto a COz-baited reindeer model with the muzzle, lips and nostrils coated with insect trapping adhesive all were stuck only along the dorsal lip below the philtrum. All experimental evidence supports a natural per os mode of invasion.

  20. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of app

  1. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum (Rud. , 1808) in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Parasitology)

    1985-03-01

    Infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum exposed to gamma-irradiation at 60 kr failed to develop in the lamb. At levels of 20 and 40 kr, the infectivity of the larvae was reduced and fewer worms developed with a predominating female population. The worms developing from the irradiated larvae were smaller and the sex organs were ill developed. The females developing from larvae irradiated at 40 kr were functionally sterile with atrophied uterus devoid of eggs.

  2. Larvicidal efficacy of monoterpenes against the larvae of Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eliningaya J.Kweka; Tamires Cardoso Lima; Chrian M.Marciale; Dami?o Pergentino de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of eight volatile components of essential oils against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s.Methods:Larvicidal effects of each compound were evaluated in both laboratory and semi-field trials.Stock solution was prepared and serial dilutions were made in six concentrations for each compound.A total of 20 larvae were exposed to larvicides for each replicate and monitored at intervals of 12,24,48 and 72 h.Larvae monitoring was done on basis of dead and live larvae in all intervals.Results:All assayed compounds were larvicides and presented varying degrees of larval toxicity,with LC50 values ranging from 1.28 to 1 938.92 mg/L depending on the treatment time(12,24,48 or 72 h).(-)-Perillyl alcohol presented the strongest larvicidal activity towards Anopheles gambiae larvae,with LC50 values of 73.60,18.36,1.72 and1.28 mg/L after 12,24,48 and 72 h of exposure,respectively.The next strongest were(-)-isopulegol(LC50= 135.10,49.39,34.39 and 20.22 mg/L) and(-)-carvone epoxide(LC50= 168.86,124.74,80.84 and 23.46 mg/L).After 12,24 and 48 h of treatment,hydroxydihydrocarvone was the least toxic compound,with LC50 values of 1 938.92,1 172.18 and 401.03 mg/L,respectively.Conclusions:The data obtained in this study suggest that all evaluated monoterpenes,especially(-)-perillyl alcohol,have remarkable larvicidal effects and may be considered as potential sources for the development of suitable natural larvicides for mosquito management programs.Further small-scale field trials should be conducted.

  3. Developmental Toxicity of Dextromethorphan in Zebrafish Embryos/Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Williams, Frederick E.; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-01-01

    Dextromethorphan is widely used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications. Its efficacy and safety for infants and young children remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to use the zebrafish as a model to investigate the potential toxicity of dextromethorphan during the embryonic and larval development. Three sets of zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to dextromethorphan at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), 48 hpf, and 72 hpf, respectively, during the embryonic/larval development. Compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set showed much higher mortality rates which increased in a dose-dependent manner. Bradycardia and reduced blood flow were observed for the embryos/larvae treated with increasing concentrations of dextromethorphan. Morphological effects of dextromethorphan exposure, including yolk sac and cardiac edema, craniofacial malformation, lordosis, non-inflated swim bladder, and missing gill, were also more frequent and severe among zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to dextromethorphan at 24 hpf. Whether the more frequent and severe developmental toxicity of dextromethorphan observed among the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set, as compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, is due to the developmental expression of the Phase I and Phase II enzymes involved in the metabolism of dextromethorphan remains to be clarified. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, nevertheless, revealed developmental stage-dependent expression of mRNAs encoding SULT3 ST1 and SULT3 ST3, two enzymes previously shown to be capable of sulfating dextrorphan, an active metabolite of dextromethorphan. PMID:20737414

  4. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Chris J; Haley, Brian A; Schrader, Paul; Brunner, Elizabeth L; Gray, Matthew W; Miller, Cale A; Gimenez, Iria; Hutchinson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4) with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material affected only by

  5. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Waldbusser

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4 with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material

  6. Sobre la muerte voluntaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Álvarez-Cienfuegos Fidalgo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El problema de cómo morir en nuestra sociedad se ha convertido en una inquietud para los ciudadanos y la reflexión moral. Especialmcnte por dos razones: por el desarrollo de la tecnología médica y por el hecho de que la mayor parte de los fallecimientos tienen lugar fuera del hogar, donde tradicionalmente ocurra el deceso. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo acercarse a esta cuestión. Para ello, se parte de la autonomía del ciudadano, con derecho a decidir sobre lo que considera cuál sea su manera de vivir y de morir. A tal fin, se hace una breve introducción sobre el dolor, el suicidio y la muerte, desde un punto de vista antropológico, pasando, después, a mostrar las cuestiones relacionadas con el problema de la eutanasia, donde la atención se dirigirá, ante todo, al enjuiciamiento crítico del tenso equilibrio en el que se mantienen dos principios fundamentales de la bioética: el de no maleficencia y el de autonomía del ciudadano.The problem of how to die in modern society has become a concern for both the citizen and moral reflection for two reasons in particular: due to developments in medical technology, and because most deaths occur outside the honre, where they traditionaÍlY took place. This paper addresses this issue, starting from citizen autonomy, the right to decide on what s/he considers to be his or her way of living and dying. To this end, a brief introduction considers pain, suicide and death from an anthropological viewpoint. Questions related to the problem of euthanasia are then exposed, with particular attention to, above all the critical judgement of the tense balance in which two fundamental principies of bioethics are held, the principle of non-maleficence and that of citizen autonomy.

  7. Nutrition and related ontogenetic aspects in larvae of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, J.

    1994-01-01

    The absence of adequate techniques for rearing fish larvae constitutes a bottleneck for sustainable aquacultural growth. Important constraints are the tiny size of the larvae, the dependance on live food organisms and the developmental stage of the fish larvae. The development of dependable rearing

  8. Predaceous diving beetle, Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) larvae avoid cannibalism by recognizing prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoda, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an important factor in stimulating feeding behavior in larvae. Prey density does not have an effect on larval cannibalism. In cases in which preys are present at lower densities than that of larvae, a group of beetle larvae frequently fed on single prey. This feeding behavior, therefore, provides direct evidence of self-other recognition at the species level. Using two traps in one aquarium that allows the larvae to detect only prey smell, one containing tadpoles and another empty, the beetle larvae were attracted to the trap with tadpoles at high frequency, but not to the empty trap. In another experiment, the beetle larvae were not attracted to the trap containing a beetle larva. These results suggest that the larvae of D. sharpi sharpi are capable of recognizing prey scent, which enables the promotion of foraging behavior and the prevention of cannibalism.

  9. Debate sobre el parto (normal).

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Puèrtolas, Adela

    2008-01-01

    El artículo pretende una reflexión sobre la asistencia al parto, desde el punto de vista de una comadrona. A raíz de la apuesta oficial sobre el cómo para humanizar la asistencia obstétrica hospitalaria, se plantea un análisis de las implicaciones profesionales y los matices culturales que influyen sobre la vivencia de la experiencia del parto. La importancia de la psico-profilaxis en la preparación al parto como vehículo terapéutico de acercamiento a la realidad y de ...

  10. Debate internacional sobre pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritza Alvarado Chacín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es organizar la proliferación de ideas en torno de la pobreza, a menudo dispersas, difusas y confusas en la literatura, bosquejando sistematizadamente un marco teórico referencial útil al abordaje científico de este fenómeno, en investigaciones teóricas y aplicadas, así como en la enseñanza y discusión de tales temas en el ámbito universitario. Para ello, se compendian, organizan y clasifican diversos enfoques sobre la pobreza, según los criterios presentes en los planteamientos de autores e instituciones relevantes que han contribuido a la reflexión desde distintas lecturas, teniendo en cuenta que no existe consenso en torno a una definición. La investigación es exploratoria-documental. Se aplican las técnicas del arqueo electrónico y físico de la información, el fichaje computarizado y la reducción de la misma en tablas de contenido. Se precisa el alcance de las mismas en el tiempo, según la evolución conceptual que han experimentado en el debate internacional. Se señalan algunas ventajas y desventajas de los principales enfoques, que han sido reconocidas en el mismo debate.

  11. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of the honey bee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae subsp larvae to the antibiotic tylosin

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tylosin were determined to 67 strains of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) disease, from different geographical origins. MIC values obtained ranged from 0.0078 to 0.5 microg/ml. These very low values imply that no resistance to tylosin was found in any isolate of the Foulbrood pathogen. The measurement of diseased larvae with AFB-clinical symptoms in three different field studies demonstrated that t...

  12. Los estados inmaduros de Coelosis biloba (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae y notas sobre su biología Immature stages of Coelosis biloba (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae with notes on their biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pardo-Locarno

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen la larva de tercer estadio y las pupas de macho y hembra de Coelosis biloba (Linné 1767 con ejemplares recolectados en Colombia (Cauca y Valle y en México (Veracruz asociados con los hormigueros de Atta cephalotes (Linné 1750. Se incluyen ilustraciones de las estructuras diagnósticas, una clave para separar las larvas de tercer estadio hasta ahora conocidas de la tribu Oryctini en América, y observaciones sobre la biología de C. biloba como inquilino de los nidos de hormigas.The larva of third instar, male and female pupae of Coelosis biloba obtained inside ant nests of Atta cephalotes in Colombia (Cauca, Valle and Mexico (Veracruz are described. Drawings of diagnostic structures, a key to the known third instar larvae of American Oryctini, and observations on the biology of C. biloba as inquiline of ant nests, are included.

  13. Índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus “paco” en relación a los factores ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Narda Dinis-Vásquez; Manuel Soplín-Bosmediano; Emer Pizango-Paima; Fred Chu-Koo; Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la relación que existe entre los índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus "paco" y las variaciones de los factores ambientales en el Centro de Investigaciones Fernando Alcántara del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (Iquitos, Perú). Fueron analizados un total de 180 individuos, repartidos en 60 larvas y 60 post larvas colectados de tanques de concreto de 1,05 m2 con una profundida...

  14. Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Coleoptera, Megalopodidae, Megalopodinae: morfologia da larva e do adulto Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Coleoptera, Megalopodidae, Megalopodinae: larva and adult morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available A larva de Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Klug, 1824, coletada em Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae, é descrita e ilustrada. A redescrição do adulto inclui caracteres das peças bucais, venação da asa, endosternitos e terminálias masculina e feminina. Pela primeira vez uma larva da subfamília Megalopodinae é descrita.The larva of Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Klug, 1824, collected in Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae, is described and illustrated. The adult redescription includes characters of mouthparts, wing venation, endosternites and male and female terminalia. For the first time a larva of subfamily Megalopodinae is described.

  15. Mortality of Plutella xylostella larvae treated with Aspidosperma pyrifolium ethanol extracts Mortalidade de larvas de Plutella xylostella tratadas com extratos etanólicos de Aspidosperma pyrifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Cristina Prédes Trindade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of Aspidosperma pyrifolium ethanol extracts on cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella larvae. The ethanol extracts of the stem bark, fruits and roots of A. pyrifolium were obtained by classical phytochemical methods, and the resulting subfractions were tested on P. xylostella, using 4 and 5 mg L-1. The crude ethanol extract of the stem bark was more lethal. The alkaloid-rich aqueous subfraction derived from the stem bark extract caused 100% larval mortality at 4 mg L-1. Insecticidal activity was associated with the presence of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids aspidofractinine, 15-demethoxypyrifoline, and N-formylaspidofractinine. These alkaloids presented excellent insecticidal properties against P. xylostella.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos extratos etanólicos de Aspidosperma pyrifolium sobre lagartas da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella. Os extratos etanólicos da casca do caule, do fruto e da raiz de A. pyrifolium foram obtidos pelos métodos fitoquímicos clássicos, e as subfrações resultantes foram testadas contra P. xylostella, nas dosagens 4 e 5 mg L-1. O extrato bruto etanólico da casca do caule foi mais letal. A subfração aquosa rica em alcalóides, derivada do extrato da casca do caule, causou 100% de mortalidade larval a 4 mg L-1. A atividade inseticida foi associada à presença dos alcalóides monoterpenóides indólicos aspidofractinina, 15-demetoxipirifolina e N-formilaspidofractinin. Estes alcalóides apresentaram excelente propriedade inseticida contra P. xylostella.

  16. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudoterranova azarasi LARVAE IN COD (Gadus sp.) SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Juliana; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Anisakiasis and Pseudoterranovosis are human diseases caused by the ingestion of live Anisakidae larvae in raw, undercooked or lightly marinated fish. Larvae were collected from one salted cod sold for human consumption in a Sao Paulo market in 2013. One section of one brownish larva was used for molecular analyses. The partial COX2 gene sequence from the larva had a nucleotide identity of 99.8 % with Pseudoterranova azarasi, which belongs to the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex. The risk of allergy when consuming dead larvae in salted fish is not well known and should be considered.

  17. Description of the larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys, 1891 (Odonata: Aeshnidae) from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Prosenjit; Chandra, Kailash

    2016-06-29

    The larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys is described here from female larvae and male and female exuviae collected from Chhattisgarh, India. Unlike other Gynacantha larvae known so far, G. millardi has 7 palpal setae almost equal in length; in other species, the palpal setae are of different lengths. The larvae lack a tooth on each side of the median cleft and have a distinct blunt tooth on the inner margin corner of each labial palp. The larvae were found in a semi-stagnant forest pool with enormous growth of aquatic vegetation.

  18. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  19. Reduction of muscle larvae burden in rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machnicka-Rowinska B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats infected with 500 to 2,500 Trichinella spiralis larvae the muscle larvae intensity (larvae per gram-l.p.g. was measured from 20 to 180 day post infection (d.p.i. The l.p.g. increased to day 40-50 p.i. and decreased thereafter. The highest reduction took place between 6 0 and 120 d.p.i. with intermediate inoculum of T. spiralis larvae. The mechanism of the reduction of T. spiralis larvae in muscles is suggested to depend on pericapsular-intercapsular host cells infiltrations attracted by parasite antigens.

  20. Desenvolvimento "in vitro" de larvas e juvenis de Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae sob diferentes condições de temperatura, salinidade e regime alimentar "In vitro" development of larvae and juveniles of the sand crab Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae under different conditions of temperature, salinity and food diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara P. Otegui

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvas eclodidas em laboratório e juvenis coletados em campo do tatuí Emeritabrasiliensis (Hippidae foram cultivados em diferentes temperaturas e regime alimentar com a finalidade de avaliar as melhores condições para a manutenção da espécie em laboratório. O efeito da freqüência da substituição da água de cultivo sobre o desenvolvimento larvar também foi estudado avaliando-se a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a duração dos estádios larvares. A duração das fases larvares e o crescimento das três últimas fases de zoea correlacionaramse positivamente com a temperatura. As temperaturas testadas, entre 18 e 26ºC não influenciaram a sobrevivência das larvas. Não houve influencia da alimentação e nem da troca de água no desenvolvimento, crescimento e sobrevivência das larvas, bem como das dietas de microalgas na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento dos juvenis.Hatched larvae and field sampled juveniles of the sand crab Emeritabrasiliensis were reared at different temperatures and food diet in order to evaluate the best conditions for laboratory maintenance. The effects of frequency of changing the aquarium seawater on larval development was also studied evaluating the survival, growth and duration of larval stages. The duration of larval stage and growth of the last three zoes phases correlate positively with temperature. Temperatures between 18 and 26ºC did not influence the larval survival. The kind of food and frequency of water exchange did not influence the development, growth, and survival of larvae, as well as the development, and survival of juveniles.

  1. Ganho de peso e comportamento de oviposição de Podisus nigrispinus utilizando lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e larvas de Tenebrio molitor como presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Harley Nonato de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes presas e da combinação destas sobre percevejo Podisus nigrispinus. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e 60 repetições. No tratamento um (T1, os percevejos receberam como alimento, lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, de 4o estádio, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida, no tratamento dois (T2, larvas de Tenebrio molitor, também durante o todo ciclo, enquanto que, no tratamento três (T3, foram oferecidas lagartas de S. frugiperda do 2masculine ao 4masculine estádios, e larvas de T. molitor do 4masculine estádio até o final do ciclo de vida. O ganho de peso em todas as fases ninfais e em adultos de até terceiro dia mostrou valores semelhantes de incremento, para todas as dietas utilizadas. No entanto, para os percevejos alimentados, com S. frugiperda (T1, observaram-se uma maior produção de ovos num menor período, com 80% dos ovos até 31masculine dia, enquanto que, no tratamento com larvas de T. molitor (T2, os mesmos 80% foram conseguidos somente no 45masculine dia, e no tratamento com a combinação de presas (T3, no 48masculine dia.

  2. Escenarios evolutivos en larvas y adultos de Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera analizados en función de diferentes hipótesis filogenéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ARCHANGELSKY

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan cinco hipótesis filogenéticas de las relaciones, a nivel de familia, de la superfamilia Hydrophiloidea (s.str. en función de la evolución de cuatro caracteres bionómicos y morfológicos: hábitat de adultos (acuático o ripario, hábitat de larvas (terrestre, acuático o ripario, tipo de sistema respiratorio en larvas (holopnéustico o metapnéustico y número de segmentos abdominales en larvas (décimo segmento no reducido o décimo segmento reducido. Si bien no se favorece una hipótesis sobre la otra, éstas se evalúan por el nivel explicativo de la secuencia de cambios de estado de los caracteres de interés, y se destaca cuáles de ellas explican de forma más parsimoniosa la secuencia de cambios.

  3. Primera cita de Scopaeothrips bicolor (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) para América del Sur, con las descripciones de una nueva forma áptera y de la larva II First record of Scopaeothrips bicolor (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) from South America, with descriptions of a new apterous form and the larva II

    OpenAIRE

    María I. ZAMAR; Lilia E. NEDER DE ROMAN

    2006-01-01

    El género Scopaeothrips Hood, 1912 incluye dos especies : S. unicolor Hood, 1912 y S. bicolor (Hood, 1912). Hasta el presente, S. bicolor fue citada para México, Texas, California y Arizona. Considerada como una especie dañina para cultivos de Opuntia Mill. fue descripta sobre la base de hembras macrópteras y braquípteras y machos braquípteros. En este estudio se describen las formas ápteras y la larva II. Los ejemplares fueron colectados en flores de Opuntia soehrensii Britton & Rose (cactác...

  4. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

  5. The larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842) (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram

    2014-09-29

    This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842). Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of A. genei keys together with A. albifrons (Linnaeus 1758), A. commutatus (Rostock 1874), A. leucophaeus (Rambur 1842) and Athripsodes tavaresi (Navás 1916). These species differ in the number of ventral edge setae at the 1st tibia and in the shape and colour of the submentum. With respect to zoogeography, Athripsodes genei is a (micro-)endemic of the collin and planar regions of Sardinia and Corsica (Graf et al. 2008). According to mandible morphology, A. genei is a collector-gatherer, shredder and, to a minor extent, also a predator.

  6. Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Bo; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xiaoting; Rust, Jes

    2014-06-24

    The reconstruction of ancient insect ectoparasitism is challenging, mostly because of the extreme scarcity of fossils with obvious ectoparasitic features such as sucking-piercing mouthparts and specialized attachment organs. Here we describe a bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. et sp. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae. Q. jurassica exhibits adaptations to an aquatic habitat. More importantly, it preserves an unusual combination of features including a thoracic sucker with six radial ridges, unique in insects, piercing-sucking mouthparts for fluid feeding, and crocheted ventral prolegs with upward directed bristles for anchoring and movement while submerged. We demonstrate that Q. jurassica was an aquatic ectoparasitic insect, probably feeding on the blood of salamanders. The finding reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens our understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02844.001.

  7. EVALUASI PRODUKSI LARVA BEBERAPA VARIETAS INDUK IKAN NILA UNGGUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estu Nugroho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbagai varietas induk ikan nila unggul telah dihasilkan oleh anggota Jejaring Pemuliaan Ikan di antaranya adalah Nirwana, BEST, Selfam (Selabintana, dan Central Pertiwi (CP. Kualitas dari benih yang dihasilkan telah menunjukkan tren yang positif dalam pertumbuhan. Peningkatan kualitas ini perlu diimbangi dengan jumlah larva yang dihasilkan sehingga perpaduan antara keduanya dapat menaikkan efisiensi produksi yang merupakan salah satu pilar dalam prinsip “blue economy” yang sekarang sedang dikembangkan oleh Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Evaluasi dilakukan untuk melengkapi informasi tentang ikan nila unggul yang telah dihasilkan. Pasangan NC (jantan Nirwana x betina CP dan NN (jantan Nirwana dan betina Nirwana menghasilkan jumlah larva yang paling banyak yaitu 132 ribu dan 104,467 ekor.

  8. VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS AND TROPICAL PYOMYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tropical pyomyositis in a boy who presented with a severe febrile illness associated with diffuse erythema, and swelling in many areas of the body which revealed on operation extensive necrotic areas of various muscles that required repeated débridement. The patient gave a history of contact with dogs, and an ELISA test for Toxocara canis was positive. He also presented eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacteria isolated from the muscles affected. We suggest that tropical pyomyositis may be caused by the presence of migrating larvae of this or other parasites in the muscles. The immunologic and structural alterations caused by the larvae, in the presence of concomitant bacteremia, would favour seeding of the bacteria and the development of pyomyositis.

  9. Larva currens in a case of Organophosphorous poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old healthy farmer consumed organophosphorous poison. On third day he developed diarrhoea and on fourth day linear serpiginous ulcers appeared on both buttocks. Clinically lesions were considered as decubitus ulcers. By stool examination and other laboratory investigations it was diagnosed as cutaneous larva currens due to S trongyloides stercoralis in a case of organophosphorus poisoning. Patient responded very well to a course of albendazole.

  10. Granulomatous colitis associated with small strongyle larvae in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasko, D J; Roth, L

    1984-09-01

    Horses presented with chronic weight loss are difficult to manage clinically. A diagnosis of granulomatous colitis due to mucosal stages of cyathostomes (small strongyles) should be considered in those cases exhibiting weight loss, intermittent diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, increased serum globulins, and low fecal egg counts. Treatment can be attempted with larva-cidal doses of fenbendazole or ivermectin. Clinical and necropsy findings in one such case are presented.

  11. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukant Khurana; Mohammed Bin AbuBaker; Obaid Siddiqi

    2009-10-01

    Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) and long term (LTM) as a function of training cycles. The same method of analysis when applied to learning mutants dunce, amnesiac, rutabaga and radish reveals memory deficits characteristic of the mutant strains.

  12. Homeotic gene function in the muscles of Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Joan E.

    1986-01-01

    The segmental musculature of Drosophila melanogaster larvae consists of 24-30 muscles per segment. Unique patterns of muscles are found in the three thoracic segments and the first and last abdominal segments; the remaining abdominal segments share the same pattern. Mutations in Ultrabithorax (Ubx) cause partial transformation of the muscle pattern of larval abdominal segments towards metathorax. The muscles of the thorax are not affected. In the first two abdominal segments the changes inclu...

  13. Morphological development of larvae and juveniles of Prochilodus argenteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irũ Menezes Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prochilodus argenteus is an endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin that is of high economic and environmental importance. The present study aimed to contribute with information to the taxonomic identification of larvae and juveniles of this species. Larvae , obtained from induced spawning of wild animals, were reared in ponds. Individuals were collected daily and classified into larval stages or juvenile phase. Morphological descriptions and morphometric measurements were performed, together with a piece wise linear regression analysis of the body proportions throughout the development process. Individuals in the preflexion stage had a standard length (SL of 4.48 to 6.64mm, long to moderate body (BH/SL, small to moderate head (HL/SL, and a small to moderate eye (ED/HL. In the flexion stage, the SL varied from 6.60 to 11.00mm, long to moderate body, moderate head, and small to moderate eye. Larvae in the postflexion stage presented SL of 10.54-19.93mm, moderate body, moderate to big head and small eye. The juvenile phase included specimens with a SL of 18.27 to 42.21mm which presented a moderate to high body, big head and small to moderate eye. Regression analysis showed significant moments of change in rate of increase of the body proportions, presenting a change in the growth pattern from allometry to isometry during the early development.

  14. Candidate ionotropic taste receptors in the Drosophila larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Shannon; Koh, Tong-Wey; Ghosh, Arpan C; Carlson, John R

    2015-04-07

    We examine in Drosophila a group of ∼35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), the IR20a clade, about which remarkably little is known. Of 28 genes analyzed, GAL4 drivers representing 11 showed expression in the larva. Eight drivers labeled neurons of the pharynx, a taste organ, and three labeled neurons of the body wall that may be chemosensory. Expression was not observed in neurons of one taste organ, the terminal organ, although these neurons express many drivers of the Gr (Gustatory receptor) family. For most drivers of the IR20a clade, we observed expression in a single pair of cells in the animal, with limited coexpression, and only a fraction of pharyngeal neurons are labeled. The organization of IR20a clade expression thus appears different from the organization of the Gr family or the Odor receptor (Or) family in the larva. A remarkable feature of the larval pharynx is that some of its organs are incorporated into the adult pharynx, and several drivers of this clade are expressed in the pharynx of both larvae and adults. Different IR drivers show different developmental dynamics across the larval stages, either increasing or decreasing. Among neurons expressing drivers in the pharynx, two projection patterns can be distinguished in the CNS. Neurons exhibiting these two kinds of projection patterns may activate different circuits, possibly signaling the presence of cues with different valence. Taken together, the simplest interpretation of our results is that the IR20a clade encodes a class of larval taste receptors.

  15. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  16. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens.

  17. Probiotic legacy effects on gut microbial assembly in tilapia larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Bacanu, Gianina M.; Abernathy, Jason; Verreth, Johan; Smidt, Hauke; Verdegem, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of fish to environmental free-living microbes and its effect on early colonization in the gut have been studied in recent years. However, little is known regarding how the host and environment interact to shape gut communities during early life. Here, we tested whether the early microbial exposure of tilapia larvae affects the gut microbiota at later life stages. The experimental period was divided into three stages: axenic, probiotic and active suspension. Axenic tilapia larvae were reared either under conventional conditions (active suspension systems) or exposed to a single strain probiotic (Bacillus subtilis) added to the water. Microbial characterization by Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed the presence of B. subtilis in the gut during the seven days of probiotic application. Although B. subtilis was no longer detected in the guts of fish exposed to the probiotic after day 7, gut microbiota of the exposed tilapia larvae remained significantly different from that of the control treatment. Compared with the control, fish gut microbiota under probiotic treatment was less affected by spatial differences resulting from tank replication, suggesting that the early probiotic contact contributed to the subsequent observation of low inter-individual variation. PMID:27670882

  18. DINAMIKA LARVA IKAN SEBAGAI DASAR OPSI PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA IKAN DI LAGUNA PULAU PARI KEPULAUAN SERIBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Puspasari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Proses rekruitmen populasi ikan sangat ditentukan oleh kelangsungan hidup larva ikan yang ada di daerah pemijahan/asuhan. Laguna Pulau Pari merupakan daerah pemjahan bagi banyak jenis larva ikan karang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji dinamika kelimpahan dan komposisi dari larva ikan di laguna Pulau Pari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan larva ikan yang ditemukan berkisar antara 1,0 x103 – 14,7 x 103 individu/m3. Puncak kelimpahan tertinggi terjadi pada bulan Juli dan Oktober. Larva ikan ditemukan tersebar di semua lokasi pengamatan. Larva pada fase perkembangan pre flexion ditemukan dalam presentase yang paling tinggi. Selama masa pengamatan ditemukan 79 famili larva ikan yang didominasi oleh Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae dan Pinguipedidae. Dinamika yang terjadi pada larva ikan dapat dijadikan dasar bagi pengelolaan perikanan di wilayah Laguna Pulau Pari dengan cara memperluas daerah perlindungan laut dan rehabilitasi ekosistem Laguna Pulau Pari, sehingga peran dan fungsinya sebagai pemasok rekrut bagi stok ikan di perairan sekitarnya terjaga.   Fish Recruitment is, in turn, thought to be directly related to the survival of the early life stages in the spawning/nursery ground. Pulau Pari Laguna is considered as a spawning ground for many reef fishes. The aims of the research were to investigate the dynamic of abundance and composition of fish larvae in Pulau Pari lagune. The Results show, fish larvae abundance range between 1,0 x 103 – 14,7 x 103 ind/m3. Highest larval abundance occurred on July and October, which predicted as the month of fish larvae production seasons. Fish larvae were distributed in all part of the lagune. Larvae in the pre flexion stage found in the highest precentation compare to other. Totally 79 families of reef fish larvae were found during June – November 2010 dominated by Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae and Pinguipedidae.

  19. Multi-year survival of sugarbeet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) larvae in cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumamilla, Anitha; Yocum, George D; Boetel, Mark A; Dregseth, Robert J

    2008-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that long-term survival of sugarbeet root maggot in storage is facilitated by larvae undergoing prolonged diapause, respiration and gene expression patterns of field-collected diapausing larvae were compared with those of 1-, 2-, and 5-year laboratory-stored larvae. Additional assessments were made on post-storage survival, emergence, and reproductive fitness of stored larvae. Respirometry, carried out at 5 and 20 degrees C revealed no differences among respiration rates of initially diapausing and long-term stored larvae. A 15 degrees increase in temperature elevated respiration in both diapausing and stored larvae, with levels of CO2 release ranging between 8- and 14-fold higher at 20 degrees C than at 5 degrees C. Similarly, 6-10-fold increases in O2 consumption levels were observed at the higher temperature. A transcript with sequence similarity to the fat body protein 2 (Fbp2) gene was highly expressed in diapausing larvae, and trace levels were expressed in some samples of 1-year stored larvae. However, no expression was detected in 2- and 5-year stored larvae. Survival and emergence studies of stored larvae revealed mixed populations of diapausing (i.e., the 5-17% of larvae that did not pupate) and post-diapausing (62-84% of larvae pupated) insects, with a high incidence of pupation (62%) and emergence (47%), even after 4 years in cold storage. Therefore, extended survival of Tetanops myopaeformis larvae in long-term cold storage is facilitated by two mechanisms, with a majority of larvae in post-diapause quiescence and a smaller fraction in a state of prolonged diapause.

  20. Impacto de inseticidas sobre parasitóides da traça-das-crucíferas em repolho, no Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelo Branco Marina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar os parasitóides da Plutella xylostella(L. presentes em áreas de cultivo do Distrito Federal, tratadas ou não com inseticidas, onde larvas do inseto foram coletadas. Foram identificados quatro parasitóides: Apantelessp. (Braconidae, Oomyzus sokolowiskii (Kurdjumov (Eulophidae, Diadegmasp. (Ichneumonidae e Actiasp. (Tachinidae. Onível de parasitismo nas áreas não tratadas com inseticidas variou de 5% a 94%, enquanto em áreas tratadas variou de 11% a 87%. A maior parte das larvas de traça-das-crucíferas foram encontradas nas cabeças de repolho ou na parte inferior das folhas da saia das plantas. Esta distribuição de larvas sobre as plantas deve permitir que estas escapem do contato com o inseticida, e, conseqüentemente, os parasitóides podem sobreviver nas plantas tratadas.

  1. Toxocara canis y Síndrome Larva Migrans Visceralis (Toxocara canis and Syndrome Larva Migrans Visceralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. MV Pedro De la Fé Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN.- Se abordaron las principales características biológicas y ecológicas de Toxocara canis, resaltando su clasificación taxonómica, morfología y relación con el medio ambiente. Sobre la interacción de este parásito con los hospedadores definitivos (cánidos y parténicos (humanos se consideraron su ciclo biológico, patogenia, características clínicas, diagnóstico, epidemiología, control y pronóstico. ABSTRACT.- In the present article was broached the main biological and ecological characteristics of Toxocara canis, taking in consideration its taxonomic classification, morphology and relationship with the environment. On the aspect concerning to the interaction of this parasite with the definitive host (canids and the paratenic host (humans they were considered its biological cycle, pathogeny, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, control and prognosis.

  2. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  3. 豆天蛾幼虫保藏研究%Study on Preservation of Clanis bilineata Walker Larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜军; 夏振强

    2008-01-01

    In order to solve the seasonal supply problem of Clanis bilineata Walker larvae, effects of larva instar, time and temperature on larvae preserva-tion were studied in this experiment. The results indicated that the 5th instal" mature larvae had the best preservation durability, and their optimum preserva-tion condition was 2 -4℃ with a upper time limit of 8 months.

  4. Comparison of nutritional status of field and laboratory reared Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica) larvae and implication of starvation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.

    amphitrite. The larvae were also field-reared using micro-enclosures. Laboratory-reared larvae were larger in size than the field-reared larvae. An increase in size, DNA content and instar index of the starved II instar larvae was observed indicating...

  5. Description of the larva of Bromeliagrion rehni (Odonata: Coenagrionidae with bionomic notes concerning its phytotelmic habitat in central Amazonas, Brazil Descrição da larva de Bromeliagrion rehni (Odonata: Coenagrionidae e aspectos bionômicos relatados ao seu habitat fitotélmico na Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene R. da S. Torreias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The last-stage larva of Bromeliagrion rehni Garrison in De Marmels & Garrison, 2005 is described and illustrated and bionomics and habitat information on this species are provided. The study was conducted in the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, located near Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil.Twelve samplings were done between April, 2003 and April, 2005: six in the rainy season and six in the dry season. In each sampling month, 12 bromeliads (Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907, Bromeliaceae were collected, six of which were terrestrial and six epiphytic, yielding144 samples. A total of 75 specimens of B. rehni were collected. The relationship between larval B. rehni abundance and the measured environmental parameters (volume (ml, pH, season and stratum was significant (ANCOVA, F = 5.296, d.f. = 130, p A larva de último estádio de Bromeliagrion rehni Garrison in De Marmels & Garrison, 2005 é descrita e ilustrada e informações bionômicas sobre seu hábitat são apresentadas. O estudo foi conduzido na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, localizada em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Entre abril de 2003 e abril de 2005, foram realizadas 12 amostragens, seis no período chuvoso e seis no seco. Para cada amostragem, 12 bromélias de Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae foram analisadas, seis terrestres e seis epífitas, totalizando 144 amostras. Um total de 75 espécimes de B. rehni foi coletado. A relação entre a abundância das larvas e os parâmetros ambientais mensurados (volume (ml, pH, estação e estratificação foi significativa (ANCOVA, F = 5,296, df = 130, p < 0,001. Larvas foram mais abundantes na estação chuvosa (p < 0,01 e o volume de água foi positivamente correlacionado com a abundância de B. rehni. A larva de B. rehni pode ser diferenciada da larva de B. fernandezianum, única espécie do gênero com larva descrita, pelo número de setas no premento e pelo padrão de coloração na região apical do fêmur. Pela primeira vez

  6. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf;

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found...

  7. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding ( sup 75 Se)selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1989-10-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. When the {sup 75}Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood.

  8. Inclusion of protein hydrolysates in the diet of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) larvae: impacts on skeleton quality and larvae proteome expression

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary protein hydrolysate on larval skeleton quality and larvae proteome expression, triplicate groups of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) larvae were co-fed from first-feeding onwards with live feed and three microencapsulated diets ir differing only on the molecular weight of their protein hydrolysate fraction.

  9. Sistema para la cría de larvas de Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae a partir de ejemplares salvajes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian FILIBERTI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un sistema simple para sostener el desarrollo larval de moscas de los cuernos salvajes, Haematobia irritans (L. en condiciones controla- das de laboratorio. Dicho sistema consiste en un medio de cultivo y una cámara de cría. El medio de cultivo se basa en una suspensión bacteriana obtenida a partir de materia fecal bovina. Además, se establecen las condiciones óptimas para la extracción y conservación de la suspensión bacteriana. Dada una concentración óptima de suspensión bacteriana que permite el desarrollo de un número estable- cido de larvas, se determinó que la duración de la etapa larval fue de 96 ± 4 h. El porcentaje de larvas vivas a las 48 h fue del 86,5%, mientras que el 68,5% (96 h logró iniciar la metamorfosis y alcanzar el estado adulto. Utilizando la materia fecal bovina (MFB fresca como medio de cultivo, se obtuvieron resultados comparables. Además de su fácil preparación, prolongado almacenamiento y alta reproducibili- dad, la utilización de la suspensión bacteriana como medio de cultivo permite la inspección visual permanente de las larvas y puede ser empleada para realizar bioensayos sobre larvas de mosca de los cuernos con compuestos insecticidas solubles. Por otra parte, en este trabajo se describen las características y paráme- tros de funcionamiento de una cámara de cría simple y económica, que permite la incubación de los medios de cultivo a una temperatura y humedad controlada.

  10. Atividade ovicida de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre a mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro Ovicidal activity of aqueous extracts of meliaceae on the silverleaf whitefly for tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pancrácio de Souza

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B atualmente é uma das principais pragas do tomateiro. O uso de extratos botânicos no controle desse inseto é uma alternativa promissora, mas que ainda precisa ser melhor pesquisada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a bioatividade de extratos aquosos de folhas de Melia azedarach L. e de ramos de Trichilia pallida Swartz, sobre a mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. Foram realizados dois experimentos, avaliando-se a mortalidade e duração das fases de ovo e ninfa, após o tratamento da fase de ovo com os referidos extratos. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas as concentrações de 1 e 2% (p/v, acrescentando-se a concentração de 3% no segundo experimento. Em todos os tratamentos houve efeito ovicida, sendo o maior valor obtido com T. pallida a 3% (52,32%. Nos demais tratamentos, a mortalidade variou entre 16 e 37%. Os extratos aplicados sobre os ovos pouco afetaram a sobrevivência ninfal. Com exceção do tratamento com T. pallida a 2%, no primeiro experimento, em que a mortalidade ninfal foi de 26,42%, nos demais a mortalidade foi inferior a 16%. Em nenhum dos experimentos foi verificada alteração na duração dos períodos de incubação e ninfal.The silverleaf whitefly is today one of most important pests of tomato. The use of botanical extracts to control this insect is an interesting technique, but more research about it should be carried out. The objective of this work was to determine the bioactivity of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Trichilia pallida twigs on the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, reared on tomato. Extracts were applied to eggs, and mortality and duration of egg and nymphal stages were evaluated in two experiments. In the first experiment, extracts were tested at concentrations of 1 and 2% (w/v and in the second experiment the concentration of 3% was added. The ovicidal

  11. Production of the Catechol Type Siderophore Bacillibactin by the Honey Bee Pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Poppinga, Lena; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood. This bacterial infection of honey bee brood is a notifiable epizootic posing a serious threat to global honey bee health because not only individual larvae but also entire colonies succumb to the disease. In the recent past considerable progress has been made in elucidating molecular aspects of host pathogen interactions during pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Especially the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome of P. larvae was a major step forward and revealed the existence of several giant gene clusters coding for non-ribosomal peptide synthetases which might act as putative virulence factors. We here present the detailed analysis of one of these clusters which we demonstrated to be responsible for the biosynthesis of bacillibactin, a P. larvae siderophore. We first established culture conditions allowing the growth of P. larvae under iron-limited conditions and triggering siderophore production by P. larvae. Using a gene disruption strategy we linked siderophore production to the expression of an uninterrupted bacillibactin gene cluster. In silico analysis predicted the structure of a trimeric trithreonyl lactone (DHB-Gly-Thr)3 similar to the structure of bacillibactin produced by several Bacillus species. Mass spectrometric analysis unambiguously confirmed that the siderophore produced by P. larvae is identical to bacillibactin. Exposure bioassays demonstrated that P. larvae bacillibactin is not required for full virulence of P. larvae in laboratory exposure bioassays. This observation is consistent with results obtained for bacillibactin in other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25237888

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Large-Scale Changes in Axenic Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kevin J; Valzania, Luca; Coon, Kerri L; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that Aedes aegypti larvae colonized by a native community of bacteria and gnotobiotic larvae colonized by only Escherichia coli develop very similarly into adults, whereas axenic larvae never molt and die as first instars. In this study, we extended these findings by first comparing the growth and abundance of bacteria in conventional, gnotobiotic, and axenic larvae during the first instar. Results showed that conventional and gnotobiotic larvae exhibited no differences in growth, timing of molting, or number of bacteria in their digestive tract. Axenic larvae in contrast grew minimally and never achieved the critical size associated with molting by conventional and gnotobiotic larvae. In the second part of the study we compared patterns of gene expression in conventional, gnotobiotic and axenic larvae by conducting an RNAseq analysis of gut and nongut tissues (carcass) at 22 h post-hatching. Approximately 12% of Ae. aegypti transcripts were differentially expressed in axenic versus conventional or gnotobiotic larvae. However, this profile consisted primarily of transcripts in seven categories that included the down-regulation of select peptidases in the gut and up-regulation of several genes in the gut and carcass with roles in amino acid transport, hormonal signaling, and metabolism. Overall, our results indicate that axenic larvae exhibit alterations in gene expression consistent with defects in acquisition and assimilation of nutrients required for growth.

  13. Biophysical processes leading to the ingress of temperate fish larvae into estuarine nursery areas: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Paris, Claire B.; Wolanski, Eric; Morais, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    A series of complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain the recruitment of marine and temperate pelagic fish larvae originated from pelagic eggs in coastal environments. In this review, we propose a new and complementary hypothesis describing the biophysical processes intervening in the recruitment of temperate fish larvae into estuaries. This new hypothesis, the Sense Acuity And Behavioral (SAAB) hypothesis, recognizes that recruitment is unlikely if the larvae drift passively with the water currents, and that successful recruitment requires the sense acuity of temperate fish larvae and their behavioral response to the estuarine cues present in coastal areas. We propose that temperate fish larvae use a hierarchy of sensory cues (odor, sound, visual and geomagnetic cues) to detect estuarine nursery areas and to aid during navigation towards these areas. The sensorial acuity increases along ontogeny, which coincides with increased swimming capabilities. The swimming strategies of post-flexion larvae differ from offshore areas to the tidal zone. In offshore areas, innate behavior might lead larvae towards the coast guided by a sun compass or by the earth's geomagnetic field. In areas under limited influence of estuarine plumes (either in energetic nearshore areas or offshore), post-flexion larvae display a searching swimming behavior for estuarine disconnected patches (infotaxis strategy). After finding an estuarine plume, larvae may swim along the increasing cue concentration to ingress into the estuary. Here, larvae exhibit a rheotaxis behavior and avoid displacement by longshore currents by keeping bearing during navigation. When larvae reach the vicinity of an estuary, merging diel rhythms with feeding and predator avoidance strategies with tidally induced movements is essential to increase their chances of estuarine ingress. A fish larva recruitment model developed for the Ria Formosa lagoon supports the general framework of the SAAB hypothesis. In

  14. A description of the Larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) from the Restinga Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera: Lycidae, Calopterini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vinicius De Souza; Costa, Cleide

    2015-02-03

    The last instar larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) is described. This is the first description of a larva for the genus. Two live larvae collected in the Brazilian Atlantic coast Restinga Forest of Itanhaém, São Paulo, were reared, one to adult and one was fixed in the last instar. This larva differs from the known Calopterini larvae by the absence of urogomphi, the dorsal abdominal segments undivided and strongly alveolate ornamentation on the head. 

  15. Description of the larva of Tetragonoderus (Crossonychus) variegatus Dejean, 1829 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cyclosomini) with notes on biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guilherme Ide Marques Dos

    2015-06-16

    A late instar of the Tetragonoderus (Crossonychus) variegatus Dejean, 1829 larva is described for the first time, and is compared with its first instar, with the larva of another Tetragonoderus species, and with the larva of one Cyclicus species. Habitus and important structures of the larva are illustrated, as well the adult's membranous wings. Some aspects of the natural history of the larva and adult are also noted.

  16. Actividad larvicida de la toronja, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae sobre dos vectores del dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morales-Saldaña

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La actividad larvicida del aceite esencial de la toronja (Citrus paradisi fue evaluada contra los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, los cuales representan vectores potenciales de la fiebre del dengue. La CL50 del aceite esencial de la toronja fue de 47,3 ppm y 85,1 ppm para Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus, respectivamente. El análisis del aceite por GC-MS, mostró químicos conocidos como insecticidas los cuales podría explicar la acción tóxica sobre las larvas de los mosquitos evaluados. Esta actividad tóxica sobre Ae. aegypti fue mayor en comparación con otros aceites cítricos, lo que sugiere mayores instigaciones en esta línea y de esta manera poder recomendarlo como regulador de mosquitos a las diferentes campañas contra el Ae. aeygpti. En la literatura revisada no encontramos ninguna investigación donde haya sido evaluado aceites esenciales de cítricos contra larvas del mosquito Ae. albopictus.

  17. Natural hosts of the larvae of Nuttalliella sp. (N. namaqua?) (Acari: Nuttalliellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Lutermann, Heike; Medger, Katarina; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Matthee, Conrad A

    2012-02-02

    The first collection of unengorged and fully engorged larvae of Nuttalliella sp. (N. namaqua?) from the murid rodents Micaelamys namaquensis, Aethomys chrysophilus and Acomys spinosissimus in Limpopo Province and from M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, is documented. A total of nine larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Soutpansberg mountain range in the Limpopo Province during April 2009. During the last week of September 2011, 221 larvae were collected from rodents at the same locality and 10 of 48 M. namaquensis, 6 of 12 Ae. chrysophilus and 3 of 14 Ac. spinosissimus were infested. One of the M. namaquensis harboured 53 larvae. Five larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province. Total genomic DNA was extracted from two larvae and a region of the 18S rRNA gene was sequenced for these. BLASTn searches revealed similarity between these specimens and the Nuttalliella sequences published on GenBank.

  18. Natural hosts of the larvae of Nuttalliella sp. (N. namaqua? (Acari: Nuttalliellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The first collection of unengorged and fully engorged larvae of Nuttalliella sp. (N. namaqua? from the murid rodents Micaelamys namaquensis, Aethomys chrysophilus and Acomys spinosissimus in Limpopo Province and from M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, is documented. A total of nine larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Soutpansberg mountain range in the Limpopo Province during April 2009. During the last week of September 2011, 221 larvae were collected from rodents at the same locality and 10 of 48 M. namaquensis, 6 of 12 Ae. chrysophilus and 3 of 14 Ac. spinosissimus were infested. One of the M. namaquensis harboured 53 larvae. Five larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province. Total genomic DNA was extracted from two larvae and a region of the 18S rRNA gene was sequenced for these. BLASTn searches revealed similarity between these specimens and the Nuttalliella sequences published on GenBank.

  19. Gene expression in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae exposed to pesticides and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorc, Aleš; Evans, Jay D; Scharf, Mike; Ellis, James D

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae reared in vitro were exposed to one of nine pesticides and/or were challenged with the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Total RNA was extracted from individual larvae and first strand cDNAs were generated. Gene-expression changes in larvae were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting transcripts for pathogens and genes involved in physiological processes, bee health, immunity, and/or xenobiotic detoxification. Transcript levels for Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein (PGRPSC), a pathogen recognition gene, increased in larvae exposed to Varroa mites (Ppesticide treated larvae. As expected, Varroa-parasitized brood had higher transcripts of Deformed Wing Virus than did control larvae (Ppesticides and Varroa parasitism on honey bee larval gene expression were demonstrated. Interactions between larval treatments and gene expression for the targeted genes are discussed.

  20. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA P. KURAIEM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7% out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P = 20%, mean abundance (MA = 1, and the mean intensity (MI = 5, and infection sites (IS = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  1. Adult fruit fly attraction to larvae biases experience and mediates social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Anderson, Blake; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use cues of larvae as social information in their food patch choice decisions. Adult male and female fruit flies showed attraction to odours emanating from foraging larvae, and females preferred to lay eggs on food patches occupied by larvae over similar unoccupied patches. Females learned and subsequently preferred to lay eggs at patches with novel flavours previously associated with feeding larvae over patches with novel flavours previously associated with no larvae. However, when we controlled for the duration of exposure to each flavoured patch, females no longer preferred the flavour previously associated with feeding larvae. This suggests that social learning in this context is indirect, as a result of strong social attraction biasing experience.

  2. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  3. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra Maria; Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau da; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Silva Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs.

  4. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1 and 0.06 ppm (PC2; treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1; treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2; treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3; and negative control group using water (NC1 and using dimethyl (NC2. The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs.

  5. Sobre Humanismo y Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En esta disertación sobre “Humanismo y Medicina”, título del libro que tuve ocasión de publicar hace un par de años, destacaré algunas de las relaciones que existen entre la medicina y las bellas artes, concretamente la música y la pintura. La Medicina tiene como objeto de su acción al Hombre. Definida como la ciencia y el arte de prevenir, curar o aliviar la enfermedad, no tiene como meta la simple prolongación de la vida biológica.

    Su tarea consiste en postergar la muerte, prevenir o reducir los padecimientos y las deformidades, curar las enfermedades, ampliar las capacidades biológicas y psicológicas de los seres humanos y ocuparse de los sufrimientos de las personas. Para Tristam Engelhardt, es la Medicina de las personas.

    Se concibe a la persona humana como el individuo de conciencia reflexiva normal que es a la vez miembro pleno de la comunidad, con los deberes y derechos que presuponen su pertenencia a ella. A esta acepción de carácter moral de la persona humana, que corresponde a lo que se llama persona “en sentido estricto”, se agrega la acepción social, que hace relación con aquellas personas a las que se otorgan prácticamente los mismos derechos, como es el caso de los niños, de los individuos que perdieron el carácter de personas por padecer de lesiones cerebrales o demencia, y de aquellos que nunca llegarán a serlo como los retrasados mentales profundos.

    Al sostener que no todos los seres humanos son personas “en sentido estricto”, la Bioética que expone Engelhardt impone, sin embargo, como obligación moral, tratar a estos últimos con pleno respeto y comprensión. Lo que es importante acerca de nosotros mismos como seres humanos, es el hecho real de que seamos personas; no simplemente nuestra pertenencia al género Horno sapiens como tal.

    Para Víctor Frankl, la persona humana es de carácter espiritual y en tal virtud, es diferente del organismo psicofísico cuya

  6. Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics.

  7. Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Vogelweith

    Full Text Available To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics.

  8. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L. (Regional Centre, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Rawalpora, Kashmir (India))

    1981-12-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species.

  9. Identification of first-stage larvae of metastrongyles from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, J W; Morgan, E R

    2009-08-29

    By examining larvae from dogs in which the adult stages had been identified, the morphology of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Filaroides osleri, Filaroides hirthi and Crenosoma vulpis from samples of faeces or bronchoalveolar lavage was compared. The tail morphology of the four species was distinctive: A vasorum had a typical cuticular indentation and projection on the dorsal surface of the tail (referred to as the dorsal notch and dorsal spine, respectively) and a smaller indentation on the ventral surface. The tails of the other species are described. A vasorum was significantly longer (mean [sd] 358.4 microm [10.28], range 334 to 380 microm) than the other species (range 229 to 281 microm).

  10. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    given to the influence of gear speed on catching effectiveness. An additional objective was to investigate larval distributional patterns of potential importance to sampling strategy. Gear speed had a pronounced influence on the efficiency of the IKMT. Catches per unit volume filtered decreased to one...... third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...

  11. A linear model for the dynamics of fish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ghouali

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a linear model for the growth and the dispersion of fish larvae of certain species. Dispersion is modeled as entailed by the combination of transport and vertical diffusion. We generalize the work of Boushaba, Arino and Boussouar [5,6] in the sense that horizontal velocities are uniform throughout the water column; but we deal with vertical component velocity and vertical diffusion depending on the space variables and on time, which was not the case in [5,6]. This new vision leads us to non-autonomous problems, the aim of this work is to show the existence, uniqueness, and positivity of solutions.

  12. Generation of aneurogenic larvae by parabiosis of salamander embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anoop; Delgado, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Limb regeneration of salamanders is nerve dependent, and the removal of the nerves in early stages of limb regeneration severely curtails the proliferation of the blastemal cells and growth of the regenerate. The removal of the neural tube from a developing salamander embryo results in an aneurogenic larva and the aneurogenic limb (ANL) develops independently without innervation. Paradoxically, the limb in an ANL is capable of regeneration in a nerve-independent manner. Here, we describe a detailed method for the generation of ANL in the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, for regeneration studies.

  13. Acueducto pretensado sobre el Holme

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available Breve descripción del paso de una canalización de 0,60 m de diámetro, destinada al abastecimiento de aguas, sobre el río Holme (Inglaterra. El puente formado tiene dos vigas de hormigón pretensado, cuyas armaduras se componen de barras McCall.

  14. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  15. Limit of detection of Toxocara canis larvae in experimentally contaminated bovine milk

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    Edlayne Larissa Gretter Machado Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the limit of detection of Toxocara canis larvae in experimentally contaminated commercial bovine milk samples, based on a centrifuge-sedimentation technique. Firstly, bovine milk (whole and skim samples were contaminated with 50 T. canis larvae in order to evaluate the interference of milk fat with the recovery of the larvae. Next, the effects of 10% formalin (100 ?L, ether (100 ?L, and a combination of both solutions on the recovery of the larvae was examined. Thereafter, the limit of detection of the larvae was determined using the solution (from step 2 considered optimal for degreasing the milk sample. Samples were contaminated with aliquots of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 larvae. For each milk sample (1.0 mL, 15 repetitions were analysed. The recovery of the larvae from the skim milk samples was higher (p = 0.0031 than that from the whole milk samples. No significant difference (p = 0.5681 was observed with regard to the percentage of recovered larvae when comparing the degreasing solutions. Nevertheless, the formalin-ether combination was more efficient for recovering the larvae (73.1% than ether (71.9%, formalin (67.6%, and pure whole milk (70.0%. Concerning the limit of detection (using formalin-ether, all the samples contaminated with 5, 10, 25, and 50 larvae tested positive (minimum: 62.7%. Of the samples contaminated with a single larva, 66.7% tested positive. These results suggest that the centrifugation-sedimentation technique may be useful for recovering larvae of Toxocara spp. in naturally or experimentally contaminated milk samples obtained from a wide range of animal species.

  16. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  17. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vera Diaz

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  18. Purification and properties of a monomeric lactate dehydrogenase from yak Hypoderma sinense larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Jin, Suyu; Huang, Lin; Liu, Haohao; Huang, Zhihong; Lin, Yaqiu; Zheng, Yucai

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from Hypoderma sinense larva. H. sinense larvae were collected from yak (Bos grunniens) and identified by a PCR-RFLP method. Analysis of LDH activity showed that the total LDH activity in H. sinense larva was negatively correlated with the length of larva. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extracts of H. sinense larvae revealed one band of LDH, which was then purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. This enzyme showed an approximately 36 kDa band on SDS-gel under both reducing and non-reducing conditions, in addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis showed that its molecular weight was smaller than bovine serum albumin (67 kDa), indicating that it contains only one subunit. Michaelis constants (Km) values assay revealed that LDH from H. sinense larva showed significantly lower Km for lactate than other animals. LDH of H. sinense larva was stable at 60 °C for 15 min, and also exhibited high catalytic efficiency in a wide range of pH. HgCl₂ at the concentration of 0.1mM significantly decreased the activity of LDH from H. sinense larva but not at the concentration of 0.01 mM. The results of the present study demonstrate that LDH from H. sinense larva is a thermal stable and pH insensitive enzyme suitable for catalyzing both forward and reverse reactions.

  19. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelglass, J W; Douglass, M C; Stiefler, R; Tessler, M

    1982-09-01

    Three young women recently returned to the metropolitan Detroit area with cutaneous larva migrans. All three had vacationed at a popular club resort on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Cutaneous larva migrans is frequently seen in the southern United States, Central and South America, and other subtropical areas but rarely in northern climates. Several organisms can cause cutaneous larva migrans, or creeping eruption. The larvae of the nematode Ancylostoma braziliense are most often the causative organisms. Travel habits of Americans make it necessary for practitioners in northern climates to be familiar with diseases contracted primarily in warmer locations. The life cycle of causative organisms and current therapy are reviewed.

  20. Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Morón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico. Larvae of four species of Cyclocephala are described for the first time based on specimens collected in Mexican localities: C. barrerai Martínez, 1969 from Puebla, C. sinaloae Howden & Endrödi, 1966 from Sinaloa, C. fasciolata Bates, 1888 from Veracruz, and C. jalapensis Casey, 1915 from Hidalgo. Larva of C. lunulata Burmeister, 1847, is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities of each species with other previously described larvae of the genus are commented.

  1. Number of malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Costa, K; Kerr, W E; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2012-02-01

    The number of Malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of bees is variable. Larvae of Apis mellifera L. have four Malpighian tubules, while adults have 100 tubules. In stingless bees, this number varies from four to eight. The objectives of this study were to provide characteristics of the Malpighian tubules as well as to quantify their number in larvae and adults of six species of Meliponinae, Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, Scaptotrigona Moure, Frieseomelitta Ihering, and Trigona williana Friese. Malpighian tubules were dissected from larvae and adults, measured, quantified, and maintained in microtubes with Dietrich's solution. The numbers of Malpighian tubules were constant only for larvae of M. rufiventris (four and eight) and Scaptotrigona sp. (four). The most frequent number of tubules in the Melipona group was seven and eight in larvae, and 70 and 90 in adults. In the Trigona group were four and 20 to 40, for larvae and adults, respectively. The results showed differences in the number of Malpighian tubules among the species analyzed and also between the larvae and adults of the same species. Despite the variation observed, species of the group Melipona always have a larger number and longer Malpighian tubules in both larvae and adults as compared to the Trigona group, which may indicate an evolutionary trend of differentiation between these groups.

  2. Chronic Larva Currens Following Tourist Travel to the Gambia and Southeast Asia Over 20 Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kristy E; Danylo, Alexis; Boggild, Andrea K

    2015-01-01

    Larva currens is the cutaneous manifestation of human infection with the geotropic helminth Strongyloides stercoralis. Strongyloidiasis is a lifelong infection unless treated. A high index of suspicion is needed to prevent chronic symptoms of strongyloidiasis (eg, larva currens, eosinophilia, abdominal discomfort) and to prevent fatal dissemination. We present a case of chronic larva currens following tourist travel to the Gambia and Southeast Asia>20 years ago. This case highlights several important features of larva currens and strongyloidiasis, including the chronicity of symptoms, the rapidity of the migratory serpiginous rash, and the absence of high-grade eosinophilia.

  3. The Effects of Shrimp Gut Probiotic Bacteria on the Shrimp Larvae (Penaeus Chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The survival rates of shrimp larvae in different stage are higher than those of control groups when probiotic bacteria strains X4B-1 and X1B-1 which are isolated from gut of adult shrimp are added into the little volume rearing sea water of shrimp larvae. The effects of probiotic bacteria are evaluated by challenge test (pathogenic bacteria Z3G2 isolated from disease shrimp larvae in the hatchery of Jimo town) and low salinity stress resistance tests on shrimp larvae, the survival rate and lengths of the shrimp larvae in the experiment are determined. Results indicate that 1. The survival rate, ability of resistant to low salinity, lengths of the delivered shrimp larvae are improved after the strains of probiotic bacteria, X4B-1 or X1B-1, are added into the rearing sea water of hatchery. 2. The addition of the probiotic bacteria could not influence the change of the bacteria number, NH3-N and COD value in the rearing sea water. 3. The probiotic bacteria used in the experiment have many enzymes such as Lipase, Amylase, Gelatinase and Lecithinase. These enzymes may help the probiotic bacteria to digest the food components fed to shrimp larvae and increase the digestive efficiency of post larvae. This may be one of the reasons why these probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the shrimp larvae.

  4. Length changes in white sturgeon larvae preserved in ethanol or formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, J.M.; Counihan, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of two preservatives on the notochord and total lengths of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae. White sturgeon larvae that were one, seven, and 14 days old were measured live and then preserved in 95% ethanol or 10% formaldehyde. Length changes were then determined at 20 and 95 days after preservation. We found mean length changes ranging from 0.4% to 3.4% shrinkage. Length changes varied with preservative, age of larvae, and length of time preserved. Constant length correction factors are provided for 10% formaldehyde or 95% ethanol valid for larvae between 1 and 14 days old preserved for less than 100 days.

  5. Vertical migrations of herring, Clupea harengus, larvae in relation to light and prey distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Christensen, Villy

    1989-01-01

    The influence of light and prey abundance on the vertical distribution of herring larvae was evaluated by three investigations made under calm weather conditions in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. The investigations took place at different time after hatching and the vertical distributions...... towards the surface at dawn larvae stayed in the upper water column during the day. The observations suggest that the daytime vertical distribution of larvae in calm weather is mainly determined by feeding conditions: the larvae move to depths were light is sufficient for feeding, and refinement within...... that zone is made according to a compromise between optimal light conditions for feeding and optimal prey densities....

  6. Description of the final stadium larva of Heliocypha perforata perforata (Percheron), with discussion of the taxonomic characters of the larvae of the genus Heliocypha Fraser (Odonata: Zygoptera: Chlorocyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Han

    2015-03-04

    The final stadium larva of Heliocypha perforata perforata is described and illustrated for the first time. It is characterized by having a row of filiform setae present laterally on distal half of prementum, 6-7 setae on the outer side of palpal lobe, very long lateral gills and distinct abdominal color pattern. The taxonomic characters of the larvae of the genus Heliocypha Fraser are discussed and summarized. Heliocypha larvae share a high similarity with Rhinocypha in general appearance and cannot be clearly distinguished from the latter in structure.

  7. Occurrence of Larvae and Juveniles of Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Menticirrhus americanus, Menticirrhus littoralis, Umbrina coroides and Micropogonias furnieri at Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santiago Godefroid

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, most ichthyoplankton studies in the South-Southeastern coast of Brazil, have been accomplished on the continental shelf. Regarding the beach environment, recognized as a nursery, little is known about the ichthyoplankton. We analyzed 288 samples collected with a 18 by 2 m seine net, 1 mm mesh and a conical plankton net, with a mesh of 300 mum and a 60 cm mouth. Eucinostomus argenteus comprised 78 % of the larvae and juveniles caught in the samples. The occurrence of gerreids was strongly concentrated in the summer, while the Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus and Umbrina coroides were present during all seasons. M.littoralis was most abundant during spring, while M. americanus and U. coroides dominated during winter. For all species, the largest captures occurred during low tide. Environmental preferences are indicated in the principal component analysis, with the larvae and juveniles of E. argenteus and E. gula positively correlated with smaller waves and smaller morphodynamism, whereas M. americanus, U. coroides and M. furnieri seem to prefer periods with lower temperatures and larger morphodynamism.Apesar da importância, a maioria dos estudos de ictioplâncton na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil, foram realizados sobre a plataforma continental. No que se refere ao ambiente praial, reconhecido como área de criação, pouco se sabe sobre o ictioplâncton. Foram analisadas 288 amostras coletadas com uma rede tipo picaré com 18 x 2 m e malha de 1mm, e rede de plancton cônica, com malha de 300 mim e boca de 60 cm. A espécie E. argenteus totalizou 78 % das larvas e juvenis capturados. A ocorrência dos gerreideos foi fortemente concentrada no verão, enquanto que Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus e Umbrina coroides estiveram presentes em todas as estações do ano. M. littoralis foi mais abundante na primavera, enquanto que M. americanus e U. coroides dominaram no inverno. Em todas as esp

  8. Otolith geochemistry does not reflect dispersal history of clownfish larvae

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2010-07-01

    Natural geochemical signatures in calcified structures are commonly employed to retrospectively estimate dispersal pathways of larval fish and invertebrates. However, the accuracy of the approach is generally untested due to the absence of individuals with known dispersal histories. We used genetic parentage analysis (genotyping) to divide 110 new recruits of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, into two groups: "self-recruiters" spawned by parents on Kimbe Island and "immigrants" that had dispersed from distant reefs (>10 km away). Analysis of daily increments in sagittal otoliths found no significant difference in PLDs or otolith growth rates between self-recruiting and immigrant larvae. We also quantified otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios during the larval phase using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Again, we found no significant differences in larval profiles of either element between self-recruits and immigrants. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting otolith dispersal histories based on natural geochemical tags in the absence of water chemistry data or known-origin larvae with which to test the discriminatory ability of natural tags. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  9. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  10. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or active suspension tanks (AS). Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS). Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable.

  11. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato

    2014-05-01

    Total decapoda abundance ranged from 0,06 ind.m-3 in May 2011 to 64,28ind.m-3 in August 2012, and significantly different between summer/winter and winter/spring months (P(perm≤0,05. The data obtained on this study revealed that Infraorders Brachyura, Anomura and Caridea are the most common. All three are significantly different between months (P(perm≤0,05 but not between sampling stations (P(perm>0,05. Brachyuran abundance was significantly affected by the Oceanograhic Conditions (P(perm≤0,05. Abundances were higher in spring and summer months, when Chlorophyl a values (mg.m-3, Temperature (ºC and Salinity (ppt were also higher. Decapoda community is directly affected by the surrounding environmental conditions in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve and abundance might also be related with specific larvae release throughout the year. Each sampling station was considered a replica from the study area. The ecological importance of Berlengas was also verified by the presence of non-frequent larvae of Achelata and Stomatopoda.

  12. Otolith geochemistry does not reflect dispersal history of clownfish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, M. L.; Walsh, H. J.; Raventos, N.; Planes, S.; Jones, G. P.; Starczak, V.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Natural geochemical signatures in calcified structures are commonly employed to retrospectively estimate dispersal pathways of larval fish and invertebrates. However, the accuracy of the approach is generally untested due to the absence of individuals with known dispersal histories. We used genetic parentage analysis (genotyping) to divide 110 new recruits of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, into two groups: “self-recruiters” spawned by parents on Kimbe Island and “immigrants” that had dispersed from distant reefs (>10 km away). Analysis of daily increments in sagittal otoliths found no significant difference in PLDs or otolith growth rates between self-recruiting and immigrant larvae. We also quantified otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios during the larval phase using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Again, we found no significant differences in larval profiles of either element between self-recruits and immigrants. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting otolith dispersal histories based on natural geochemical tags in the absence of water chemistry data or known-origin larvae with which to test the discriminatory ability of natural tags.

  13. Cranial features of dendrobatid larvae (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A

    1995-06-01

    The larval neurocranium and visceral arches of seven dendrobatid species representing four genera are described, based on cleared-and-stained and serially sectioned specimens. A variety of characters is shared by all seven species. Larval features do not substantiate the assumption of close ranoid affinities of the Dendrobatidae. Instead dendrobatid larvae share features such as the special quadripartite cartilago suprarostralis, the lack of the larval processus oticus, the presence of three foramina acustica, and the lack of a foramen perilymphaticum accessorius with many bufonoid larvae. The first of these characters is unique to bufonids, hylids, dendrobatids, and some New World leptodactylids; the other characters also occur in pelobatids and are presumably plesiomorphic for the Neobatrachia. The free proximal ends of Ceratobranchialia II and III are an autapomorphy of the Dendrobatidae supporting the monophyly of the family. Some features of the cranium are paedomorphic: low cartilago orbitalis, lack of connection between cartilage orbitalis and otic capsule (most species), and vestigal taeniae tecti. New anatomical terms are introduced.

  14. Seasonal variation in toxicity of citral against Fasciola larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumari Sunita; Pradeep Kumar; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test whether the larvicidal activity of citral against Fasciola varies by season. Methods:Mortality of Fasciola larva in different month of year (2011-2012) in in vitro and in vivo condition were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 8 h exposure of citral. Results:In vitro toxicity of citral against redia was highest in between the June to August (8 h LC50: 2.58-2.62 mg/L), whereas against cercaria 8 h LC50 was in between 3.44-2.62 mg/L. Highest in vivo toxicity against redia was noted in between June to August (8h LC50: 4.20-5.09 mg/L). The lowest toxicity was observed from November to April. The highest temperature, free carbon dioxide, and lowest pH, dissolved oxygen were observed from June to August. Conclusions:The present study conclusively shows that varying a biotic factor can significantly alter the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of citral against sporocyst redia and cercaria larva.

  15. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  16. Phthalate esters reduce predation efficiency of dragonfly larvae, Odonata; Aeshna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woin, P.; Larsson, P.

    1987-02-01

    Sublethal exposure to persistent organic chemicals cause effects different than levels resulting in acute toxicity. These effects may result in altered behavior, which may reduce the fitness of the organism. Behavior changes are difficult to study in vertebrates and in highly specialized invertebrates because of large natural variation in behavioral patterns. The behavior of insects, however, is strongly governed by genetic constraints (instincts). Phthalate esters are one of the most produced chemical groups in the world and are used mainly as plasticizers. Of the phthalates DEHP (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) seems to exhibit properties typical of organic micropollutants. The compound reduces reproduction in Daphnia magna and bioaccumulation occurs in invertebrates. Since phthalate esters are lipophilic they tend to become attached to particles in the aquatic environments and consequently are found in high levels in the sediment of the lakes and rivers. Benthic organisms are, therefore, more exposed to this substance than those living in the water column. An aquatic laboratory system was constructed to study the behavior (predation efficiency) of dragonfly larvae (Aeshna) exposed to sediment-bound DEHP. Dragonfly larvae were chosen since the predation behavior of these animals is easily studied.

  17. TEKNOLOGI PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KERAPU SUNU (Plectropomus leopardus SECARA MASSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Aslianti

    2016-12-01

    Seed production technology of leopard coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus by improving hatchery management had been conducted in order to increase survival rate and to produce seed continuity. The initial feeding can successfully support in larval rearing. Feed organism as rotifer, trochophore gonad, egg yolk emulsion, and artificial feed emulsion, had been used as an initial feed. The twelve of concrete tanks with 6 m3 capacity were stocked with coral trout eggs at density 100,000—150,000 eggs/tank. Artemia nauplii, artificial feed, and mysid as feed, start on larvae D20 up to juvenile stage (D45. Growth rate and survival rate were observed and calculated when the experiment was terminated. The data was analyzed by descriptive. Nutrition value of food was analyzed by proximate and fatty acid composition. The others parameters such as deformity and water quality were observed. The result showed that artificial feed emulsion and egg yolk emulsion as an initial feeding can be improve the growth rate and increase survival rate of larvae. The range of total length, body weight and survival rate of the seed i.e. 1.95—2.85 cm; 0.64—0.73 g, and 0.25%— 3.97% with the daily growth rate 3,9%—4,22%, respectively. No back bone deformity in the seed, that is 21—23 segments with interspaces of segments 0.030—0.036 mm.

  18. Pathogenicity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes Species to G. mellonella Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hyrsl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate and lethal insect parasites. In last decade they are widely used as biological control agents for pest insects of commercial crops, therefore research in this area is directly linked to agriculture. In this study, the pathogenicity of four nematode species (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae was tested against Galleria mellonella larvae. Infective stage of EPNs together with their symbiotic bacteria kills insect host within 48 hours. The results show that mortality of insect host correlates with number of invaded infective juveniles (IJs. The invasion process is very fast, IJs enters insect host within a few hours. The importance of digestive tract as entering site was clearly demonstrated, larvae with empty gut are much more sensitive to nematode infection. Nemato-bacterial complex is very effective system overcoming insect immune defences. Encapsulation as the only one cellular reaction is activated, but in very low rate and was detected only during infection of H. bacteriophora.

  19. IN VITRO CONTROL OF INFECTIVE CYATHOSTOMES LARVAE (NEMATODE: CYATHOSTOMINAE FROM EQUINES USING PREDACIOUS FUNGUS Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Arthrobotrys robusta CONTROLE IN VITRO DE LARVAS INFECTANTES DE CIATOSTOMÍNEOS (NEMATODA: CYATHOSTOMINAE DE EQUINOS UTILIZANDO OS FUNGOS PREDADORES Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Arthrobotrys robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The predatory capacity of three isolates of the nematodes predacious fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Arthrobotrys robusta on infective larvae of cyathostomes was evaluated in laboratorial conditions in medium water-agar 2% (WA 2%. The isolates AC001, NF34 and I31 had presented significant reduction (p<0.01 de 97.5%, 72.5% e 85% respectively in the average of infective larvae of ciathostomes recovered of the medium WA2% in the end of five days. The results of this assay evidence that these isolates could be used in the biological control of ciathostomes of equines.

    KEY WORDS:  Arthrobotrys robusta, Cyathostominae, equine, Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium, Nematophagous fungi.

    A capacidade predatória de três isolados de fungos predadores de nematoides Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 e Arthrobotrys robusta (I31 sobre larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos foi avaliada em condições laboratoriais em ensaio experimental em meio ágar-água 2% (AA 2%. Os isolados AC001, NF34 e I31 apresentaram redução significativa (p<0,01 de 97,5%, 72,5% e 85%, respectivamente, na média de larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos recuperadas do meio AA2% ao final de sete dias. Os resultados deste ensaio evidenciam que esses isolados poderão ser utilizados no controle biológico de ciatostomíneos de equinos.
     
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Arthrobotrys robusta, ciatostomíneos, equinos, Duddingtonia flagrans, fungos nematófagos, Monacrosporium thaumasium.

  20. New province record of Rhinagrion for Thailand and description of the larva of R. mima (Odonata: Zygoptera: Philosinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Sites, Robert W; Vitheepradit, Akekawat

    2014-08-19

    The Oriental damselfly genus Rhinagrion includes 10 known species, but the larva of only R. philippinum has been described in any detail, while the larva of R. viridatum has been well-illustrated and features summarized. The larvae of the other eight species were unknown. Here, the larva of Rhinagrion mima is described and illustrated by supposition, based upon an F0 larva collected in Phetchabun Province in Thailand. It is compared with the larvae of R. philippinum and R. viridatum. This represents the first record of the genus for Phetchabun Province. 

  1. Host gut microorganisms' cues mediate orientation behaviour in the larva of the parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groba, H F; Castelo, M K

    2016-02-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is one of the most important apicultural pests in the Pampas region of Argentina. This species is a parasitoid of scarab beetle larvae. Females lay eggs away from the host, and the larvae perform active search behaviour toward Cyclocephala signaticollis third instar larvae, parasitoid's preferred host. This behaviour is mediated by host-related chemical cues produced in hosts' fermentation chamber. Also, C. signaticollis larvae are attracted to fermentation chamber extracts. As scarab larvae have microbe-rich fermentation chamber, it has been suggested that microorganisms could be involved in the production of these semiochemicals. The aims of this work were first to ascertain the presence of microorganisms in the fermentation chamber of C. signaticollis larvae and second to determine the role of microorganisms in the orientation response of parasitoid and host larvae. We found that microorganisms-free C. signaticollis larvae showed deterioration in their development and did not produce the attractive semiochemicals. Therefore, we isolated fermentation chamber microorganisms of host larvae by means of different cultures media, and then, assayed different microorganisms' stimuli by binary choice tests. We were able to isolate microorganisms and determine that M. ruficauda larvae are attracted to semiochemicals from protein degradation in the fermentation chamber. However, C. signaticollis larvae were not attracted to any semiochemicals associated with microorganisms' activity in the fermentation chamber. Although we were unable to elucidate the exact role of gut microorganisms in host behaviour, we discuss their relevance in parasitoid host-seeking behaviour and host conspecific interaction in M. ruficauda-C. signaticollis system.

  2. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  3. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  4. An unprecedented role reversal: ground beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Carabidae lure amphibians and prey upon them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Wizen

    Full Text Available Amphibians often feed on beetle larvae, including those of ground beetles (Carabidae. Preliminary reports have detailed an unusual trophic interaction in which, in contrast, larvae of the ground beetle Epomis prey upon juvenile and adult amphibians. While it is known that these larvae feed exclusively on amphibians, how the predator-prey encounter occurs to the advantage of the beetle larvae had been unknown to date. Using laboratory observations and controlled experiments, we recorded the feeding behavior of Epomis larvae, as well as the behavior of their amphibian prey. Here we reveal that larvae of two species of Epomis (E. circumscriptus and E. dejeani lure their potential predator, taking advantage of the amphibian's predation behavior. The Epomis larva combines a sit-and-wait strategy with unique movements of its antennae and mandibles to draw the attention of the amphibian to the presence of a potential prey. The intensity of this enticement increases with decreasing distance between the larva and the amphibian. When the amphibian attacks, the larva almost always manages to avoid the predator's protracted tongue, exploiting the opportunity to attach itself to the amphibian's body and initiate feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophic interaction between Epomis larvae and amphibians is one of the only natural cases of obligatory predator-prey role reversal. Moreover, this interaction involves a small insect larva that successfully lures and preys on a larger vertebrate. Such role reversal is exceptional in the animal world, extending our perspective of co-evolution in the arms race between predator and prey, and suggesting that counterattack defense behavior has evolved into predator-prey role reversal.

  5. Breve informe sobre la coca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Hinostroza García

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente informe se integra en la investigación dirigida por el doctor Juan Ossio, por encargo de la Organización de los Estados Americanos (O.E.A. sobre “EFECTOS SOCIALES, CULTURALES, MÉDICOS Y ECONÓMICOS DEL USO TRADICIONAL DE LA COCA EN POBLACIONES DEL ANTIPLANO Y SIERRA DEL PERÚ, EN ESPECIAL DE LAS POBLACIONES INDÍGENAS”. Expone tópicos sobre la hoja de coca en la cultura andina: criterios clasificatorios, mitos, canciones y una muestra de qatipay o seguimiento. Este último es una práctica ritual importante para el campesinado andino, orienta el presente, pasado y futuro de toda su actividad. Cada hoja, por su forma, posición y tamaño, develará los roles sociales que ha de asumir, es decir los misterios del tiempo.

  6. Sobre la verdad en periodismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Estremadoyro Alegre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuando un periodista informa sobre un desastre natural, con granpérdida de vidas, las autoridades y las fuentes de primera manodan cifras que son difundidas como verdades del suceso. Sinembargo, y la experiencia lo confirma, al día siguiente la cifraspueden haber cambiado y, por lo tanto, la verdad informativa esotra. Y así, sucesivamente, cada día habrá novedades y nuevas cifras verdaderas.

  7. Efecto biocida del «barbasco» Lonchocarpus utilis (Smith,1930 como regulador de larvas de mosquitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mariños

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 7 bioensayos de laboratorio para evaluar la capacidad biocida de Lonchocarpus utilis (Smith,1930 «barbasco» sobre 7000 larvas de tercer y cuarto estadio de Anopheles benarrochi (Gabaldón, 1941, vector primario de malaria, en Yurimaguas y Loreto. La actividad biocida fue determinada con diferentes calidades de agua. Se procesaron las raíces frescas de L. utilis siguiendo el procedimiento utilizado por Vílchez (1993, obteniéndose como producto final un polvo fino que contiene como principio activo la rotenona. La actividad biocida, se midió con 5 dosis de polvo de la raíz diluida en agua destilada: 6,25; 3,1; 2,1; 1,0 y 0,15 g/L. Se utilizó 1 mL del homogenizado como inóculo por dosis. Para determinar la eficacia y susceptibilidad se realizaron lecturas cada hora hasta las 24 horas después del tratamiento. A las 12 horas postratamiento, las dosis de 6,25 y 3,1 g/L, mostraron 98 y 89 % de mortalidad larvaria cuando se utilizó agua destilada y 86 % y 82 % cuando se utilizó agua de criadero. A las 24 horas la mortalidad alcanzó el 99 y 94 % usando agua destilada y con agua de criadero fue 93 y 90 %. A las 6 horas de exposición con agua destilada, la dosis letal media (DL50 fue de 0,63 g/L y la dosis letal noventa (DL90 fue de 12,44 g/L; mientras a las 12 horas la DL50 fue de 0,48 g/L y la DL90 7,23 g/L. Utilizando agua de criadero a las 6 horas la DL50 fue de 1,36 g/L y la DL90 fue de 27,58 g/L; mientras que a las 12 horas la DL50 fue de 0,83 g/L y la DL90 fue de 9,83 g/L del extracto crudo de L utilis. Los resultados permitieron comprobar la efectividad del polvo de raíz de Lonchocarpus utilis sobre larvas de A. benarrochi como potencial biocida y que su acción está influenciada por la calidad del agua y la dosis de aplicación.

  8. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  9. Description of the last stadium larva and female of Microgomphus thailandica Asahina, 1981 (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-06-03

    The last stadium larva of Microgomphus thailandica is described, illustrated and compared with the larvae of congeneric species based on reared specimens collected from the Phachi headwater stream, Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The female adult of this species is described for the first time from a reared specimen from the same locality.

  10. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic tracing of Toxocara canis larvae in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, S.E.; Georgi, J.R.

    1987-02-01

    Artificially hatched infective larvae of Toxocara canis were labeled with /sup 75/Se in Medium 199 (Gibco) containing /sup 75/Se-methionine. Male CD-1 mice were infected with radiolabeled larvae by intragastric intubation or by intraperitoneal injection. At intervals of 3-56 days mice were killed and the organs prepared for compressed organ autoradiography. Radioactivity of parasitic larvae showed an exponential decrease with time, reflecting catabolism of label with a biological half life of 26 days (effective half life of 21 days) making possible experiments lasting several months. Total body larva counts, estimated by total body autoradiography, displayed an overall downward trend, but the rate of reduction was probably not constant because no significant positive or negative trends were noted from day 14 onward in the numbers of larvae. The carcass accumulated the greatest number of larvae followed by the central nervous system, liver, and lung in that order. When the numbers of larvae were considered in relationship to the mass of tissue, there were 4 groupings: central nervous system, liver, lung, carcass, and kidney, and genito-urinary organ, pelt, and intestine. No significant difference between intragastric and intraperitoneal administration was observed in the larval distribution after the larvae had left the initial site of deposition.

  11. The larva of Tricholeon relictus Hölzel & Monserrat, 2002 a synanthropic antlion (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Fernando; Badano, Davide; Monserrat, Víctor J

    2014-07-11

    The larva of Tricholeon relictus, a Spanish endemic antlion of Afrotropical affinities, is described and illustrated for the first time also providing a comparison with the only other European member of the tribe Dendroleontini, Dendroleon pantherinus. The larva of this species is synanthropic but probably originally lived in cave-like habitats.

  12. A new species of Luchoelmis Spangler & Staines (Coleoptera: Elmidae) from Argentina and its probable larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangelsky, Miguel; Brand, Cecilia

    2014-03-19

    A new species of riffle beetle from southwestern Argentina, Luchoelmis kapenkemkensis, is described. Its diagnostic characters are illustrated and the key for the identification the species of the genus is updated. A larva, very likely belonging to this species, is also described and compared to other related larvae.

  13. The larva of Rhyacophila balcanica Radovanovic 1953 (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) with notes on ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Graf, Wolfram; Kučinić, Mladen; Vučković, Ivan; Waringer, Johann

    2015-12-11

    The previously unknown larva of Rhyacophila balcanica Radovanovic 1953 is described. The diagnostic features of the species are listed and illustrated and some information on its ecology and distribution is included. In addition, diagnostic characters for larvae of the known Greek Rhyacophila species are provided.

  14. A new eel larva, Leptocephalus pseudomicrocephalus, belonging to the subfamily Bathymyrinae (Anguilliformes, Congridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht, van W.L.

    1988-01-01

    An eel larva, caught in the mid North Atlantic, represents a new species and is described as Leptocephalus pseudomicrocephalus. In most of its characters it resembles the larvae of the Ariosoma-Bathymyrus group, especially in the pigmentation and the presence of an outer intestine or exterilium. The

  15. First report of antennular attachment organs in a barnacle nauplius larva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, H.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, B.K.K.;

    2008-01-01

    Larvae released from Newmaniverruca albatrossiana were cultured in the laboratory until the cypris stage. The brood size of individuals was low, about 60 larvae per brood. The exact number of instars was not determined. Early instars had the morphology normally seen in lecithotrophic nauplii of t...

  16. Alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Stênio Nunes; Serrão, José Eduardo; Melo, Alan Lane

    2010-08-01

    This study describes morphological alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides. To this end, both third and fourth instars of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were exposed for 30 and 60 min to organophosphate (50 ppb), pyrethroids (20 and 30 ppb), and avermectin derivates (1.5 and 54 ppb). Following incubation, pH measurements of the larvae gut were recorded. The fat body and midgut were also analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. These studies demonstrate a decrease in the pH of the larvae anterior midgut following exposure to all of the tested insecticides. Histochemical tests revealed a strong reaction for neutral lipids in the control group and a marked decrease in the group exposed to cypermethrin. Furthermore, a weak reaction with acidic lipids in larvae exposed to deltamethrin, temephos, ivermectin and abamectin was also observed. Insecticide-exposed larvae also exhibited cytoplasm granule differences, relative to control larvae. Finally, we noted a small reduction in microvilli size in the apex of digestive cells, although vesicles were found to be present. The destructive changes in the larvae were very similar regardless of the type of insecticide analyzed. These data suggest that alterations in the fat body and midgut are a common response to cellular intoxication.

  17. Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shun Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. In this study, we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants through RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant versus susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after larvae had reached the feeding site. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5401, 6902, 8457, and 5202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the respective paired comparisons. Overall, genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants, indicating that resistant plants inhibited nutrient metabolism and protein production in larvae. Interestingly, the numbers of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants were comparable to, or higher than those with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors with important roles in plant manipulation.

  18. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honey bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae dur...

  19. Agathomerus (Agathomeroides) flavomaculatus (Coleoptera, Megalopodidae, Megalopodinae): morfologia da larva e do adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Elisa B.; Monné,Marcela L.

    2006-01-01

    A larva de Agathomerus (Agathomeroides) flavomaculatus (Klug, 1824), coletada em Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae), é descrita e ilustrada. A redescrição do adulto inclui caracteres das peças bucais, venação da asa, endosternitos e terminálias masculina e feminina. Pela primeira vez uma larva da subfamília Megalopodinae é descrita.

  20. Morphogenesis of Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae requires the DAF-16 ortholog FKTF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Castelletto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on metabolic and morphological similarities between infective third-stage larvae of parasitic nematodes and dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans, it is hypothesized that similar genetic mechanisms control the development of these forms. In the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, FKTF-1 is an ortholog of DAF-16, a forkhead transcription factor that regulates dauer larval development in C. elegans. Using transgenesis, we investigated the role of FKTF-1 in S. stercoralis' infective larval development. In first-stage larvae, GFP-tagged recombinant FKTF-1b localizes to the pharynx and hypodermis, tissues remodeled in infective larvae. Activating and inactivating mutations at predicted AKT phosphorylation sites on FKTF-1b give constitutive cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the protein, respectively, indicating that its post-translational regulation is similar to other FOXO-class transcription factors. Mutant constructs designed to interfere with endogenous FKTF-1b function altered the intestinal and pharyngeal development of the larvae and resulted in some transgenic larvae failing to arrest in the infective stage. Our findings indicate that FKTF-1b is required for proper morphogenesis of S. stercoralis infective larvae and support the overall hypothesis of similar regulation of dauer development in C. elegans and the formation of infective larvae in parasitic nematodes.

  1. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and molting to the 1st nymphal instar were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two e...

  2. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845, which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%, with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%. The larval lipid content (37.87% was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%. The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel.

  3. Virulence of metalloproteases produced by Vibrio species on Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Lind, Erin J; Häse, Claudia C

    2009-06-10

    Vibrio tubiashii, a pathogen of shellfish larvae and juveniles, produces several extracellular products. Here, we document that culture supernatants of several marine Vibrio species showed toxicity to oyster larvae. Treatment of these supernatants with EDTA not only severely diminished proteolytic activities, but also dramatically reduced toxicity to the larvae. Culture supernatants of metalloprotease-deficient mutants of V. tubiashii, V. cholerae, and V. splendidus were impaired in their ability to cause larval death compared to the wild type strains. Culture supernatants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known to contain several secreted proteases, showed virtually no toxicity to oyster larvae. Purified V. tubiashii protease A (VtpA), but not the prototype metalloprotease, thermolysin from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus, was highly toxic to the larvae. In addition, toxicity of purified VtpA was much greater for 6-d-old oyster larvae than for 16-d-old larvae. Together, these results indicated that culture supernatants of a variety of Vibrio species are highly toxic to oyster larvae and that the production of a metalloprotease is required for this effect. We propose that there are, as yet uncharacterized, specific substrates contained in larval tissue that are degraded by VtpA as well as certain homologous metalloproteases produced by other marine Vibrio species which, in turn, may contribute to vibriosis.

  4. PENGARUH PAKAN ALAMI Chaetoceros spp. TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN DAN SINTASAN LARVA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon

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    Samuel Lante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pakan alami berupa mikroalga merupakan salah satu faktor pendukung dalam keberhasilan usaha pembenihan udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis pakan alami, Chaetoceros spp., yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan sintasan larva udang windu. Penelitian ini menggunakan 15 buah bak fiber berukuran 60 cm x 40 cm x 50 cm dengan volume 120 liter yang disi air sebanyak 100 liter. Kepadatan naupli adalah 90 ekor/liter atau 9.000 ekor/bak dan lima jenis pakan alami Chaetoceros spp. yang diuji yaitu: Chaetoceros simplex, Chaetoceros ceratosporum, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chaetoceros amami, dan Chaetoceros gracilis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi kelima jenis pakan alami memberikan laju perkembangan larva yang relatif sama sampai stadia PL-1. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis memberikan sintasan larva udang windu tertinggi yaitu 41,48% dan dengan Chaetoceros simplex memberikan sintasan larva terendah (28,02%. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa aplikasi Chaetoceros spp. yang berbeda pada pemeliharaan larva berpengaruh terhadap sintasan larva udang windu, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap laju metamorfosis larva. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis sebagai pakan alami adalah terbaik untuk sintasan larva udang windu.

  5. Immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae to Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kania, Per Walter; Raida, Martin Kristian

    of naive larvae were bath exposed for 1 h with different concentrations of ß-glucan from Euglena gracilis. Two days post infection, larvae showed typical signs of Yersinia infection with haemorrhages in mouth region and inflammation on the dorsal side of the body. However, no mortality was observed during...

  6. A rat model of intragastric infection with Anisakis spp. live larvae: histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, Jaime; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; Corcuera, María Teresa; Gómez-Aguado, Fernando; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Perez, Rosa; Arias-Díaz, Javier; Caballero, María Luisa

    2013-06-01

    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods parasited by Anisakis spp. third stage larvae. The pathological effects of the infection are the combined result of the mechanical action of the larva during tissue invasion, the direct tissue effects of the excretory/secretory products released by the parasite, and the complex interaction between the host immune system and the Anisakis antigens. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of infection with Anisakis spp. live larvae in rats, useful to study the acute and chronic histopathological effects of the Anisakis infection. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to esophageal catheterization to place larvae directly into the stomach. Reinfections at different intervals after the first infection were preformed. Live larvae were found anchored to the mucosa and passing through the wall of the stomach and showed a strong resistance being able to stay alive at different sites and at the different pH. Migration of larvae from the stomach to other organs out of the gastrointestinal tract was also observed. The histopathological study showed the acute inflammatory reaction, with predominance of polymorphonuclear eosinophils and a mild fibrotic reaction. The model of infection described is valid to study the behavior of the larvae inside the host body, the histopathological changes at the invasion site, and the effects of the repeated infections by ingestion of live larvae.

  7. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    São Thiago André Iwersen de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.

  8. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    São Thiago André Iwersen de; Kupek Emil; Ferreira Neto Joaquim Alves; São Thiago Paulo de Tarso

    2002-01-01

    Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.

  9. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    . membranacea larva. The velum carries two rows of ciliated cells, though the lower "row" consists of only one or two cells. Both rows of ciliated cells are innervated by nerves, which have not been detected in the M. membranacea larva. The ciliated ridge of H. malayensis lacks the frontal cilia...

  10. Young and old honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae differentially prime the developmental maturation of their caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In eusocial insects daughters rear the offspring of the queen to adulthood. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurses differentially regulate larval nutrition. Among worker-destined larvae, younger instars receive an unrestricted diet paralleling that of queen larvae in protein composition but with r...

  11. Entomopathogenic fungi disturbed the larval growth and feeding performance of Ocinara varians (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Hussain; Ming-Yi Tian; Yu-Rong He; Sohail Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Feeding experiments using three strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea were conducted with newly moulted 3rd-5th instar Ocinara varians Walker larvae in the laboratory. The mortality of larvae immersed individually in spore suspension (1×10~7 spores/mL) of all the strains was > 80% except 5th instar larvae treated with M. anisopliae which transformed into pupae, but did not result in adult emergence. The growth (total body mass), consumption, relative consumption rate and relative growth rate, were reduced at all three larval stages, while developmental time was extended in infected larvae with concurrent significant increase in approximate digestibility in infected larvae. Conversion of digested food (ECD) and ingested food (ECI) values declined in infected larvae as compared to the healthy larvae (control). The 5th instar larvae treated with M. anisopliae showed higher ECD and ECI values than control. Based on mortality and growth inhibition it can be suggested that all the studied fungal strains have a high potential for biocontrol and could be developed into biocontrol agents against O. varians.

  12. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins

  13. Pemakaian Duddingtonia flagrans dan Saccharomyces cerevisiae dalam Mereduksi Larva Infektif Haemonchus contortus (THE STUDY OF DUDDINGTONIA FLAGRANS AND SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE USE ON REDUCING OF INFECTIVE HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of Duddingtonia flagrans as the biological control of nomatode infections has been widelyreported. However, no report is available on the use of yeast Saccharomyces cerviciacae for such purpose.The aim of this study was to ivestigate the use of both fungi to reduce the number of Heamoncus contortusinfective larvae. Agar and fecal media containing the spore of the fungi was inoculated with infected H.contortus larvae (3rd stage. Fecal media containing the fungi was prepared by oral inoculation of sheepwith liquid containing 106, 107 spores of D. flagrans, and 106, 107 spores of D. flagrans, and 106, 1012 sporesof S. cerviciae. The number of larvae trapped in the fungi was counted. The result showed both fungi wereable to reduce the number of infective lave. However, for D. flagrans, beside it able to kill the larvae, it alsoable to trap the larva which did not occur in S. cerviceae. The combination of both fungi can be used to reduceof the number of invected H. contortus larvae.

  14. Lesiones histológicas en músculo esquelético, causadas por larvas de Eustrongylides sp (Nematoda: Dictophymatidae) en ranas comestibles del Lago Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramírez Lezama; David Osorio Sarabia

    2002-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo informar sobre las lesiones microscópicas provocadas por larvas de Eustrongylides sp en músculo esquelético de ranas en el Lago Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México, considerado un parásito potencialmente zoonótico. Se revisaron 146 ejemplares de las cuatro especies: 80 de Rana megapoda, 43 de Rana dunni, 16 de Rana catesbiana y siete de Rana verlandieri, a los cuales se le aplicó la eutanasia con sobredosis de pentobarbital por vía intraperitoneal. Se registró e...

  15. Comparative study of cultivation of feces in vermiculite or charcoal to obtain larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared feces culturing in charcoal or vermiculite to obtain Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae. Methods Feces (5g from infected rats was mixed with vermiculite (10g or coal (10g in plastic cups and incubated at 28°C for 48h. Larvae were recovered using Baermann-Moraes method. Results Significantly higher number of positive larval cultures were recovered from vermiculite than from charcoal (15/17 and 4/17, respectively; p < 0.001; 990.6 ± 307.5 and 215 ± 78.1 larvae, p = 0.027. Conclusions Vermiculite yields more larvae and provides cleaner pellets, improving larvae identification and facilitating their use for other purposes.

  16. Redescription of late-instar larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli (Denny) Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-10-20

    The larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli is redescribed. This is the first complete description of an immature Scydmoraphes with special focus on the chaetotaxic characters. The larva is unique among Cyrtoscydmini in having three pairs of stemmata, a very long sensory appendage of the antennomere II, mandibles with mesal row of microserrations interrupted by smooth portion of mandibular margin; maxillary mala with asetose apex and a row of very long, modified setae on mesal margin, and extremely elongate maxillary palpomere III and labium. A comparative study of previous descriptions resulted in recognizing a misidentification of a Scydmoraphes larva (the "Typ 2-Larve" of Schmid) as a putative Neuraphes (Pararaphes). The serial homology of chaetotaxic structures in the larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli is discussed, and comparative notes on the larvae of Scydmoraphes, Neuraphes and Stenichnus are given, with an identification key.

  17. [Geostatistical analysis on distribution pattern of the tobacco budworm larva in Enshi, Hubei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng-Liang; Wang, Rui; Tan, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco budworm (Helicoverpa assulta) larvae feed on tobacco leaves (Nicotiana sp.), resulting in significant loss in tobacco production. Geostatistical method was used to analyze H. assulta spatial patterns and dynamics in this paper. The results showed that, H. assulta larvae appeared 40 days after the tobacco plants transplanting, and reached its peak at the early-mature period. The nested spherical and exponential model was the major model for tobacco budworm larva in the field, suggesting its aggregated distribution. The spatial variability C/(C0 + C) was larger than 0.75, which indicated H. assulta larva had wider structural variation and narrower random variation. There was a massive migration of tobacco budworm larva in the fast-growing stage of tobacco. Its quantity became stable after that, especially at the mature stage of tobacco.

  18. Excision of furuncular myiasis larvae using a punch: a simple, practical and aesthetic method*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Gianne; de Oliveira, Fernanda Queiroz; Siqueira, Rosana Rocon; Lopes, Maria Gabriela Araújo; Martins Neto, Marcelino Pereira; Gamonal, Aloísio Carlos Couri

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis refers to Diptera larvae infesting vertebrate animals. There are two forms of the disease: primary and secondary. In primary myiasis, fly larvae invade and develop in healthy tissue; in secondary myiasis, flies lay their eggs in skin ulcerations, and the larvae develop in tissue necrosis products. Furuncular myiasis is a type of primary myiasis. Treatment for it consists of techniques such as the production of localized hypoxia to force the emergence of the larvae, and mechanical or surgical removal of the maggots. These techniques, however, are painful and often unsuccessful. We propose a new technique for extraction of myiasis larvae, which might facilitate the surgical procedure and constitute a virtually painless and aesthetic option for the patient. PMID:27438206

  19. Cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane do Nascimento Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalism is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the population, such as density, population structure, prey availability, habitat structure and famine. These factors acting either independently or in synergy determine the frequency of cannibalism. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of density and food availability on the occurrence of cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. In the present study, the occurrence of cannibalism among M. brasiliensis larvae was greater in the treatments that simulated an absence of food in situations of both high and low density. The search for food makes a larva move about to forage, thereby increasing the risk of falling into the trap of a neighboring larva. Thus, the cannibalistic behavior of M. brasiliensis larvae may be associated with opportunity rather than a direct attempt to pray on the same species.

  20. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  1. Sex-specific developmental profiles of juvenile hormone synthesis in honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfelder, Klaus; de Oliveira Tozetto, Sibele; Rachinsky, Anna

    1993-02-01

    Juvenile hormone synthesis in drone larvae of the honey bee was measured by an in vitro radiochemical assay. The developmental profile of corpora allata activity in male larvae showed considerable differences from queen larvae, the presumptive reproductive females, and was comparable to workers, the sterile female morph. Drone and worker larvae, however, differed drastically in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, as revealed by the addition of farnesoic acid to the culture medium. This precursor stimulated juvenile hormone synthesis of drone glands nearly eightfold, whereas in worker larvae it is known to lead to an accumulation of methyl farnesoate. The sex-specific differences in endocrine activity indicate a role for juvenile hormone in the expression of genetically determined sexually dimorphic characters during metamorphosis, a role not currently accounted for in models describing endocrine regulation of insect development.

  2. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  3. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  4. X-ray inactivation of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos or larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishi, N.; Suzuki, K. (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-11-01

    The lethal effects of X-irradiation were examined in staged populations of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos or larvae. Radiation resistance decreased slightly throughout the first, proliferative phase of embryogenesis. This might be due to the increase in target size, since most cells in C. elegans are autonomously determined. Animals irradiated in the second half of embryogenesis were about 40-fold more resistant to the lethal effects of X-rays. This is probably due to the absence of cell divisions during this time. The radiation resistance increased still more with advancing larval stages. A radiation hypersensitive mutant, rad-1, irradiated in the first half of embryogenesis, is about 30-fold more sensitive than wild-type, but in the second half it is the same as wild-type. (author).

  5. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yufan; Qiao, Hongbin; Shi, Yanli; Han, Yu; Liu, Jinming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl) has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials. PMID:27957496

  6. Effective de novo assembly of fish genome using haploid larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yuki; Nishiki, Issei; Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Kai, Wataru; Nomura, Kazuharu; Yoshida, Kazunori; Nomura, Yousuke; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2016-02-01

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technology have made it possible to do whole genome sequencing, on even non-model eukaryote species with no available reference genomes. However, de novo assembly of diploid genomes is still a big challenge because of allelic variation. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of utilizing the genome of haploid fish larvae for de novo assembly of whole-genome sequences. We compared the efficiency of assembly using the haploid genome of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) with that using the diploid genome obtained from the dam. De novo assembly from the haploid and the diploid sequence reads (100 million reads per each datasets) generated by the Ion Proton sequencer (200 bp) was done under two different assembly algorithms, namely overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) and de Bruijn graph (DBG). This revealed that the assembly of the haploid genome significantly reduced (approximately 22% for OLC, 9% for DBG) the total number of contigs (with longer average and N50 contig lengths) when compared to the diploid genome assembly. The haploid assembly also improved the quality of the scaffolds by reducing the number of regions with unassigned nucleotides (Ns) (total length of Ns; 45,331,916 bp for haploids and 67,724,360 bp for diploids) in OLC-based assemblies. It appears clear that the haploid genome assembly is better because the allelic variation in the diploid genome disrupts the extension of contigs during the assembly process. Our results indicate that utilizing the genome of haploid larvae leads to a significant improvement in the de novo assembly process, thus providing a novel strategy for the construction of reference genomes from non-model diploid organisms such as fish.

  7. Composition of agarose substrate affects behavioral output of Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Aristomenis Apostolopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the Drosophila larva has evolved into a simple model organism offering the opportunity to integrate molecular genetics with systems neuroscience. This led to a detailed understanding of the functional neuronal networks for a number of sensory functions and behaviors including olfaction, vision, gustation and learning and memory. Typically, behavioral assays in use exploit simple Petri dish setups with either agarose or agar as a substrate. However, neither the quality nor the concentration of the substrate is generally standardized across these experiments and there is no data available on how larval behavior is affected by such different substrates. Here, we have investigated the effects of different agarose concentrations on several larval behaviors. We demonstrate that agarose concentration is an important parameter, which affects all behaviors tested: preference, feeding, learning and locomotion. Larvae can discriminate between different agarose concentrations, they feed differently on them, they can learn to associate an agarose concentration with an odor stimulus and crawl faster on a substrate of higher agarose concentration. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of agarose concentration on three quinine based behaviors: preference, feeding and learning. We show that in all cases examined the behavioral output changes in an agarose concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that comparisons between experiments performed on substrates differing in agarose concentration should be done with caution. It should be taken into consideration that the agarose concentration can affect the behavioral output and thereby the experimental outcomes per se potentially due to an increased escape response on more rigid substrates.

  8. Biochemistry and molecular biology of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular techniques have been used to study the formation and recovery of the developmentally arrested, non-feeding dauer stage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. While investigating developmental transitions in energy metabolism, a major metabolite isolated from perchloric acid extracts has been identified as a modified uridine nucleotide. The compound was isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and its structure was determined by {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. This compound is the most abundant metabolite detected in {sup 31}PMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts from growing larvae. In the absence of phosphoarginine or phosphocreatine, this modified nucleotide may have an important function in the nematode's energy metabolism, and it may also be found in several other invertebrates. During recovery from the dauer stage, metabolic activation is accompanied by a decrease in intracellular pH (pH{sub i}). Although metabolic activation has been associated with an alkaline pH{sub i} shift in other organisms, in vivo {sup 31}P NMR analysis of recovering dauer larvae shows a pH{sub i} decrease from {approximately}7.3 to {approximately}6.3 within 3 hr after the animals encounter food. This shift occurs before feeding begins, and coincides with, or soon follows, the development commitment to recover from the dauer stage, suggesting that control of pH{sub i} may be important in the regulation of larval development in nematodes. A library enriched for sequences expressed specifically during the L2d (predauer) stage was made by selecting plaques from a genomic lambda library that hybridized to subtracted L2d cDNA probes. Ultimately, three clones that were shown to hybridize only to L2d RNA were selected.

  9. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on planktonic fish larvae: Alteration of the osmoregulatory function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucre, Elliott, E-mail: elliott.sucre@univ-montp2.fr [AEO Team (Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc092, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Vidussi, Francesca [RESEAUX Team (Reseaux Planctoniques et Changement Environnemental), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc093, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Mostajir, Behzad [RESEAUX Team (Reseaux Planctoniques et Changement Environnemental), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc093, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France); Centre d' ecologie marine experimentale MEDIMEER (Mediterranean centre for Marine Ecosystem Experimental Research), Universite Montpellier 2-CNRS (UMS 3301), Station Mediterraneenne de l' Environnement Littoral, MEDIMEER, 2 Rue des Chantiers, 34200 Sete (France); Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine [AEO Team (Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese), UMR 5119 Ecosym UM2, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UM1, Universite Montpellier 2, cc092, Pl. Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, Cx 05 (France)

    2012-03-15

    Coastal marine ecosystems are submitted to variations of several abiotic and biotic parameters, some of them related to global change. Among them the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (UVBR: 280-320 nm) may strongly impact planktonic fish larvae. The consequences of an increase of UVBR on the osmoregulatory function of Dicentrarchus labrax larvae have been investigated in this study. In young larvae of D. labrax, as in other teleosts, osmoregulation depends on tegumentary ion transporting cells, or ionocytes, mainly located on the skin of the trunk and of the yolk sac. As early D. labrax larvae passively drift in the top water column, ionocytes are exposed to solar radiation. The effect of UVBR on larval osmoregulation in seawater was evaluated through nanoosmometric measurements of the blood osmolality after exposure to different UV-B treatments. A loss of osmoregulatory capability occured in larvae after 2 days of low (50 {mu}W cm{sup -2}: 4 h L/20 h D) and medium (80 {mu}W cm{sup -2}: 4 h L/20 h D) UVBR exposure. Compared to control larvae kept in the darkness, a significant increase in blood osmolality, abnormal behavior and high mortalities were detected in larvae exposed to UVBR from 2 days on. At the cellular level, an important decrease in abundance of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells was observed after 2 days of exposure to UVBR. In the ionocytes, two major osmoeffectors were immunolocalized, the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/2Cl{sup -} cotransporter. Compared to controls, the fluorescent immunostaining was lower in UVBR-exposed larvae. We hypothesize that the impaired osmoregulation in UVBR-exposed larvae originates from the lower number of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells. This alteration of the osmoregulatory function could negatively impact the survival of young larvae at the surface water exposed to UVBR.

  10. Seasonal fluctuation in the distribution of eggs and larvae of flat fishes (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    Attempts have been made to correlate the abundance of eggs and larvae of flat fishes belonging to families Cynoglossidae and Soleidae with the hydrographical parameters of the environment, particularly the salinity. The eggs and larvae were found...

  11. Efeito da Niclosamida no Controle de Girinos de Anuros na Propagação de Pós-Larvas de Carpa Comum (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis Effect of the Niclosamida on the Control of Tadpole of Anurous in the Propagation of Post-Larvae of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Graeff

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi testar a influência de um molusquicida (niclosamida no controle dos girinos, sem comprometer o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência da carpa comum na fase de desenvolvimento do ovo até a idade de 28 dias. Foram conduzidos seis experimentos, envolvendo seis fases de desenvolvimento dos girinos e peixes (ovo, 7, 12, 21, 27 e 34 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (0,00; 0,10; 0,15; 0,20; e 0,25 ppm de niclosamida e quatro repetições. Foram utilizados 20 aquários de seis litros, sendo todos abastecidos até o início do experimento, quando então era interrompido o fluxo de água. A eficiência da niclosamida no período de fertilização e eclosão de ovos de girinos e carpa não ocorreu. Na primeira semana de vida, os níveis de 0,25; 0,20; e 0,10 ppm mostraram efeito sobre os girinos aos 48, 65 e 115 minutos após a aplicação do produto respectivamente, mas apresentaram-se sem efeito sobre as pós-larvas de carpa comum. A dosagem de 0,15 ppm de niclosamida, aos 27 dias, tendeu a provocar maior mortalidade de girinos, com maior sobrevivência de pós-larvas de carpa comum, e a de 0,10 ppm, o melhor resultado na idade de 21 dias das pós-larvas de carpa comum e girinos.The objective of the research was to test the effect of a molusquicida (Niclosamida in the tadpoles control and not to compromise the development and survival of common carps in the egg development until 28 days age. Six experiments were carried out and involved six tadpoles and fishes development phases (egg, 7, 12, 21, 27 and 34 days. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 ppm niclosamida and four replicates, was used. Post-larvae and tadpoles stayed together in a density of 100 units of each from a nursery production. Twenty aquariums of six liters were all supplied until the beginning of the experiment, when the water flow was

  12. External morphology of the two cypridiform ascothoracid-larva instars of Dendrogaster: The evolutionary significance of the two-step metamorphosis and comparison of lattice organs between larvae and adult males (Crustacea, Thecostraca, Ascothoracida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbasov, G.A.; Grygier, M.J.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald;

    2008-01-01

    We describe the external morphology of the two cypridiform larval instars (first and second ascothoracid-larvae, or -a-cyprids") of the ascothoracidan genus Dendrogaster. Ascothoracid-larvae of five species were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy, including both ascothoracid-larv...... to be functional in the cypridiform larvae as well. (c) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved...

  13. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-02-18

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region.

  14. Description of the mature larva of Pseudopyrochroa depressa (Pic) (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae), with comparison to other Taiwanese Pseudopyrochroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K; Hsiao, Yun

    2016-10-12

    Field collections and rearing has established an association between the larva and adult of the Taiwanese Pseudopyrochroa depressa. Larvae were collected from beneath bark of the exposed portions of a dead, decaying log in a mesic montane forest and successfully reared to the adult stage. The mature larva is described and salient features are illustrated and compared to other known pyrochroid larvae from Taiwan. Notes on larval habitats and natural history are also provided.

  15. The larva of Aphylla protracta (Hagen, 1859), and a redescription of the larva of A. angustifolia Garrison, 1986 (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2014-11-17

    The larva of Aphylla protracta is described and figured. It is characterized by 3rd antennomere subcylindrical, flattened on ventral surface, 4.2 times longer than its widest part. Abdomen with dorsal protuberances well developed on S2-4, reduced on S5, vestigial or absent on S6-9; lateral spines lacking entirely, tergites 5-8 with minute reddish setae, tergite 9 with abundant, small, reddish setae on most of its surface and the whole posterior margin; S10 cylindrical, very long, five times longer than its base, much longer than S6+7+8+9. Also, a redescription and figures of A. angustifolia are provided, and a comparison of both species is made. Mainly differences between both species were found in abdominal dorsal protuberances and the presence/absence of small setae on abdominal tergites.

  16. La conducta de larvas de Drosophila (Diptera; Drosophilidae: su etología, desarrollo, genética y evolución The behavior of Drosophila larvae: their ethology, development, genetics and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL GODOY-HERRERA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, en honor al Profesor Doctor Danko Brncic Juricic (Q.E.P.D., es una revisión de nuestras contribuciones sobre la etología, desarrollo, genética y evolución de patrones de conducta de larvas de Drosophila. Se discute el desarrollo de conductas larvales de forrajeo y sus bases hereditarias. También se discuten estrategias de investigación dirigidas a entender las relaciones entre genotipo y conducta durante el desarrollo de los organismos. Se relacionan patrones de desarrollo de conductas larvales con la filogenia de las especies del grupo mesophragmatica de Drosophila. Finalmente, se distingue entre evolución de elementos de conducta simple y evolución de conductas complejasThis is a review about our contributions in ethology, development, genetics, and evolution of larval behavioral patterns of Drosophila in honor of the late Professor Doctor Danko Brncic Juricic. The developmental behavioral genetics of larval foraging and pupation of Drosophila are discussed. It is also emphasized the importance of research strategies lead to understand properly the relationships between genotype and behavior during development of the organisms. Finally, a comparison between phylogenetic relationships of six Drosophila species of the mesophragmatica group and their developmental patterns of larval behaviors is provided

  17. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  18. 9 CFR 310.10 - Carcasses with skin or hide on; cleaning before evisceration; removal of larvae of Hypodermae...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning before evisceration; removal of larvae of Hypodermae, external parasites and other pathological... on; cleaning before evisceration; removal of larvae of Hypodermae, external parasites and other...-mortem inspection from any calf carcass infested with the larvae of the “oxwarble” fly (Hypoderma...

  19. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larva

  20. Biological Role of Paenilarvins, Iturin-Like Lipopeptide Secondary Metabolites Produced by the Honey Bee Pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensel, Sebastian; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Ebeling, Julia; Skobalj, Ranko; Kuthning, Anja; Süssmuth, Roderich D.

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is the causative agent of a deadly honey bee brood disease called American Foulbrood (AFB). AFB is a notifiable epizootic in most countries and, hence, P. larvae is of considerable relevance for veterinarians and apiculturists alike. Over the last decade, much progress has been made in the understanding of the (patho)biology of P. larvae. Recently, several non-ribosomally produced peptides (NRP) and peptide/polyketide (NRP/PK) hybrids produced by P. larvae were identified. Among these NRPs were iturin-like lipopeptides, the paenilarvins A-C. Iturins are known to exhibit strong anti-fungal activity; for some iturins, cytotoxic activity towards mammalian erythrocytes and human cancer cell lines are described. We here present our results on the analysis of the natural function of the paenilarvins during pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. We demonstrated production of paenilarvins in infected larvae. However, we could neither demonstrate cytotoxicity of paenilarvins towards cultured insect cells nor towards larvae in feeding assays. Accordingly, exposure bioassays performed with larvae infected by wild-type P. larvae and a knockout mutant of P. larvae lacking production of paenilarvins did not substantiate a role for the paenilarvins as virulence factor. Further experiments are necessary to analyze the relevance of the paenilarvins’ anti-fungal activity for P. larvae infections in the presence of fungal competitors in the larval midgut or cadaver. PMID:27760211

  1. Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacic, Kruno; Campoverde, Cindy; Gómez-Arbonés, Javier; Gisbert, Enric; Estevez, Alicia; Morais, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    Little is known how dietary lipids affect food intake during larval development of fish, especially with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition. In fact, very little work has been done on appetite regulation and food intake in fish larvae in general, due to biological and technical difficulties associated with this type of studies. A new method using fluorescent microspheres as markers was developed in this study to evaluate food intake and prey selectivity of Senegalese sole larvae and post-larvae. Food intake was quantified in fish fed Artemia metanauplii enriched with oils differing in FA profile: cod liver oil (CLO), linseed oil (LSO), soybean oil (SBO) or olive oil (OO). The fish did not preferentially ingest a specific diet when presented with a choice. However, pre-metamorphic larvae from the CLO treatment ingested more metanauplii per g body weight, while differences in post-larvae were not significant. These findings were developed further by analyzing mRNA levels of a range of putative anorexigenic (pyya, pyyb, glp1, cckl, cart1a, cart1b, cart2a, cart4, pomca, pomcb, crf) and orexigenic (gal, npy, agrp2) genes, to identify those which are significantly affected by feeding and/or dietary FA composition. The variety of expression patterns observed highlighted the complexity of appetite regulatory mechanisms. In general, fish fed the CLO diet tended to show gene expression patterns most dissimilar to the remaining treatments. Expression in pre-metamorphic larvae was generally less in accordance with the putative function of the genes than in post-larvae, which could suggest a yet underdeveloped regulatory system.

  2. Sobre el Kelsen de Ferrajoli

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Manero, Juan

    2015-01-01

    El objeto de este trabajo es el de dar cuenta de las críticas a Kelsen contenidas en el último libro, todavía inédito, de Luigi Ferrajoli, Diritto e lógica. Dieci aporie nell'opera di Hans Kelsen, y formular algunas críticas a las tesis sostenidas en él por el propio Ferrajoli. Entre las críticas que el autor considera que cabe dirigir a este respecto a Ferrajoli, las principales afectan al carácter exclusivamente interno de la mirada ferrajoliana sobre el derecho, al carácter siempre opinabl...

  3. Manual de lecciones sobre objetos

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pautas para la enseñanza inicial con niños, apoyado con Objetos. Traducido por S. Bond (Profesor de la Universidad Nacional). Contiene: Desarrollo de la observación - Desarrollo de las ideas de forma - Ejercicios preliminares para enseñar a los niños a observar formas - Desarrollo de las ideas de dibujo -  de color - de número - de tamaño - de peso -  de sonido -  sobre el cuerpo humano - de lugar - morales

  4. Sobre el contenido del despertar

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como propósito situar algunas referencias, sobre lo que Freud denomina “la perturbación” en los sueños. De este modo, intentaremos situar algunas consideraciones respecto a los sueños de angustia como principal antecedente del fracaso de la función del sueño y del principio del placer como principio rector del aparato anímico. Tomaremos como punto de partida los sueños de angustia, en “La interpretación de los sueños” de Sigmund Freud.

  5. Generalidades sobre las fibras artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    González Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Las fibras han sido utilizadas como materia prima en la elaboración de otros productos, como telas, papel, artesanías, entre otros, y como material de refuerzo en diversas matrices cerámicas y metálicas, con el fin mejorar o ganar propiedades, en materiales compuestos denominados composites. Las fibras pueden ser clasificadas de acuerdo con su origen, en fibras naturales y fibras artificiales. Una amplia exploración sobre el uso de fibras vegetales ha sido realizada, sin embargo su uso ...

  6. Prototipo de RINA sobre Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Bergesio, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Este PFM se enmarca dentro del trabajo a realizar por el proyecto IRATI. IRATI es un proyecto STReP (Specific Targeted Research Project) financiado por la Unión Europea dentro del programa FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development). El objetivo general de IRATI es conseguir una mayor compresión y exploración de RINA. El trabajo que se reportará en este PFM es (aproximadamente) la primera fase del diseño y desarrollo de un prototipo de RINA sobre Ethernet en e...

  7. Algunas conjeturas sobre fracciones egipcias

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Lyda Constanza; Lima, Isaac

    2003-01-01

    A continuación se presentan algunas conjeturas sobre las fracciones, con base en el tratamiento que los Egipcios hacían en antigüedad. En la primera parte se hace una introducción a las fracciones unitarias, y la representación de fracciones con numerador dos por medio de la suma de fracciones unitarias distintas. En la segunda parte, se presentan algunas de las conjeturas halladas a partir de la determinación de regularidades presentes en adiciones entre fracciones cuya suma es una fracción ...

  8. Desarrollo de aplicaciones sobre SCTP

    OpenAIRE

    López Aragoneses, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    En el año 2000, el grupo SIGTRAN definió un nuevo protocolo de capa de transporte conocido como Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) pensado, inicialmente, para transportar señalización telefónica SS7 sobre IP. La intención fue proveer en IP algunas de las características de confiabilidad de SS7. Por su versatilidad, más tarde, se ha propuesto utilizarlo en otras áreas. Para tal fin, se ha realizado este proyecto fin de carrera, en el cual se estudiarán las características del protocol...

  9. Antioxidative responses and bioaccumulation in Japanese flounder larvae and juveniles under chronic mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Yin, Xuebo; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of waterborne mercury on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish were exposed to 0-10 microg Hg(2)(+)L(-1) solutions from embryonic to the juvenile stages for 80 days. Antioxidative responses to mercury exposure were studied in metamorphosing larvae (18 days post hatching, dph), settling larvae (33 dph) and juveniles (78 dph). Results showed that increasing mercury concentration led to increased mercury bioaccumulation and reduced flounder growth. Of the antioxidants investigated, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities at the three developmental stages were sensitive to mercury exposure and increased with increasing mercury concentration. Glutathione (GSH) content was elevated in metamorphosing larvae, but decreased in juveniles as mercury concentration increased. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly vary with mercury concentration in either larvae or juveniles. Mercury exposure did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of larvae, but significantly increased MDA content of juveniles. Results suggest that flounder larvae and juveniles have the potential to manipulate the levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH, which protect flounder from oxidative stress induced by mercury exposure. These antioxidants could serve as biomarkers of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment.

  10. Behaviour of damselfly larvae (Enallagma cyathigerum) (Insecta, Odonata) after long-term exposure to PFOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossum, Hans van [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.vangossum@ua.ac.be; Bots, Jessica [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: jessica.bots@ua.ac.be; Snijkers, Tom [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: tom.snijkers@gmail.com; Meyer, Johan [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: izak.meyer@ua.ac.be; Van Wassenbergh, Sam [Laboratory for Functional Morphology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: sam.vanwassenbergh@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: wim.decoen@ua.ac.be; De Bruyn, Luc [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: luc.debruyn@ua.ac.be

    2009-04-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in organisms worldwide. Here, we evaluate whether long-term (1 and 4 months) exposure to PFOS contamination affects the behavioural performance of freshwater larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Our results show reduced behavioural performance with increasing PFOS concentration. In 1 month exposed larvae, no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 100 {mu}g/L for general activity. In 4 months exposed larvae, NOECs were 10 {mu}g/L, for each behavioural trait, except swimming acceleration of male larvae where the NOEC was 100 {mu}g/L. When faced with PFOS concentrations above the NOEC, E. cyathigerum larvae were less active, less capable to escape a simulated predator attack and less efficient in foraging. Together, our results show that damselfly larvae suffer reduced survival-related behavioural performance. - Long-term laboratory exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid decreases behavioural performance of damselfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata)

  11. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  12. Reduced cannibalistic behavior of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae under dark and dim conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yukinori; Sanudin, Noorsyarinah; Firdaus, Rian Freddie; Saad, Shahbudin

    2013-06-01

    In general, African catfish shows higher survival rates in the dark conditions than in the light conditions. In this study, larval behavior of African catfish was observed under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 lx using a CCD camera to investigate the reason why African catfish larvae show higher survival rates in dark conditions. The larvae showed significantly higher swimming activity under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx than that under 10 and 100 lx. The larvae also showed significantly increased aggressive behavior under 10 and 100 lx; the swimming larvae attacked resting individuals more frequently under 10 and 100 lx than under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx. The aggressive behavior and sharp teeth of the attacking larvae appeared to induce skin surface lesions on injured larvae. Chemical substances were then generated from the injured skin surface, and these chemical stimuli triggered cannibalistic behavior in other fish near the injured fish. The results of this study demonstrate that the higher survival rates of African catfish larvae under dark conditions are a result of inactivity and subsequent increase in chemical releasing stimuli concentrations around inactive individuals that triggers feeding behavior in nearby active catfish. Therefore, we recommend larval rearing of African catfish in dark or dim conditions, as it improves catfish survival rates.

  13. GC-MS investigation of the chemical composition of honeybee drone and queen larvae homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidorov Valery A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee larva homogenate appears to be underrated and insufficiently explored but this homogenate is an exceptionally valuable honeybee product. Drone larva homogenate is very nutritional due to its high content of proteins, free amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Moreover, the biological characteristics of honeybee larvae indicate the presence of chemical substances that may be pharmacologically active. In spite of the above, the chemical composition of honeybee larva has not gained as much attention as that of other bee products. In this study, the chemical composition of honeybee brood homogenate has been investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As a result, it was possible to isolate as many as 115 extractive organic compounds from 6 samples of crude queen and 9 samples of drone homogenate. The main groups of substances extracted from either type of homogenate were composed of free amino acids and carbohydrates. The relative content of amino acids in queen homogenate as well as the share of essential amino acids were found to be higher than in the drone homogenate. Disaccharide trehalose was the dominant sugar in the queen larvae, whilst glucose prevailed in the drone larvae. Comparative chemical analyses of honeybee queen and drone larva homogenates have allowed us to make a preliminary inference about a higher overall value of the former.

  14. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  15. Differential toxicity to Cd, Pb, and Cu in dragonfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollett, V D; Benvenutti, E L; Deer, L A; Rice, T M

    2009-01-01

    Odonate larvae are important organisms in aquatic ecosystems but have been rarely studied in laboratory toxicity tests. Only a few previous studies have been conducted on odonates and their responses to heavy metals. We exposed two species of libellulid larvae (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) to equimolar concentrations of cadmium, lead, or copper in 7-day survival tests. Larvae were tolerant of high concentrations of cadmium and lead, as no significant decrease in survival was observed at exposures as high as 0.893 and 2.232 mM, respectively. In contrast, larvae were more sensitive to copper exposure, demonstrating significantly decreased survival to exposures as low as 2.360 microM. In whole animal samples, larvae accumulated very high concentrations (>1000 microg/g dry weight) of all three metals in an exposure-related manner. Much of this accumulation could probably be attributed to adsorption or accumulation of metal within the exoskeleton, because odonate larvae are known to sequester metals into this material. Our results were generally consistent with previous observations indicating that odonates are tolerant to metal exposures, even in comparison with other aquatic invertebrates. However, there are few studies that have used odonates in toxicity tests and compared these organisms to other aquatic life. Based on their abundance and their simple requirements in the laboratory, we believe that odonate larvae can be useful toxicological model organisms.

  16. Tracking living decapod larvae: mass staining of eggs with neutral red prior to hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øresland, V; Horobin, R W

    2012-04-01

    Mass staining of decapod females carrying eggs, with subsequent identification of hatched larvae in the environment, is a research tool with great potential for field ecologists wishing to track the movements of larvae. For this to be achieved, however, numerous requirements must be met. These include adequate dye solubility, short staining time, dye penetration through different tissues, dye retention within the organism, absence of toxic and behavioral effects, low visibility to predators of stained larvae, no loss of staining owing to preservatives and low cost. The dye, neutral red, appears to meet most of these requirements. This dye was used in aliquots of 0.7 g/770 ml seawater applied to the females of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and European lobster (Homarus gammarus) for 10 min. This procedure stained lobster eggs and embryos so that hatched larvae could be distinguished easily by fluorescence microscopy from larvae that hatched from unstained eggs. Stained larvae that were preserved in 4% formaldehyde in seawater were still stained after 1 year. Larvae should not come in contact with ethanol, because it extracts the dye rapidly.

  17. Orientation mechanisms and sensory organs involved in host location in a dipteran parasitoid larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, José E; Lazzari, Claudio R; Castelo, Marcela K

    2011-01-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is one of the principal pests of apiculture in the Pampas region of Argentina. Larvae are solitary ectoparasitoids of third-instar scarab beetle larvae. Females of M. ruficauda do not lay eggs on or near the hosts, but on tall grasses. After hatching, larvae are dispersed by the wind and drop to the ground, where they dig and search for potential hosts. It is known that second-instar larvae of M. ruficauda exhibit active host-searching behaviour towards their preferred hosts, i.e., third-instar larvae of Cyclocephala signaticollis. Although host-location seems to be mediated by chemical cues, the mechanism of orientation and the sensory organs involved in host location remain unknown. We carried out behavioural experiments in the laboratory to address these questions. We also tested whether the orientation behaviour is exclusively based on the use of chemical cues. We found that larvae of M. ruficauda detect the chemicals with chemosensilla on the maxillary palps. Only one maxillary palp suffices for orientation, but their bilateral ablation abolishes orientation. Besides, an hexane extract of the host body was as attractive as a live host. Our results support that M. ruficauda larvae find their hosts underground by means of chemoklinotaxis.

  18. Fish larvae retention linked to abrupt bathymetry at Mejillones Bay (northern Chile during coastal upwelling events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of oceanic circulation and bathymetry on the fish larvae retention inside Mejillones Bay, northern Chile, was examined. Fish larvae were collected during two coastal upwelling events in November 1999 and January 2000. An elevated fish larvae accumulation was found near an oceanic front and a zone of low-speed currents. Three groups of fish larvae were identified: the coastal species (Engraulis ringens and Sardinops sagax, associated with high chlorophyll-a levels; larvae from the families Phosichthyidae (Vinciguerria lucetia and Myctophidae (Diogenichthys laternatus and Triphoturus oculeus, associated with the thermocline (12°C, and finally, larvae of the families Myctophidae (Diogenichthys atlanticus and Bathylagidae (Bathylagus nigrigenys, associated with high values of temperature and salinity. The presence of a seamount and submarine canyon inside Mejillones Bay appears to play an important role in the circulation during seasonal upwelling events. We propose a conceptual model of circulation and particles retention into Mejillones Bay. The assumption is that during strong upwelling conditions the flows that move along the canyon emerge in the centre of Mejillones Bay, producing a fish larvae retention zone. Understanding the biophysical interactions responsible to trap and/or concentrate particles is essential to protect these fragile upwelling ecosystems.

  19. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  20. Diet affects the redox system in developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Penglase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of marine fish larvae fed copepods is superior to those fed rotifers, but the underlying molecular reasons for this are unclear. In the following study we compared the effects of such diets on redox regulation pathways during development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae. Cod larvae were fed a control diet of copepods or the typical rotifer/Artemia diet commonly used in commercial marine fish hatcheries, from first feeding until after metamorphosis. The oxidised and reduced glutathione levels, the redox potential, and the mRNA expression of 100 genes in redox system pathways were then compared between treatments during larval development. We found that rotifer/Artemia-fed cod larvae had lower levels of oxidised glutathione, a more reduced redox potential, and altered expression of approximately half of the redox system genes when compared to copepod-fed larvae. This rotifer/Artemia diet-induced differential regulation of the redox system was greatest during periods of suboptimal growth. Upregulation of the oxidative stress response transcription factor, nrf2, and NRF2 target genes in rotifer/Artemia fed larvae suggest this diet induced an NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Overall, the data demonstrate that nutritional intake plays a role in regulating the redox system in developing fish larvae. This may be a factor in dietary-induced differences observed in larval growth.

  1. [Effects of fermented cattle dung on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Guo, Li-Yue; Zhan, Li-Jie; Bo, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan; Wu, Guang-Lei; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2012-07-01

    In order to make use of and industrialize the animal dung from large cattle farms, this paper explored the feasibility of using Tenebrio molitor to digest and utilize cattle dung. Cattle dung was mixed with the conventional feed (65% wheat bran, 30% corn flour, and 5% bean pulp) of T. molitor in definite proportions, and fermented with effective microorganisms (EM). The fermented products containing 60% and 80% of cattle dung (FD1 and FD2, respectively) were selected to feed T. molitor larvae, and the effects of the fermented products on the growth curve, death rate, pupation rate, and antioxidant system of the larvae were compared. Compared with CK (conventional deed), the FD1 made the developmental duration of the larvae prolonged by 10 days and the larvae's death rate upraised somewhat, but made the single larva's total food intake, average body mass, crude fat content, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat acids increased by 49%, 28%, 26%, and 32%, respectively (P molitor larvae had weak adaptability to FD2. Our findings suggested that using FD1 to feed the 3rd instar of T. molitor larvae would have good practical prospects in industrializing cattle dung.

  2. Efecto de cinco Dosis de Heterorhabditis indica Poinat cepa P2M sobre la broca del café (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yander Fernández Cancio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de Heterorhaditis indica cepa P2M en el manejo de la broca del café (Hypotenemushampei Ferrari se realizó la investigación en condiciones controladas en el Laboratorio Provincial de Sanidad Vegetal de Sancti Spíritus con cinco dosis del patógeno: 20, 45, 75, 100 y 200 individuos juveniles infestiles/adulto (iji/adulto. Se diseñaron dos experimentos: variante 1 con aplicaciones directa sobre los adultos del insecto en placas Petri con siete repeticiones y variante 2 con la aplicación al suelo en bolsas de nylon con granos de la variedad Robusta con presencia de larvas y adultos del insecto. Se determinó la susceptibilidad de los adultos del insecto a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y el efecto de las dosis sobre el porcentaje de mortalidad de las larvas y adultos. Como resultado relevante de la variante 1 se destaca que los adultos tuvieron una susceptibilidad por encima del (50 % en 24 horas con las dosis superiores a 20 iji/adultos y en la variante 2 lo valores de mortalidad de las larvas fueron superiores a los adultos del insecto a las 72 horas. El nematodo constituye una alternativa viable en el control de la broca con valores de mortalidad de 50% en 24 horas.

  3. DISTRIBUSI, KELIMPAHAN DAN VARIASI UKURAN LARVA IKAN DI ESTUARIA SUNGAI MUSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Prianto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang distribusi, kelimpahan dan ukuran larva ikan dilakukan pada bulan Maret, Mei, Juni dan Oktober 2011. Stasiun pengambilan contoh meliputi Muara Delta Upang (stasiun 1, Muara Sungai Musi (stasiun 2 dan Pulau Payung (stasiun 3. Pengambilan larva pada siang hari menggunakan Bongo net yang berukuran mata jaring 250 µm. Hasil identifikasi diperoleh 13 famili ditinjau menurut musim, pada bulan Mei dan Oktober masing-masing diperoleh 7 famili, dan pada bulan juni sebanyak 3 famili. Kelimpahan larva ikan berkisar antara 9-46 ind/m3 dengan jumlah yang tertinggi (46 ind/m3 pada bulan Mei dan terendah pada bulan Juni (9 ind/m3. Larva ikan dari famili Gobiidae memiliki sebaran yang cukup luas baik spasial maupun temporal. Variasi ukuran larva ikan menurut famili setiap bulannya memiliki variasi ukuran yang hampir sama.  Research about the distribution, abundance and size of fish larvae was conducted in March, May, June and October 2011. Sampling stations encompasses Delta Upang (station 1, Muara Sungai Musi (station 2 and Pulau Payung (station 3. Larvae taken during the daytime using a Bongo net with mesh size of 250 µm. Identification results obtained 13 families based on the season, in May and October respectively 7 families, and in June as many as 3 families. Abundance of fish larval around 9-46 ind/m3 with the highest number (46 ind/m3 in May and the lowest in June (9 ind/m3. Larvae of Gobiidae family have a large distribution on spatial and temporal. The variation in size of fish larvae by family on each month are the same.

  4. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-10-01

    Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method using laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) fed with mono-algal diet Chaetoceros calcitrans, a unicellular diatom at a cell concentration of 2 × 105 cells ml-1. The gut fluorescence of IV-VI instar nauplii was found to be 370(±12) ng chlorophyll a larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 224(±63) ng chlorophyll a larva-1. A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(±13) ng larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 172(±61) ng larva-1. The study also analysed larval samples collected from the field during different seasons from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India), with characteristic temporal variations in phytoplankton abundance and diversity. Gut fluorescence of larvae obtained during the post-monsoon season was consistently higher when compared to the pre-monsoon season, suggesting the predominance of autotrophic forms in the larval gut during the post-monsoon season. Whereas, the low gut fluorescence obtained during the pre-monsoon season indicated the ingestion of food sources other than autotrophs. Such differences observed in the feeding behaviour of larvae could be due to differential availability of food for the larvae during different seasons and indicate the capability of larvae to feed on wide range of food sources. This study shows the value of the fluorescence method in feeding studies of planktotrophic organisms and in the evaluation of ecosystem dynamics.

  5. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Siew Yoong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Tan, Chew Khun

    2016-01-01

    Hermetia illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52±0.02 and 0.23±0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04±0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.

  6. Variation in brain organization of coral reef fish larvae according to life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchini, David; Lecellier, Gael; Lanyon, Rynae Greta; Holles, Sophie; Poucet, Bruno; Duran, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    In coral reefs, one of the great mysteries of teleost fish ecology is how larvae locate the relatively rare patches of habitat to which they recruit. The recruitment of fish larvae to a reef, after a pelagic phase lasting between 10 and 120 days, depends strongly on larval ability to swim and detect predators, prey and suitable habitat via sensory cues. However, no information is available about the relationship between brain organization in fish larvae and their sensory and swimming abilities at recruitment. For the first time, we explore the structural diversity of brain organization (comparative sizes of brain subdivisions: telencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, vagal lobe and inferior lobe) among larvae of 25 coral reef fish species. We then investigate links between variation in brain organization and life history traits (swimming ability, pelagic larval duration, social behavior, diel activity and cue use relying on sensory perception). After accounting for phylogeny with independent contrasts, we found that brain organization covaried with some life history traits: (1) fish larvae with good swimming ability (>20 cm/s), a long pelagic duration (>30 days), diurnal activity and strong use of cues relying on sensory perception for detection of recruitment habitat had a larger cerebellum than other species. (2) Fish larvae with a short pelagic duration (fish larvae exhibiting solitary behavior during their oceanic phase had larger inferior and vagal lobes. Overall, we hypothesize that a well-developed cerebellum may allow fish larvae to improve their chances of successful recruitment after a long pelagic phase in the ocean. Our study is the first one to bring together quantitative information on brain organization and the relative development of major brain subdivisions across coral reef fish larvae, and more specifically to address the way in which this variation correlates with the recruitment process.

  7. Successful determination of larval dispersal distances and subsequent settlement for long-lived pelagic larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Salinas-de-León

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of the level of connectivity between marine populations in most geographical locations. Taking advantage of the natural features of the southeast coast of New Zealand's North Island, we deployed a series of settlement stations and conducted plankton tows to capture recent settlers and planktonic larvae of the common intertidal gastropod Austrolittorina cincta (6-8 week larval period. Satellite image analysis and ground truthing surveys revealed the absence of suitable intertidal rocky shore habitat for A. cincta over a 100 km stretch of coastline between Kapiti Island to the south and Wanganui to the north. Fifteen settlement stations (3 replicates × 5 sites, which were used to mimic intertidal habitat suitable for A. cincta, were deployed for two months around and north of Kapiti Island (at 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 50 km. In addition, we also conducted plankton tows at each settlement station when the stations were first deployed to collect A. cincta larvae in the water column. On collection, all newly settled gastropods and larvae in the plankton samples were individually isolated, and a species-specific microsatellite marker was used to positively identify A. cincta individuals. Most of the positively identified A. cincta settlers and larvae were collected at the first three sampling stations (<5 km. However, low numbers of A. cincta settlers and larvae were also recorded at the two more distant locations (15 and 50 km. Dispersal curves modeled from our data suggested that <1% of gastropod larvae would travel more than 100 km. While our data show that most larvae are retained close to their natal populations (<5 km, a small proportion of larvae are able to travel much larger geographic distances. Our estimates of larval dispersal and subsequent settlement are one of only a few for marine species with a long-lived larva.

  8. Fish larvae and juveniles checklist (Pisces from the northern Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, with 39 new records for the region Listado de larvas y juveniles de peces del norte de la península de Yucatán, México, con 39 nuevos registros para la región

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor García-Hernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic checklist for fish larvae and juveniles occurring at Yalahau (June 2001-May 2002, Celestún (July 1994-June 1995, Chelem (July 1999-June 2000 and Río Lagartos (November 1996- October 1997 lagoons located in the northern part of the Yucatán Peninsula is presented. Sampling was carried out for 5 minutes using a zooplankton net for larvae, while a Renfro net was hauled for 50 m2 to capture juveniles. This work aims to provide the current state of the taxonomic composition and general distribution for 34 377 fish larvae and juveniles. Our samples represent 2 classes, 17 orders, 45 families, 83 genera and 117 species were caught, including 39 new records, where 24 have been found only in the Gulf of Mexico, 3 in the Caribbean Sea, and 90 are common to both regions. This study updates and increases the number of species in larval and juvenile stages previously reported. It was found that early reef larval stages were more abundant towards the East of the Yucatán Peninsula and less to the West. The high number of shared species (90 suggests that the northern region of the Yucatán Peninsula is a transition zone for fish larvae and juveniles between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.Se presenta un listado taxonómico de larvas y juveniles de peces de las lagunas de Yalahau (junio 2001-may 2002, Celestún (julio 1994-junio 1995, Chelem (julio 1999-junio 2000 y Río Lagartos (noviembre1996- octubre 1997 del norte de la península de Yucatán. Se actualiza e incrementa el registro en el número de especies del lugar reportado en estudios previos y se hacen observaciones sobre la distribución general de las larvas y juveniles de peces del área. Los muestreos se realizaron durante 5 minutos con una red de zooplancton para las larvas de peces y una red Renfro para los juveniles cubriendo un área de 50 m2. Se registraron 2 clases, 17 órdenes, 45 familias, 83 géneros y 117 especies, incluyendo a 39 nuevos registros, y de las cuales 24

  9. Distribución y abundancia de larvas de Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903 y Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, frente a Coquimbo y Caldera, Chile Distribution and abundance of Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903, and Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, larvae off Coquimbo and Caldera, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como aporte a la dinámica poblacional de especies que constituyen recursos pesqueros, se analizaron 160 muestras de zooplancton obtenidas con redes Bongo en 40 estaciones oceanógraficas entre Caldera y Coquimbo, en octubre y diciembre de 2005. De ellas se separó la totalidad de las larvas de crustáceos decápodos y se identificaron las de Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni y Pleuroncodes monodon. Las mayores abundancias de zoeas tempranas de las tres especies se encontraron en octubre en la zona de Coquimbo, mientras que en diciembre predominaron los estados más avanzados de desarrollo. En la zona de Caldera, en ambos meses de muestreo, predominaron los estados avanzados de desarrollo de H. reedi y P. monodon y zoeas tempranas de C. johni. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de H reedi en la zona de Coquimbo fue similar en ambos meses, mientras que en la zona de Caldera fue mayor en octubre. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de P. monodon y C. johni fue mayor en octubre en ambas zonas. Todas las megalopas capturadas en las dos zonas y meses de muestreo corresponden sólo a un morfotipo, con características morfológicas similares a los juveniles más pequeños de P. monodon. Sobre la base de la distribución y abundancia de larvas de las tres especies, se postula que el desove ocurre antes en la zona de Caldera que en la de Coquimbo, principalmente en zonas próximas a la costa, dada las diferencias de abundancia de los estados de desarrollo.To better understand the population dynamics of fishery resource species, 160 zooplankton samples were obtained with a Bongo net at 40 oceanographic stations around Caldera and Coquimbo in October and December, 2005, and analyzed. All crustacean decapod larvae were sorted, and Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni, and Pleuroncodes monodon larvae were identified. For all three species, the highest abundances of early zoea were found in October in Coquimbo, whereas advanced larval

  10. Ingestão de ração e comportamento de larvas de pacu em resposta a estímulos químicos e visuais Diet ingestion rate and pacu larvae behavior in response to chemical and visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Tesser

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar a influência dos estímulos visual e/ou químico de náuplios de Artemia e de dieta microencapsulada sobre a taxa de ingestão da dieta microencapusulada por larvas de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 7 x 4 (estímulos e idades com duas repetições. Verificou-se efeito da idade das larvas e dos estímulos, mas não houve efeito para a interação idade ´ estímulos. O estímulo químico da Artemia e ambos os estímulos da Artemia resultaram em maior taxa de ingestão de dieta inerte. Resultado intermediário foi obtido com o estímulo visual da dieta microencapsulada. O estímulo químico, em comparação ao estímulo visual da Artemia, resultou em maiores taxas de ingestão da dieta. Com o aumento da idade, houve incremento na taxa de ingestão. Os estímulos visual e químico dos náuplios e o estímulo visual da ração aumentaram a ingestão de dieta inerte por larvas de pacu. Náuplios de Artemia devem ser oferecidos antes do fornecimento da dieta inerte, pois podem auxiliar no processo de transição alimentar. Os resultados deste trabalho apontaram novas possibilidades de estudos com larvas de peixes neotropicais visando a substituição precoce do alimento vivo para o inerte.The effect of visual, chemical and the combination of both stimuli from Artemia nauplii and from microencapsulated diet on dry diet ingestion by pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae was evaluated in this research. The experiment was analyzed as a 7 x 4 factorial arrangement (seven stimuli and four ages with two replicates. It was observed effect of larvae age and stimuli, but no interaction (age ´ stimuli was observed. The chemical effect from Artemia and both effects from Artemia resulted in higher ingestion rates. An intermediary result was obtained with visual effect from microencapsulated diet. The chemical stimulus from Artemia resulted in higher ingestion rates than that

  11. Análise da dieta das larvas de 4º estádio de Cricotopus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae, em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas, no trecho superior do rio Paraná = Diet analysis of Cricotopus sp. larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae, fourth stage, in different artificial substrates and hydrological phases, in the upper Paraná river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Felix dos Anjos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, estudos sobre hábitos alimentares das larvas de Chironomidae ainda são escassos e estas informações são importantes para entender a estrutura trófica e a organização dos ecossistemas aquáticos. Neste estudo, teve-se como objetivo identificar osprincipais itens alimentares ingeridos por Cricotopus sp. e comparar as possíveis diferenças na dieta das larvas em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de substratos artificiais: madeira em forma de X (MADX, placas de nitacetal em forma de X (NITX, PVC em forma de tubo (PVCT e metal galvanizado em forma de tubo (METT, cada um com três réplicas. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, entre os meses de agosto de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. A dieta de Cricotopus sp. foi constituída por detritos, algas e hifas de fungos. Detrito foi o principal item alimentar, com valores superiores a 50% do total consumido. Os resultados indicaram que Cricotopus sp. é uma espécie coletora e, independentemente do substrato, as larvas alimentam-se dos recursos disponíveis no ambiente. Entretanto, mudanças no regime hidrológico do rio Paraná podem influenciar a disponibilidade de alimento, principalmente algumas diatomaceas como Melosira sp., consumidas em maior quantidade apenas na fase de águas baixas.In Brazil, studies on the diet of Chironomidae larvae are still scarce and these data are important to understand the trophic structure and organization of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we identified the main food items consumed by Cricotopus sp. and compared possible differences in the larval diet at different artificial substrates and hydrological phases. We used four types of artificial substrates: X-shaped wood (MADX; X-shaped nitacetal plates (NITX; tube-shaped PVC (PVCT and tube-shaped galvanizedmetal (METT, each with three replicates. Samplings were undertaken fortnightly, between August 2004 and December 2005. Cricotopus sp. diet was

  12. Advances in Studies of the Effects of Starvation on Growth and Development of Fish Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Xiujuan; HUANG Wei; CAO Liang; WU Yunfei

    2008-01-01

    Starvation has important effects on early development of fish. It determines the survival and growth of fish larvae, and plays an important role in the dynamics of fish population and fisheries recruitment, in this review, we discuss the current studies about the effects of starvation on growth and development of fish larval stage. The goals of this review are to understand some adap- tive mechanisms and ecological countermeasures of starved fish larvae and to provide the scientific guideline for exploring early life history processes, evaluating the nutrition condition and growth of larval fish, protecting fish resource and breeding fish larvae.

  13. Identification of entomopathogenic Bacillus isolated from Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae larvae and adults

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    Cavados CFG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Simulium larvae and adults from breeding sites in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as 18 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and one of B. sphaericus. Most of these strains were serotyped according to their flagellar antigens. However, nine of the B. thuringiensis samples, could not be serotyped and were designated as "autoagglutinating"; they were also shown to be toxic in preliminary tests against Aedes aegypti larvae. Additionally, B. sphaericus was also shown to be toxic towards Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  14. Mature larva of Stenichnus collaris (Müller & Kunze) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2013-12-03

    The mature larva of Stenichnus collaris is re-described on the basis of a shed larval skin. This is the first description of an immature Stenichnus identified by rearing to an adult beetle, and not only by collecting the larva in association with adults, as in previously published works. New data on the life history of St. collaris are provided, and possible serial homology of chaetotaxic structures across body segments is discussed. The structures of immature Nearctic St. turbatus, the only Stenichnus larva described with focus on the chaetotaxy, are compared with those of St. collaris and possible homologies are indicated.

  15. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in a Mexican population of high marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac; Aguirre; Maldonadoa; Silvia; Cruz; Duartea; Felipe; Gonzlez; Velzqueza; Alfonso; Alexander; Aguilerab

    2014-01-01

    The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing one or more serpiginous erythematous,indurated,raised and pruritic lesion.The most common cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancytostoma braziliensc located in warm climate zones.In the present study,authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic clinical picture:erythematous-papnlar and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path,with progressive,and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration,tropical weather conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.

  16. Protozoosis caused by Vairimorpha necatrix (Microsporia, Nosematidae in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Prafulbala N. Patel

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Vairimorpha necatrix was detected among laboratory cultured and field collected Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Weak infections were not always fatal. In the case of fatal infections among diseased larvae, white patches were formed by agglomerations of adipose tissue beneath the transparent integument. The mid-gut of S. frugiperda larvae presented the first site of histological alterations caused by V. necatrix. The migration of the pathogen, probably occured in the form of agglomerations, from the epithelial cells to the body cavity. Adipose tissue appears to be the principal site for the pathogen development. The nerve ganglia, muscle fibres and epidermis also presented histological alterations due to the pathogen propagation.

  17. Contrasting feeding patterns among species of fish larvae from the tropical Andaman Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, P.; Munk, Peter; Janekarn, V.

    2005-01-01

    Feeding habits of tropical fish larvae were analysed in a comparative study of four species (Scorpaenodes sp., Carangoides sp., Acanthocepola sp. and Cynoglossus sp.) from the Andaman Sea. We investigated morphological characteristics and their potential influence on larval feeding, and looked...... for common patterns in larval prey preference. Gut contents of a total of 300 larvae were examined and compared with local zooplankton composition. The feeding habits of the investigated larvae shared a number of characteristics. During ontogeny both the preferred prey size and the number of prey in the gut...

  18. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in a Mexican population of high marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac Aguirre Maldonadoa; Silvia Cruz Duartea; Felipe Gonzlez Velzqueza; Alfonso Alexander Aguilerab

    2014-01-01

    The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing one or more serpiginous erythematous, indurated, raised and pruritic lesion. The most common cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancylostoma braziliense located in warm climate zones. In the present study, authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic clinical picture: erythematous-papular and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path, with progressive, and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration, tropical weather conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.

  19. INDEKS ENTOMOLOGI DAN KERENTANAN LARVA Aedes aegypti TERHADAP TEMEFOS DI KELURAHAN KARSAMENAK KECAMATAN KAWALU KOTA TASIKMALAYA

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    Hubullah Fuadzy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu upaya pengendalian vektor nyamuk Aedes aegypti adalah menggunakan larvasida sintetis seperti temefos. Pemanfaatan temefos secara terus menerus dan berulang merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya resistensi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan indeks entomologi dan status kerentanan larva Ae. aegypti terhadap temefos di Kelurahan Karsamenak Kecamatan Kawalu Kota Tasikmalaya. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Populasi adalah larva nyamuk Ae. aegypti yang diperoleh dari 289 rumah penduduk di Kelurahan Karsamenak, dan sampel adalah 700 larva Ae. aegypti strain Karsamenak. Bioassay menggunakan metode Elliot dan Polson dengan konsentrasi diagnostik WHO sebesar 0,02 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa House Index (HI 24,9; Container Index (CI 9,05; Breteau Index (BI 29,07; dan Density Figure (DF 4. Larva Ae. aegypti umumnya ditemukan di Bak Mandi penduduk. Kemudian untuk membunuh 95% larva Ae. aegypti dibutuhkan konsentrasi temefos sebesar (LC95 0,02416 ppm (0,01917 ­ 0,03330 ppm dan RR95 3,02. Kelurahan Karsamenak termasuk wilayah yang potensial untuk penularan penyakit Demam Berdarah Dengue, dan larva Ae. aegypti terindikasi telah resisten terhadap temefos.Kata Kunci : Resisten, Aedes aegypti, temefos, kerentananAbstractOne effort for controlling Aedes aegypti as dengue vector is using synthetic larvacide such as temephos. Utilization of temephos continuously and repeatedly a risk factor for resistance. The objective of this study were to determine the entomology index and susceptibility of Ae. aegypti larvae against temephos in endemic areas of dengue fever in the Karsamenak District Kawalu of Tasikmalaya. The research was a true experimental study with a complete randomized design. The population were the larvae of Ae. aegypti were derived from 289 houses of resident in the Village Karsamenak and the sample was 700 larvae of Ae. aegypti strains Karsamenak. The Bioassay used Elliot and

  20. Blanco sobre blanco sobre blanco: Oiticica / Malevich / Nietzsche

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    Sérgio Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El blanco sobre blanco, de Malevich, es una presencia fuerte en los escritos de Hélio Oiticica durante los setenta. Este artículo investiga los diferentes momentos del enlace de Oiticica con Malevich y el papel de esa noción en su pensamiento, articulándola a la referencia igualmente importante de Oiticica a John Cage y a la filosofía de Nietzsche. Así, es posible percibir tanto la centralidad del escrito para Oiticica en esta década, como la singularidad del modo de enunciación en él contenido, que puede ser descrito como aquel de un escrito manifiesto.